WorldWideScience

Sample records for vapor extraction applications

  1. Volatilization of multicomponent mixtures in soil vapor extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, D.H.

    1995-01-01

    In soil vapor extraction (SVE) applications involving multicomponent mixtures, prediction of mass removal by volatilization as a function remediation extent is required to estimate remediation time and to size offgas treatment equipment. SVE is a commonly used remediation technology which volatilizes and enhances aerobic biodegradation of contamination adsorbed to vadose zone soils. SVE is often applied at sites contaminated with petroleum products, which are usually mixtures of many different compounds with vapor pressures spanning several orders of magnitude. The most volatile components are removed first, so the vapor pressure of the remaining contaminant continually decreases over the course of the remediation. A method for assessing how vapor pressure, and hence the rate of volatilization, of a multicomponent mixture changes over the course of a vapor extraction remedy has been developed. Each component is listed, alone, with its mass fraction in the mixture, in decreasing order of pure component vapor pressure (where component analyses are unavailable, model compounds can be used), For most petroleum distillates, the vapor pressure for each component plotted against the cumulative mass fraction of the component in the mixture on semilog coordinates will produce a straight line with a high correlation coefficient. This regression can be integrated to produce an expression for vapor pressure of the overall mixture as a function of extent or remediation

  2. Analysis of vapor extraction data from applications in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, D.; Gudemann, H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses vapor extraction, an in-situ process to remove volatile organic compounds (VOC) from soils of the vadose zone, applied in Europe since the early 1980s. In a vapor extraction well a negative differential pressure is created by a blower or similar device. The differential pressure generates a steady flow of soil gas towards the extraction well and thus provides a flushing of the soil with air undersaturated in respect to the contaminant concentration. Contaminants will evaporate into the gaseous phase both form the liquid phase and form the soil. Differential pressures applied range from 15 inches - 350 inches of water. The contaminated discharge air can be treated by activated carbon or other suitable methods. The effective radius of vapor extraction systems (VES) ranges typically form 20 feet to 150 feet underneath non-sealed - and up to 300 feet underneath sealed surfaces. Contamination from volatile organic compounds (VOC) have turned out to be widespread due to their almost ubiquitous presence in industrial processes. Specifically, VOC include halogenated hydrocarbons like TCE, PCE or TCA, aromatic hydrocarbons like benzene, toluene, xylene and volatile fuels like gasoline

  3. Passive vapor extraction feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1994-01-01

    Demonstration of a passive vapor extraction remediation system is planned for sites in the 200 West Area used in the past for the disposal of waste liquids containing carbon tetrachloride. The passive vapor extraction units will consist of a 4-in.-diameter pipe, a check valve, a canister filled with granular activated carbon, and a wind turbine. The check valve will prevent inflow of air that otherwise would dilute the soil gas and make its subsequent extraction less efficient. The granular activated carbon is used to adsorb the carbon tetrachloride from the air. The wind turbine enhances extraction rates on windy days. Passive vapor extraction units will be designed and operated to meet all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements. Based on a cost analysis, passive vapor extraction was found to be a cost-effective method for remediation of soils containing lower concentrations of volatile contaminants. Passive vapor extraction used on wells that average 10-stdft 3 /min air flow rates was found to be more cost effective than active vapor extraction for concentrations below 500 parts per million by volume (ppm) of carbon tetrachloride. For wells that average 5-stdft 3 /min air flow rates, passive vapor extraction is more cost effective below 100 ppm

  4. Sequential Application of Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioremediation Processes for the Remediation of Ethylbenzene-Contaminated Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, António Carlos Alves; Pinho, Maria Teresa; Albergaria, José Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application of these technol......Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is an efficient, well-known and widely applied soil remediation technology. However, under certain conditions it cannot achieve the defined cleanup goals, requiring further treatment, for example, through bioremediation (BR). The sequential application...

  5. Thermal enhanced vapor extraction systems: Design, application and performance prediction including contaminant behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    Soil heating technologies have been proposed as a method to accelerate contaminant removal from subsurface soils. These methods include the use of hot air, steam, conductive heaters, in-situ resistive heating and in-situ radiofrequency heating (Buettner et.al., EPA, Dev et.al., Heath et.al.). Criteria for selection of a particular soil heating technology is a complex function of contaminant and soil properties, and efficiency in energy delivery and contaminant removal technologies. The work presented here seeks to expand the understanding of the interactions of subsurface water, contaminant, heat and vacuum extraction through model predictions and field data collection. Field demonstration will involve the combination of two soil heating technologies (resistive and dielectric) with a vacuum vapor extraction system and will occur during the summer of 1994

  6. Application of tracer gas studies in the optimal design of soil vapor extraction systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Cody, R.J.; Polonsky, J.D.; Woodward, D.D.; Buterbaugh, G.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the design of an optimal, cost effective vapor extraction system (VE) for the remediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), it is necessary to account for heterogeneities in the vadose zone. In some cases, such as those found in relatively homogeneous sands, heterogeneities can be neglected as induced air flow through the subsurface can be considered uniform. The subsurface conditions encountered at many sites (soil/bedrock interfaces, fractured bedrock) will result in preferential subsurface-air flow pathways during the operation of the VES. The use of analytical and numerical compressible fluid flow models calibrated and verified from parameter evaluation tests can be utilized to determine vadose zone permeability tensors in heterogeneous stratifications and can be used to project optimal, full scale VES performance. Model-derived estimations of the effect of uniform and/or preferential air flow pathways on subsurface induced air flow velocities can be enhanced, confirmed utilizing tracer gas studies. A vadose zone tracer gas study entails the injection of an easily detected, preferably inert gas into differing locations within the vadose zone at distances away from the VES extraction well. The VES extraction well is monitored for the detection of the gas. This is an effective field methodology to qualify and quantify the subsurface air flow pathways. It is imperative to gain an understanding of the dynamics of the air flow in the soils and lithologies of each individual site, and design quick and effective methodologies for the characterization of the subsurface to streamline remediation costs and system operations. This paper focuses on the use of compressible fluid flow models and tracer gas studies in the enhancement of the design of vapor extraction systems

  7. Application of a 2D air flow model to soil vapor extraction and bioventing case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, D.H.; Merz, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently the technology of choice to clean up hydrocarbon contamination in unsaturated soil. A two-dimensional air flow model provides a practical tool to evaluate pilot test data and estimate remediation rates for soil vapor extraction systems. The model predictions of soil vacuum versus distance are statistically compared to pilot test data for 65 SVE wells at 44 sites. For 17 of 21 sites where there was asphalt paving, the best agreement was obtained for boundary conditions with no barrier to air flow at the surface. The model predictions of air flow rates and stream lines around the well allow an estimate of the gasoline removal rates by both evaporation and bioremediation. The model can be used to quickly estimate the effective radius of influence, defined here as the maximum distance from the well where there is enough air flow to remove the contaminant present within the allowable time. The effective radius of influence is smaller than a radius of influence defined by soil vacuum only. For a case study, in situ bioremediation rates were estimated using the air flow model and compared to independent estimates based on changes in soil temperature. These estimate bioremediation rates for heavy fuel oil ranged from 2.5 to 11 mg oil degraded per kg soil per day, in agreement with values in the literature

  8. General well function for soil vapor extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perina, Tomas

    2014-04-01

    This paper develops a well function applicable to extraction of groundwater or soil vapor from a well under the most common field test conditions. The general well function (Perina and Lee, 2006) [12] is adapted to soil vapor extraction and constant head boundary at the top. For groundwater flow, the general well function now applies to an extraction well of finite diameter with uniform drawdown along the screen, finite-thickness skin, and partially penetrating an unconfined, confined, and leaky aquifer, or an aquifer underneath a reservoir. With a change of arguments, the model applies to soil vapor extraction from a vadose zone with no cover or with leaky cover at the ground surface. The extraction well can operate in specified drawdown (pressure for soil vapor) or specified flowrate mode. Frictional well loss is computed as flow-only dependent component of the drawdown inside the extraction well. In general case, the calculated flow distribution is not proportional to screen length for a multiscreen well.

  9. Hanford soil partitioning and vapor extraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonge, D.; Hossain, A.; Cameron, R.; Ford, H.; Storey, C.

    1996-07-01

    This report describes the testing and results of laboratory experiments conducted to assist the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction project operating in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Vapor-phase adsorption and desorption testing was performed using carbon tetrachloride and Hanford Site soils to estimate vapor-soil partitioning and reasonably achievable carbon tetrachloride soil concentrations during active vapor extractions efforts at the 200 West Area. (CCl 4 is used in Pu recovery from aqueous streams.)

  10. Physical vapor deposited thin films of lignins extracted from sugar cane bagasse: morphology, electrical properties, and sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpati, Diogo; Machado, Aislan D; Olivati, Clarissa A; Alves, Neri; Curvelo, Antonio A S; Pasquini, Daniel; Constantino, Carlos J L

    2011-09-12

    The concern related to the environmental degradation and to the exhaustion of natural resources has induced the research on biodegradable materials obtained from renewable sources, which involves fundamental properties and general application. In this context, we have fabricated thin films of lignins, which were extracted from sugar cane bagasse via modified organosolv process using ethanol as organic solvent. The films were made using the vacuum thermal evaporation technique (PVD, physical vapor deposition) grown up to 120 nm. The main objective was to explore basic properties such as electrical and surface morphology and the sensing performance of these lignins as transducers. The PVD film growth was monitored via ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectroscopy and quartz crystal microbalance, revealing a linear relationship between absorbance and film thickness. The 120 nm lignin PVD film morphology presented small aggregates spread all over the film surface on the nanometer scale (atomic force microscopy, AFM) and homogeneous on the micrometer scale (optical microscopy). The PVD films were deposited onto Au interdigitated electrode (IDE) for both electrical characterization and sensing experiments. In the case of electrical characterization, current versus voltage (I vs V) dc measurements were carried out for the Au IDE coated with 120 nm lignin PVD film, leading to a conductivity of 3.6 × 10(-10) S/m. Using impedance spectroscopy, also for the Au IDE coated with the 120 nm lignin PVD film, dielectric constant of 8.0, tan δ of 3.9 × 10(-3), and conductivity of 1.75 × 10(-9) S/m were calculated at 1 kHz. As a proof-of-principle, the application of these lignins as transducers in sensing devices was monitored by both impedance spectroscopy (capacitance vs frequency) and I versus time dc measurements toward aniline vapor (saturated atmosphere). The electrical responses showed that the sensing units are sensible to aniline vapor with the process being

  11. SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION TECHNOLOGY: REFERENCE HANDBOOK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems are being used in Increasing numbers because of the many advantages these systems hold over other soil treatment technologies. SVE systems appear to be simple in design and operation, yet the fundamentals governing subsurface vapor transport ar...

  12. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE

  13. A multistratum approach to soil vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhr, J.M.; Giesler, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    An innovative soil remediation design was implemented to address petroleum hydrocarbon contamination in a gradationally stratified subsurface environment containing alternating layers of clay, sand and clayey sand, and perched water tables in north Florida. The soil vapor extraction (SVE) design enables remediation to focus on distinct subsurface intervals depending on changing site conditions such as constituent concentration levels and periodic water-table fluctuations. Contaminated soils were assessed from the land surface to the top of a two foot thick perched water table located at 13 feet below land surface (bls), and also were encountered below the perched water table downward to another perched water table at 45 feet bls. Use of an organic vapor analyzer equipped with a flame ionization detector revealed hydrocarbon vapor concentrations in soil samples ranging to greater than 1,000 parts per million (ppm). Nonaqueous phase liquids were encountered on both perched water tables. Based on the site assessment, a multistratum soil and ground-water remediation system was designed and constructed. A pilot test was conducted to aid in the design of an effective SVE system

  14. A case study on the application of air sparging with vapor extraction at a gasoline spill site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, M.C.; Walsh, M.T.; Nangeroni, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in 1985, remedial activities were implemented at a gasoline spill site in Pawtucket, Rhode Island. The engineering company that contracted to perform the remedial activities designed, installed, and operated a free gasoline product recovery system and a groundwater pump and treat system. An air striping tower was utilized to remove volatile organic hydrocarbons (VOCs) dissolved in the groundwater. Gasoline hydrocarbon vapor migration into nearby basements was controlled through the operation of a soil gas venting system (SGVS), also installed in 1985. The groundwater treatment and free product recovery systems were shut off in may 1987; however, the soil venting system remained in operation and additional vacuum wells were installed to remediate gasoline contaminated vadose zone soils and to recover hydrocarbon vapors in the vicinity of the spill location

  15. Multilevel soil-vapor extraction test for heterogeneous soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widdowson, M.A.; Haney, O.R.; Reeves, H.W.

    1997-01-01

    The design, performance, and analysis of a field method for quantifying contaminant mass-extraction rates and air-phase permeability at discrete vertical locations of the vadose zones are presented. The test configuration consists of a multiscreen extraction well and multilevel observation probes located in soil layers adjacent to the extraction well. For each level tested an inflatable packer system is used to pneumatically isolate a single screen in the extraction well, and a vacuum is applied to induce air flow through the screen. Test data include contaminant concentration and flow characteristics at the extraction well, and transient or steady-state pressure drawdown data at observation probes located at variable radii from the extraction well. The test method is applicable to the design of soil-vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing remediation systems in a variety of geologic settings, particularly stratified soils. Application of the test method at a gasoline-polluted site located in the Piedmont physiographic region is described. Contaminant mass-extraction rates, expressed in terms of volatile hydrocarbons, varied from 0.16 to 14 kg/d

  16. Performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsell, K.H.; Roseberg, N.D.; Edlund, K.M.

    1994-06-01

    Vapor extraction wells used for site remediation of volatile organic chemicals in the vadose zone are typically vertical wells. Over the past few years, there has been an increased interest in horizontal wells for environmental remediation. Despite the interest and potential benefits of horizontal wells, there has been little study of the relative performance of horizontal and vertical vapor extraction wells. This study uses numerical simulations to investigate the relative performance of horizontal versus vertical vapor extraction wells under a variety of conditions. The most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this study is that in a homogeneous medium, a single, horizontal vapor extraction well outperforms a single, vertical vapor extraction well (with surface capping) only for long, linear plumes. Guidelines are presented regarding the use of horizontal wells

  17. Green Remediation Best Management Practices: Soil Vapor Extraction & Air Sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically, approximately one-quarter of Superfund source control projects have involved soil vapor extraction (SVE) to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sorbed to soil in the unsaturated (vadose) zone.

  18. Ion vapor deposition and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollinger, H.; Schulze, D.; Wilberg, R.

    1981-01-01

    Proceeding from the fundamentals of ion vapor deposition the characteristic properties of ion-plated coatings are briefly discussed. Examples are presented of successful applications of ion-plated coatings such as coatings with special electrical and dielectric properties, coatings for corrosion prevention, and coatings for improving the surface properties. It is concluded that ion vapor deposition is an advantageous procedure in addition to vapor deposition. (author)

  19. An evaluation of vapor extraction of vadose zone contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crotwell, A.T.; Waehner, M.J.; MacInnis, J.M.; Travis, C.C.; Lyon, B.F.

    1992-05-01

    An in-depth analysis of vapor extraction for remediation of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCS) was conducted at 13 sites. The effectiveness of vapor extraction systems (VES) was evaluated on the basis of soil concentrations of VOCs and soil-gas concentrations of VOC's. The range of effectiveness was found to be 64%--99% effective in removing organic contaminants from soil. At nine of the 13 sites studied in this report, vapor extraction was found to be effective in reducing VOC cooncentrations by at least 90%. At the remaining four sites studied, vapor extraction was found to reduce VOC concentrations by less than 90%. Vapor extraction is ongoing at two of these sites. At a third, the ineffectiveness of the vapor extraction is attributed to the presence of ''hot spots'' of contamination. At the fourth site, where performance was found to be relatively poor, the presence of geological tar deposits at the site is thought to be a major factor in the ineffectiveness

  20. Stakeholder acceptance analysis: Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.S.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents evaluations, recommendations, and requirements concerning passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) derived from a three-year program of stakeholder involvement. PSVE takes advantage of the naturally occurring tendency of soil vapor to leave the subsurface during periods of low barometric pressure. PSVE seeks to expedite the release of volatile contaminants through the use of boreholes and technological enhancements. This report is for technology developers and those responsible for making decisions about the use of technology to remediate contamination by volatile organic compounds. Stakeholders' perspectives help those responsible for technology deployment to make good decisions concerning the acceptability and applicability of PSVE to the remediation problems they face. The report provides: stakeholders' final evaluation of the acceptability of PSVE in light of the technology's field test; stakeholders' principal comments concerning PSVE; requirements that stakeholders have of any remediation technology. Technology decision makers should take these conclusions into account in evaluating the effectiveness and acceptability of any remedial method proposed for their site. In addition, the report presents data requirements for the technology's field demonstration defined by stakeholders associated with the Hanford site in Washington State, as well as detailed comments on PSVE from stakeholders from Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory

  1. Using in situ bioventing to minimize soil vapor extraction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, D.C.; Frishmuth, R.A.; Archabal, S.R.; Pluhar, C.J.; Blystone, P.G.; Miller, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Gasoline-contaminated soils may be difficult to remediate with bioventing because high concentrations of gasoline vapors become mobile when air is injected into the soil. Because outward vapor migration is often unacceptable on small commercial sites, soil vapor extraction (SVE) or innovative bioventing techniques are required to control vapors and to increase soil gas oxygen levels to stimulate hydrocarbon biodegradation. Combinations of SVE, off-gas treatment, and bioventing have been used to reduce the costs normally associated with remediation of gasoline-contaminated sites. At Site 1, low rates of pulsed air injection were used to provide oxygen while minimizing vapor migration. At Site 2, a period of high-rate SVE and off-gas treatment was followed by long-term air injection. Site 3 used an innovative approach that combined regenerative resin for ex situ vapor treatment with in situ bioventing to reduce the overall cost of site remediation. At each of these Air Force sites, bioventing provided cost savings when compared to more traditional SVE methods

  2. Resistive heating enhanced soil vapor extraction of chlorinated solvents from trichloroethylene contaminated silty, low permeable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutphen, M. van; Heron, G.; Enfield, C.G.; Christensen, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A 2D-laboratory box experiment (12 x 56 x 116 cm) was conducted to simulate the enhancement of soil vapor extraction by the application of low frequency electrical heating Uoule heating) for the remediation of a low permeable, silty soil contaminated with trichloroethylene. Joule heating enlarged

  3. Dual vapor extraction on acidic sludge tar at a former refinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, P.R.; Beall, P.; Townsend, S.

    1996-01-01

    OHM Remediation Services Corp conducted a pilot-scale demonstration for a novel application of dual vapor extraction technology for the pretreatment of the acid tar sludge material. The acid tar sludge comprised of approximately 60% asphaltene hydrocarbon material, 20% clay, and up to 20% sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). The liquid layer in the bottom of the pits has a low pH ( 2 ) gas which is released with the sludge material is excavated or handled. The objective of the dual vapor extraction was to remove the SO 2 vapors and liquid layer containing sulfuric acid prior to any further treatment. The dual vapor extraction would reduce the amount of alkaline reagent required for neutralization while eliminating the health and safety concerns. Overall, the DVE pilot demonstration successfully showed that both liquids and vapors could be removed from the acid tar sludge material. The liquid present in the lower portions of the pits will have pH values of 1.0 or less and acidities on the order of 5% H 2 SO 4 . The liquid removed from the acid tar sludge material by a DVE system will have slightly higher pH (∼1.5) and lower alkalinities (∼3% H 2 SO 4 ). The SO 2 concentration in the vapors removed by the DVE system will be variable with initial levels approaching 1,200 ppmv SO 2 . The SO 2 concentration in the vapor phase should decrease with time. A caustic scrubber solution will remove any SO 2 from the vapor phase. After DVE treatment, the acid tar sludge material would have a slightly increased pH and a decreased SO 2 concentration

  4. Three-dimensional computer simulations of bioremediation and vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.; Trent, B.

