Sample records for vapor screen flow

  1. Unified Application of Vapor Screen Flow Visualization and Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement Techniques to Vortex- and Shock Wave-Dominated Flow Fields (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.


    Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack. The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).

  2. Unified Application Vapor Screen Flow Visualization and Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement Techniques to Vortex- and Shock Wave-Dominated Flow Fields (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.


    Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack (alpha). The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).

  3. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S


    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  4. Fluid/Vapor Separator for Variable Flow Rates (United States)

    Lee, J. M.; Chuang, C.; Frederking, T. H.; Brown, G. S.; Kamioka, Y.; Vorreiter, J.


    Shutter varies gas throughput of porous plug. Variable area exposed on porous plug allows to pass varying rates of vapor flow while blocking flow of liquid helium II from cryogenic bath. Applications in refining operations, industrial chemistry, and steam-powered equipment.

  5. Heat and mass transfer and friction resistance of forced superheated vapor flow in tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebennikov, V.N.

    This paper describes a procedure used for calculating the heat/mass transfer and friction resistance of a forced superheated vapor flow in tubes of separators-vapor superheaters and direct-flow vapor generators under equilibrium conditions and also under conditions where the flow is in a thermodynamic nonequilibrium state. Using the Reynolds analogy-based concept, an analysis of the process is carried out. Recommendations for calculating the heat/mass transfer and the hydraulic characteristics of vapor- superheating sections in separators-vapor superheaters and direct-flow vapor generators are made.

  6. Framework for simulating droplet vaporization in turbulent flows (United States)

    Palmore, John; Desjardins, Olivier


    A framework for performing direct numerical simulations of droplet vaporization is presented. The work is motivated by spray combustion in engines wherein fuel droplets vaporize in a turbulent gas flow. The framework is built into a conservative finite volume code for simulating low Mach number turbulent multiphase flows. Phase tracking is performed using a discretely conservative geometric volume of fluid method, while the transport of mass fraction and temperature is performed using the BQUICK scheme. Special attention is given to the implementation of transport equations near the interface to ensure the consistency between fluxes of mass, momentum, and scalars. The effect of evaporation on the flow appears as a system of coupled source terms which depend on the local thermodynamic equilibrium between the phases. The sources are implemented implicitly using an unconditionally stable, monotone scheme. Two methodologies for resolving the system's thermodynamic equilibrium are compared for their accuracy, robustness, and computational expense. Verification is performed by comparing results to known solutions in one and three dimensions. Finally, simulations of droplets vaporizing in turbulence are demonstrated, and trends for mass fraction and temperature fields are discussed.

  7. Nonequilibrium vapor-generation model for flashing flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, P.; Abuaf, N.; Wu, B. J.C.


    A nonequilibrium vapor generation model for flashing flows is presented. The model consists of a flashing inception point, a bubbly flow regime followed by a bubbly-slug regime, an annular or annular-mist regime, and finally a dispersed-droplet regime. Existence of superheated liquid at the inception point and beyond is recognized. The vapor generation rate in each flow regime is calculated from the estimates for interfacial area density and net interfacial heat flux. However, the bubble number density at the flashing inception point was varied to obtain optimum fits with the void fraction data taken in a vertical converging-diverging nozzle. The interfacial area density at the inception point, thus determined, showed a rapid increase with the decrease in the liquid superheat at that point. This trend is correct since in the limit of thermal equilibrium flow where the liquid superheat approaches zero, the interfacial area for heat and mass transfer should approach infinity. 32 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Preliminary characterization of an expanding flow of siloxane vapor MDM (United States)

    Spinelli, A.; Cozzi, F.; Cammi, G.; Zocca, M.; Gaetani, P.; Dossena, V.; Guardone, A.


    The early experimental results on the characterization of expanding flows of siloxane vapor MDM (C8H24O2Si3, octamethyltrisiloxane) are presented. The measurements were performed on the Test Rig for Organic VApors (TROVA) at the CREA Laboratory of Politecnico di Milano. The TROVA test-rig was built in order to investigate the non-ideal compressible-fluid behavior of typical expanding flows occurring within organic Rankine cycles (ORC) turbine passages. The test rig implements a batch Rankine cycle where a planar converging-diverging nozzle replaces the turbine and represents a test section. Investigations related to both fields of non-ideal compressible-fluid dynamics fundamentals and turbomachinery are allowed. The nozzle can be operated with different working fluids and operating conditions aiming at measuring independently the pressure, the temperature and the velocity field and thus providing data to verify the thermo-fluid dynamic models adopted to predict the behavior of these flows. The limiting values of pressure and temperature are 50 bar and 400 °C respectively. The early measurements are performed along the nozzle axis, where an isentropic process is expected to occur. In particular, the results reported here refer to the nozzle operated in adapted conditions using the siloxane vapor MDM as working fluid in thermodynamic regions where mild to medium non-ideal compressible-fluid effects are present. Both total temperature and total pressure of the nozzle are measured upstream of the test section, while static pressure are measured along the nozzle axis. Schlieren visualizations are also carried out in order to complement the pressure measurement with information about the 2D density gradient field. The Laser Doppler Velocimetry technique is planned to be used in the future for velocity measurements. The measured flow field has also been interpreted by resorting to the quasi-one-dimensional theory and two dimensional CFD viscous calculation. In both cases

  9. Leading-Edge Votex-System Details Obtained on F-106B Aircraft Using a Rotating Vapor Screen and Surface Techniques (United States)

    Lamar, John E.; Brandon, Jay; Stacy, Kathryn; Johnson, Thomas D., Jr.; Severance, Kurt; Childers, Brooks A.


    A flight research program to study the flow structure and separated-flow origins over an F-106B aircraft wing is described. The flight parameters presented include Mach numbers from 0.26 to 0.81, angles of attack from 8.5 deg to 22.5 deg, Reynolds numbers from 22.6 x 10(exp 6) to 57.3 x 10(exp 6) and load factors from 0.9 to 3.9 times the acceleration due to gravity. Techniques for vapor screens, image enhancement, photogrammetry, and computer graphics are integrated to analyze vortex-flow systems. Emphasis is placed on the development and application of the techniques. The spatial location of vortex cores and their tracks over the wing are derived from the analysis. Multiple vortices are observed and are likely attributed to small surface distortions in the wing leading-edge region. A major thrust is to correlate locations of reattachment lines obtained from the off-surface (vapor-screen) observations with those obtained from on-surface oil-flow patterns and pressure-port data. Applying vapor-screen image data to approximate reattachment lines is experimental, but depending on the angle of attack, the agreement with oil-flow results is generally good. Although surface pressure-port data are limited, the vapor-screen data indicate reattachment point occurrences consistent with the available data.

  10. A screen-printed flexible flow sensor (United States)

    Moschos, A.; Syrovy, T.; Syrova, L.; Kaltsas, G.


    A thermal flow sensor was printed on a flexible plastic substrate using exclusively screen-printing techniques. The presented device was implemented with custom made screen-printed thermistors, which allows simple, cost-efficient production on a variety of flexible substrates while maintaining the typical advantages of thermal flow sensors. Evaluation was performed for both static (zero flow) and dynamic conditions using a combination of electrical measurements and IR imaging techniques in order to determine important characteristics, such as temperature response, output repeatability, etc. The flow sensor was characterized utilizing the hot-wire and calorimetric principles of operation, while the preliminary results appear to be very promising, since the sensor was successfully evaluated and displayed adequate sensitivity in a relatively wide flow range.

  11. Flow Vaporization of CO{sub 2} in Microchannel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Jostein


    Carbon dioxide is receiving renewed interest as an efficient and environmentally safe refrigerant in a number of applications, including mobile air conditioning and heat pump systems, and hot water heat pumps. Compact heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} systems are designed with small-diameter tubing. The purpose of this study is therefore to provide a better basis for understanding and predicting heat transfer and pressure drop during flow vaporization of CO{sub 2} in microchannels. The ''unusual'' properties of carbon dioxide give heat transfer and two-phase flow characteristics that are very different from those of conventional refrigerants. Examples of these differences are the much higher pressure, the resulting high vapour density, a very low surface tension, and a low liquid viscosity. High pressure and low surface tension has a major effect on nucleate boiling characteristics, and earlier test data have shown a clear dominance of nucleate boiling even at very high mass flux. Heat transfer tests were conducted in a rig using a flat, extruded aluminium microchannel tube of 540 mm length with 25 channels of 0.81 mm diameter. The horizontal test tube was heated by a water jacket in order to get representative boundary conditions for air-to-refrigerant heat transfer (''fluid heating''). Constant heat flux conditions do not simulate these boundary conditions well, and may give unrealistic behaviour especially in relation to dryout and post-dryout heat transfer. Systematic tests at constant heat flux with single-phase CO{sub 2} flow on the inside generated data that were used in the derivation of a model for water-side beat transfer coefficient. A regression based on these data gave a calibrated equation for water-side heat transfer on the form NuNu(Re,Pr). This equation was then used in later experiments to subtract water-side thermal resistance from the measured overall resistance (1/UA), thereby finding the internal heat

  12. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry (United States)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.


    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  13. Continuous flow, explosives vapor generator and sensor chamber (United States)

    Collins, Greg E.; Giordano, Braden C.; Sivaprakasam, Vasanthi; Ananth, Ramagopal; Hammond, Mark; Merritt, Charles D.; Tucker, John E.; Malito, Michael; Eversole, Jay D.; Rose-Pehrsson, Susan


    A novel liquid injection vapor generator (LIVG) is demonstrated that is amenable to low vapor pressure explosives, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine. The LIVG operates in a continuous manner, providing a constant and stable vapor output over a period of days and whose concentration can be extended over as much as three orders of magnitude. In addition, a large test atmosphere chamber attached to the LIVG is described, which enables the generation of a stable test atmosphere with controllable humidity and temperature. The size of the chamber allows for the complete insertion of testing instruments or arrays of materials into a uniform test atmosphere, and various electrical feedthroughs, insertion ports, and sealed doors permit simple and effective access to the sample chamber and its vapor.

  14. Liquid-Vapor Flow Regime Transitions for Spacecraft Heat Transfer Loops (United States)


    heavenly bodies, in spite of their astonishing distances, than in the investigations of the movement of flowing water before our very eyes" Galileo ... Galilei 1564-1642 Motivation to Study MicroQravity Flow Reuimes The study of microgravity vapor-liquid flow regimes is motivated by the benefits of heat

  15. The Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment - Interfacial Flow Region (United States)

    Kundan, Akshay; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Plawsky, Joel L.


    Internal heat transfer coefficient of the CVB correlated to the presence of the interfacial flow region. Competition between capillary and Marangoni flow caused Flooding and not a Dry-out region. Interfacial flow region growth is arrested at higher power inputs. 1D heat model confirms the presence of interfacial flow region. 1D heat model confirms the arresting phenomena of interfacial flow region Visual observations are essential to understanding.

  16. CFD modeling of condensation process of water vapor in supersonic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Walther, Jens Honore; Yan, Yuying


    The condensation phenomenon of vapor plays an important role in various industries, such as the steam flow in turbines and refrigeration system. A mathematical model is developed to predict the spontaneous condensing phenomenon in the supersonic flows using the nucleation and droplet growth...

  17. Measurement of Vapor Flow As an Important Source of Water in Dry Land Eco-Hydrology (United States)

    Wang, Z.; He, Z.; Wang, Y.; Gao, Z.; Hishida, K.


    When the temperature of land surface is lower than that of air and deeper soils, water vapor gathers toward the ground surface where dew maybe formed depending on the prevailing dew point and wind speed. Some plants are able to absorb the dew and vapor flow while the soil can readily absorb both. Certain animals such as desert beetles and ants harvest the dew or fog for daily survival. Recently, it is also realized that the dew and vapor flow can be a life-saving amount of water for plant survival at the driest seasons of the year in arid and semi-arid regions. Researches are conducted to quantify the amount of near-surface vapor flow in arid and semi-arid regions in China and USA. Quantitative leaf water absorption and desorption functions were derived based on laboratory experiments. Results show that plant leaves absorb and release water at different speeds depending on species and varieties. The "ideal" native plants in the dry climates can quickly absorb water and slowly release it. This water-holding capacity of plant is characterized by the absorption and desorption functions derived for plant physiology and water balance studies. Field studies are conducted to measure the dynamic vapor flow movements from the atmosphere and the groundwater table to soil surface. Results show that dew is usually formed on soil and plant surfaces during the daily hours when the temperature gradients are inverted toward the soil surface. The amount of dew harvested using gravels on the soil surface was enough to support water melon agriculture on deserts. The vapor flow can be effectively intercepted by artificially seeded plants in semi-arid regions forming new forests. New studies are attempted to quantify the role of vapor flow for the survival of giant sequoias in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of California.

  18. Attenuation of concentration fluctuations of water vapor and other trace gases in turbulent tube flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massman, W.J.; Ibrom, Andreas


    the turbulent tube flow issue for both passive and sorbing tracers with the intent of developing a physically-based semi-empirical model that describes the attenuation associated with water vapor fluctuations. Toward this end, we develop a new model of tube flow dynamics (radial profiles of the turbulent...... diffusivity and tube airstream velocity). We compare our new passive-tracer formulation with previous formulations in a systematic and unified way in order to assess how sensitive the passive-tracer results depend on fundamental modeling assumptions. We extend the passive tracer model to the vapor sorption....../desorption case by formulating the model's wall boundary condition in terms of a physically-based semi-empirical model of the sorption/desorption vapor fluxes. Finally we synthesize all modeling and observational results into a single analytical expression that captures the effects of the mean ambient humidity...

  19. CFD modelling of condensation process of water vapor in supersonic flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Chuang; Walther, Jens Honore; Yan, Yuying


    The condensation phenomenon of vapor plays an important role in various industries, such as the steam flow in turbines and refrigeration system. A mathematical model is developed to predict the spontaneous condensing phenomenon in the supersonic conditions using the nucleation and droplet growth...

  20. Study of optical techniques for the Ames unitary wind tunnels. Part 2: Light sheet and vapor screen (United States)

    Lee, George


    Light sheet and vapor screen methods have been studied with particular emphasis on those systems that have been used in large transonic and supersonic wind tunnels. The various fluids and solids used as tracers or light scatters and the methods for tracing generation have been studied. Light sources from high intensity lamps and various lasers have been surveyed. Light sheet generation and projection methods were considered. Detectors and location of detectors were briefly studied. A vapor screen system and a technique for location injection of tracers for the NASA Ames 9 by 7 foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel were proposed.

  1. Theoretical investigation on exciplex pumped alkali vapor lasers with sonic-level gas flow (United States)

    Xu, Xingqi; Shen, Binglin; Huang, Jinghua; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang


    Considering the effects of higher excited and ion energy states and utilizing the methodology in the fluid mechanics, a modified model of exciplex pumped alkali vapor lasers with sonic-level flowing gas is established. A comparison of output characters between subsonic flow and supersonic flow is made. In this model, higher excited and ion energy states are included as well, which modifies the analysis of the kinetic process and introduces larger heat loading in an operating CW exciplex-pumped alkali vapor laser. The results of our calculations predict that subsonic flow has an advantage over supersonic flow under the same fluid parameters, and stimulated emission in the supersonic flow would be quenched while the pump power reaching a threshold value of the fluid choking effect. However, by eliminating the influence of fluid characters, better thermal management and higher optical conversion efficiency can be obtained in supersonic flow. In addition, we make use of the "nozzle-diffuser" to build up the closed-circle flowing experimental device and gather some useful simulated results.

  2. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on enhanced surfaces covered with screen wicks (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Pais, M. R.; Baker, K.


    Experiments were conducted to investigate the vaporization heat transfer characteristics for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on several wicking surfaces which may be used in flat-plate heat pipes. The wicking materials studied included microstructure enhanced surfaces and coarse surfaces covered with screen meshes. Experimental data for q versus deltaT curves and critical heat fluxes were obtained for the two different operating conditions of a heat pipe, evaporation, and shallow pool boiling. When the liquid level was above the heated surface, the height of the liquid level above the surface was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface, the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental results revealed that for shallow pool boiling when the heated surface was covered with a wire screen mesh, the heat transfer coefficient increased at lower heat fluxes but the critical heat flux (CHF) decreased for all the surfaces tested. In the case of evaporation, both CHF and the heat transfer coefficient increased as the microstructure surfaces were covered with screen meshes.

  3. Step-flow growth of a nanowire in the vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid-solid processes (United States)

    Golovin, A. A.; Davis, S. H.; Voorhees, P. W.


    Consider the growth of a nanowire by a step-flow mechanism in the course of vapor-liquid-solid and vapor-solid-solid processes. The growth is initiated by the nucleation of a circular step at the nanowire-catalyst interface near the edge of the nanowire (the triple junction) and proceeds by the propagation toward the center by the Burton-Cabrera-Frank mechanism. Two cases are considered: (i) bulk transport, where the interfacial diffusion of adatoms and the step motion are coupled to the diffusion flux of atoms from the bulk of the catalyst particle, and (ii) surface transport, where atoms from the vapor phase are adsorbed at the surface of the catalyst particle and diffuse along the surface toward the triple line, whence they diffuse to the nanowire-catalyst interface. The attachment kinetics of adatoms at the step, the adsorption kinetics of atoms from the bulk phase, the exchange kinetics at the triple contact line, and the capillarity of the step are taken into account. In case (i) the problem is reduced to an integral equation for the diffusion flux of atoms from the bulk phase to the nanowire-catalyst interface. This equation is solved numerically, and the flux, interfacial concentration of adatoms, and the bulk concentration near the interface are determined. The step velocity is calculated as a function of the step radius and the kinetic parameters. As a result, the growth rate of a nanowire is computed as a function of its radius. In case (ii) analytical solutions for the surface and interfacial concentrations are obtained. In the absence of step capillarity, an analytical formula for the dependence of the nanowire growth rate on the nanowire radius is derived. It is shown in both cases (i) and (ii) that the nanowire growth rate decreases with increasing nanowire radius due to the decrease in the magnitude of the concentration gradients. However, in case (ii), in the limit of negligible desorption of adatoms into the gas phase, the nanowire growth rate is

  4. Effect of sintering columns on the heat transfer and flow characteristics of the liquid cooling vapor chambers (United States)

    Naphon, Paisarn; Wiriyasart, Songkran


    The results of the heat and flow characteristics of working fluid inside the vapor chamber with different sintering columns of 20, 81, 225 are presented. The vapor chambers with one inlet port and four outlet ports are tested by using water as coolant. Parametric studies including different heat fluxes, number and size of wick columns, and flow rate of coolants on the cooling performance are considered. A three-dimensional heat and mass transfer model for vapor chamber with wick and without sintering plate and sintering columns are developed. The numerical simulation results show the velocity and pressure distribution of liquid and vapor phases of the working fluid inside the vapor chamber. It is found that the number of wick column have an important influence to the velocity and pressure phenomena of working fluid which results in thermal performance of vapor chamber. Reasonable agreement is obtained from the comparison between the measured data and the predicted results.

  5. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, James [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Charles [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, Eric [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States); Moyer, Neil [Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction (BA-PIRC), Cocoa, FL (United States)


    This report is a revision of an earlier report titled: Measure Guideline: Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single-Family Homes. Revisions include: Information in the text box on page 1 was revised to reflect the most accurate information regarding classifications as referenced in the 2012 International Residential Code. “Measure Guideline” was dropped from the title of the report. An addition was made to the reference list.

  6. Managing the Drivers of Air Flow and Water Vapor Transport in Existing Single Family Homes (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Withers, C.; Martin, E.; Moyer, N.


    This document focuses on managing the driving forces which move air and moisture across the building envelope. While other previously published Measure Guidelines focus on elimination of air pathways, the ultimate goal of this Measure Guideline is to manage drivers which cause air flow and water vapor transport across the building envelope (and also within the home), control air infiltration, keep relative humidity (RH) within acceptable limits, avoid combustion safety problems, improve occupant comfort, and reduce house energy use.

  7. Use of a novel new irrigation system to observe and model water vapor flow through dry soils (United States)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M.


    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapor flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapor pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapor flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorption rather than capillarity, vapor flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapor pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapor pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapor flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapor phase. Experiments using this system therefore provide a rare opportunity to observe vapor flows initiating from a subsurface source without significant injection of heat. A model was developed to simulate water flow through the soil in liquid and vapor phase. In this model it was assumed that the two phases were in equilibrium. The equilibrium relationship was defined by a new mathematical expression that was developed to fit experimental data collected to characterize the sorption isotherm of three soils (sand, saline sand and top soil). The osmotic potential of the saline sand was defined as a function of water content using a continuous mathematical expression. The model was then calibrated to fit the data from laboratory experiments, in which the vapor flow into and out of the soil were quantified. The model successfully reproduced experimental observations of the total water flux, relative humidity and water content distribution in three soil types. This suggests that the model, including the proposed

  8. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.


    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  9. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.


    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  10. Water vapor flow and high thermal resistance insulation systems for metal buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelso, R.M.


    In response to increasing energy costs, high thermal resistance insulation systems are being marketed for pre-engineered metal buildings. Historically, blanket insulation has been installed between the skin and the structure of these buildings. The new insulation systems generally are installed inside the structure; thus the structure is colder and, unless an effective retarder is included, water vapor condensation problems can result. While the vapor permeance of various insulation facing materials is documented, the effect of such field conditions as seams and penetrations is less well known. Permeance tests were performed on samples of foil-kraft paper insulation facing with two seams and two penetration configurations. The tests show that seams can multiply the permeance of the vapor retarder by factors of 1.2 or more and penetrations can multiply the permeance by 3 or more. The theory of vapor flow analysis is reviewed and compared with the test results and presented graphically. Possible applications and suggestions for further investigation are discussed.

  11. JSC Mars-1 Soil Moisture Characteristic and Soil Freezing Characteristic Curves for Modeling Bulk Vapor Flow and Soil Freezing (United States)

    Dinwiddie, C. L.; Sizemore, H. G.


    A new JSC Mars-1 particle size distribution is used to establish soil moisture characteristic and soil freezing characteristic curves that are needed for modeling bulk (Darcy) vapor flow and soil freezing in the variably saturated subsurface of Mars.

  12. Flow Characterization of Vapor Phase of Geothermal Fluid in Pipe Using Isotope 85Kr and Residence Time Distribution Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto


    Full Text Available Measurement of vapor flow in geothermal pipe faces great challenges due to fast fluids flow in high-temperature and high-pressure environment. In present study the flow rate measurement has been performed to characterization the geothermal vapor flow in a pipe. The experiment was carried out in a pipe which is connected to a geothermal production well, KMJ-14. The pipe has a 10” outside diameter and contains dry vapor at a pressure of 8 kg/cm2 and a temperature of 170 oC. Krypton-85 gas isotope (85Kr has been injected into the pipe. Three collimated radiation detectors positioned respectively at 127, 177 and 227m from injection point were used to obtain experimental data which represent radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD in the pipe. The last detector at the position of 227 m did not respond, which might be due to problems in cable connections. Flow properties calculated using mean residence time (MRT shows that the flow rate of the vapor in pipe is 10.98 m/s, much faster than fluid flow commonly found in various industrial process plants. Best fitting evaluated using dedicated software developed by IAEA expert obtained the Péclet number Pe as 223. This means that the flow of vapor of geothermal fluids in pipe is plug flow in character. The molecular diffusion coefficient is 0.45 m2/s, calculated from the axial dispersion model.

  13. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan


    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  14. Numerical modelling of multiphase liquid-vapor-gas flows with interfaces and cavitation (United States)

    Pelanti, Marica


    We are interested in the simulation of multiphase flows where the dynamical appearance of vapor cavities and evaporation fronts in a liquid is coupled to the dynamics of a third non-condensable gaseous phase. We describe these flows by a single-velocity three-phase compressible flow model composed of the phasic mass and total energy equations, the volume fraction equations, and the mixture momentum equation. The model includes stiff mechanical and thermal relaxation source terms for all the phases, and chemical relaxation terms to describe mass transfer between the liquid and vapor phases of the species that may undergo transition. The flow equations are solved by a mixture-energy-consistent finite volume wave propagation scheme, combined with simple and robust procedures for the treatment of the stiff relaxation terms. An analytical study of the characteristic wave speeds of the hierarchy of relaxed models associated to the parent model system is also presented. We show several numerical experiments, including two-dimensional simulations of underwater explosive phenomena where highly pressurized gases trigger cavitation processes close to a rigid surface or to a free surface. This work was supported by the French Government Grant DGA N. 2012.60.0011.00.470.75.01, and partially by the Norwegian Grant RCN N. 234126/E30.

  15. Combustion Experiment to Evaluate a LOX Vaporization Nozzle for a Swirling-Oxidizer-Flow-Type Hybrid Rocket Engine with a 1500N-Thrust (United States)

    Kitagawa, Koki; Sakurazawa, Toshiaki; Yuasa, Saburo

    The authors have proposed a LOX vaporization nozzle for swirling-oxidizer-flow-type hybrid rocket engines to increase engine performance. In this study, we developed the LOX vaporization nozzle for this type of a hybrid rocket engine with a 1500N-thrust. Vaporization experiments, using a LOX supply system for the nozzle to be independent of a GOX supply system for the engine, were conducted. The test runs at little oxygen mass flow rates and low combustion pressures at the design point showed that LOX could be vaporized safely through the nozzle. It was confirmed that the design of the LOX vaporization nozzle was proper. Vaporization and burning experiments using vaporized O2 through the LOX vaporization nozzle showed that reliable and rapid ignition and stable combustion without combustion oscillation were achieved. The LOX vaporization nozzle increased the engine performance of the swirling-oxidizer- flow-type hybrid rocket engine.

  16. Light catalytically cracked naphtha: subchronic toxicity of vapors in rats and mice and developmental toxicity screen in rats. (United States)

    Dalbey, W E; Feuston, M H; Yang, J J; Kommineni, C V; Roy, T A


    Both a subchronic inhalation study and a developmental toxicity screen were performed with vapors of light catalytically cracked naphtha (LCCN). In the subchronic study, four groups of mice and rats (10 animals per sex per species) were exposed for approximately 13 wk (6 h/d, 5 d/wk) to concentrations of LCCN vapors of 0, 530, 2060, or 7690 mg/m3. An untreated control group was also included. Animals were observed daily and body weights were taken weekly. No significant treatment-related changes were found in clinical signs, body weight, serum chemistry, hematology, histopathology of 24 tissues, or weights of 12 organs. A marginal decrease was noted in the number of sperm per gram of epididymis. In the developmental toxicity screen, presumed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 2150, or 7660 mg/m3 of LCCN vapors, 6 h/d on d 0-19 of gestation. Females were sacrificed on d 20; dams and fetuses were examined grossly and fetuses were later evaluated for skeletal and visceral effects. The number of resorptions was increased by approximately 140% in the group receiving 7660 mg/m3; no other definite treatment-related changes were observed. Overall, the effects of exposure to partially vaporized LCCN were minimal.

  17. Effect of thermodynamic disequilibrium on critical liquid-vapor flow conditions (United States)

    Bilicki, Z.; Kestin, J.

    In this lecture we characterize the effect of absence of unconstrained thermodynamic equilibrium and onset of a metastable state on the adiabatic flow of a mixture of liquid and its vapor through a convergent-divergent nozzle. We study steady-state flows and emphasize the relations that are present when the flow is choked. In such cases, there exists a cross-section in which the flow is critical and in which the adiabatic wave of small amplitude is stationary. More precisely, the relaxation process which results from the lack of equilibrium causes the system to be dispersive. In such circumstances, the critical velocity is equal to the frozen speed of sound, a(sub f) corresponding to (omega) (yields) (infinity). The relaxation process displaces the critical cross-section quite far downstream from the throat and places it in the divergent portion of the channel. We present the topological portrait of solutions in a suitably defined state-velocity space and discuss the potential appearance of normal and dispersed shock waves. In extreme cases, the singular point (usually a saddle) which enables the flow to become supercritical, is displaced so far that it is located outside the exit. Then, the flow velocity is everywhere subcritical (w less than a(sub f)) even though it may exceed the equilibrium speed of sound (w (approx. gt) a(sub e)) beyond a certain cross-section, and in spite of the presence of a throat.

  18. Screening performance for trisomy 21 comparing first trimester combined screening and a first trimester contingent screening protocol including ductus venosus and tricuspid flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekelund, C K; Petersen, O B; Sundberg, K


    To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow.......To compare the standard first trimester combined risk assessment for trisomy 21 with a contingent screening protocol including tricuspid flow and ductus venosus flow....

  19. Germanium doping of GaN by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition for polarization screening applications

    KAUST Repository

    Young, N.G.


    We demonstrate n-type doping of GaN with Ge by MOCVD at high concentrations that are necessary to fully screen the polarization fields in c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum wells. Hall measurements show linear Ge incorporation with dopant flow rate and carrier concentrations exceeding 1×10 cm. GaN:Ge layers exhibit excellent electron mobility, high conductivity, and contact resistivity comparable to the best unannealed contacts to Si-doped GaN. However, the surface morphology begins to degrade with Ge concentrations above 1×10 cm, resulting in severe step bunching and a network of plateaus and trenches, even in layers as thin as 10 nm.

  20. CVB: the Constrained Vapor Bubble Capillary Experiment on the International Space Station MARANGONI FLOW REGION (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel


    The Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) is a wickless, grooved heat pipe and we report on a full- scale fluids experiment flown on the International Space Station (ISS). The CVB system consists of a relatively simple setup a quartz cuvette with sharp corners partially filled with either pentane or an ideal mixture of pentane and isohexane as the working fluids. Along with temperature and pressure measurements, the two-dimensional thickness profile of the menisci formed at the corners of the quartz cuvette was determined using the Light Microscopy Module (LMM). Even with the large, millimeter dimensions of the CVB, interfacial forces dominate in these exceedingly small Bond Number systems. The experiments were carried out at various power inputs. Although conceptually simple, the transport processes were found to be very complex with many different regions. At the heated end of the CVB, due to a high temperature gradient, we observed Marangoni flow at some power inputs. This region from the heated end to the central drop region is defined as a Marangoni dominated region. We present a simple analysis based on interfacial phenomena using only measurements from the ISS experiments that lead to a predictive equation for the thickness of the film near the heated end of the CVB. The average pressure gradient for flow in the film is assumed due to the measured capillary pressure at the two ends of the liquid film and that the pressure stress gradient due to cohesion self adjusts to a constant value over a distance L. The boundary conditions are the no slip condition at the wall interface and an interfacial shear stress at the liquid- vapor interface due to the Marangoni stress, which is due to the high temperature gradient. Although the heated end is extremely complex, since it includes three- dimensional variations in radiation, conduction, evaporation, condensation, fluid flow and interfacial forces, we find that using the above simplifying assumptions, a simple successful

  1. Numerical analysis of free convection in cold helium vapor flows in a long sloped pipe (United States)

    Fydrych, J.; Pietrowicz, S.


    The cryogenic systems of large scientific facilities using superfluid helium technologies include a cold helium circuit composed of a subcooled liquid helium supply line and a low-pressure return line. Due to long distances between the cryogenic plant and cryogenic users the line lengths can reach hundreds or even thousands of meters. Usually the low-pressure return line is a large size pipe, which inner diameter can exceed 300 mm. In some cases the accelerators and also the cold helium circuit lines are sloped. In some transient modes there is a risk of a counter flow in the low-pressure return line. This counter flow phenomenon can be driven mainly by free convection and it can disturb the cool down dynamics or affect the performance characteristic of some cryogenic devices, which are sensitive to cool down rates. This paper presents a numerical analysis of free convection in cold helium vapor flows in a long straight and sloped line. The methodology of numerical modeling of the thermo-hydraulic phenomena is described in detail. The results of the numerical simulations performed for various pipe lengths, slopes and mass flow rates are compiled and discussed.

  2. Effects of pulsed and oscillatory flow on water vapor removal from a laboratory soil column. Final report, November 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrow, Katherine Elizabeth [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    Subsurface contamination by volatile organic contaminants (VOC`s) in the vadose zone and groundwater is primarily due to leaking underground storage tanks and industrial spills. Soil vapor extraction is a technique that is being used successfully to remove VOC`s from the subsurface. A flow of air is established through the soil to remove the vapor phase component of the contaminant. Soil vapor extraction will initially remove high levels of contaminant that is already present in the macropores. The concentration will start to decline as the removal from the soil matrix becomes limited by diffusion of contaminant from regions away from the air flow paths. This study examines potential methods of overcoming the diffusion limitation by adding an oscillatory component to the steady air flow and by pulsed flow, which involves turning air flow on and off at predetermined intervals. The study considered only the removal of water from the soil to try to establish general vapor behavior in the soil under the imposed conditions. Based on a statistical analysis, both the oscillatory and pulsed flow showed an improved water removal rate over the steady state flow. The effect of oscillatory flow was only examined at higher frequencies. The literature indicates that oscillations at lower frequencies may be more effective. Pulsed flow showed the most efficient removal of water compared to steady state conditions. The pulsed flow was most efficient because rather than reducing the diffusion limitation, the system would shut down and wait for diffusion to occur. This optimizes energy consumption, but does not reduce treatment time. The oscillatory flow actually reduced the diffusion limitation within the column which could result in a shorter treatment time.

  3. Performance of a Cross-Flow Humidifier with a High Flux Water Vapor Transport Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahluwalia, R. K.; Wang, X.; Johnson, W. B.; Berg, F.; Kadylak, D.


    Water vapor transport (WVT) flux across a composite membrane that consists of a very thin perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer layer sandwiched between two expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) microporous layers is investigated. Static and dynamic tests are conducted to measure WVT flux for different composite structures; a transport model shows that the underlying individual resistances for water diffusion in the gas phase and microporous and ionomer layers and for interfacial kinetics of water uptake at the ionomer surface are equally important under different conditions. A finite-difference model is formulated to determine water transport in a full-scale (2-m2 active membrane area) planar cross-flow humidifier module assembled using pleats of the optimized composite membrane. In agreement with the experimental data, the modeled WVT flux in the module increases at higher inlet relative humidity (RH) of the wet stream and at lower pressures, but the mass transfer effectiveness is higher at higher pressures. The model indicates that the WVT flux is highest under conditions that maintain the wet stream at close to 100% RH while preventing the dry stream from becoming saturated. The overall water transport is determined by the gradient in RH of the wet and dry streams but is also affected by vapor diffusion in the gas layer and the microporous layer.

  4. Step-flow kinetics model for the vapor-solid-solid Si nanowires growth. (United States)

    Cui, H; Lü, Y Y; Yang, G W; Chen, Y M; Wang, C X


    Vapor-solid-solid (VSS) process has recently received continued attention as an alternative to grow Si nanowire. In comparison with common vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth with liquid catalyst, VSS growth can prevent the catalyst species from incorporating into nanowires with deep-level impurity, and achieve the compositionally abrupt interfaces by restraining the so-called "reservoir effect". However, despite the huge advances in experimental observations with in situ electron microscopy, VSS growth still remains much less understood in theory. Here, we developed a general mass-transport-limited kinetic model to describe the VSS growth process of Si nanowires by considering three surface diffusion processes and a slow interface diffusion process, where the former determines the atoms supplies way, while the latter dominates the growth of nanowires. The present model is not only well consistent with the available experimental data of Si nanowire, but also gives a clear physical image for the successive side-to-side ledge flow VSS growth.

  5. A sharp interface method for compressible liquid–vapor flow with phase transition and surface tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fechter, Stefan, E-mail: [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Munz, Claus-Dieter, E-mail: [Institut für Aerodynamik und Gasdynamik, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 21, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Rohde, Christian, E-mail: [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Zeiler, Christoph, E-mail: [Institut für Angewandte Analysis und Numerische Simulation, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 57, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The numerical approximation of non-isothermal liquid–vapor flow within the compressible regime is a difficult task because complex physical effects at the phase interfaces can govern the global flow behavior. We present a sharp interface approach which treats the interface as a shock-wave like discontinuity. Any mixing of fluid phases is avoided by using the flow solver in the bulk regions only, and a ghost-fluid approach close to the interface. The coupling states for the numerical solution in the bulk regions are determined by the solution of local two-phase Riemann problems across the interface. The Riemann solution accounts for the relevant physics by enforcing appropriate jump conditions at the phase boundary. A wide variety of interface effects can be handled in a thermodynamically consistent way. This includes surface tension or mass/energy transfer by phase transition. Moreover, the local normal speed of the interface, which is needed to calculate the time evolution of the interface, is given by the Riemann solution. The interface tracking itself is based on a level-set method. The focus in this paper is the description of the two-phase Riemann solver and its usage within the sharp interface approach. One-dimensional problems are selected to validate the approach. Finally, the three-dimensional simulation of a wobbling droplet and a shock droplet interaction in two dimensions are shown. In both problems phase transition and surface tension determine the global bulk behavior.

  6. Determination of mercury by multisyringe flow injection system with cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.O. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km.7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Elsholz, O. [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg (Germany); Forteza, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km.7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Cerda, V. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa km.7.5, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)]. E-mail:


    A new software-controlled time-based multisyringe flow injection system for mercury determination by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry is proposed. Precise known volumes of sample, reducing agent (1.1% SnCl{sub 2} in 3% HCl) and carrier (3% HCl) are dispensed into a gas-liquid separation cell with a multisyringe burette coupled with one three-way solenoid valve. An argon flow delivers the reduced mercury to the spectrometer. The optimization of the system was carried out testing reaction coils and gas-liquid separators of different design as well as changing parameters, such as sample and reagents volumes, reagent concentrations and carrier gas flow rate, among others. The analytical curves were obtained within the range 50-5000 ng L{sup -1}. The detection limit (3{sigma} {sub b}/S) achieved is 5 ng L{sup -1}. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 1.4%, evaluated from 16 successive injections of 250 ng L{sup -1} Hg standard solution. The injection and sample throughput per hour were 44 and 11, respectively. This technique was validated by means of solid and water reference materials with good agreement with the certified values and was successfully applied to fish samples.

  7. Two-phase flow heat transfer of propane vaporization in horizontal minichannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamitran, Agus Sunjarianto; Choi, Kwang Il; Oh, Jong Taek; Park, Ki Won [Chonnam National University, Yeosu (Korea, Republic of)


    Experiments were performed on the convective boiling heat transfer in horizontal minichannels using propane. The test section was made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm and lengths of 1000 mm and 2000 mm, respectively, and it was uniformly heated by applying an electric current directly to the tubes. Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained for a heat flux range of 5-20 kW m{sup -2}, a mass flux range of 50-400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, saturation temperatures of 10, 5, and 0 .deg. C and quality ranges of up to 1.0. The nucleate boiling heat transfer contribution was predominant, particularly at the low quality region. Decreases in the heat transfer coefficient occurred at a lower vapor quality with a rise of heat flux and mass flux, and with a lower saturation temperature and inner tube diameter. Laminar flow appeared in the minichannel flows. A new boiling heat transfer coefficient correlation that is based on the superposition model for propane was developed with 8.27% mean deviation

  8. [A novel vapor dynamic headspace enrichment equipment for nontarget screening of volatile organic compounds in drinking water]. (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Zhang, Haijun; Tian, Yuzeng; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping


    A novel vapor dynamic headspace enrichment device was set up for nontarget screening of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. The main operating parameters of this device, such as length of distillation tube, volume of collected condensate, and choice of absorbent, were optimized. In this device, vapor was utilized as a purge gas and water was utilized as a absorbent. With the help of the device, one liter of water sample could be concentrated to 5 mL and the sensitivity of traditional purge and trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (P&T-GC-MS) could be improved 1-2 orders of magnitude. Source and disinfected water samples from a water treatment plant were analyzed with this method. Compared with the traditional P&T-GC-MS analysis without pre-enrichment, the numbers of identified VOCs were improved from 0 to 16 for source water and 5 to 35 for disinfected water samples. It is also shown that there are many halide compounds in VOCs in disinfected water which do not exist in source water.

  9. Screening for ochratoxin A in blood by flow injection analysis. (United States)

    Hult, K; Fuchs, R; Peraica, M; Plestina, R; Ceović, S


    A micromethod for ochratoxin A detection in human sera by flow injection technique is described. The method requires 50 microliter of sera, and it is designed to distinguish samples containing less than 10 ng ochratoxin A per ml. The method is based on fluorescence measurement following a simple extraction procedure for which very small amounts of chemicals are needed. Since the method is not confirmatory, all samples showing fluorescence above a certain intensity have to be reanalysed with some other method where a confirmation step in included. Because of the small amount of serum needed and the rapid procedure (less than 15 min), a large number of samples can be analysed very quickly. The method may therefore be applicable for large screening campaigns conducted to determine the presence of ochratoxin A in blood. This conclusion is based on 1675 samples and 147 standards analysed concurrently by the flow injection technique and an earlier published enzymic method. The method is also suitable for monitoring ochratoxin A levels in the blood of experimental animals.

  10. Large scale generation of micro-droplet array by vapor condensation on mesh screen piece (United States)

    Xie, Jian; Xu, Jinliang; He, Xiaotian; Liu, Qi


    We developed a novel micro-droplet array system, which is based on the distinct three dimensional mesh screen structure and sintering and oxidation induced thermal-fluid performance. Mesh screen was sintered on a copper substrate by bonding the two components. Non-uniform residue stress is generated along weft wires, with larger stress on weft wire top location than elsewhere. Oxidation of the sintered package forms micro pits with few nanograsses on weft wire top location, due to the stress corrosion mechanism. Nanograsses grow elsewhere to show hydrophobic behavior. Thus, surface-energy-gradient weft wires are formed. Cooling the structure in a wet air environment nucleates water droplets on weft wire top location, which is more “hydrophilic” than elsewhere. Droplet size is well controlled by substrate temperature, air humidity and cooling time. Because warp wires do not contact copper substrate and there is a larger conductive thermal resistance between warp wire and weft wire, warp wires contribute less to condensation but function as supporting structure. The surface energy analysis of drops along weft wires explains why droplet array can be generated on the mesh screen piece. Because the commercial material is used, the droplet system is cost effective and can be used for large scale utilization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. B. Zdanski

    Full Text Available Abstract The present work deals with numerical simulation of the incompressible turbulent flow of a binary mixture air-water vapor inside channels. Calculations are performed using the RANS (Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes Equations formulation in addition to the standart k-ε turbulence model. The mathematical model is discretized by a finite difference scheme, being adopted second order accurate expressions for both convection and diffusion terms. The mesh arrangement is collocated and artificial dissipation terms are added to control the odd-even decoupling problem. The numerical scheme is applied to solve the flow of a binary mixture of air-water vapor inside plane channels and sudden expansions. The validation performed indicates that the present method reproduces satisfactorily the literature data for both concentration profiles and Sherwood number. Furthermore, the parametric analysis performed indicates that the drying process (wall mass flux is very sensitive to the flow parameters investigated, i.e., inlet flow velocity and channel expansion ratio.

  12. [Time lag effect between stem sap flow and photosynthetically active radiation, vapor pressure deficit of Acacia mangium]. (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Zhao, Ping; Cai, Xi-An; Ma, Ling; Rao, Xing-Quan; Zeng, Xiao-Ping


    Based on the measurement of the stem sap flow of Acacia mangium with Granier' s thermal dissipation probe, and the cross-correlation and time serial analysis of the sap flow and corresponding photosynthetically active radiation and vapor pressure deficit, this paper studied the time lag effect between the stem sap flow of A. mangium and the driving factors of the tree canopy transpiration. The results indicated that the main driving factors of the transpiration were photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). Sap flux density (Js) was more dependent on PAR than on VPD, and the dependence was more significant in dry season than in wet season. Sap flow lagged behind PAR but advanced than VPD in both dry and wet seasons. The time lag did not show any significant variation across different size tree individuals, but showed significant variation in different seasons. Time lag effect was not correlated with tree height, diameter at the breast, and canopy size. The time lag between Js and VPD was significantly related to nighttime water recharge in dry season, but reversed in wet season.

  13. Calibrated vapor generator source (United States)

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.


    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  14. Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (United States)

    Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.


    This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sheikhi


    Full Text Available Abstract Well productivity of gas condensate reservoirs is highly affected by near-wellbore phenomena. Inertial force resulting from convective acceleration of fluid particles in the medium, as well as viscous force, determines the flow of gas through porous media at high velocity. Pressure drop builds up the molar content of water in gas by water vaporization in the near-wellbore region, which means a drop in connate water saturation. Given that the inertial force is a function of the non-Darcy coefficient, β, which itself depends upon connate water saturation, this can ultimately lessen the non-Darcy component of the pressure drop and therefore inertial forces, leading to improvement of well deliverability. Currently, no physically relevant model takes into account the non-Darcian flow coefficient variation due to this phenomenon. This paper utilizes a single-well compositional simulation to exhibit how water vaporization could compensate for the effect of inertia on well productivity of gas condensate reservoirs.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pogrebnaya Tamara


    Full Text Available In this article an attempt is made to explain the nature of differences in measurements of forces and moments, which influence an aircraft at take-off and landing when testing on different types of stands. An algorithm for numerical simulation of unsteady separated flow around airfoil is given. The algorithm is based on the combination of discrete vortex method and turbulent boundary layer equations. An unsteady flow separation modeling has been used. At each interval vortex method was used to calculate the potential flow around airfoils located near a screen. Calculated pressures and velocities were then used in boundary layer calculations to determine flow separation points and separated vortex in- tensities. After that calculation were made to determine free vortex positions to next time step and the process was fulfilled for next time step. The proposed algorithm allows using numeric visualization to understand physical picture of flow around airfoil moving close to screen. Three different ways of flow modeling (mirror method, fixed or movable screens were tested. In each case the flow separation process, which determines pressure distribution over airfoil surface and influ- ences aerodynamic performance, was viewed. The results of the calculations showed that at low atitudes of airfoil over screen mirror method over predicts lift force compared with movable screen, while fixed screen under predicts it. The data obtained can be used when designing equipment for testing in wind tunnels.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Aksentiev


    Full Text Available The paper gives description of physical pattern of liquid screen interaction that are injected from the internal walls of a rectangular channel with gas flow. Criterion dependences for determination of intersection coordinates of external boundaries with longitudinal channel axis and factor of liquid screen head resistance.

  18. Computer modeling of the vapor compression cycle with constant flow area expansion device (United States)

    Domanski, P.; Didion, D.


    An analysis of the vapor compression cycle and the main components of an air source heat pump during steady state operator was performed with emphasis on fundamental phenomena taking place between key locations in the refrigerant system. The basis of the general heat pump model formulation is the logic which links the analytical models of heat pump components together in a format requiring an iterative solution of refrigerant pressure, enthalpy and mass balances. The modeling effort emphasis was on the local thermodynamic phenomena which were described by fundamental heat transfer equations and equation of state relationships among material properties.

  19. Water, heat, and vapor flow in a deep vadose zone under arid and hyper-arid conditions: a numerical study. (United States)

    Madi, Raneem; de Rooij, Gerrit H.