    1991-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two remediation strategies are presented. These calculations are significant in that they will play a major role in the actual field implementation of two very different techniques. The first set of calculations simulates the actual spill event of nearly 60,000 gallons of No. 2 diesel fuel oil and its subsequent flow toward the water table for 13 years. Hydrogen peroxide saturated water flooding is then performed and bioremediation of the organic material is then calculated. The second set of calculations describes the vacuum extraction of organic vapors subject to various assumed formation properties and boundary conditions

  5. Predicting Soil-Air and Soil-Water Transport Properties During Soil Vapor Extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe

    Increased application of in-situ technology for control and removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the subsurface has made the understanding of soil physical properties and their impact upon contaminant transport even more important. Knowledge of contaminant transport is important when...... properties of undisturbed soil from more easily measurable soil properties are developed. The importance of soil properties with respect to contaminant migration during remediation by soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the unsaturated zone was investigated using numerical simulations....

  6. Model analysis of mechanisms controlling pneumatic soil vapor extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Camilla Kruse; Sonnenborg, Torben Obel; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2009-01-01

    of heterogeneous soils by enforcing large fluctuating pressure fronts through the contaminated area. Laboratory experiments have suggested that pneumatic SVE considerably improves the recovery rate from low-permeable units. We have analyzed the experimental results using a numerical code and quantified......The efficiency of traditional soil venting or soil vapor extraction (SVE) highly depends on the architecture of the subsurface because imposed advective air flow tends to bypass low-permeable contaminated areas. Pneumatic SVE is a technique developed to enhance remediation efficiency...... level the pneumatic venting technology is superior to the traditional technique, and that the method is particularly efficient in cases where large permeability contrasts exist between soil units in the subsurface....

  7. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  8. Remediation of soils combining soil vapor extraction and bioremediation: benzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, António Alves; Albergaria, José Tomás; Domingues, Valentina Fernandes; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria da Conceição M; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2010-08-01

    This work reports the study of the combination of soil vapor extraction (SVE) with bioremediation (BR) to remediate soils contaminated with benzene. Soils contaminated with benzene with different water and natural organic matter contents were studied. The main goals were: (i) evaluate the performance of SVE regarding the remediation time and the process efficiency; (ii) study the combination of both technologies in order to identify the best option capable to achieve the legal clean up goals; and (iii) evaluate the influence of soil water content (SWC) and natural organic matter (NOM) on SVE and BR. The remediation experiments performed in soils contaminated with benzene allowed concluding that: (i) SVE presented (a) efficiencies above 92% for sandy soils and above 78% for humic soils; (b) and remediation times from 2 to 45 h, depending on the soil; (ii) BR showed to be an efficient technology to complement SVE; (iii) (a) SWC showed minimum impact on SVE when high airflow rates were used and led to higher remediation times for lower flow rates; (b) NOM as source of microorganisms and nutrients enhanced BR but hindered the SVE due the limitation on the mass transfer of benzene from the soil to the gas phase. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC CHEMICALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (BV) are proven strategies for remediation of unsaturated zone soils. Mathematical models are powerful tools that can be used to integrate and quantify the interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes occurring in field sc...

  10. Effects of seasonal and well construction variables on soil vapor extraction pilot tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, R.; Hudon, N.; Bass, D.

    1995-01-01

    The selection and design of an effective soil vapor extraction system is dependent upon data generated from pilot testing. Therefore, it is critical to understand factors that may affect the testing prior to selecting or designing a system. In Sebago Lake Village, Maine, two adjacent gasoline stations experienced a release. Gasoline migrated through fine sand into the groundwater and discharged to a small stream. Soil vapor extraction was investigated as a remedial alternative to reduce volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated soil. Three soil vapor extraction pilot tests were performed at one of the sites and one test at the other site. The results of the testing varied. Data collected during a summer test indicated soil vapor extraction was less likely to work. The wells tested were installed using an excavator. An adequate surface seal was not present in any of the tested wells. An additional test was performed in the winter using wells installed by a drill rig. Winter test results indicated that soil vapor extraction could be effective. Another test was performed after a horizontal soil vapor extraction system with a surface seal was installed. The results of this testing indicated that soil vapor extraction was more effective than predicted by the earlier tests. Tests performed on the other property indicated that the horizontal wells were more effective than the vertical wells. Testing results were affected by the well installation method, well construction, proximity to manmade structures, and the season in which testing was performed. Understanding factors that affect the testing is critical in selecting and designing the system

  11. Test plan for the FY 1997 rebound study at the carbon tetrachloride soil vapor extraction site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.; Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-11-01

    This test plan describes the strategy and field measurements designed to evaluate the potential rebound of carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations following cessation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) operations at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. Soil vapor extraction was initiated in February 1992 as the preferred remedial alternative of the Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action for removal of carbon tetrachloride from the unsaturated zone beneath the primary carbon tetrachloride disposal sites. The magnitude, extent, and rate of rebound in carbon tetrachloride vapor concentrations will help determine the availability of additional carbon tetrachloride for removal using SVE. At the conclusion of the field measurements, a report will be completed to evaluate the results of the rebound study

  12. 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE). Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER 201326

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    USER GUIDE 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening-Level Feasibility Assessment and Design Tool in...Support of 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) ESTCP Project ER-201326 OCTOBER 2017 Rob Hinchee Integrated Science...Technology, Inc. 1509 Coastal Highway Panacea, FL 32346 8/8/2013 - 8/8/2018 10-2017 1,4-Dioxane Remediation by Extreme Soil Vapor Extraction (XSVE) Screening

  13. Soil Vapor Extraction and Bioventing Test Work Plan for the MOGAS Site, Myrtle Beach Air Force Base, South Carolina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    This work plan presents an evaluation of soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing, and describes the SVE pilot scale and bioventing activities to be conducted to extract and treat soil gas at Installation Restoration Program (IRP...

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction-capillary gas chromatography: on-line coupling with a programmed temperature vaporizer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, R.J.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Leclercq, P.A.; Rijks, J.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1990-01-01

    A simple and versatile system is described for the on-line coupling of SFE to capillary GC. The interfacing consists of a programmed temperature vaporizer (PTV) injector. With this injector it is possible to combine solute trapping, elimination of a high flow of extraction fluid, and quantitative

  15. Distribution of multi-component solvents in solvent vapor extraction chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Marathon Oil Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Vapex process performance is sensitive to operating pressures, temperatures and the types of solvent used. The hydrocarbon solvents used in Vapex processes typically have between 5 and 10 per cent hydrocarbon impurities, and the accumulation of dense phases inside the vapor chamber reduces gravity drainage potential. This study investigated the partitioning of solvent compounds inside the vapor chamber during in situ Vapex processes.The aim of the study was to examine how the different components of the mixed solvent partitioned inside the extracted chamber during the oil and vapor phase. A 2-D homogenous reservoir model was used to simulate the Vapex process with a solvent mixture comprised of propane and methane at various percentages. The effect of injecting a hot solvent vapor was also investigated. The study showed that injected methane accumulated at both the top and the extraction interface. Accumulations near the top had a positive impact on solvent confinement in thin reservoirs. Diffusion of the solvent component was controlled by gas phase molecular diffusion, and was much faster than the diffusion of solvent molecules in the liquid phase. The use of hot solvent mixtures slowed the extraction process due to lower solvent solubility in the oil phase. It was concluded that the negative impact on viscosity reduction by dilution was not compensated by rises in temperature. 6 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Sodium and potassium vapor Faraday filters revisited: theory and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrell, S. D.; She, C.-Y.; Yuan Tao; Krueger, David A.; Chen, H.; Chen, S. S.; Hu, Z. L.

    2009-01-01

    A complete theory describing the transmission of atomic vapor Faraday filters is developed. The dependence of the filter transmission on atomic density and external magnetic field strength, as well as the frequency dependence of transmission, are explained in physical terms. As examples, applications of the computed results to ongoing research to suppress sky background, thus allowing Na lidar operation under sunlit conditions, and to enable measurement of the density of mesospheric oxygen atoms are briefly discussed

  17. Hot air vapor extraction system for remediation of petroleum contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, D.; Karr, L.; Fann, S.; Mathews, A.P.; Price, P.A.; Linginemi, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a demonstration of a technology entitled ''Hot Air Vapor Extraction (HAVE)'' at the Hydrocarbon National Test Site (HNTS), Port Hueneme, California. The demonstration of the HAVE technology at HNTS was conducted over a 3-month period between August 21, 1995 and November 22, 1995 and the lessons learned from the demonstration are discussed in details to guide the Department of Defense decision makers in analyzing the applicability of this technology to their contaminated sites. This technology demonstration was conducted under the Department of Defense Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) as part of the National Environmental Technology Demonstration Program (NETDP). The primary objectives of the demonstration were to (1) validate the efficacy of the HAVE technology to treat a wide range of hydrocarbons contaminated soils, (2) gather data to estimate treatment costs, and (3) develop engineering guidance needed to apply this remediation technology DoD-wide. Test runs were made on 5 different treatment cells containing various fuel hydrocarbons, ranging from gasoline to heavier petroleum fractions such as lubricating oil. Computer modeling was conducted to analyze the test results and also to optimize the HAVE system design. An economic analysis conducted for various remediation project sizes ranging from 750 to 9,000 cubic yards, the per cubic yard treatment costs are found to vary from $64.05 down to $36.54 respectively

  18. [Removal of volatile organic compounds in soils by soil vapor extraction (SVE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fu-xiang; Zhang, Sheng-tian; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Ke; Lin, Yu-suo

    2011-05-01

    An experiment study has been carried out to investigate effects of the diameter of soil columns, the size of soil particulate and different contaminants on efficiency of simulated soil vapor extraction (SVE). Experiments with benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and n-propylbenzene contaminated soils showed that larger bottom area/soil height (S/H) of the columns led to higher efficiency on removal of contaminants. Experiments with contaminated soils of different particulate size showed that the efficiency of SVE decreased with increases in soil particulate size, from 10 mesh to between 20 mesh and 40 mesh and removal of contaminants in soils became more difficult. Experiments with contaminated soils under different ventilation rates suggested that soil vapor extraction at a ventilation rate of 0.10 L x min(-1) can roughly remove most contaminants from the soils. Decreasing of contaminants in soils entered tailing stages after 12 h, 18 h and 48 h for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively. Removal rate of TVOCs (Total VOCs) reached a level as high as 99.52%. The results of the experiment have indicated that molecule structure and properties of the VOCs are also important factors which have effects on removal rates of the contaminants. Increases in carbon number on the benzene ring, decreases in vapor pressure and volatile capability resulted in higher difficulties in soil decontamination. n-propylbenzene has a lower vapor pressure than toluene and ethylbenzene which led to a significant retard effect on desorption and volatilization of benzene and ethylbenzene.

  19. Handbook of chemical vapor deposition principles, technology and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierson, Hugh O

    1999-01-01

    Turn to this new second edition for an understanding of the latest advances in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. CVD technology has recently grown at a rapid rate, and the number and scope of its applications and their impact on the market have increased considerably. The market is now estimated to be at least double that of a mere seven years ago when the first edition of this book was published. The second edition is an update with a considerably expanded and revised scope. Plasma CVD and metallo-organic CVD are two major factors in this rapid growth. Readers will find the latest

  20. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambogi, Joseph (USGS, Reston, VA); Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  1. MICHIGAN SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION REMEDIATION (MISER) MODEL: A COMPUTER PROGRAM TO MODEL SOIL VAPORT EXTRACTION AND BIOVENTING OF ORGANIC MATERIALS IN UNSATURATED GEOLOGICAL MATERIAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the formulation, numerical development, and use of a multiphase, multicomponent, biodegradation model designed to simulate physical, chemical, and biological interactions occurring primarily in field scale soil vapor extraction (SVE) and bioventing (B...

  2. The Effect of Mercury Vapor and the Role of Green Tea Extract on Brain Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhona Afriza

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a wellknown toxic metal that is capable to induce free radical-induced oxidative stress. It can cause human disease including brain disorders. Objective: To identify the effect of mercury vapor inhalation on brain cells and the role of green tea extract (Camellia sinensis as antioxidant on the brain cells exposed to mercury. Methods: Fourty-eight male Mus musculus were divided into 8 groups, which were given treatment for 3 and 6 weeks. Group A did not receive any treatment and served as a negative control. Group B was a positive control exposed to Mercury. Group C was exposed to Mercury and treated with 26μg/g green tea extract. Group D was exposed to mercury and treated with 52μg/g green tea extract. All animals in the Group B, C, D were exposed to mercury through inhalation for 4 hours daily. The effect of mercury on the brain cells were examined histopathologically. Results: The numbers of necrotic cells counted in the green tea-treated mice group were significantly lower than those untreated group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Mercury vapor inhalation may cause necrosis on brain cells. Administration of green tea extract as an antioxidant reduced the amount of mercury-induced necrotic brain cells in mice.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v20i2.151

  3. Vapor vacuum extraction treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herd, M.D.; Matthern, G.; Michael, D.L.; Spang, N.; Downs, W.; Weidner, J.; Cleary, P.

    1993-01-01

    During the 1960s and early 1970s, barreled mixed waste containing volatile organic compounds (VOCS) and radioactive waste was buried at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Over time, some of the barrels have deteriorated allowing, VOC vapors to be released into the vadose zone. The primary VOC contaminates of concern are CCl 4 and trichloroethylene; however, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane have also been detected. Vapor Vacuum Extraction (VVE) is one alternative being considered for remediation of the RWMC SDA vadose zone. A proposed pilot-scale treatability study (TS) will provide operation and maintenance costs for the design of the potential scale-up of the system

  4. Alternative applications of atomic vapor laser isotope separation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Secretary of Energy. It summarizes the main features of atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) technology and subsystems; evaluates applications, beyond those of uranium enrichment, suggested by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and a wide range of US industries and individuals; recommends further work on several applications; recommends the provision of facilities for evaluating potential new applications; and recommends the full involvement of end users from the very beginning in the development of any application. Specifically excluded from this report is an evaluation of the main AVLIS missions, uranium enrichment and purification of plutonium for weapons. In evaluating many of the alternative applications, it became clear that industry should play a greater and earlier role in the definition and development of technologies with the Department of Energy (DOE) if the nation is to derive significant commercial benefit. Applications of AVLIS to the separation of alternate (nonuranium) isotopes were considered. The use of 157 Gd as burnable poison in the nuclear fuel cycle, the use 12 C for isotopically pure diamond, and the use of plutonium isotopes for several nonweapons applications are examples of commercially useful products that might be produced at a cost less than the product value. Separations of other isotopes such as the elemental constituents of semiconductors were suggested; it is recommended that proposed applications be tested by using existing supplies to establish their value before more efficient enrichment processes are developed. Some applications are clear, but their production costs are too high, the window of opportunity in the market has passed, or societal constraints (e.g., on reprocessing of reactor fuel) discourage implementation

  5. Remedial design for petroleum hydrocarbons: Soil vapor extraction, product skimmers, and air stripping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasi, F.S.; Loftin, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    Site characterization activities at an Army installation in Virginia performed prior to closure identified a significant release of gasoline from underground storage tanks and piping associated with the post exchange service station. Floating liquid-phase petroleum hydrocarbons (FLPH) observed in the subsurface over an area of approximately 80,000 square feet ranged up to 5 feet in thickness. Ground water was found to be contaminated with dissolved components of gasoline over an area of approximately 150,000 square feet. A nearby lake and adjacent streams were not impacted by either free-phase or dissolved contamination. Interim remedial measures, including pilot testing of FLPH, vapor-phase, and ground water recovery technologies, were implemented following discovery of the release. Over 5,000 gallons of free-phase product were recovered by skimming and approximately 1,450 gallons of product equivalent were recovered during pilot testing of a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system. At the conclusion of these actions, hydrocarbons remain distributed in the subsurface in the adsorbed-, dissolved-, and vapor-phase. The majority of residual on-site contamination is believed to be either adsorbed to soil particles or as FLPH. The final design of an integrated remediation system based on the pilot test results addressed these conditions

  6. The solvent absorption-extractive distillation (SAED) process for ethanol recovery from gas/vapor streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.

    1993-12-31

    A low energy system for ethanol recovery and dehydration has been developed. This system utilizes a solvent for (1) absorption of ethanol vapors, and then the same solvent for (2) extractive distillation. The ideal solvent for this process would have a high affinity for ethanol, and no affinity for water. Heavy alcohols such as dodecanol, and tridecanol, some phosphorals, and some fatty acids have been determined to meet the desired specifications. These solvents have the effect of making water more volatile than ethanol. Thus, a water stream is taken off initially in the dehydration column, and a near anhydrous ethanol stream is recovered from the ethanol/solvent stripper column. Thus the solvent serves dual uses (1) absorption media, and (2) dehydration media. The SAED process as conceptualized would use a solvent similar to solvents used for direct extractive separation of ethanol from aqueous ethanol solutions.

  7. Design, demonstration and evaluation of a thermal enhanced vapor extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, J.; Reavis, B.; Swanson, J.

    1997-08-01

    The Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES), which combines powerline frequency heating (PLF) and radio frequency (RF) heating with vacuum soil vapor extraction, was used to effectively remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from a pit in the chemical waste landfill (CWL) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) within a two month heating period. Volume average temperatures of 83 degrees C and 112 degrees C were reached for the PLF and RF heating periods, respectively, within the 15 ft x 45 ft x 18.5 ft deep treated volume. This resulted in the removal of 243 lb of measured toxic organic compounds (VOCs and SVOCs), 55 gallons of oil, and 11,000 gallons of water from the site. Reductions of up to 99% in total chromatographic organics (TCO) was achieved in the heated zone. Energy balance calculations for the PLF heating period showed that 36.4% of the heat added went to heating the soil, 38.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 4.2% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.1% went to heating the extracted air, and 6.6% was lost. For the RF heating period went to heating the soil, 23.5% went to evaporating water and organics, 2.4% went to sensible heat in the water, 7.5% went to heating extracted air, and 9.7% went to losses. Energy balance closure was 92.8% for the PLF heating and 98% for the RF heating. The energy input requirement per unit soil volume heated per unit temperature increase was 1.63 kWH/yd 3 -degrees C for PLF heating and 0.73 kWH/yd 3 degrees C for RF heating

  8. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils using soil vapor extraction: Case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Peterson, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons are being remediated in situ at a site in Lakewood, New Jersey by bioremediation in conjunction with soil vapor extractions (SVE) and nutrient addition. The contaminants were from hydraulic oils which leaked from subsurface hydraulic lifts, waste oil from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs), an aboveground storage tank, and motor oil from a leaking UST. The oils contaminated subsurface soils at the site to a depth of 25 feet. Approximately 900 cubic yards of soil were contaminated. Soil sample analyses showed total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations up to 31,500 ppm. The design of the remedial system utilized the results of a treatability study which showed that TPH degrading microorganisms, when supplied with oxygen and nutrients, affected a 14% reduction in TPH in 30 days. A SVE system was installed which used three wells, each installed to a depth of 25 feet below grade. The SVE system was operated to achieve an extracted air flow of approximately 20 to 30 scfm from each well. Bioremediation of the TPH was monitored by measuring CO 2 and O 2 concentrations at the wellheads and vapor monitoring probes. After four months of remediation, CO 2 concentrations were at a minimum, at which point the subsurface soils were sampled and analyzed for TPH. The soil analyses showed a removal of TPH by biodegradation of up to 99.8% after four months of remediation

  9. Electrospun Polymer Fiber Lasers for Applications in Vapor Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämmer, Sarah; Laye, Fabrice; Friedrich, Felix

    2017-01-01

    of the narrow lasing modes upon uptake of alcohol vapors (model vapors are methanol and ethanol) serves as sensor signal. Thus, the high sensitivity related to the spectral line shifts of cavity-based transducers can be combined with the fiber's large surface to volume ratio. The resulting optical sensors...