    Groundwater recharge in arid regions is notoriously difficult to quantify. One reason is data scarcity: reliable weather records (rainfall, potential evapotranspiration rate, temperature) are typically lacking, the soil properties over the entire extent of the often very deep vadose zone are usually unknown, and the effect of sparse vegetation, wadis, (biological) soil crusts, and hard pans on infiltration and evaporation is difficult to quantify. Another reason is the difficulty of modeling the intricately coupled relevant processes over extended periods of time: coupled flow of liquid water, water vapor, and heat in a very deep soil in view of considerable uncertainty at the soil surface as indicated above, and over large spatial extents. In view of this myriad of problems, we limited ourselves to the simulation of 1-dimensional coupled flow of water, heat, and vapor in an unvegetated deep vadose zone. The conventional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties perform poorly under very dry conditions. We therefore selected an alternative that was developed specifically for dry circumstances and modified another to eliminate the physically implausible residual water content that rendered it of limited use for desert environments. The issue of data scarcity was resolved by using numerically generated rainfall records combined with a simple model for annual and daily temperature fluctuations. The soil was uniform, and the groundwater depth was constant at 100 m depth, which provided the lower boundary condition. The geothermal gradient determined the temperature at the groundwater level. We generated two scenarios with 120 years of weather in an arid and a hyper-arid climate. The initial condition was established by first starting with a somewhat arbitrary unit gradient initial condition corresponding to a small fraction of the annual average rainfall and let the model run through the 120-year atmospheric forcing. The resulting profile of matric potential

  20. Alternate methods of applying diffusants to silicon solar cells. [screen printing of thick-film paste materials and vapor phase transport from solid sources (United States)

    Brock, T. W.; Field, M. B.


    Low-melting phosphate and borate glasses were screen printed on silicon wafers and heated to form n and p junctions. Data on surface appearance, sheet resistance and junction depth are presented. Similar data are reported for vapor phase transport from sintered aluminum metaphosphate and boron-containing glass-ceramic solid sources. Simultaneous diffusion of an N(+) layer with screen-printed glass and a p(+) layer with screen-printed Al alloy paste was attempted. No p(+) back surface field formation was achieved. Some good cells were produced but the heating in an endless-belt furnace caused a large scatter in sheet resistance and junction depth for three separate lots of wafers.

  1. Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Vapor Flow Characteristics on Falling Film Absorption Rate in NH3-H2O Systems (United States)

    Kang, Yong Tae; Fujita, Yasushi; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    In this paper, experimental analysis was performed for ammonia-water falling film absorption process in a plate heat exchanger with enhanced surfaces such as offset strip fin. This paper examined the effect of vapor flow characteristics, inlet subcooling of the liquid flow and inlet concentration difference on heat and mass transfer performance. The inlet liquid concentration was kept constant at 0% while the inlet vapor concentration was varied from70. 36 to 77.31% It was found that before absorption started there was rectification process at the top of the test section by the inlet subcooling effect. Water desorption phenomenon was found near the bottom of test section. The lower inlet liquid temperature, the higher Nusselt and Sherwood numbers were obtained. NusseIt and Sherwood correlations were developed as functions of vapor Reynolds number ReV, inlet subcooling and inlet concentration difference with ±10% and ±5% error bands, respectively.

  2. A multiscale method for compressible liquid-vapor flow with surface tension*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaegle Felix


    Full Text Available Discontinuous Galerkin methods have become a powerful tool for approximating the solution of compressible flow problems. Their direct use for two-phase flow problems with phase transformation is not straightforward because this type of flows requires a detailed tracking of the phase front. We consider the fronts in this contribution as sharp interfaces and propose a novel multiscale approach. It combines an efficient high-order Discontinuous Galerkin solver for the computation in the bulk phases on the macro-scale with the use of a generalized Riemann solver on the micro-scale. The Riemann solver takes into account the effects of moderate surface tension via the curvature of the sharp interface as well as phase transformation. First numerical experiments in three space dimensions underline the overall performance of the method.

  3. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL...

  4. On The Validity of the Assumed PDF Method for Modeling Binary Mixing/Reaction of Evaporated Vapor in GAS/Liquid-Droplet Turbulent Shear Flow (United States)

    Miller, R. S.; Bellan, J.


    An Investigation of the statistical description of binary mixing and/or reaction between a carrier gas and an evaporated vapor species in two-phase gas-liquid turbulent flows is perfomed through both theroetical analysis and comparisons with results from direct numerical simulations (DNS) of a two-phase mixing layer.

  5. Experimental Investigation and Flow Process Computer Simulation of the Single Mini Channel Condenser for Vapor Compression Refrigeration System (United States)

    Pabilona, L. L.; Villanueva, E. P.


    This study is a computer simulation of the temperature profiles and experimental investigation of three 100 mm x 50 mm x 18 mm single mini channel condensers with hydraulic diameters of 3 mm, 2 mm, and 1mm. The mini channels which were made of copper were designed, fabricated and tested. Each unit was connected in a vapor compression cycle with R-134a as the refrigerant. The average refrigerant mass flow rates were varied from 1.296 - 69.471 g/s, and the average inlet and outlet condenser pressure variations were 102.5 - 121.8 kPa and 101.74 -121.23 kPa, respectively. Each condenser was placed inside a mini wind tunnel system where forced draft air was introduced to initiate convective heat transfer. Each condenser was tested and data were gathered every five minute interval for one hour using a Lab View Software. Computer simulations on the flow process were conducted using Solid Works software. The experimental results presented the inlet and outlet condenser pressures, and pressure drops. The experimental heat transfer coefficients were calculated at different mass fluxes during condensation. The values ranged from 3900 to 5200 W/m2-°K for the 3 mm, 2600 to 9000 W/m2-°K for the 2 mm, and 13 to 98 W/m2-°K for the 1 mm. The heat transfer coefficients calculated from experiments were then compared with the computed values using the correlations developed by Dittus-Boelter and Lee-Son. The results showed increasing deviation as the diameter decreased. The discrepancies could be attributed to the appropriateness of the Dittus-Boelter and Lee-Son correlations in small diameter channels, complexities in the flow process which involved two phase flow heat transfer in very small tubes, and the difficulties in attaining very accurate measurements in small channels.

  6. Effect of gas flow on the selective area growth of gallium nitride via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (United States)

    Rodak, L. E.; Kasarla, K. R.; Korakakis, D.


    The effect of gas flow on the selective area growth (SAG) of gallium nitride (GaN) grown via metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) has been investigated. In this study, the SAG of GaN was carried out on a silicon dioxide striped pattern along the GaN direction. SAG was initiated with the striped pattern oriented parallel and normal to the incoming gas flow in a horizontal reactor. The orientation of the pattern did not impact cross section of the structure after re-growth as both orientations resulted in similar trapezoidal structures bounded by the (0 0 0 1) and {1 1 2¯ n} facets ( n≈1.7-2.2). However, the growth rates were shown to depend on the orientation of the pattern as the normally oriented samples exhibited enhanced vertical and cross-sectional growth rates compared to the parallel oriented samples. All growths occurred under identical conditions and therefore the difference in growth rates must be attributed to a difference in mass transport of species.

  7. Measurement of Heat Flow Transmitted through a Stacked-Screen Regenerator of Thermoacoustic Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Han Hsu


    Full Text Available A stacked-screen regenerator is a key component in a thermoacoustic Stirling engine. Therefore, the choice of suitable mesh screens is important in the engine design. To verify the applicability of four empirical equations used in the field of thermoacoustic engines and Stirling engines, this report describes the measurements of heat flow rates transmitted through the stacked screen regenerator inserted in an experimental setup filled with pressurized Argon gas having mean pressure of 0.45 MPa. Results show that the empirical equations reproduce the measured heat flow rates to a mutually similar degree, although their derivation processes differ. Additionally, results suggest that two effective pore radii would be necessary to account for the viscous and thermal behaviors of the gas oscillating in the stacked-screen regenerators.

  8. Determination of forces induced by steam flow in turbines; Determinacion de fuerzas inducidas por flujo de vapor en turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Castrejon, Juan Carlos


    The steam flow induced vibrations in turbines is a common problem during the operation of 300 MW turbines and it is one of the problems that requires solution to develop 1 GW steam turbines. The flow induced vibration is caused because there is an interaction between blades and the flow field. Blades are subjected to the forces caused by the flow field, but also the flow field is affected by the blades and its movement. The nozzle wakes cause uneven pressure field downstream and produces alternating forces on blades which lead to blade vibrations. Some of the vibrations originated in this way may damage the blades and affect the turbine performance. The forces acting on blades (and causing forced vibrations) as a result of the variations in the flow field in the axial rotor-stator clearance are studied in this project. These forces were determined applying computer fluid dynamics (CFD) in two turbine stages. The CFD analysis was carried out in the Curtis stage and in the last stage, using 2D and 3D models. An important part of the analysis is focused on discussing the pressure field variation, because this variation caused the forces acting on blades. The flow field was resolved using CFD and the computed pressure field was integrated around the blades to get the forces acting on blades. These computed dynamical forces were analyzed using a FFT analysis and the results were used in the blade useful life estimation and in the investigation of the failure causes of these blades. In every turbine stage the RNG - turbulence model and the sliding mesh method was used to deal with the blade motion. The 3D models were resolved using parallel computation in a cluster of 6 AMD 64 Opteron processors of 2412.36 MHz and 8 Gb of RAM. The results of the simulation in both stages get the pressure field behavior in the axial rotor-stator clearance and determine the force acting on the blades. These results showed that both, the pressure field and the force magnitude acting on

  9. The Application of Flow Injection Technology to Automating Cold Vapor Mercury Analyses in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Based on flow injection techniques, FIMS is fully automated, fast, and cost-effective. The FIMS uses a high-performance single-beam optical system with a low pressure mercury lamp and solar-blind detector for maximum performance. The FIMS-400 has two stepper motor-driven peristaltic pumps for greater flexibility when used with optional accessories. FIMS is fully controlled from a personal computer using WinLab32 for AA software, a true Microsoft Windows-based program with an unparalleled offering of standard features, including a full range of analytical checks and quality control functions.

  10. DockFlow - a prototypic PharmaGrid for virtual screening integrating four different docking tools. (United States)

    Wolf, Antje; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Ghanem, Moustafa; Azam, Nabeel; Kalaitzopoulos, Dimitrios; Yu, Kunqian; Kasam, Vinod


    In this paper we present DockFlow, a prototypic version of a PharmaGrid. DockFlow is supporting pharmaceutical research through enabling virtual screening on the Grid. The system was developed in the course of the BRIDGE project funded by the European Commission. Grids have been used before to run compute- and data-intensive virtual screening experiments, like in the WISDOM project. With DockFlow, however, we addressed a variety of problems yet unsolved, like the diversity of results produced by different docking tools. We also addressed the problem of analysing the data produced in a distributed virtual screening system applying a combinatorial docking approach. In DockFlow we worked on a grid-based problem solving environment for virtual screening with the following major features: execution of four different docking services (FlexX, AutoDock, DOCK and GAsDock) at locations in Europe and China remotely from a common workflow, storage of the results in a common Docking Database providing a shared analysis platform for the collaboration partners and combination of the results. The DockFlow prototype is evaluated on two scientific case studies: malaria and avian flu.

  11. Quantitative fuel vapor/air mixing imaging in droplet/gas regions of an evaporating spray flow using filtered Rayleigh scattering. (United States)

    Allison, Patton M; McManus, Thomas A; Sutton, Jeffrey A


    This Letter demonstrates the application of filtered Rayleigh scattering (FRS) for quantitative two-dimensional fuel vapor/air mixing measurements in an evaporating hydrocarbon fuel spray flow. Using the FRS approach, gas-phase measurements are made in the presence of liquid-phase droplets without interference. Effective suppression of the liquid-phase droplet scattering using FRS is enabled by the high spectral purity of the current Nd:YAG laser system. Simultaneous Mie-scattering imaging is used to visualize the droplet field and illustrate the droplet loading under which the FRS imaging is applied in the current spray flows. The initial quantification of the FRS imaging is based on calibration measurements from a flow cell of known fuel vapor/air mixtures, while future work targets the utilization of a Rayleigh-Brillouin spectral model for quantification of the FRS signals.

  12. Mercury speciation in sea food by flow injection cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry using selective solid phase extraction. (United States)

    Vereda Alonso, E; Siles Cordero, M T; García de Torres, A; Cañada Rudner, P; Cano Pavón, J M


    An on-line inorganic and organomercury species separation, preconcentration and determination system consisting of cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS or CV-ETAAS) coupled to a flow injection (FI) method was studied. The inorganic mercury species was retained on a column (i.d., 3 mm; length 3 cm) packed to a height of 0.7 cm with a chelating resin aminopropyl-controlled pore glass (550 A) functionalized with [1,5-bis (2 pyridyl)-3-sulphophenyl methylene thiocarbonohydrazyde] placed in the injection valve of a simple flow manifold. Methylmercury is not directly determined. Previous oxidation of the organomercurial species permitted the determination of total mercury. The separation of mercury species was obtained by the selective retention of inorganic mercury on the chelating resin. The difference between total and inorganic mercury determined the organomercury content in the sample. The inorganic mercury was removed on-line from the microcolumn with 6% (m/v) thiourea. The mercury cold vapor generation was performed on-line with 0.2% (m/v) sodium tethrahydroborate and 0.05% (m/v) sodium hydroxide as reducing solution. The determination was performed using CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, both approaches have been used and compared for the speciation of mercury in sea food. A detection limit of 10 and 6 ng l(-1) was achieved for CV-AAS and CV-ETAAS, respectively. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 1 microg l(-1) Hg level was 3.5% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated from the peak heights obtained. Both approaches were validated with the use of two certified reference materials and by spiking experiments. By analyzing the two biological certified materials, it was evident that the difference between the total mercury and inorganic mercury corresponds to methylmercury. The concentrations obtained by both techniques were in agreement with the certified values or with differences of the certified values for total Hg(2+) and CH(3)Hg

  13. Screen-printed sensor for batch and flow injection potentiometric chromium(VI) monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Moreno, Raul A.; Gismera, M.J.; Sevilla, M.T.; Procopio, Jesus R. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental, Madrid (Spain)


    A disposable screen-printed electrode was designed and evaluated for direct detection of chromium(VI) in batch and flow analysis. The carbon screen-printed electrode was modified with a graphite-epoxy composite. The optimal graphite-epoxy matrix contains 37.5% graphite powder, 12.5% diphenylcarbohydrazide, a selective compound for chromium(VI), and 50% epoxy resin. The principal analytical parameters of the potentiometric response in batch and flow analysis were optimized and calculated. The screen-printed sensor exhibits a response time of 20 {+-} 1 s. In flow analysis, the analytical frequency of sampling is 70 injections per hour using 0.1 M NaNO{sub 3} solution at pH 3 as the carrier, a flow rate of 2.5 mL.min{sup -1}, and an injection sample volume of 0.50 mL. The sensor shows potentiometric responses that are very selective for chromium(VI) ions and optimal detection limits in both static mode (2.1 x 10{sup -7} M) and online analysis (9.4 x 10{sup -7} M). The disposable potentiometric sensor was employed to determine toxicity levels of chromium(VI) in mineral, tap, and river waters by flow-injection potentiometry and batch potentiometry. Chromium(VI) determination was also carried out with successful results in leachates from municipal solid waste landfills. (orig.)

  14. Modeling of a stacked-screen regenerator in an oscillatory flow (United States)

    Hsu, Shu Han; Biwa, Tetsushi


    In this paper, we model tortuous flow channels of a stacked-screen regenerator as a bundle of cylindrical tubes to analyze and design thermoacoustic Stirling engines. The oscillatory flow resistance of stacked-screen regenerators is measured and compared with those obtained using empirical equations to verify the applicability of those empirical equations to oscillating flows of pressurized Ar and He gases. It is then converted to an effective radius parameterized by Re h and r 0/δν, where Re h represents the Reynolds number based on velocity oscillation amplitude, r 0 is Ueda’s effective radius ( = \\sqrt{d\\text{h}D} /2, where d h is the hydraulic diameter and D is the mesh wire diameter), and δν denotes the viscous penetration depth. The applicability of the proposed effective radius is demonstrated experimentally when the axial temperature gradient is imposed on the regenerator.

  15. Model-aided fabrication of fiber-reinforced ceramic composite tubes using forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration (United States)

    Probst, Kent Joseph

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites possess high thermal conductivity, high fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance, having potential for use in fossil-energy steam plants, where corrosive environments at high temperature and pressure exist. The utilization of fiber-reinforced ceramic composite tubes may enable plant operation at higher temperatures, and may extend the lifetime of specific plant operations, improving overall efficiencies and reducing down-time. Dense, fiber-reinforced ceramic composite tubes were fabricated using forced-flow, chemical vapor infiltration. This process involved gaseous ceramic precursor infiltration throughout a fibrous preform, where a temperature gradient was applied and a ceramic precursor was forced through its surface at lower temperature. The application of a suitable temperature gradient and total flow enabled the ceramic matrix deposition to preferentially translate from the preform hot-surface to the cold-surface, resulting in a dense, ceramic composite in a reasonable total process time. Fibrous tube preforms were fabricated with Nextel(TM) 312 fiber. Silicon carbide was the reinforced ceramic matrix, which was deposited throughout the tube preform using methyltrichlorosilane. A standard set of process conditions was attempted to evaluate the feasibility in achieving dense composites. Tube preform infiltrations with variation in temperature and total flow were performed to determine effects on final density and total process time. Density characterization was performed on tube preforms infiltrated with the same process conditions for various time lengths to study the transient tube densification. Tube density profiles were characterized using X-ray computed tomography and digital image analysis, and the results from both were compared for their effectiveness in the prediction of the transient tube densification. A comprehensive process model simulated the transient tube infiltration using multiple, steady

  16. In situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as potential electrode materials for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mombrú, Dominique [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Mariano, E-mail: [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Faccio, Ricardo, E-mail: [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Castiglioni, Jorge [Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica de Superficies – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay)


    In situ preparation of polyaniline-ceramic nanocomposites has recently demonstrated that the electrical properties are highly improved with respect to the typical ex situ preparations. In this report, we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the in situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as an easily adaptable route to prepare other ceramic-polymer nanocomposites. The main relevance of this method is the possibility to prepare ceramic quantum dots from alkoxide precursors using water vapor flow into any hydrophobic polymer host and to achieve good homogeneity and size-control. In addition, we perform full characterization by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, confocal Raman microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analyses. The presence of the polymer host and interparticle Coulomb repulsive interactions was evaluated as an influence for the formation of ~3–8 nm equally-sized quantum dots independently of the concentration. The polyaniline polaron population showed an increase for the quantum dots diluted regime and the suppression at the concentrated regime, ascribed to the formation of chemical bonds at the interface, which was confirmed by theoretical simulations. In agreement with the previous observation, the in situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion could be very useful as a novel approach to prepare electrode materials for energy conversion and storage applications. - Highlights: • In situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion. • Polyaniline charge carriers at the interface and charge interactions between quantum dots. • Easy extrapolation to sol-gel derived quantum dots into polymer host as potential electrode materials.

  17. High-Throughput Multiplex Flow Cytometry Screening for Botulinum Neurotoxin Type A Light Chain Protease Inhibitors (United States)


    Given their medical importance, proteases have been studied by diverse approaches and screened for small molecule protease inhibitors. Here, we present a multiplexed microsphere-based protease assay that uses high-throughput flow cytometry to screen for inhibitors of the light chain protease of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNTALC). Our assay uses a full-length substrate and several deletion mutants screened in parallel to identify small molecule inhibitors. The use of multiplex flow cytometry has the advantage of using full-length substrates, which contain already identified distal-binding elements for the BoNTALC, and could lead to a new class of BoNTALC inhibitors. In this study, we have screened 880 off patent drugs and bioavailable compounds to identify ebselen as an in vitro inhibitor of BoNTALC. This discovery demonstrates the validity of our microsphere-based approach and illustrates its potential for high-throughput screening for inhibitors of proteases in general. PMID:20035615

  18. In situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as potential electrode materials for energy applications (United States)

    Mombrú, Dominique; Romero, Mariano; Faccio, Ricardo; Castiglioni, Jorge; Mombrú, Alvaro W.


    In situ preparation of polyaniline-ceramic nanocomposites has recently demonstrated that the electrical properties are highly improved with respect to the typical ex situ preparations. In this report, we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the in situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as an easily adaptable route to prepare other ceramic-polymer nanocomposites. The main relevance of this method is the possibility to prepare ceramic quantum dots from alkoxide precursors using water vapor flow into any hydrophobic polymer host and to achieve good homogeneity and size-control. In addition, we perform full characterization by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, confocal Raman microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analyses. The presence of the polymer host and interparticle Coulomb repulsive interactions was evaluated as an influence for the formation of 3-8 nm equally-sized quantum dots independently of the concentration. The polyaniline polaron population showed an increase for the quantum dots diluted regime and the suppression at the concentrated regime, ascribed to the formation of chemical bonds at the interface, which was confirmed by theoretical simulations. In agreement with the previous observation, the in situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion could be very useful as a novel approach to prepare electrode materials for energy conversion and storage applications.

  19. Screening Effect of Plasma Flow on RMP Penetration in EXTRAP T2R (United States)

    Frassinetti, Lorenzo; Olofsson, Erik; Brunsell, Per; Menmuir, Sheena; Drake, James


    The penetration of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) can be screened by plasma flow and the understanding of this phenomenon is important for ELM mitigation techniques. This work studies the screening effect in EXTRAP T2R. EXTRAP T2R is equipped with a feedback system able to suppress all error fields and to produce one or more external perturbations in a controlled fashion. The EXTRAP T2R feedback system is used to generate a RMP that interacts with the dynamics of its corresponding tearing mode (TM). The level of RMP penetration is quantified by analyzing the RMP effect on the TM amplitude and velocity. To study the screening effect, the flow is changed by applying a second perturbation that is non resonant (non-RMP). This produces the flow reduction without perturbing significantly the other parameters. By modifying the amplitude of the non-RMP, an experimental study of the flow effect on the RMP penetration is performed. Experimental results are compared with the model described in [Fitzpatrick R et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 4489 (2001)].

  20. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.


    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  1. Flows of a Vapor due to Phase Change Processes at the Condensed Phases with Temperature Fields as their Internal Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Onishi, Yoshimoto; Ooshida, Takeshi


    Transient to steady motions of a vapor caused by the evaporation and condensation processes occurring at the condensed phases placed in parallel have been studied based on the Boltzmann equation of BGK type...

  2. Novel thin layer flow-cell screen-printed graphene electrode for enzymatic sensors. (United States)

    Kanso, Hussein; González García, María Begoña; Llano, Laura Fernández; Ma, Su; Ludwig, Roland; Fanjul Bolado, Pablo; Santos, David Hernández


    A new Screen-printed electrodes (SPE) integrated in one channel flow-cell was developed. The one channel flow-cell is attached and directly changeable with electrode. In the new flow-cell the injection is done through an "in-line luer injection port" which can be less aggressive than wall-jet flow cell for a biological recognition element immobilized on the surface of the electrode. The sample volume can be easily controlled by the operator through a syringe. In this novel thin layer flow-cell screen-printed electrodes, the working electrode was modified with graphene materials, and an enhancement of electroactive area to 388% over a standard electrode was found. This new configuration was applied to study the entrapped cellobiose dehydrogenase from the ascomycete Corynascus thermophilus (CtCDH) in a photocrosslinkable PVA-based polymer. The calibration curve of lactose using optimized parameters shows a wide linear measurement ranges between 0.25 and 5mM. A good operational stability of the CtCDH-PVA-modified graphene electrode is obtained, which keeps the same initial activity during 8h and exhibits a good storage stability with a decrease of only 9% in analytical response after 3 months storage at 4◦C. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Evaluation of a commercial packed bed flow hydrogenator for reaction screening, optimization, and synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian C. Bryan


    Full Text Available The performance of the ThalesNano H-Cube®, a commercial packed bed flow hydrogenator, was evaluated in the context of small scale reaction screening and optimization. A model reaction, the reduction of styrene to ethylbenzene through a 10% Pd/C catalyst bed, was used to examine performance at various pressure settings, over sequential runs, and with commercial catalyst cartridges. In addition, the consistency of the hydrogen flow was indirectly measured by in-line UV spectroscopy. Finally, system contamination due to catalyst leaching, and the resolution of this issue, is described. The impact of these factors on the run-to-run reproducibility of the H-Cube® reactor for screening and reaction optimization is discussed.

  4. Screening of Compounds Toxicity against Human Monocytic cell line-THP-1 by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pick Neora


    Full Text Available The worldwide rapid increase in bacterial resistance to numerous antibiotics requires on-going development of new drugs to enter the market. As the development of new antibiotics is lengthy and costly, early monitoring of compound's toxicity is essential in the development of novel agents. Our interest is in a rapid, simple, high throughput screening method to assess cytotoxicity induced by potential agents. Some intracellular pathogens, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis primary site of infection is human alveolar macrophages. Thus, evaluation of candidate drugs for macrophage toxicity is crucial. Protocols for high throughput drug toxicity screening of macrophages using flow cytometry are lacking in the literature. For this application we modified a preexisting technique, propidium iodide (PI exclusion staining and utilized it for rapid toxicity tests. Samples were prepared in 96 well plates and analyzed by flow cytometry, which allowed for rapid, inexpensive and precise assessment of compound's toxicity associated with cell death.

  5. Flow Cytometry Enables Multiplexed Measurements of Genetically Encoded Intramolecular FRET Sensors Suitable for Screening. (United States)

    Doucette, Jaimee; Zhao, Ziyan; Geyer, Rory J; Barra, Melanie M; Balunas, Marcy J; Zweifach, Adam


    Genetically encoded sensors based on intramolecular FRET between CFP and YFP are used extensively in cell biology research. Flow cytometry has been shown to offer a means to measure CFP-YFP FRET; we suspected it would provide a unique way to conduct multiplexed measurements from cells expressing different FRET sensors, which is difficult to do with microscopy, and that this could be used for screening. We confirmed that flow cytometry accurately measures FRET signals using cells transiently transfected with an ERK activity reporter, comparing responses measured with imaging and cytometry. We created polyclonal long-term transfectant lines, each expressing a different intramolecular FRET sensor, and devised a way to bar-code four distinct populations of cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of multiplexed measurements and determined that robust multiplexed measurements can be conducted in plate format. To validate the suitability of the method for screening, we measured responses from a plate of bacterial extracts that in unrelated experiments we had determined contained the protein kinase C (PKC)-activating compound teleocidin A-1. The multiplexed assay correctly identifying the teleocidin A-1-containing well. We propose that multiplexed cytometric FRET measurements will be useful for analyzing cellular function and for screening compound collections. © 2016 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  6. Effect of the Ammonia Flow on the Formation of Microstructure Defects in GaN Layers Grown by High-Temperature Vapor Phase Epitaxy (United States)

    Barchuk, M.; Lukin, G.; Zimmermann, F.; Röder, C.; Motylenko, M.; Pätzold, O.; Heitmann, J.; Kortus, J.; Rafaja, D.


    High-temperature vapor phase epitaxy (HTVPE) is a physical vapor transport technology for a deposition of gallium nitride (GaN) layers. However, little is known about the influence of the deposition parameters on the microstructure of the layers. In order to fill this gap, the influence of the ammonia (NH3) flow applied during the HTVPE growth on the microstructure of the deposited GaN layers is investigated in this work. Although the HTVPE technology is intended to grow GaN layers on foreign substrates, the GaN layers under study were grown on GaN templates produced by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy in order to be able to separate the growth defects from the defects induced by the lattice misfit between the foreign substrate and the GaN layer. The microstructure of the layers is characterized by means of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence. In samples deposited at low ammonia flow, planar defects were detected, along which the nitrogen atoms are found to be substituted by impurity atoms. The interplay between these planar defects and the threading dislocations is discussed. A combination of XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals the presence of compressive residual stress in the samples.

  7. State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (United States)

    State of the Art High-Throughput Approaches to Genotoxicity: Flow Micronucleus, Ames II, GreenScreen and Comet (Presented by Dr. Marilyn J. Aardema, Chief Scientific Advisor, Toxicology, Dr. Leon Stankowski, et. al. (6/28/2012)

  8. Multiphase Oscillatory Flow Strategy for in Situ Measurement and Screening of Partition Coefficients. (United States)

    Abolhasani, Milad; Coley, Connor W; Jensen, Klavs F


    Taking advantage of the difference between the surface energies of aqueous and organic solvents on a Teflon substrate, a fully automated small-scale strategy is developed on the basis of gas-driven oscillatory motion of a biphasic slug for high-throughput in situ measurement and screening of partition coefficients of organic substances between aqueous and organic phases. The developed oscillatory flow strategy enables single partition coefficient data point measurement within 8 min (including the sample preparation time) which is 360 times faster than the conventional "shake-flask" method, while using less than a 30 μL volume of the two phases and 9 nmol of the target organic substance. The developed multiphase strategy is validated using a conventional shake-flask technique. Finally, the developed strategy is extended to include automated screening of partition coefficients at physiological temperature.

  9. MHD flow in multichannel U-bends: Screening experiments and theoretical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimann, J. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF); Molokov, S. [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF); Platnieks, I. [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (Latvia). Inst. Fiziki; Platacis, E. [AN Latvijskoj SSR, Riga (Latvia). Inst. Fiziki


    In electrically coupled multichannel ducts with a U-bend geometry magnetohydrodynamic effects are expected to cause strongly ununiform distributions of flow rates Q{sub i} and pressure drops {Delta}p{sub i} in the individual channels. A multichannel U-bend geometry is part of the KfK self-cooled Pb-17 Li blanket design (radial-toroidal-radial channels). However, inserts are proposed which isolate electrically the radial channels. To investigate the multichannel effect (MCE), screening experiments were performed at LAS, Riga, with different flow channel geometries and channel numbers between 1 and 5 and using InGaSn as liquid metal. These experiments were carried out with either {Delta}p{sub i}{approx}const or Q{sub i}{approx}const. Hartmann Numbers were varied between 0 and {approx}1600 (maximum magnetic field strength: 4.1 T) and Interaction Parameters between 0 and 10000. For experiments with electrically conducting walls between the channels, the volume flow rates in the outer channels are significantly larger than those in the inner channels in the experiments with {Delta}p{sub i}{approx}const. For Q{sub i}{approx}const., this tendency is reversed, with the highest pressure drop in the middle channel and the lowest in the outer channels. The flow geometry with electrically separated radial channels, similar to the KfK-design result in a fairly even flow rate and pressure drop distribution. The single channels behave approximately like electrically separated channels; no marked MCE occurrs. A theoretical analysis was carried out to describe the MCE for the multichannel U-bend with thin electrically conducting outside walls. This analysis is based on the Core Flow Approximation (CFA), valid for infinitely large Interaction Parameters and Hartmann Numbers. The theory predicts correctly all tendencies observed for the pressure measurements. Moreover, the method is able to describe in detail the flow structure in the toroidal channel. (Abstract Truncated)

  10. Heat flow in vapor dominated areas of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field: implications for the thermal budget of the Yellowstone Caldera (United States)

    Hurwitz, Shaul; Harris, Robert; Werner, Cynthia Anne; Murphy, Fred


    Characterizing the vigor of magmatic activity in Yellowstone requires knowledge of the mechanisms and rates of heat transport between magma and the ground surface. We present results from a heat flow study in two vapor dominated, acid-sulfate thermal areas in the Yellowstone Caldera, the 0.11 km2 Obsidian Pool Thermal Area (OPTA) and the 0.25 km2 Solfatara Plateau Thermal Area (SPTA). Conductive heat flux through a low permeability layer capping large vapor reservoirs is calculated from soil temperature measurements at >600 locations and from laboratory measurements of soil properties. The conductive heat output is 3.6 ± 0.4 MW and 7.5 ± 0.4 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively. The advective heat output from soils is 1.3 ± 0.3 MW and 1.2 ± 0.3 MW from the OPTA and the SPTA, respectively and the heat output from thermal pools in the OPTA is 6.8 ± 1.4 MW. These estimates result in a total heat output of 11.8 ± 1.4 MW and 8.8 ± 0.4 MW from OPTA and SPTA, respectively. Focused zones of high heat flux in both thermal areas are roughly aligned with regional faults suggesting that faults in both areas serve as conduits for the rising acid vapor. Extrapolation of the average heat flux from the OPTA (103 ± 2 W·m−2) and SPTA (35 ± 3 W·m−2) to the ~35 km2 of vapor dominated areas in Yellowstone yields 3.6 and 1.2 GW, respectively, which is less than the total heat output transported by steam from the Yellowstone Caldera as estimated by the chloride inventory method (4.0 to 8.0 GW).

  11. Hot-Roll-Pressing Mediated Transfer of Chemical Vapor Deposition Graphene for Transparent and Flexible Touch Screen with Low Sheet-Resistance. (United States)

    Guo, Chengkun; Kong, Xianghua; Ji, Hengxing


    Obstacles associated with graphene as transparent conductive films mainly consist of the difficulties in high-quality graphene synthesis, efficient transfer and doping of samples with lateral size of tens of centimeters for practical applications. Herein we demonstrate a hot-roll-pressing transfer technique followed by wet-chemical doping of large area graphene film grown on copper foil by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). This method enabled cost-effective and ultraclean transfer of single-layer graphene with an arbitrary size onto transparent ethylene vinyl acetate/polyethylene terephthalate (EVA/PET) substrate without any polymer residues. The sheet resistance of the single-layer graphene covered EVA/PET (graphene/EVA/PET) reached 200 Ω/sq with optical transparency of 87.3%. The graphene/EVA/PET film can be bent over 10000 cycles at a radius of 2 mm with ∼0.02% increase in sheet resistance, showing excellent mechanical flexibility for bendable electronics which was demonstrated by a capacitive-type touch screen based on the graphene/EVA/PET transparent conducting film.

  12. Ga N nano wires and nano tubes growth by chemical vapor deposition method at different NH{sub 3} flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, P.; Liu, Y.; Meng, X. [Wuhan University, School of Physics and Technology, Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro and Nanostructures of Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430072 (China)


    Ga N nano wires and nano tubes have been successfully synthesized via the simple chemical vapor deposition method. NH{sub 3} flow rate was found to be a crucial factor in the synthesis of different type of Ga N which affects the shape and the diameter of generated Ga N nano structures. X-ray diffraction confirms that Ga N nano wires grown on Si(111) substrate under 900 degrees Celsius and with NH{sub 3} flow rate of 50 sc cm presents the preferred orientation growth in the (002) direction. It is beneficial to the growth of nano structure through catalyst annealing. Transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure the size and structures of the samples. (Author)

  13. A multipumping flow system for in vitro screening of peroxynitrite scavengers. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Marta F T; Dias, Ana C B; Santos, João L M; Fernandes, Eduarda; Lima, José L F C; Zagatto, Elias A G


    Peroxynitrite anion is a reactive nitrogen species formed in vivo by the rapid, controlled diffusion reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide radicals. By reacting with several biological molecules, peroxynitrite may cause important cellular and tissue deleterious effects, which have been associated with many diseases. In this work, an automated flow-based procedure for the in vitro generation of peroxynitrite and subsequent screening of the scavenging activity of selected compounds is developed. This procedure involves a multipumping flow system (MPFS) and exploits the ability of compounds such as lipoic acid, dihydrolipoic acid, cysteine, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, sulindac, and sulindac sulfone to inhibit the chemiluminescent reaction of luminol with peroxynitrite under physiological simulated conditions. Peroxynitrite was generated in the MPFS by the online reaction of acidified hydrogen peroxide with nitrite, followed by a subsequent stabilization by merging with a sodium hydroxide solution to rapidly quench the developing reaction. The pulsed flow and the timed synchronized insertion of sample and reagent solutions provided by the MPFS ensure the establishment of the reaction zone only inside the flow cell, thus allowing maximum chemiluminescence emission detection. The results obtained for the assayed compounds show that, with the exception of oxidized glutathione, all are highly potent scavengers of peroxynitrite at the studied concentrations.


    Saunders, Matthew J.; Edwards, Bruce S.; Zhu, Jingshu; Sklar, Larry A.; Graves, Steven W.


    This protocol describes microsphere-based protease assays for use in flow cytometry and high-throughput screening. This platform measures a loss of fluorescence from the surface of a microsphere due to the cleavage of an attached fluorescent protease substrate by a suitable protease enzyme. The assay format can be adapted to any site or protein specific protease of interest and results can be measured in both real time and as end point fluorescence assays on a flow cytometer. End point assays are easily adapted to microplate format for flow cytometry high-throughput analysis and inhibitor screening. PMID:20938917

  15. Formaldehyde vapor produced from hexamethylenetetramine and pesticide: Simultaneous monitoring of formaldehyde and ozone in chamber experiments by flow-based hybrid micro-gas analyzer. (United States)

    Yanaga, Akira; Hozumi, Naruto; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Hasegawa, Asako; Toda, Kei


    Simultaneous analysis of HCHO and O3 was performed by the developed flow analysis system to prove that HCHO vapor is produced from solid pesticide in the presence of O3. HCHO is produced in many ways, including as primary emissions from fuel combustion and in secondary production from anthropogenic and biogenic volatile organic compounds by photochemical reactions. In this work, HCHO production from pesticides was investigated for the first time. Commonly pesticide contains surfactant such as hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), which is a heterocyclic compound formed from six molecules of HCHO and four molecules of NH3. HMT can react with gaseous oxidants such as ozone (O3) to produce HCHO. In the present study, a flow analysis system was developed for simultaneous analysis of HCHO and O3, and this system was used to determine if solid pesticides produced HCHO vapor in the presence of O3. HMT or the pesticide jimandaisen, which contains mancozeb as the active ingradient and HMT as a stabilizer was placed at the bottom of a 20-L stainless steel chamber. Air in the chamber was monitored using the developed flow system. Analyte gases were collected into an absorbing solution by a honeycomb-patterned microchannel scrubber that was previously developed for a micro gas analysis system (μGAS). Subsequently, indigotrisulfonate, a blue dye, was added to the absorbing solution to detect O3, which discolored the solution. HCHO was detected after mixing with the Hantzsch reaction reagent. Both gases could be detected at concentrations ranging from parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to 1000 ppbv with good linearity. Both HMT and jimandaisen emitted large amount of HCHO in the presence of O3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effectiveness of common fish screen materials for protecting lamprey ammocoetes—Influence of sweeping velocities and decreasing flows (United States)

    Mesa, Matthew G.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Weiland, Lisa K.; Christiansen, Helena E.


    In previous tests of the effectiveness of four common fish screen materials for excluding lamprey ammocoetes, we determined that woven wire (WW) allowed substantially more entrainment than perforated plate (PP), profile bar (PB), or Intralox (IL) material. These tests were simplistic because they used small vertically-oriented screens positioned perpendicular to the flow without a bypass or a sweeping velocity (SV). In the subsequent test discussed in this report, we exposed ammocoetes to much larger (2.5-m-wide) screen panels with flows up to 10 ft3 /s, a SV component, and a simulated bypass channel. The addition of a SV modestly improved protection of lamprey ammocoetes for all materials tested. A SV of 35 cm/s with an approach velocity (AV) of 12 cm/s, was able to provide protection for fish about 5–15 mm smaller than the protection provided by an AV of 12 cm/s without a SV component. The best-performing screen panels (PP, IL, and PB) provided nearly complete protection from entrainment for fish greater than 50-mm toal length, but the larger openings in the WW material only protected fish greater than 100-mm total length. Decreasing the AV and SV by 50 percent expanded the size range of protected lampreys by about 10–15 mm for those exposed to IL and WW screens, and it decreased the protective ability of PP screens by about 10 mm. Much of the improvement for IL and WW screens under the reduced flow conditions resulted from an increase in the number of lampreys swimming away from the screen. Fish of all sizes became impinged (that is, stuck on the screen surface for more than 1 s) on the screens, with the rate of impingement highest on PP (39– 72 percent) and lowest on WW (7–22 percent). Although impingements were common, injuries were rare, and 24-h post-test survival was greater than 99 percent. Our results refined the level of protection provided by these screen materials when both an AV and SV are present and confirmed our earlier recommendation that

  17. Contribution of Multiparameter Flow Cytometry Immunophenotyping to the Diagnostic Screening and Classification of Pediatric Cancer (United States)

    Ferreira-Facio, Cristiane S.; Milito, Cristiane; Botafogo, Vitor; Fontana, Marcela; Thiago, Leandro S.; Oliveira, Elen; da Rocha-Filho, Ariovaldo S.; Werneck, Fernando; Forny, Danielle N.; Dekermacher, Samuel; de Azambuja, Ana Paula; Ferman, Sima Esther; de Faria, Paulo Antônio Silvestre; Land, Marcelo G. P.; Orfao, Alberto; Costa, Elaine S.


    Pediatric cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of hematological and non-hematological malignancies which require multiple procedures for its diagnostic screening and classification. Until now, flow cytometry (FC) has not been systematically applied to the diagnostic work-up of such malignancies, particularly for solid tumors. Here we evaluated a FC panel of markers for the diagnostic screening of pediatric cancer and further classification of pediatric solid tumors. The proposed strategy aims at the differential diagnosis between tumoral vs. reactive samples, and hematological vs. non-hematological malignancies, and the subclassification of solid tumors. In total, 52 samples from 40 patients suspicious of containing tumor cells were analyzed by FC in parallel to conventional diagnostic procedures. The overall concordance rate between both approaches was of 96% (50/52 diagnostic samples), with 100% agreement for all reactive/inflammatory and non-infiltrated samples as well as for those corresponding to solid tumors (n = 35), with only two false negative cases diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic lymphoma, respectively. Moreover, clear discrimination between samples infiltrated by hematopoietic vs. non-hematopoietic tumor cells was systematically achieved. Distinct subtypes of solid tumors showed different protein expression profiles, allowing for the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma (CD56hi/GD2+/CD81hi), primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CD271hi/CD99+), Wilms tumors (>1 cell population), rhabdomyosarcoma (nuMYOD1+/numyogenin+), carcinomas (CD45−/EpCAM+), germ cell tumors (CD56+/CD45−/NG2+/CD10+) and eventually also hemangiopericytomas (CD45−/CD34+). In summary, our results show that multiparameter FC provides fast and useful complementary data to routine histopathology for the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer. PMID:23472067

  18. Contribution of multiparameter flow cytometry immunophenotyping to the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane S Ferreira-Facio

    Full Text Available Pediatric cancer is a relatively rare and heterogeneous group of hematological and non-hematological malignancies which require multiple procedures for its diagnostic screening and classification. Until now, flow cytometry (FC has not been systematically applied to the diagnostic work-up of such malignancies, particularly for solid tumors. Here we evaluated a FC panel of markers for the diagnostic screening of pediatric cancer and further classification of pediatric solid tumors. The proposed strategy aims at the differential diagnosis between tumoral vs. reactive samples, and hematological vs. non-hematological malignancies, and the subclassification of solid tumors. In total, 52 samples from 40 patients suspicious of containing tumor cells were analyzed by FC in parallel to conventional diagnostic procedures. The overall concordance rate between both approaches was of 96% (50/52 diagnostic samples, with 100% agreement for all reactive/inflammatory and non-infiltrated samples as well as for those corresponding to solid tumors (n = 35, with only two false negative cases diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma and anaplastic lymphoma, respectively. Moreover, clear discrimination between samples infiltrated by hematopoietic vs. non-hematopoietic tumor cells was systematically achieved. Distinct subtypes of solid tumors showed different protein expression profiles, allowing for the differential diagnosis of neuroblastoma (CD56(hi/GD2(+/CD81(hi, primitive neuroectodermal tumors (CD271(hi/CD99(+, Wilms tumors (>1 cell population, rhabdomyosarcoma (nuMYOD1(+/numyogenin(+, carcinomas (CD45(-/EpCAM(+, germ cell tumors (CD56(+/CD45(-/NG2(+/CD10(+ and eventually also hemangiopericytomas (CD45(-/CD34(+. In summary, our results show that multiparameter FC provides fast and useful complementary data to routine histopathology for the diagnostic screening and classification of pediatric cancer.

  19. Effects on fuel spray characteristics and vaporization on energy release rates and flow field structure in a dump combustor (United States)

    Bowman, C. T.; Hanson, R. K.; Vandsburger, U.; Allen, M. G.; McManus, K. R.


    An experimental investigation of the effects of fuel spray characteristics, specifically droplet size and extent of prevaporization, on energy release rate and flow field structure in a liquid-fueled dump combustor is in progress. Visualization and measurment of the spray characteristics and of the reacting flow field are carried out using high-speed schlieren photography and planar imaging techniques. An important element of the research is development of these imaging techniques for two-phase reacting flows. Progress to date is described in the development of several imaging techniques and initial results from experiments in the dump combustor.

  20. Automatic flow-batch system for cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey from Argentina using online sample treatment. (United States)

    Domínguez, Marina A; Grünhut, Marcos; Pistonesi, Marcelo F; Di Nezio, María S; Centurión, María E


    An automatic flow-batch system that includes two borosilicate glass chambers to perform sample digestion and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy determination of mercury in honey samples was designed. The sample digestion was performed by using a low-cost halogen lamp to obtain the optimum temperature. Optimization of the digestion procedure was done using a Box-Behnken experimental design. A linear response was observed from 2.30 to 11.20 μg Hg L(-1). The relative standard deviation was 3.20% (n = 11, 6.81 μg Hg L(-1)), the sample throughput was 4 sample h(-1), and the detection limit was 0.68 μg Hg L(-1). The obtained results with the flow-batch method are in good agreement with those obtained with the reference method. The flow-batch system is simple, allows the use of both chambers simultaneously, is seen as a promising methodology for achieving green chemistry goals, and is a good proposal to improving the quality control of honey.

  1. Numerical investigation of the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann modeling of liquid-vapor for multi-phase flows (United States)

    Nemati, Maedeh; Shateri Najaf Abady, Ali Reza; Toghraie, Davood; Karimipour, Arash


    The incorporation of different equations of state into single-component multiphase lattice Boltzmann model is considered in this paper. The original pseudopotential model is first detailed, and several cubic equations of state, the Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, and Peng-Robinson are then incorporated into the lattice Boltzmann model. A comparison of the numerical simulation achievements on the basis of density ratios and spurious currents is used for presentation of the details of phase separation in these non-ideal single-component systems. The paper demonstrates that the scheme for the inter-particle interaction force term as well as the force term incorporation method matters to achieve more accurate and stable results. The velocity shifting method is demonstrated as the force term incorporation method, among many, with accuracy and stability results. Kupershtokh scheme also makes it possible to achieve large density ratio (up to 104) and to reproduce the coexistence curve with high accuracy. Significant reduction of the spurious currents at vapor-liquid interface is another observation. High-density ratio and spurious current reduction resulted from the Redlich-Kwong-Soave and Peng-Robinson EOSs, in higher accordance with the Maxwell construction results.