  10. Multimedia risk-based soil cleanup at a gasoline-contaminated site using vapor extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, W.B.; Johnson, K.M.; Liu, S.; Loh, J.Y.; Lew, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    At a utility service center, gasoline from an underground storage tank had leaked into subsurface vadose zone soils for several years. To remediate the site, a soil vapor extraction (SVE) system was installed and operated. At the completion of the SVE operation, gasoline-containing residues in several confirmation soil borings exceeded agency-mandated cleanup levels. Rather than continue with SVE, a risk-based approach was developed to evaluate what levels of gasoline-containing residues could be left in the soil and still protect human health. The risk-based approach consisted of simulating the fate of chemical residues through the vadose zone and then into both the ground water and atmosphere. Receptor point concentrations were predicted, and health risks were assessed. The risk assessment concluded that ingestion of contaminated ground water and inhalation of air while showering were the largest potential contributors to risk, and that risks associated with inhalation of vapor-containing ambient air are small. However, all predicted risks are below the acceptable risk levels of 10 -6 individual cancer risk probability and 1.0 hazard index. Therefore, the lead agency accepted the recommendation that the site requires no further remediation. The service center continues normal operations today

  11. Control technologies for soil vapor extraction at petroleum hydrocarbon impacted sites -- Regulatory challenges to system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacossa, K.F.; Campbell, G.E.; Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is frequently used to remediate soils impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons. Four technologies have proven to be viable methods to control the off-gas emissions from SVE systems, namely, internal combustion, thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation, and granular activated carbon adsorption. The optimal range of influent vapor concentrations for system operation differs for each of the technologies. Over the past several years the authors have worked proactively with the state regulatory community to develop general, all inclusive air pollution control permits which allow for the potential use of all four technologies over the life of the permit. Private industry has similarly worked with the state regulators to develop a less labor intensive sampling/monitoring procedure. Actual system performances, which were monitored using summa canisters and field equipment, provided the basis for the new procedure. System performance data indicated that field sampling with portable hydrocarbon analyzers, such as flame ionization detectors (FID), was preferable over the use of summa canister sampling. In addition, to reduce the costs associated with the analysis of samples, the new SVE monitoring protocol also reduced the number of system monitoring visits. These reductions equated into a cost effective, yet environmentally sound SVE system monitoring programs. Finally, the authors have worked with the regulatory community to establish permit limitations which allow operational flexibility

  12. Autonomous gas chromatograph system for Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) proof of concept demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, F.J.; Laguna, G.R.

    1996-09-01

    An autonomous gas chromatograph system was designed and built to support the Thermal Enhanced Vapor Extraction System (TEVES) demonstration. TEVES is a remediation demonstration that seeks to enhance an existing technology (vacuum extraction) by adding a new technology (soil heating). A pilot scale unit was set up at one of the organic waste disposal pits at the Sandia National Laboratories Chemical Waste Landfill (CWL) in Tech Area 3. The responsibility for engineering a major part of the process instrumentation for TEVES belonged to the Manufacturing Control Subsystems Department. The primary mission of the one-of-a-kind hardware/software system is to perform on-site gas sampling and analysis to quantify a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from various sources during TEVES operations. The secondary mission is to monitor a variety of TEVES process physical parameters such as extraction manifold temperature, pressure, humidity, and flow rate, and various subsurface pressures. The system began operation in September 1994 and was still in use on follow-on projects when this report was published

  13. Chemical Vapor-Deposited (CVD) Diamond Films for Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Diamond films have a variety of useful applications as electron emitters in devices such as magnetrons, electron multipliers, displays, and sensors. Secondary electron emission is the effect in which electrons are emitted from the near surface of a material because of energetic incident electrons. The total secondary yield coefficient, which is the ratio of the number of secondary electrons to the number of incident electrons, generally ranges from 2 to 4 for most materials used in such applications. It was discovered recently at the NASA Lewis Research Center that chemical vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond films have very high secondary electron yields, particularly when they are coated with thin layers of CsI. For CsI-coated diamond films, the total secondary yield coefficient can exceed 60. In addition, diamond films exhibit field emission at fields orders of magnitude lower than for existing state-of-the-art emitters. Present state-of-the-art microfabricated field emitters generally require applied fields above 5x10^7 V/cm. Research on field emission from CVD diamond and high-pressure, high-temperature diamond has shown that field emission can be obtained at fields as low as 2x10^4 V/cm. It has also been shown that thin layers of metals, such as gold, and of alkali halides, such as CsI, can significantly increase field emission and stability. Emitters with nanometer-scale lithography will be able to obtain high-current densities with voltages on the order of only 10 to 15 V.

  14. A quantitative infrared spectral library of vapor phase chemicals: applications to environmental monitoring and homeland defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Sams, Robert L.

    2004-12-01

    The utility of infrared spectroscopy for monitoring and early warning of accidental or deliberate chemical releases to the atmosphere is well documented. Regardless of the monitoring technique (open-path or extractive) or weather the spectrometer is passive or active (Fourier transform or lidar) a high quality, quantitative reference library is essential for meaningful interpretation of the data. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory through the support of the Department of Energy has been building a library of pure, vapor phase chemical species for the last 4 years. This infrared spectral library currently contains over 300 chemicals and is expected to grow to over 400 chemicals before completion. The library spectra are based on a statistical fit to many spectra at different concentrations, allowing for rigorous error analysis. The contents of the library are focused on atmospheric pollutants, naturally occurring chemicals, toxic industrial chemicals and chemicals specifically designed to do damage. Applications, limitations and technical details of the spectral library will be discussed.

  15. Vapor-transport of tungsten and its geologic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibue, Y [Hyogo Univ. of Teacher Education, Hyogo (Japan)

    1988-11-10

    The volatility of tungsten in a hydrous system at elevated temperatures and pressures was examined, and a tentative model for the enrichment of tungsten in hydrothermal solutions for the deposits related to granitic activities was proposed. To produce vapor-saturated solution, 17 or 15ml of 20wt% NaCl solution was introduced into an autoclave. Ca(OH){sub 2} for tungsten and H{sub 2}WO{sub 4} for base metals were used as vapor-captures, and run products were identified by X-ray powder diffractometry. The results suggested that the ratio of tungsten to base metals was higher in a vapor phase than in a liquid phase, and more enrichment of tungsten in the vapor phase occurred at higher temperature and pressure under the coexistence of the vapor and liquid phase. The tentative model emphasizing the vapor-transport of tungsten could explain the presence of tungsten deposits without large mineralization of base metals. Geological schematic model for the generation of the hydrothermal solution enriched in tungsten compared with base metals was illustrated based on above mentioned results. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Vapor Extraction/Bioventing Sequential Treatment of Soil Contaminated with Volatile and SemiVolatile Hydrocarbon Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malina, G.; Grotenhuis, J.T.C.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2002-01-01

    A cost-effective removal strategy was studied in bench-scale columns that involved vapor extraction and bioventing sequential treatment of toluene- and decane-contaminated soil. The effect of operating mode on treatment performance was examined at a continuous air flow and consecutively at two

  17. Preliminary analysis of NAPL behavior in soil-heated vapor extraction for in-situ environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.W.; Phelan, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Simulations of soil-heated vapor extraction have been performed to evaluate the NAPL removal performance as a function of borehole vacuum. The possibility of loss of NAPL containment, or NAPL migration into the unheated soil, is also evaluated in the simulations. A practical warning sign indicating migration of NAPL into the unheated zone is discussed

  18. Investigation of Pore Scale Processes That Affect Soil Vapor Extraction. Final Technical Report EMSP 70045

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles W.; Webb, Andrew W.

    2004-01-01

    Dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination in the vadose zone is a significant problem at Department of Energy sites. Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is commonly used to remediate DNAPLs from the vadose zone. In most cases, a period of high recovery has been followed by a sustained period of low recovery. This behavior has been attributed to multiple processes including slow interphase mass transfer, retarded vapor phase transport, and diffusion from unswept zones of low permeability. This research project used a combination of laboratory experimentation and mathematical modeling to determine how these various processes interact to limit the removal of DNAPL components in heterogeneous porous media during SVE. Our results were applied to scenarios typical of the carbon tetrachloride spill zone at the Hanford Site. Our results indicate that: (a) the initial distribution of the spilled DNAPL (i.e., the spill-zone architecture) has a major influence upon the performance of any subsequent SVE operations; (b) while the pattern of higher and lower conductivity soil zones has an important impact upon spill zone architecture, soil moisture distribution plays an even larger role when there are large quantities of co-disposed waste-water (as in the Hanford scenario); (c) depending upon soil moisture dynamics, liquid DNAPL that is trapped by surrounding water is extremely difficult to remove by SVE; (d) natural barometric pumping can remove a large amount of the initial DNAPL mass for spills occurring close to the land surface, and hence the initial spilled inventory will be over-estimated if this process is neglected

  19. Determination of solvent concentration-dependent dispersion in the vapor extraction (VAPEX) process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abukhalifeh, H.; Lohi, A.; Upreti, S. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented the results of a computational algorithm that revealed the optimal conditions required for vapor extraction (VAPEX) for a solvent gas-heavy oil system. VAPEX is a promising recovery process because it requires low energy use and emits fewer greenhouse gases to the atmosphere compared to other enhanced oil recovery methods. The process is governed by the dispersion of solvent gases into heavy oil and bitumen. As such, it is essential to accurately determine solvent dispersion in VAPEX in order to effectively predict the amount and time scale of oil recovery, and to optimize field operations. VAPEX experiments were conducted in this study to determined the dispersion coefficient of a solvent as a function of its concentration in heavy oil and bitumen. The principles of variational calculus were used together with a mass transfer model of the experimental process. It was concluded that the oil production determined by the model should agree with its experimental counterpart, given the optimal gas dispersion versus concentration function.

  20. Vapor phase coatings of metals and organics for laser fusion target applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsic, G.A.; Powell, B.W.

    Techniques for applying a variety of metal and organic coatings to 50- to 500 μm diameter glass micro-balloons are discussed. Coating thicknesses vary from 1- to 10 μm. Physical vapor deposition (PVD), chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and electrolytic and electroless plating are some of the techniques being evaluated for metal deposition. PVD and glow discharge polymerization are being used for the application of organic coatings. (U.S.)

  1. Performance Evaluation Report for Soil Vapor Extraction Operations at the Carbon Tetrachloride Site, February 1992 - September 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V. J.

    1999-01-01

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is being used to remove carbon tetrachloride from the vadose zone at the 200-ZP-2 Operable Unit. The purpose of this report is to evaluate both the SVE system operating data and the effectiveness of SVE in remediating the carbon tetrachloride contamination. This report has been revised to cover the operating period from February 25, 1992 through September 30, 1998. The scope of the report includes the history of SVE operations at 200-ZP-2, the efficiency of those operations over time, the volume of vapor processed per extraction system, the change in carbon tetrachloride concentrations with time, the mass of carbon tetrachloride removed per site, and recommendations for future operations and evaluations. This revision includes an update to the carbon tetrachloride conceptual model

  2. Case study: Free product recovery and site remediation using horizontal trenching, soil vapor treatment and groundwater extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, E.P.; Johnston, H.S. Jr.; Farrell, M.; Twedell, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Sites with soil and groundwater impacted by petroleum hydrocarbons have been remediated using a variety of traditional techniques. However, when the site impacted lies within a very confined downtown area of an expanding metropolitan city, a more complex array of technologies must be considered. The Law Enforcement Center site is the City of Charlotte's worst known underground storage tank (UST) release to date. A cost effective free product recovery, soil vapor and groundwater extraction system is being piloted here using new horizontal trenching technology and state of the art equipment. On-site low permeability soil required that an alternative to standard recovery wells be developed for groundwater recovery and vapor extraction. Operation and maintenance (O and M) of the large number of recovery wells required would have been extremely costly over the expected lifetime of the project. Although horizontal trenching was the best solution to the O and M costs, many problems were encountered during their installation

  3. Design, operations, and maintenance of the soil vapor extraction systems for the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranbarger, R.K.

    1996-05-01

    This report provides the design, operating, and maintenance guidelines for the soil vapor extraction (SVE) systems implemented as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride ERA. Additionally, this document provides general information regarding the ERA, the SVE system design, and the general approach towards soil vapor extraction. The remaining content of this document includes the following: regulatory compliance; summary of vadose zone physical and containment characteristics; past and present SVE system designs and potential design upgrades; general design and monitoring considerations for the SVE systems; descriptions of the SVE system components and their respective functions; safety requirements; operation of the SVE systems including startup, surveillances, shutdown, GAC canister changeouts, and wellfield characterization; monitoring requirements; SVE optimization; and instrument calibrations, preventive maintenance, and spare parts and site inventory requirements

  4. Mechanical properties of chemical vapor deposited coatings for fusion reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullendore, A.W.; Whitley, J.B.; Pierson, H.O.; Mattox, D.M.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposited coatings of TiB 2 , TiC and boron on graphite substrates are being developed for application as limiter materials in magnetic confinement fusion reactors. In this application severe thermal shock conditions exist and to do effective thermo-mechanical modelling of the material response it is necessary to acquire elastic moduli, fracture strength and strain to fracture data for the coatings. Four point flexure tests have been conducted from room temperature to 2000 0 C on TiB 2 and boron coated graphite with coatings in tension and compression and the mechanical properties extracted from the load-deflection data. In addition, stress relaxation tests from 500 to 1150 0 C were performed on TiB 2 and TiC coated graphite beams to assess the low levels of plastic deformation which occur in these coatings. Significant differences have been observed between the effective mechanical properties of the coatings and literature values of the bulk properties

  5. Solvent Vapor Annealing-Mediated Crystallization Directs Charge Generation, Recombination and Extraction in BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime; Liang, Ru-Ze; Wang, Kai; Cruciani, Federico; Kan, Zhipeng; Wohlfahrt, Markus; Tang, Ming-Chun; Laquai, Fré dé ric; Beaujuge, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Small-molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM), or their “nonfullerene” counterparts, are proving particularly promising for the realization of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In several recent studies, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) protocols have been found to yield significant BHJ device efficiency improvements via structural changes in the active layer morphologies. However, the mechanisms by which active layer morphologies evolve when subjected to SVA treatments, and the structural factors impacting charge generation, carrier transport, recombination and extraction in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors, remain important aspects to be elucidated. In this report, we show that – in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors – selective crystallization promoted by SVA mediates the development of optimized morphologies across the active layers, setting domain sizes and boundaries. Examining BHJ solar cells subjected to various SVA exposure times, with BDT[2F]QdC as the SM donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, we connect those morphological changes to specific carrier effects, showing that crystal growth effectively directs charge generation and recombination. We find that the SM donor-pure domains growing at the expense of a mixed donor-acceptor phase play a determining role, establishing optimum networks with 10-20nm-sized domains during the SVA treatment. Longer SVA times result in highly textured active layers with crystalline domains that can exceed the lengthscale of exciton diffusion, while inducing detrimental vertical morphologies and deep carrier traps. Last, we emphasize the field-dependence charge generation occurring upon SVA-mediated crystallization and link this carrier effect to the mixed phase depletion across the BHJ active layer.

  6. Solvent Vapor Annealing-Mediated Crystallization Directs Charge Generation, Recombination and Extraction in BHJ Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Babics, Maxime

    2017-12-19

    Small-molecule (SM) donors that can be solution-processed with fullerene acceptors (e.g., PC61/71BM), or their “nonfullerene” counterparts, are proving particularly promising for the realization of high-efficiency bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. In several recent studies, solvent vapor annealing (SVA) protocols have been found to yield significant BHJ device efficiency improvements via structural changes in the active layer morphologies. However, the mechanisms by which active layer morphologies evolve when subjected to SVA treatments, and the structural factors impacting charge generation, carrier transport, recombination and extraction in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors, remain important aspects to be elucidated. In this report, we show that – in BHJ solar cells with SM donors and fullerene acceptors – selective crystallization promoted by SVA mediates the development of optimized morphologies across the active layers, setting domain sizes and boundaries. Examining BHJ solar cells subjected to various SVA exposure times, with BDT[2F]QdC as the SM donor and PC71BM as the acceptor, we connect those morphological changes to specific carrier effects, showing that crystal growth effectively directs charge generation and recombination. We find that the SM donor-pure domains growing at the expense of a mixed donor-acceptor phase play a determining role, establishing optimum networks with 10-20nm-sized domains during the SVA treatment. Longer SVA times result in highly textured active layers with crystalline domains that can exceed the lengthscale of exciton diffusion, while inducing detrimental vertical morphologies and deep carrier traps. Last, we emphasize the field-dependence charge generation occurring upon SVA-mediated crystallization and link this carrier effect to the mixed phase depletion across the BHJ active layer.

  7. Work Plan for the Evaluation of Soil Vapor Extraction Using Internal Combustion Engine Technology at Site SS-42 Luke Air Force Base, Arizona

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    ...). Luke AFB is one of several Air Force installations identified as prospective test sites to demonstrate the ICE system with advanced emission controls as part of a low-cost soil vapor extraction (SVE...

  8. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu (Neagu), Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-12-01

    This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) - Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) - Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  9. A Review on Graphene-Based Gas/Vapor Sensors with Unique Properties and Potential Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Da Huang; Zhi Yang; Shusheng Xu; Guili He; Xiaolin Li; Nantao Hu; Guilin Yin; Dannong He; Liying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based gas/vapor sensors have attracted much attention in recent years due to their variety of structures, unique sensing performances, room-temperature working conditions, and tremendous application prospects, etc.Herein, we summarize recent advantages in graphene preparation, sensor construction, and sensing properties of various graphene-based gas/vapor sensors, such as NH3, NO2, H2, CO, SO2, H2S, as well as vapor of volatile organic compounds.The detection mechanisms pertaining to various gases are also discussed. In conclusion part, some existing problems which may hinder the sensor applications are presented. Several possible methods to solve these problems are proposed, for example, conceived solutions, hybrid nanostructures, multiple sensor arrays, and new recognition algorithm.

  10. High-frequency strontium vapor laser for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvorostovsky, A.; Kolmakov, E.; Kudashev, I.; Redka, D.; Kancer, A.; Kustikova, M.; Bykovskaya, E.; Mayurova, A.; Stupnikov, A.; Ruzankina, J.; Tsvetkov, K.; Lukyanov, N.; Paklinov, N.

    2018-02-01

    Sr-laser with high pulse repetition rate and high peak radiation power is a unique tool for studying rapidly occurring processes in time (plasma diagnostics, photoablation, etc.). In addition, the study of the frequency characteristics of the active medium of the laser helps to reveal the physics of the formation of an inverse medium in metal vapor lasers. In this paper, an experimental study of an Sr-laser with an active volume of 5.8 cm3 in the pulse repetition frequency range from 25 to 200 kHz is carried out, and a comparison with the frequency characteristics of media with large active volumes is given. We considered the frequency characteristics of the active medium in two modes: at a constant energy in the excitation pulse CU2 / 2 and at a constant average power consumed by the rectifier. In the presented work with a small-volume GRT using the TASITR-5/12 TASITRON switch, a laser was generated for Pairs of strontium at a CSF of 200 kHz. The behavior of the characteristics of the generation lines of 6.456 μm, 1 μm, and 3 μm at increased repetition frequencies is considered. Using the example of large-volume GRT, it is shown that tubes with a large active volume increase their energy characteristics with the growth of the CSF. The possibility of laser operation at pulse repetition rates above 200 kHz is shown.

  11. Combined in-situ and ex-situ bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils by closed-loop soil vapor extraction and air injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.S.; Buckler, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Treatment and restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils at a bulk petroleum above-ground storage tank (AST) site in Michigan is being conducted through in-situ and ex-situ closed-loop soil vapor extraction (SVE), soil vapor treatment, and treated air injection (AI) processes. The soil vapor extraction process applies a vacuum through the petroleum hydrocarbon affected soils in the ex-situ bio-remediation pile (bio-pile) and along the perimeter of excavated area (in-situ area) to remove the volatile or light petroleum hydrocarbons. This process also draws ambient air into the ex-situ bio-pile and in-situ vadose zone soil along the perimeter of excavated area to enhance biodegradation of light and heavy petroleum hydrocarbons in the soil. The extracted soil vapor is treated using a custom-designed air bio-remediation filter (bio-filter) to degrade the petroleum hydrocarbon compounds in the soil vapor extraction air streams. The treated air is then injected into a flush grade soil bed in the backfill area to perform final polishing of the air stream, and to form a closed-loop air flow with the soil vapor extraction perforated pipes along the perimeter of the excavated area

  12. Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.M.B. van; Chae, Y.; McDaniel, A.H.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide thin layers have very beneficial properties such as a high transparency for visible light and electrical conductivity making these coatings suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as solar cells, and low-emissivity coatings for architectural glass windows. Each application

  13. Graphene-Based Chemical Vapor Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nallon, Eric C.

    An electronic nose (e-nose) is a biologically inspired device designed to mimic the operation of the olfactory system. The e-nose utilizes a chemical sensor array consisting of broadly responsive vapor sensors, whose combined response produces a unique pattern for a given compound or mixture. The sensor array is inspired by the biological function of the receptor neurons found in the human olfactory system, which are inherently cross-reactive and respond to many different compounds. The use of an e-nose is an attractive approach to predict unknown odors and is used in many fields for quantitative and qualitative analysis. If properly designed, an e-nose has the potential to adapt to new odors it was not originally designed for through laboratory training and algorithm updates. This would eliminate the lengthy and costly R&D costs associated with materiel and product development. Although e-nose technology has been around for over two decades, much research is still being undertaken in order to find new and more diverse types of sensors. Graphene is a single-layer, 2D material comprised of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, with extraordinary electrical, mechanical, thermal and optical properties due to its 2D, sp2-bonded structure. Graphene has much potential as a chemical sensing material due to its 2D structure, which provides a surface entirely exposed to its surrounding environment. In this configuration, every carbon atom in graphene is a surface atom, providing the greatest possible surface area per unit volume, so that electron transport is highly sensitive to adsorbed molecular species. Graphene has gained much attention since its discovery in 2004, but has not been realized in many commercial electronics. It has the potential to be a revolutionary material for use in chemical sensors due to its excellent conductivity, large surface area, low noise, and versatile surface for functionalization. In this work, graphene is incorporated into a

  14. 40 CFR 427.100 - Applicability; description of the vapor absorption subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the vapor absorption subcategory. 427.100 Section 427.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... materials from atmospheric emissions by means of wet scrubbers. ...

  15. Mechanical vapor compression refrigeration for low temperature industrial applications today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    If the super conductor industry settles out at a temperature of -100 0 F or above, mechanical refrigeration will be vying for the cooling business. Today there very definitely is a break point in the application of equipment at approximately -120 0 F or 189 0 K. Other technologies are generally utilized below this level. However, with market potential comes invention and breakthroughs in refrigeration can also occur. Today standard refrigeration systems are cost effective, reliable and produced in the millions for high temperature applications of +10 0 F to +40 0 F evaporator temperature. Lower temperatures require additional hardware, consume additional power and are produced today in limited quantities for special applications

  16. Causal knowledge extraction by natural language processing in material science: a case study in chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Kajikawa

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications written in natural language still play a central role as our knowledge source. However, due to the flood of publications, the literature survey process has become a highly time-consuming and tangled process, especially for novices of the discipline. Therefore, tools supporting the literature-survey process may help the individual scientist to explore new useful domains. Natural language processing (NLP is expected as one of the promising techniques to retrieve, abstract, and extract knowledge. In this contribution, NLP is firstly applied to the literature of chemical vapor deposition (CVD, which is a sub-discipline of materials science and is a complex and interdisciplinary field of research involving chemists, physicists, engineers, and materials scientists. Causal knowledge extraction from the literature is demonstrated using NLP.

  17. Application of keyword extraction on MOOC resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuoxuan Jiang

    2017-03-01

    applications with the extracted keywords: generating concept map and generating learning path. The visual demos show they have the potential to improve learning efficiency when they are integrated into a real MOOC platform. Research limitations/implications – onducting keyword extraction on MOOC resources is quite difficult because teaching resources are hard to be obtained due to copyrights. Also, getting labeled data is tough because usually expertise of the corresponding domain is required. Practical implications – The experiment results support that MOOC resources are good enough for building models of keyword extraction, and an acceptable balance between human efforts and model accuracy can be achieved. Originality/value – This paper presents a pioneer study on keyword extraction on MOOC resources and obtains some new findings.

  18. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascu, Mihaela; Pascu, Daniela-Elena; Cozea, Andreea; Bunaciu, Andrei A.; Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  19. Biologically active extracts with kidney affections applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascu, Mihaela, E-mail: mihhaela_neagu@yahoo.com [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Pascu, Daniela-Elena [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania); Cozea, Andreea [SC HOFIGAL S.A., Analytical Research Department, 2 Intr. Serelor, Bucharest-4 042124 (Romania); Transilvania University of Brasov, Faculty of Food and Tourism, 148 Castle Street, 500036 Brasov (Romania); Bunaciu, Andrei A. [SCIENT – Research Center for Instrumental Analysis, S.C. CROMATEC-PLUS S.R.L., 18 Sos. Cotroceni, Bucharest 060114 (Romania); Miron, Alexandra Raluca; Nechifor, Cristina Aurelia [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Material Science, 1-5 Polizu Street, 11061 Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • The paper highlighted the compositional similarities and differences between the three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit derived from the same Ericaceae family. • A method of antioxidant activity, different cellulose membranes, a Whatman filter and Langmuir – kinetic model were used. • Arbutoside presence in all three extracts of bilberry and cranberry fruit explains their use in urinary infections – cystitis and colibacillosis. • Following these research studies, it was established that the fruits of bilberry and cranberry (fruit and leaves) significantly reduce the risk of urinary infections, and work effectively to protect against free radicals and inflammation. - Abstract: This paper is aimed to select plant materials rich in bioflavonoid compounds, made from herbs known for their application performances in the prevention and therapy of renal diseases, namely kidney stones and urinary infections (renal lithiasis, nephritis, urethritis, cystitis, etc.). This paper presents a comparative study of the medicinal plant extracts composition belonging to Ericaceae-Cranberry (fruit and leaves) – Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Bilberry (fruit) – Vaccinium myrtillus L. Concentrated extracts obtained from medicinal plants used in this work were analyzed from structural, morphological and compositional points of view using different techniques: chromatographic methods (HPLC), scanning electronic microscopy, infrared, and UV spectrophotometry, also by using kinetic model. Liquid chromatography was able to identify the specific compounds of the Ericaceae family, present in all three extracts, arbutosid, as well as specific components of each species, mostly from the class of polyphenols. The identification and quantitative determination of the active ingredients from these extracts can give information related to their therapeutic effects.

  20. Zeolite Y Adsorbents with High Vapor Uptake Capacity and Robust Cycling Stability for Potential Applications in Advanced Adsorption Heat Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiansen; Narayanan, Shankar; Michaelis, Vladimir K; Ong, Ta-Chung; Keeler, Eric G; Kim, Hyunho; McKay, Ian S; Griffin, Robert G; Wang, Evelyn N

    2015-01-01

    Modular and compact adsorption heat pumps (AHPs) promise an energy-efficient alternative to conventional vapor compression based heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. A key element in the advancement of AHPs is the development of adsorbents with high uptake capacity, fast intracrystalline diffusivity and durable hydrothermal stability. Herein, the ion exchange of NaY zeolites with ingoing Mg 2+ ions is systematically studied to maximize the ion exchange degree (IED) for improved sorption performance. It is found that beyond an ion exchange threshold of 64.1%, deeper ion exchange does not benefit water uptake capacity or characteristic adsorption energy, but does enhance the vapor diffusivity. In addition to using water as an adsorbate, the uptake properties of Mg,Na-Y zeolites were investigated using 20 wt.% MeOH aqueous solution as a novel anti-freeze adsorbate, revealing that the MeOH additive has an insignificant influence on the overall sorption performance. We also demonstrated that the labscale synthetic scalability is robust, and that the tailored zeolites scarcely suffer from hydrothermal stability even after successive 108-fold adsorption/desorption cycles. The samples were analyzed using N 2 sorption, 27 Al/ 29 Si MAS NMR spectroscopy, ICP-AES, dynamic vapor sorption, SEM, Fick's 2 nd law and D-R equation regressions. Among these, close examination of sorption isotherms for H 2 O and N 2 adsorbates allows us to decouple and extract some insightful information underlying the complex water uptake phenomena. This work shows the promising performance of our modified zeolites that can be integrated into various AHP designs for buildings, electronics, and transportation applications.

  1. Development of Single Crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition Diamonds for Detector Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Harris; Gan, K.K.; Kass, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Diamond was studied as a possible radiation hard technology for use in future high radiation environments. With the commissioning of the LHC expected in 2009, and the LHC upgrades expected in 2013, all LHC experiments are planning for detector upgrades which require radiation hard technologies. Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond has now been used extensively in beam conditions monitors as the innermost detectors in the highest radiation areas of BaBar, Belle and CDF and is installed in all LHC experiments. As a result, this material is now being discussed as an alternative sensor material for tracking very close to the interaction region of the super-LHC where the most extreme radiation conditions will exist. Our work addressed the further development of the new material, single-crystal Chemical Vapor Deposition diamond, towards reliable industrial production of large pieces and new geometries needed for detector applications.

  2. Application of analytic hierarchy process to extract the user's purpose of expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gofuku, Akio; Wakabayashi, Jiro; Morimoto, Takashi.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with an application of analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to extract the user's purpose which must be input to expert systems. In the AHP, the process to obtain the weights for criteria by pairwise comparisons is interpreted as the extraction of the decision marker's idea about the importance of each criterion. With this interpretation, the analytic hierarchy process is applied to extract the analyst's idea of the weights of several factors to select constitutive equations suitable for a target analysis in a model selection support expert system under development for numerical simulation of nuclear thermal-hydraulics; the constitutive equations are ordinary introduced in a liquid-vapor two-phase flow analysis. Furthermore, an algorithm by applying the graph theory is shown to evaluate covering condition to obtain the weights from incomplete pairwise comparisons. (author)

  3. The Effusive-Flow Properties of Target/Vapor-Transport Systems for Radioactive Ion Beam Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kawai, Yoko; Liu, Yuan

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive atoms produced by the ISOL technique must diffuse from a target, effusively flow to an ion source, be ionized, be extracted, and be accelerated to research energies in a time commensurate with the lifetime of the species of interest. We have developed a fast valve system (closing time ~100 us) that can be used to accurately measure the effusion times of chemically active or inactive species through arbitrary geometry and size vapor transport systems with and without target material in the reservoir. The effusive flow times are characteristic of the system and thus serve as figures of merit for assessing the quality of a given vapor transport system as well as for assessing the permeability properties of a given target design. This article presents effusive flow data for noble gases flowing through a target reservoir and ion source system routinely used to generate radioactive species at the HRIBF with and without disks of 6 times and 10 times compressed Reticulated Vitreous Carbon Foam (RVCF) with...

  4. The use of high vacuum soil vapor extraction to improve contaminant recovery from ground water zones of low transmissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.; Farrow, J.R.C.; Burgess, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study examines the potential for enhancing hydrocarbon contaminant mass recovery from ground water using high vacuum soil vapor extraction (SVE). The effectiveness of this form of remediation is compared with the effectiveness of conventional pump-and-treat. This study focuses on the performance of a high vacuum SVE system at two ground water monitoring wells (MW-17 and MW-65b) at a site in Santa Barbara, California, US. The site is a highly characterized site with vadose zone and ground water petroleum hydrocarbon contamination (gasoline). The ground water wells are located beyond a defined area of vadose zone soil contamination. Ground water hydrocarbon contamination [light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) and dissolved phase] is present at each of the wells. the ground water wells have been part of a low-flow, pump-and-treat, ground water treatment system (GWTS) since August, 1986. The low transmissivity of the aquifer sediments prevent flow rates above approximately 0.02 gpm (0.01 l/min) per well

  5. Toluene Removal from Sandy Soils via In Situ Technologies with an Emphasis on Factors Influencing Soil Vapor Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of bioventing (BV and soil vapor extraction (SVE appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5% of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  6. Toluene removal from sandy soils via in situ technologies with an emphasis on factors influencing soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Mohammad Mehdi; Hatamipour, Mohammad Sadegh; Momenbeik, Fariborz; Nourmoradi, Heshmatollah; Farhadkhani, Marzieh; Mohammadi-Moghadam, Fazel

    2014-01-01

    The integration of bioventing (BV) and soil vapor extraction (SVE) appears to be an effective combination method for soil decontamination. This paper serves two main purposes: it evaluates the effects of soil water content (SWC) and air flow rate on SVE and it investigates the transition regime between BV and SVE for toluene removal from sandy soils. 96 hours after air injection, more than 97% removal efficiency was achieved in all five experiments (carried out for SVE) including 5, 10, and 15% for SWC and 250 and 500 mL/min for air flow rate on SVE. The highest removal efficiency (>99.5%) of toluene was obtained by the combination of BV and SVE (AIBV: Air Injection Bioventing) after 96 h of air injection at a constant flow rate of 250 mL/min. It was found that AIBV has the highest efficiency for toluene removal from sandy soils and can remediate the vadose zone effectively to meet the soil guideline values for protection of groundwater.

  7. Applicability of the theory of thermodynamic similarity to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esina, Z. N.; Korchuganova, M. R.

    2015-06-01

    The theory of thermodynamic similarity is used to predict the enthalpies of vaporization of aliphatic aldehydes. The predicted data allow us to calculate the phase diagrams of liquid-vapor equilibrium in a binary water-aliphatic aldehyde system.

  8. Application of molecular beam mass spectrometry to chemical vapor deposition studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, W.L.; Tung, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    A molecular beam mass spectrometer system has been designed and constructed for the specific purpose of measuring the gaseous composition of the vapor environment during chemical vapor deposition of diamond. By the intrinsic nature of mass analysis, this type of design is adaptable to a broad range of other applications that rely either on thermal- or plasma-induced chemical kinetics. When gas is sampled at a relatively high process pressure (∼2700 Pa for our case), supersonic gas expansion at the sampling orifice can cause the detected signals to have a complicated dependence on the operating conditions. A comprehensive discussion is given on the effect of gas expansion on mass discrimination and signal scaling with sampling pressure and temperature, and how these obstacles can be overcome. This paper demonstrates that radical species can be detected with a sensitivity better than 10 ppm by the use of threshold ionization. A detailed procedure is described whereby one can achieve quantitative analysis of the detected species with an accuracy of ±20%. This paper ends with an example on the detection of H, H 2 , CH 3 , CH 4 , and C 2 H 2 during diamond growth

  9. Application of the chemical vapor-etching in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Rabha, M.; Saadoun, M.; Boujmil, M.F.; Bessais, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bennaceur, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the application of chemical vapor-etching (CVE) for the rear surface and in the emitter of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. The CVE technique consists of exposing pc-Si wafers to a mixture of HF/HNO 3 . This technique is used to groove the rear surface of the pc-Si wafers for acid vapors rich in HNO 3 (HNO 3 /HF > 1/4), in order to realize rear-buried metallic contacts (RBMC) and the formation of a porous silicon (PS) layer on the frontal surface of the cell for volume ratio of HNO 3 /HF = 1/7. A significant increase of the spectral response in the long wavelength range was observed when a RBMC is formed. This increase was attributed to the reduction of the effective thickness of the base of the cells and grain boundary Al gettering. The achievement of a PS layer on the emitter of the pc-Si cells passivates the surface and reduces the reflectivity. The dark I-V characteristics of pc-Si cells with emitter-based PS show an important reduction of the reverse current together with an improvement of the rectifying behaviour. The I-V characteristic under AM1.5 illumination shows an enhancement of both short circuit current density and fill factor. The internal quantum efficiency is improved, particularly in the short wavelengths region

  10. PROPERTIES AND OPTICAL APPLICATION OF POLYCRYSTALLINE ZINC SELENIDE OBTAINED BY PHYSICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Dunaev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Findings on production technology, mechanical and optical properties of polycrystalline zinc selenide are presented. The combination of its physicochemical properties provides wide application of ZnSe in IR optics. Production technology is based on the method of physical vapor deposition on a heated substrate (Physical Vapor Deposition - PVD. The structural features and heterogeneity of elemental composition for the growth surfaces of ZnSe polycrystalline blanks were investigated using CAMEBAX X-ray micro-analyzer. Characteristic pyramid-shaped crystallites were recorded for all growth surfaces. The measurements of the ratio for major elements concentrations show their compliance with the stoichiometry of the ZnSe compounds. Birefringence, optical homogeneity, thermal conductivity, mechanical and optical properties were measured. It is established that regardless of polycrystalline condensate columnar and texturing, the optical material is photomechanically isotropic and homogeneous. The actual performance of parts made of polycrystalline optical zinc selenide in the thermal spectral ranges from 3 to 5 μm and from 8 to 14 μm and in the CO2 laser processing plants with a power density of 500 W/cm2 is shown. The developed technology gives the possibility to produce polycrystalline optical material on an industrial scale.

  11. Vapor transport deposition of large-area polycrystalline CdTe for radiation image sensor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Keedong; Cha, Bokyung; Heo, Duchang; Jeon, Sungchae [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, 111 Hanggaul-ro, Ansan-si, Gyeonggi-do 426-170 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Vapor transport deposition (VTD) process delivers saturated vapor to substrate, resulting in high-throughput and scalable process. In addition, VTD can maintain lower substrate temperature than close-spaced sublimation (CSS). The motivation of this work is to adopt several advantages of VTD for radiation image sensor application. Polycrystalline CdTe films were obtained on 300 mm x 300 mm indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. The polycrystalline CdTe film has columnar structure with average grain size of 3 μm ∝ 9 μm, which can be controlled by changing the substrate temperature. In order to analyze electrical and X-ray characteristics, ITO-CdTe-Al sandwich structured device was fabricated. Effective resistivity of the polycrystalline CdTe film was ∝1.4 x 10{sup 9}Ωcm. The device was operated under hole-collection mode. The responsivity and the μτ product estimated to be 6.8 μC/cm{sup 2}R and 5.5 x 10{sup -7} cm{sup 2}/V. The VTD can be a process of choice for monolithic integration of CdTe thick film for radiation image sensor and CMOS/TFT circuitry. (copyright 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Water vapor measurements in the 0.94 micron absorption band - Calibration, measurements and data applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, J. A.; Thome, K.; Herman, B.; Gall, R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods and presents results for sensing the columnar content of atmospheric water vapor via differential solar transmission measurements in and adjacent to the 0.94-micron water-vapor absorption band. Calibration and measurement techniques are presented for obtaining the water vapor transmission from the radiometer measurements. Models are also presented for retrieving the columnar water vapor amount from the estimated transmission. Example retrievals are presented for radiometer measurements made during the 1986 Arizona Monsoon Season to track temporal variations in columnar water vapor amount.

  13. Pilot-scale studies of soil vapor extraction and bioventing for remediation of a gasoline spill at Cameron Station, Alexandria, Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, W.; Joss, C.J.; Martino, L.E. [and others

    1994-07-01

    Approximately 10,000 gal of spilled gasoline and unknown amounts Of trichloroethylene and benzene were discovered at the US Army`s Cameron Station facility. Because the base is to be closed and turned over to the city of Alexandria in 1995, the Army sought the most rapid and cost-effective means of spill remediation. At the request of the Baltimore District of the US Army Corps of Engineers, Argonne conducted a pilot-scale study to determine the feasibility of vapor extraction and bioventing for resolving remediation problems and to critique a private firm`s vapor-extraction design. Argonne staff, working with academic and private-sector participants, designed and implemented a new systems approach to sampling, analysis and risk assessment. The US Geological Survey`s AIRFLOW model was adapted for the study to simulate the performance of possible remediation designs. A commercial vapor-extraction machine was used to remove nearly 500 gal of gasoline from Argonne-installed horizontal wells. By incorporating numerous design comments from the Argonne project team, field personnel improved the system`s performance. Argonne staff also determined that bioventing stimulated indigenous bacteria to bioremediate the gasoline spin. The Corps of Engineers will use Argonne`s pilot-study approach to evaluate remediation systems at field operation sites in several states.