  2. Performance testing of cross flow heat exchanger operating in the atmosphere of flue gas particulate with vapor condensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuntaphan, A.


    Full Text Available Performance testing of a cross flow heat exchanger operating under the atmosphere of flue gas particulate from combustion was carried out in this work. This heat exchanger exchanges heat between flue gas from the fuel oil combustion and cold water. The heat exchanger is composed of a spiral finned tube bank having 3 rows and 8 tubes per row with a staggered arrangement. The fin spacings considered are 2.85 and 6.10 mm. The theories of thermodynamics and heat transfer are used for analyzing the performance of this system.In this experiment, the flue gas temperature of 200ºC from combustion having 0.35 kg/s mass flow rate flows along outside surface of the heat exchanger and transfers heat to the 25ºC cooling water having 0.15 kg/s mass flow rate flowing in the tube side. Each experiment uses 750 hr for testing. During the testing, part of flue gas condenses on the heat transfer surface.From the experiment, it was found that the heat transfer rate of both heat exchangers tended to decrease with time while the airside pressure drop increased. These results come from the fouling on the heat transfer surface. Moreover, it is found that the heat exchanger having 2.85 mm fin spacing has an approximately 4 times higher fouling resistance than that of the 6.10 mm fin spacing.In this work a model for calculating the fouling resistance is also developed as a the function of time. The model is developed from that of Kern and Seaton and the mean deviation of the model is 0.789.

  3. Slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the determination of trace Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Ni [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Jiang, Shiuh-Jen, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yen-Ling [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Sahayam, A.C. [National Centre for Compositional Characterisation of Materials (CCCM), Hyderabad (India)


    Highlights: • Determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions in a single run. • Accurate analysis using isotope dilution and standard addition methods. • Vapor generation ICP-MS yielded superior detection limits compared to ETV-ICP-MS. • No sample dissolution increased sample through put. • Analysis of GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material for accuracy. - Abstract: A slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method has been developed for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in cosmetic lotions using flow injection (FI) vapor generation (VG) as the sample introduction system. A slurry containing 2% m/v lotion, 2% m/v thiourea, 0.05% m/v L-cysteine, 0.5 μg mL{sup −1} Co(II), 0.1% m/v Triton X-100 and 1.2% v/v HCl was injected into a VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi without dissolution and mineralization. Because the sensitivities of the analytes in the slurry and that of aqueous solution were quite different, an isotope dilution method and a standard addition method were used for the determination. This method has been validated by the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in GBW09305 Cosmetic (Cream) reference material. The method was also applied for the determination of Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi in three cosmetic lotion samples obtained locally. The analysis results of the reference material agreed with the certified value and/or ETV-ICP-MS results. The detection limit estimated from the standard addition curve was 0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.03 ng g{sup −1} for Ge, As, Cd, Sb, Hg and Bi, respectively, in original cosmetic lotion sample.

  4. Application of a fluorescence-based continuous-flow bioassay to screen for diversity of cytochrome P450 BM3 mutant libraries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinen, J.; Ferman, S; Vottero, E.R.; Vermeulen, N.; Commandeur, J.N.M.


    A fluorescence-based continuous-flow enzyme affinity detection (EAD) setup was used to screen cytochrome P450 BM3 mutants on-line for diversity. The flow-injection screening assay is based on the BM3-mediated O-dealkylation of alkoxyresorufins forming the highly fluorescent product resorufin, and

  5. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay. (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B


    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trace mercury determination in drinking and natural water samples by room temperature ionic liquid based-preconcentration and flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinis, Estefania M.; Berton, Paula [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Olsina, Roberto A. [INQUISAL-CONICET, Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Facultad de Quimica, Bioquimica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Altamirano, Jorgelina C. [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Wuilloud, Rodolfo G., E-mail: [Laboratory of Environmental Research and Services of Mendoza (LISAMEN), (CCT - CONICET - Mendoza), Av. Ruiz Leal S/N Parque General San Martin, CC. 131, M 5502 IRA Mendoza (Argentina); Instituto de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina)


    A liquid-liquid extraction procedure (L-L) based on room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) was developed for the preconcentration and determination of mercury in different water samples. The analyte was quantitatively extracted with 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([C{sub 4}mim][PF{sub 6}]) under the form of Hg-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (Hg-5-Br-PADAP) complex. A volume of 500 {mu}l of 9.0 mol L{sup -1} hydrochloric acid was used to back-extract the analyte from the RTIL phase into an aqueous media prior to its analysis by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (FI-CV-AAS). A preconcentration factor of 36 was achieved upon preconcentration of 20 mL of sample. The limit of detection (LOD) obtained under the optimal conditions was 2.3 ng L{sup -1} and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for 10 replicates at 1 {mu}g L{sup -1} Hg{sup 2+} was 2.8%, calculated with peaks height. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in river, sea, mineral and tap water samples and a certified reference material (CRM).

  7. Determination of As, Hg and Pb in herbs using slurry sampling flow injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Tai, Chia-Yi; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C


    Analysis of herbs for As, Hg and Pb has been carried out using slurry sampling inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with flow injection vapor generation. Slurry containing 0.5% m/v herbal powder, 0.1% m/v citric acid and 2% v/v HCl was injected into the VG-ICP-MS system for the determination of As, Hg and Pb that obviate dissolution and mineralization. Standard addition and isotope dilution methods were used for quantifications in selected herbal powders. This method has been validated by the determination of As, Hg and Pb in NIST standard reference materials SRM 1547 Peach Leaves and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves. The As, Hg and Pb analysis results of the reference materials agreed with the certified values. The precision obtained by the reported procedure was better than 7% for all determinations. The detection limit estimated from standard addition curve was 0.008, 0.003, and 0.007 ng mL(-1) for As, Hg and Pb, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pressure drop and heat transfer during two-phase flow vaporization of propane in horizontal smooth minichannels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kwang-Il; Pamitran, A.S. [Graduate School, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-Dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Oh, Jong-Taek [Department of Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineering, Chonnam National University, San 96-1, Dunduk-dong, Yeosu, Chonnam 550-749 (Korea); Saito, Kiyoshi [Department of Applied Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Waseda University, 1-104, Totsuka-machi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)


    This study examined the two-phase flow boiling pressure drop and heat transfer for propane, as a long term alternative refrigerant, in horizontal minichannels. The pressure drop and local heat transfer coefficients were obtained for heat fluxes ranging from 5-20 kW m{sup -2}, mass fluxes ranging from 50-400 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, saturation temperatures of 10, 5 and 0 C, and quality up to 1.0. The test section was made of stainless steel tubes with inner diameters of 1.5 mm and 3.0 mm, and lengths of 1000 mm and 2000 mm, respectively. The present study showed the effect of mass flux, heat flux, inner tube diameter and saturation temperature on pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results were compared against several existing pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient prediction methods. Because the study on evaporation with propane in minichannels was limited, new correlations of pressure drop and boiling heat transfer coefficient were developed in this present study. (author)

  9. The influence of oxygen flow rate on properties of SnO{sub 2} thin films grown epitaxially on c-sapphire by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Y.M. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Jiang, J. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Xia, C. [Physical Chemistry Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kramm, B.; Polity, A. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); He, Y.B., E-mail: [Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Hubei University (China); Key Laboratory of Green Preparation and Application for Functional Materials, Ministry of Education, Hubei University (China); Faculty of Materials Science & Engineering, Hubei University (China); Klar, P.J.; Meyer, B.K. [I. Physics Institute, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, D-35392 Giessen (Germany)


    Tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by chemical vapor deposition using SnI{sub 2} and O{sub 2} as reactants. The growth experiments were carried out at a fixed substrate temperature of 510 °C and different O{sub 2} flow rates. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–Vis–IR spectrophotometry and Hall-effect measurement were used to characterize the films. All films consisted of pure-phase SnO{sub 2} with a rutile structure and showed an epitaxial relationship with the substrate of SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. The crystalline quality and properties of the films were found to be sensitively dependent on the O{sub 2} flow rate during the film growth. The absolute average transmittance of the SnO{sub 2} films exceeded 85% in the visible and infrared spectral region. The films had optical band-gaps (3.72–3.89 eV) that are in line with the band gap of single-crystal SnO{sub 2}. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility of the films decreased from 3.3 × 10{sup 19} to 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and from 19 to 2 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, while the resistivity increased from 0.01 to 3 Ω cm with increasing of the O{sub 2} flow rate from 5 to 60 sccm. - Highlights: • SnI{sub 2} (Sn{sup 2+}) was used as tin precursor to prepare tin oxide films by CVD. • Epitaxial SnO{sub 2} (100) films were obtained on c-sapphire with thickness more than 1 μm. • The epitaxial relationship is SnO{sub 2}(100)||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) and SnO{sub 2}[010]||Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}< 11–20 >. • B{sub 2g} Raman mode was found to be absent in (100)-orientated SnO{sub 2} films on c-sapphire. • The crystal quality and properties of SnO{sub 2} films depended sensitively on the O{sub 2} flow rate.

  10. Blood coagulation screening using a paper-based microfluidic lateral flow device. (United States)

    Li, H; Han, D; Pauletti, G M; Steckl, A J


    A simple approach to the evaluation of blood coagulation using a microfluidic paper-based lateral flow assay (LFA) device for point-of-care (POC) and self-monitoring screening is reported. The device utilizes whole blood, without the need for prior separation of plasma from red blood cells (RBC). Experiments were performed using animal (rabbit) blood treated with trisodium citrate to prevent coagulation. CaCl2 solutions of varying concentrations are added to citrated blood, producing Ca(2+) ions to re-establish the coagulation cascade and mimic different blood coagulation abilities in vitro. Blood samples are dispensed into a paper-based LFA device consisting of sample pad, analytical membrane and wicking pad. The porous nature of the cellulose membrane separates the aqueous plasma component from the large blood cells. Since the viscosity of blood changes with its coagulation ability, the distance RBCs travel in the membrane in a given time can be related to the blood clotting time. The distance of the RBC front is found to decrease linearly with increasing CaCl2 concentration, with a travel rate decreasing from 3.25 mm min(-1) for no added CaCl2 to 2.2 mm min(-1) for 500 mM solution. Compared to conventional plasma clotting analyzers, the LFA device is much simpler and it provides a significantly larger linear range of measurement. Using the red colour of RBCs as a visible marker, this approach can be utilized to produce a simple and clear indicator of whether the blood condition is within the appropriate range for the patient's condition.

  11. Vapor Detector (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.


    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  12. Dependence of O2 and Ar2 flow rates on the physical properties of ATO thin films deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) (United States)

    Fadavieslam, M. R.; Sadra, S.


    Antimony-doped tin oxide SnO2:Sb thin films were fabricated through atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition at T = 350 °C on soda lime glass substrates. After preparing the thin films, the effects of oxygen and argon flow rates on the structural, optical, and electrical properties were investigated. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, optical absorption (UV-Vis), and electrical resistance measurements using the two-point probe technique and the Hall effect. The results showed that the films contained uniform polycrystalline structures. Accordingly, the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the samples indicated the following effects: (a) Increasing the oxygen flow rate from 60 to 160 cc/min decreased the intensity of XRD peaks, the average roughness from 48.5 to 47.9 nm, the average transmission from 44 to 40 (in the visible region), the optical band gap from 3.74 to 3.66 eV, and the carrier mobility from 239.52 to 21.08 cm2/V.S; moreover, it increased the average grain size from 74 to 79 nm, the thickness from 320 to 560 nm, the specific resistance from 3.38 × 10-2 to 14.9 × 10-2 Ω cm, the carrier concentration from 7.72 × 1017 to 1.99 × 1018 cm-3, and the Seebeck coefficient from 47.2 to 57.85 μVk-1 (at 400 K). (b) Increasing the argon flow rate of 40 cc/min to 120 cc/min decreased the intensity of XRD peaks, the average size of grains from 88 nm to 61 nm, the optical band gap from 3.66 to 2.73 eV, the carrier concentration from 1.99 × 1018 to 1.73 × 1017 cm-3, and the Seebeck coefficient from 57.85 to 36.59 μVk-1 (at 400 k); moreover, this increased the average roughness from 47.9 to 50.8 nm, the average transmission from 40 to 64 (in the visible region), thickness from 560 to 620 nm, specific resistance from 14.9 × 10-2 to 39.87 × 10-2 Ω cm, and carrier mobility from 21.08 to 90.61 μv/vs. (c) All thin films had degenerate n

  13. Vapor spill pipe monitor (United States)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.


    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  14. The Behavior of a Co-flow structure to Screen Projects in a Product Pipeline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paulo S Figueiredo; Elisabeth Loiola


    .... An application to Product Pipeline Management (PPM) is developed. A two-stage product development pipeline was modeled with a co-flow structure that tracks the number of projects and the related net present value of payoff...

  15. Automatable Flow System for Paraoxon Detection with an Embedded Screen-Printed Electrode Tailored with Butyrylcholinesterase and Prussian Blue Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Arduini


    Full Text Available Nowadays extensive volumes of pesticides are employed for agricultural and environmental practices, but they have negative effects on human health. The levels of pesticides are necessarily restricted by international regulatory agencies, thus rapid, cost-effective and in-field analysis of pesticides is an important issue. In the present work, we propose a butyrylcholinesterase (BChE-based biosensor embedded in a flow system for organophosphorus pesticide detection. The BChE was immobilized by cross-linking on a screen-printed electrode modified with Prussian Blue Nanoparticles. The detection of paraoxon (an organophosphorus pesticide was carried out evaluating its inhibitory effect on BChE, and quantifying the enzymatic hydrolysis of butyrylthiocholine before and after the exposure of the biosensor to paraoxon, by measuring the thiocholine product at a working voltage of +200 mV. The operating conditions of the flow system were optimized. A flow rate of 0.25 mL/min was exploited for inhibition steps, while a 0.12 mL/min flow rate was used for substrate measurement. A substrate concentration of 5 mM and an incubation time of 10 min allowed a detection limit of 1 ppb of paraoxon (corresponding to 10% inhibition. The stability of the probe in working conditions was investigated for at least eight measurements, and the storage stability was evaluated up to 60 days at room temperature in dry condition. The analytical system was then challenged in drinking, river and lake water samples. Matrix effect was minimized by using a dilution step (1:4 v/v in flow analysis. This biosensor, embedded in a flow system, showed the possibility to detect paraoxon at ppb level using an automatable and cost-effective bioanalytical system.

  16. Electrochemical study and flow injection analysis of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations based on screen-printed electrodes and carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanjul-Bolado, Pablo [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Lamas-Ardisana, Pedro Jose [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Hernandez-Santos, David [DropSens, S.L., Edificio Severo Ochoa, Campus El Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Costa-Garcia, Agustin, E-mail: [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)


    Acetaminophenol or paracetamol is one of the most commonly used analgesics in pharmaceutical formulations. Acetaminophen is electroactive and voltammetric mechanistic studies for the electrode processes of the acetaminophenol/N-acetyl-p-quinoneimine redox system are presented. Carbon nanotubes modified screen-printed electrodes with enhanced electron transfer properties are used for the study of the electrochemical-chemical oxidation mechanism of paracetamol at pH 2.0. Quantitative analysis of paracetamol by using its oxidation process (in a Britton-Robinson buffer solution pH 10.0) at +0.20 V (vs. an Ag pseudoreference electrode) on an untreated screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) was carried out. Thus, a cyclic voltammetric based reproducible determination of acetaminophen (R.S.D., 2.2%) in the range 2.5 x 10{sup -6} M to 1 x 10{sup -3} M, was obtained. However, when SPCEs are used as amperometric detectors coupled to a flow injection analysis (FIA) system, the detection limit achieved for paracetamol was 1 x 10{sup -7} M, one order of magnitude lower than that obtained by voltammetric analysis. The repeatability of the amperometric detection with the same SPCE is 2% for 15 successive injections of 10{sup -5} M acetaminophen and do not present any memory effect. Finally, the applicability of using screen-printed carbon electrodes for the electrochemical detection of paracetamol (i.e. for quality control analysis) was demonstrated by using two commercial pharmaceutical products.

  17. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.


    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  18. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  19. Utilization of sharp edged orifice plates to control flows discharging to the atmosphere; Utilizacion de placas de orificio para restringir el flujo de vapor de ductos que descargan a la atmosfera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Upton, Pedro [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, (Mexico)


    The inner pipe thermodynamic behavior of steam when discharged freely to the atmosphere at the sound speed is studied in this paper. In addition, the effect of sharp edged orifice plates into pipes is shown, when they are utilized as a flow control device. In one case, it is assumed an orifice plate located at few feet distance from the pipe entrance. In other case, it is supposed that the orifice plate is fixed at the exit plane of the pipe. In all cases, it is considered that the pipe length is short enough and the flow speed too high to despise the heat transfer to the surrounding. The results were obtained through the simultaneous solution of the three fundamental equations of fluid mechanics, as well as the water equation of state and a correlation to quantify the steam choking mass flow rate. The main conclusion of the study reflects that the acoustic celerity is reached at the pipe exit plane for any of the different pipe arrangements. The speed of sound into steam was of the order of 560 m/s. It is recommended to fix the orifice plate at the exit of the pipe, in order to reduce inner erosion due to the steam flow. [Espanol] Se estudia el comportamiento termodinamico del vapor en el interior de una tuberia que descarga libremente a la atmosfera, bajo condiciones de flujo critico, y se muestra el efecto que genera una placa de orificio en esta tuberia al ser utilizada como un restringente de flujo. Se tratan dos casos: en uno la placa de orificio se instala al inicio de la tuberia y en el segundo la placa se localiza en la parte final de la misma. En todos los casos se considera que la longitud del ducto es lo suficientemente corta y que la velocidad del flujo es alta, de tal suerte que la transferencia de calor al ambiente es despreciable. Las soluciones se obtienen al resolver simultaneamente las tres ecuaciones de conservacion, en conjunto con las ecuaciones auxiliares de estado y una ecuacion desarrollada para cuantificar a los flujos criticos de vapor

  20. Using flow cytometry to screen patients for X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency. (United States)

    Marsh, Rebecca A; Bleesing, Jack J; Filipovich, Alexandra H


    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that is most often caused by mutations in SH2D1A, the gene encoding signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM)-associated protein (SAP). XLP caused by SAP deficiency is most often characterized by fulminant mononucleosis/EBV- associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), lymphoma, and dysgammaglobulinemia. XLP has also been found to be caused by mutations in BIRC4, the gene encoding X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). Patients with XIAP deficiency often present with HLH or recurrent HLH, which may or may not be associated with EBV. XLP is prematurely lethal in the majority of cases. While genetic sequencing can provide a genetic diagnosis of XLP, a more rapid means of diagnosis of XLP is desirable. Rapid diagnosis is especially important in the setting of HLH, as this may hasten the initiation of life-saving medical treatments and expedite preparations for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Flow cytometry offers a means to quickly screen patients for XLP. Flow cytometry can be used to measure lymphocyte SAP or XIAP protein expression, and can also be used to observe lymphocyte phenotypes and functional defects that are unique to XLP. This review will give a brief overview of the clinical manifestations and molecular basis of SAP deficiency and XIAP deficiency, and will focus on the use of flow cytometry for diagnosis of XLP. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling the flow and the two-phase science of heat inside a cross-section tube of a `once through` vapor generator overheated with sodium; Modelisation de l`ecoulement et de la thermique double phase a l`interieur d`un tube droit de generateur de vapeur `once-through` a surchauffe chauffe au sodium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutelle, H


    Concerning the future fast neutrons reactors, studied in the frame of the European Fast Reactor (E.F.R.) project, several innovations have been proposed particularly in the field of vapor generators. These vapor generators have the particularity to use two different exchange fluids which can react violently one with the other. The thermodynamic fluid or secondary fluid is water under high pressure (18.5 MPa) which comes under saturated in the inlet of the device, warms and vaporizes inside the nest of boiler-tubes. At the outlet, vapor is overheated. The primary fluid is a liquid metal (sodium for French reactors) which flows outside the nest of boiler-tubes in the opposite direction of the secondary fluid. Several vapor generators models have been carried out. Concerning the European Fast Reactor project, the tubes have a cross-section and are in ferritic steel. Inside the boiler-tubes, the water-vapor flow can be divided into three areas. The first one is the liquid monophasic rate. It ends by the start of the boiling which is nucleated in the shell. Downstream, the two-phase flow passes from a bubbles flow to an annular flow. The liquid is then on the form of shell film and on the form of droplets carried along by the vapor flux. The dryout of the annular film is the start of the third area where there is vapor forced convection. At the present time, there is still no thermohydraulic code in the conditions of the E.F.R. vapor generator. In order to have a reliable size tool, the members of the E.F.R. project have then decided to do a two-phase flow model and have experimented a mono tubular scale model called ``ATLAS`` which represents well the real component for size, fluids and running conditions. The aim of the present work is then, in the frame of this experimental program, to 1)qualify the heat exchange and friction laws which will be later introduced in the thermohydraulic codes of cross-sections vapor generators 2)characterize the dryout phenomenon 3

  2. Fast screening of lovastatin in red yeast rice products by flow injection tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Song, Fenhong; El-Demerdash, Aref; Lee, Shwn-Ji Susie H; Smith, Robert E


    Drug adulteration in dietary supplement materials is a world-wide problem and poses a regulatory challenge. Red yeast rice is a product used by consumers to lower blood levels of cholesterol. While most current methods to analyze red yeast rice are based on HPLC separation with a photo-diode array detector and/or a mass spectrometry detector, which takes 20-40min analysis time per sample, we developed a method to do fast screening of the active compound lovastatin by direct infusion into a mass spectrometer. This method takes under 1min per analysis on the instrument. By using multiple reaction monitoring with five product ions, all the ion ratios of the analyte in the samples are compared with those from the standards for qualitative analysis. The results from this method were compared to the result from the liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, which uses retention time and one ion ratio as the confirmation criteria. No false positives or false negatives were found among the 12 samples tested. The method also seems to be effective in measuring the lovastatin in red yeast rice semi-quantitatively. This kind of method could be adapted to the screening of other dietary supplement products. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Simulating nectarine tree transpiration and dynamic water storage from responses of leaf conductance to light and sap flow to stem water potential and vapor pressure deficit. (United States)

    Paudel, Indira; Naor, Amos; Gal, Yoni; Cohen, Shabtai


    For isohydric trees mid-day water uptake is stable and depends on soil water status, reflected in pre-dawn leaf water potential (Ψpd) and mid-day stem water potential (Ψmd), tree hydraulic conductance and a more-or-less constant leaf water potential (Ψl) for much of the day, maintained by the stomata. Stabilization of Ψl can be represented by a linear relationship between canopy resistance (Rc) and vapor pressure deficit (D), and the slope (BD) is proportional to the steady-state water uptake. By analyzing sap flow (SF), meteorological and Ψmd measurements during a series of wetting and drying (D/W) cycles in a nectarine orchard, we found that for the range of Ψmd relevant for irrigated orchards the slope of the relationship of Rc to D, BD is a linear function of Ψmd. Rc was simulated using the above relationships, and its changes in the morning and evening were simulated using a rectangular hyperbolic relationship between leaf conductance and photosynthetic irradiance, fitted to leaf-level measurements. The latter was integrated with one-leaf, two-leaf and integrative radiation models, and the latter gave the best results. Simulated Rc was used in the Penman-Monteith equation to simulate tree transpiration, which was validated by comparing with SF from a separate data set. The model gave accurate estimates of diurnal and daily total tree transpiration for the range of Ψmds used in regular and deficit irrigation. Diurnal changes in tree water content were determined from the difference between simulated transpiration and measured SF. Changes in water content caused a time lag of 90-105 min between transpiration and SF for Ψmd between -0.8 and -1.55 MPa, and water depletion reached 3 l h(-1) before noon. Estimated mean diurnal changes in water content were 5.5 l day(-1) tree(-1) at Ψmd of -0.9 MPa and increased to 12.5 l day(-1) tree(-1) at -1.45 MPa, equivalent to 6.5 and 16.5% of daily tree water use, respectively. Sixteen percent

  4. Simulating the effect of slab features on vapor intrusion of crack entry. (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Pennell, Kelly G; Suuberg, Eric M


    In vapor intrusion screening models, a most widely employed assumption in simulating the entry of contaminant into a building is that of a crack in the building foundation slab. Some modelers employed a perimeter crack hypothesis while others chose not to identify the crack type. However, few studies have systematically investigated the influence on vapor intrusion predictions of slab crack features, such as the shape and distribution of slab cracks and related to this overall building foundation footprint size. In this paper, predictions from a three-dimensional model of vapor intrusion are used to compare the contaminant mass flow rates into buildings with different foundation slab crack features. The simulations show that the contaminant mass flow rate into the building does not change much for different assumed slab crack shapes and locations, and the foundation footprint size does not play a significant role in determining contaminant mass flow rate through a unit area of crack. Moreover, the simulation helped reveal the distribution of subslab contaminant soil vapor concentration beneath the foundation, and the results suggest that in most cases involving no biodegradation, the variation in subslab concentration should not exceed an order of magnitude, and is often significantly less than this.

  5. Growth Plate Flow and Metabolism Screening Using MR: A New Application for Specialized MR Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Rahbek, Ole

    Summary MR Apparent Diffusion Constant and Surface Tension Images can provide an overview of the cell metabolism and flow of the bone growth plate. This is a new application for specialized MR sequences. Introduction Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) can be used for studies of joint cartilage...... and compared. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Tension Images were also performed and analyzed. Finally, methylmethacrylate embedding histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine blue and safranin stains. Results MR ADC and Surface Tension Images are able to provide an overview...

  6. Screening of carcinoma metastasis by flow cytometry: A study of 238 cases. (United States)

    Acosta, Maria; Pereira, José; Arroz, Maria


    Malignant epithelial cells may be detected in different specimens, by immunophenotyping using flow cytometry (FCM). CD326 (epithelial-specific antigen, clone Ber-Ep4) was used to identify epithelial cells, CD45 to discriminate between leucocytes (positive for this antigen) and non-hematological cells (negative for this antigen), and CD33 to identify monocytes/macrophages. This combination is particularly useful in effusions to characterize large cells and distinguish between monocyte/macrophages (CD45+ CD33+ CD326-), mesothelial cells (CD45 ± (dim) CD33 - CD326-) and epithelial cells (CD45 - CD33 - CD326 +). We evaluated the efficiency of flow cytometry to detect malignant epithelial cells in 238 fresh samples, including effusions, lymph node biopsies, fine needle aspirates, bone marrow aspirates, cerebrospinal fluid, among others. These are specimens expected to lack epithelial cells. FCM results were then compared to the results of smear and cell block morphology, as well as immunocytochemistry on paraffin wax embedded cell blocks, when available. Final diagnosis was the gold standard and a very good sensitivity (96.7%) and specificity (99.3%) were obtained. We concluded that the detection of CD326 positive cells using FCM is strongly indicative of the presence of carcinoma cells. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2015 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  7. Detection of Total Phenol in Green and Black Teas by Flow Injection System and Unmodified Screen Printed Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Luiz de Mattos


    Full Text Available A flow injection system using an unmodified gold screen-printed electrode was employed for total phenol determination in black and green teas. In order to avoid passivation of the electrode surface due to the redox reaction, preoxidation of the sample was realized by hexacyanoferrate(III followed by addition of an EDTA solution. The complex formed in the presence of EDTA minimizes or avoids polymerization of the oxidized phenols. The previously filtered tea sample and hexacyanoferrate(III reagent were introduced simultaneously into two-carrier streams producing two reproducible zones. At confluence point, the pre-oxidation of the phenolic compounds occurs while this zone flows through the coiled reactor and receives the EDTA solution before phenol detection. The consumption of ferricyanide was monitorized at 360 mV versus Ag/AgCl and reflected the total amount of phenolic compounds present in the sample. Results were reported as gallic acid equivalents (GAEs. The proposed system is robust, versatile, environmentally-friendly (since the reactive is used only in the presence of the sample, and allows the analysis of about 35–40 samples per hour with detection limit = 1 mg/L without the necessity for surface cleaning after each measurement. Precise results are in agreement with those obtained by the Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  8. Mobile laminar air flow screen for additional operating room ventilation: reduction of intraoperative bacterial contamination during total knee arthroplasty. (United States)

    Sossai, D; Dagnino, G; Sanguineti, F; Franchin, F


    Surgical site infections are important complications in orthopedic surgery. A mobile laminar air flow (LAF) screen could represent a useful addition to an operating room (OR) with conventional turbulent air ventilation (12.5 air changes/h), as it could decrease the bacterial count near the operating field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate LAF efficacy at reducing bacterial contamination in the surgical area during 34 total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). The additional unit was used in 17 operations; the LAF was positioned beside the operating table between two of the surgeons, with the air flow directed towards the surgical area (wound). The whole team wore conventional OR clothing and the correct hygiene procedures and rituals were used. Bacterial air contamination (CFU/m(3)) was evaluated in the wound area in 17 operations with the LAF unit and 17 without the LAF unit. The LAF unit reduced the mean bacterial count in the wound area from 23.5 CFU/m(3) without the LAF to 3.5 CFU/m(3) with the LAF (P operations with LAF and six without LAF, particle counts were performed and the number of 0.5 μm particles was analyzed. The particle counts decreased significantly when the LAF unit was used (P = 0.003). When a mobile LAF unit was added to the standard OR ventilation, bacterial contamination of the wound area significantly decreased to below the accepted level for an ultraclean OR, preventing SSI infections.

  9. Growth Plate Flow and Metabolism Screening Using MR: A New Application for Specialized MR Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shiguetomi Medina, Juan Manuel; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Rahbek, Ole

    . Methods Four normal pig frozen tibiae were studied. Tomography, MR T1 and T2 sequences were performed and compared. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Surface Tension Images were also performed and analyzed. Finally, methylmethacrylate embedding histology was performed using hematoxylin-eosin, toluidine...... blue and safranin stains. Results MR ADC and Surface Tension Images are able to provide an overview of the cell metabolism measuring the movement and freedom of the water in the different tissues. These measurements can be interpretated as flow and metabolism respectively. Bony structures seen in high...... the structure and behavior of the growth plate to propose a standardized protocol for MRI ADC and Tension Surface Images. This should provide more information about growth disturbances causes and characteristics. MR Apparent Diffusion Constant and Surface Tension Images can provide an overview of the cell...

  10. Analysis and control of erosion by solid particles in the elements of the flow system of steam turbines; Analisis y control de erosion por particulas solidas en los elementos del sistema de flujo de turbinas de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazur Czerwiec, Zdzislaw; Campos Amezcua, Alfonso; Campos Amezcua, Rafael [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    The analysis of erosion by solid particles is presented of different elements of the flow channel of the steam turbines that operate in Mexico: nozzles, stop valves, blade bosses, labyrinth seals and rotor disc; using tools of of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In these main elements of turbines a strong problem of erosion was registered that threatens the reliable operation of the turbines, its availability and its optimal yield. With base on the results of the numerical analyses, the design modifications of the different elements were developed from the flow channel of the steam turbines, in order to reduce the erosion and thus diminishing the energy losses and increasing the steam turbine efficiency. This work presents the main benefits that the Thermoelectric Power Plants obtain with the reduction of the erosion by solid particles that affect the critical components of steam turbines: extension of the period between maintenance, replacement of components, reduction of operation and maintenance costs of the turbines, and extension of the useful life of the main components. [Spanish] Se presenta el analisis de erosion por particulas solidas de diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor que operan en Mexico: toberas, valvula de paro, tetones de los alabes, sellos de laberinto y disco del rotor; utilizando herramientas de Dinamica de Fluidos Computacional (DFC). En estos elementos principales de turbinas se registro un fuerte problema de erosion que amenaza la operacion confiable de las turbinas, su disponibilidad y su rendimiento optimo. Con base en los resultados de los analisis numericos, se desarrollaron las modificaciones de diseno de los diferentes elementos del canal de flujo de las turbinas de vapor, con el proposito de reducir la erosion y asi, disminuir las perdidas de energia e incrementar el rendimiento de las turbinas de vapor. Este trabajo presenta los principales beneficios que obtienen las Centrales Termoelectricas con la

  11. Tools for diagnosis, monitoring and screening of Schistosoma infections utilizing lateral-flow based assays and upconverting phosphor labels. (United States)

    Corstjens, Paul L A M; De Dood, Claudia J; Kornelis, Dieuwke; Fat, Elisa M Tjon Kon; Wilson, R Alan; Kariuki, Thomas M; Nyakundi, Ruth K; Loverde, Philip T; Abrams, William R; Tanke, Hans J; Van Lieshout, Lisette; Deelder, André M; Van Dam, Govert J


    The potential of various quantitative lateral flow (LF) based assays utilizing up-converting phosphor (UCP) reporters for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis is reviewed including recent developments. Active infections are demonstrated by screening for the presence of regurgitated worm antigens (genus specific polysaccharides), whereas anti-Schistosoma antibodies may indicate ongoing as well as past infections. The circulating anodic antigen (CAA) in serum or urine (and potentially also saliva) is identified as the marker that may allow detection of single-worm infections. Quantitation of antigen levels is a reliable method to study effects of drug administration, worm burden and anti-fecundity mechanisms. Moreover, the ratio of CAA and circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) is postulated to facilitate identification of either Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium infections. The UCP-LF assays allow simultaneous detection of multiple targets on a single strip, a valuable feature for antibody detection assays. Although antibody detection in endemic regions is not a useful tool to diagnose active infections, it gains potential when the ratio of different classes of antibody specific for the parasite/disease can be determined. The UCP-LF antibody assay format allows this type of multiplexing, including testing a linear array of up to 20 different targets. Multiple test spots would allow detection of specific antibodies, e.g. against different Schistosoma species or other pathogens as soil-transmitted helminths. Concluding, the different UCP-LF based assays for diagnosis of schistosomiasis provide a collection of tests with relatively low complexity and high sensitivity, covering the full range of diagnostics needed in control programmes for mapping, screening and monitoring.

  12. Flows and Heat Exchange in a Geothermal Bed in the Process of Extraction of a Vapor-Water Mixture from It (United States)

    Ramazanov, M. M.; Alkhasova, D. A.; Abasov, G. M.


    With the use of the finite-difference method, a nonstationary nonlinear problem on the heat and mass transfer in a geothermal bed in the process of extraction of a vapor-water mixture from it was solved numerically with regard for the heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks. The results obtained were analyzed and compared with the results of earlier investigations. It was established that the heat exchange between the bed and its roof and bottom influences the heat and mass transfer in the neighborhood of a producing well in it. It is shown that this heat exchange increases somewhat the pressure (temperature) of the phase transition of the heat-transfer medium and changes its saturation with water. At the stage of stationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, this change leads to a decrease in the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium, i.e., to an additional evaporation of water from it. However, at the stage of substantially nonstationary heat and mass transfer in the bed, the pattern is more complex: within certain time intervals, the heat exchange in separate regions of the bed decreases the content of vapor in the heat-transfer medium (increases its saturation with water). Moreover, in both the cases of absence and presence of heat exchange between the bed and the surrounding rocks, the distributions of the water saturation of the heat-transfer medium in the bed executes damped oscillations and, in so doing, approaches the stationary state.

  13. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)


    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  14. The role of flow visualization in the study of high-angle-of-attack aerodynamics (United States)

    Nelson, Robert C.

    The flow around a slender aerodynamic shape, such as guided missile, is characterized by large regions of flow separation at high angles of attack; these regions may contain highly organized vortical flow structures which may be symmetric or asymmetric, steady or unsteady, or even devoid of coherent vortex structure (in which case the wake is entirely turbulent). Attention is presently given to flow visualization experiments that illuminate these aerodynamic conditions, employing schlieren, vapor screen, surface flow visualization, smoke streakline, smoke boundary layer, flow mapping, and hydrodynamic methods.

  15. Establish an automated flow injection ESI-MS method for the screening of fragment based libraries: Application to Hsp90. (United States)

    Riccardi Sirtori, Federico; Caronni, Dannica; Colombo, Maristella; Dalvit, Claudio; Paolucci, Mauro; Regazzoni, Luca; Visco, Carlo; Fogliatto, Gianpaolo


    ESI-MS is a well established technique for the study of biopolymers (nucleic acids, proteins) and their non covalent adducts, due to its capacity to detect ligand-target complexes in the gas phase and allows inference of ligand-target binding in solution. In this article we used this approach to investigate the interaction of ligands to the Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90). This enzyme is a molecular chaperone involved in the folding and maturation of several proteins which has been subjected in the last years to intensive drug discovery efforts due to its key role in cancer. In particular, reference compounds, with a broad range of dissociation constants from 40pM to 100μM, were tested to assess the reliability of ESI-MS for the study of protein-ligand complexes. A good agreement was found between the values measured with a fluorescence polarization displacement assay and those determined by mass spectrometry. After this validation step we describe the setup of a medium throughput screening method, based on ESI-MS, suitable to explore interactions of therapeutic relevance biopolymers with chemical libraries. Our approach is based on an automated flow injection ESI-MS method (AFI-MS) and has been applied to screen the Nerviano Medical Sciences proprietary fragment library of about 2000 fragments against Hsp90. In order to discard false positive hits and to discriminate those of them interacting with the N-terminal ATP binding site, competition experiments were performed using a reference inhibitor. Gratifyingly, this group of hits matches with the ligands previously identified by NMR FAXS techniques and confirmed by X-ray co-crystallization experiments. These results support the use of AFI-MS for the screening of medium size libraries, including libraries of small molecules with low affinity typically used in fragment based drug discovery. AFI-MS is a valid alternative to other techniques with the additional opportunities to identify compounds interacting with

  16. Development of a screened cathode gas flow proportional counter for in situ field determination of alpha contamination in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S.P.


    This study resulted in the design, construction and testing of a gas flow proportional counter for in-situ determination of soil contamination. The uniqueness of this detector is the screened material used for the cathode. A Pu-239 source of 0.006 {micro}Ci was mounted to the outside of the cathode to simulate radioactive soil. The detector probe was placed into a laboratory mock-up and tested to determine operating voltage, efficiency and energy resolution. Two gas flow proportional counters were built and tested. The detectors are cylindrical, each with a radius of 1.905 cm, having an anode wire with a radius of 0.0038 cm. The length of the smaller detector`s anode was 2.54 cm, and the length of the larger detector`s anode was 7.64 cm. Therefore, the active volumes were 28.96 cm{sup 3} and 87.10 cm{sup 3}, respectively, for the small and large detector. An operating voltage of 1,975 volts was determined to be sufficient for both detectors. The average efficiency was 2.59 {+-} 0.12% and 76.71 {+-} 10.81% for the small volume and large volume detectors, respectively. The average energy resolution for the low-energy peak of the small detector was 4.24 {+-} 1.28% and for the large-energy peak was 1.37 {+-} 0.66%. The large detectors` energy resolution was 17.75 {+-} 3.74%. The smaller detector, with better energy resolution, exhibited a bi-modal spectrum, whereas the larger detector`s spectrum centered around a single broad peak.

  17. Stable and sensitive flow-through monitoring of phenol using a carbon nanotube based screen printed biosensor (United States)

    Alarcón, G.; Guix, M.; Ambrosi, A.; Ramirez Silva, M. T.; Palomar Pardave, M. E.; Merkoçi, A.


    A stable and sensitive biosensor for phenol detection based on a screen printed electrode modified with tyrosinase, multiwall carbon nanotubes and glutaraldehyde is designed and applied in a flow injection analytical system. The proposed carbon nanotube matrix is easy to prepare and ensures a very good entrapment environment for the enzyme, being simpler and cheaper than other reported strategies. In addition, the proposed matrix allows for a very fast operation of the enzyme, that leads to a response time of 15 s. Several parameters such as the working potential, pH of the measuring solution, biosensor response time, detection limit, linear range of response and sensitivity are studied. The obtained detection limit for phenol was 0.14 × 10 - 6 M. The biosensor keeps its activity during continuous FIA measurements at room temperature, showing a stable response (RSD 5%) within a two week working period at room temperature. The developed biosensor is being applied for phenol detection in seawater samples and seems to be a promising alternative for automatic control of seawater contamination. The developed detection system can be extended to other enzyme biosensors with interest for several other applications.

  18. The one year outcome after KTP laser vaporization of the prostate according to the calculated vaporized volume. (United States)

    Ku, Ja Hyeon; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Sung Yong; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung


    The aim of this study was to develop a new simple method for measuring the vaporized volume and to evaluate the outcome of high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization. A total of 65 patients, with a mean age of 67.7 yr (range 53 to 85), were included in the primary analysis. The vaporized volume was calculated as the pre-operative volume minus the immediate post-operative volume plus the volume of the defect. For all patients, the subjective and objective parameters improved significantly after surgery. Six and 12 months after surgery, the group with a smaller vaporized volume (vaporized volume (>or=15 g). There were no differences in the change of the maximum flow rate and post-void residual based on the vaporized volume. Our findings suggest that the subjective improvement, after a high-power KTP laser vaporization, may be dependent on the vaporized volume obtained after the procedure.

  19. Elaborating equations of state of a liquid and its vapor for two-phase flow models; Elaboration des lois d'etat d'un liquide et de sa vapeur pour les modeles d'ecoulements diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Metayer, O.; Massoni, J. [Polytech Marseille, UMR CNRS 6595, Universite Aix-Marseille I, Technopole de Chateau Gombert, 5, rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Projet SMASH, INRIA, 2004, route des Lucioles, 06902 Sophia Antipolis (France); Saurel, R. [Polytech Marseille, UMR CNRS 6595, Universite Aix-Marseille I, Technopole de Chateau Gombert, 5, rue E. Fermi, 13453 Marseille cedex 13 (France); Projet SMASH, INRIA, 2004, route des Lucioles, 06902 Sophia Antipolis (France); Institut Universitaire de France (France)


    Some two-phase flow models have shown an excellent ability for the resolution of a wide class of applications ranging from interface problems to mixtures with several velocities. These models account for waves propagation (acoustic and convective) and consist in hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. In this context, each phase is compressible and necessitates the knowledge of an appropriate pure fluid equation of state. The literature abounds in equations of state (Van der Waals for example) that consider the phases as a mixture and not as a separated phases flow in thermodynamical non-equilibrium, which makes them unsuited to such models. Moreover, their formulation leads to ill-posed problems for thermodynamic states inside the saturation dome (speed of sound squared is negative). In the present approach, each fluid is governed by a 'Stiffened Gas' EOS (3). Its particularly simple analytical form allows explicit mathematical calculations of important flow relations which are at the centre of theoretical analysis and building of modern numerical methods (acoustic properties, Riemann problems, reactive Riemann solvers,...) while retaining with a high accuracy the main physical properties of the matter (attractive and repulsive molecular effects). The determination of the corresponding parameters is complexified when the liquid is in presence of its vapor. In this case, the EOS parameters of each phase are strongly linked. The determination of the analytical forms of the EOS and their associated coefficients for miscible and non-miscible fluids is the subject of this article. (authors)

  20. Vapor degreasing system (United States)

    du Fresne, Eugene R. (Inventor)


    A vapor degreasing method and apparatus wherein a second cooling coil is used to prevent escape of solvent or solvent vapor from a degreaser. Gaseous refrigerant from the second coil can be released to the freeboard space above the solvent vapor zone to provide a barrier layer.

  1. GeoSteamNet: A computer code to simulate geothermal steam flow in a pipeline network; GeoSteamNet: Programa de computo para simular el flujo de vapor geotermico de una red de vaporductos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma P., Mahendra; Aragon A., Alfonso [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail:; Ruiz L., Alejando; Mendoza C., Alfredo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Campo Geotermico Los Azufres, Campamento Agua Fria, Michoacan (Mexico)


    A computer package, GeoSteamNet, was developed to simulate steam transport in a pipeline network of a geothermal field. The fluid motion is governed by the following basic principles: conservation of mass, linear momentum principle (Newton's second law or the Navier Stokes equations), and the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The second law of thermodynamics defines the direction of a spontaneous process, which is indirectly validated in the algorithm as vapor flows from high-to-low pressure, and heat flows from high-to-low temperatures. The nonlinear equations are solved with the Newton-Raphson method. Using the ActiveX component OrificeMeter, the steam-flow balance was calculated for power plants U-15 and U-16 in Los Azufres Geothermal Field, Mich., in February 2009. U-15 was fed by the production wells AZ-04, AZ-28, AZ-30, AZ-65D, and AZ-66, whereas wells AZ-28A, AZ-45, AZ-56, AZ-67, AZ-69D were connected to U-16. The analytical error is within {+-}4%, which is acceptable for practical purposes for steam-supply management, considering the uncertainties in parameters, such as pressure, temperature, pressure fluctuation at the wellhead, etc. The steam simulation results by GeoSteamNet for a hypothetical-pipeline network in a geothermal system with two production wells and a power plant illustrate its functionality. Several points need to be emphasized. For a specific geometry-pipeline network, there is only a certain amount of mass (vapor) that can be transported at a given pressure at the wellheads and the power plant. The construction and modification of a pipeline network is very expensive and the production of geothermal wells depends on many natural factors; therefore, there is need to conduct a tolerance study for each component of the network. A simulation study of the virtual-pipeline network for the design of a geothermal power plant can save money, effort, and time. [Spanish] Se desarrollo un paquete de computo, GeoSteamNet, para simular el

  2. Dynamic water vapor and temperature calibration system. (United States)

    Montague, F W; Primiano, F P; Saidel, G M


    The objective evaluation of thermal and humidification processes in the pulmonary system requires accurate dynamic measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration of a flowing gas mixture. The adequacy of instruments used for such measurements can only be determined by dynamic calibration techniques. We have developed a method of producing step changes in temperature and water vapor content of a gas mixture undergoing controlled steady flow. The system consists of two reservoirs and a slide valve that switches a test section between them. The inlet (usually a probe or catheter tip) of the device to be calibrated is positioned in the test section. The flow rate through the test section is minimally changed during the transition between gas from one reservoir to that of the other. The system has been used to analyze the response of a thermistor and a respiratory mass spectrometer to changes in gas temperature and water vapor.

  3. A planar Mie scattering technique for visualizing supersonic mixing flows (United States)

    Clemens, N. T.; Mungal, M. G.


    A planar Mie scattering technique is described which allows for the direct visualization of fluid mixing in supersonic flows. The mixed fluid is visualized by laser light sheet scattering from small alcohol droplets which condense as a result of the mixing of a vapor laden subsonic stream with a cold supersonic stream. Issues related to the formation, growth and size of the droplets are addressed. The technique reveals details of the turbulent structure which are masked by the spatial integration of schlieren and shadowgraph methods. Comparative visualizations using the vapor screen method to uniformly mark the high-speed fluid are also shown.

  4. An automated flow calorimeter for the determination of liquid and vapor isobaric heat capacities: Test results for water and n -pentane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandarusi, J.A. (National Institute of Science and Technology, Thermophysics Division, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)); Mulia, K.; Yesavage, V.F. (Colorado School of Mines, Chemical Engineering Department, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States))


    An automated flow calorimeter has been developed for the measurement of highly accurate isobaric heat capacities and enthalpies of fluids at elevated temperatures and pressures. The instrument was successfully tested over the range 300--600 K and 0--12 MPa and is readily extensible to 700 K and 30 MPa. The flow calorimeter relied on an adiabatic design with a two-chambered cell design incorporating several concentric shells of active and passive shields designed to minimize heat losses, facilitate easy component replacement, and eliminate any external temperature regulation baths. A pair of miniature standard platinum resistance thermometers were built to determine the differential calorimeter temperatures. A precision metering pump eliminated the need for direct mass flow-rate determinations while a complete automation system supplied all of the required data acquisition, monitoring, and control (except for pressure) resources necessary to operate the calorimeter and make measurements from a single personal computer. Measurements of isobaric heat capacities were performed on water (liq.) and {ital n}-pentane (liq. and vap.) to test the new calorimeter. These experiments compared well with the published values, indicating an overall measurement precision of 0.1% and uncertainty in the range of 0.2%--0.3%. The total calorimeter heat leak was small affecting the experimental uncertainty as much as the combined mass flow-rate and calorimeter temperature difference errors.

  5. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Flow er en positiv, koncentreret tilstand, hvor al opmærksomhed er samlet om en bestemt aktivitet, som er så krævende og engagerende, at man må anvende mange mentale ressourcer for at klare den. Tidsfornemmelsen forsvinder, og man glemmer sig selv. 'Flow' er den første af en række udsendelser om...

  6. Vaporization chambers and associated methods (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.


    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  7. Chemical agent simulant release from clothing following vapor exposure. (United States)

    Feldman, Robert J


    Most ambulatory victims of a terrorist chemical attack will have exposure to vapor only. The study objective was to measure the duration of chemical vapor release from various types of clothing. A chemical agent was simulated using methyl salicylate (MeS), which has similar physical properties to sulfur mustard and was the agent used in the U.S. Army's Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST). Vapor concentration was measured with a Smiths Detection Advanced Portable Detector (APD)-2000 unit. The clothing items were exposed to vapor for 1 hour in a sealed cabinet; vapor concentration was measured at the start and end of each exposure. Clothing was then removed and assessed every 5 minutes with the APD-2000, using a uniform sweep pattern, until readings remained 0. Concentration and duration of vapor release from clothing varied with clothing composition and construction. Lightweight cotton shirts and jeans had the least trapped vapor; down outerwear, the most. Vapor concentration near the clothing often increased for several minutes after the clothing was removed from the contaminated environment. Compression of thick outerwear released additional vapor. Mean times to reach 0 ranged from 7 minutes for jeans to 42 minutes for down jackets. This simulation model of chemical vapor release demonstrates persistent presence of simulant vapor over time. This implies that chemical vapor may be released from the victims' clothing after they are evacuated from the site of exposure, resulting in additional exposure of victims and emergency responders. Insulated outerwear can release additional vapor when handled. If a patient has just moved to a vapor screening point, immediate assessment before additional vapor can be released from the clothing can lead to a false-negative assessment of contamination.

  8. Application of hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation to the preparation of industrial effluent samples prior to free and total cyanide determinations by spectrophotometric flow injection analysis. (United States)

    Quaresma, Maria Cristina Baptista; de Carvalho, Maria de Fátima Batista; Meirelles, Francis Assis; Santiago, Vânia Maria Junqueira; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal


    A sample preparation procedure for the quantitative determination of free and total cyanides in industrial effluents has been developed that involves hydrocyanic acid vapor generation via focused microwave radiation. Hydrocyanic acid vapor was generated from free cyanides using only 5 min of irradiation time (90 W power) and a purge time of 5 min. The HCN generated was absorbed into an accepting NaOH solution using very simple glassware apparatus that was appropriate for the microwave oven cavity. After that, the cyanide concentration was determined within 90 s using a well-known spectrophotometric flow injection analysis system. Total cyanide analysis required 15 min irradiation time (90 W power), as well as chemical conditions such as the presence of EDTA-acetate buffer solution or ascorbic acid, depending on the effluent to be analyzed (petroleum refinery or electroplating effluents, respectively). The detection limit was 0.018 mg CN l(-1) (quantification limit of 0.05 mg CN l(-1)), and the measured RSD was better than 8% for ten independent analyses of effluent samples (1.4 mg l(-1) cyanide). The accuracy of the procedure was assessed via analyte spiking (with free and complex cyanides) and by performing an independent sample analysis based on the standard methodology recommended by the APHA for comparison. The sample preparation procedure takes only 10 min for free and 20 min for total cyanide, making this procedure much faster than traditional methodologies (conventional heating and distillation), which are time-consuming (they require at least 1 h). Samples from oil (sour and stripping tower bottom waters) and electroplating effluents were analyzed successfully.

  9. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)


    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  10. Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoop, Hans Henrik


    FLOW. Orden i hovedet på den fede måde Oplevelsesmæssigt er flow-tilstanden kendetegnet ved at man er fuldstændig involveret, fokuseret og koncentreret; at man oplever stor indre klarhed ved at vide hvad der skal gøres, og i hvilket omfang det lykkes; at man ved at det er muligt at løse opgaven...

  11. Experimental Study Of Flow Field Of An Aerofoil Shaped Diffuser With A Porous Screen Simulating The Rotor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, J.; Avallone, F.; van Bussel, G.J.W.


    This study presents an experimental investigation on a diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT). A screen mesh is used to simulate the energy extraction mechanisms of a wind turbine in experiment. Different screen porosities corresponding to different turbine loading coefficients are tested.

  12. Screening procedures for clenbuterol residue determination in raw swine livers using lateral-flow assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (United States)

    Lai, Wei H; Fung, Daniel Y C; Xu, Yang; Xiong, Yong H


    Clenbuterol, which may cause symptoms of increased heart rate, muscular tremors, headache, nausea, and muscular cramps in patients, has been prohibited for consumption in many countries including the European Union, the United States, and China. A rapid lateral-flow strip assay was developed in our laboratory, and results obtained with this assay were compared with those obtained with a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit for the screening of clenbuterol in raw swine liver. A total of 128 swine livers were acquired from five local markets and prepared for analysis by the lateral-flow strip assay and ELISA. Analysis was completed in 10 min with the lateral-flow strip assay and in 90 min with the ELISA. In parallel with the ELISA, the rapid detection strip produced no false-negative results but had a false-positive rate of 6.3%. Cross-reactivity of the strip was assessed and was negative after tests with clenbuterol analogues such as terbutaline, salbutamol, ractopamine, ritodrine, and fenoterol. These data suggest that a lateral-flow strip assay can be used safely as a screening method as part of a clenbuterol residue surveillance program and should be a valuable tool in the food safety field, especially in developing countries.

  13. A screening test for capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper: a study for diagnosis of hyposalivation with a complaint of dry mouth. (United States)

    Kanehira, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomotaka; Asano, Kozo; Morita, Manabu; Maeshima, Etsuko; Matsuda, Akemi; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Wataru


    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple screening technique for diagnosis of hyposalivation with dry mouth by estimation of capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper. An assay system comprising 5 spots containing starch and potassium iodide on filter paper incorporating or without capsaicin and a coloring reagent was designed. We investigated whether the number of colored spots using the filter paper incorporating capsaicin could distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with hyposalivation and dry mouth. In the healthy group (>200 μL/min; n = 33), the capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow significantly increased as compared with the resting salivary flow, from 1.2 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.3 colored spots (P hyposalivation group with dry mouth (hyposalivation with dry mouth. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Test technique development in interference free testing, flow visualization, and remote control model technology at Langley's Unitary Plan wind tunnel (United States)

    Corlett, W. A.


    A metric half-span model is considered as a means of mechanical support for a wind-tunnel model which allows measurement of aerodynamic forces and moments without support interference or model distortion. This technique can be applied to interference-free propulsion models. The vapor screen method of flow visualization at supersonic Mach numbers is discussed. The use of smoke instead of water vapor as a medium to produce the screen is outlined. Vapor screen data are being used in the development of analytical vortex tracking programs. Test results for a remote control model system are evaluated. Detailed control effectiveness and cross-coupling data were obtained with a single run. For the afterbody tail configuration, tested control boundaries at several roll orientations were established utilizing the facility's on-line capability to 'fly' the model in the wind tunnel.

  15. Vapor Pressure of Bis-(2-chloroethyl)ethylamine (HN1) (United States)


    The spectra that were obtained to compute the vapor-phase absorptivity coefficient showed traces of water vapor that purged during the first day of... barometer . Bath temperature, gas flow rate, and ambient pressure were recorded at 4 s intervals using a National Instruments (Austin, TX) LabVIEW

  16. Abnormal Ductus Venosus Flow and Tricuspid Regurgitation at 11–14 Weeks' Gestation have High Positive Predictive Values for Increased Risk in First-Trimester Combined Screening Test: Results of a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Ozkaya


    Conclusion: Determination of DV flow and TR as initial markers in unselected pregnancies merits further investigation, as the combination of these parameters might reliably predict an increased risk in combined screening test result, with low false positivity.

  17. Physical model for vaporization


    Garai, Jozsef


    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  18. Clinical flow cytometric screening of SAP and XIAP expression accurately identifies patients with SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4 mutations. (United States)

    Gifford, Carrie E; Weingartner, Elizabeth; Villanueva, Joyce; Johnson, Judith; Zhang, Kejian; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Bleesing, Jack J; Marsh, Rebecca A


    X-linked lymphoproliferative disease is caused by mutations in two genes, SH2D1A and XIAP/BIRC4. Flow cytometric methods have been developed to detect the gene products, SAP and XIAP. However, there is no literature describing the accuracy of flow cytometric screening performed in a clinical lab setting. We reviewed the clinical flow cytometric testing results for 656 SAP and 586 XIAP samples tested during a 3-year period. Genetic testing was clinically performed as directed by the managing physician in 137 SAP (21%) and 115 XIAP (20%) samples. We included these samples for analyses of flow cytometric test accuracy. SH2D1A mutations were detected in 15/137 samples. SAP expression was low in 13/15 (sensitivity 87%, CI 61-97%). Of the 122 samples with normal sequencing, SAP was normal in 109 (specificity 89%, CI 82-94%). The positive predictive values (PPVs) and the negative predictive values (NPVs) were 50% and 98%, respectively. XIAP/BIRC4 mutations were detected in 19/115 samples. XIAP expression was low in 18/19 (sensitivity 95%, CI 73-100%). Of the 96 samples with normal sequencing, 59 had normal XIAP expression (specificity 61%, CI 51-71%). The PPVs and NPVs were 33% and 98%, respectively. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was able to improve the specificity to 75%. Clinical flow cytometric screening tests for SAP and XIAP deficiencies offer good sensitivity and specificity for detecting genetic mutations, and are characterized by high NPVs. We recommend these tests for patients suspected of having X-linked lymphoproliferative disease type 1 (XLP1) or XLP2. © 2014 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  19. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization (United States)

    Bull, Joseph


    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  20. Simulation and analysis of the tangential flow in the combustion chamber of a steam generator; Simulacion y analisis del flujo tangencial en la camara de combustion de un generador de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Ramirez, Isaias


    supplying ducts, were obtained, with a maximum discrepancy of 5.5 m/s between the data published by McKenty and Gravel (1997) and this analysis, for the case of combustion gases in the interior of the furnace. Temperature profiles were obtained, which were overestimated in the order of 417 Celsius degrees for the case of the temperature of gases in the center of the combustion chamber, when comparing them with the corresponding ones obtained by McKenty and Gravel (1997). It is speculated that this discrepancy must to be due to the omission of the connection of the radiation model to the global computational model and; the contours of concentration of species for the combustion products in the chamber were considered (carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen), obtaining only the qualitative behavior of these. It is proposed as conclusion that the computational model developed in this thesis work can be used for the estimation of flow of fluids patterns, heat transference and transference of mass of a steam generator VU-60 of the tangential type and similar to the one taken as a base for this analysis. One improvement to the computational model developed could be achieved including the radiation effect, which requires a larger memory capacity of the computer hardware than the one available during the elaboration of this thesis. [Espanol] El presente trabajo de tesis describe la simulacion y analisis de la camara de combustion de un generador de vapor VU-60 del tipo tangencial, el cual esta basado en la solucion de la ecuacion generalizada de transporte, empleando modelos matematicos desarrollados para la caracterizacion de fenomenos fisicos para cerrar los sistemas de ecuaciones gobernantes. Para la solucion de los modelos matematicos y ecuaciones gobernantes se empleo el metodo de volumen finito, el cual se basa en el concepto de volumen de control. Se desarrollo un modelo computacional tridimensional por medio del cual se estimaron los perfiles de velocidad, presion, temperatura

  1. Effects of Passive Porosity on Interacting Vortex Flows at Supersonic Speeds (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.


    A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPW7) to determine the effects of passive surface porosity on vortex flow interactions about a general research fighter configuration at supersonic speeds. Optical flow measurement and flow visualization techniques were used and included pressure-sensitive paint (PSP), schlieren, and laser vapor screen (LVS). These techniques were combined with force and moment and conventional electronically-scanned pressure (ESP) measurements to quantify and to visualize the effects flow-through porosity applied to a wing leading-edge extension (LEX) mounted to a 65 deg cropped delta wing model.

  2. Desflurane consumption during automated closed-circuit delivery is higher than when a conventional anesthesia machine is used with a simple vaporizer-O2-N2O fresh gas flow sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosnowski Maurice


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Zeus® (Dräger, Lübeck, Germany, an automated closed-circuit anesthesia machine, uses high fresh gas flows (FGF to wash-in the circuit and the lungs, and intermittently flushes the system to remove unwanted N2. We hypothesized this could increase desflurane consumption to such an extent that agent consumption might become higher than with a conventional anesthesia machine (Anesthesia Delivery Unit [ADU®], GE, Helsinki, Finland used with a previously derived desflurane-O2-N2O administration schedule that allows early FGF reduction. Methods Thirty-four ASA PS I or II patients undergoing plastic, urologic, or gynecologic surgery received desflurane in O2/N2O. In the ADU group (n = 24, an initial 3 min high FGF of O2 and N2O (2 and 4 L.min-1, respectively was used, followed by 0.3 L.min-1 O2 + 0.4 L.min-1 N2O. The desflurane vaporizer setting (FD was 6.5% for the first 15 min, and 5.5% during the next 25 min. In the Zeus group (n = 10, the Zeus® was used in automated closed circuit anesthesia mode with a selected end-expired (FA desflurane target of 4.6%, and O2/N2O as the carrier gases with a target inspired O2% of 30%. Desflurane FA and consumption during the first 40 min were compared using repeated measures one-way ANOVA. Results Age and weight did not differ between the groups (P > 0.05, but patients in the Zeus group were taller (P = 0.04. In the Zeus group, the desflurane FA was lower during the first 3 min (P 0.05, and slightly higher after 4 min (P A between the two groups. Conclusion Agent consumption with an automated closed-circuit anesthesia machine is higher than with a conventional anesthesia machine when the latter is used with a specific vaporizer-FGF sequence. Agent consumption during automated delivery might be further reduced by optimizing the algorithm(s that manages the initial FGF or by tolerating some N2 in the circuit to minimize the need for intermittent flushing.

  3. Vaporizers for medical marijuana. (United States)

    Mirken, B


    A major concern about the medical use of marijuana is the harmful effects that come from smoking it. Vaporizers are designed to release the active ingredients in marijuana without burning it, and therefore do not release the harmful substances found in the marijuana smoke. The Institute of Medicine recommends against the long-term medical use of smoked marijuana because of carcinogens and other chemicals in the smoke. Several vaporizers are on the market, but they have not been tested in the laboratory yet. A review of two vaporizers is given. Contact information is provided.

  4. A benchtop capillary flow layer-by-layer (CF-LbL) platform for rapid assembly and screening of biodegradable nanolayered films. (United States)

    Dong, Ziye; Tang, Ling; Ahrens, Caroline C; Ding, Zhenya; Cao, Vi; Castleberry, Steven; Yan, Jiangtao; Li, Wei


    Capillary flow layer-by-layer (CF-LbL) is a microfluidic platform for high throughput preparation and screening of nanolayered polymer films. Using a simple benchtop version of CF-LbL, we systematically studied the effects of various flow conditions and channel geometries on the thickness and surface roughness of the resulting films. We also investigated the biocompatibility and degradation behaviors of a series of enzymatically-degradable films made from naturally derived polymers, i.e. either alginate or hyaluronic acid as the anionic species and poly-l-arginine as the positive species. Furthermore, using one optimized film formulation for coating on the inside walls of a microfluidic chip, we successfully demonstrated the ability of this film to capture and rapidly release cancer cells from whole blood. This simple platform is expected to be a powerful tool to increase the accessibility of the LbL film assembly to a broader scientific community.

  5. Seamless integration of dose-response screening and flow chemistry: efficient generation of structure-activity relationship data of β-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors. (United States)

    Werner, Michael; Kuratli, Christoph; Martin, Rainer E; Hochstrasser, Remo; Wechsler, David; Enderle, Thilo; Alanine, Alexander I; Vogel, Horst


    Drug discovery is a multifaceted endeavor encompassing as its core element the generation of structure-activity relationship (SAR) data by repeated chemical synthesis and biological testing of tailored molecules. Herein, we report on the development of a flow-based biochemical assay and its seamless integration into a fully automated system comprising flow chemical synthesis, purification and in-line quantification of compound concentration. This novel synthesis-screening platform enables to obtain SAR data on b-secretase (BACE1) inhibitors at an unprecedented cycle time of only 1 h instead of several days. Full integration and automation of industrial processes have always led to productivity gains and cost reductions, and this work demonstrates how applying these concepts to SAR generation may lead to a more efficient drug discovery process. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. 46 CFR 154.546 - Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess flow valve: Closing flow. 154.546 Section 154.546... and Process Piping Systems § 154.546 Excess flow valve: Closing flow. (a) The rated closing flow of vapor or liquid cargo for an excess flow valve must be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b...

  7. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.


    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulation, and can increase the difficulty of obtaining a solution, especially when explicitly considering coupled oxygen transport and consumption. The models of contaminant building entry pathway are often coupled to calculations of indoor air contaminant concentration, and both are influenced by building construction and operational features. The description of entry pathway involves consideration of building foundation characteristics, while calculation of indoor air contaminant levels requires characterization of building enclosed space and air exchange within this. This review summarizes existing VI models, and discusses the limits of current screening tools commonly used in this field. PMID:23360069

  8. Second Vapor-Level Sensor For Vapor Degreaser (United States)

    Painter, Nance M.; Burley, Richard K.


    Second vapor-level sensor installed at lower level in vapor degreaser makes possible to maintain top of vapor at that lower level. Evaporation reduced during idle periods. Provides substantial benefit, without major capital cost of building new vapor degreaser with greater freeboard height.

  9. Feasibility of using of the second gradient theory for the direct numerical simulation of liquid-vapor flows with phase-change; Etude des potentialites de la theorie du second gradient pour la simulation numerique directe des ecoulements liquide-vapeur avec changement de phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamet, D. [CEA Grenoble, 38 (France). Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique]|[Ecole Centrale de Paris, 75 (France)


    One on the main difficulties encountered in the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows in general and of liquid-vapor flows with phase-change in particular, is the interface tracking. The idea developed in this work consists in modeling a liquid-vapor interface as a volumetric zone across which physical properties vary continuously instead of a discontinuous surface. The second gradient theory allows to establish the evolution equations of the fluid in the whole system: bulk phases and interfaces. That means that the resolution of a unique system of partial differential equations is necessary to determine the whole two-phase flow, the interfaces and their evolution in time being a part of the solution of this unique system. We show in this work that it is possible to artificially enlarge an interface without changing its surface tension and the latent heat of vaporization. That means than it is possible to track all the interfaces of a liquid-vapor two-phase flow with phase-change on a mesh the size of which is imposed by the smallest Kolmogorov scale of the bulk phases for example. The artificial enlargement of an interfacial zone is obtained by modifying the thermodynamic behavior of the fluid within the binodal. We show that this modification does not change the dynamics of an interface. However, although the thickness of an interface and its surface tension vary with the mass and heat fluxes that go though it, the thermodynamic modification necessary to the artificial enlargement of an interface drastically increases these variations. Consequently, the artificial enlargement of an interface must be made carefully to avoid a too much important variation of its surface tension during dynamic situations. (author) 60 refs.

  10. Vapor Control Layer Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.

  11. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  12. Dynamic headspace generation and quantitation of triacetone triperoxide vapor. (United States)

    Giordano, Braden C; Lubrano, Adam L; Field, Christopher R; Collins, Greg E


    Two methods for quantitation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) vapor using a programmable temperature vaporization (PTV) inlet coupled to a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) have been demonstrated. The dynamic headspace of bulk TATP was mixed with clean humid air to produce a TATP vapor stream. Sampling via a heated transfer line to a PTV inlet with a Tenax-TA™ filled liner allowed for direct injection of the vapor stream to a GC/MS for vapor quantitation. TATP was extracted from the vapor stream and subsequently desorbed from the PTV liner for splitless injection on the GC column. Calibration curves were prepared using solution standards with a standard split/splitless GC inlet for quantitation of the TATP vapor. Alternatively, vapor was sampled onto a Tenax-TA™ sample tube and placed into a thermal desorption system. In this instance, vapor was desorbed from the tube and subsequently trapped on a liquid nitrogen cooled PTV inlet. Calibration curves for this method were prepared from direct liquid injection of standards onto samples tube with the caveat that a vacuum is applied to the tube during deposition to ensure that the volatile TATP penetrates into the tube. Vapor concentration measurements, as determined by either GC/MS analysis or mass gravimetry of the bulk TATP, were statistically indistinguishable. Different approaches to broaden the TATP vapor dynamic range, including diluent air flow, sample chamber temperature, sample vial orifice size, and sample size are discussed. Vapor concentrations between 50 and 5400ngL(-1) are reported, with stable vapor generation observed for as long as 60 consecutive hours. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic vaporizer. (United States)

    Hahn, C E; Palayiwa, E; Sugg, B R; Lindsay-Scott, D


    A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic vaporizer is described. Fresh gas is mixed in the correct proportions using two pulsed solenoid valves and a proportion of this passes through a third pulsed solenoid valve and is bubbled through liquid halothane. The temperature of the liquid agent is measured and the pulse frequency is modified to give the correct vapour concentration for the set flow rate and measured temperature. Initially, the vapour was produced by bubbling fresh gas through the agent in a conventional halothane bottle. However, because of the large liquid volume available, nitrous oxide was found to dissolve in large quantities in the halothane. A small volume vaporizer which was continually replenished from a reservoir was designed. Measurements of the vapour concentrations emerging from such a vaporizer were made and were found to agree with the set values +/- 0.1% v/v.

  14. A Rapid Screening Analysis of Antioxidant Compounds in Native Australian Food Plants Using Multiplexed Detection with Active Flow Technology Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Janaka Rochana Rupesinghe


    Full Text Available Conventional techniques for identifying antioxidant and phenolic compounds in native Australian food plants are laborious and time-consuming. Here, we present a multiplexed detection technique that reduces analysis time without compromising separation performance. This technique is achieved using Active Flow Technology-Parallel Segmented Flow (AFT-PSF columns. Extracts from cinnamon myrtle (Backhousia myrtifolia and lemon myrtle (Backhousia citriodora leaves were analysed via multiplexed detection using an AFT-PSF column with underivatised UV-VIS, mass spectroscopy (MS, and the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• derivatisation for antioxidants as detection methods. A number of antioxidant compounds were detected in the extracts of each leaf extract.

  15. A flow cytometry-based screen of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins identifies NET4/Tmem53 as involved in stress-dependent cell cycle withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Korfali


    Full Text Available Disruption of cell cycle regulation is one mechanism proposed for how nuclear envelope protein mutation can cause disease. Thus far only a few nuclear envelope proteins have been tested/found to affect cell cycle progression: to identify others, 39 novel nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins were screened for their ability to alter flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles when exogenously expressed. Eight had notable effects with seven increasing and one decreasing the 4N:2N ratio. We subsequently focused on NET4/Tmem53 that lost its effects in p53(-/- cells and retinoblastoma protein-deficient cells. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown by siRNA altered flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles in a similar way as overexpression. NET4/TMEM53 knockdown did not affect total retinoblastoma protein levels, unlike nuclear envelope-associated proteins Lamin A and LAP2α. However, a decrease in phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein was observed along with a doubling of p53 levels and a 7-fold increase in p21. Consequently cells withdrew from the cell cycle, which was confirmed in MRC5 cells by a drop in the percentage of cells expressing Ki-67 antigen and an increase in the number of cells stained for ß-galactosidase. The ß-galactosidase upregulation suggests that cells become prematurely senescent. Finally, the changes in retinoblastoma protein, p53, and p21 resulting from loss of NET4/Tmem53 were dependent upon active p38 MAP kinase. The finding that roughly a fifth of nuclear envelope transmembrane proteins screened yielded alterations in flow cytometry cell cycle/DNA content profiles suggests a much greater influence of the nuclear envelope on the cell cycle than is widely held.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay device for screening urine samples for the presence of sulphamethazine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keeffe, M.; Crabbe, P.; Salden, M.; Wichers, J.; Peteghem, van C.; Kohen, F.; Pieraccini, G.


    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) device was developed and applied to testing urine samples for residues of the antimicrobial sulphamethazine (SMZ). This report describes the preparation of a rat monoclonal antibody to SMZ and its characterisation in an ELISA format. Apart from SMZ, the antibody

  17. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail:; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)


    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  18. Vaporization of a mixed precursors in chemical vapor deposition for YBCO films (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Meng, Guangyao; Schneider, Roger L.; Sarma, Bimal K.; Levy, Moises


    Single phase YBa2Cu3O7-delta thin films with T(c) values around 90 K are readily obtained by using a single source chemical vapor deposition technique with a normal precursor mass transport. The quality of the films is controlled by adjusting the carrier gas flow rate and the precursor feed rate.

  19. Online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for high throughput screening of anabolic steroids in horse urine. (United States)

    Shin, Hyun Du; Suh, Joon Hyuk; Kim, Junghyun; Cho, Hyun-Deok; Lee, Su Duk; Han, Kwan Seok; Wang, Yu; Han, Sang Beom


    A high throughput method for simultaneous screening of anabolic steroids and their metabolites (4-esterendione, trenbolone, boldenone, oxandrolone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, testosterone, 1-androstendione, ethisterone, normethandrolone, methyltestosterone, 16β-Hydroxystanozolol, epitestosterone, bolasterone, norethandrolone, danazol, stanozolol and androstadienone) in equine urine by online turbulent flow extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed. The use of turbulent flow chromatography could simplify pretreatment of horse urine, which has complex matrices as well as high viscosity. The urine was extracted by mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction, and hydrolyzed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. Then, the sample was automatically loaded on the TurboFlow Cyclone extraction column for removal of further matrix, followed by separation on a fused core C18 column before MS/MS detection. Optimization and validation of the method were discussed in detail. All analytes were rapidly detected within 10min with high sensitivity (picogram to nanogram per milliliter level), and no interference was observed. The linearity range was from 0.1-10ng/mL for nine steroids and 1.0-50ng/mL for the others, with correlation of coefficient values over 0.995. Precision and accuracy ranged from 0.1 to 14.5% and 1.7 to 12.4%, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to the analysis of anabolic steroids in horse urine after administration of a model drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling the damping properties of perforated screens traversed by a bias flow and backed by a cavity at low Strouhal number (United States)

    Scarpato, A.; Tran, N.; Ducruix, S.; Schuller, T.


    Acoustic absorption properties of perforated screens traversed by a bias flow and backed by a resonant cavity are examined at a new absorption regime. The reflection coefficient of these dampers can be canceled at specific frequencies for low Strouhal numbers St≪1 and Helmholtz numbers of order unity He˜1. This regime differs from the classical one where resonance is sought at low Helmholtz numbers He≪1 and large Strouhal numbers St≫1. A theoretical analysis is carried out and analytical expressions are derived to determine conditions for optimal absorption in this regime. It is shown that the optimal bias flow velocity and back cavity length can be fixed separately. The former is determined by the plate porosity and the latter controls the peak absorption frequency. This operating regime at low Strouhal numbers enables to increase sound absorption at low frequencies over a larger frequency bandwidth around the peak absorption frequency than the one obtained with a damping system working at high Strouhal numbers. This is confirmed by experiments carried out on a set of dampers in the frequency range 100-1000 Hz. Predictions of the reflection coefficient, including effects of bias flow velocity and cavity depth, show good agreement with experimental data for small pressure perturbation levels. These elements can contribute to the development of robust dampers to control low frequency thermoacoustic instabilities in gas turbines and jet engines.

  1. Development of a two-parameter slit-scan flow cytometer for screening of normal and aberrant chromosomes: application to a karyotype of Sus scrofa domestica (pig) (United States)

    Hausmann, Michael; Doelle, Juergen; Arnold, Armin; Stepanow, Boris; Wickert, Burkhard; Boscher, Jeannine; Popescu, Paul C.; Cremer, Christoph


    Laser fluorescence activated slit-scan flow cytometry offers an approach to a fast, quantitative characterization of chromosomes due to morphological features. It can be applied for screening of chromosomal abnormalities. We give a preliminary report on the development of the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer. Time-resolved measurement of the fluorescence intensity along the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome axis can be registered simultaneously for two parameters when the chromosome passes perpendicularly through a narrowly focused laser beam combined by a detection slit in the image plane. So far automated data analysis has been performed off-line on a PC. In its final performance, the Heidelberg slit-scan flow cytometer will achieve on-line data analysis that allows an electro-acoustical sorting of chromosomes of interest. Interest is high in the agriculture field to study chromosome aberrations that influence the size of litters in pig (Sus scrofa domestica) breeding. Slit-scan measurements have been performed to characterize chromosomes of pigs; we present results for chromosome 1 and a translocation chromosome 6/15.

  2. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Algarra, Manuel [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Manuel Lopez-Romero, J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)


    Highlights: > We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. > We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. > Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m} of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  3. Fuel Vaporization Effects (United States)

    Bosque, M. A.


    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  4. Time-Domain Microfluidic Fluorescence Lifetime Flow Cytometry for High-Throughput Förster Resonance Energy Transfer Screening (United States)

    Nedbal, Jakub; Visitkul, Viput; Ortiz-Zapater, Elena; Weitsman, Gregory; Chana, Prabhjoat; Matthews, Daniel R; Ng, Tony; Ameer-Beg, Simon M


    Sensing ion or ligand concentrations, physico-chemical conditions, and molecular dimerization or conformation change is possible by assays involving fluorescent lifetime imaging. The inherent low throughput of imaging impedes rigorous statistical data analysis on large cell numbers. We address this limitation by developing a fluorescence lifetime-measuring flow cytometer for fast fluorescence lifetime quantification in living or fixed cell populations. The instrument combines a time-correlated single photon counting epifluorescent microscope with microfluidics cell-handling system. The associated computer software performs burst integrated fluorescence lifetime analysis to assign fluorescence lifetime, intensity, and burst duration to each passing cell. The maximum safe throughput of the instrument reaches 3,000 particles per minute. Living cells expressing spectroscopic rulers of varying peptide lengths were distinguishable by Förster resonant energy transfer measured by donor fluorescence lifetime. An epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulation assay demonstrated the technique's capacity to selectively quantify EGF receptor phosphorylation in cells, which was impossible by measuring sensitized emission on a standard flow cytometer. Dual-color fluorescence lifetime detection and cell-specific chemical environment sensing were exemplified using di-4-ANEPPDHQ, a lipophilic environmentally sensitive dye that exhibits changes in its fluorescence lifetime as a function of membrane lipid order. To our knowledge, this instrument opens new applications in flow cytometry which were unavailable due to technological limitations of previously reported fluorescent lifetime flow cytometers. The presented technique is sensitive to lifetimes of most popular fluorophores in the 0.5–5 ns range including fluorescent proteins and is capable of detecting multi-exponential fluorescence lifetime decays. This instrument vastly enhances the throughput of experiments involving

  5. Electrochemical biotin detection based on magnetic beads and a new magnetic flow cell for screen printed electrode. (United States)

    Biscay, Julien; González García, María Begoña; Costa García, Agustín


    The use of the first flow-cell for magnetic assays with an integrated magnet is reported here. The flow injection analysis system (FIA) is used for biotin determination. The reaction scheme is based on a one step competitive assay between free biotin and biotin labeled with horseradish peroxidase (B-HRP). The mixture of magnetic beads modified with streptavidin (Strep-MB), biotin and B-HRP is left 15 min under stirring and then a washing step is performed. After that, 100 μL of the mixture is injected and after 30s 100 μL of 3,3',5,5'-Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) is injected and the FIAgram is recorded applying a potential of -0.2V. The linear range obtained is from 0.01 to 1 nM of biotin and the sensitivity is 758 nA/nM. The modification and cleaning of the electrode are performed in an easy way due to the internal magnet of the flow cell. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Vapor concentration monitor (United States)

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.


    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  7. Experimental study of external fuel vaporization (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Tevelde, J. A.


    The fuel properties used in the design of a flash vaporization system for aircraft gas turbine engines were evaluated in experiments using a flowing system to determine critical temperature and pressure, boiling points, dew points, heat transfer coefficients, deposit formation rates, and deposit removal. Three fuels were included in the experiments: Jet-A, an experimental referree broad specification fuel, and a premium No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine conditions representing a NASA Energy Efficient Engine at sea-level take-off, cruise, and idle were simulated in the vaporization system and it was found that single phase flow was maintained in the heat exchanger and downstream of the throttle. Deposits encountered in the heat exchanger represented a thermal resistance as high as 1300 sq M K/watt and a deposit formation rate over 1000 gC/sq cm hr.

  8. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing (United States)

    Settles, G. S.


    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  9. The state of the art of conventional flow visualization techniques for wind tunnel testing (United States)

    Settles, G. S.


    Conventional wind tunnel flow visualization techniques which consist of surface flow methods, tracers, and optical methods are presented. Different surface flow methods are outlined: (1) liquid films (oil and fluorescent dye and UV lighting, renewable film via porous dispenser in model, volatile carrier fluid, cryogenic colored oil dots, oil film interferometry); (2) reactive surface treatment (reactive gas injection, reversible dye); (3) transition and heat transfer detectors (evaporation, sublimation, liquid crystals, phase change paints, IR thermography); and (4) tufts (fluorescent mini tufts, cryogenic suitability). Other methods are smoke wire techniques, vapor screens, and optical methods.

  10. Screening biological stains with qPCR versus lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips: a quantitative comparison using analytical figures of merit. (United States)

    Oechsle, Crystal Simson; Haddad, Sandra; Sgueglia, Joanne B; Grgicak, Catherine M


    Biological fluid identification is an important facet of evidence examination in forensic laboratories worldwide. While identifying bodily fluids may provide insight into which downstream DNA methods to employ, these screening techniques consume a vital portion of the available evidence, are usually qualitative, and rely on visual interpretation. In contrast, qPCR yields information regarding the amount and proportion of amplifiable genetic material. In this study, dilution series of either semen or male saliva were prepared in either buffer or female blood. The samples were subjected to both lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips and qPCR analysis. Analytical figures of merit-including sensitivity, minimum distinguishable signal (MDS) and limit of detection (LOD)-were calculated and compared between methods. By applying the theory of the propagation of random errors, LODs were determined to be 0.05 μL of saliva for the RSID™ Saliva cards, 0.03 μL of saliva for Quantifiler(®) Duo, and 0.001 μL of semen for Quantifiler(®) Duo. In conclusion, quantitative PCR was deemed a viable and effective screening method for subsequent DNA profiling due to its stability in different matrices, sensitivity, and low limits of detection. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Screening Reveals a Role for Junctional Adhesion Molecule A as a Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin D. Lathia


    Full Text Available Stem cells reside in niches that regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The identity of a stem cell is linked with the ability to interact with its niche through adhesion mechanisms. To identify targets that disrupt cancer stem cell (CSC adhesion, we performed a flow cytometry screen on patient-derived glioblastoma (GBM cells and identified junctional adhesion molecule A (JAM-A as a CSC adhesion mechanism essential for self-renewal and tumor growth. JAM-A was dispensable for normal neural stem/progenitor cell (NPC function, and JAM-A expression was reduced in normal brain versus GBM. Targeting JAM-A compromised the self-renewal of CSCs. JAM-A expression negatively correlated to GBM patient prognosis. Our results demonstrate that GBM-targeting strategies can be identified through screening adhesion receptors and JAM-A represents a mechanism for niche-driven CSC maintenance.

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by catalytic vapor decomposition ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes an effect of flow rate, carrier gas (H2, N2 and Ar) composition, and amount of benzene on the quality and the yield of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) formed by catalytical vapour decomposition (CVD) method. The flow and mass control of gases and precursor vapors respectively were found to be ...

  13. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink (United States)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.


    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  14. Applied research in hydraulics and heat flow

    CERN Document Server

    Asli, Kaveh Hariri; Asli, Hossein Hariri; Motlaghzadeh, Kasra


    PrefaceModeling for Heat Flow ProcessFluid and Fluid MechanicsTwo Phases Flow and Vapor BubbleDynamic Modeling for Heat and Mass TransferVapor Pressure and Saturation TemperatureFinite Difference and Method of Characteristics for Transitional FlowLagrangian and Eulerian Transitional FlowDynamic Modeling for Water FlowModeling for Flow ProcessDynamic Modeling for Mass and Momentum TransportIndex

  15. Screening test for preeclampsia through assessment of uteroplacental blood flow and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. (United States)

    Parra, Mauro; Rodrigo, Ramón; Barja, Pilar; Bosco, Cleofina; Fernández, Virginia; Muñoz, Hernán; Soto-Chacón, Emiliano


    This study was undertaken to evaluate whether screening through a uterine artery (UtA) Doppler and biochemical markers of oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction predict preeclampsia. UtA Doppler was performed at 11 to 14 and 22 to 25 weeks on 1447 asymptomatic pregnant women. Oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, and antiangiogenic state were assessed in women who later developed preeclampsia and normotensive controls. There was a significantly increased of UtA pulsatility index (PI), plasma levels of soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt1), PAI-1/PAI-2 ratio, and F-2 isoprostane in women who subsequently developed preeclampsia compared with control pregnancies. Multivariate logistic regression showed that increased UtA PI performed at 23 weeks was the best predictor for preeclampsia. This study demonstrates early changes in markers of impaired placentation, antiangiogenic state, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction suggesting that these derangements may play a role in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Our data point to UtA as the best test to predict preeclampsia at 23 weeks of gestation.

  16. Screening and characterizing a denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating bacterium isolated from a circular plug-flow reactor. (United States)

    Xie, En; Ding, Aizhong; Zheng, Lei; Dou, Junfeng; Anderson, Bruce; Huang, Xiaolong; Jing, Ruoting


    Denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DNPAO) are viewed as one of the most effective means to solve the removal contradiction of nitrogen and phosphorus in wastewater treatment. In this study, we isolated a DNPAO (C-17, accession number: KU745702) from activated sludge in a patented circular plug-flow reactor, physiologically to Pseudomonas sp. based on 16S rRNA sequence and phenotypic characteristics. The results of denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating experiment showed that Pseudomonas C-17 has high removal efficiencies for [Formula: see text] and NO3-N, 75% and 87%, respectively. The ratio of phosphorus release was 25.0 mg [Formula: see text] (with anabolism) and 26.8 mg [Formula: see text] (without anabolism), respectively. Our results indicated that Pseudomonas C-17 had strong capacity of phosphorus release, and its uptake is often imprecisely evaluated by ignoring the part of metabolic consumption. Pseudomonas C-17 is capable of utilizing oxygen, nitrate and nitrite as electron acceptors under experimental conditions.

  17. Preliminary evaluation of a lateral flow immunoassay device for screening urine samples for the presence of sulphamethazine. (United States)

    O'Keeffe, M; Crabbe, P; Salden, M; Wichers, J; Van Peteghem, C; Kohen, F; Pieraccini, G; Moneti, G


    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) device was developed and applied to testing urine samples for residues of the antimicrobial sulphamethazine (SMZ). This report describes the preparation of a rat monoclonal antibody to SMZ and its characterisation in an ELISA format. Apart from SMZ, the antibody showed high (> or =50%) cross-reactivity to N4-acetyl-sulphamethazine (55%), sulphamerazine (59%) and sulphisoxazole (50%) and lower cross-reactivity of 18% to sulphachlorpyridazine and sulphadiazine. The LFIA device consisted of a nitrocellulose membrane spotted with SMZ-ovalbumin and goat anti-mouse antibody as capture line and control line, respectively. Mouse anti-rat IgG F(ab')2 fragment specific antibody, adsorbed to colloidal carbon, was used as the detection ligand in the LFIA. The LFIA device had a cut-off value of 6.3 ng/ml in diluted (1/10) urine. Urine samples from SMZ-treated pigs, and bovine and porcine urine samples fortified with SMZ were used for a blind, four-laboratory evaluation of the performance of the LFIA device. Concentrations of SMZ in the test samples (n=29), as determined by LC-MS/MS, ranged from 0 (LFIA device showed an overall sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 71%, and positive and negative prediction values of 73% and 100%, respectively. The LFIA device has been fabricated as a test kit for determining SMZ residues in animals produced for slaughter.

  18. Water vaporization on Ceres (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.


    A search is presently conducted for OH generated by the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor in long-exposure IUE spectra of the region around Ceres. A statistically significant detection of OH is noted in an exposure off the northern limb of Ceres after perihelion. The amount of OH is consistent with a polar cap that might be replenished during winter by subsurface percolation, but which dissipates in summer.

  19. On the vapor-liquid equilibrium in hydroprocessing reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, J.; Munteanu, M.; Farooqi, H. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada)


    When petroleum distillates undergo hydrotreating and hydrocracking, the feedstock and hydrogen pass through trickle-bed catalytic reactors at high temperatures and pressures with large hydrogen flow. As such, the oil is partially vaporized and the hydrogen is partially dissolved in liquid to form a vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) system with both vapor and liquid phases containing oil and hydrogen. This may result in considerable changes in flow rates, physical properties and chemical compositions of both phases. Flow dynamics, mass transfer, heat transfer and reaction kinetics may also be modified. Experimental observations of VLE behaviours in distillates with different feedstocks under a range of operating conditions were presented. In addition, VLE was predicted along with its effects on distillates in pilot and commercial scale plants. tabs., figs.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja


    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  1. Role of co-vapors in vapor deposition polymerization. (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok


    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers.

  2. Depression Screening (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Planar solid phase extraction clean-up and microliter-flow injection analysis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for multi-residue screening of pesticides in food. (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schwack, Wolfgang


    For multi-residue analysis of pesticides in food, a sufficient clean-up is essential for avoiding matrix effects in liquid and gas chromatography (LC and GC) analysis coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). In the last two years, high-throughput planar solid phase extraction (HTpSPE) was established as a new clean-up concept for pesticide residue analysis in fruits and vegetables (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2011) and tea (C. Oellig, W. Schwack, 2012). HTpSPE results in matrix-free extracts almost free of interferences and matrix effects. In this study, a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOFMS) was applied to directly analyze HTpSPE extracts for pesticide residues. This HTpSPE-microliter-flow injection analysis (μL-FIA)-TOFMS approach detects all pesticides at once in a single mass spectrum, without a liquid chromatographic separation step. Complete sample information was obtained after the injection of the cleaned extract within a single peak. Recovery studies for seven representative pesticides in four different matrices (apples, red grapes, cucumbers, tomatoes) provided mean recoveries of 86-116% with relative standard deviations of 1.3-10% (n=5) using the mass signal intensities under the entire sample peak. Comparing the mass spectra of sample peaks from spiked extracts and solvent standards indicated the efficiency of HTpSPE clean-up. A pesticide database search detected all spiked pesticides with a low incidence of false-positives. HTpSPE of one sample required a few minutes, and numerous samples could be cleaned in parallel at minimal cost with low sample and solvent consumption. The μL-FIA-TOFMS screening then needed an additional 6min per sample. The novel screening approach was successfully applied to QuEChERS extracts of several real samples, and the pesticides identified by HTpSPE-μL-FIA-TOFMS were identical to the pesticides detected by common target LC-MS/MS analyses. The high degree of concordantly identified pesticides by the new developed HTp

  4. Electrochemical detection of nitromethane vapors combined with a solubilization device. (United States)

    Delile, Sébastien; Aussage, Adeline; Maillou, Thierry; Palmas, Pascal; Lair, Virginie; Cassir, Michel


    During the past decade, the number of terrorism acts has increased and the need for efficient explosive detectors has become an urgent worldwide necessity. A prototype, Nebulex™, was recently developed in our laboratory. Basically, it couples the solubilization of an analyte from the atmosphere by a nebulization process and in-situ detection. This article presents the development and integration of an electrochemical sensor for the detection of nitromethane, a common chemical product that can be used to make an improvised explosive device. A gold screen-printed electrode was used in a flow-cell and a detection limit of 4.5 µM was achieved by square wave voltammetry. The detection method was also determined to be selective toward nitromethane over a large panel of interfering compounds. Detection tests with the Nebulex™ were thus carried out using a custom-made calibrated nitromethane vapor generator. Detection times of less than one minute were obtained for nitromethane contents of 8 and 90 ppmv. Further measurements were performed in a room-measurement configuration leading to detection times in the range of 1-2 min, clearly demonstrating the system's efficiency under quasi-real conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiative Vaporization of Graphite in the Temperature Range of 4000 to 4500 deg K (United States)

    Lundell, John H.; Dickey, Robert R.


    The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. Under these conditions, the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics. Experimental results are presented for surface temperatures of 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.52 to 27.0 g/sq cm sec. The data are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a range of 2 to 11 atm, and the results are shown to be in good agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve, if the vaporization coefficients are unity. The assumption of unity vaporization coefficients is shown to be reasonable by a comparison of the present results with other recent vapor pressure results for graphite.

  6. Development and Validation of a Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Screening of Okadaic Acid and All Dinophysis Toxins from Shellfish Extracts. (United States)

    Jawaid, Waqass; Meneely, Julie P; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T


    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay was developed and validated to detect okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysis toxins (DTXs), which cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning. The performance characteristics of the test were investigated, in comparison to reference methods (liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and/or bioassay), using both spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish. A portable reader was used to generate a qualitative result, indicating the absence or presence of OA-group toxins, at concentrations relevant to the maximum permitted level (MPL). Sample homogenates could be screened in 20 min (including extraction and assay time) for the presence of free toxins (OA, DTX1, DTX2). DTX3 detection could be included with the addition of a hydrolysis procedure. No matrix effects were observed from the species evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, and clams). Results from naturally contaminated samples (n = 72) indicated no false compliant results and no false noncompliant results at <50% MPL. Thus, the development of a new low-cost but highly effective tool for monitoring a range of important phycotoxins has been demonstrated.