  14. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik

    2016-01-01

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation

  15. Modeling and measurement of boiling point elevation during water vaporization from aqueous urea for SCR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan, Ho Jin; Lee, Joon Sik [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Understanding of water vaporization is the first step to anticipate the conversion process of urea into ammonia in the exhaust stream. As aqueous urea is a mixture and the urea in the mixture acts as a non-volatile solute, its colligative properties should be considered during water vaporization. The elevation of boiling point for urea water solution is measured with respect to urea mole fraction. With the boiling-point elevation relation, a model for water vaporization is proposed underlining the correction of the heat of vaporization of water in the urea water mixture due to the enthalpy of urea dissolution in water. The model is verified by the experiments of water vaporization as well. Finally, the water vaporization model is applied to the water vaporization of aqueous urea droplets. It is shown that urea decomposition can begin before water evaporation finishes due to the boiling-point elevation.

  16. Composition and Morphology Control of Metal Dichalcogenides via Chemical Vapor Deposition for Photovoltaic and Nanoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Leith L. J.

    The body of work reviewed here encompasses a variety of metal dichalcogenides all synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for solar and electronics applications. The first reported phase-pure CVD synthesis of iron pyrite thin films is presented with detailed structural and electrochemical analysis. The phase-pure thin film and improved crystal growth on a metallic backing material represents one of the best options for potential solar applications using iron pyrite. Large tin-sulfur-selenide solid solution plates with tunable bandgaps were also synthesized via CVD as single-crystals with a thin film geometry. Solid solution tin-sulfur-selenide plates were demonstrated to be a new material for solar cells with the first observed solar conversion efficiencies up to 3.1%. Finally, a low temperature molybdenum disulfide vertical heterostructure CVD synthesis with layered controlled growth was achieved with preferential growth enabled by Van der Waals epitaxy. Through recognition of additional reaction parameters, a fully regulated CVD synthesis enabled the controlled growth of 1-6 molybdenum disulfide monolayers for nanoelectronic applications. The improvements in synthesis and materials presented here were all enabled by the control afforded by CVD such that advances in phase purity, growth, and composition control of several metal dichalcogenides were achieved. Further work will be able to take full advantage of these advances for future solar and electronics technologies.

  17. Chitosan Associated with the Extract of Unripe Banana Peel for Potential Wound Dressing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bataglini Franco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the preparation of chitosan membranes associated with the extract of unripe banana peel. Extracts were prepared by decoction, using boiling distilled water. The extraction process was repeated three times. First and third extracts served as solvent to prepare chitosan membranes by solvent evaporation technique. The chitosan membranes associated with the first and third extracts of unripe banana peel exhibit good flexibility, transparency, and uniformity. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed dense membranes. Brownish color of membranes was observed due to the presence of tannins, which was confirmed by Infrared Spectroscopy analysis. Thermal properties of the membranes were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, which exhibited good thermal stability at physiological temperature (37°C. At this temperature and pH 7.2, membranes were also able to absorb fluids. The hydrophilic character of the membranes was determined by contact angle measurements. The membranes demonstrated their capacity for gaseous exchange and exhibited water-vapor permeability (WVP rates comparable to injured skin one. Finally, high number of viable dermal fibroblasts was observed by indirect cytotoxicity assay suggesting potential application of these membranes as skin wound dressing.

  18. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schropp, R.E.I., E-mail: r.e.i.schropp@tue.nl

    2015-11-30

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  19. Industrialization of Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition for thin film applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schropp, R.E.I.

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The most important consequences are the technical consequences and the economic consequences, which are both discussed. The technical consequences are adaptations needed to the hardware and to the processing sequences due to the different interaction of the HWCVD process with the substrate and already deposited layers. The economic consequences are the reduced investments in radio frequency (RF) supplies and RF components. This is partially offset by investments that have to be made in higher capacity pumping systems. The most mature applications of HWCVD are moisture barrier coatings for thin film flexible devices such as Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photovoltaics, and passivation layers for multicrystalline Si solar cells, high mobility field effect transistors, and silicon heterojunction cells (also known as heterojunction cells with intrinsic thin film layers). Another example is the use of Si in thin film photovoltaics. The cost perspective per unit of thin film photovoltaic product using HWCVD is estimated at 0.07 €/Wp for the Si thin film component. - Highlights: • Review of consequences of implementing Hot Wire CVD into a manufacturing plant • Aspects of scaling up to large area and continuous manufacturing are discussed • Economic advantage of introducing a HWCVD process in a production system is estimated • Using HWCVD, the cost for the Si layers in photovoltaic products is 0.08 €/Wp.

  20. Multifunctional organophosphorus extractants: a status report on development and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; Horwitz, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    Up-to-date state of the development of science and technology of multifunctional organophosphorus extractants is considered. The detailed classification of these extractants is presented. They attracted pasticular interest because of affinity of some bifunctional phosphonates, phosphine oxides, carbamoylalkylphosphonates to trivalent Am, tetravalent and hexavalent actinides, trivalent lanthanides in strong mineral acids, and because of ability of some alkylpyrophosphoric acids to extract effectively U(4) from concentrated solutions of phosphoric acid. Application of these extractants for analytic purposes and in the field of nuclear technology is considered

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of DNAPL removal mechanisms in a layered porous medium by means of soil vapor extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W; Werth, Charles J; Valocchi, Albert J

    2009-10-13

    The purpose of this work is to identify the mechanisms that govern the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CT) during soil vapor extraction (SVE) by comparing numerical and analytical model simulations with a detailed data set from a well-defined intermediate-scale flow cell experiment. The flow cell was packed with a fine-grained sand layer embedded in a coarse-grained sand matrix. A total of 499 mL CT was injected at the top of the flow cell and allowed to redistribute in the variably saturated system. A dual-energy gamma radiation system was used to determine the initial NAPL saturation profile in the fine-grained sand layer. Gas concentrations at the outlet of the flow cell and 15 sampling ports inside the flow cell were measured during subsequent CT removal using SVE. Results show that CT mass was removed quickly in coarse-grained sand, followed by a slow removal from the fine-grained sand layer. Consequently, effluent gas concentrations decreased quickly at first, and then started to decrease gradually, resulting in long-term tailing. The long-term tailing was mainly due to diffusion from the fine-grained sand layer to the coarse-grained sand zone. An analytical solution for a one-dimensional advection and a first-order mass transfer model matched the tailing well with two fitting parameters. Given detailed knowledge of the permeability field and initial CT distribution, we were also able to predict the effluent concentration tailing and gas concentration profiles at sampling ports using a numerical simulator assuming equilibrium CT evaporation. The numerical model predictions were accurate within the uncertainty of independently measured or literature derived parameters. This study demonstrates that proper numerical modeling of CT removal through SVE can be achieved using equilibrium evaporation of NAPL if detailed fine-scale knowledge of the CT distribution and physical heterogeneity is incorporated into the model. However, CT removal could also be fit by a

  2. Hot-wire chemical vapor synthesis for a variety of nano-materials with novel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dillon, A.C.; Mahan, A.H.; Deshpande, R.; Alleman, J.L.; Blackburn, J.L.; Parillia, P.A.; Heben, M.J.; Engtrakul, C.; Gilbert, K.E.H.; Jones, K.M.; To, R.; Lee, S-H.; Lehman, J.H.

    2006-01-01

    Hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) has been demonstrated as a simple economically scalable technique for the synthesis of a variety of nano-materials in an environmentally friendly manner. For example we have employed HWCVD for the continuous production of both carbon single- and multi-wall nanotubes (SWNTs and MWNTs). Unanticipated hydrogen storage on HWCVD-generated MWNTs has led insight into the adsorption mechanism of hydrogen on metal/carbon composites at near ambient temperatures that could be useful for developing a vehicular hydrogen storage system. Recent efforts have been focused on growing MWNT arrays on thin nickel films with a simple HWCVD process. New data suggests that these MWNT arrays could replace the gold black coatings currently used in pyroelectric detectors to accurately measure laser power. Finally, we have very recently employed HWCVD for the production of crystalline molybdenum and tungsten oxide nanotubes and nanorods. These metal oxide nanorods and nanotubes could have applications in catalysis, batteries and electrochromic windows or as gas sensors. A summary of the techniques for growing these novel materials and their various potential applications is provided

  3. Fabrication of Nanocarbon Composites Using In Situ Chemical Vapor Deposition and Their Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chunnian; Zhao, Naiqin; Shi, Chunsheng; Liu, Enzuo; Li, Jiajun

    2015-09-23

    Nanocarbon (carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene (GN)) composites attract considerable research interest due to their fascinating applications in many fields. Here, recent developments in the field of in situ chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for the design and controlled preparation of advanced nanocarbon composites are highlighted, specifically, CNT-reinforced bulk structural composites, as well as CNT, GN, and CNT/GN functional composites, together with their practical and potential applications. In situ CVD is a very attractive approach for the fabrication of composites because of its engaging features, such as its simplicity, low-cost, versatility, and tunability. The morphologies, structures, dispersion, and interface of the resulting nanocarbon composites can be easily modulated by varying the experimental parameters (such as temperature, catalysts, carbon sources, templates or template catalysts, etc.), which enables a great potential for the in situ synthesis of high-quality nanocarbons with tailored size and dimension for constructing high-performance composites, which has not yet been achieved by conventional methods. In addition, new trends of the in situ CVD toward nanocarbon composites are discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD): A review of technology and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmersson, Ulf; Lattemann, Martina; Bohlmark, Johan; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.; Gudmundsson, Jon Tomas

    2006-01-01

    In plasma-based deposition processing, the importance of low-energy ion bombardment during thin film growth can hardly be exaggerated. Ion bombardment is an important physical tool available to materials scientists in the design of new materials and new structures. Glow discharges and in particular, the magnetron sputtering discharge have the advantage that the ions of the discharge are abundantly available to the deposition process. However, the ion chemistry is usually dominated by the ions of the inert sputtering gas while ions of the sputtered material are rare. Over the last few years, various ionized sputtering techniques have appeared that can achieve a high degree of ionization of the sputtered atoms, often up to 50% but in some cases as much as approximately 90%. This opens a complete new perspective in the engineering and design of new thin film materials. The development and application of magnetron sputtering systems for ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) is reviewed. The application of a secondary discharge, inductively coupled plasma magnetron sputtering (ICP-MS) and microwave amplified magnetron sputtering, is discussed as well as the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), the self-sustained sputtering (SSS) magnetron, and the hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) sputtering discharges. Furthermore, filtered arc-deposition is discussed due to its importance as an IPVD technique. Examples of the importance of the IPVD-techniques for growth of thin films with improved adhesion, improved microstructures, improved coverage of complex shaped substrates, and increased reactivity with higher deposition rate in reactive processes are reviewed

  5. Application of an automatic cloud tracking technique to Meteosat water vapor and infrared observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endlich, R. M.; Wolf, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    The automatic cloud tracking system was applied to METEOSAT 6.7 micrometers water vapor measurements to learn whether the system can track the motions of water vapor patterns. Data for the midlatitudes, subtropics, and tropics were selected from a sequence of METEOSAT pictures for 25 April 1978. Trackable features in the water vapor patterns were identified using a clustering technique and the features were tracked by two different methods. In flat (low contrast) water vapor fields, the automatic motion computations were not reliable, but in areas where the water vapor fields contained small scale structure (such as in the vicinity of active weather phenomena) the computations were successful. Cloud motions were computed using METEOSAT infrared observations (including tropical convective systems and midlatitude jet stream cirrus).

  6. Towards Cryogenic Liquid-Vapor Energy Storage Units for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Josiana Prado

    With the development of mechanical coolers and very sensitive cryogenic sensors, it could be interesting to use Energy Storage Units (ESU) and turn off the cryocooler to operate in a free micro vibration environment. An ESU would also avoid cryogenic systems oversized to attenuate temperature fluctuations due to thermal load variations which is useful particularly for space applications. In both cases, the temperature drift must remain limited to keep good detector performances. In this thesis, ESUs based on the high latent heat associated to liquid-vapor phase change to store energy have been studied. To limit temperature drifts while keeping small size cell at low temperature, a potential solution consists in splitting the ESU in two volumes: a low temperature cell coupled to a cryocooler cold finger through a thermal heat switch and an expansion volume at room temperature to reduce the temperature increase occurring during liquid evaporation. To obtain a vanishing temperature drift, a new improvement has been tested using two-phase nitrogen: a controlled valve was inserted between the two volumes in order to control the cold cell pressure. In addition, a porous material was used inside the cell to turn the ESU gravity independent and suitable for space applications. In this case, experiments reveal not fully understood results concerning both energy storage and liquid-wall temperature difference. To capture the thermal influence of the porous media, a dedicated cell with poorly conductive lateral wall was built and operated with two-phase helium. After its characterization outside the saturation conditions (conduction, convection), experiments were performed, with and without porous media, heating at the top or the bottom of the cell with various heat fluxes and for different saturation temperatures. In parallel, a model describing the thermal response for a cell containing liquid and vapor with a porous medium heated at the top ("against gravity") was developed

  7. Aluminum Nitride Micro-Channels Grown via Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy for MEMs Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L.E.; Kuchibhatla, S.; Famouri, P.; Ting, L.; Korakakis, D.

    2008-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a promising material for a number of applications due to its temperature and chemical stability. Furthermore, AlN maintains its piezoelectric properties at higher temperatures than more commonly used materials, such as Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) [1, 2], making AlN attractive for high temperature micro and nanoelectromechanical (MEMs and NEMs) applications including, but not limited to, high temperature sensors and actuators, micro-channels for fuel cell applications, and micromechanical resonators. This work presents a novel AlN micro-channel fabrication technique using Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). AlN easily nucleates on dielectric surfaces due to the large sticking coefficient and short diffusion length of the aluminum species resulting in a high quality polycrystalline growth on typical mask materials, such as silicon dioxide and silicon nitride [3,4]. The fabrication process introduced involves partially masking a substrate with a silicon dioxide striped pattern and then growing AlN via MOVPE simultaneously on the dielectric mask and exposed substrate. A buffered oxide etch is then used to remove the underlying silicon dioxide and leave a free standing AlN micro-channel. The width of the channel has been varied from 5 ìm to 110 ìm and the height of the air gap from 130 nm to 800 nm indicating the stability of the structure. Furthermore, this versatile process has been performed on (111) silicon, c-plane sapphire, and gallium nitride epilayers on sapphire substrates. Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), and Raman measurements have been taken on channels grown on each substrate and indicate that the substrate is influencing the growth of the AlN micro-channels on the SiO2 sacrificial layer.

  8. Experimental and theoretical investigations about the vaporization of laser-produced aerosols and individual particles inside inductively-coupled plasmas — Implications for the extraction efficiency of ions prior to mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flamigni, Luca; Koch, Joachim; Günther, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    of particle/aerosol penetration depths inside ICP sources by 2-D OES. ► Application of a theory describing particle vaporization and analyte diffusion. ► Modeling of ICP-MS ion extraction efficiencies. ► Discussion about 2-D OES as a complementary tuning strategy for LA-ICP-MS.

  9. Application and analysis of palladium vapor deposited on stainless steel for high temperature electrical contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jodeh, S.

    2008-01-01

    Using electron beam evaporation. Pd thin films of 300 nm thickness have been deposited on 301 stainless steel for high temperature electrical contact studies. The structure and compost ion of the helms were studied in detail x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (Sem), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XP S) with sputter depth profiling. The contact properties such as contact resistance, fretting wear resistance, and thermal stability have been measured.The contact resistance rem ins low after heat-aging in air for 168 h at 150 and 200 deg., but increases significantly after heat-aging at 340 deg.. This increase in contact resistance is caused by the formation of about a 27 nm (1 μin.) thick Pdo. In contrast, the thickness of the Pdo is too thin to cause measurable contact resistance increases after heat-aging at 150 and 200 deg.. The fretting wear resistance of Pd coated 301 stainless steel is better than that of electroplated Sn of ser veal thousand nm thickness. Thus, vapor deposited Pd coating on 301 stainless steel may replace electroplated Sn for electrical contact application at elevated temperatures.

  10. Etching characteristics and application of physical-vapor-deposited amorphous carbon for multilevel resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. T.; Kwon, B. S.; Lee, N.-E.; Park, Y. S.; Cho, H. J.; Hong, B.

    2008-01-01

    For the fabrication of a multilevel resist (MLR) based on a very thin, physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) amorphous carbon (a-C) layer, the etching characteristics of the PVD a-C layer with a SiO x hard mask were investigated in a dual-frequency superimposed capacitively coupled plasma etcher by varying the following process parameters in O 2 /N 2 /Ar plasmas: high-frequency/low-frequency combination (f HF /f LF ), HF/LF power ratio (P HF /P LF ), and O 2 and N 2 flow rates. The very thin nature of the a-C layer helps to keep the aspect ratio of the etched features low. The etch rate of the PVD a-C layer increased with decreasing f HF /f LF combination and increasing P LF and was initially increased but then decreased with increasing N 2 flow rate in O 2 /N 2 /Ar plasmas. The application of a 30 nm PVD a-C layer in the MLR structure of ArF PR/BARC/SiO x /PVD a-C/TEOS oxide supported the possibility of using a very thin PVD a-C layer as an etch-mask layer for the TEOS-oxide layer

  11. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these

  12. Applicability of multisyringe chromatography coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán-Mar, J.L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Serra, A.M.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Cerdà, V.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: An automatic system, based on the applicability of multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) detection is developed for mercury speciation. Highlights: ► The on-line coupling of MSC to CV/AFS was developed for mercury speciation analysis. ► The speciation of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + was achieved on a RP C18 monolithic column. ► The hyphenated system provided higher sample throughput compared to HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The limits of detection for mercury species were comparable or better than those reported by HPLC–CV/AFS. ► The developed method also provided low instrumental and operational costs. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel automatic approach for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg 2+ ), methylmercury (MeHg + ) and ethylmercury (EtHg + ) using multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) was developed. For the first time, the separation of mercury species was accomplished on a RP C18 monolithic column using a multi-isocratic elution program. The elution protocol involved the use of 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (99:1, v/v), followed by 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)–acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The eluted mercury species were then oxidized under post-column UV radiation and reduced using tin(II) chloride in an acidic medium. Subsequently, the generated mercury metal were separated from the reaction mixture and further atomized in the flame atomizer and detected by AFS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3σ) were found to be 0.03, 0.11 and 0.09 μg L −1 for MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + , respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of the peak height for 3, 6 and 3 μg L −1 of MeHg + , Hg 2+ and EtHg + (as Hg) ranged from 2.4 to 4.0%. Compared with the conventional HPLC–CV/AFS hyphenated systems

  13. Applications of DHDECMP extraction chromatography to nuclear analytical chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, S.F.; Simi, O.R.