  7. Determination of some refractory elements and Pb by fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with platform and wall vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuefei; Hu Bin, E-mail:


    Platform and wall vaporization for electrothermal vaporization (ETV)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) determination of some refractory elements (Ti, V, Cr, Mo, La and Zr) and Pb were comparatively studied with the use of poly (tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) as fluorinating reagent. The factors affecting the vaporization behaviors of the target analytes in the platform and tube wall vaporization including vaporization temperature and time, pyrolytic temperature and time were studied in detail, and the flow rates of carrier gas/auxiliary carrier gas, were carefully optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the signal profiles, signal intensity, interferences of coexisting ions and analytical reproducibility for wall and platform vaporization ETV-ICP-MS were compared. It was found that both wall and platform vaporization could give very similar detection limits, but the platform vaporization provided higher signal intensity and better precision for some refractory elements and Pb than the wall vaporization. Especially for La, the signal intensity obtained by platform vaporization was 3 times higher than that obtained by wall vaporization. For platform vaporization ETV-ICP-MS, the limits of detection (LODs) of 0.001 {mu}g L{sup -1} (La) {approx} 0.09 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Ti) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.5% (Pb) {approx} 15.5% (Zr) were obtained. While for wall vaporization ETV-ICP-MS, LODs of 0.005 {mu}g L{sup -1} (La) {approx} 0.4 {mu}g L{sup -1} (Pb) with RSDs of 3.2% (Mo) {approx} 12.8% (Zr) were obtained. Both platform and tube wall vaporization techniques have been used for slurry sampling fluorination assisted ETV-ICP-MS direct determination of Ti, V, Cr, Mo, La, Zr and Pb in certified reference materials of NIES No. 8 vehicle exhaust particulates and GBW07401 soil, and the analytical results obtained are in good agreement with the certified values.

  8. Interfacial instability of a condensing vapor bubble in a subcooled liquid (United States)

    Ueno, I.; Ando, J.; Koiwa, Y.; Saiki, T.; Kaneko, T.


    A special attention is paid to the condensing and collapsing processes of vapor bubble injected into a subcooled pool. We try to extract the vapor-liquid interaction by employing a vapor generator that supplies vapor to the subcooled pool through an orifice instead of using a immersed heating surface to realize vapor bubbles by boiling phenomenon. This system enables ones to detect a spatio-temporal behavior of a single bubble of superheated vapor exposed to a subcooled liquid. In the present study, vapor of water is injected through an orifice at constant flow rate to the subcooled pool of water at the designated degree of subcooling under the atmospheric pressure. The degree of subcooling of the pool is ranged from 0 K to 70 K, and the vapor temperature is kept constant at 101 ∘C. The behaviors of the injected vapor are captured by high-speed camera at frame rate up to 0.3 million frame per second (fps) to track the temporal variation of the vapor bubble shape. It is found that the abrupt collapse of the vapor bubble exposed to the subcooled pool takes place under the condition that the degree of subcooling is greater than around 30 K, and that the abrupt collapse always takes place accompanying the fine disturbances or instability emerged on the free surface. We then evaluate a temporal variation of the apparent `volume' of the bubble V under the assumption of the axisymmetric shape of the vapor bubble. It is also found that the instability emerges slightly after the volume of the vapor bubble reaches the maximum value. It is evaluated that the second derivative of the corresponding `radius' R of the vapor bubble is negative when the instability appears on the bubble surface, where R = 3√ 3V/4π. We also illustrate that the wave number of the instability on the liquid-vapor interface increases as the degree of subcooling.

  9. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors. (United States)

    Weber, Joyce


    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  10. 1,4-Dioxane Vadose Remediation by Enhanced Soil Vapor Extraction (United States)

    Burris, D. R.; Hinchee, R.; Dahlen, P.; Johnson, P.


    1,4-Dioxane is a cyclic diether that is totally miscible in water. It is a chlorinated solvent additive primarily found in 1,1,1-trichloroethane. 1,4-Dioxane becomes sequestered in vadose water and serves as a source of long-term groundwater contamination. Although soil vapor extraction (SVE) can effectively remediate chlorinated solvents, substantial 1,4-dioxane is left behind. Enhanced SVE (XSVE) was conducted to assess its effectiveness in vadose zone remediation of 1,4-dioxane. Primary SVE enhancements included focused extraction, increased air flow and heated air injection. Detailed site assessment to accurately locate the vadose source is needed for effective XSVE since it relies on focused air extraction. At a 14-month field demonstration of XSVE at former McClellan AFB, CA the following parameters were monitored: 1,4-dioxane (soil and soil vapor), soil moisture content, temperature, pressure and flow rate. The XSVE system was configured with four injection wells (in 20-ft square), each with in-line heaters, around a central SVE well and off-gas was treated with existing treatment system. Well screen intervals corresponded to soil interval (38 - 68 ft bgs) containing the highest 1,4-dioxane. Treatment zone (TZ) temperatures reached as high as 90°C and soil moisture sensor readings reached as low as zero near the injection wells. XSVE reduced TZ soil 1,4-dioxane concentrations and soil moisture contents 95% and 45%, respectively. Extraction well monitoring showed that the bulk of 1,4-dioxane removal occurred before TZ temperatures increased substantially. Performance results indicate that focused air injection with increased air flow were the primary SVE enhancements facilitating the effective removal of 1,4-dioxane and soil thermal treatment may not be required. XSVE can provides a cost-effective, easily implemented remedial option for vadose 1,4-dioxane.

  11. Metal vaporization from weld pools (United States)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Eagar, T. W.


    Experimental studies of alloy vaporization from aluminum and stainless steel weld pools have been made in order to test a vaporization model based on thermodynamic data and the kinetic theory of gases. It is shown that the model can correctly predict the dominant metal vapors that form but that the absolute rate of vaporization is not known due to insufficient knowledge of the surface temperature distribution and subsequent condensation of the vapor in the cooler regions of the metal. Values of the net evaporation rates for different alloys have been measured and are found to vary by two orders of magnitude. Estimated maximum weld pool temperatures based upon the model are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements of electron beam welds.

  12. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.


    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  13. Vaporization of perfluorocarbon droplets using optical irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael


    .... Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV...

  14. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  15. Liquid-propellant droplet vaporization and combustion in high pressure environments (United States)

    Yang, Vigor


    In order to correct the deficiencies of existing models for high-pressure droplet vaporization and combustion, a fundamental investigation into this matter is essential. The objective of this research are: (1) to acquire basic understanding of physical and chemical mechanisms involved in the vaporization and combustion of isolated liquid-propellant droplets in both stagnant and forced-convective environments; (2) to establish droplet vaporization and combustion correlations for the study of liquid-propellant spray combustion and two-phase flowfields in rocket motors; and (3) to investigate the dynamic responses of multicomponent droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient flow oscillations.

  16. Operational flow visualization techniques in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (United States)

    Corlett, W. A.


    The unitary plan wind tunnel (UPWT) uses in daily operation are shown. New ideas for improving the quality of established flow visualization methods are developed and programs on promising new flow visualization techniques are pursued. The unitary plan wind tunnel is a supersonic facility, referred to as a production facility, although the majority of tests are inhouse basic research investigations. The facility has two 4 ft. by 4 ft. test sections which span a Mach range from 1.5 to 4.6. The cost of operation is about $10 per minute. Problems are the time required for a flow visualization test setup and investigation costs and the ability to obtain consistently repeatable results. Examples of sublimation, vapor screen, oil flow, minitufts, schlieren, and shadowgraphs taken in UPWT are presented. All tests in UPWT employ one or more of the flow visualization techniques.

  17. Organocatalysis in continuous flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den S.A.


    Continuous flow chemistry is an enabling technique in organic chemistry. Advantages include extremely fast mixing and heat transfer capabilities as well as rapid screening of reaction conditions. Combining continuous flow chemistry with solid-supported organocatalysis presents challenges that have

  18. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers

    KAUST Repository

    Berry, Joseph D.


    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  19. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers (United States)

    Berry, Joseph D.; Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.


    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (1 02≤Re≤4 ×1 04) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  20. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization (United States)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.


    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  1. Atmospheric sugar alcohols: evaporation rates and saturation vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde, Merete; Zardini, Alessandro Alessio; Hong, Juan

    volatile organic molecules. Saturation vapor pressure and the associated temperature dependence (dH) are key parameters for improving predictive atmospheric models. In this work we combine experiments and thermodynamic modeling to investigate these parameters for a series of polyols, so-called sugar...... are allowed to evaporate in a laminar flow reactor, and changes in particle size as function of evaporation time are determined using a scanning mobility particle sizer system. In this work saturation vapor pressures of sugar alcohols at several temperatures have been inferred from such measurements using...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Havlík


    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of heat transfer in the process of condensation of water vapor in a vertical shell-and-tube condenser. We analyze the use of the Nusselt model for calculating the condensation heat transfer coefficient (HTC inside a vertical tube and the Kern, Bell-Delaware and Stream-flow analysis methods for calculating the shell-side HTC from tubes to cooling water. These methods are experimentally verified for a specific condenser of waste process vapor containing air. The operating conditions of the condenser may be different from the assumptions adopted in the basic Nusselt theory. Modifications to the Nusselt condensation model are theoretically analyzed.

  3. Development and Validation of a Novel Lateral Flow Immunoassay (LFIA) for the Rapid Screening of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PSTs) from Shellfish Extracts. (United States)

    Jawaid, Waqass; Campbell, Katrina; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen J; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher T


    A single-step lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed and validated for the rapid screening of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) from a variety of shellfish species, at concentrations relevant to regulatory limits of 800 μg STX-diHCl equivalents/kg shellfish meat. A simple aqueous extraction protocol was performed within several minutes from sample homogenate. The qualitative result was generated after a 5 min run time using a portable reader which removed subjectivity from data interpretation. The test was designed to generate noncompliant results with samples containing approximately 800 μg of STX-diHCl/kg. The cross-reactivities in relation to STX, expressed as mean ± SD, were as follows: NEO: 128.9% ± 29%; GTX1&4: 5.7% ± 1.5%; GTX2&3: 23.4% ± 10.4%; dcSTX: 55.6% ± 10.9%; dcNEO: 28.0% ± 8.9%; dcGTX2&3: 8.3% ± 2.7%; C1&C2: 3.1% ± 1.2%; GTX5: 23.3% ± 14.4% (n = 5 LFIA lots). There were no indications of matrix effects from the different samples evaluated (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, cockles) nor interference from other shellfish toxins (domoic acid, okadaic acid group). Naturally contaminated sample evaluations showed no false negative results were generated from a variety of different samples and profiles (n = 23), in comparison to reference methods (MBA method 959.08, LC-FD method 2005.06). External laboratory evaluations of naturally contaminated samples (n = 39) indicated good correlation with reference methods (MBA, LC-FD). This is the first LFIA which has been shown, through rigorous validation, to have the ability to detect most major PSTs in a reliable manner and will be a huge benefit to both industry and regulators, who need to perform rapid and reliable testing to ensure shellfish are safe to eat.

  4. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization. (United States)

    Linz, Ed


    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  5. Microenvironmental exposure to mercury vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, W.; Bundy, S.D.; Goldwater, L.J.; Bittikofer, J.A.


    Work area and breathing zone samples were collected in a factory utilizing metallic mercury and analyzed for mercury vapor content. Breathing zone samples averaged several fold higher in concentration than concurrent area samples, reflecting a ''microenvironmental'' exposure to mercury vapor, presumably from contaminated clothing and hands. Blood and corrected total urine mercury values correlated well with the average microenvironmental exposure level for each worker. Measurements of unbound mercury in urine samples were sensitive at picking up minimal exposures. Excessive amounts of unbound mercury were not found in the urine, even with wide day-to-day swings in microenvironmental mercury vapor levels, suggesting that the human body can adapt to a chronic, moderate exposure to mercury vapor.

  6. Assessment of radionuclide vapor-phase transport in unsaturated tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.M.; Updegraff, C.D.; Bonano, E.J.; Randall, J.D.


    This report describes bounding calculations performed to investigate the possibility of radionuclide migration in a vapor phase associated with the emplacement of high-level waste canister in unsaturated tuff formations. Two potential radionuclide transport mechanisms in the vapor phase were examined: aerosol migration and convection/diffusion of volatile species. The former may have significant impact on the release of radionuclides to the accessible environment as the concentration in the aerosols will be equal to that in the ground water. A conservative analysis of air diffusion in a stagnant liquid film indicated that for all expected repository conditions, aerosol formation is not possible. The migration of volatile species was examined both in the vicinity of a waste canister and outside the thermally disturbed zone. Two-dimensional (radial) and three-dimensional (radial-vertical) coupled heat transfer-gas flow-liquid flow simulations were performed using the TOUGH computer code. The gas flow rate relative to the liquid flow rate predicted from the simulations allowed calculations of mobility ratios due to convection which led to the conclusion that, except for the immediate region near the canister, transport in the liquid phase will be dominant for radionuclides heavier than radon. Near the waste canister, iodine transport may also be important in the vapor phase. Bounding calculations for vertical mobility ratios were carried out as a function of saturation. These calculations are conservative and agree well with the two-dimensional simulations. Based on this analysis, it is clear that vapor-phase transport will not be important for radionuclides such as cesium and heavier species. Vapor transport for iodine may play a role in the overall release scenario depending on the particular repository conditions.

  7. The development of substitute inks and controls for reducing workplace concentrations of organic solvent vapors in a vinyl shower curtain printing plant. (United States)

    Piltingsrud, Harley V; Zimmer, Anthony T; Rourke, Aaron B


    During the summer of 1994, football players at a practice field reported noxious odors in the area. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) investigations of industries surrounding the field included a printing facility producing vinyl shower curtains with screen-printed designs. Though not the source of the odor, they were discharging volatile organic compounds directly to the environs in violation of OEPA regulations. To achieve compliance they installed a catalytic oxidizer for treating discharged air. Due to high equipment costs, the capacity of the installed catalytic oxidizer resulted in a substantial reduction in discharged air flow rates and increased solvent vapor concentrations within the workplace. Vapor levels caused worker discomfort, prompting a request for assistance from the Ohio Bureau of Workers Compensation. The vapor concentrations were found to exceed NIOSH, OSHA, and ACGIH acceptable exposure levels. The workers were then required to wear organic vapor removing respirators full-time while printing as a temporary protective measure. The company requested NIOSH assistance in finding methods to reduce solvent vapor concentrations. NIOSH studies included the identification of the sources and relative magnitude of solvent emissions from the printing process, the design of controls for the emissions, and the development of substitute inks using non-photochemically reactive solvents. The new ink system and controls allowed OEPA removal of the requirement for the treatment of discharged air and substantial increases in dilution ventilation. Increased ventilation would permit reduction in worker exposures to less than 1/3 mixture TLV levels and removal of requirements for respirator usage. This solution was the result of a comprehensive review of all facets of the problem, including OEPA regulations. It also required cooperative work between the company and federal, state, and local governmental agencies.

  8. Heat transfer from vapor condensation in the region behind a shock wave (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasunori; Oshiro, Naoto


    A series of experiments were conducted on shock wave propagation in a single-component two-phase(vapor-liquid) medium. A heat transfer mechanism in the flow field associated with vapor condensation behind a shock front was investigated. Measurements of pressure and temperature were made by conventional sensors and the flow field was visualized by schlieren photographs with the aid of high speed drum camera. Refrigerant-11 and benzene were used as a working fluid under a large void fraction of almost 100 percent. A flow field realized behind a shock front revealed significant features of ineffective compressibility and complicated flow patterns, which are largely different from those of pure gases.

  9. Vapor plume oscillation mechanisms in transient keyhole during tandem dual beam fiber laser welding (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Zhang, Xiaosi; Pang, Shengyong; Hu, Renzhi; Xiao, Jianzhong


    Vapor plume oscillations are common physical phenomena that have an important influence on the welding process in dual beam laser welding. However, until now, the oscillation mechanisms of vapor plumes remain unclear. This is primarily because mesoscale vapor plume dynamics inside a millimeter-scale, invisible, and time-dependent keyhole are difficult to quantitatively observe. In this paper, based on a developed three-dimensional (3D) comprehensive model, the vapor plume evolutions in a dynamical keyhole are directly simulated in tandem dual beam, short-wavelength laser welding. Combined with the vapor plume behaviors outside the keyhole observed by high-speed imaging, the vapor plume oscillations in dynamical keyholes at different inter-beam distances are the first, to our knowledge, to be quantitatively analyzed. It is found that vapor plume oscillations outside the keyhole mainly result from vapor plume instabilities inside the keyhole. The ejection velocity at the keyhole opening and dynamical behaviors outside the keyhole of a vapor plume both violently oscillate with the same order of magnitude of high frequency (several kHz). Furthermore, the ejection speed at the keyhole opening and ejection area outside the keyhole both decrease as the beam distance increases, while the degree of vapor plume instability first decreases and then increases with increasing beam distance from 0.6 to 1.0 mm. Moreover, the oscillation mechanisms of a vapor plume inside the dynamical keyhole irradiated by dual laser beams are investigated by thoroughly analyzing the vapor plume occurrence and flow process. The vapor plume oscillations in the dynamical keyhole are found to mainly result from violent local evaporations and severe keyhole geometry variations. In short, the quantitative method and these findings can serve as a reference for further understanding of the physical mechanisms in dual beam laser welding and of processing optimizations in industrial applications.

  10. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies (United States)

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark


    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum. PMID:23765191

  11. Hydrodynamic model of screen channel liquid acquisition devices for in-space cryogenic propellant management (United States)

    Darr, S. R.; Camarotti, C. F.; Hartwig, J. W.; Chung, J. N.


    Technologies that enable the storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants in space will be needed for the next generation vehicles that will carry humans to Mars. One of the candidate technologies is the screen channel liquid acquisition device (LAD), which uses a metal woven wire mesh to separate the liquid and vapor phases so that single-phase liquid propellant can be transferred in microgravity. In this work, an experiment is carried out that provides measurements of the velocity and pressure fields in a screen channel LAD. These data are used to validate a new analytical solution of the liquid flow through a screen channel LAD. This hydrodynamic model, which accounts for non-uniform injection through the screen, is compared with the traditional pressure term summation model which assumes a constant, uniform injection velocity. Results show that the new model performs best against the new data and historical data. The velocity measurements inside the screen channel LAD are used to provide a more accurate velocity profile which further improves the new model. The result of this work is a predictive tool that will instill confidence in the design of screen channel LADs for future in-space propulsion systems.

  12. Development and validation of the first high performance-lateral flow immunoassay (HP-LFIA) for the rapid screening of domoic acid from shellfish extracts. (United States)

    Jawaid, Waqass; Meneely, Julie; Campbell, Katrina; Hooper, Mark; Melville, Karrie; Holmes, Stephen; Rice, Jennifer; Elliott, Christopher


    A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) has been developed and fully validated to detect the primary amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) toxin, domoic acid (DA). The performance characteristics of two versions of the test were investigated using spiked and naturally contaminated shellfish (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). The tests provide a qualitative result, to indicate the absence or presence of DA in extracts of shellfish tissues, at concentrations that are relevant to regulatory limits. The new rapid assay (LFIA version 2) was designed to overcome the performance limitations identified in the first version of the assay. The improved test uses an electronic reader to remove the subjective nature of the generated results, and the positive cut-off for screening of DA in shellfish was increased from 10 ppm (version 1) to 17.5 ppm (version 2). A simple extraction and test procedure was employed, which required minimal equipment and materials; results were available 15 min after sample preparation. Stability of the aqueous extracts at room temperature (22 °C) at four time points (up to 245 min after extraction) and across a range of DA concentrations was 100.3±1.3% and 98.8±2.4% for pre- and post-buffered extracts, respectively. The assay can be used both within laboratory settings and in remote locations. The accuracy of the new assay, to indicate negative results at or below 10 ppm DA, and positive results at or above 17.5 ppm, was 99.5% (n=216 tests). Validation data were obtained from a 2-day, randomised, blind study consisting of multiple LFIA lots (n=3), readers (n=3) and operators (n=3), carrying out multiple extractions of mussel tissue (n=3) at each concentration (0, 10, 17.5, and 20 ppm). No matrix effects were observed on the performance of the assay with different species (mussels, scallops, oysters, clams, and cockles). There was no impact on accuracy or interference from other phycotoxins, glutamic acid or glutamine with various strip

  13. Vaporization behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and direct observations of the vapor phase using laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Rehse, S.J.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.


    Transition metal and actinide carbides, such as ZrC or NbC and UC or ThC, exhibit a wide range of stoichiometry, and therefore vaporize incongruently. At long times, steady state vaporization can be achieved where relative concentrations of atomic species on solid surface equals that in the gas phase. The surface composition under these steady state conditions is termed the congruently vaporizing composition, (CVC). Modeling the vaporization or corrosion behavior of this dynamic process is complex and requires an understanding of how the surface composition changes with time and a knowledge of CVC, which is both temperature and atmosphere dependent. This paper describes vaporization and corrosion behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and, as an example, describes a thermokinetic model that characterizes the vaporization behavior of the complex carbide U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub y} in hydrogen at 2500 to 3200 K. This model demonstrates that steady state corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub l-x}C{sub y} is rate limited by gaseous transport of Zr where partial pressure of Zr is determined by CVC. This paper also briefly describes efforts to image and characterize the vapor phase above the surface of ZrC in static and flowing gas environments using planar laser induced fluorescence. We have developed the method for monitoring and controlling the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuels in nuclear thermal rockets. However, the techniques described can be used, to image boundary layers, and could be used verifying corrosion models.

  14. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh


    The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency of heterogen......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

  15. Vaporization of graphite in the temperature range of 4000 to 4500 K (United States)

    Lundell, J. H.; Dickey, R. R.


    The vaporization of graphite under intense laser radiation is considered both theoretically and experimentally. Under intense radiation, the mass-loss rate can be high enough to cause the flow in the laser plume to be supersonic. It is shown that under these conditions the vaporization process is coupled to the plume gasdynamics and the mass-loss rate for graphite is 62% of the free vaporization rate. Experimental results are presented for surface temperatures from 3985 to 4555 K and mass-loss rates from 0.56 to 27.0 g per sq cm sec. The results are used to determine the vapor pressure of graphite in a pressure range of 2 to 11 atm, and the values are shown to be in agreement with the JANAF vapor pressure curve.

  16. Air/fuel ratio control system and method for fuel vapor purging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, M.F.; Orzel, D.V.; Hamburg, D.R.


    This patent describes a control system for a vehicle having a fuel vapor recovery system coupled between a fuel supply system and an intake manifold of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust gas oxygen sensor coupled to the engine exhaust providing a rich output indication when engine exhaust gases are richer than a predetermined value and providing a lean output indication when the engine exhaust gases are leaner than the predetermined value; purging means coupled to the fuel supply system and the fuel vapor recovery system for purging a vapor mixture of fuel vapor and purged air into the engine air/fuel intake; and purge control means for increasing flow rate of the purged vapor mixture by a predetermined amount when the exhaust gas oxygen sensor changes from the rich output indication to the lean output indication.

  17. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  18. Development of a scattering probability method for accurate vapor fraction measurements by neutron radiography

    CERN Document Server

    Joo, H


    Recent test results indicated drawbacks associated with the simple exponential attenuation method (SEAM) as currently applied to neutron radiography measurements to determine vapor fractions in a hydrogenous two-phase flow in a metallic conduit. The scattering component of the neutron beam intensity exiting the flow system is not adequately accounted for by SEAM, and this leads to inaccurate results. To properly account for the scattering effect, a neutron scattering probability method (SPM) is developed. The method applies a neutron-hydrogen scattering kernel to scattered thermal neutrons that leave the incident beam in narrow conduits but eventually show up elsewhere in the measurements. The SPM has been tested with known vapor (void) distributions within an acrylic disk and a water/vapor channel. The vapor (void) fractions deduced by SPM are in good agreement with the known exact values. Details of the scattering correction method and the test results are discussed.

  19. Distribution of Vapor Pressure in the Vacuum Freeze-Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang


    Full Text Available In the big vacuum freeze-drying equipment, the drying rate of materials is uneven at different positions. This phenomenon can be explained by the uneven distribution of vapor pressure in chamber during the freeze-drying process. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to describe the vapor flow in the passageways either between material plates and in the channel between plate groups. The distribution of vapor pressure along flow passageway is given. Two characteristic factors of passageways are defined to express the effects of structural and process parameters on vapor pressure distribution. The affecting factors and their actions are quantitatively discussed in detail. Two examples are calculated and analyzed. The analysis method and the conclusions are useful to estimate the difference of material drying rate at different parts in equipment and to direct the choice of structural and process parameters.

  20. Water vapor adsorption on goethite. (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François


    Goethite (α-FeOOH) is an important mineral contributing to processes of atmospheric and terrestrial importance. Their interactions with water vapor are particularly relevant in these contexts. In this work, molecular details of water vapor (0.0-19.0 Torr; 0-96% relative humidity at 25 °C) adsorption at surfaces of synthetic goethite nanoparticles reacted with and without HCl and NaCl were resolved using vibrational spectroscopy. This technique probed interactions between surface (hydr)oxo groups and liquid water-like films. Molecular dynamics showed that structures and orientations adopted by these waters are comparable to those adopted at the interface with liquid water. Particle surfaces reacted with HCl accumulated less water than acid-free surfaces due to disruptions in hydrogen bond networks by chemisorbed waters and chloride. Particles reacted with NaCl had lower loadings below ∼10 Torr water vapor but greater loadings above this value than salt-free surfaces. Water adsorption reactions were here affected by competitive hydration of coexisting salt-free surface regions, adsorbed chloride and sodium, as well as precipitated NaCl. Collectively, the findings presented in this study add further insight into the initial mechanisms of thin water film formation at goethite surfaces subjected to variations in water vapor pressure that are relevant to natural systems.

  1. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik


    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  2. Toxicology screen (United States)

    ... this page: // Toxicology screen To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A toxicology screen refers to various tests that determine the ...

  3. Carrier Screening (United States)

    ... pregnant are offered carrier screening for cystic fibrosis, hemoglobinopathies , and spinal muscular atrophy . You can have screening ... caused by a change in genes or chromosomes. Hemoglobinopathies: Any inherited disorder caused by changes in the ...

  4. Airport Screening (United States)

    Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Airport Screening Fact Sheet Adopted: May 2011 Photo courtesy of Dan Paluska/Flickr Denver Airport Security Screening Introduction With air travel regaining popularity and ...

  5. MRSA Screening (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search MRSA Screening Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Related Content Related Images View Sources Formal Name Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Screening This article was last reviewed on February ...

  6. Cancer Screening


    Krishna Prasad


    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  7. Application of copper vapor laser for fluid-dynamic measurement in a shock tube (United States)

    Sekimoto, Kiyohide; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Yamaguchi, Yutaka C.; Amemiya, Takashi


    This paper describes the features of the copper vapor laser developed in IHI Research Center for measurement of high-speed fluid, and the preliminary results of observed measurement on actual fluid flow in a shock tube. The copper vapor laser we have developed selects two different wavelengths (green or yellow) and couples them with an optical fiber. Further, in correspondence with external triggering from a shock tube or other devices, it is possible to freely set the timing for generation of laser pulses. Applying the copper vapor laser for the schlieren light source, we were able to visualize the formation of shock waveforms around an airfoil placed in a shock tube.

  8. Formulation and analyses of vaporization and diffusion-controlled combustion of fuel sprays


    Arrieta Sanagustín, Jorge


    This dissertation focuses on the modelling of vaporization and combustion of sprays. A general two-continua formulation is given for the numerical computation of spray flows, including the treatment of the droplets as homogenized sources. Group combustion is considered, with the reaction between the fuel coming from the vaporizing droplets and the oxygen of the air modeled in the Burke-Schumann limit of infinitely fast chemical reaction, with nonunity Lewis numbers allowed for the different r...

  9. Modeling of Gallium Nitride Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)


    A reactor model for the hydride vapor phase epitaxy of GaN is presented. The governing flow, energy, and species conservation equations are solved in two dimensions to examine the growth characteristics as a function of process variables and reactor geometry. The growth rate varies with GaCl composition but independent of NH3 and H2 flow rates. A change in carrier gas for Ga source from H2 to N2 affects the growth rate and uniformity for a fixed reactor configuration. The model predictions are in general agreement with observed experimental behavior.

  10. Capacitive Sensing Of Gaseous Fraction In Two-Phase Flow (United States)

    Crowley, Christopher J.; Sahm, Michael K.


    Instrument makes nonintrusive, real-time capacitive measurements to determine volume fraction of vapor or other gas in flowing, electrically nonconductive liquid/gas mixture. Works even with liquids having relatively low permittivities. Useful for measuring proportions of vapor in boiling, condensing, and flowing heat-transfer fluids and in cryogenic fluids.

  11. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems (United States)


    ... clarified the location of the gas injection and mixing arrangement relative to the vapor processing unit or... Parts 35 and 39 Marine Vapor Control Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 136... Parts 154, 155, and 156 46 CFR Parts 35 and 39 RIN 1625-AB37 Marine Vapor Control Systems AGENCY: Coast...

  12. High Resolution Additive Patterning of Nanoparticles and Polymers Enabled by Vapor Permeable Polymer Templates (United States)

    Demko, Michael Thomas

    The structure and chemistry of nanoparticles and polymers are interesting for applications in electronics and sensors. However, because they are outside of the standard material set typically used for these applications, widespread use of these materials has not yet been realized. This is due in part to the limited ability of traditional manufacturing processes to adapt to these unique materials. As a result, several alternative manufacturing methods have been developed, including nanoimprint lithography, gravure printing, inkjet printing, and screen printing, among many others. However, these current processes are not able to simultaneously produce patterns with high resolution and high dimensional fidelity, rapidly, over large areas, and in a completely additive manner. In this work, high-resolution patterns of nanoparticles and polymers are created on a variety of substrates in a completely additive manner using a template-based microfluidic process. Permeation of solvent through a vapor-permeable polymer template is used to both drive the flow of ink and concentrate the solute inside of template features. This fluidic process is shown to allow gradual packing of solute inside the template features, enabling creation of three-dimensional features with low defect densities. Additionally, because the mechanical properties of the template material are found to significantly impact patterning resolution and fidelity, and a process for creating rigid, vapor permeable templates from poly(4-methyl-2-pentyne) is developed. These templates are used for creating patterning of nanoparticles and polymers with a minimum line width of smaller than 350 nm. The process is then applied to the creation of low temperature metallization for polymer electronics using metallic nanoparticles and a highly-sensitive ultraviolet light sensor from zinc oxide nanoparticles.

  13. High-Throughput Flow Cytometry Screening Reveals a Role for Junctional Adhesion Molecule A as a Cancer Stem Cell Maintenance Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lathia, Justin D; Li, Meizhang; Sinyuk, Maksim


    Stem cells reside in niches that regulate the balance between self-renewal and differentiation. The identity of a stem cell is linked with the ability to interact with its niche through adhesion mechanisms. To identify targets that disrupt cancer stem cell (CSC) adhesion, we performed a flow cyto...

  14. Determination of Chlorinated Solvent Sorption by Porous Material-Application to Trichloroethene Vapor on Cement Mortar. (United States)

    Musielak, Marion; Brusseau, Mark L; Marcoux, Manuel; Morrison, Candice; Quintard, Michel


    Experiments have been performed to investigate the sorption of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor by concrete material or, more specifically, the cement mortar component. Gas-flow experiments were conducted using columns packed with small pieces of cement mortar obtained from the grinding of typical concrete material. Transport and retardation of TCE at high vapor concentrations (500 mg L(-1)) was compared to that of a non-reactive gas tracer (Sulfur Hexafluoride, SF6). The results show a large magnitude of retardation (retardation factor = 23) and sorption (sorption coefficient = 10.6 cm(3) g(-1)) for TCE, compared to negligible sorption for SF6. This magnitude of sorption obtained with pollutant vapor is much bigger than the one obtained for aqueous-flow experiments conducted for water-saturated systems. The considerable sorption exhibited for TCE under vapor-flow conditions is attributed to some combination of accumulation at the air-water interface and vapor-phase adsorption, both of which are anticipated to be significant for this system given the large surface area associated with the cement mortar. Transport of both SF6 and TCE was simulated successfully with a two-region physical non-equilibrium model, consistent with the dual-medium structure of the crushed cement mortar. This work emphasizes the importance of taking into account sorption phenomena when modeling transport of volatile organic compounds through concrete material, especially in regard to assessing vapor intrusion.

  15. Three-dimensional calculation of pollutant migration via compressible two-phase flow, for analysis of the methods of in situ air sparging and soil vapor extraction; Raeumliche Berechnung des Schadstofftransportes mit einer kompressiblen Zweiphasenstroemung zur Untersuchung der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, S.


    In this study an analysis method is presented which allows numerical simulation of in situ air sparging coupled with soil vapor extraction. The improved FE-program takes the following phenomena into account: - Two-phase flow of compressible air and incompressible water - convective-dispersive contamination migration with air and water - transfer of volatile components from liquid phase to gas and water phase - sorption of contaminants onto soil - transfer of contaminants between air and water phase - biological processes. By means of back calculations of the results of laboratory experiments made by Eisele (1989) it was shown that with the developed program GWLCOND some of the necessary parameters for the numerical simulation of remedial systems can be determined. (orig./SR) [Deutsch] In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren vorgestellt, mit dem eine numerische Simulation der Drucklufteinblasung und Bodenluftabsaugung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Das weiterentwickelte FE-Programmsystem beinhaltet folgende Ablaeufe: - Zweiphasenstroemung der kompressiblen Luft- und der inkompressiblen Wasserphase - Konvektiv-dispersiver Schadstofftransport mit der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Uebergang fluessiger Schadstoffe in die Gas- und in die Wasserphase - Sorption der Schadstoffe an der Feststoffphase - Uebergang der Schadstoffe zwischen der Gas- und der Wasserphase - Biologischer Abbau. Anhand der Nachrechnung eines Laborversuches von Eisele (1989) wird gezeigt, wie mit dem entwickelten Transportprogramm GWLCOND ein Teil der fuer die numerische Simulation des Sanierungsverfahrens benoetigten Kennwerte ermittelt werden kann. (orig./SR)

  16. Double screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratia, Pierre [Department of Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hu, Wayne [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago,South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Ribeiro, Raquel H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)


    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  17. Flow-separation patterns on symmetric forebodies (United States)

    Keener, Earl R.


    Flow-visualization studies of ogival, parabolic, and conical forebodies were made in a comprehensive investigation of the various types of flow patterns. Schlieren, vapor-screen, oil-flow, and sublimation flow-visualization tests were conducted over an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg. to 88 deg., over a Reynolds-number range from 0.3X10(6) to 2.0X10(6) (based on base diameter), and over a Mach number range from 0.1 to 2. The principal effects of angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number on the occurrence of vortices, the position of vortex shedding, the principal surface-flow-separation patterns, the magnitude of surface-flow angles, and the extent of laminar and turbulent flow for symmetric, asymmetric, and wake-like flow-separation regimes are presented. It was found that the two-dimensional cylinder analogy was helpful in a qualitative sense in analyzing both the surface-flow patterns and the external flow field. The oil-flow studies showed three types of primary separation patterns at the higher Reynolds numbers owing to the influence of boundary-layer transition. The effect of angle of attack and Reynolds number is to change the axial location of the onset and extent of the primary transitional and turbulent separation regions. Crossflow inflectional-instability vortices were observed on the windward surface at angles of attack from 5 deg. to 55 deg. Their effect is to promote early transition. At low angles of attack, near 10 deg., an unexpected laminar-separation bubble occurs over the forward half of the forebody. At high angles of attack, at which vortex asymmetry occurs, the results support the proposition that the principal cause of vortex asymmetry is the hydrodynamic instability of the inviscid flow field. On the other hand, boundary-layer asymmetries also occur, especially at transitional Reynolds numbers. The position of asymmetric vortex shedding moves forward with increasing angle of attack and with increasing Reynolds number, and moves

  18. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark J. Bergander


    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and

  19. Growth of tapered silica nanowires with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber: Growth mechanism and structural and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Danqing; Zhang, Xi, E-mail:; Wei, Jianglin; Gu, Gangxu; Xiang, Gang, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)


    Traditional chemical vapor deposition method modified with a shallow U-shaped vapor chamber has been used to synthesize tapered bamboo shoot-like (BS-like) amorphous SiO{sub 2} nanowires (NWs) on Si (100) substrates without catalyst. The key innovation of this approach lies in a creation of swirling flow of the reactant vapors during the growth, which leads to a harvest of tapered silica NWs with lengths up to several microns. The unique structures and corresponding luminescence properties of the BS-like NWs were studied and their relationship with the evaporated active reactants was explored. A thermodynamic model that considers the critical role of the vapor flow during the growth is proposed to understand the structural and optical features. The shallow U-shaped vapor chamber-aided approach may provide a viable way to tailor novel structure of NWs for potential applications in nano-devices.

  20. Vaporization heat transfer of dielectric liquids on a wick-covered surface (United States)

    Gu, C. B.; Chow, L. C.; Baker, K.


    Vaporization heat transfer characteristics were measured for the dielectric liquid FC-72 on a horizontal heated surface covered with wire screen wicks with the mesh number for the screens varying from 24 to 100. In such a situation the liquid level can be either higher or lower than the heated surface. When the liquid level was above the heated surface (shallow pool boiling), the height of the liquid level above the surface, h, was varied from 0 to 10 mm. When the liquid level was below the heated surface (evaporation through capillary pumping), the distance from the liquid level to the edge of the surface, L, was adjusted from 0 to 15 mm. Experimental data revealed that the critical heat flux (CHF) decreases as the mesh number is increased from 24 to 100 for both vaporation and shallow pool boiling, showing that the vapor-escaping limit is more important than the capillary limit in flat plate heat pipe application.

  1. Low-level doping of nitrogen to multilayered graphene by chemical vapor deposition of methane including melamine vapor (United States)

    Bandow, Shunji; Yoshida, Takahiro


    Growth of graphene doped with the low level of nitrogen is carried out on the copper foil by conventional chemical vapor deposition. Melamine is used as nitrogen source. Melamine vapor is generated by heating and carried by an argon flow (carrier flow) to a main flow of Ar including methane. Ratio of the number of molecules, melamine/methane, is controlled by changing the mixing rate of the carrier flow and the main flow. Measurements of Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and sheet resistance clarify the feature of prepared sample. At low melamine/methane ratio in the order of 10-3, quaternary N doped graphene is grown. Then the growth of pyridinic N doped graphene is going to start as increasing the melamine/methane ratio in the order of 10-2. Magnitude of the sheet resistance per one graphene layer decreases by 75% when the nitrogen is in the quaternary site, while it increases twice or more when the pyridine-like configuration increases.

  2. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John


    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  3. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations. (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart


    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. High-throughput reaction optimisation and activity screening of ferrocene-based Lewis acid-catalyst complexes by using continuous-flow reaction detection mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Martha, Cornelius T; Heemskerk, Anton; Hoogendoorn, Jan-Carel; Elders, Niels; Niessen, Wilfried M A; Orru, Romano V A; Irth, Hubertus


    Optimising synthetic conversions and assessing catalyst performance is a tedious and laborious endeavour. Herein, we present an automated alternative to the commonly applied sequential approaches that are used to increase catalyst discovery process efficiencies by increasing the number of entities that can be tested. This new approach combines conversion of the reactants and determination of product formation into a single comprehensive reaction detection system that can be operated with minimal catalyst and reactant consumption. With this approach, rudimentary reaction conditions can be quickly optimised and the same system can then be used to screen for the optimal homogenous catalyst in a selected solution-phase synthetic conversion. The system, which is composed of standard HPLC components, can be used to screen catalyst libraries at a repetition rate of five minutes and can be run unsupervised. The sensitive mass spectrometric detection that is implemented in the reaction detection methodology can be used for the simultaneous monitoring of reactants, catalysts and product ions. In the experiments, the three-component reaction that gives a substituted 2-imidazoline was optimised. Afterwards, the same method was used to assess a library of ferrocene-based Lewis acid catalysts for performance in the aforementioned conversion in six different solvents. We demonstrate the feasibility of using this methodology to directly compare the performance results obtained in different solvents by calibrating the solvent-specific MS responses.

  5. Scavenging dissolved oxygen via acoustic droplet vaporization. (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Kirthi; Holland, Christy K; Haworth, Kevin J


    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) of perfluorocarbon emulsions has been explored for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Previous studies have demonstrated that vaporization of a liquid droplet results in a gas microbubble with a diameter 5-6 times larger than the initial droplet diameter. The expansion factor can increase to a factor of 10 in gassy fluids as a result of air diffusing from the surrounding fluid into the microbubble. This study investigates the potential of this process to serve as an ultrasound-mediated gas scavenging technology. Perfluoropentane droplets diluted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were insonified by a 2 MHz transducer at peak rarefactional pressures lower than and greater than the ADV pressure amplitude threshold in an in vitro flow phantom. The change in dissolved oxygen (DO) of the PBS before and after ADV was measured. A numerical model of gas scavenging, based on conservation of mass and equal partial pressures of gases at equilibrium, was developed. At insonation pressures exceeding the ADV threshold, the DO of air-saturated PBS decreased with increasing insonation pressures, dropping as low as 25% of air saturation within 20s. The decrease in DO of the PBS during ADV was dependent on the volumetric size distribution of the droplets and the fraction of droplets transitioned during ultrasound exposure. Numerically predicted changes in DO from the model agreed with the experimentally measured DO, indicating that concentration gradients can explain this phenomenon. Using computationally modified droplet size distributions that would be suitable for in vivo applications, the DO of the PBS was found to decrease with increasing concentrations. This study demonstrates that ADV can significantly decrease the DO in an aqueous fluid, which may have direct therapeutic applications and should be considered for ADV-based diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon (United States)

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  7. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln(R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  8. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.


    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  9. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita


    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  10. Effects of Natural Environmental Changes on Soil-Vapor Extraction Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, S; Gregory, S


    Remediation by soil-vapor extraction has been used for over a decade at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We have found that natural changes in environmental conditions affect the rate of soil-vapor extraction. Data on flow rate observations collected over this time are compared to in-situ measurements of several different environmental parameters (soil-gas pressure, soil-temperature, soil-moisture, Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT), rainfall and barometric pressure). Environmental changes that lead to increased soil-moisture are associated with reduced soil-vapor extraction flow rates. We have found that the use of higher extraction vacuums combined with dual-phase extraction can help to increase pneumatic conductivity when vadose zone saturation is a problem. Daily changes in barometric pressure and soil-gas temperature were found to change flow rate measurements by as much as 10% over the course of a day.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapp, P.; Hoffman, E.


    The phenomena of vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion of carbon steel in simulated liquid waste environments have been investigated. Initial experiments have explored the hypothesis that vapor space corrosion may be accelerated by the formation of a corrosive electrolyte on the tank wall by a process of evaporation of relatively warmer waste and condensation of the vapor on the relatively cooler tank wall. Results from initial testing do not support the hypothesis of electrolyte transport by evaporation and condensation. The analysis of the condensate collected by a steel specimen suspended over a 40 C simulated waste solution showed no measurable concentrations of the constituents of the simulated solution and a decrease in pH from 14 in the simulant to 5.3 in the condensate. Liquid/air interface corrosion was studied as a galvanic corrosion system, where steel at the interface undergoes accelerated corrosion while steel in contact with bulk waste is protected. The zero-resistance-ammeter technique was used to measure the current flow between steel specimens immersed in solutions simulating (1) the high-pH bulk liquid waste and (2) the expected low-pH meniscus liquid at the liquid/air interface. Open-circuit potential measurements of the steel specimens were not significantly different in the two solutions, with the result that (1) no consistent galvanic current flow occurred and (2) both the meniscus specimen and bulk specimen were subject to pitting corrosion.

  12. Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 and -D2 produced in an inflammatory cell reaction and its application for activity screening and potency evaluation using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Shin, Jeong-Sook; Peng, Lei; Kang, Kyungsu; Choi, Yongsoo


    Direct analysis of prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2) and -D2 (PGD2) produced from a RAW264.7 cell-based reaction was performed by liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), which was online coupled with turbulent flow chromatography (TFC). The capability of this method to accurately measure PG levels in cell reaction medium containing cytokines or proteins as a reaction byproduct was cross-validated by two conventional methods. Two methods, including an LC-HRMS method after liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of the sample and a commercial PGE2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), showed PGE2 and/or PGD2 levels almost similar to those obtained by TFC LC-HRMS over the reaction time after LPS stimulation. After the cross-validation, significant analytical throughputs, allowing simultaneous screening and potency evaluation of 80 natural products including 60 phytochemicals and 20 natural product extracts for the inhibition of the PGD2 produced in the cell-based inflammatory reaction, were achieved using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed. Among the 60 phytochemicals screened, licochalcone A and formononetin inhibited PGD2 production the most with IC50 values of 126 and 151nM, respectively. For a reference activity, indomethacin and diclofenac were used, measuring IC50 values of 0.64 and 0.21nM, respectively. This method also found a butanol extract of Akebia quinata Decne (AQ) stem as a promising natural product for PGD2 inhibition. Direct and accurate analysis of PGs in the inflammatory cell reaction using the TFC LC-HRMS method developed enables the high-throughput screening and potency evaluation of as many as 320 samples in less than 48h without changing a TFC column. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a lateral-flow assay for rapid screening of the performance-enhancing sympathomimetic drug clenbuterol used in animal production; food safety assessments. (United States)

    Lai, Weihua; Xu, Yang; Fung, Daniel Y C; Xiong, Yonghua


    A lateral-flow assay that could provide visual evidence of the presence of clenbuterol in swine urine was developed. Colloidal gold was prepared and conjugated with anti-clenbuterol monoclonal antibody. Immunochromatographic test strips were produced, and then, 210 samples were tested on these strips. Analysis was completed in 10 min. Detection limit was 3 ppb of clenbuterol. Parallel GC-MS data indicated that clenbuterol rapid detection strip had no false negative. The false positive rate was 4.4%. Immunochromatographic strip has great applied value in the food safety field because it possesses benefits of sensitivity, stability, reproducibility, ease of use and inexpensive.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of the ocean thermal energy conversion system with a vapor–vapor ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Saeng Lee


    Full Text Available In this article, 20 kW ocean thermal energy conversion with a vapor–vapor ejector is newly proposed. As a vapor–vapor ejector is installed in the system, the pressure difference between the turbine inlet and outlet increases. Therefore, the amount of the working fluid required for the total turbine work of 20 kW is less than when no vapor–vapor ejector is installed. Therefore, installing a vapor–vapor ejector in the system decreases the evaporation capacity and the pump work. The performance analysis considered the outlet pressure of the high-stage turbine, the mass flow ratio of the working fluid at the outlet of a separator just after the high-stage turbine, and the nozzle diameters of the vapor–vapor ejector. As the outlet pressure of high-stage turbine becomes lower, the turbine gross power of high-stage turbine and system efficiency increase although lower outlet pressure of high-stage turbine results in lower ejector performance. Similarly, in terms of mass flow ratio, the highest system efficiency was shown at mass flow ratio of 0.4 at the outlet of a separator just after the high-stage turbine. On the other hand, the performance of the ejector at mass flow ratio of 0.5 at the outlet of a separator was largest. When the nozzle diameters of the vapor–vapor ejector are properly designed, the vapor–vapor ejector shows the highest performance. After the optimization of the operation parameters, system efficiency of the proposed ocean thermal energy conversion power cycle was 2.47%, relatively 15% higher than that of the basic ocean thermal energy conversion power cycle (2.2%.

  15. Developmental Screening (United States)

    ... bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, or things most children can do by a ... screening are ways to look for your child’s developmental milestones. Developmental Monitoring Developmental Screening WHO: You — parents, grandparents, ...

  16. Design and construction of a lithium vapor box divertor similarity experiment (United States)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Cohen, R. A.; Emdee, E. D.; Jaworski, M. A.; Goldston, R. J.


    Future fusion devices will require handling extreme heat fluxes. The lithium vapor box divertor is a concept to manage this heat flux. The divertor plasma impinges on a dense cloud of lithium vapor, leading to volumetric cooling, radiation, and recombination. The vapor is localized by baffles and condensation on the divertor slot walls upstream of the target, limiting the lithium reaching the main chamber. A series of test stand experiments will study vapor confinement and plasma plugging in a simplified baffled-pipe geometry. A first experiment without plasma will validate a DSMC model for evaporation, flow, and condensation of lithium vapor. Three stainless steel cylindrical cans will be heated to 550C, 600C, and 650C respectively inside a vacuum chamber. Lithium flow will be measured by weighing the cans before and after heating and by calorimetry of the latent heat of the vapor. Progress on the experiment will be presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Potential of cross-priming amplification and DNA-based lateral-flow strip biosensor for rapid on-site GMO screening. (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Zhai, Congcong; You, Qimin; Chen, Hongjun


    The requirement to monitor the presence of genetically modified organisms (GMO) in a variety of marked products has generated an increasing demand for reliable, rapid, and time and cost-effective analytical methods. Here we report an on-site method for rapid detection of cauliflower mosaic virus promoter (CaMV 35S), a common element present in most GMO, using cross-priming amplification (CPA) technology. Detection was achieved using a DNA-based contamination-proof strip biosensor. The limit of detection was 30 copies for the pBI121 plasmid containing the CaMV 35S gene. The certified reference sample of GM maize line MON810 was detectable even at the low relative mass concentration of 0.05%. The developed CPA method had high specificity for the CaMV 35S gene, as compared with other GM lines not containing this gene and non-GM products. The method was further validated using nine real-world samples, and the results were confirmed by real-time PCR analysis. Because of its simplicity, rapidity, and high sensitivity, this method of detecting the CaMV 35S gene has great commercial prospects for rapid GMO screening of high-consumption food and agriculture products.

  18. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  19. Vortex-Induced Vapor Explosion during Drop Impact on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, M.A.


    Ultra high-speed imaging is used to investigate the vapor explosion when a drop impacts onto a high-temperature pool. The two liquids are immiscible, a low boiling-temperature perfluorohexane drop, at room temperature, which impacts a high boiling-temperature soybean-oil pool, which is heated well above the boiling temperature of the drop. We observe different regimes: weak and strong nucleate boiling, film boiling or Leidenfrost regime and entrainment followed by vapor explosion. The vapor explosions were seen to depend on the formation of a rotational flow at the edge of the impact crater, near the pool surface, which resembles a vortex ring. This rotational motion entrains a thin sheet of the drop liquid, to become surrounded by the oil. In that region, the vapor explosion starts at a point after which it propagates azimuthally along the entire periphery at high speed.

  20. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.


    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  1. Self-tuning method for monitoring the density of a gas vapor component using a tunable laser (United States)

    Hagans, K.; Berzins, L.; Galkowski, J.; Seng, R.


    The present invention relates to a vapor density monitor and laser atomic absorption spectroscopy method for highly accurate, continuous monitoring of vapor densities, composition, flow velocity, internal and kinetic temperatures and constituent distributions. The vapor density monitor employs a diode laser, preferably of an external cavity design. By using a diode laser, the vapor density monitor is significantly less expensive and more reliable than prior art vapor density monitoring devices. In addition, the compact size of diode lasers enables the vapor density monitor to be portable. According to the method of the present invention, the density of a component of a gas vapor is calculated by tuning the diode laser to a frequency at which the amount of light absorbed by the component is at a minimum or a maximum within about 50 MHz of that frequency. Laser light from the diode laser is then transmitted at the determined frequency across a predetermined pathlength of the gas vapor. By comparing the amount of light transmitted by the diode laser to the amount of light transmitted after the laser light passes through the gas vapor, the density of the component can be determined using Beer`s law. 6 figs.

  2. Chemical Vapor Deposition at High Pressure in a Microgravity Environment (United States)

    McCall, Sonya; Bachmann, Klaus; LeSure, Stacie; Sukidi, Nkadi; Wang, Fuchao


    In this paper we present an evaluation of critical requirements of organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) at elevated pressure for a channel flow reactor in a microgravity environment. The objective of using high pressure is to maintain single-phase surface composition for materials that have high thermal decomposition pressure at their optimum growth temperature. Access to microgravity is needed to maintain conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for process analysis. Based on ground based observations we present an optimized reactor design for OMCVD at high pressure and reduced gravity. Also, we discuss non-intrusive real-time optical monitoring of flow dynamics coupled to homogeneous gas phase reactions, transport and surface processes. While suborbital flights may suffice for studies of initial stages of heteroepitaxy experiments in space are essential for a complete evaluation of steady-state growth.

  3. Droplet Vaporization in a Supercritical Microgravity Environment (United States)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.


    A model is presented which describes single liquid droplet vaporization at nearly critical liquid pressures and temperatures. A modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used to evaluate the fugacities and liquid and vapor mole fractions at the interface under the assumption of interface equilibrium. Results obtained for different droplet sizes and conditions indicate significant differences in behavior in comparison with low-pressure quasi-steady droplet vaporization.

  4. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics (United States)


    there were flaws in the original data prior to its publication. 3. FITTING METHODS Our process for correlating experimental vapor pressure ...2. Penski, E.C. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis Methodology, Statistics, and Applications; CRDEC-TR-386; U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and... Chemical Biological Center: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 2006; UNCLASSIFIED Report (ADA447993). 11. Kemme, H.R.; Kreps, S.I. Vapor Pressure of

  5. Screen-printed immunosensor modified with carbon nanotubes in a continuous-flow system for the Botrytis cinerea determination in apple tissues. (United States)

    Fernández-Baldo, Martín A; Messina, Germán A; Sanz, Maria I; Raba, Julio


    Botrytis cinerea is a plant-pathogenic fungus that produces the disease known as grey mould in a wide variety of agriculturally important hosts in many countries. This paper describes the development of an immunosensor coupled to carbon-based screen-printed electrodes (SPCE) modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which show a rapid and sensitive determination of B. cinerea in apple tissues (Red-delicious) using a competitive immunoassay method. Both the infected plant tissue sample and the B. cinerea-specific monoclonal antibody are allowed to react immunologically with the B. cinerea purified antigens immobilized on a rotating disk. Then, the bound antibodies are quantified by a horseradish peroxidise (HRP) enzyme labeled second antibodies specific to mouse IgG, using 4-tertbutylcatechol (4-TBC) as enzymatic mediators. The HRP, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, catalyses the oxidation of 4-TBC to 4-tertbutyl o-benzoquinone. The electrochemical reduction back to 4-TBC is detected on SPCE-CNT at -0.15 V. The response current is inversely proportional to the amount of the B. cinerea antigens present in the fruit sample. The time consumed per assay was 30 min and the calculated detection limits for electrochemical method and the ELISA procedure are 0.02 and 10 microg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were below 7%. This electrochemical immunosensor promises to be usefully suited to the detection and quantification of B. cinerea in apparently healthy plant prior to the development of the symptoms.

  6. Mars water vapor, near-surface (United States)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.


    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  7. Screening for suitable areas for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage within the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium using coupled groundwater flow and heat transport modelling tools (United States)

    Anibas, Christian; Kukral, Janik; Touhidul Mustafa, Syed Md; Huysmans, Marijke


    Urban areas have a great potential for shallow geothermal systems. Their energy demand is high, but currently they have only a limited potential to cover their own energy demand. The transition towards a low-carbon energy regime offers alternative sources of energy an increasing potential. Urban areas however pose special challenges for the successful exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. High building densities limit the available space for drillings and underground investigations. Urban heat island effects and underground structures influence the thermal field, groundwater pollution and competing water uses limit the available subsurface. To tackle these challenges in the Brussels Capital Region, Belgium two projects 'BruGeo' and the recently finished 'Prospective Research of Brussels project 2015-PRFB-228' address the investigation in urban geothermal systems. They aim to identify the key factors of the underground with respect to Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) installations like thermal properties, aquifer thicknesses, groundwater flow velocities and their heterogeneity. Combined numerical groundwater and heat transport models are applied for the assessment of both open and closed loop shallow geothermal systems. The Brussels Capital Region comprises of the Belgian Capital, the City of Brussels and 18 other municipalities covering 161 km2 with almost 1.2 million inhabitants. Beside the high population density the Brussels Capital Region has a pronounced topography and a relative complex geology. This is both a challenge and an opportunity for the exploitation of shallow geothermal energy. The most important shallow hydrogeological formation in the Brussels-Capital Region are the Brussels Sands with the Brussels Sands Aquifer. Scenarios where developed using criteria for the hydrogeological feasibility of ATES installations such as saturated aquifer thickness, groundwater flow velocity and the groundwater head below surface. The Brussels Sands

  8. Characterization of Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition (United States)

    Jesser, W. A.


    A series of experimental and numerical investigations to develop a more complete understanding of the reactive fluid dynamics of chemical vapor deposition were conducted. In the experimental phases of the effort, a horizontal CVD reactor configuration was used for the growth of InP at UVA and for laser velocimetry measurements of the flow fields in the reactor at LaRC. This horizontal reactor configuration was developed for the growth of III-V semiconductors and has been used by our research group in the past to study the deposition of both GaAs and InP. While the ultimate resolution of many of the heat and mass transport issues will require access to a reduced-gravity environment, the series of groundbased research makes direct contributions to this area while attempting to answer the design questions for future experiments of how low must gravity be reduced and for how long must this gravity level be maintained to make the necessary measurements. It is hoped that the terrestrial experiments will be useful for the design of future microgravity experiments which likely will be designed to employ a core set of measurements for applications in the microgravity environment such as HOLOC, the Fluid Physics/Dynamics Facility, or the Schlieren photography, the Laser Imaging Velocimetry and the Laser Doppler Velocimetry instruments under development for the Advanced Fluids Experiment Module.

  9. Streptococcal screen (United States)

    ... Considerations This test screens for the group A streptococcus bacteria only. It ... MJ, eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap ...

  10. Hypertension screening (United States)

    Foulke, J. M.


    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  11. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci


    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  12. Carbon vaporization into a nonequilibrium, stagnation-point boundary layer (United States)

    Suzuki, T.


    The heat transfer to the stagnation point of an ablating carbonaceous heat shield, where both the gas-phase boundary layer and the heterogeneous surface reactions are not in chemical equilibrium, is examined. Specifically, the nonequilibrium changes in the mass fraction profiles of carbon species calculated for frozen flow are studied. A set of equations describing the steady-state, nonequilibrium laminar boundary layer in the axisymmetric stagnation region, over an ablating graphite surface, is solved, with allowance for the effects of finite rate of carbon vaporization.

  13. Modeling of chemical vapor deposition. I. General considerations (United States)

    Korec, J.; Heyen, M.


    In this study a general analysis of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes carried out in open flow systems is presented. In this treatment the successive process steps, namely mass transport in the gas phase, adsorption, chemical reaction and surface diffusion are included. The proposed approach allows computation of the activity of the material to be deposited; this quantity is determined by a balance between the rates of gas phase diffusion and of surface processes. An expression is presented relating the activity near the interface to the growth rate of the deposited layer. It is shown that the same approach can be used for etching conditions.

  14. Vapors-liquid phase separator. [infrared telescope heat sink (United States)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Brown, G. S.; Chuang, C.; Kamioka, Y.; Kim, Y. I.; Lee, J. M.; Yuan, S. W. K.


    The use of porous plugs, mostly with in the form of passive devices with constant area were considered as vapor-liquid phase separators for helium 2 storage vessels under reduced gravity. The incorporation of components with variable cross sectional area as a method of flow rate modification was also investigated. A particular device which uses a shutter-type system for area variation was designed and constructed. This system successfully permitted flor rate changes of up to plus or minus 60% from its mean value.

  15. Advances in modeling of chemical vapor infiltration for tube fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Materials Science and Technology


    The forced flow/thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration process (FCVI) can be used for fabrication of tube-shaped components of ceramic matrix composites. Recent experimental work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) includes process and materials development studies using a small tube reactor. Use of FCVI for this geometry involves significant changes in fixturing as compared to disk-shaped preforms previously fabricated. The authors have used their computer model of the CVI process to simulate tube densification and to identify process modifications that will decrease processing time. This report presents recent model developments and applications.

  16. Vapor transport through short hydrophobic nanopores for desalination (United States)

    Lee, Jongho; O'Hern, Sean; Laoui, Tahar; Rahman, Faizur; Karnik, Rohit


    We propose a concept for desalination of water by reverse osmosis (RO) using a vapor-trapping membrane composed of short hydrophobic nanopores and separates the salt water (feed) and the fresh water (permeate) on each side. The feed water is vaporized by applied pressure and the water vapor condenses on the permeate side accompanied by recovery of latent heat. A probabilistic model based on rarified gas conditions predicted 3-5 times larger mass flux by the proposed membrane than conventional RO membranes at temperatures in the range of 30-50C. To realize the short hydrophobic nanopores, gold was deposited at the entrance of alumina pores followed by SAM formation. The fraction of leaking pores was confirmed to be less than 0.2% using a calcium ion indicator (Fluo-4). Finally, a microfluidic flow cell was fabricated for characterizing the transport properties of the membranes. The authors would like to thank the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, for funding the research reported in this paper through the Center for Clean Water and Clean Energy at MIT and KFUPM.

  17. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.


    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ananskikh


    Full Text Available Starch hydrolysis is main technological process in production of starch sweeteners. Acid hydrolysis of starch using hydrochloric acid is carried out very fast but it does not allow to carry out full hydrolysis and to produce products with given carbohydrate composition. Bioconversion of starch allows to eliminate these limitations. At production of starch sweeteners from starch using enzymes starch hydrolysis is carried out in two stages At first starch – starch liquefaction the rapid increase of viscosity takes place which requires intensive mixing. Liquefying station consists of jet-cooker, holder, pressure regulator and evaporator. Jet-cooker of starch is its main part, starch is quickly turns into soluble (gelatinized state and it is partially liquefied by injection of starch suspension by flow of water vapor under pressure not less than 0,8 MPa. Heat and hydraulic calculation were carried out in order to determine constructive sizes of mixer for cooking of starch. The main hydraulic definable parameters are pressure drop in mixer, vapor pressure at mixer inlet, daily capacity of station by glucose syrup M, product consumption (starch suspension, diameter of inlet section of vapor nozzle. The goal of calculation was to determine vapor consumption M1, diameter d2 of outlet section of confuser injector, length l2 of gelatinization section. For heat calculation there was used Shukhov’s formula along with heat balance equation for gelatinization process. The numerical solution obtained with adopted assumptions given in applied mathematical package MATHCAD, for M = 50 t/day gives required daily vapor consumption M1 = 14,446 т. At hydraulic calculation of pressure drop in mixer there was used Bernoulli’s theorem. Solving obtained equations using MATHCAD found diameter of outlet section of consufer d2 = 0,023 м, vapor pressure inside of mixer p2 = 3,966·105 Па, l2 = 0,128 м. Developed method of calculation is used to determine

  19. Acoustic droplet vaporization for diagnostic and therapeutic applications (United States)

    Kripfgans, Oliver Daniel

    A technology, termed Acoustic Droplet Vaporization (ADV), is developed whereby superheated droplets are caused to vaporize by application of an ultrasonic field. The droplet emulsion (90% pressure threshold exists above which the droplets vaporize into bubbles approximately 25-times the original droplet diameter. For frequencies between 1.5 and 8 MHz, the threshold decreases from 4.5 to 0.75 MPa peak rarefactional pressure. The single pulse efficiency of ADV has been measured as 26%. This technology might be useful for tissue occlusion in cancer treatment as well as for aberration correction in acoustic imaging. To demonstrate these potential applications, gas bubbles were made in vivo in animal models by ADV. It was found that ADV could be used to temporarily form large gas bubbles (>30 um) in vivo, which at large number density occluded targeted tissues and reduced the blood flow by 34%. Alternatively, for a very sparse droplet population, gas bubbles could serve as potential point beacons for phase aberration correction given their backscatter amplitudes of 24 dB above tissue background. Other possible applications include drug delivery, indicator for cryo therapy, pressure/radiation beacons, hyperthermia, and cavitation nuclei. ADV of individual droplets showed that during acoustic irradiation, droplets perform dipole-type oscillations and that such oscillations increased in amplitude with acoustic intensity. Smaller droplets required more acoustic intensity for vaporization than larger droplets; however, independent of droplet diameter, a maximum oscillation amplitude of 1.3 um, was required. This threshold corresponds to a Reynolds number of ˜5 x 104. Vaporization started either as a spot on the axis of oscillation close to a pole of the droplet, or homogeneously throughout the droplet's imaged cross-section. It is concluded that because of the high Reynolds number, the mechanism of vaporization might be based on hydrodynamic effects. An inverse frequency

  20. Vapor-fed bio-hybrid fuel cell. (United States)

    Benyamin, Marcus S; Jahnke, Justin P; Mackie, David M


    Concentration and purification of ethanol and other biofuels from fermentations are energy-intensive processes, with amplified costs at smaller scales. To circumvent the need for these processes, and to potentially reduce transportation costs as well, we have previously investigated bio-hybrid fuel cells (FCs), in which a fermentation and FC are closely coupled. However, long-term operation requires strictly preventing the fermentation and FC from harming each other. We introduce here the concept of the vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC as a means of continuously extracting power from ongoing fermentations at ambient conditions. By bubbling a carrier gas (N2) through a yeast fermentation and then through a direct ethanol FC, we protect the FC anode from the catalyst poisons in the fermentation (which are non-volatile), and also protect the yeast from harmful FC products (notably acetic acid) and from build-up of ethanol. Since vapor-fed direct ethanol FCs at ambient conditions have never been systematically characterized (in contrast to vapor-fed direct methanol FCs), we first assess the effects on output power and conversion efficiency of ethanol concentration, vapor flow rate, and FC voltage. The results fit a continuous stirred-tank reactor model. Over a wide range of ethanol partial pressures (2-8 mmHg), power densities are comparable to those for liquid-fed direct ethanol FCs at the same temperature, with power densities >2 mW/cm(2) obtained. We then demonstrate the continuous operation of a vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC with fermentation for 5 months, with no indication of performance degradation due to poisoning (of either the FC or the fermentation). It is further shown that the system is stable, recovering quickly from disturbances or from interruptions in maintenance. The vapor-fed bio-hybrid FC enables extraction of power from dilute bio-ethanol streams without costly concentration and purification steps. The concept should be scalable to both large and small

  1. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.


    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  2. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea


    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  3. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.


    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  4. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  5. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)


    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  6. HCC screening; HCC-Screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albrecht, T. [Charite-Unversitaetsmedizin,Freie Universitaet und Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin,Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany)


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP. (orig.) [German] Das hepatozellulaere Karzinom (HCC) ist eine der weltweit haeufigsten Tumorerkrankungen. Es tritt in der grossen Mehrzahl der Faelle bei Hochrisikopatienten mit chronischer Virushepatitis bzw. Leberzirrhose auf, woraus sich eine klar identifizierbare Zielgruppe fuer das HCC-Screening ergibt. Mit der Resektion, der Transplantation und interventionellen lokal ablativen Verfahren stehen bei rechtzeitiger Diagnosestellung kurative Therapieoptionen zur Verfuegung, die 5-Jahres-Ueberlebensraten von >60% erreichen. Diese rechtzeitige Diagnosestellung erfolgt jedoch nur bei einer Minderzahl der Patienten, waehrend die

  7. Growth Process Conditions of Tungsten Oxide Thin Films Using Hot-Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Z.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251874486; Geus, J.W.; de Jong, M.; Harks, P.P.R.M.L.; van der Werf, C.H.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072502584


    We report the growth conditions of nanostructured tungsten oxide (WO3−x) thin films using hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Two tungsten filaments were resistively heated to various temperatures and exposed to an air flow at various subatmospheric pressures. The oxygen partial pressure was

  8. Evaporation of polydispersed droplets in a highly turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, M.; Bazile, Rudy; Ferret, B.; Cazin, S. [INPT, UPS, IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Universite de Toulouse (France)


    A model experiment for the study of evaporating turbulent two-phase flows is presented here. The study focuses on a situation where pre-atomized and dispersed droplets vaporize and mix in a heated turbulent flow. The test bench consists in a channel flow with characteristics of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence where fluctuations levels reach very high values (25% in the established zone). An ultrasonic atomizer allows the injection of a mist of small droplets of acetone in the carrier flow. The large range diameters ensure that every kind of droplet behavior with regards to turbulence is possible. Instantaneous concentration fields of the vaporized phase are extracted from fluorescent images (PLIF) of the two phase flow. The evolution of the mixing of the acetone vapor is analyzed for two different liquid mass loadings. Despite the high turbulence levels, concentration fluctuations remain significant, indicating that air and acetone vapor are not fully mixed far from the injector. (orig.)

  9. Effect of vaporization on cryogenic spray dropsize measurement (United States)

    Ingebo, Robert D.


    The fluid mechanics of multi-phase flow breakup of liquid nitrogen, LN2, jets injected into sonic velocity nitrogen gasflow, was experimentally investigated. A scattered-light scanning instrument was used to measure the characteristic dropsize, D(sub v.5), of LN2 sprays and to determine the effect of droplet vaporization on experimental dropsize measurements. Under sonic gas-velocity conditions, liquid-jet breakup occurred in the regime of aerodynamic stripping. As a result, the following correlation of volume-median drop diameter, D(sub v.5), with atomizing gas flowrate, W(sub g), was derived for two-fluid atomizers: (D(sub v.5)) (exp -1) = k(sub c) (W(sub g)) (sup n), where proportionally constant k(sub c) and exponent n are functions of droplet vaporization rate. Partially vaporized sprays were investigated and it was found that n = 1.11, which is considerably less than the value of 1.33 that is predicted by atomization theory. This was attributed to the evaporative loss of very small droplets. As a result, the following expression was obtained experimentally: (D(sub v.5e)) (exp -1) = 301 (W(sub g)) (sub 1.11). Values of D(sub v.5), that existed prior to partial vaporization of the LN2 sprays, were calculated and the following expression was derived for originally unvaporized LN2 sprays: (D(sub v.5)) (exp -1) = 285 (W(sub g)) (sub 1.33). This expression agrees well with atomization theory that predicts n = 1.33, for liquid jet breakup in high-velocity gasflow.

  10. Raman spectral features of single walled carbon nanotubes synthesized by laser vaporization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moodley, MK


    Full Text Available synthesized boxshadowdwnSemi-conductor tubes were favoured boxshadowdwnImproved crystallinity as indicated by narrower line- widths. Thank You Acknowledgements to the CSIR NLC for support on carbon nanotube research ... Experimental……..cont. Experimental parameters • two laser combined and vaporize a composite target • target in a tube furnace in continuous flow of Argon • temperature kept at 1000 OC • Ar flow of 200 sccm • Pressure at 375 Torr...

  11. Modified vaporization-resection for photoselective vaporization of the prostate using a GreenLight high-performance system 120-W Laser: the Seoul technique. (United States)

    Son, Hwancheol; Ro, Yun Kwan; Min, Sun Ho; Choo, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Kwon; Lee, Chang Ju


    The most popular technique of photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) involves vaporization only. We developed a modified vaporization-resection technique that consists of vaporizing a prostate along outlined margins and retrieving the wedge-shaped prostate tissue. We report the operative procedure and clinical outcomes of our technique with the GreenLight high performance system (HPS). A total of 104 patients with a prostate volume greater than 40 mL who underwent PVP were included in this retrospective study. Forty patients were treated with the vaporization-only technique (Group non-S) and 64 patients with the Seoul technique (group S). The clinical outcomes were assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), quality of life (QoL) score, maximum flow rate (Q(max.)), and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR). The Q(max.), PVR, IPSS, and QoL scores improved significantly from 1 to 12 months after the PVP compared with the baseline in both groups (P technique for PVP showed good short-term efficacy and safety for the treatment of BPH. With this technique, we can conserve on the operative time, lasing time, and energy, and obtain prostatic tissue for pathologic evaluation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Testicular Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... testicles, and need to be followed closely. Testicular Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  13. Alcohol Use Screening (United States)

    ... Depression Screening Substance Abuse Screening Alcohol Use Screening Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following ...

  14. Vaporization of perfluorocarbon droplets using optical irradiation. (United States)

    Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael


    Micron-sized liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets are currently being investigated as activatable agents for medical imaging and cancer therapy. After injection into the bloodstream, superheated PFC droplets can be vaporized to a gas phase for ultrasound imaging, or for cancer therapy via targeted drug delivery and vessel occlusion. Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV). In order to facilitate ODV of PFC droplets which have negligible absorption in the infrared spectrum, optical absorbing nanoparticles were incorporated into the droplet. In this study, micron-sized PFC droplets loaded with silica-coated lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were evaluated using a 1064 nm laser and ultra-high frequency photoacoustic ultrasound (at 200 and 375 MHz). The photoacoustic response was proportional to nanoparticle loading and successful optical droplet vaporization of individual PFC droplets was confirmed using photoacoustic, acoustic, and optical measurements. A minimum laser fluence of 1.4 J/cm(2) was required to vaporize the droplets. The vaporization of PFC droplets via laser irradiation can lead to the activation of PFC agents in tissues previously not accessible using standard ultrasound-based techniques.

  15. Hearing Screening (United States)

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette


    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. Screening Tests (United States)

    ... gov/publications/AssessingAlcohol/index.htm .) This issue of Alcohol Research & Health highlights some of the most popular screening ... tolerance to more than two drinks (the T question) = 2 points. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) can detect alcohol ...

  17. Motion of liquid plugs between vapor bubbles in capillary tubes: a comparison between fluids (United States)

    Bertossi, Rémi; Ayel, Vincent; Mehta, Balkrishna; Romestant, Cyril; Bertin, Yves; Khandekar, Sameer


    Pulsating heat pipes (PHP) are now well-known devices in which liquid/vapor slug flow oscillates in a capillary tube wound between hot and cold sources. In this context, this paper focuses on the motion of the liquid plug, trapped between vapor bubbles, moving in capillary tubes, to try to better understand the thermo-physical phenomena involved in such devices. This study is divided into three parts. In the first part, an experimental study presents the evolution of the vapor pressure during the evaporation process of a liquid thin film deposited from a liquid plug flowing in a heated capillary tube: it is found that the behavior of the generated and removed vapor can be very different, according to the thermophysical properties of the fluids. In the second part, a transient model allows to compare, in terms of pressure and duration, the motion of a constant-length liquid plug trapped between two bubbles subjected to a constant difference of vapor pressure: the results highlight that the performances of the four fluids are also very different. Finally, a third model that can be considered as an improvement of the second one, is also presented: here, the liquid slug is surrounded by two vapor bubbles, one subjected to evaporation, the pressure in both bubbles is now a result of the calculation. This model still allows comparing the behaviors of the fluid. Even if our models are quite far from a complete model of a real PHP, results do indicate towards the applicability of different fluids as suitable working fluids for PHPs, particularly in terms of the flow instabilities which they generate.

  18. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorstos, Yannis C.


    The report describes progress made in the various thrust areas of the project, which include internal drives for oil recovery, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes and the flow of fluids with yield stress.

  19. Urban emissions of water vapor in winter (United States)

    Salmon, Olivia E.; Shepson, Paul B.; Ren, Xinrong; Marquardt Collow, Allison B.; Miller, Mark A.; Carlton, Annmarie G.; Cambaliza, Maria O. L.; Heimburger, Alexie; Morgan, Kristan L.; Fuentes, Jose D.; Stirm, Brian H.; Grundman, Robert; Dickerson, Russell R.


    Elevated water vapor (H2Ov) mole fractions were occasionally observed downwind of Indianapolis, IN, and the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, MD, area during airborne mass balance experiments conducted during winter months between 2012 and 2015. On days when an urban H2Ov excess signal was observed, H2Ov emission estimates range between 1.6 × 104 and 1.7 × 105 kg s-1 and account for up to 8.4% of the total (background + urban excess) advected flow of atmospheric boundary layer H2Ov from the urban study sites. Estimates of H2Ov emissions from combustion sources and electricity generation facility cooling towers are 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller than the urban H2Ov emission rates estimated from observations. Instances of urban H2Ov enhancement could be a result of differences in snowmelt and evaporation rates within the urban area, due in part to larger wintertime anthropogenic heat flux and land cover differences, relative to surrounding rural areas. More study is needed to understand why the urban H2Ov excess signal is observed on some days, and not others. Radiative transfer modeling indicates that the observed urban enhancements in H2Ov and other greenhouse gas mole fractions contribute only 0.1°C d-1 to the urban heat island at the surface. This integrated warming through the boundary layer is offset by longwave cooling by H2Ov at the top of the boundary layer. While the radiative impacts of urban H2Ov emissions do not meaningfully influence urban heat island intensity, urban H2Ov emissions may have the potential to alter downwind aerosol and cloud properties.

  20. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  1. Oxidative vaporization kinetics of Cr2O3 in oxygen from 1000 to 1300 C (United States)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.


    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 on preoxidized resistively heated chromium were determined in flowing oxygen at a pressure of 0.115 Torr for temperatures from 1000 to 1300 C. Reaction controlled rates were obtained from experimental rates by a gold calibration technique, and these rates were shown to agree with those predicted by thermochemical analysis. The activation energy obtained for the oxidative vaporization reaction corresponded numerically with the thermochemical enthalpy of the reaction. A theoretical equation is given for calculating the rate from thermodynamic data using boundary-layer theory.

  2. Oxidative vaporization kinetics of chromium (III) oxide in oxygen from 1270 to 1570 K (United States)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.


    Rates of oxidative vaporization of Cr2O3 on preoxidized resistively heated chromium were determined in flowing oxygen at 0.115 torr for temperatures from 1270 to 1570 K. Reaction controlled rates were obtained from experimental rates by a gold calibration technique. These rates were shown to agree with those predicted by thermochemical analysis. The activation energy obtained for the oxidative vaporation reaction corresponded numerically with the thermochemical enthalpy of the reaction. A theoretical equation is given for calculating the rate from thermodynamic data by using boundary layer theory.

  3. Levels of selected carcinogens and toxicants in vapor from electronic cigarettes (United States)

    Lukasz, Goniewicz Maciej; Jakub, Knysak; Michal, Gawron; Leon, Kosmider; Andrzej, Sobczak; Jolanta, Kurek; Adam, Prokopowicz; Magdalena, Jablonska-Czapla; Czeslawa, Rosik-Dulewska; Christopher, Havel; Peyton, Jacob; Neal, Benowitz


    Significance Electronic cigarettes, also known as e-cigarettes, are devices designed to imitate regular cigarettes and deliver nicotine via inhalation without combusting tobacco. They are purported to deliver nicotine without other toxicants and to be safer alternative to regular cigarettes. However, little toxicity testing has been performed to evaluate the chemical nature of vapor generated from e-cigarettes. The aim of this study was to screen e-cigarette vapors for content of four groups of potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds: carbonyls, volatile organic compounds, nitrosamines, and heavy metals. Materials and methods Vapors were generated from 12 brands of e-cigarettes and the reference product, the medicinal nicotine inhaler, in controlled conditions using a modified smoking machine. The selected toxic compounds were extracted from vapors into a solid or liquid phase and analyzed with chromatographic and spectroscopy methods. Results We found that the e-cigarette vapors contained some toxic substances. The levels of the toxicants were 9 to 450 times lower than in cigarette smoke and were, in many cases, comparable to trace amounts found in the reference product. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the idea that substituting tobacco cigarettes with electronic cigarettes may substantially reduce exposure to selected tobacco-specific toxicants. E-cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy among smokers unwilling to quit warrants further study. PMID:23467656

  4. Screening for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (United States)

    ... this procedure, the doctor does not remove the aneurysm but inserts a metal tube into that portion of the aorta to strengthen it. The tube, which is called a stent graft, is attached to the aorta and forms a stable channel for blood flow. Potential Benefits of AAA Screening and Treatment The ...

  5. Vapor Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings (United States)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.


    High speed motion camera experiments were performed on dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length to diameter ratio of the bearing, the speed of the roller and the tube, the surface material of the roller, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. One hundred and thirty-four cases were filmed. The occurrence of vapor cavitation was clearly evident in the films and figures presented. Vapor cavitation was found to occur when the tensile stress applied to the oil exceeded the tensile strength of the oil or the binding of the oil to the surface. The physical situation in which vapor cavitation occurs is during the squeezing and sliding motion within a bearing. Besides being able to accurately capture the vapor cavitation on film, an analysis of the formation and collapse of the cavitation bubbles and characteristics of the bubble content are presented.

  6. External fuel vaporization study, phase 1 (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.


    A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)). Three vaporizer concepts were selected and they were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. One of the concepts was found to improve the performance of the baseline E(3) engine without seriously compromising engine startup and power change response. Increased maintenance is required because of the need for frequent pyrolytic cleaning of the surfaces in contact with hot fuel.

  7. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.


    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  8. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  9. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.


    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.

  10. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  12. Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory has developed a technology transfer document regarding management and treatment of vapor intrusion into building structures. This document describes the range of mitigation technologies available.

  13. Arctic Water Vapor Characteristics from Rawinsondes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A gridded climatological monthly-mean data base of Arctic water vapor characteristics has been assembled by combining fixed station data with data from soundings...

  14. Metal vapor micro-jet controls material redistribution in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing. (United States)

    Ly, Sonny; Rubenchik, Alexander M; Khairallah, Saad A; Guss, Gabe; Matthews, Manyalibo J


    The results of detailed experiments and finite element modeling of metal micro-droplet motion associated with metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes are presented. Ultra high speed imaging of melt pool dynamics reveals that the dominant mechanism leading to micro-droplet ejection in a laser powder bed fusion AM is not from laser induced recoil pressure as is widely believed and found in laser welding processes, but rather from vapor driven entrainment of micro-particles by an ambient gas flow. The physics of droplet ejection under strong evaporative flow is described using simulations of the laser powder bed interactions to elucidate the experimental results. Hydrodynamic drag analysis is used to augment the single phase flow model and explain the entrainment phenomenon for 316 L stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4V powder layers. The relevance of vapor driven entrainment of metal micro-particles to similar fluid dynamic studies in other fields of science will be discussed.

  15. Facile synthesis of graphene on single mode fiber via chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Man, B.Y., E-mail: [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Jiang, S.Z. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); State Key Lab of Crystal Materials Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Yang, C.; Liu, M.; Chen, C.S.; Xu, S.C. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China); Feng, D.J. [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Bi, D.; Liu, F.Y.; Qiu, H.W. [College of Physics and Electronics, Shandong Normal University, Jinan 250014 (China)


    Direct deposition of graphene film on the standard single mode fiber is offered using a Cu-vapor-assisted chemical vapor deposition system. The gas flow of H{sub 2} and Ar before the growth process plays a crucial role for the direct deposition of the graphene film and the layers of the graphene can be controlled by the growth time. With a large gas flow, Cu atoms are carried off with the gas flow and hard to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber before the growth process. Consequently, uniform graphene film is obtained in this case. On the contrary, with a lower one, Cu atoms is facile to deposit on the surface of the single mode fiber and form nanodots acting as active catalytic sites for the growth of carbon nanotubes. This method presents us a promising transfer-free technique for fabrication of the photonic applications.

  16. Vapor phase transformer drying – Part II


    Steeves, Gregory R.


    Vapor phase drying is the most effective method for drying transformer insulation in a manufacturing setting. The process does not lend itself well to transformer drying in the field for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of removing residual kerosene which can cause a potential change in transformer oil flash point. Several techniques are available for transformer insulation drying in both the field and in manufacturing. Vapor phase drying as part of transformer manufacturing is ...

  17. Vapor phase transformer drying – Part I


    Steeves, Gregory R.


    Vapor phase drying is the most effective method for drying transformer insulation in a manufacturing setting. The process does not lend itself well to transformer drying in the field for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of removing residual kerosene which can cause a potential change in transformer oil flash point. Several techniques are available for transformer insulation drying in both the field and in manufacturing. Vapor phase drying as part of transformer manufacturing is ...

  18. Volatiles and Exsolved Vapor in Volcanic Systems


    Edmonds, Marie; Wallace, PJ


    The role of volatiles in magma dynamics and eruption style is fundamental. Magmatic volatiles partition between melt, crystal, and vapor phases and, in so doing, change magma properties. This has consequences for magma buoyancy and phase equilibria. An exsolved vapor phase, which may be distributed unevenly through reservoirs, contains sulfur and metals that are either transported into the atmosphere or into ore deposits. This article reviews the controls on volatile solubility and the method...

  19. Vapor-Induced Phase Transformations in Docetaxel


    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Krishna Reddy, K. V. S. R.; Someswara Rao, N.


    Vapor-induced transformations of docetaxel anhydrous (form DA) under ambient conditions have been studied using methanol, ethanol, and water as the solvent media. The online vapor-induced transformations were monitored by powder X-ray diffractometry. New solid forms (solvates/hydrates/anhydrous) of docetaxel anhydrous were obtained in stoichiometric ratios which were characterized completely using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, and spe...

  20. Sub-microsecond vapor plume dynamics under different keyhole penetration regimes in deep penetration laser welding (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Pang, Shengyong; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming; Zhang, Xiaosi; Jiang, Ping; Xiao, Jianzhong


    It is well-known that distinct vapor plume dynamics occur during deep penetration laser welding under different keyhole penetration states. However, there is little knowledge about the physical characteristics of vapor plumes (velocity, pressure, flow patterns, etc) located inside transient keyholes of varying penetration regimes in laser welding. This lack of knowledge is primarily because mesoscale vapor plumes are highly dynamic and generally invisible. Based on a well-tested three-dimensional multiphase laser welding model, we conducted a computational study on vapor plume dynamics inside transient keyholes during the fiber laser welding of 304 austenite stainless steel as a function of keyhole penetration regimes. We observed three keyhole regimes of penetration: full penetration, partial penetration and no penetration. We then physically analyzed the vapor plumes in these regimes. We determined that the vapor plume velocities and pressures in all three regimes were uneven and oscillated following the dynamic keyhole with a characteristic timescale in sub-microseconds. Only when the keyhole approached the full penetration regime did vapor plumes begin to violently eject from the bottom of the keyhole opening, whereas in the partial penetration regime, even when the bottom part of the keyhole was open, most of the vapor plume ejected from the upper keyhole opening. This latter observation was similar to that in the no penetration mode. We studied the physical mechanism of this behavior by analyzing the keyhole temperature and vapor plume velocity distributions. We determined that the upward ejection of the vapor plume from the upper keyhole opening was the result of an uneven micro-meter scale boiling phenomenon of the transient keyhole governed by Fresnel absorptions dependent on the local inclination angle of the keyhole wall. Similarly, we determined that the ejection of the vapor plume from the bottom of the keyhole opening resulted from pressure

  1. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul


    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  2. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)


    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Simultaneous separation of five major ribonucleic acids by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence in the presence of electroosmotic flow: application to the rapid screening of 5S rRNA from ovarian cancer cells. (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chu; Liao, Ching-Ru; Chung, I-Che; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Po-Ling


    RNA integrity is important in RNA studies because poor RNA quality may impact downstream methodologies. This study proposes a rapid and cost-effective method for the determination of RNA integrity based on CE-LIF in the presence of electroosmotic flow. The proposed method uses poly(ethylene) oxide (Mavg=4,000,000 Da) as a sieving matrix for total RNA separation. Ethidium bromide (μg mL(-1)) was dissolved in a polymer solution as an interchelating dye for on-column fluorescent labeling. The 28S rRNA, 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA from the total human RNA extracted from the cells were fully separated using the proposed method. The lowest detectable concentration of total RNA achieved was 100 pg μL(-1) with a 6 min sample injection followed by on-column concentration. In addition, the temperature-induced degradation of total RNA was observed by CE-LIF. The electropherograms revealed more fragmentation of 28S and 18S rRNAs by temperature-induced hydrolysis compared with the 5.8S rRNA, 5S rRNA and tRNA. Therefore, the results indicated that RNA degradation should be considered for long-term, high-temperature incubations in RNA-related experiments involving RNA hybridization. The proposed method is furthermore, applied to the determination of 5S rRNA overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells as compared to the cervical cancer cells. Overall, CE-LIF is highly promising for rapid screening of ovarian cancers without tedious pre-amplification steps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [The use of laser vaporization for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia]. (United States)

    Ustinov, D V; Kholtobin, D P; Kul'chavenia, E V; Aĭzikovich, B I


    Results of use of UroBeam laser diode in 72 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were analyzed. Average prostate volume was 67.29 +/- 26.72 cm3, the duration of vaporization--69.2 +/- 23.7 min. Blood loss was minimal. In the period from 2 weeks to 4 months after surgery, 9 patients have developed acute urinary retention. In the early postoperative period, acute prostatitis was diagnosed in 7 patients and was jugulated using drug treatment. The laser vaporization of BPH led to a three-fold reduction in the severity of urinary disorders and increase the urinary flow rate. The combination of laser vaporization of the prostate with transurethral resection of the prostate allow to improve the recovery of urination after surgery.

  5. Investigation of Vapor Cooling Enhancements for Applications on Large Cryogenic Systems (United States)

    Ameen, Lauren; Zoeckler, Joseph


    The need to demonstrate and evaluate the effectiveness of heat interception methods for use on a relevant cryogenic propulsion stage at a system level has been identified. Evolvable Cryogenics (eCryo) Structural Heat Intercept, Insulation and Vibration Evaluation Rig (SHIIVER) will be designed with vehicle specific geometries (SLS Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) as guidance) and will be subjected to simulated space environments. One method of reducing structure-born heat leak being investigated utilizes vapor-based heat interception. Vapor-based heat interception could potentially reduce heat leak into liquid hydrogen propulsion tanks, increasing potential mission length or payload capability. Due to the high number of unknowns associated with the heat transfer mechanism and integration of vapor-based heat interception on a realistic large-scale skirt design, a sub-scale investigation was developed. The sub-project effort is known as the Small-scale Laboratory Investigation of Cooling Enhancements (SLICE). The SLICE aims to study, design, and test sub-scale multiple attachments and flow configuration concepts for vapor-based heat interception of structural skirts. SLICE will focus on understanding the efficiency of the heat transfer mechanism to the boil-off hydrogen vapor by varying the fluid network designs and configurations. Various analyses were completed in MATLAB, Excel VBA, and COMSOL Multiphysics to understand the optimum flow pattern for heat transfer and fluid dynamics. Results from these analyses were used to design and fabricate test article subsections of a large forward skirt with vapor cooling applied. The SLICE testing is currently being performed to collect thermal mechanical performance data on multiple skirt heat removal designs while varying inlet vapor conditions necessary to intercept a specified amount of heat for a given system. Initial results suggest that applying vapor-cooling provides a 50 heat reduction in conductive heat transmission

  6. Metal vapor condensation under high pressure (mercury vapor to 500 psia). [Heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S.; Bonilla, C.F.


    Mercury vapor up to 500 psia was condensed outside a cylindrical tube in both horizontal and vertical positions. Results show consistently low heat transfer coefficients compared to Nusselt's theory. Two auxiliary mercury vapor condensers downstream of the boiler vent were used to control and safeguard the system. Constantan wires were spot welded on the surface inside the test condenser tube. The heat flux ranged from 20,000 to 45,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/ and the temperature differences between vapor and condensing wall from 6 to 50/sup 0/F. The condensation heat transfer coefficients, ranging from 850 to 3,500 Btu/h-/sup 0/F-ft/sup 2/, are only about 3 to 9 percent of those predicted by Nusselt's theory. Due to the positive pressure in the system for most test runs, the chance of any in-leakage of noncondensable gases into the boiler is extremely small. Since no substantial change of heat transfer rate resulted from wide variations in the heat load on the reflux condenser at some specific heat flux on the test condenser tube, the low heat transfer rate of mercury vapor condensation was not due to the presence of any non-condensable gas. The test data for high vapor pressure up to 500 psia reveal that the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the vapor pressure level. The condensation coefficients calculated based on kinetic theory are much smaller than unity and decreasewith vapor pressure. It is hypothesized that dimer content in the metal vapor phase might behave as non-condensable or semi-condensable gas and create a diffusional barrier at the vapor-liquid interface near the condensate film. This dimer vapor could be the main cause of interfacial resistance during metal vapor condensation process. 41 figures, 7 tables, 58 references. (DLC)

  7. Three-dimensional kinetic and fluid dynamic modeling and three iterative algorithms for side-pumped alkali vapor lasers (United States)

    Shen, Binglin; Xu, Xingqi; Xia, Chunsheng; Pan, Bailiang


    Combining the kinetic and fluid dynamic processes in static and flowing-gas diode-pumped alkali vapor lasers, a comprehensive physical model with three cyclically iterative algorithms for simulating the three-dimensional pump and laser intensities as well as temperature distribution in the vapor cell of side-pumped alkali vapor lasers is established. Comparison with measurement of a static side-pumped cesium vapor laser with a diffuse type hollow cylinder cavity, and with classical and modified models is made. Influences of flowed velocity and pump power on laser power are calculated and analyzed. The results have demonstrated that for high-power side-pumped alkali vapor lasers, it is necessary to take into account the three-dimensional distributions of pump energy, laser energy and temperature in the cell to simultaneously obtain the thermal features and output characteristics. Therefore, the model can deepen the understanding of the complete kinetic and fluid dynamic mechanisms of a side-pumped alkali vapor laser, and help with its further experimental design.