    1981-01-01

    Dihexyl-N,N-diethylcarbamylmethylenephosphonate (DHDECMP) is a highly selective extractant for actinides and lanthanides. This reagent, extensively studied for process-scale operations, also has valuable analytical applications. Extraction chromatographic columns of DHDECMP, supported on inert, porous, polymer beads effectively separate most metallic impurity elements from the retained inner transition elements. The retained elements can be separated into individual fractions of (1) lanthanides, (2) americium, (3) plutonium, and (4) uranium by mixed-solvent anion exchange

  14. Passively operated vapor-fed direct methanol fuel cells for portable applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eccarius, Steffen; Krause, Falko; Agert, Carsten [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Department of Energy Systems, Heidenhofstrasse 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany); Beard, Kevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The impact of structural parameters and operating conditions has not been researched yet for vapor-fed operation of a DMFC at near-ambient conditions. Thus, a detailed parameter study that included reference cell measurements to assess anode and cathode losses separately was performed. Among other parameters like temperature or air stoichiometry, different opening ratios that controlled evaporation of methanol into the vapor chamber were examined. Water management was found to be a critical parameter for a vapor-fed DMFC. Depletion of water inside the anode catalyst layer, especially at higher current densities, decreased performance of the fuel cell substantially. Back diffusion of water from the cathode to the anode was examined. A micro-structured cathode electrode that increased water back diffusion due to a reduced mass transfer resistance was developed and investigated. Finally, efficiencies and heat losses of a vapor-fed DMFC were determined. (author)

  15. Determination of Chlorinated Solvent Sorption by Porous Material-Application to Trichloroethene Vapor on Cement Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musielak, Marion; Brusseau, Mark L; Marcoux, Manuel; Morrison, Candice; Quintard, Michel

    2014-08-01

    Experiments have been performed to investigate the sorption of trichloroethene (TCE) vapor by concrete material or, more specifically, the cement mortar component. Gas-flow experiments were conducted using columns packed with small pieces of cement mortar obtained from the grinding of typical concrete material. Transport and retardation of TCE at high vapor concentrations (500 mg L -1 ) was compared to that of a non-reactive gas tracer (Sulfur Hexafluoride, SF6). The results show a large magnitude of retardation (retardation factor = 23) and sorption (sorption coefficient = 10.6 cm 3 g -1 ) for TCE, compared to negligible sorption for SF6. This magnitude of sorption obtained with pollutant vapor is much bigger than the one obtained for aqueous-flow experiments conducted for water-saturated systems. The considerable sorption exhibited for TCE under vapor-flow conditions is attributed to some combination of accumulation at the air-water interface and vapor-phase adsorption, both of which are anticipated to be significant for this system given the large surface area associated with the cement mortar. Transport of both SF6 and TCE was simulated successfully with a two-region physical non-equilibrium model, consistent with the dual-medium structure of the crushed cement mortar. This work emphasizes the importance of taking into account sorption phenomena when modeling transport of volatile organic compounds through concrete material, especially in regard to assessing vapor intrusion.

  16. Synthesis of chemical vapor deposition graphene on tantalum wire for supercapacitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingji, E-mail: limingji@163.com [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Guo, Wenlong [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Li, Hongji, E-mail: hongjili@yeah.net [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Organic Solar Cells and Photochemical Conversion, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China); Xu, Sheng [School of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Film Electronic and Communicate Devices, School of Electronics Information Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384 (China)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The capacitance of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wire electrodes is firstly reported. • Graphene was grown on the Ta surface by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. • Graphene/Ta wire structure is favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. • The graphene/Ta wire electrode shows high capacitive properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wires as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Graphene on Ta wires is prepared by the thermal decomposition of methane under various conditions. The graphene nanosheets on the Ta wire surface have an average thickness of 1.3–3.4 nm and consist typically of a few graphene monolayers, and TaC buffer layers form between the graphene and Ta wire. A capacitor structure is fabricated using graphene/Ta wire with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.6 mm as the anode and Pt wire of the same size as the cathode. The electrochemical behavior of the graphene/Ta wires as supercapacitor electrodes is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The as-prepared graphene/Ta electrode has highest capacitance of 345.5 F g{sup −1} at current density of 0.5 A g{sup −1}. The capacitance remains at about 84% after 1000 cycles at 10 A g{sup −1}. The good electrochemical performance of the graphene/Ta wire electrode is attributed to the unique nanostructural configuration, high electrical conductivity, and large specific surface area of the graphene layer. This suggests that graphene/Ta wire electrode materials have potential applications in high-performance energy storage devices.

  17. Synthesis of chemical vapor deposition graphene on tantalum wire for supercapacitor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Mingji; Guo, Wenlong; Li, Hongji; Xu, Sheng; Qu, Changqing; Yang, Baohe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The capacitance of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wire electrodes is firstly reported. • Graphene was grown on the Ta surface by hot-filament chemical vapor deposition. • Graphene/Ta wire structure is favorable for fast ion and electron transfer. • The graphene/Ta wire electrode shows high capacitive properties. - Abstract: This paper studies the synthesis and electrochemical characterization of graphene/tantalum (Ta) wires as high-performance electrode material for supercapacitors. Graphene on Ta wires is prepared by the thermal decomposition of methane under various conditions. The graphene nanosheets on the Ta wire surface have an average thickness of 1.3–3.4 nm and consist typically of a few graphene monolayers, and TaC buffer layers form between the graphene and Ta wire. A capacitor structure is fabricated using graphene/Ta wire with a length of 10 mm and a diameter of 0.6 mm as the anode and Pt wire of the same size as the cathode. The electrochemical behavior of the graphene/Ta wires as supercapacitor electrodes is characterized by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 aqueous electrolyte. The as-prepared graphene/Ta electrode has highest capacitance of 345.5 F g −1 at current density of 0.5 A g −1 . The capacitance remains at about 84% after 1000 cycles at 10 A g −1 . The good electrochemical performance of the graphene/Ta wire electrode is attributed to the unique nanostructural configuration, high electrical conductivity, and large specific surface area of the graphene layer. This suggests that graphene/Ta wire electrode materials have potential applications in high-performance energy storage devices

  18. Polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating white tea extract for nutraceutical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Vanna; Lubinu, Giuseppe; Madau, Pierluigi; Pala, Nicolino; Nurra, Salvatore; Mariani, Alberto; Sechi, Mario

    2015-02-25

    With the aim to obtain controlled release and to preserve the antioxidant activity of the polyphenols, nanoencapsulation of white tea extract into polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) based on poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and alginate was successfully performed. NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation method and were characterized in terms of morphology and chemical properties. Total polyphenols and catechins contents before and after encapsulation were determined. Moreover, in vitro release profiles of encapsulated polyphenols from NPs were investigated in simulated gastrointestinal fluids. The antioxidant activity and stability of encapsulated extract were further evaluated. Interestingly, NPs released 20% of the polyphenols in simulated gastric medium, and 80% after 5 h at pH 7.4, showing a good capacity to control the polyphenols delivery. Furthermore, DPPH(•) assay confirmed that white tea extract retained its antioxidant activity and NPs protected tea polyphenols from degradation, thus opening new perspectives for the exploitation of white tea extract-loaded NPs for nutraceutical applications.

  19. Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Bleakley

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined.

  20. Algal Proteins: Extraction, Application, and Challenges Concerning Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Stephen; Hayes, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Population growth combined with increasingly limited resources of arable land and fresh water has resulted in a need for alternative protein sources. Macroalgae (seaweed) and microalgae are examples of under-exploited “crops”. Algae do not compete with traditional food crops for space and resources. This review details the characteristics of commonly consumed algae, as well as their potential for use as a protein source based on their protein quality, amino acid composition, and digestibility. Protein extraction methods applied to algae to date, including enzymatic hydrolysis, physical processes, and chemical extraction and novel methods such as ultrasound-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field, and microwave-assisted extraction are discussed. Moreover, existing protein enrichment methods used in the dairy industry and the potential of these methods to generate high value ingredients from algae, such as bioactive peptides and functional ingredients are discussed. Applications of algae in human nutrition, animal feed, and aquaculture are examined. PMID:28445408

  1. Studying Facebook via data extraction: the Netvizz application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rieder, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes Netvizz, a data collection and extraction application that allows researchers to export data in standard file formats from different sections of the Facebook social networking service. Friendship networks, groups, and pages can thus be analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively

  2. Chemical vapor deposition growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes with controlled structures for nanodevice applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yabin; Zhang, Jin

    2014-08-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), a promising substitute to engineer prospective nanoelectronics, have attracted much attention because of their superb structures and physical properties. The unique properties of SWNTs rely sensitively on their specific chiral structures, including the diameters, chiral angles, and handedness. Furthermore, high-performance and integrated circuits essentially require SWNT samples with well-aligned arrays, of single conductive type and of pure chirality. Although much effort has been devoted to chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth of SWNTs, their structure control, growth mechanism, and structural characterizations are still the primary obstacles for the fabrication and application of SWNT-based nanodevices. In this Account, we focus on our established CVD growth methodology to fulfill the requirements of nanodevice applications. A rational strategy was successfully exploited to construct complex architectures, selectively enrich semiconducting (s) or metallic (m) SWNTs, and control chirality. First, well-aligned and highly dense SWNT arrays are beneficial for nanodevice integration. For the directed growth mode, anisotropic interactions between the SWNTs and the crystallographic structure of substrate are crucial for their growth orientation. Just as crystals possess various symmetries, SWNTs with controlled geometries have the corresponding turning angles. Their complex architectures come from the synergetic effect of lattice and gas flow directed modes. Especially, the aligned orientations of SWNTs on graphite are chirality-selective, and their chiral angles, handedness, and (n,m) index have been conveniently and accurately determined. Second, UV irradiation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) washing-off methods have been explored to selectively remove m-SWNTs, leaving only s-SWNT arrays on the surface. Moreover, the UV-assisted technique takes the advantages of low cost and high efficiency and it directly produces a high

  3. Application of Discharges in Vapor of Evaporated Metals for the Film Deposition from the Ionized Stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, E.G.

    2006-01-01

    results of researches of the discharge device for ionization of the vapor of solid materials are presented. Evaporation of a material was made by an electron gun with a deviation of a beam on 180 degree. Diode type discharge device for ionization was placed above a surface of evaporated metal and was in a longitudinal adjustable magnetic field. Discharge was carried out in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Partial ionization of the vapor was made by primary and secondary electrons of the gun in a vapor cloud above evaporated substance. Physical properties and structure of the films. The comparative analysis of the films properties, besieged in conditions of influence of bombardment by ions of evaporated metal were studied depending on energy and the contents of ions in a stream of particles on a substrate

  4. Applicability of multisyringe chromatography coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry for mercury speciation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzman-Mar, J.L.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L. [Department of Chemistry Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, Pedro de Alba s/n, C.P. 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Serra, A.M. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Hernandez-Ramirez, A. [Department of Chemistry Sciences, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Cd. Universitaria, Pedro de Alba s/n, C.P. 66451 San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Cerda, V., E-mail: victor.cerda@uib.es [Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-12-05

    Graphical abstract: An automatic system, based on the applicability of multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) detection is developed for mercury speciation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The on-line coupling of MSC to CV/AFS was developed for mercury speciation analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The speciation of MeHg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+} and EtHg{sup +} was achieved on a RP C18 monolithic column. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hyphenated system provided higher sample throughput compared to HPLC-CV/AFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The limits of detection for mercury species were comparable or better than those reported by HPLC-CV/AFS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The developed method also provided low instrumental and operational costs. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel automatic approach for the speciation of inorganic mercury (Hg{sup 2+}), methylmercury (MeHg{sup +}) and ethylmercury (EtHg{sup +}) using multisyringe chromatography (MSC) coupled to cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV/AFS) was developed. For the first time, the separation of mercury species was accomplished on a RP C18 monolithic column using a multi-isocratic elution program. The elution protocol involved the use of 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)-acetonitrile (99:1, v/v), followed by 0.005% 2-mercapthoethanol in 240 mM ammonium acetate (pH 6)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The eluted mercury species were then oxidized under post-column UV radiation and reduced using tin(II) chloride in an acidic medium. Subsequently, the generated mercury metal were separated from the reaction mixture and further atomized in the flame atomizer and detected by AFS. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the limits of detection (3{sigma}) were found to be 0.03, 0.11 and 0.09 {mu}g L{sup -1} for MeHg{sup +}, Hg{sup 2+} and EtHg{sup +}, respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD, n = 6) of the

  5. Application of supercritical fluid extraction in analytical science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has emerged as a promising alternative to conventional solvent extraction process owing to its potential to minimize the generation of the liquid volume and simplification of the extraction process.This technology is some times referred to as 'green technology' and 'clean technology'. Supercritical fluid extraction process assumes significance as it exhibits practical advantages such as enhanced extraction rate due to rapid mass transfer in supercritical fluid medium and change of solvent properties such as density by tuning pressure/temperature conditions. Supercritical fluids (SCF) offer faster, cleaner and efficient extraction owing to low viscosity, high density, low surface tension and better diffusivity properties. Higher diffusivity than liquids facilitates rapid mass transfer and faster completion of reaction. Due to low viscosity and surface tension, SCF can penetrate deep inside the material, extracting the component of interest. Liquid like solvating characteristics of SCFs enable dissolution of compounds whereas gas like diffusion characteristics provide conditions for high degree of extraction in shorter time duration. CO 2 has been widely employed as supercritical fluid owing to its moderate critical constants (Pc= 72.9 atm, Tc =304.3 K, ñ c = 0.47 g mL -1 ) and attractive properties such as being easily available, recyclable, non-toxic, chemically inert, non inflammable and radio-chemically stable. SCF finds application in variety of fields. In nuclear industry for separation and purification of actinides from liquids and solid matrices. In food industry, Decaffeination of coffee is done by SCF. Pharmaceutical industry, organic compounds can be extracted from plants by SC CO 2 avoiding liquid solvent usage. SCF may also be utilised for the production of fine powders. In polymer and plastics industries, examples of applications include the impregnation of medical material

  6. Nanostructured Thin Film Synthesis by Aerosol Chemical Vapor Deposition for Energy Storage Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Tandeep S.

    Renewable energy sources offer a viable solution to the growing energy demand while mitigating concerns for greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. This has led to a tremendous momentum towards solar and wind-based energy harvesting technologies driving efficiencies higher and costs lower. However, the intermittent nature of these energy sources necessitates energy storage technologies, which remain the Achilles heel in meeting the renewable energy goals. This dissertation focusses on two approaches for addressing the needs of energy storage: first, targeting direct solar to fuel conversion via photoelectrochemical water-splitting and second, improving the performance of current rechargeable batteries by developing new electrode architectures and synthesis processes. The aerosol chemical vapor deposition (ACVD) process has emerged as a promising single-step approach for nanostructured thin film synthesis directly on substrates. The relationship between the morphology and the operating parameters in the process is complex. In this work, a simulation based approach has been developed to understand the relationship and acquire the ability of predicting the morphology. These controlled nanostructured morphologies of TiO2 , compounded with gold nanoparticles of various shapes, are used for solar water-splitting applications. Tuning of light absorption in the visible-light range along with reduced electron-hole recombination in the composite structures has been demonstrated. The ACVD process is further extended to a novel single-step synthesis of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes directly on the current collector for applications as anodes in lithium-ion batteries, mainly for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. The effect of morphology of the nanostructures has been investigated via experimental studies and electrochemical transport modelling. Results demonstrate the exceptional performance of the single crystal one-dimensional nanostructures over granular

  7. Vapor-liquid equilibrium thermodynamics of N2 + CH4 - Model and Titan applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. R.; Zollweg, John A.; Gabis, David H.

    1992-01-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibrium in the N2 + CH4 system, which is implicated in calculations of the Titan tropospheric clouds' vapor-liquid equilibrium thermodynamics. This model imposes constraints on the consistency of experimental equilibrium data, and embodies temperature effects by encompassing enthalpy data; it readily calculates the saturation criteria, condensate composition, and latent heat for a given pressure-temperature profile of the Titan atmosphere. The N2 content of condensate is about half of that computed from Raoult's law, and about 30 percent greater than that computed from Henry's law.

  8. A microcantilever-based alcohol vapor sensor-application and response model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensenius, Henriette; Thaysen, Jacob; Rasmussen, Anette Alsted

    2000-01-01

    A recently developed microcantilever probe with integrated piezoresistive readout has been applied as a gas sensor. Resistors, sensitive to stress changes, are integrated on the flexible cantilevers. This makes it possible to monitor the cantilever deflection electrically and with an integrated...... is a direct measure of the molecular concentration of alcohol vapor. On the basis of the model the detection limit of this cantilever-based sensor is determined to be below 10 ppm for alcohol vapor measurements. Furthermore, the time response of the cantilever can be used to distinguish between different...

  9. Industrialization of hot wire chemical vapor deposition for thin film applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schropp, Ruud

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of implementing a Hot Wire Chemical Vapor Deposition (HWCVD) chamber into an existing in-line or roll-to-roll reactor are described. The hardware and operation of the HWCVD production reactor is compared to that of existing roll-to-roll reactors based on Plasma Enhanced Chemical

  10. Application of water vapor sorption measurements for porosity characterization of hardened cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Min; Johannesson, Björn; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2014-01-01

    data were reviewed. Water vapor sorption measurements were then applied to two hardened cement pastes and one model porous material MCM-41. The specific surface area was calculated based on different equations accounting for multilayer adsorption and the PSD was analyzed from both the absorption...

  11. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon oxynitride optimized for application in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worhoff, Kerstin; Driessen, A.; Lambeck, Paul; Hilderink, L.T.H.; Linders, Petrus W.C.; Popma, T.J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Silicon Oxynitride layers are grown from SiH4/N2, NH3 and N2O by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition. The process is optimized with respect to deposition of layers with excellent uniformity in the layer thickness, high homogeneity of the refractive index and good reproducibility of the layer

  12. Monte-Carlo simulation of complex vapor-transport systems for RIB applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Alton, G.D.

    2005-01-01

    In order to minimize decay losses of short-lived radioactive species at ISOL based RIB facilities, effusive-flow particle transit times between target and ion source must be as short as practically achievable. A Monte-Carlo code has been developed for simulating the effusive-flow of neutral particles through vapor-transport systems independent of materials of construction. The code provides average distance traveled and time information associated with the transit of individual particles through a system. It offers a cost effective and accurate means for arriving at vapor-transport system designs. In this report, the code will be described and results obtained by its use in evaluating several prototype vapor-transport systems using specular reflection, cosine and isotropic particle re-emission about the normal to the surface models following adsorption. Simulation results obtained with an isotropic distribution are in close agreement with experimental measurements of the properties of prototype vapor-transport systems fabricated at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility

  13. A review of extractions of seaweed hydrocolloids: Properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. P. S. Abdul Khalil

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The term hydrocolloid generally refers to substances that form gels or provide viscous dispersion in the presence of water. Alginate, agar, and carrageenan are three commercially valuable hydrocolloids derived from certain brown and red seaweed and each has their distinct physicochemical properties (i.e. functional and bioactive. Various applications of these seaweed hydrocolloids as thickeners, stabilizers, coagulants and salves (in the wound and burn dressings and materials to produce bio-medical impressions in the food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology industries are highlighted in this review. Although the existing industrial methods of extraction for these seaweed hydrocolloids are well-established, still growing demand has exposed certain limitations of those methods, notably efficiency and product consistency. In order to achieve targeted hydrocolloids for specific purposes and functionalities, some novel and green extraction methods have also been proposed and discussed. Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE, ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE, enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized solvent extractions (PSE, reactive extrusion and photobleaching process are selectively presented as highly promising candidates that can avoid the use of chemicals and provide novel means of access to seaweed hydrocolloids with both economic and environmental benefits. However, this review does not provide the ‘best’ method or procedure as many are still under development. Hence, the review gives ‘food for thought’as to new processes which might be adopted industrially and concluded that further research is required in order to contribute additional new knowledge and refinement to this field of study.

  14. Mechanomyographic Parameter Extraction Methods: An Appraisal for Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morufu Olusola Ibitoye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research conducted in the last three decades has collectively demonstrated that the skeletal muscle performance can be alternatively assessed by mechanomyographic signal (MMG parameters. Indices of muscle performance, not limited to force, power, work, endurance and the related physiological processes underlying muscle activities during contraction have been evaluated in the light of the signal features. As a non-stationary signal that reflects several distinctive patterns of muscle actions, the illustrations obtained from the literature support the reliability of MMG in the analysis of muscles under voluntary and stimulus evoked contractions. An appraisal of the standard practice including the measurement theories of the methods used to extract parameters of the signal is vital to the application of the signal during experimental and clinical practices, especially in areas where electromyograms are contraindicated or have limited application. As we highlight the underpinning technical guidelines and domains where each method is well-suited, the limitations of the methods are also presented to position the state of the art in MMG parameters extraction, thus providing the theoretical framework for improvement on the current practices to widen the opportunity for new insights and discoveries. Since the signal modality has not been widely deployed due partly to the limited information extractable from the signals when compared with other classical techniques used to assess muscle performance, this survey is particularly relevant to the projected future of MMG applications in the realm of musculoskeletal assessments and in the real time detection of muscle activity.