  8. The Relation between Vaporization Enthalpies and Viscosities: Eyring's Theory Applied to Selected Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Bonsa, Anne-Marie; Paschek, Dietmar; Zaitsau, Dzmitry H; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N; Verevkin, Sergey P; Ludwig, Ralf


    Key properties for the use of ionic liquids as electrolytes in batteries are low viscosities, low vapor pressure and high vaporization enthalpies. Whereas the measurement of transport properties is well established, the determination of vaporization enthalpies of these extremely low volatile compounds is still a challenge. At a first glance both properties seem to describe different thermophysical phenomena. However, eighty years ago Eyring suggested a theory which related viscosities and vaporization enthalpies to each other. The model is based on Eyring's theory of absolute reaction rates. Recent attempts to apply Eyring's theory to ionic liquids failed. The motivation of our study is to show that Eyring's theory works, if the assumptions specific for ionic liquids are fulfilled. For that purpose we measured the viscosities of three well selected protic ionic liquids (PILs) at different temperatures. The temperature dependences of viscosities were approximated by the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamann (VFT) relation and extrapolated to the high-temperature regime up to 600 K. Then the VFT-data could be fitted to the Eyring-model. The values of vaporization enthalpies for the three selected PILs predicted by the Eyring model have been very close to the experimental values measured by well-established techniques. We conclude that the Eyring theory can be successfully applied to the chosen set of PILs, if the assumption that ionic pairs of the viscous flow in the liquid and the ionic pairs in the gas phase are similar is fulfilled. It was also noticed that proper transfer of energies can be only derived if the viscosities and the vaporization energies are known for temperatures close to the liquid-gas transition temperature. The idea to correlate easy measurable viscosities of ionic liquids with their vaporization enthalpies opens a new way for a reliable assessment of these thermodynamic properties for a broad range of ionic liquids. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGa

  9. Numerical modeling of physical vapor transport under microgravity conditions: Effect of thermal creep and stress (United States)

    Mackowski, Daniel W.; Knight, Roy W.


    One of the most promising applications of microgravity (micro-g) environments is the manufacture of exotic and high-quality crystals in closed cylindrical ampoules using physical vapor transport (PVT) processes. The quality enhancements are believed to be due to the absence of buoyant convection in the weightless environment - resulting in diffusion-limited transport of the vapor. In a typical experiment, solid-phase sample material is initially contained at one end of the ampoule. The sample is made to sublime into the vapor phase and deposit onto the opposite end by maintaining the source at an elevated temperature with respect to the deposit. Identification of the physical factors governing both the rates and uniformity of crystal growth, and the optimization of the micro-g technology, will require an accurate modeling of the vapor transport within the ampoule. Previous micro-g modeling efforts have approached the problem from a 'classical' convective/diffusion formulation, in which convection is driven by the action of buoyancy on thermal and solutal density differences. The general conclusion of these works have been that in low gravity environments the effect of buoyancy on vapor transport is negligible, and vapor transport occurs in a diffusion-limited mode. However, it has been recently recognized than in the non-isothermal (and often low total pressure) conditions encountered in ampoules, the commonly-assumed no-slip boundary condition to the differential equations governing fluid motion can be grossly unrepresentative of the actual situation. Specifically, the temperature gradients can give rise to thermal creep flows at the ampoule side walls. In addition, temperature gradients in the vapor itself can, through the action of thermal stress, lead to bulk fluid convection.

  10. Dual Frequency Acoustic Droplet Vaporization Detection for Medical Imaging (United States)

    Arena, Christopher B.; Novell, Anthony; Sheeran, Paul S.; Puett, Connor; Moyer, Linsey C.; Dayton, Paul A.


    Liquid-filled perfluorocarbon droplets emit a unique acoustic signature when vaporized into to gas-filled microbubbles using ultrasound. Here, we conducted a pilot study in a tissue-mimicking flow phantom to explore the spatial aspects of droplet vaporization and investigate the effects of applied pressure and droplet concentration on image contrast and axial and lateral resolution. Control microbubble contrast agents were used for comparison. A confocal dual-frequency transducer was used to transmit at 8 MHz and passively receive at 1 MHz. Droplet signals were of significantly higher energy than microbubble signals. This resulted in improved signal separation and high contrast-to-tissue ratios (CTR). Specifically, with a peak negative pressure (PNP) of 450 kPa applied at the focus, the CTR of B-mode images was 18.3 dB for droplets and −0.4 for microbubbles. The lateral resolution was dictated by the size of the droplet activation area, with lower pressures resulting in smaller activation areas and improved lateral resolution (0.67 mm at 450 kPa). The axial resolution in droplet images was dictated by the size of the initial droplet and independent of the properties of the transmit pulse (3.86 mm at 450 kPa). In post-processing, time-domain averaging (TDA) improved droplet and microbubble signal separation at high pressures (640 kPa and 700 kPa). Taken together, these results indicate that it is possible to generate high-sensitivity, high-contrast images of vaporization events. In the future, this has the potential to be applied in combination with droplet-mediated therapy to track treatment outcomes or as a stand-alone diagnostic system to monitor the physical properties of the surrounding environment. PMID:26415125

  11. Mental Health Screening Center (United States)

    ... Releases & Announcements Public Service Announcements Partnering with DBSA Mental Health Screening Center These online screening tools are not ... you have any concerns, see your doctor or mental health professional. Depression Screening for Adult Depression Screening for ...

  12. Breast cancer screening (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  13. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.


    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  14. Robust antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates by hydrochloric acid vapor treatment. (United States)

    Li, Tong; He, Junhui; Yao, Lin; Geng, Zhi


    Antireflective coatings on polymer substrates have received significant attention for their potential applications. In this paper, robust microporous antifogging antireflective coatings on polymer substrates were prepared from acid-catalyzed silica sol followed by hydrochloric acid vapor solidification at mild temperature below glass transition temperatures of common polymers. The coatings passed 3H pencil hardness test, sand flow test and water-drop test. They had excellent antireflective and antifogging properties. The maximum transmittance of coatings on PMMA substrates reached 100.0% (the maximum transmittance wavelength could be regulated) and average transmittance reached 99.0% in 400-800 nm. The advantage and mechanism of hydrochloric acid vapor solidification and mechanical strength enhancement of coatings are discussed in contrast to ammonia vapor treatment and air vapor treatment. The hydrochloric acid vapor treatment results in a dense integrated microporous film structure. Optical properties were characterized by a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Surface wettability was studied by a contact angle/interface system. Surface morphologies and structures of coatings were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atom force microscopy (AFM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Portable device for generation of ultra-pure water vapor feeds (United States)

    Velin, P.; Stenman, U.; Skoglundh, M.; Carlsson, P.-A.


    A portable device for the generation of co-feeds of water vapor has been designed, constructed, and evaluated for flexible use as an add-on component to laboratory chemical reactors. The vapor is formed by catalytic oxidation of hydrogen, which benefits the formation of well-controlled minute concentrations of ultra-pure water. Analysis of the effluent stream by on-line mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that water vapor can be, with high precision, generated both rapidly and steadily over extended periods in the range of 100 ppm to 3 vol. % (limited by safety considerations) using a total flow of 100 to 1500 ml/min at normal temperature and pressure. Further, the device has been used complementary to a commercial water evaporator and mixing system to span water concentrations up to 12 vol. %. Finally, an operando diffuse reflective infrared Fourier transform spectroscopic measurement of palladium catalysed methane oxidation in the absence and presence of up to 1.0 vol. % water has been carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the device for co-feeding well-controlled low concentrations of water vapor to a common type of spectroscopic experiment. The possibilities of creating isotopically labeled water vapor as well as using tracer gases for dynamic experiments are discussed.

  16. The vapor diffusion resistance and air permeance of masonry and roofing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hens, Hugo S.L.C. [Laboratory of Building Physics, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Leuven, Kasteelpark Arenberg, 51, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)


    Several building parts contain layers composed of separate elements that are mortared together or simply interlock or overlap. Typical examples are masonry walls, brick veneers, tiled roofing systems and slated roofing systems. The mortar joints, the interlocks and overlaps should affect the water vapor diffusion resistance and the air permeance of the composite layer, at least in comparison with the vapor and air flow properties of the pure elements. However, little information is found in literature that allows a quantification of the differences. The article describes a purpose designed test method for measuring the water vapor diffusion resistance of composite layers. It comments on the results and also gives data for the air permeances, measured with a pressure box. From the results and data, it is clear that mortared joints, interlocks and overlaps decrease the water vapor diffusion resistance and increase the air permeance of a composite layer compared to the pure material. In fact, mortared joints, interlocks and overlaps act as preferential paths for water vapor and air mitigation. As a consequence, using composite layers as outside finish in thermally insulated building parts, as done in pitched roofs and cavity walls, diminishes the interstitial condensation risk, accelerates drying of the cladding when wetted by wind-driven rain and affects the effectiveness of outside air cross ventilation below or behind the finish. (author)

  17. Holmium laser enucleation versus photoselective vaporization for prostatic adenoma greater than 60 ml: preliminary results of a prospective, randomized clinical trial. (United States)

    Elmansy, Hazem; Baazeem, Abdulaziz; Kotb, Ahmed; Badawy, Hesham; Riad, Essam; Emran, Ashraf; Elhilali, Mostafa


    To our knowledge we report the first single center, prospective, randomized study comparing holmium laser enucleation and high performance GreenLight™ prostate photoselective vaporization as surgical treatment of prostatic adenomas greater than 60 ml. A total of 80 patients with a large prostatic adenoma were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with holmium laser enucleation or photoselective vaporization. International Prostate Symptom Score, International Index of Erectile Function-15, maximum flow rate, post-void residual urine, serum prostate specific antigen and transrectal ultrasound volume were recorded. Patient baseline characteristics were similar for holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vaporization. Operative time and catheter removal time were almost equal in the 2 groups (p = 0.7 and 0.2, respectively). Eight vaporization cases were converted to transurethral prostate resection or holmium laser enucleation intraoperatively due to bleeding. A significantly higher maximum flow rate and lower post-void residual urine were noted in holmium laser cases during the entire followup (at 1 year each p = 0.02). However, no significant difference in International Prostate Symptom Score, quality of life or International Index of Erectile Function-15 was detected. Prostate volume and serum PSA decreased 78% and 88% in the holmium laser group, and 52% and 60% in the vaporization group, respectively. Holmium laser enucleation and photoselective vaporization are effective for lower urinary tract symptoms due to a large prostatic adenoma. Early subjective functional results (maximum flow rate and post-void residual urine) of holmium laser enucleation appear to be superior to those of photoselective vaporization. In our hands cases intended to be treated with photoselective vaporization were at 22% risk of conversion to another modality. This could reflect our determination to vaporize to the capsule in all vaporization cases. Copyright © 2012 American

  18. Determination of Cannabinoid Vapor Pressures to Aid in Vapor Phase Detection of Intoxication. (United States)

    Lovestead, Tara M; Bruno, Thomas J


    The quest for a reliable means to detect cannabis intoxication with a breathalyzer is ongoing. To design such a device, it is important to understand the fundamental thermodynamics of the compounds of interest. The vapor pressures of two important cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), are presented, as well as the predicted normal boiling temperature (NBT) and the predicted critical constants (these predictions are dependent on the vapor pressure data). The critical constants are typically necessary to develop an equation of state (EOS). EOS-based models can provide estimations of thermophysical properties for compounds to aid in designing processes and devices. An ultra-sensitive, quantitative, trace dynamic headspace analysis sampling called porous layered open tubular-cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) was used to measure vapor pressures of these compounds. PLOT-cryo affords short experiment durations compared to more traditional techniques for vapor pressure determination (minutes versus days). Additionally, PLOT-cryo has the inherent ability to stabilize labile solutes because collection is done at reduced temperature. The measured vapor pressures are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than those measured for n-eicosane, which has a similar molecular mass. Thus, the difference in polarity of these molecules must be impacting the vapor pressure dramatically. The vapor pressure measurements are presented in the form of Clausius-Clapeyron (or van't Hoff) equation plots. The predicted vapor pressures that would be expected at near ambient conditions (25 °C) are also presented.

  19. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  20. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.


    Abstract Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture distribution. The van Genuchten relations can be used for describing the soil moisture retention curve, and give results consistent with the results from a previous experimental study. Other modeling methods that account for soil moisture are evaluated. These modeling results are also compared with the measured subsurface concentration profiles in the U.S. EPA vapor intrusion database. PMID:24170970

  1. Characteristics of low vapor pressure oil ignition developed with irradiation of mega hertz level ultrasonic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takuya Fuse; Yasuki Hirota; Noriyuki Kobayashi; Masanobu Hasatani; Yoshio Tanaka [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Department of Energy Engineering and Science


    In liquid fuel vaporizing type combustor for civil use, large amount of the electric power is consumed in pre-heating of fuel vaporizer during a standby period. Reduction of consumed power in pre-heating is regarded as important to develop a performance of the vaporizing type combustor from the viewpoint of energy saving. We proposed the oil combustion system using the MHz-ultrasonic atomizing method without the preheating process. In this work, we manufactured kerosene pre-vaporizing combustor with ultrasonic oscillator which had frequency of 1.7 MHz. Low CO and NOx emission had been already achieved with manufactured combustor by authors in 2002. Aiming to investigate fundamental characteristics of the ignition process with ultrasonic atomizing, the ignition time requirement was measured and the flame luminescence was detected with spectroscopic analysis in order to consider the mixing state on pre-mixing combustor by judging differences of the flame luminescence. As the results, ultrasonic atomizing method was very effective for vaporization of kerosene. But heat release rate of only 0.54 kW was obtained with input power of 33 W because the effect of the sound absorption was not negligible. The time requirement for the ignition was influenced by an equivalence ratio and balance between primary air flow rate and secondary one. Especially, the ignition time had different tendencies between fuel rich and fuel lean condition. With flow visualization, it was clarified that probability of the ignition depended on a difference of flow pattern of the fuel aerosol. 17 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, E.


    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  3. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.


    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  4. Modeling of a water vapor selective membrane unit to increase the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting (United States)

    Bergmair, D.; Metz, S. J.; de Lange, H. C.; van Steenhoven, A. A.


    Air humidity is a promising source of clean and safe drinking water. However, in conventional systems a lot of energy is wasted on the production of cold air, rather than the condensation of water vapor. This study examines the possibility of using a hollow fiber membrane module to make this process more energy efficient, by separating the vapor from other gases, prior to the cooling process with the help of selective membranes. The water vapor concentration within a fiber has been modeled using a random walker approach, and the membrane permeability has been implemented as a re-bounce probability for simulation particles interacting with the membrane. Considering the additional work requirement for driving a feed flow through the membrane section and the computed water vapor permeation it could be shown that the energy demand per unit water is lowest for slow flow speeds and favors short and thin fibers. The total energy requirement was estimated to be less than half of the conventional one. Comparison with other CFD simulations and a real life module has shown a good level of agreement, indicating that a membrane section could improve the energy efficiency of humidity harvesting significantly.

  5. Numerical analysis of fragmentation mechanisms in vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshizuka, Seiichi; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.


    Fragmentation of molten metal is the key process in vapor explosions. However this process is so rapid that the mechanisms have not been clarified yet in the experimental studies. Besides, numerical simulation is difficult because we have to analyze water, steam and molten metal simultaneously with evaporation and fragmentation. The authors have been developing a new numerical method, the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method, based on moving particles and their interactions. Grids are not necessary. Incompressible flows with fragmentation on free surfaces have been calculated successfully using the MPS method. In the present study numerical simulation of the fragmentation processes using the MPS method is carried out to investigate the mechanisms. A numerical model to calculate evaporation from water to steam is developed. In this model, new particles are generated on water-steam interfaces. Effect of evaporation is also investigated. Growth of the filament is not accelerated when the normal evaporation is considered. This is because the normal evaporation needs a longer time than the moment of the jet impingement, though the filament growth is decided in this moment. Next, rapid evaporation based on spontaneous nucleation is considered. The filament growth is markedly accelerated. This result is consistent with the experimental fact that the spontaneous nucleation temperature is a necessary condition of small-scale vapor explosions. (J.P.N.)

  6. Device for Measuring Low Flow Speed in a Duct (United States)

    Quinn, Frank; Magee, Kevin


    A multiple-throat venturi system has been invented for measuring laminar flow of air or other gas at low speed (1 to 30 cm/s) in a duct while preserving the laminar nature of the flow and keeping the velocity profile across the duct as nearly flat as possible. While means for measuring flows at higher speeds are well established, heretofore, there have been no reliable means for making consistent, accurate measurements in this speed range. In the original application for which this system was invented, the duct leads into the test section of a low-speed wind tunnel wherein uniform, low-speed, laminar flow is required for scientific experiments. The system could also be used to monitor a slow flow of gas in an industrial process like chemical vapor deposition. In the original application, the multiple- throat venturi system is mounted at the inlet end of the duct having a rectangular cross section of 19 by 14 cm, just upstream of an assembly of inlet screens and flow straighteners that help to suppress undesired flow fluctuations (see Figure 1). The basic venturi measurement principle is well established: One measures the difference in pressure between (1) a point just outside the inlet, where the pressure is highest and the kinetic energy lowest; and (2) the narrowest part (the throat) of the venturi passage, where the kinetic energy is highest and the pressure is lowest. Then by use of Bernoulli s equation for the relationship between pressure and kinetic energy, the volumetric flow speed in the duct can be calculated from the pressure difference and the inlet and throat widths. The design of this system represents a compromise among length, pressure recovery, uniformity of flow, and complexity of assembly. Traditionally, venturis are used to measure faster flows in narrower cross sections, with longer upstream and downstream passages to maintain accuracy. The dimensions of the passages of the present venturi system are sized to provide a readily measurable

  7. Vaporization of droplets in premixing chambers (United States)

    Yule, A. J.; Chigier, N. A.


    Detailed measurements were made of the structures of turbulent fuel sprays vaporizing in heated airstreams. The measurements show the size dependent vaporization and dispersion of the droplets and the important influence of the large eddies in the turbulence. The measurements form a data base for the development of models of fuel spray vaporization. Two laser techniques were specially developed for the investigation. A laser tomography technique converts line-of-sight light scattering measurements into time averaged 'point' measurements of droplet size distribution and volume concentration. A laser anemometer particle sizing technique was further developed to permit accurate measurements of individual particle sizes and velocities, with backscatter collection of light. The experiments are combined with heat transfer models to analyze the performance of miniature thermocouples in liquid sprays.

  8. Tolman's length and limiting supersaturation of vapor (United States)

    Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.


    The classical Kelvin formula for the equilibrium vapor pressure over a droplet of radius R is extended to small radii and vapor non-ideality, from where the limiting supersaturation condition is obtained by relating the point R = 0 to the value of limiting (spinodal) supersaturation of vapor. The analysis of different dependences of the Tolman length on radius, δ (R) , obeying this condition suggests that (i) the value of δ (0) is positive and the function δ (R) decreases with increasing radius; (ii) the curvature effect (the dependence of surface tension on radius) in the nucleation region is determined by the value of δ (0) . At the same time, this effect is weakly sensitive to the form of the function δ (R) and insensitive to its asymptotic value δ∞ .

  9. An optical waveguide acid vapor sensor. (United States)

    Ballantine, D S; Callahan, D; Maclay, G J; Stetter, J R


    An optical waveguide sensor for the detection of acid vapors is described. The chemically sensitive reagent coating consists of bromothymol blue indicator suspended in a Nafion polymer film. The sensor uses a 562 nm LED source and a phototransistor detector. Response to hydrochloric acid and hydrogen sulphide vapours is both rapid and reversible, with an estimated detection limit for hydrogen sulphide of less than 15 ppm. The sensors exhibits generalized response to protonic acid vapours, but does not produce an indicator response to carbon dioxide, even at large concentrations (1100 mg/l.) in the presence of water vapor. The sensor exhibits a systematic interference from water vapor which may be corrected by a different approach, either using a reference sensor (Nafion/no indicator) or by monitoring sensor response at two wavelengths.

  10. Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor (United States)

    Goldfinger, A. D.


    Tropospheric water vapor causes a refractive path length effect which is typically 5-10% of the 'dry' tropospheric effect and as large as several meters at elevation angles below 5 deg. The vertical water vapor profile is quite variable, and measurements of intensive atmospheric parameters such as temperature and humidity limited to the surface do not adequately predict the refractive effect. It is suggested that a water vapor refraction model that is a function of the amount of precipitable water alone can be successful at low elevation angles. From an extensive study of numerical ray tracings through radiosonde balloon data, such a model has been constructed. The model predicts the effect at all latitudes and elevation angles between 2 and 10 deg to an accuracy of better than 4% (11 cm at 3 deg elevation angle).

  11. Interaction of Ethyl Alcohol Vapor with Sulfuric Acid Solutions (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun


    We investigated the uptake of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) vapor by sulfuric acid solutions over the range approx.40 to approx.80 wt % H2SO4 and temperatures of 193-273 K. Laboratory studies used a fast flow-tube reactor coupled to an electron-impact ionization mass spectrometer for detection of ethanol and reaction products. The uptake coefficients ((gamma)) were measured and found to vary from 0.019 to 0.072, depending upon the acid composition and temperature. At concentrations greater than approx.70 wt % and in dilute solutions colder than 220 K, the values approached approx.0.07. We also determined the effective solubility constant of ethanol in approx.40 wt % H2SO4 in the temperature range 203-223 K. The potential implications to the budget of ethanol in the global troposphere are briefly discussed.

  12. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej


    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  13. Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes. (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J; Sobczak, Andrzej


    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m(3). The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m(3), respectively; p = .0081). Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions.

  14. Flow Rounding


    Kang, Donggu; Payor, James


    We consider flow rounding: finding an integral flow from a fractional flow. Costed flow rounding asks that we find an integral flow with no worse cost. Randomized flow rounding requires we randomly find an integral flow such that the expected flow along each edge matches the fractional flow. Both problems are reduced to cycle canceling, for which we develop an $O(m \\log(n^2/m))$ algorithm.

  15. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  16. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.


    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  17. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev


    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  18. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor (United States)

    Davies, D. W.


    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  19. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.


    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  20. Vapor Delivery Systems for the Study of the Effects of Reformate Gas Impurities in HT-PEM Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araya, Samuel Simon; Kær, Søren Knudsen; Andreasen, Søren Juhl


    The reforming of methanol can be an alternative source of hydrogen for fuel cells because it has many practical advantages over hydrogen, mainly due to the technological limitations related to the storage, supply, and distribution of the latter. However, despite the ease of methanol handling......, impurities in the reformate gas produced from methanol steam reforming can affect the performance and durability of fuel cells. In this paper different vapor delivery systems, intended to assist in the study of the effects of some of the impurities, are described and compared with each other. A system based...... on a pump and electrically heated evaporator was found to be more suitable for the typical flow rates involved in the anode feed of an H3PO4/PBI based HT-PEMFC unit cell assembly. Test stations composed of vapor delivery systems and mass flow controllers for testing the effects of methanol slip, water vapor...

  1. Analysis of heat flow in a tube bank of a condenser considering the influence of air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Magda


    Full Text Available The pressure of wet water vapor inside a condenser has a great impact on the efficiency of thermal cycle. The value of this pressure depends on the mass share of inert gases (air. The knowledge of the spots where the air accumulates allows its effective extraction from the condenser, thus improving the conditions of condensation. The condensation of water vapor with the share of inert gas in a model tube bank of a condenser has been analyzed in this paper. The models include a static pressure loss of the water vapor/air mixture and the resultant changes in the water vapor parameters. The mass share of air in water vapor was calculated using the Dalton’s law. The model includes changes of flow and thermodynamic parameters based on the partial pressure of water vapor utilizing programmed water vapor tables. In the description of the conditions of condensation the Nusselts theory was applied. The model allows for a deterioration of the heat flow conditions resulting from the presence of air. The paper contains calculations of the water vapor flow with the initial mass share of air in the range 0.2 to 1%. The results of calculations clearly show a great impact of the share of air on the flow conditions and the deterioration of the conditions of condensation. The data obtained through the model for a given air/water vapor mixture velocity upstream of the tube bank allow for identification of the spots where the air accumulates.

  2. Analysis of heat flow in a tube bank of a condenser considering the influence of air (United States)

    Joachimiak, Magda; Joachimiak, Damian; Krzyślak, Piotr


    The pressure of wet water vapor inside a condenser has a great impact on the efficiency of thermal cycle. The value of this pressure depends on the mass share of inert gases (air). The knowledge of the spots where the air accumulates allows its effective extraction from the condenser, thus improving the conditions of condensation. The condensation of water vapor with the share of inert gas in a model tube bank of a condenser has been analyzed in this paper. The models include a static pressure loss of the water vapor/air mixture and the resultant changes in the water vapor parameters. The mass share of air in water vapor was calculated using the Dalton's law. The model includes changes of flow and thermodynamic parameters based on the partial pressure of water vapor utilizing programmed water vapor tables. In the description of the conditions of condensation the Nusselts theory was applied. The model allows for a deterioration of the heat flow conditions resulting from the presence of air. The paper contains calculations of the water vapor flow with the initial mass share of air in the range 0.2 to 1%. The results of calculations clearly show a great impact of the share of air on the flow conditions and the deterioration of the conditions of condensation. The data obtained through the model for a given air/water vapor mixture velocity upstream of the tube bank allow for identification of the spots where the air accumulates.

  3. Eddy Covariance measurements of stable isotopes (δD and δ18O) in water vapor (United States)

    Braden-Behrens, Jelka; Knohl, Alexander


    Stable isotopes are a promising tool to enhance our understanding of ecosystem gas exchanges. Studying 18O and 2H in water vapour (H2Ov) can e.g. help partitioning evapotranspiration into its components. With recent developments in laser spectroscopy direct Eddy Covariance (EC) measurements for investigating fluxes of stable isotopologues became feasible. So far very few case studies have applied the EC method to measure stable isotopes in water vapor. We continuously measure fluxes of water vapor isotopologues with the EC method in a managed beech forest in Thuringia, Germany, since autumn 2015 using the following setup: An off-axis integrated cavity output water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) measures the water vapour concentration and its isotopic composition (δD and δ18O). The instrument, that was optimized for high flow rates (app. 4slpm) to generate high frequency (2Hz) measurements, showed sufficient precision with Allan Deviations of app. 0.12 ‰ for δD and 0.06 ‰ for δ18O for averaging periods of 100s. The instrument was calibrated hourly using a high-flow optimized version of the water vapor isotope standard source (WVISS, Los Gatos Research. Inc, USA) that provides water vapor with known isotopic composition for a large range of different concentrations. Our calibration scheme includes a near continuous concentration range calibration instead of a simple 2 or 3-point calibration to face the analyzers strong concentration dependency within a range of app. 6 000 to 16 000 ppm in winter and app. 8 000 to 23 000 ppm in summer. In the used setup, the high-flow and high-frequency optimized water vapor isotope analyzer (WVIA) showed suitable characteristics (Allan deviation and spectral energy distribution) to perform Eddy covariance measurements of stable isotopes in H2Ov. Thus, this novel instrument for EC measurements of water vapor isotopologues provides a new opportunity for studying the hydrological cycle in long

  4. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.


    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  5. On fluid and heat transfer in deep zones of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K.; Celati, R.; Calore, C.; Cappetti, G.


    Little is known about fluid and heat transfer process, and thermodynamic conditions of formation fluids beneath the main permeable zones of vapor-dominated systems. Temperature data is presented for deep horizons at Larderello, Italy. The data was analyzed with a view to identifying reservoir conditions and processes at depth. Of particular interest were the mechanisms and rates of fluid and heat flow in the natural state and in response to exploitation, and the permeability structure of the reservoir. (ACR)

  6. Two-phase flow characteristics of liquid oxygen flow in low pressure liquid rocket engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namkyung Cho; Youngmog Kim [Korea Aerospace Research Inst., Control Systems Dept., Daejeon (Korea); Seunghan Kim [Korea Aerospace Research Inst., Engine Dept., Daejeon (Korea); Sangkwon Jeong; Jeheon Jung [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Daejeon (Korea)


    In most cryogenic liquid rocket engines, liquid oxygen manifold and injector are not thermally insulated from room temperature environment for the purpose of reducing system complexity and weight. This feature of cryogenic liquid supply system results in the situation that liquid oxygen flow is vaporized especially in the vicinity of the manifold and the injector wall. The transient two-phase flow tendency is severe for low combustion pressure rocket engine without using turbo-pump. This paper focuses on the two-phase flow phenomena of liquid oxygen in low combustion pressure rocket engine. The KSR-III (Korea Sounding Rocket) engine test data is thoroughly analyzed to estimate the vapor fraction of liquid oxygen flow near the engine manifold and the injector. During the cold flow and the combustion tests of the KSR-III Engine, the static and dynamic pressures are measured at the engine inlet, the liquid oxygen manifold and the combustion chamber. The manifold outer wall and the inner wall temperatures are also measured. In this paper, we present the experimental investigation on the vapor generation, the vapor mass fraction, and the boiling characteristics of the liquid oxygen flow in the engine manifold and injector. (Author)

  7. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films for optical waveguide bridges for use in mechanical sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard-Larsen, Torben; Leistiko, Otto


    In this paper the influence of RF power, ammonia flow, annealing temperature, and annealing time on the optical and mechanical properties of plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited silicon oxynitride films, is presented. A low refractive index (1.47 to 1.48) film having tensile stress has been...

  8. The influence of methanol addition during the film growth of SnO 2 by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volintiru, I.; Graaf, A. de; Deelen, J. van; Poodt, P.W.G.


    Undoped tin oxide (SnO2) thin films have been deposited in a stagnant point flow chemical vapor deposition reactor from a water/tin tetrachloride mixture. By adding methanol during the deposition process the film electrical properties change significantly: ten times more conductive SnO 2 films are

  9. Modeling of Laser Vaporization and Plume Chemistry in a Boron Nitride Nanotube Production Rig (United States)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Fay, Catharine C.


    Flow in a pressurized, vapor condensation (PVC) boron nitride nanotube (BNNT) production rig is modeled. A laser provides a thermal energy source to the tip of a boron ber bundle in a high pressure nitrogen chamber causing a plume of boron-rich gas to rise. The buoyancy driven flow is modeled as a mixture of thermally perfect gases (B, B2, N, N2, BN) in either thermochemical equilibrium or chemical nonequilibrium assuming steady-state melt and vaporization from a 1 mm radius spot at the axis of an axisymmetric chamber. The simulation is intended to define the macroscopic thermochemical environment from which boron-rich species, including nanotubes, condense out of the plume. Simulations indicate a high temperature environment (T > 4400K) for elevated pressures within 1 mm of the surface sufficient to dissociate molecular nitrogen and form BN at the base of the plume. Modifications to Program LAURA, a finite-volume based solver for hypersonic flows including coupled radiation and ablation, are described to enable this simulation. Simulations indicate that high pressure synthesis conditions enable formation of BN vapor in the plume that may serve to enhance formation of exceptionally long nanotubes in the PVC process.

  10. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo


    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  11. Novel Prospects for Plasma Spray-Physical Vapor Deposition of Columnar Thermal Barrier Coatings (United States)

    Anwaar, Aleem; Wei, Lianglinag; Guo, Qian; Zhang, Baopeng; Guo, Hongbo


    Plasma spray-physical vapor deposition (PS-PVD) is an emerging coating technique that can produce columnar thermal barrier coatings from vapor phase. Feedstock treatment at the start of its trajectory in the plasma torch nozzle is important for such vapor-phase deposition. This study describes the effects of the plasma composition (Ar/He) on the plasma characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and particle dynamics at different points spatially distributed inside the plasma torch nozzle. The results of calculations show that increasing the fraction of argon in the plasma gas mixture enhances the momentum and heat flow between the plasma and injected feedstock. For the plasma gas combination of 45Ar/45He, the total enthalpy transferred to a representative powder particle inside the plasma torch nozzle is highest ( 9828 kJ/kg). Moreover, due to the properties of the plasma, the contribution of the cylindrical throat, i.e., from the feed injection point (FIP) to the start of divergence (SOD), to the total transferred energy is 69%. The carrier gas flow for different plasma gas mixtures was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of zirconium emissions. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) coating microstructures were produced when using selected plasma gas compositions and corresponding carrier gas flows; structural morphologies were found to be in good agreement with OES and theoretical predictions. Quasicolumnar microstructure was obtained with porosity of 15% when applying the plasma composition of 45Ar/45He.

  12. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2 (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.


    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  13. Automated semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility (United States)


    A semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility (totally automatic) was developed. Wafers arrived on an air track, automatically loaded into a furnace tube, processed, returned to the track, and sent on to the next operation. The entire process was controlled by a computer.

  14. Multilead, Vaporization-Cooled Soldering Heat Sink (United States)

    Rice, John


    Vaporization-cooled heat sink proposed for use during soldering of multiple electrical leads of packaged electronic devices to circuit boards. Heat sink includes compliant wicks held in grooves on edges of metal fixture. Wicks saturated with water. Prevents excessive increases in temperature at entrances of leads into package.

  15. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)


    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and

  16. New Medical Applications Of Metal Vapor Lasers (United States)

    Anderson, Robert S.; McIntosh, Alexander I.


    The first medical application for metal vapor lasers has been granted marketing approval by the FDA. This represents a major milestone for this technology. Metalaser Technologies recently received this approval for its Vasculase unit in the treatment of vascular lesions such as port wine stains, facial telangiectasia and strawberry hemangiomas.

  17. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E


    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  18. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.


    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  19. Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1.0) (United States)

    Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1) - February 5, 2015: This report, which was approved by the EPA on February 18, 2015, documents the results from implementation of the Final Vapor Intrusion Characterization Work Plan.

  20. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials. (United States)


    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  1. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond in Vapor of Methanol-Based Liquid Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua


    .... An electrical discharge is generated by microwave power in a metal cavity in order to dissociate the vapor mixture from one of the liquid solutions, from which radicals such as OH, O, and H that etch...

  2. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.


    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  3. A lateral electrophoretic flow diagnostic assay


    Lin, R; Skandarajah, A; Gerver, RE; Neira, HD; Fletcher, DA; Herr, AE


    © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Immunochromatographic assays are a cornerstone tool in disease screening. To complement existing lateral flow assays (based on wicking flow) we introduce a lateral flow format that employs directed electrophoretic transport. The format is termed a "lateral e-flow assay" and is designed to support multiplexed detection using immobilized reaction volumes of capture antigen. To fabricate the lateral e-flow device, we employ mask-based UV photopatterning to ...

  4. Vapor condensation behind the shock wave in vapor-liquid two-phase media (United States)

    Syoji, Chiharu; Oshiro, Naoto

    Laser extinction, schlieren photography, and in situ pressure measurements are used to characterize vapor condensation behind a shock wave in a diaphragm shock tube with a low-pressure chamber filled with ethanol, water, or freon-11 vapor. The experimental setup is briefly described, and the results are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Condensation, lasting a few hundred microsec before reevaporation sets in, is found to decrease the intensity of the shock front and lower the pressure behind it.

  5. The Influence of Chemical Composition on LNG Pool Vaporization


    Yu Zhidong


    A model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporization rate of LNG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporization rate of the LNG mixtures has been compared to the vaporization of pure methane under the initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporization rate LNG mixture is different to that of pure methane. LNG as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane and isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to the rat...

  6. Convective vaporization of particles in an electromagnetic radiation field (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Kurochkin, V. I.


    The heating and vaporization of spherical particles in the case of the arbitrary relative concentration of vapor and gas are studied on the basis of the exact equations of multicomponent gas dynamics with allowance for the temperature dependence of the transport coefficients. The proposed method makes possible an easy computation of the vaporization rate and temperature in a wide range of particle sizes and radiation flux densities. The results obtained can be used to calculate laser-induced breakdown in metal vapors.

  7. Flow field measurement around vortex cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.; Westerweel, J.; Van Terwisga, T.J.C.


    Models for the center frequency of cavitating-vortex induced pressure-fluctuations, in a flow around propellers, require knowledge of the vortex strength and vapor cavity size. For this purpose, stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements were taken downstream of a fixed half-wing

  8. An experimental study of the phase change by in-situ vaporization in porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castanier, L.; Bories, S.


    A natural geothermal reservoir is an aquifer generally in liquid phase confined between two impermeable layers of rock. Drilling of such reservoirs causes a decompression which allows the in-situ vaporization of some water and the development of a dual-phase flow. Dual-phase flow is directed by the fractures of the reservoir; energy extinction is mainly determined by heat and mass transfers between the rock and the fluids. A large part of the energy stored in the reservoir is the heat of the rock, so the knowledge of these two interconnected mechanisms is very important to appreciate the behavior of geothermal reservoirs.

  9. Flow condensation on copper-based nanotextured superhydrophobic surfaces. (United States)

    Torresin, Daniele; Tiwari, Manish K; Del Col, Davide; Poulikakos, Dimos


    Superhydrophobic surfaces have shown excellent ability to promote dropwise condensation with high droplet mobility, leading to enhanced surface thermal transport. To date, however, it is unclear how superhydrophobic surfaces would perform under the stringent flow condensation conditions of saturated vapor at high temperature, which can affect superhydrophobicity. Here, we investigate this issue employing "all-copper" superhydrophobic surfaces with controlled nanostructuring for minimal thermal resistance. Flow condensation tests performed with saturated vapor at a high temperature (110 °C) showed the condensing drops penetrate the surface texture (i.e., attain the Wenzel state with lower droplet mobility). At the same time, the vapor shear helped ameliorate the mobility and enhanced the thermal transport. At the high end of the examined vapor velocity range, a heat flux of ~600 kW m(-2) was measured at 10 K subcooling and 18 m s(-1) vapor velocity. This clearly highlights the excellent potential of a nanostructured superhydrophobic surface in flow condensation applications. The surfaces sustained dropwise condensation and vapor shear for five days, following which mechanical degradation caused a transition to filmwise condensation. Overall, our results underscore the need to investigate superhydrophobic surfaces under stringent and realistic flow condensation conditions before drawing conclusions regarding their performance in practically relevant condensation applications.

  10. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  11. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  13. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  14. 33 CFR 154.810 - Vapor line connections. (United States)


    ...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.810 Vapor... the OCIMF International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (incorporated by reference; see § 154.106). (h) A vapor collection system fitted with an enriching system that operates at a positive...

  15. Packed-bed catalytic cracking of oak derived pyrolytic vapors (United States)

    Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors derived from oak was carried out using a fixed-bed catalytic column at 425 deg C. The vapors were drawn by splitting a fraction from the full stream of vapors produced at 500 deg C in a 5 kg/hr bench-scale fast pyrolysis reactor system downstream the cyclone s...

  16. RBC Antibody Screen (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities RBC Antibody Screen Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Indirect Coombs Test; Indirect Anti-human Globulin Test; Antibody Screen Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Screen ...

  17. Screen time and children (United States)

    ... page: // Screen time and children To use the sharing features on ... videos is considered unhealthy screen time. Current Screen Time Guidelines Children under age 2 should have no ...

  18. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, July 2017 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  19. Endometrial Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  20. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  1. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  2. Compact Water Vapor Exchanger for Regenerative Life Support Systems (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Anderson, Molly; Hodgson, Edward


    Thermal and environmental control systems for future exploration spacecraft must meet challenging requirements for efficient operation and conservation of resources. Regenerative CO2 removal systems are attractive for these missions because they do not use consumable CO2 absorbers. However, these systems also absorb and vent water to space along with carbon dioxide. This paper describes an innovative device designed to minimize water lost from regenerative CO2 control systems. Design studies and proof-of-concept testing have shown the feasibility of a compact, efficient membrane water vapor exchanger (WVX) that will conserve water while meeting challenging requirements for operation on future spacecraft. Compared to conventional WVX designs, the innovative membrane WVX described here has the potential for high water recovery efficiency, compact size, and very low pressure losses. The key innovation is a method for maintaining highly uniform flow channels in a WVX core built from water-permeable membranes. The proof-of-concept WVX incorporates all the key design features of a prototypical unit, except that it is relatively small scale (1/23 relative to a unit sized for a crew of six) and some components were fabricated using non-prototypical methods. The proof-of-concept WVX achieved over 90% water recovery efficiency in a compact core in good agreement with analysis models. Furthermore the overall pressure drop is very small (less than 0.5 in. H2O, total for both flow streams) and meets requirements for service in environmental control and life support systems on future spacecraft. These results show that the WVX provides very uniform flow through flow channels for both the humid and dry streams. Measurements also show that CO2 diffusion through the water-permeable membranes will have negligible effect on the CO2 partial pressure in the spacecraft atmosphere.

  3. Characteristics of low-temperature short heat pipes with a nozzle-shaped vapor channel (United States)

    Seryakov, A. V.


    This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical studies of heat transfer and swirling pulsating flows in short low-temperature heat pipes whose vapor channels have the form of a conical nozzle. It has been found that as the evaporator of the heat pipe is heated, pressure pulsations occur in the vapor channel starting at a certain threshold value of the heat power, which is due to the start of boiling in the evaporator. The frequency of the pulsations has been measured, and their dependence on the superheat of the evaporator has been determined. It has been found that in heat pipes with a conical vapor channel, pulsations occur at lower evaporator superheats and the pulsation frequency is greater than in heat pipes of the same size with a standard cylindrical vapor channel. It has been shown that the curve of the heat-transfer coefficient versus thermal load on the evaporator has an inflection corresponding to the start of boiling in the capillary porous evaporator of the heat pipe.

  4. Velocity profile of water vapor inside a cavity with two axial inlets and two outlets (United States)

    Guadarrama-Cetina, José; Ruiz Chavarría, Gerardo


    To study the dynamics of Breath Figure phenomenon, a control of both the rate of flow and temperature of water vapor is required. The experimental setup widely used is a non hermetically closed chamber with cylindrical geometry and axial inlets and outlets. In this work we present measurements in a cylindrical chamber with diameter 10 cm and 1.5 cm height, keeping a constant temperature (10 °C). We are focused in the velocity field when a gradient of the temperatures is produced between the base plate and the vapor. With a flux of water vapor of 250 mil/min at room temperature (21 °C), the Reynolds number measured in one inlet is 755. Otherwise, the temperatures of water vapor varies from 21 to 40 °C. The velocity profile is obtained by hot wire anemometry. We identify the stagnations and the possibly instabilities regions for an empty plate and with a well defined shape obstacle as a fashion sample. Facultad de Ciencias, UNAM.

  5. Prostate heating patterns comparing electrosurgical transurethral resection and vaporization: a prospective randomized study. (United States)

    Patel, A; Fuchs, G J; Gutiérrez-Aceves, J; Ryan, T P


    A prospective study was performed to determine if transurethral electrosurgical vaporization of the prostate is associated with unseen heat damage to vital periprostatic structures compared to conventional loop resection. In addition, energy consumption and its relationship to observed tissue temperature at the prostate periphery were evaluated for each treatment. Patients with moderate to severe symptoms of benign prostatic bladder outflow obstruction and objective evidence of diminished flow or acute urinary retention were randomized to undergo either transurethral loop resection or electrosurgical vaporization after stratification for gland volume. Instrumentation was standardized for both groups except for the monopolar electrode used. The radiofrequency power source in the study was a new computer controlled generator with a constant power delivery feature. Regional tissue heating patterns were evaluated with optical fiber probes in real time. Four stationary sites were chosen for temperature measurements, namely the lateral lobe of the prostate, neurovascular bundle beside the prostatic apex at the level of the external sphincter, and anterior rectal wall at the level of the prostatic base and apex. A pull back technique was used to search for hot points in the long axis of the probe (3-dimensional temperature mapping) in 2 patients from each group. Incident generator panel power settings for the electrosurgical vaporization treatments were equivalent to those commonly used for loop resection (150 watts) and were adjusted up or down as needed. Prostate electrosurgical vaporization was possible at generator panel settings that were nearly equivalent to those for transurethral resection of the prostate (130 to 190 watts). No significant rectal or sphincteric heating was detected with either procedure. Conductive cooling of the neurovascular bundles was observed in 2 patients in each group toward the end of the operation. More energy was used per minute of

  6. Prenatal screening and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderson, P; Aro, A R; Dragonas, T


    Although the term 'genetic screening' has been used for decades, this paper discusses how, in its most precise meaning, genetic screening has not yet been widely introduced. 'Prenatal screening' is often confused with 'genetic screening'. As we show, these terms have different meanings, and we...... examine definitions of the relevant concepts in order to illustrate this point. The concepts are i) prenatal, ii) genetic screening, iii) screening, scanning and testing, iv) maternal and foetal tests, v) test techniques and vi) genetic conditions. So far, prenatal screening has little connection...... with precisely defined genetics. There are benefits but also disadvantages in overstating current links between them in the term genetic screening. Policy making and professional and public understandings about screening could be clarified if the distinct meanings of prenatal screening and genetic screening were...

  7. Experimental vaporization of the Holbrook chondrite (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Muenow, D. W.


    The vapor phase composition obtained by heating samples of the Holbrook L6 chondrite to 1300 C was determined quantitatively by Knudsen cell-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Maximum observed vapor pressures, produced at 1200 C, are reported for Na, K, Fe, and Ni, and the implications of the Na/K ratio are considered. The Fe and Ni data are discussed with attention to their migration in individual equilibrated chondrites. S2 (with minor SO2), H2O, and CO2 were also present in the high-temperature gas phase. Vesicles formed by the release of intrinsically derived volatiles are compared with vesicles in the Ibitira eucrite. Chondrite evolution is briefly discussed.

  8. Quenching Phase Separation by Vapor Deposition Polymerization (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell


    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We report a template-free method to fabricate continuous-phase porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during iCVD. Phase separation during film growth is achieved by condensing an inert porogen, along with initiator, monomer, and crosslinker. When the vapor mixture transports to the cooled substrate, phase separation occurs along with polymerization and crosslinking, which quench the state of phase separation. The kinetics of spontaneously phase separation can be qualitatively understood on the basis of Cahn-Hilliard theory. A series of films were grown by varying monomer and porogen's degree of saturation. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques.

  9. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors. (United States)

    Kavet, R; Nauss, K M


    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.

  10. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas


    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  11. Vapor-induced phase transformations in docetaxel. (United States)

    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Krishna Reddy, K V S R; Someswara Rao, N


    Vapor-induced transformations of docetaxel anhydrous (form D(A)) under ambient conditions have been studied using methanol, ethanol, and water as the solvent media. The online vapor-induced transformations were monitored by powder X-ray diffractometry. New solid forms (solvates/hydrates/anhydrous) of docetaxel anhydrous were obtained in stoichiometric ratios which were characterized completely using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, and spectroscopic ((13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, solution (1)H NMR, and Fourier transform infrared) techniques. The new forms namely methanol solvate (D(M)), ethanol solvate (D(E)), monohydrate (D(MH)), trihydrate (D(TH)), and anhydrous (D(AN-I) and D(AN-II)) were identified through structural analysis.

  12. Detection of vapor phase mercury species by laser fluorescence methods (United States)

    Tong, Xiaomei

    Several mercury species emissions have been identified in off-gases from industrial processes. At present, there is no commercial continuous emission monitoring (CEM) technique or instrumentation to reliably monitor volatile mercury species emissions from industrial stacks. Conventional measurement methods, such as cold vapor trap based techniques for elemental mercury, have difficulty in achieving both high sensitivity and the fast time resolution required for real-time monitoring. This doctoral research work gives a systematic study of potential methods for real-time trace detection of volatile elemental mercury and mercury compounds in industrial stack gases. It is based on laser-induced fluorescence techniques; photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy for detection of volatile mercury compounds, and resonance fluorescence for detection of elemental mercury. The capabilities and limitations of these detection techniques are investigated in this dissertation. Detection of mercury compounds is a challenge since they are non-fluorescent. With photofragment fluorescence spectroscopy, target compound concentrations are related to the fluorescence intensity from an excited fragment. In this doctoral research work, low concentrations of mercuric bromide vapor in an atmospheric pressure flow cell are irradiated by a focused laser beam at 222nm. Photofragment fluorescence is monitored at 253.7nm. Two detection schemes, Charge Coupled Device (CCD) and photomultiplier tube (PMT), are applied for the measurement of photofragment fluorescence. The performances of these two systems are compared in the dissertation. A supersonic jet is combined with resonance fluorescence for detection of elemental mercury vapor. With test gas expanded into a vacuum, fluorescence quenching and spectral broadening are reduced. In the experiment, the gas jet is crossed with a laser beam at 253.7nm to excite atomic fluorescence, which is distinguished from the elastic background by time gating

  13. Versatile thin-film reactor for photochemical vapor generation. (United States)

    Zheng, Chengbin; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Brophy, Christine; Hou, Xiandeng


    A novel thin-film reactor is described and evaluated for its analytical performance with photochemical vapor generation (TF-PVG). The device, comprising both the generator and a gas-liquid separator, utilizes a vertical central quartz rod onto which the sample is pumped to yield a thin liquid film conducive to the rapid escape of generated hydrophobic species. The rod is housed within a concentric quartz tube through which a flow of argon carrier/stripping gas is passed to remove and transport the generated species to a detector, which in this study is an inductively coupled argon plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The concentric quartz tube is itself surrounded by a 78-turn 0.5 m long quartz coil low-pressure mercury discharge lamp operating at 20 W. The performance of this thin-film photoreactor was evaluated through comparison of analytical figures of merit for detection of a number of elements undergoing PVG in the presence of formic or acetic acid with those arising from conventional solution nebulization under optimized conditions. The TF-PVG reactor provided sensitivity enhancements, of 110-, 120-, 130-, 250-, 120-, 230-, 78-, 1.3-, 16-, and 32-fold for As, Sb, Bi, Se, Te, Hg, Ni, Co, Fe, and I, respectively, and detection limit enhancements of 110-, 140-, 170-, 270-, 200-, 300-, 160-, 2.7-, 50-, and 44-fold for these same elements. Vapor generation efficiencies ranged from 20-100% for this suite of analytes. The utility of this technique was demonstrated by the determination of Fe and Ni in Certified Reference Materials DORM-3 (fish protein) and DOLT-4 (dogfish liver tissue).

  14. Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes (United States)


    will be conducted and respiratory protective equipment used as needed, as described below. • Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing and oral tobacco use...FINAL REPORT Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes ESTCP Project ER-0423 September 2008 Thomas E. McHugh, Ph ...Thomas E. McHugh, Ph D. Tim N. Nickels 5d. PROJECT NUMBER ER-0423 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  15. Making Ceramic Fibers By Chemical Vapor (United States)

    Revankar, Vithal V. S.; Hlavacek, Vladimir


    Research and development of fabrication techniques for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ceramic fibers presented in two reports. Fibers of SiC, TiB2, TiC, B4C, and CrB2 intended for use as reinforcements in metal-matrix composite materials. CVD offers important advantages over other processes: fibers purer and stronger and processed at temperatures below melting points of constituent materials.

  16. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.


    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Inhalation of Alcohol Vapor: Measurement and Implications. (United States)

    MacLean, Robert Ross; Valentine, Gerald W; Jatlow, Peter I; Sofuoglu, Mehmet


    Decades of alcohol research have established the health risks and pharmacodynamic profile of oral alcohol consumption. Despite isolated periods of public health concern, comparatively less research has evaluated exposure to alcohol vapor. Inhaled alcohol initially bypasses first-pass metabolism and rapidly reaches the arterial circulation and the brain, suggesting that this route of administration may be associated with pharmacological effects that increase the risk of addiction. However, detailed reviews assessing the possible effects of inhaled alcohol in humans are lacking. A comprehensive, systematic literature review was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to examine manuscripts studying exposure to inhaled alcohol and measurement of biomarkers (biochemical or functional) associated with alcohol consumption in human participants. Twenty-one publications reported on alcohol inhalation. Fourteen studies examined inhalation of alcohol vapor associated with occupational exposure (e.g., hand sanitizer) in a variety of settings (e.g., naturalistic, laboratory). Six publications measured inhalation of alcohol in a controlled laboratory chamber, and 1 evaluated direct inhalation of an e-cigarette with ethanol-containing "e-liquid." Some studies have reported that inhalation of alcohol vapor results in measurable biomarkers of acute alcohol exposure, most notably ethyl glucuronide. Despite the lack of significantly elevated blood alcohol concentrations, the behavioral consequences and subjective effects associated with repeated use of devices capable of delivering alcohol vapor are yet to be determined. No studies have focused on vulnerable populations, such as adolescents or individuals with alcohol use disorder, who may be most at risk of problems associated with alcohol inhalation. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  18. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion


    Slager, Cornelis J.; Essed, Catharina E.; Schuurbiers, Johan C.H.; Bom, Nicolaas; Serruys, Patrick W.; Meester, Geert T.


    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and documented histologically in vitro from 30 atherosclerotic segments of six human aortic autopsy specimens. Craters with a constant area and a depth that varied according to the duration of application ...

  19. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y. (Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)); McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L. (Rocketdyne Division/Rockwell International Corporation, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))


    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF[sub 4]) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF[sub 4] fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure ([similar to]100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  20. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling. (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C


    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  1. Droplet vaporization in a supercritical microgravity environment (United States)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.

    A model has been developed for non-convective vaporization of liquid fuel droplets in an environment above the liquid critical pressure and near or above the liquid critical temperature. The model employs conservation of mass, energy and chemical species, along with transport properties which vary with temperature and species concentration. The liquid interface is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The interface problem is solved using the Gibbs-Duhem relationship, and evaluating mixture fugacities using a modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state for the mixture. Due to the limited range of this equation, a curve-fit equation of state suitable for conditions far from the liquid critical point was applied. Results are presented for an n-octane liquid drop in nitrogen gas. For two gas conditions, several droplet sizes are modeled. Results include droplet size histories, surface temperature histories, and liquid and gas phase temperature profiles. The liquid vaporization rate is increased significantly for supercritical conditions compared to subcritical conditions. Using the specified equation of state for the ambient conditions tested, the droplet is completely vaporized before the liquid surface is heated to the liquid critical temperature.

  2. Marketing practices of vapor store owners. (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin


    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  3. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin


    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  4. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob


    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is < 2 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2 x 10-4 requirement. The observable gain stability is < 2.5 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2.5 x 10-4 requirement.Overall, the test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  5. Physical and numerical modeling of multidimensional liquid-vapor flows advanced two-fluid models, application to upwind finite volume methods; Modelisation physique et numerique d'ecoulements eau-vapeur multidimensionnels modeles bifluides avances, application de methodes de volumes finis decentres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seignole, V


    This report presents the work of thesis realized under the direction of Jean-Michel Ghidaglia (thesis director, ENS-Cachan) and of Anela Kumbaro (tutor, CEA) within the framework of the modeling of two-phase flows with OAP code. The report consists of two parts of unequal size: the first part concentrates on aspects related exclusively to two-phase flows, while the second one is devoted to the study of a numerical problem inherent to the resolution of two-phase flow systems, but whose action has a broader framework. (author)

  6. Evaluation of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for in-process water vapor mass flux measurements during freeze drying. (United States)

    Gieseler, Henning; Kessler, William J; Finson, Michael; Davis, Steven J; Mulhall, Phillip A; Bons, Vincent; Debo, David J; Pikal, Michael J


    The goal of this work was to demonstrate the use of Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) as a noninvasive method to continuously measure the water vapor concentration and the vapor flow velocity in the spool connecting a freeze-dryer chamber and condenser. The instantaneous measurements were used to determine the water vapor mass flow rate (g/s). The mass flow determinations provided a continuous measurement of the total amount of water removed. Full load runs of pure water at different pressure and shelf temperature settings and a 5% (w/w) mannitol product run were performed in both laboratory and pilot scale freeze dryers. The ratio of "gravimetric/TDLAS" measurements of water removed was 1.02 +/- 0.06. A theoretical heat transfer model was used to predict the mass flow rate and the model results were compared to both the gravimetric and TDLAS data. Good agreement was also observed in the "gravimetric/TDLAS" ratio for the 5% mannitol runs dried in both freeze dryers. The endpoints of primary and secondary drying for the product runs were clearly identified. Comparison of the velocity and mass flux profiles between the laboratory and pilot dryers indicated a higher restriction to mass flow for the lab scale freeze dryer. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Vaporization and Zonal Mixing in Performance Modeling of Advanced LOX-Methane Rockets (United States)

    Williams, George J., Jr.; Stiegemeier, Benjamin R.


    Initial modeling of LOX-Methane reaction control (RCE) 100 lbf thrusters and larger, 5500 lbf thrusters with the TDK/VIPER code has shown good agreement with sea-level and altitude test data. However, the vaporization and zonal mixing upstream of the compressible flow stage of the models leveraged empirical trends to match the sea-level data. This was necessary in part because the codes are designed primarily to handle the compressible part of the flow (i.e. contraction through expansion) and in part because there was limited data on the thrusters themselves on which to base a rigorous model. A more rigorous model has been developed which includes detailed vaporization trends based on element type and geometry, radial variations in mixture ratio within each of the "zones" associated with elements and not just between zones of different element types, and, to the extent possible, updated kinetic rates. The Spray Combustion Analysis Program (SCAP) was leveraged to support assumptions in the vaporization trends. Data of both thrusters is revisited and the model maintains a good predictive capability while addressing some of the major limitations of the previous version.

  8. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pump Heat Exchangers for a Condensate Distillation System: Design and Experiment (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.


    Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical in long duration space exploration. One of the more promising methods of reclaiming urine is the distillation/condensation process used in the cascade distillation system (CDS). This system accepts a mixture of urine and toxic stabilizing agents, heats it to vaporize the water and condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating and its condensate flow requires cooling. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately requires two separate units, each of which would require large amounts of electrical power. By heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit, mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump performance tests are provided. A summary is provided of the heat pump mass, volume and power trades and a selection recommendation is made.

  9. Vapor Compression and Thermoelectric Heat Pumps for a Cascade Distillation Subsystem: Design and Experiment (United States)

    Erickson, Lisa R.; Ungar, Eugene K.


    Humans on a spacecraft require significant amounts of water for drinking, food, hydration, and hygiene. Maximizing the reuse of wastewater while minimizing the use of consumables is critical for long duration space exploration. One of the more promising consumable-free methods of reclaiming wastewater is the distillation/condensation process used in the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS). The CDS heats wastewater to the point of vaporization then condenses and cools the resulting water vapor. The CDS wastewater flow requires heating for evaporation and the product water flow requires cooling for condensation. Performing the heating and cooling processes separately would require two separate units, each of which would demand large amounts of electrical power. Mass, volume, and power efficiencies can be obtained by heating the wastewater and cooling the condensate in a single heat pump unit. The present work describes and compares two competing heat pump methodologies that meet the needs of the CDS: 1) a series of mini compressor vapor compression cycles and 2) a thermoelectric heat exchanger. In the paper, the CDS system level requirements are outlined, the designs of the two heat pumps are described in detail, and the results of heat pump analysis and performance tests are provided. The mass, volume, and power requirement for each heat pump option is compared and the advantages and disadvantages of each system are listed.

  10. The processes of vaporization in the porous structures working with the excess of liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genbach Alexander A.


    Full Text Available The processes of vaporization in porous structures, working with the excess of liquid are investigated. With regard to the thermal power plants new porous cooling system is proposed and investigated, in which the supply of coolant is conducted by the combined action of gravity and capillary forces. The cooling surface is made of stainless steel, brass, copper, bronze, nickel, alundum and glass, with wall thickness of (0.05-2•10-3 m. Visualizations of the processes of vaporization were carried out using holographic interferometry with the laser system and high speed camera. The operating conditions of the experiments were: water pressures (0.01-10 MPa, the temperature difference of sub-cooling (0-20°C, an excess of liquid (1-14 of the steam flow, the heat load (1-60•104 W/m2, the temperature difference (1-60°C and orientation of the system (± 0 - ± 90 degrees. Studies have revealed three areas of liquid vaporization process (transitional, developed and crisis. The impact of operating and design parameters on the integrated and thermal hydraulic characteristics was defined. The optimum (minimum flow rate of cooling fluid and the most effective type of mesh porous structure were also defined.

  11. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate: outcomes and adverse events of 220 consecutive patients (United States)

    Robson, C.; Mueller, E. J.


    Purpose: To evaluate the short term outcomes of 220 consecutive patients who underwent the 532 nm KTP photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) procedure and to evaluate and categorize the complications of the procedure. Materials and Methods: A total of 220 patients with symptomatic benign prostatic obstruction were treated with KTP photoselective vaporization of the prostate. Evaluation measures included the AUA Symptom Score (AUASS)/Quality of Life Score (QOL), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), post void residual urine (PVR) and adverse events. Results: Symptoms were evaluated at 3 months and adverse events at 1 and 3 months. 181 patients returned for their 1 month visit and 152 returned for their 3 month visit. The American Urological Association Symptom Score (AUASS) decreased from 21.8 to 6.7. The Quality of Life Score (QOL) decreased from 3.8 to 0.7. The peak urinary flow rate (Qmax) increased from 10.7 cc/sec to 22.7 cc/sec. And the post void residual urine (PVR) decreased from 262 cc to 105 cc. Most common adverse events lasting more than 10 days were mild hematuria in 45%, dysuria in 32%, and urgency/frequency in31%. Conclusion: These results confirm that photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) is a safe and effective therapy for benign prostatic obstruction. However, there is frequent, but mild, hematuria and irritative voiding symptoms during the early postoperative period.

  12. Real-time trace detection of vapor-phase elemental mercury and its compounds (United States)

    Tong, Xiaomei; Barat, Robert B.; Poulos, Arthur T.


    The high toxicity of mercury species (elemental and compound) has prompted a demand for accurate, real-time inventory and control of their emissions. Our method of choice for mercury compound vapor is Photofragment Fluorescence spectroscopy. Target compound concentrations can be related to the fluorescence intensity from an excited fragment. Fragment identities and distributions, as revealed in the fluorescence spectrum provide information on the composition of the parent species. In the first experimental phase, a static cell (no flow) containing mercury compound (e.g. HgCl2 vapor was probed with a deep ultraviolet (UV) laser to generate characteristic spectra. An atmospheric pressure flow cell was used in the second stage. Limits-of-detection have been estimated. Detection schemes have included both photomultiplier tube (with interference filter) and charge- coupled-device camera (with monochromator). To reduce fluorescence quenching, we have expanded an argon gas stream containing Hg vapor through a micro-jet into a vacuum. The jet is crossed with a laser beam at 253.7 nm to excite atomic fluorescence, which is distinguished from the background by time gating.

  13. Modeling of fuel vapor jet eruption induced by local droplet heating

    KAUST Repository

    Sim, Jaeheon


    The evaporation of a droplet by non-uniform heating is numerically investigated in order to understand the mechanism of the fuel-vapor jet eruption observed in the flame spread of a droplet array under microgravity condition. The phenomenon was believed to be mainly responsible for the enhanced flame spread rate through a droplet cloud at microgravity conditions. A modified Eulerian-Lagrangian method with a local phase change model is utilized to describe the interfacial dynamics between liquid droplet and surrounding air. It is found that the localized heating creates a temperature gradient along the droplet surface, induces the corresponding surface tension gradient, and thus develops an inner flow circulation commonly referred to as the Marangoni convection. Furthermore, the effect also produces a strong shear flow around the droplet surface, thereby pushing the fuel vapor toward the wake region of the droplet to form a vapor jet eruption. A parametric study clearly demonstrated that at realistic droplet combustion conditions the Marangoni effect is indeed responsible for the observed phenomena, in contrast to the results based on constant surface tension approximation

  14. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of uranium for alpha spectrometry; Deposicion quimica de vapor (CVD) de uranio para espectrometria alfa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez V, M. L.; Rios M, C.; Ramirez O, J.; Davila R, J. I.; Mireles G, F., E-mail: [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)


    The uranium determination through radiometric techniques as alpha spectrometry requires for its proper analysis, preparation methods of the source to analyze and procedures for the deposit of this on a surface or substrate. Given the characteristics of alpha particles (small penetration distance and great loss of energy during their journey or its interaction with the matter), is important to ensure that the prepared sources are thin, to avoid problems of self-absorption. The routine methods used for this are the cathodic electro deposition and the direct evaporation, among others. In this paper the use of technique of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the preparation of uranium sources is investigated; because by this, is possible to obtain thin films (much thinner than those resulting from electro deposition or evaporation) on a substrate and comprises reacting a precursor with a gas, which in turn serves as a carrier of the reaction products to achieve deposition. Preliminary results of the chemical vapor deposition of uranium are presented, synthesizing and using as precursor molecule the uranyl acetylacetonate, using oxygen as carrier gas for the deposition reaction on a glass substrate. The uranium films obtained were found suitable for alpha spectrometry. The variables taken into account were the precursor sublimation temperatures and deposition temperature, the reaction time and the type and flow of carrier gas. Of the investigated conditions, two depositions with encouraging results that can serve as reference for further work to improve the technique presented here were selected. Alpha spectra obtained for these depositions and the characterization of the representative samples by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction are also presented. (Author)

  15. Numerical Study of Single Well Vapor Extraction Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Rahnema


    Full Text Available Vapor extraction (Vapex is an emerging technology to produce heavy oil and bitumen from subsurface formations. Single well (SW Vapex technique uses the same concept of Vapex process but only with one horizontal well. In this process solvent is injected from the toe of the horizontal well with oil production at the heel section. The main advantage of SW-Vapex process lies in the economic saving and applicability in problematic reservoirs, where drilling of two horizontal wells is impractical. The performance of SW-Vapex seems to be comparable with dual horizontal Vapex process using proper optimization schemes. This study is grouped into two sections: (i a screening study of early time operating performance of SW-Vapex and (ii a sensitivity analysis of the effect of the reservoir and well completion parameters. Simulation results show that solvent injection rate can be optimized to improve oil production rate. Higher injection rates may not necessarily lead to increase in production. This study confirms that SW-Vapex process is very ineffective in reservoirs with high oil viscosity (more than 1,500 cp and thin formations (less than 10 m.

  16. Printing of small molecular medicines from the vapor phase. (United States)

    Shalev, Olga; Raghavan, Shreya; Mazzara, J Maxwell; Senabulya, Nancy; Sinko, Patrick D; Fleck, Elyse; Rockwell, Christopher; Simopoulos, Nicholas; Jones, Christina M; Schwendeman, Anna; Mehta, Geeta; Clarke, Roy; Amidon, Gregory E; Shtein, Max


    There is growing need to develop efficient methods for early-stage drug discovery, continuous manufacturing of drug delivery vehicles, and ultra-precise dosing of high potency drugs. Here we demonstrate the use of solvent-free organic vapor jet printing to deposit nanostructured films of small molecular pharmaceutical ingredients, including caffeine, paracetamol, ibuprofen, tamoxifen, BAY 11-7082 and fluorescein, with accuracy on the scale of micrograms per square centimeter, onto glass, Tegaderm, Listerine tabs, and stainless steel microneedles. The printed films exhibit similar crystallographic order and chemistry as the original powders; controlled, order-of-magnitude enhancements of dissolution rate are observed relative to powder-form particles. In vitro treatment of breast and ovarian cancer cell cultures in aqueous media by tamoxifen and BAY 11-7082 films shows similar behavior to drugs pre-dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The demonstrated precise printing of medicines as films, without the use of solvents, can accelerate drug screening and enable continuous manufacturing, while enhancing dosage accuracy.Traditional approaches used in the pharmaceutical industry are not precise or versatile enough for customized medicine formulation and manufacture. Here the authors produce a method to form coatings, with accurate dosages, as well as a means of closely controlling dissolution kinetics.

  17. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail:; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)


    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  18. Development of a Computational Chemical Vapor Deposition Model: Applications to Indium Nitride and Dicyanovinylaniline (United States)

    Cardelino, Carlos


    A computational chemical vapor deposition (CVD) model is presented, that couples chemical reaction mechanisms with fluid dynamic simulations for vapor deposition experiments. The chemical properties of the systems under investigation are evaluated using quantum, molecular and statistical mechanics models. The fluid dynamic computations are performed using the CFD-ACE program, which can simulate multispecies transport, heat and mass transfer, gas phase chemistry, chemistry of adsorbed species, pulsed reactant flow and variable gravity conditions. Two experimental setups are being studied, in order to fabricate films of: (a) indium nitride (InN) from the gas or surface phase reaction of trimethylindium and ammonia; and (b) 4-(1,1)dicyanovinyl-dimethylaminoaniline (DCVA) by vapor deposition. Modeling of these setups requires knowledge of three groups of properties: thermodynamic properties (heat capacity), transport properties (diffusion, viscosity, and thermal conductivity), and kinetic properties (rate constants for all possible elementary chemical reactions). These properties are evaluated using computational methods whenever experimental data is not available for the species or for the elementary reactions. The chemical vapor deposition model is applied to InN and DCVA. Several possible InN mechanisms are proposed and analyzed. The CVD model simulations of InN show that the deposition rate of InN is more efficient when pulsing chemistry is used under conditions of high pressure and microgravity. An analysis of the chemical properties of DCVA show that DCVA dimers may form under certain conditions of physical vapor transport. CVD simulations of the DCVA system suggest that deposition of the DCVA dimer may play a small role in the film and crystal growth processes.

  19. Additional facilities to handle PUREX tank farm vapor wastes. Project CG-719

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, V.W.


    The liquid high-level radioactive wastes from the separations plant are stored in large underground tanks where radioactive decay of the fission products in storage gives off heat. In the case of the 241-A underground storage tank farm, for Purex wastes, advantage is taken of this heat to self-concentrate the wastes. The present practice is to permit boiling and concentration in the storage tanks. The vapors given off from the boiling wastes are collected in a vapor header and passed through a deentrainment vessel and on to two contact condensers where the vapors are condensed and intermixed with waste cooling water. Samples taken of the waste vapors have shown a considerable amount of cesium{sup 137} present as well as other types of radioactive material carry over from the waste tanks. For this reason the contact condenser effluent is discharged to an underground crib 216-A-8. Underground disposal of the increasing volume of condenser effluent as larger waste volumes are accumulated in the underground tanks presents a critical problem which is further complicated by the desirability to transfer the condensate waste to new disposal facilities near the 200 West area. The intent of this report is to present the scope of the facilities required to reduce the volume of potentially radioactive condensate waste from the 241-A tank farm and to dispose of this waste through supplemental cribbing. An analysis of the 216-A-8 crib capabilities in relation to the projected flows clearly indicates that if other facilities to reduce the contaminated waste stream volume are not provided, an extensive and costly crib system will be required. The economical solution to the problem is to provide surface condensers to permit segregation of the condensed waste vapors from the cooling water, condensate collection and transfer facilities, and a new condensate disposal crib near the 200 West Area. Data which support this solution are provided in this report.

  20. Pressure-coupled vaporization and combustion responses of liquid-fuel droplets in high-pressure environments (United States)

    Yang, Vigor; Shuen, J. S.; Hsiao, C. C.


    The dynamic responses of liquid-fuel droplet vaporization and combustion to ambient pressure oscillations are examined. The analysis is based on the complete sets of conservation equations for both gas and liquid phases, and accommodates detailed treatments of finite-rate chemical kinetics and variable properties. With a full account of thermodynamic phase equilibrium at the droplet surface, the model enables a systematic examination of the effects of ambient flow conditions on the droplet behavior. The responses of hydrocarbon fuel droplets in both sub- and super-critical environments are investigated. Results indicate that the droplet gasification and burning mechanisms depend greatly on the ambient pressure. In particular, a rapid enlargement of the vaporization and combustion responses occurs when the droplet surface reaches its critical point, mainly due to the strong variations of latent heat of vaporization and thermophysical properties at the critical state.

  1. Quantifying liquid boundary and vapor distributions in a fuel spray by rainbow schlieren deflectometry. (United States)

    Taber Wanstall, C; Agrawal, Ajay K; Bittle, Joshua A


    The rainbow schlieren deflectometry (RSD) technique is used to determine the liquid boundary and the fuel volume fraction distributions in the vapor region of a high-pressure fuel spray. Experiments were conducted in a constant pressure flow vessel, whereby a customized single-hole common-rail diesel injector is used to introduce n-heptane fuel into a coflow of low-speed ambient air at two different test conditions. Only the quasi-steady period of the fuel spray is considered, and multiple injections are performed to acquire statistically significant data at an image acquisition rate of 20 kHz. An algorithm to identify the liquid boundary using intensity recorded by the RSD images is presented. The results are compared against measurements obtained by the Mie scattering technique. Results demonstrate that the RSD can be a powerful optical diagnostics technique to simultaneously quantify both the vapor and liquid regions in the high-pressure fuel sprays.

  2. Optical droplet vaporization of nanoparticle-loaded stimuli-responsive microbubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Ting [Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Li, Guangbin; Luo, Xisheng [Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Wu, Qiang; Zhu, Zhiqiang [Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Xu, Ronald X., E-mail: [Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Precision Machinery and Precision Instrumentation, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)


    A capillary co-flow focusing process is developed to generate stimuli-responsive microbubbles (SRMs) that comprise perfluorocarbon (PFC) suspension of silver nanoparticles (SNPs) in a lipid shell. Upon continuous laser irradiation at around their surface plasmon resonance band, the SNPs effectively absorb electromagnetic energy, induce heat accumulation in SRMs, trigger PFC vaporization, and eventually lead to thermal expansion and fragmentation of the SRMs. This optical droplet vaporization (ODV) process is further simulated by a theoretical model that combines heat generation of SNPs, phase change of PFC, and thermal expansion of SRMs. The model is validated by benchtop experiments, where the ODV process is monitored by microscopic imaging. The effects of primary process parameters on behaviors of ODV are predicted by the theoretical model, indicating the technical feasibility for process control and optimization in future drug delivery applications.

  3. Develop High Efficiency Liquid-Feed PEM Electrolyzer Based on Integrated Flow Field (IFF) Structure Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Polymer electrolyte membrane water electrolysis units are currently designed to require active water flow and phase separation, or are based on a passive vapor...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sizov


    Full Text Available It is recommended to have a vapor-proof barrier on the internal side of heat insulation system in multi-layer building enclosing parts in order to ensure protection of a heat-insulation layer against humidification because relative humidity of internal air is generally higher than external one and diffusion of water steam is directed from premises outside. While having a barrier with high vapor permeability a part of moisture can be accumulated in the structure and heat insulation core and difference of actual and maximum possible partial pressures leads to condensate formation. In order to improve thermal properties of enclosing parts the necessity arises to create a vapor-proof protection screen. It complies with the design of a panel with a vapor-proof screen in the form of non-perforated aluminium foil. The given screen located at internal panel layer prevents penetration of water vapor from premises into enclosing part and heat insulation layer. In such a case condensation zones and, consequently, their moistening can occur in some layers of enclosing parts according to their thermal and physical characteristics. The paper contains a calculation of thermal and moisture regime of the enclosing parts with vapor-proof layer (non-perforated aluminium foil located in enclosing part core between various layers. An analysis of thermal and moisture regime diagrams for multi-layer external enclosing part demonstrates that the part of non-perforated screen (aluminium foil located between internal concrete layer and perforated heat insulation layer is considered the most rational one. At the same time other screens between separate layers are perforated.

  5. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... all skin colors can get skin cancer. Skin Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  6. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  7. Studies on micro-structures at vapor-liquid interfaces of film boiling on hot liquid surface at arriving of a shock pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Lee, S. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    In vapor explosions, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role in the generation, propagation and escalation of the explosion. Transient volume change by rapid heat flow from a high temperature liquid to a low temperature volatile one and phase change generate micro-scale flow and the pressure wave. One of key issues for the vapor explosion is to make clear the mechanism to support the explosive energy release from hot drop to cold liquid. According to our observations by an Image Converter Camera, growth rate of vapor film around a hot tin drop became several times higher than that around a hot Platinum tube at the same conditions when a pressure pulse collapsed the film. The thermally induced fragmentation was followed by the explosive growth rate of the hot drop. In the previous report, we have proposed that the interface instability and fragmentation model in which the fine Taylor instability of vapor-liquid interface at the collapsing and re-growth phase of vapor film and the instability induced by the high pressure spots at the drop surface were assumed. In this study, the behavior of the vapor-liquid interface region at arrival of a pressure pulse was investigated by the CIPRIS code which is able to simulate dynamics of transient multi-phase interface regions. It is compared with the observation results. Through detailed investigations of these results, the mechanisms of the thermal fragmentation of single drop are discussed. (J.P.N.)

  8. Double Shell Tank (DST) Ventilation System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SASAKI, L.M.


    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples from the primary ventilation systems of the AN, AP, AW, and AY/AZ tank farms. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Air DQO) (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications. Vapor samples will be obtained from tank farm ventilation systems, downstream from the tanks and upstream of any filtration. Samples taken in support of the DQO will consist of SUMMA{trademark} canisters, triple sorbent traps (TSTs), sorbent tube trains (STTs), polyurethane foam (PUF) samples. Particulate filter samples and tritium traps will be taken for radiation screening to allow the release of the samples for analysis. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the preparation, retrieval, transport, analysis, and reporting of results from the vapor samples.

  9. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships. (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A


    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Harmonic analysis of flow in open boreholes due to barometric pressure cycles. (United States)

    Neeper, Donald A


    Barometric pressure changes can induce airflow in an open borehole or well screened in the vadose zone, thereby ventilating the soil surrounding the borehole. This paper presents an analytic model of the induced airflow and compares the predictions of the model with experimental measurements. This model may be useful for the design of passive soil vapor extraction as applied to the remediation of soil contaminated by volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Based on harmonic analysis, the model predicts the time-dependent flow in agreement with measurements at a borehole in strata of differing permeability. The model uses no adjustable parameters, but proceeds from first principles based upon known or estimated values of soil properties as a function of depth. In an approximation, the calculated flow is determined by the difference between barometric pressure and the attenuated pressure that would propagate vertically into the vadose zone in the absence of an open borehole. The attenuated vertical propagation of pressure can be calculated by a corresponding harmonic method presented previously. The model reveals that the flow in the borehole is approximately proportional to the horizontal permeability in the formation, and depends only weakly on the soil porosity and borehole radius. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Introduction of image analysis for the quantification of the boiling flow heat transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferret, C.; Falk, L.; d'Ortona, U.; Chenu, A.; Veenstra, T.T.


    Heat transfer performances for non-boiling and boiling flow of a micro-vaporizer have been measured by standard methods (temperatures, flow rates, effective power input). The study was carried out for laminar flow (Re<25) in silicon micro-channels (5 mm×3 cm×200 μm) filled with ordered obstacles to

  12. Operation of a breadboard liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor system for removing carbon dioxide and water vapor from air (United States)

    Mccray, Scott B.; Ray, Rod; Newbold, David D.; Millard, Douglas L.; Friesen, Dwayne T.; Foerg, Sandra


    Processes to remove and recover carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor from air are essential for successful long-duration space missions. This paper presents results of a developmental program focused on the use of a liquid-sorbent/membrane-contactor (LSMC) system for removal of CO2 and water vapor from air. In this system, air from the spacecraft cabin atmosphere is circulated through one side of a hollow-fiber membrane contactor. On the other side of the membrane contactor is flowed a liquid sorbent, which absorbs the CO2 and water vapor from the feed air. The liquid sorbent is then heated to desorb the CO2 and water vapor. The CO2 is subsequently removed from the system as a concentrated gas stream, whereas the water vapor is condensed, producing a water stream. A breadboard system based on this technology was designed and constructed. Tests showed that the LSMC breadboard system can produce a CO2 stream and a liquid-water stream. Details are presented on the operation of the system, as well as the effects on performance of variations in feed conditions.

  13. Two-phase flow in refrigeration systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Junjie; Gan, Zhongxue


    Two-Phase Flow in Refrigeration Systems presents recent developments from the authors' extensive research programs on two-phase flow in refrigeration systems. This book covers advanced mass and heat transfer and vapor compression refrigeration systems and shows how the performance of an automotive air-conditioning system is affected through results obtained experimentally and theoretically, specifically with consideration of two-phase flow and oil concentration. The book is ideal for university postgraduate students as a textbook, researchers and professors as an academic reference book, and b

  14. Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

  15. Permeability of MDT chambers to water vapor

    CERN Document Server

    Palestini, S


    Tests of MDT chambers performed at the GIF facility and in the H8 test-beam area have shown relative high levels of water vapor contamination in the gas-mixture at the detector output. This effects significantly the drift properties of the MDTs. This note shows that amount of water observed is compatible with approximate estimates based on the permeability of Noryl, used in the tube end-plugs, and of EPDM, used in the O-rings of the on-chamber gas distribution.

  16. Screening for Breast Cancer. (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S


    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Zno Micro/Nanostructures Grown on Sapphire Substrates Using Low-Temperature Vapor-Trapped Thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition: Structural and Optical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Sheng Hu


    Full Text Available In this research, the Zn(C5H7O22·xH2O-based growth of ZnO micro/nanostructures in a low temperature, vapor-trapped chemical vapor deposition system was attempted to optimize structural and optical properties for potential biomedical applications. By trapping in-flow gas molecules and Zinc vapor inside a chamber tube by partially obstructing a chamber outlet, a high pressure condition can be achieved, and this experimental setup has the advantages of ease of synthesis, being a low temperature process, and cost effectiveness. Empirically, the growth process proceeded under a chamber condition of an atmospheric pressure of 730 torr, a controlled volume flow rate of input gas, N2/O2, of 500/500 Standard Cubic Centimeters per Minute (SCCM, and a designated oven temperature of 500 °C. Specifically, the dependence of structural and optical properties of the structures on growth duration and spatially dependent temperature were investigated utilizing scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, and ultraviolet-visible transmission spectroscopy. The experimental results indicate that the grown thin film observed with hexagonal structures and higher structural uniformity enables more prominent structural and optical signatures. XRD spectra present the dominant peaks along crystal planes of (002 and (101 as the main direction of crystallization. In addition, while the structures excited with laser wavelength of 325 nm emit a signature radiation around 380 nm, an ultraviolet lamp with a wavelength of 254 nm revealed distinctive photoluminescence peaks at 363.96 nm and 403.52 nm, elucidating different degrees of structural correlation as functions of growth duration and the spatial gradient of temperature. Transmittance spectra of the structures illustrate typical variation in the wavelength range of 200 nm to 400 nm, and its structural correlation is less significant when compared with PL.

  18. Processing and characterization of screen printing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... prepared with differentcarriers and milling treatments were rheologically characterized, screen printed on three different porous alumina substrates and sintered at 1050 and 1150 ∘ C. The resulting membranes were characterized. The data collected on the rheological properties of inks (flow curves, thixotropic behaviour, ...

  19. Effect of cooling condition on chemical vapor deposition synthesis of graphene on copper catalyst. (United States)

    Choi, Dong Soo; Kim, Keun Soo; Kim, Hyeongkeun; Kim, Yena; Kim, TaeYoung; Rhy, Se-hyun; Yang, Cheol-Min; Yoon, Dae Ho; Yang, Woo Seok


    Here, we show that chemical vapor deposition growth of graphene on copper foil is strongly affected by the cooling conditions. Variation of cooling conditions such as cooling rate and hydrocarbon concentration in the cooling step has yielded graphene islands with different sizes, density of nuclei, and growth rates. The nucleation site density on Cu substrate is greatly reduced when the fast cooling condition was applied, while continuing methane flow during the cooling step also influences the nucleation and growth rate. Raman spectra indicate that the graphene synthesized under fast cooling condition and methane flow on cool-down exhibit superior quality of graphene. Further studies suggest that careful control of the cooling rate and CH4 gas flow on the cooling step yield a high quality of graphene.

  20. Toluene vapor capture by activated carbon particles in a dual gas-solid cyclone system. (United States)

    Lim, Yun Hui; Ngo, Khanh Quoc; Park, Young Koo; Jo, Young Min


    Capturing of odorous compounds such as toluene vapor by a particulate-activated carbon adsorbent was investigated in a gas-solid cyclone, which is one type of mobile beds. The test cyclone was early modified with the post cyclone (PoC) and a spiral flow guide to the vortex finder. The proposed process may contribute to the reduction of gases and dust from industrial exhausts, especially when dealing with a low concentration of odorous elements and a large volume ofdust flow. In this device, the toluene capturing efficiency at a 400 ppm concentration rose up to 77.4% when using activated carbon (AC) particles with a median size of 27.03 microm. A maximum 96% of AC particles could be collected for reuse depending on the size and flow rate. The AC regenerated via thermal treatment showed an adsorption potential up to 66.7% throughout repeated tests.

  1. Water recovery by catalytic treatment of urine vapor (United States)

    Budininkas, P.; Quattrone, P. D.; Leban, M. I.


    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of water recovery on a man-rated scale by the catalytic processing of untreated urine vapor. For this purpose, two catalytic systems, one capable of processing an air stream containing low urine vapor concentrations and another to process streams with high urine vapor concentrations, were designed, constructed, and tested to establish the quality of the recovered water.

  2. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys


    Jeong, Jae; Lee, Sung; Jeon, Je-Beom; Kim, Suk


    Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the va...

  3. Lunar absorption spectrophotometer for measuring atmospheric water vapor. (United States)

    Querel, Richard R; Naylor, David A


    A novel instrument has been designed to measure the nighttime atmospheric water vapor column abundance by near-infrared absorption spectrophotometry of the Moon. The instrument provides a simple, effective, portable, and inexpensive means of rapidly measuring the water vapor content along the lunar line of sight. Moreover, the instrument is relatively insensitive to the atmospheric model used and, thus, serves to provide an independent calibration for other measures of precipitable water vapor from both ground- and space-based platforms.

  4. The liquid to vapor phase transition in excited nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J.B.; Moretto, L.G.; Phair, L.; Wozniak, G.J.; Beaulieu, L.; Breuer, H.; Korteling, R.G.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lefort, T.; Pienkowski, L.; Ruangma, A.; Viola, V.E.; Yennello, S.J.


    For many years it has been speculated that excited nuclei would undergo a liquid to vapor phase transition. For even longer, it has been known that clusterization in a vapor carries direct information on the liquid-vapor equilibrium according to Fisher's droplet model. Now the thermal component of the 8 GeV/c pion + 197 Au multifragmentation data of the ISiS Collaboration is shown to follow the scaling predicted by Fisher's model, thus providing the strongest evidence yet of the liquid to vapor phase transition.

  5. Excessively High Vapor Pressure of Al-based Amorphous Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Im Jeong


    Full Text Available Aluminum-based amorphous alloys exhibited an abnormally high vapor pressure at their approximate glass transition temperatures. The vapor pressure was confirmed by the formation of Al nanocrystallites from condensation, which was attributed to weight loss of the amorphous alloys. The amount of weight loss varied with the amorphous alloy compositions and was inversely proportional to their glass-forming ability. The vapor pressure of the amorphous alloys around 573 K was close to the vapor pressure of crystalline Al near its melting temperature, 873 K. Our results strongly suggest the possibility of fabricating nanocrystallites or thin films by evaporation at low temperatures.

  6. [Laser vaporization of the prostate: all as it should be?]. (United States)

    Reich, O; Seitz, M


    Laser vaporization of the prostate currently occupies a prominent place among the surgical options for treatment of benign prostatic syndrome. Particularly the so-called GreenLight laser vaporization with the KTP (80 W) or LBO (120 W) laser has become remarkably widespread throughout the world. There are already 100 of these GreenLight laser systems in use in Germany alone. The introduction of a separate DRG for "laser vaporization" is expected to further increase the significance of this surgical technique. The aim of this study is to evaluate laser vaporization as a whole and to identify possible differences between the different lasers.

  7. Effect of waste anesthetic gas and vapor exposure on reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.A.


    This study was designed to investigate potential adverse reproductive outcome in veterinary personnel who are exposed to waste anesthetic gas and vapor at levels near the NIOSH recommended standards. Subjects for this case-control study of births with congenital abnormalities and spontaneous abortion, selected from the American Veterinary Medical Association roster, were contacted by mail and asked to complete a screening questionnaire regarding reproductive history. Crude prevalence rates for spontaneous abortion, births with congenital abnormalities and stillbirths, determined on the basis of the responses to the screening questionnaire, showed no excess rates when compared with national statistics. All pregnancies resulting in spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, or birth with congenital abnormality were selected as cases. Controls were selected from the reported normal births on a stratified random basis to match maternal age and pregnancy number for cases. Occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gas and vapor in general was not found to be significantly associated with adverse reproductive outcome when adjustment was made for radiation exposure. For nitrous oxide exposure, however, an odds ratio significantly greater than one was found for spontaneous abortion among female veterinary assistants and wives of exposed male veterinarians. Use of diagnostic x-rays in veterinary practice was associated with spontaneous abortion in exposed females with a statistically significant dose response effect observed in female veterinarians.

  8. Wind-induced noise in a screened microphone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, G P

    To reduce the effect of wind on a microphone, wind screens are used, usually made of foam or cloth. Although this measure to reduce wind noise is well known and widely used, it lacks a theoretical explanation. One possible explanation was the turbulent wake in the air flow behind the wind screen,

  9. Effect of evaporator temperature on vapor compression refrigeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A.A.A. Al-Rashed


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparable evaluation of R600a (isobutane, R290 (propane, R134a, R22, for R410A, and R32 an optimized finned-tube evaporator, and analyzes the evaporator effect on the system coefficient of performance (COP. Results concerning the response of a refrigeration system simulation software to an increase in the amount of oil flowing with the refrigerant are presented. It is shown that there is optima of the apparent overheat value, for which either the exchanged heat or the refrigeration coefficient of performance (COP is maximized: consequently, it is not possible to optimize both the refrigeration COP and the evaporator effect. The obtained evaporator optimization results were incorporated in a conventional analysis of the vapor compression system. For a theoretical cycle analysis without accounting for evaporator effects, the COP spread for the studied refrigerants was as high as 11.7%. For cycle simulations including evaporator effects, the COP of R290 was better than that of R22 by up to 3.5%, while the remaining refrigerants performed approximately within a 2% COP band of the R22 baseline for the two condensing temperatures considered.

  10. Anisotropic hydrogen etching of chemical vapor deposited graphene. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhen; Kim, Pyojae; Zhang, Luyao; Zhou, Chongwu


    We report a simple, clean, and highly anisotropic hydrogen etching method for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene catalyzed by the copper substrate. By exposing CVD graphene on copper foil to hydrogen flow around 800 °C, we observed that the initially continuous graphene can be etched to have many hexagonal openings. In addition, we found that the etching is temperature dependent. Compared to other temperatures (700, 900, and 1000 °C), etching of graphene at 800 °C is most efficient and anisotropic. Of the angles of graphene edges after etching, 80% are 120°, indicating the etching is highly anisotropic. No increase of the D band along the etched edges indicates that the crystallographic orientation of etching is in the zigzag direction. Furthermore, we observed that copper played an important role in catalyzing the etching reaction, as no etching was observed for graphene transferred to Si/SiO(2) under similar conditions. This highly anisotropic hydrogen etching technology may work as a simple and convenient way to determine graphene crystal orientation and grain size and may enable the etching of graphene into nanoribbons for electronic applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  11. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.


    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  12. Oral Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity ...

  13. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  14. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... deafness, which account for most cases. Screening Newborns' Hearing Now Standard In 1993, children born in the ...

  15. Screening for Glaucoma (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Glaucoma The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Screening for Glaucoma . This final recommendation statement ...

  16. Video Screen Capture Basics (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura


    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  17. Overdiagnosis in cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J


    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily...

  18. Screening for Lung Cancer (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.


    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  19. Flow visualization

    CERN Document Server

    Merzkirch, Wolfgang


    Flow Visualization describes the most widely used methods for visualizing flows. Flow visualization evaluates certain properties of a flow field directly accessible to visual perception. Organized into five chapters, this book first presents the methods that create a visible flow pattern that could be investigated by visual inspection, such as simple dye and density-sensitive visualization methods. It then deals with the application of electron beams and streaming birefringence. Optical methods for compressible flows, hydraulic analogy, and high-speed photography are discussed in other cha

  20. Impact of preoperative haemoglobin concentrations on the efficiency of KTP-laser vaporization of the prostate. (United States)

    Buse, Stephan; Gilfrich, Christian; Hatiboglu, Gencay; Huber, Johannes; Bedke, Jens; Pfitzenmaier, Jesco; Haferkamp, Axel; Hohenfellner, Markus


    The potassium-titanyl-phoshate laser (KTP laser) device produces light (wavelength of 532 nm) that is absorbed by haemoglobin, thus releasing thermal energy. This reaction causes vaporization of the tissue. We tested whether preoperative haemoglobin concentrations (Hb) affect the efficiency of the 80 W KTP laser, thus affecting the energy applied. We assessed 164 patients undergoing KTP-laser vaporization for benign prostate hyperplasia from January 2005 to July 2006 at Heidelberg University Hospital. We prospectively collected data on patients' demographics, urodynamics, Hb, prostate volume, and energy applied. We calculated the correlation between preoperative Hb and surgery energy applied and we adjusted it for prostate volume. We further compared the postoperative urinary flow and residual volume results in non-low-Hb and in low-Hb patients. The mean age was 68.8 (+/-8.8 years), the median prostate volume 50.0 mL (interquartile range 40-80), the median preoperative urinary flow 10.1 mL/s (interquartile range 7.1-14.0), the median surgery duration 70.0 min (interquartile range 50-92.75), the median preoperative Hb 144.5 g/L (interquartile range 132-151), and the median applied energy 209.5 kJ (interquartile range 156.5-272.75). The unadjusted correlation between preoperative Hb and applied energy was -0.089 (P 0.05). Functional results did not differ between low-Hb and non-low-Hb patients (P > 0.05 for urinary flow and postvoid volume). Haemoglobin concentrations, in the range of clinically encountered values, do not affect the efficiency of 80 W KTP-laser vaporization of the prostate. This laser technique is thus applicable in patients with low haemoglobin concentrations without concerns about efficiency.