  15. Predictive factors for beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumour vaporization and coagulation in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerbel Andrei

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To identify preoperative and intraoperative factors and conditions that predicts the beneficial application of a high-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF system for tumor vaporization and coagulation. Methods One hundred three subsequent patients with brain tumors were microsurgically treated using the EMF system in addition to the standard neurosurgical instrumentarium. A multivariate analysis was performed regarding the usefulness (ineffective/useful/very helpful/essential of the new technology for tumor vaporization and coagulation, with respect to tumor histology and location, tissue consistency and texture, patients' age and sex. Results The EMF system could be used effectively during tumor surgery in 83 cases with an essential contribution to the overall success in 14 cases. In the advanced category of effectiveness (very helpful/essential, there was a significant difference between hard and soft tissue consistency (50 of 66 cases vs. 3 of 37 cases. The coagulation function worked well (very helpful/essential for surface (73 of 103 cases and spot (46 of 103 cases coagulation when vessels with a diameter of less than one millimeter were involved. The light-weight bayonet hand piece and long malleable electrodes made the system especially suited for the resection of deep-seated lesions (34 of 52 cases compared to superficial tumors (19 of 50 cases. The EMF system was less effective than traditional electrosurgical devices in reducing soft glial tumors. Standard methods where also required for coagulation of larger vessels. Conclusion It is possible to identify factors and conditions that predict a beneficial application of high-frequency electromagnetics for tumor vaporization and coagulation. This allows focusing the use of this technology on selective indications.

  16. Advanced applications of natural language processing for performing information extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Mário

    2015-01-01

    This book explains how can be created information extraction (IE) applications that are able to tap the vast amount of relevant information available in natural language sources: Internet pages, official documents such as laws and regulations, books and newspapers, and social web. Readers are introduced to the problem of IE and its current challenges and limitations, supported with examples. The book discusses the need to fill the gap between documents, data, and people, and provides a broad overview of the technology supporting IE. The authors present a generic architecture for developing systems that are able to learn how to extract relevant information from natural language documents, and illustrate how to implement working systems using state-of-the-art and freely available software tools. The book also discusses concrete applications illustrating IE uses.   ·         Provides an overview of state-of-the-art technology in information extraction (IE), discussing achievements and limitations for t...

  17. Full-scale testing and early production results from horizontal air sparging and soil vapor extraction wells remediating jet fuel in soil and groundwater at JFK International Airport, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, R.J.; Bianco, P.; Pressly, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Jet fuel contaminated soil and groundwater contaminated at the International Arrivals Building (IAB) of the JFK International Airport in Jamaica, New York, are being remediated using soil vapor extraction (SVE) and air sparging (AS). The areal extent of the contaminated soil is estimated to be 70 acres and the volume of contaminated groundwater is estimated to be 2.3 million gallons. The remediation uses approximately 13,000 feet of horizontal SVE (HSVE) wells and 7,000 feet of horizontal AS (HAS) wells. The design of the HSVE and HAS wells was based on a pilot study followed by a full-scale test. In addition to the horizontal wells, 28 vertical AS wells and 15 vertical SVE wells are used. Three areas are being remediated, thus, three separate treatment systems have been installed. The SVE and AS wells are operated continuously while groundwater will be intermittently extracted at each HAS well, treated by liquid phase activated carbon and discharged into stormwater collection sewerage. Vapors extracted by the SVE wells are treated by vapor phase activated carbon and discharged into ambient air. The duration of the remediation is anticipated to be between two and three years before soil and groundwater are remediated to New York State cleanup criteria for the site. Based on the monitoring data for the first two months of operation, approximately 14,600 lbs. of vapor phase VOCs have been extracted. Analyses show that the majority of the VOCs are branched alkanes, branched alkenes, cyclohexane and methylated cyclohexanes

  18. Application of Evaporative Cooling for the Condensation of Water Vapors from a Flue Gas Waste Heat Boilers CCP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galashov Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of the study are boilers that burn organic fuel and the recovery boilers (RB of the combined cycle plant (CCP, which are al-so working on the products of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The purpose of research is to find technologies that increase efficiency of the thermal power plant (TPP and technologies that reduce the environmental impact on the environment by burning fossil fuels. The paper deals with the technology of the boilers burning hydrocarbon fuel with condensation of water vapor from the exhaust flue gases. Considered the problems caused by using of this technology. Research shows that the main problem of this technology in the boilers is the lack of reliable methods of calculation of heat exchangers, condensers. Particular attention is paid to the application of this technology in the recovery boilers combined-cycle plants, which are currently gaining increasing use in the generation of electricity from the combustion of gas in power plants. It is shown that the application of technology of condensation of water vapor in RB CCP, the temperature decreases of exhaust gases from 100 to 40 °С, allows increasing the effi-ciency of the RB with 86.2 % to 99.5 %, i.e. at 12.3 %, and increase the ef-ficiency of the CCP at 2.8 %.

  19. Applications of the Automated SMAC Modal Parameter Extraction Package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MAYES, RANDALL L.; DORRELL, LARRY R.; KLENKE, SCOTT E.

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm known as SMAC (Synthesize Modes And Correlate), based on principles of modal filtering, has been in development for a few years. The new capabilities of the automated version are demonstrated on test data from a complex shell/payload system. Examples of extractions from impact and shaker data are shown. The automated algorithm extracts 30 to 50 modes in the bandwidth from each column of the frequency response function matrix. Examples of the synthesized Mode Indicator Functions (MIFs) compared with the actual MIFs show the accuracy of the technique. A data set for one input and 170 accelerometer outputs can typically be reduced in an hour. Application to a test with some complex modes is also demonstrated

  20. Method and apparatus maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl; Felix, Larry Gordon; Snyder, Todd Robert

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  1. Method and apparatus for maintaining multi-component sample gas constituents in vapor phase during sample extraction and cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, William Earl [Pinson, AL; Felix, Larry Gordon [Pelham, AL; Snyder, Todd Robert [Birmingham, AL

    2008-02-12

    An apparatus and method for diluting and cooling that is extracted from high temperature and/or high pressure industrial processes. Through a feedback process, a specialized, CFD-modeled dilution cooler is employed along with real-time estimations of the point at which condensation will occur within the dilution cooler to define a level of dilution and diluted gas temperature that results in a gas that can be conveyed to standard gas analyzers that contains no condensed hydrocarbon compounds or condensed moisture.

  2. Virtual test bench as a complement to study thermal area: application in vapor compression systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Belman-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe un simulador educativo desarrollado en el software Engineering Equation Solver para representar el comportamiento de un sistema de compresión de vapor. La aplicación está enfocada con propósitos educativos, particularmente para que estudiantes de ingeniería adquieran habilidades en el manejo de instalaciones de refrigeración. Mediante el uso de este simulador, los estudiantes tendrán la capacidad de analizar fácilmente la infl uencia que tienen parámetros medidos experimentalmente (como la velocidad de rotación del compresor, el fl ujo volumétrico y la temperatura de fl uidos secundarios sobre la efi ciencia energética del sistema y sus componentes principales. El banco virtual consta de una pantalla principal que muestra un esquema general del sistema de compresión de vapor con parámetros de entrada y de salida. Desde la pantalla principal, el desempeño de los componentes principales puede ser analizado. Finalmente, este banco de pruebas virtual ha sido probado por estudiantes de ingeniería, concluyendo que el simulador es una herramienta de apoyo que permite mejorar el aprendizaje de las diferentes áreas del conocimiento.

  3. Application of pulsed electron beam vaporization to studies of UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, D.A.

    1977-06-01

    A method for determining the pressure versus internal energy coordinates of the liquid-vapor saturation curve is applied to the study of UO 2 . The experimental details and results of an initial series of tests are described. A comparison of the measurement results to models of the UO 2 equation of state illustrates the role of the heat capacity in describing the P--E characteristics of the state surface. A discussion of the available heat capacity information suggests that additional modeling and measurements of the heat capacity may be needed to give a complete temperature and energy dependent state surface description. Because of these modeling uncertainties, a method of thermodynamically describing the P(V, E) state surface entirely through the use of dynamic vapor measurements is given. Such a model satisfies transient thermomechanical analysis requirements. Next the effect of the state surface on one type of core disruptive reactor analysis is examined. And finally, the property determinations and models for UO 2 are reviewed with requirements for future work being outlined

  4. Nuclear-technical applications in gold extraction metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.W.; De Jesus, A.S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used for a number of years by the South African gold mining industry in a variety of measuring techniques, not only in conventional on-line process instrumentation, but also to investigate problem areas in extraction processes. These include, inter alia, tracer investigations on recirculating underground water, measurement of air ventilation rates in a mine, residence time measurements in milling and leaching circuits, and gold purity determinations. Applications of both sealed sources and radioactive tracer techniques are reviewed by means of examples of work done in South Africa, with pertinent reference to the benefits accruing to the gold mining industry

  5. Application of morphological bit planes in retinal blood vessel extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraz, M M; Basit, A; Barman, S A

    2013-04-01

    The appearance of the retinal blood vessels is an important diagnostic indicator of various clinical disorders of the eye and the body. Retinal blood vessels have been shown to provide evidence in terms of change in diameter, branching angles, or tortuosity, as a result of ophthalmic disease. This paper reports the development for an automated method for segmentation of blood vessels in retinal images. A unique combination of methods for retinal blood vessel skeleton detection and multidirectional morphological bit plane slicing is presented to extract the blood vessels from the color retinal images. The skeleton of main vessels is extracted by the application of directional differential operators and then evaluation of combination of derivative signs and average derivative values. Mathematical morphology has been materialized as a proficient technique for quantifying the retinal vasculature in ocular fundus images. A multidirectional top-hat operator with rotating structuring elements is used to emphasize the vessels in a particular direction, and information is extracted using bit plane slicing. An iterative region growing method is applied to integrate the main skeleton and the images resulting from bit plane slicing of vessel direction-dependent morphological filters. The approach is tested on two publicly available databases DRIVE and STARE. Average accuracy achieved by the proposed method is 0.9423 for both the databases with significant values of sensitivity and specificity also; the algorithm outperforms the second human observer in terms of precision of segmented vessel tree.

  6. Application of atomic vapor laser isotope separation to the enrichment of mercury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, J.K.; Erbert, G.V.; Paisner, J.A.; Chen, H.L.; Chiba, Z.; Beeler, R.G.; Combs, R.; Mostek, S.D.

    1986-09-01

    Workers at GTE/Sylvania have shown that the efficiency of fluorescent lighting may be markedly improved using mercury that has been enriched in the 196 Hg isotope. A 5% improvement in the efficiency of fluorescent lighting in the United States could provide a savings of ∼ 1 billion dollars in the corresponding reduction of electrical power consumption. We will discuss the results of recent work done at our laboratory to develop a process for enriching mercury. The discussion will center around the results of spectroscopic measurements of excited state lifetimes, photoionization cross sections and isotope shifts. In addition, we will discuss the mercury separator and supporting laser mesurements of the flow properties of mercury vapor. We will describe the laser system which will provide the photoionization and finally discuss the economic details of producing enriched mercury at a cost that would be attractive to the lighting industry

  7. Development and application of capacitor discharge vaporization technique for fuel aerosol studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.J.; Kress, T.S.; Parker, G.W.; Rochelle, J.M.; Fontana, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations into the behavior of LMFBR fuel as it responds to the levels of energy deposition projected for prompt-critical excursions have been limited because of the difficulty of experimentally achieving the resultant high thermodynamic states in a laboratory. In order to conduct ''source-term'' assessment and fuel aerosol behavioral experiments, the Aerosol Release and Transport program at ORNL has been developing a Capacitor Discharge Vaporization (CDV) technique for using electrical energy, via the discharge from capacitors, to achieve HCDA-like energy state in UO 2 . The paper reports the details of the technique, the developmental test results that have demonstrated feasibility, and a brief description of the proposed experiments that will use the CDV system for safety related studies

  8. Application and improvement of reciprocating-sieve plate extraction column in natural uranium extraction and purification process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuejun; Li Linyan; Liu Jing; Liu Xin; Yang Lifeng; Xiao Shaohua; Liu Hao

    2013-01-01

    Reciprocating-sieve plate extraction column is commonly used in the extraction process. Optimization and application were conducted successfully via production practice in some chemical and pharmaceutical plants, and good results are obtained while it is applied in the natural uranium extraction and purification process. The key component of reciprocating-sieve plate extraction column is gear-drive equipment in which drive motor serves as its core. Hence, it is important to select appropriate mode of speed regulation. In this paper, the principle and performance of several mode of speed regulation are compared. Both electromagnetic slip and frequency speed-regulation can be applied in general industrial process, but frequency speed-regulation with low energy cost can be used in wider operating range. The application of frequency speed-regulation mode used in reciprocating-sieve plate extraction column will increase the convenience and stability of natural uranium extraction and purification process. (authors)

  9. Application of solid-liquid extraction separation in analytical chemistry: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zulan; Dai Lixin

    1985-01-01

    Low m.p. waxes as solid solvents for solid-liquid extraction separation are advanced. Uranium in aqueous phase is extracted by homogeneous organic phase which is composed of waxes and various kinds of extractants. Various parameters of this extraction separation method are studied and compared with one of liquid-liquid extraction. The characteristic of wax as solvent, speciality and applicability of solid-liquid extraction separation method are evaluated

  10. Plasma vapor deposited n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide heterojunctions for optoelectronic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, T. P.; Pradyumnan, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    Transparent crystalline n-indium tin oxide/p-copper indium oxide diode structures were fabricated on quartz substrates by plasma vapor deposition using radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. The p-n heterojunction diodes were highly transparent in the visible region and exhibited rectifying current-voltage (I-V) characteristics with a good ideality factor. The sputter power during fabrication of the p-layer was found to have a profound effect on I-V characteristics, and the diode with the p-type layer deposited at a maximum power of 200 W exhibited the highest value of the diode ideality factor (η value) of 2.162, which suggests its potential use in optoelectronic applications. The ratio of forward current to reverse current exceeded 80 within the range of applied voltages of -1.5 to +1.5 V in all cases. The diode structure possessed an optical transmission of 60-70% in the visible region.

  11. Spray Chemical Vapor Deposition of CulnS2 Thin Films for Application in Solar Cell Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Buhro, William E.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Jenkins. Philip P.; Stan, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Chalcopyrite CuInS2 is a direct band gap semiconductor (1.5 eV) that has potential applications in photovoltaic thin film and photoelectrochemical devices. We have successfully employed spray chemical vapor deposition using the previously known, single-source, metalorganic precursor, (Ph3P)2CuIn(SEt)4, to deposit CuInS2 thin films. Stoichiometric, polycrystalline films were deposited onto fused silica over a range of temperatures (300-400 C). Morphology was observed to vary with temperature: spheroidal features were obtained at lower temperatures and angular features at 400 C. At even higher temperatures (500 C), a Cu-deficient phase, CuIn5S8, was obtained as a single phase. The CuInS2 films were determined to have a direct band gap of ca. 1.4 eV.

  12. Hanford stakeholder participation in evaluating innovative technologies: VOC product line, Passive soil vapor extraction using borehole flux tunable hybrid plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.; McCabe, G.; Niesen, K.; Serie, P.

    1995-05-01

    A three-phased stakeholder participation program was conducted to support the Volatile Organic Compounds Arid Site Integrated Demonstration (VOC-Arid ID). The US DOE's Office of Technology Development (OTD) sponsored and directed the VOC-Arid ID. Its purpose was to develop and demonstrate new technologies for remediating VOC contamination in soil and ground water. The integrated demonstration, hosted by the Hanford site in Washington State, is being transitioned into the Department of Energy's (DOE) Plume Focus Area. The Plume Focus Area has the same basic objectives as the ID, but is broader in scope and is a team effort with technology developers and technology users. The objective is to demonstrate a promising technology once, and if results warrant deploy it broadly across the DOE complex and in private sector applications

  13. Atmospheric Pressure Spray Chemical Vapor Deposited CuInS2 Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. D.; Raffaelle, R. P.; Banger, K. K.; Smith, M. A.; Scheiman, D. A.; Hepp, A. F.

    2002-01-01

    Solar cells have been prepared using atmospheric pressure spray chemical vapor deposited CuInS2 absorbers. The CuInS2 films were deposited at 390 C using the single source precursor (PPh3)2CuIn(SEt)4 in an argon atmosphere. The absorber ranges in thickness from 0.75 - 1.0 micrometers, and exhibits a crystallographic gradient, with the leading edge having a (220) preferred orientation and the trailing edge having a (112) orientation. Schottky diodes prepared by thermal evaporation of aluminum contacts on to the CuInS2 yielded diodes for films that were annealed at 600 C. Solar cells were prepared using annealed films and had the (top down) composition of Al/ZnO/CdS/CuInS2/Mo/Glass. The Jsc, Voc, FF and (eta) were 6.46 mA per square centimeter, 307 mV, 24% and 0.35%, respectively for the best small area cells under simulated AM0 illumination.

  14. Application of Chlorine-Assisted Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chenyu; Altemir, David A.; Margrave, John L.; Hauge, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Low temperature deposition of diamond has been achieved by a chlorine-assisted diamond chemical vapor deposition (CA-CVD) process. This method begins with the thermal dissociation of molecular chlorine into atomic chlorine in a resistively heated graphite furnace at temperatures between 1300 and 1500 deg. C. The atomic chlorine, upon mixing, subsequently reacts with molecular hydrogen and hydrocarbons. The rapid exchange reactions between the atomic chlorine, molecular hydrogen, and hydrocarbons give rise to the atomic hydrogen and carbon precursors required for diamond deposition. Homoepitaxial diamond growth on diamond substrates has been studied over the substrate temperature range of 100-950 C. It was found that the diamond growth rates are approximately 0.2 microns/hr in the temperature range between 102 and 300 C and that the growth rates do not decrease significantly with a decrease in substrate temperature. This is unique because the traditional diamond deposition using H2/CH4 systems usually disappears at substrate temperatures below approx. 500 deg. C. This opens up a possible route to the deposition of diamond on low-melting point materials such as aluminum and its alloys.

  15. Contribution to the modelization of liquid-liquid extraction systems. Application to metallic nitrate extraction by TBP in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, J.

    1984-10-01

    The validity of theoretical expression for activity coefficients, in concentrated aqueous solution, proposed by Mikulin-Stokes-Robinson and Ryazanov-Vdovenko is confirmed by numerous tests. This allows a better control of the reactivity of chemicals in the extraction system: nitric aqueous solution-TBP organic solution used in nuclear hydrometallurgy. A reliable methodology is proposed for the study of metal extraction mechanism. Application to palladium (II) evidences extracted species in the organic phase. Influence of degradation product from extractant radiolysis on the behavior of this metallic element is effected. 187 refs [fr

  16. Application of Orthogonal Design to Optimize Extraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To optimize the extraction technology of polysaccharides from Cynomorium songaricum Rupr by ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE). Methods: Four parameters including ultrasonic power, ratio of raw material to water, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by orthogonal design. The effects of ...

  17. Use of process steam in vapor absorption refrigeration system for cooling and heating applications: An exergy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anand

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The exponential increase in cost of conventional fuels shifts the interest toward the use of alternative as well waste energy sources for the operation of refrigeration and air-conditioning units. The present study therefore analyzes the performance of a process steam-operated vapor absorption system for cooling and heating applications using ammonia and water as working fluids based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. A mathematical model has been developed based on exergy analysis to investigate the performance of the system. The different performance parameters such as coefficient of performance (COP and exergetic efficiency of absorption system for cooling and heating applications are also calculated under different operating conditions. The results obtained show that cooling and heating COP along with second law efficiency (exergy efficiency increases with the heat source temperature at constant evaporator, condenser, and absorber temperature. Also, COP as well as exergy efficiency increases with an increase in the evaporator temperature at constant generator, condenser, and absorber temperature. The effect of ambient temperature on the exergetic efficiency for cooling and heating applications is also studied. The results obtained from the simulation studies can be used to optimize different components of the system so that the performance can be improved significantly.

  18. [Application of radiofrequency vaporization in arthroscopic treatment of patellofemoral joint disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Tao; Xu, Bin; Xu, Honggang; Wang, Hao

    2009-01-01

    To explore the treatment of patellofemoral joint disorders with radiofrequency vaporization under arthroscopy. From June 2004 to June 2007, 86 cases of patellofemoral joint disorder (98 knees) were treated by lateral retinacular release or medial retinacular tighten added, and combined with bipolar radiofrequency chondroplasty under arthroscopy. There were 30 males (34 knees) and 56 females (64 knees), aging 15-68 years (mean 40 years). The locations were left in 42 cases, right in 32 cases, both sides in 12 cases. The disease course was 3 months to 6 years (mean 30.5 months). In 98 knees, there were 28 knees of static patellar tilt, 10 knees of static patellar subluxation, 45 knees of dynamic patellar tilt and 15 knees of dynamic patellar subluxation. The Lysholm knee score preoperatively was 57.72 +/- 8.86. The patellofemoral cartilage abnormality were classified according to the Outerbridge grade (18 knees of grade I, 36 knees of grade II, 32 knees of grade III and 12 knees of grade IV). The incisions healed by first intention without complications such as infection or hemarthrosis. Seventy-five cases (82 knees) were followed up 8-37 months (mean 20.6 months). One month after operation, the patellofemoral joint pain was relieved remarkably, the knee joint activity was good and the radiological outcomes was also satisfactory. Six months after operation, the Lysholm knee score was improved significantly in patients of grades I, II and III (P 0.05). The postoperative score was 69.95 +/- 5.42 (P joint disorders.

  19. Toxicity of vapor phase petroleum contaminants to microbial degrader communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, S.C.; Davey, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Petroleum products constitute the largest quantity of synthetic organic chemical products produced in the US. They are comprised of mostly hydrocarbon constituents from many different chemical classes including alkenes, cycloalkanes, aromatic compounds, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Many petroleum constituents are classified as volatile organic compounds or VOCs. Petroleum products also constitute a major portion of environmental pollution. One emerging technology, with promise for applications to VOCs in subsurface soil environments, is bioventing coupled with soil vapor extraction. These technologies involve volatilization of contaminants into the soil gas phase by injection and withdrawal of air. This air movement causes enhancement of the aerobic microbial degradation of the mobilized vapors by the indigenous populations. This study investigated the effects of exposure of mixed, subsurface microbial communities to vapor phase petroleum constituents or vapors of petroleum mixtures. Soil slurries were prepared and plated onto mineral salts agar plates and exposed to vapor phase contaminants at equilibrium with pure product. Representative n-alkane, branched alkane, cycloalkane, and aromatic compounds were tested as well as petroleum product mixtures. Vapor exposure altered the numbers and morphologies of the colonies enumerated when compared to controls. However, even at high, equilibrium vapor concentrations, microbial degrader populations were not completely inhibited

  20. Study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition process on very dense powder for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanni, Florence

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is part of the development of low-enriched nuclear fuel, for the Materials Test Reactors (MTRs), constituted of uranium-molybdenum particles mixed with an aluminum matrix. Under certain conditions under irradiations, the U(Mo) particles interact with the aluminum matrix, causing unacceptable swelling of the fuel plate. To inhibit this phenomenon, one solution consists in depositing on the surface of the U(Mo) particles, a thin silicon layer to create a barrier effect. This thesis has concerned the study of the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to deposit silicon from silane, on the U(Mo) powder, which has an exceptional density of 17,500 kg/m 3 . To achieve this goal, two axes were treated during the thesis: the study and the optimization of the fluidization of a so dense powder, and then those of the silicon deposition process. For the first axis, a series of tests was performed on a surrogate tungsten powder in different columns made of glass and made of steel with internal diameters ranging from 2 to 5 cm, at room temperature and at high temperature (650 C) close to that of the deposits. These experiments helped to identify wall effects phenomena within the fluidized bed, which can lead to heterogeneous deposits or particles agglomeration. Some dimensions of the fluidization columns and operating conditions allowing a satisfactory fluidization of the powder were identified, paving the way for the study of silicon deposition. Several campaigns of deposition experiments on the surrogate powder and then on the U(Mo) powder were carried out in the second axis of the study. The influence of the bed temperature, the inlet molar fraction of silane diluted in argon, and the total gas flow of fluidization, was examined for different diameters of reactor and for various masses of powder. Morphological and structural characterization analyses (SEM, XRD..) revealed a uniform silicon deposition on all the powder and around each particle

  1. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D.; Qi, Haiyang; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu

    2017-10-01

    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg-Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman-Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes.

  2. Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of a two-temperature polytetrafluoroethylene vapor plasma for ablation-controlled discharge applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Haiyan; Qi, Haiyang; Wang, Weizong; Yan, Joseph D; Geng, Jinyue; Wu, Yaowu

    2017-01-01

    Ablation-controlled plasmas have been used in a range of technical applications where local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) is often violated near the wall due to the strong cooling effect caused by the ablation of wall materials. The thermodynamic and transport properties of ablated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) vapor, which determine the flowing plasma behavior in such applications, are calculated based on a two-temperature model at atmospheric pressure. To our knowledge, no data for PTFE have been reported in the literature. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and the Guldberg–Waage equation according to van de Sanden et al ’s derivation. The transport coefficients, including viscosity, thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity, are calculated with the most recent collision interaction potentials using Devoto’s electron and heavy-particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of the Chapman–Enskog method. Results are computed for different degrees of thermal non-equilibrium, i.e. the ratio of electron to heavy-particle temperatures, from 1 to 10, with electron temperature ranging from 300 to 40 000 K. Plasma transport properties in the LTE state obtained from the present work are compared with existing published results and the causes for the discrepancy analyzed. The two-temperature plasma properties calculated in the present work enable the modeling of wall ablation-controlled plasma processes. (paper)

  3. Application of micro-solid-phase extraction for the on-site extraction of heterocyclic aromatic amines in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Chanbasha

    2018-04-01

    An efficient on-site extraction technique to determine carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in seawater has been reported. A micro-solid-phase extraction device placed inside a portable battery-operated pump was used for the on-site extraction of seawater samples. Before on-site applications, parameters that influence the extraction efficiency (extraction time, type of sorbent materials, suitable desorption solvent, desorption time, and sample volume) were investigated and optimized in the laboratory. The developed method was then used for the on-site sampling of heterocyclic aromatic amines determination in seawater samples close to distillation plant. Once the on-site extraction completed, the small extraction device with the analytes was brought back to the laboratory for analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Based on the optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 0.05-20 μg/L with correlation coefficients up to 0.996. The limits of detection were 0.004-0.026 μg/L, and the reproducibility values were between 1.3 and 7.5%. To evaluate the extraction efficiency, a comparison was made with conventional solid-phase extraction and it was applied to various fortified real seawater samples. The average relative recoveries obtained from the spiked seawater samples varied in the range 79.9-95.2%. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Extraction study on uranyl nitrate for energy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, R.; Nath, G.

    2017-07-01

    Due to the ever-growing demand of energy nuclear reactor materials and the nuclear energy are now considered to be the most critical materials and source of energy for future era. Deposition of nuclear wastes in different industry, nuclear power sector are very much toxic in open environment which are hazardous to living being. There are different methods for extraction and reprocessing of these materials which are cost effective and tedious process. Ultrasonic assisted solvent extraction process is a most efficient and economical way for extraction of such type materials. The presence of third phase in mixing of extractants-diluent pair with aqueous phase imposes the problems in extraction of nuclear reactor materials. The appropriate solvent mixture in proper concentration is an important step in the solvent extraction process. Study of thermo-physical properties helps in selecting an optimum blend for extraction process. In the present work, the extraction of uranium with the binary mixture of Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) and Kerosene was investigated and discussed with the variation of ultrasonic frequency for different temperatures. The result shows that the low frequency and low temperature is suitable environment for extraction. The extraction of uranium by this method is found to be a better result for extraction study in laboratory scale as well as industrial sector.

  5. Solvent extractions applications to hydrometallurgy. Pt.III: Nickel, cobalt, manganese and ocean nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amer, S.

    1981-01-01

    The main applications of solvent extraction to the hydrometallurgy of nickel, cobalt, manganese and manganese rich ocean nodules, which also contain nickel, cooper and cobalt, are exposed. A short description of the processes with commercial applications is made. (author)

  6. Evaluation of a Fully Automated Analyzer for Rapid Measurement of Water Vapor Sorption Isotherms for Applications in Soil Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Tuller, Markus; Moldrup, Per

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and description of important soil processes such as water vapor transport, volatilization of pesticides, and hysteresis require accurate means for measuring the soil water characteristic (SWC) at low water potentials. Until recently, measurement of the SWC at low water...... potentials was constrained by hydraulic decoupling and long equilibration times when pressure plates or single-point, chilled-mirror instruments were used. A new, fully automated Vapor Sorption Analyzer (VSA) helps to overcome these challenges and allows faster measurement of highly detailed water vapor...

  7. Vapor-droplet flow equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, C.T.

    1975-01-01

    General features of a vapor-droplet flow are discussed and the equations expressing the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for the vapor, liquid, and mixture using the control volume approach are derived. The phenomenological laws describing the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between phases are also reviewed. The results have application to development of water-dominated geothermal resources

  8. Development of Liquid-Vapor Core Reactors with MHD Generator for Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samim Anghaie

    2002-01-01

    Any reactor that utilizes fuel consisting of a fissile material in a gaseous state may be referred to as a gaseous core reactor (GCR). Studies on GCRs have primarily been limited to the conceptual phase, mostly due to budget cuts and program cancellations in the early 1970's. A few scientific experiments have been conducted on candidate concepts, primarily of static pressure fissile gas filling a cylindrical or spherical cavity surrounded by a moderating shell, such as beryllium, heavy water, or graphite. The main interest in this area of nuclear power generation is for space applications. The interest in space applications has developed due to the promise of significant enhancement in fuel utilization, safety, plant efficiency, special high-performance features, load-following capabilities, power conversion optimization, and other key aspects of nuclear power generation. The design of a successful GCR adapted for use in space is complicated. The fissile material studied in the pa st has been in a fluorine compound, either a tetrafluoride or a hexafluoride. Both of these molecules have an impact on the structural material used in the making of a GCR. Uranium hexafluoride as a fuel allows for a lower operating temperature, but at temperatures greater than 900K becomes essentially impossible to contain. This difficulty with the use of UF6 has caused engineers and scientists to use uranium tetrafluoride, which is a more stable molecule but has the disadvantage of requiring significantly higher operating temperatures. Gas core reactors have traditionally been studied in a steady state configuration. In this manner a fissile gas and working fluid are introduced into the core, called a cavity, that is surrounded by a reflector constructed of materials such as Be or BeO. These reactors have often been described as cavity reactors because the density of the fissile gas is low and criticality is achieved only by means of the reflector to reduce neutron leakage from the core

  9. Physical vapor deposition of CdTe thin films at low temperature for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heisler, Christoph; Brueckner, Michael; Lind, Felix; Kraft, Christian; Reisloehner, Udo; Ronning, Carsten; Wesch, Werner [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, D-07743 Jena (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Cadmium telluride is successfully utilized as an absorber material for thin film solar cells. Industrial production makes use of high substrate temperatures for the deposition of CdTe absorber layers. However, in order to exploit flexible substrates and to simplify the manufacturing process, lower deposition temperatures are beneficial. Based on the phase diagram of CdTe, predictions on the stoichiometry of CdTe thin films grown at low substrate temperatures are made in this work. These predictions were verified experimentally using additional sources of Cd and Te during the deposition of the CdTe thin films at different substrate temperatures. The deposited layers were analyzed with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In case of CdTe layers which were deposited at substrate temperatures lower than 200 C without usage of additional sources we found a non-stoichiometric growth of the CdTe layers. The application of the additional sources leads to a stoichiometric growth for substrate temperatures down to 100 C which is a significant reduction of the substrate temperature during deposition.

  10. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-09-05

    Sep 5, 2007 ... extracts is of weight loss between 5.54 and 10.98% for P. placenta, and between 5.02 and 28.25% for T. versicolor. ... (2007) reported that the ethanolic extracts from the bark ... geranium, lemongrass, rosemary, tea tree, and thyme, .... the end of the incubation period, blocks were removed from the test.

  11. Extraction and application of dyestuffs from the leaves of guinea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work is aimed at assessing the dyeing and colouring potentials of ethanol extracts from the leaves of guinea corn and the skin of onion. It is intended to apply the purified dye extracts on textile, drink and food. The leaves of guinea corn (Sorghum bicolor) and the skin of onion (Allium cepa) were collected, ...

  12. Application of extracts from the poisonous plant, Nerium Oleander L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antifungal properties of poisonous plant extracts from oleanders (Nerium oleander L.) were determined when used as a wood preservative. The extract was prepared from oleanders leaves and flowers in 96% ethyl alcohol. The wood blocks of Turkish oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris ...

  13. Atmospheric Pre-Corrected Differential Absorption Techniques to Retrieve Columnar Water Vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, Daniel; Borel, Christoph C.; Keller, Johannes; Itten, Klaus I.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 nm resolution. This data includes the information on constituents of the earth's surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various ratioing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, the spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. The objective of this work is to test the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of

  14. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  15. Atmospheric pre-corrected differential absorption techniques to retrieve columnar water vapor: Application to AVIRIS 91/95 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlaepfer, D. [Univ. of Zuerich (Switzerland). Dept. of Geography; Borel, C.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Water vapor is one of the main forces for weather development as well as for mesoscale air transport processes. The monitoring of water vapor is therefore an important aim in remote sensing of the atmosphere. Current operational systems for water vapor detection use primarily the emission in the thermal infrared (AVHRR, GOES, ATSR, Meteosat) or in the microwave radiation bands (DMSP). The disadvantage of current satellite systems is either a coarse spatial (horizontal) resolution ranging from one to tens of kilometers or a limited insight into the lower atmosphere. Imaging spectrometry on the other hand measures total column water vapor contents at a high spatial horizontal resolution and has therefore the potential of filling these gaps. The sensors of the AVIRIS instrument are capable of acquiring hyperspectral data in 224 bands located in the visible and near infrared at 10 run resolution. This data includes information on constituents of the earth`s surface as well as of the atmosphere. The optical measurement of water vapor can be performed using sensor channels located in bands or lines of the absorption spectrum. The AVIRIS sensor has been used to retrieve water vapor and with less accuracy carbon dioxide, oxygen and ozone. To retrieve the water vapor amount, the so called differential absorption technique has been applied. The goal of this technique is to eliminate background factors by taking a ratio between channels within the absorption band and others besides the band. Various rationing methods on the basis of different channels and calculation techniques were developed. The influence of a trace gas of interest on the radiance at the sensor level is usually simulated by using radiative transfer codes. In this study, spectral transmittance and radiance are calculated by MODTRAN3 simulations with the new DISORT option. This work testS the best performing differential absorption techniques for imaging spectrometry of tropospheric water vapor.

  16. The application of extraction chromatography to the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, C.; Delle Site, A.

    1976-01-01

    The paper describe the application of extraction chromatography to the determination of several alpha and beta emitters in biological and environmental samples. Both column extraction chromatography and batch extraction process have been used to isolate the radionuclides from the samples. The effect of several parameters (extractant concentration, support granulometry, stirring time, temperature, presence of a complexing agent) on the extraction and elution has been examined. The application of redox extraction chromatography is also described. A very simple and rapid determination of the activity retained on the column can be obtained by transferring the slurry to a counting vial and by adding the scintillation liquid for a direct detection of the α or β emission. The counting efficiencies obtained with this technique are compared with those obtained with ion exchange resins. The organic polymers used for the extraction chromatography give about 100% counting efficiency. The conventional ion exchange resin cannot be used to this purpose because of their strong light absorption. (T.G.)

  17. Development and Application of Solid Phase Extraction Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    for the addition of organic modifier, sample load volume, conditioning solvent, washing solvent and ... Solid phase extraction, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water samples, ... such as polymeric, activated carbon or silica modified with.

  18. Exogenous application of natural extracts of persimmon (Diospyros ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-28

    May 28, 2014 ... maintaining the quality characteristics of dried persimmon. Different treatments ... than the same diet fortified with dry persimmon pulp. The health-derived ... natural extracts to eliminate potential health hazards of sulfur.

  19. Applications of aerospace technology to petroleum extraction and reservoir engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Back, L. H.; Berdahl, C. M.; Collins, E. E., Jr.; Gordon, P. G.; Houseman, J.; Humphrey, M. F.; Hsu, G. C.; Ham, J. D.; Marte, J. E.; hide

    1977-01-01

    Through contacts with the petroleum industry, the petroleum service industry, universities and government agencies, important petroleum extraction problems were identified. For each problem, areas of aerospace technology that might aid in its solution were also identified, where possible. Some of the problems were selected for further consideration. Work on these problems led to the formulation of specific concepts as candidate for development. Each concept is addressed to the solution of specific extraction problems and makes use of specific areas of aerospace technology.

  20. Possible applications of crown-ethers to metal extraction using liquid membrane technology - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1990-01-01

    Ether-crowns, discovered in 1967 by J.C. PEDERSEN, exhibit attractive complexive and extractive properties, enhanced in various fields, such as analytical chemistry, chemical synthesis, field of biology, or extractive chemistry. The investigations carried out on these macrocyclic compounds are continually increasing, as show in international literature. Among the focus of interest, the applications to metal extraction are extensively studied with crown compounds present in liquid phase or impregnated on supports (membranes or resins). The goal of this paper is to describe the application of crown-ethers to metal extraction, using liquid membrane processes. 69 refs

  1. Application of cone packing model in extraction: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xingfu; Tang Bolin; Sun Pengnian

    1987-01-01

    Synergistic effect in trinary system: substrate 1 + substrate 2 + extractant, is reported with the extraction for uranyl ion in mixed acetate and chloride substrates by applying cone packing model. Based on the cone packing model, ligand packing around the uranyl equatorial plane should be neither overcrowded nor undercrowded. The sum of ligand's Fan Angle (FA) around the uranyl equatorial plane provides a useful criterion for estimating steric crowding. Whereas FAS of UO 2 (OAc) 2 (TBP) 2 , UO 2 (OAc) 2 TBP, UO 2 Cl 2 (TBP) 2 and UO 2 Cl 2 (TBP) 3 are 204, 164, 164 and 203 deg respectively, none is favourable to form stable extracted complexes. FAS of UO 2 (OAc)Cl(TBP) 2 is l84 deg indicating the most favorable packing. Therefore synergistic effect based on the formation of extracted complex UO 2 (OAc)Cl(TBP) 2 in mixed acetate and chloride solution was predicted. The above speculation was confirmed by extraction of uranyl ion in the substrates of sodium acetate-acetic acid and ammonium chloride. Keeping the total concentration of substrates constant, synergistic extraction is found at l:3 acetate to chloride ratio which shifts a little on changing concentration of the uranyl ion from 3.97 x 10 -4 mol·dm -3 to 2.06 x 10 -2 mol·dm -3 . The extracted complex was proved to be mostly UO 2 (OAc)Cl(TBP) 2 by using the slope method and analysing the uranyl and chloride concentration in organic phase. Variation of the distribution coefficient of synergistic effect with the pH of the medium was studied. The similiar effect was found with other oxtractants and diluents

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of chemically vapor deposited tungsten heat pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacigalupi, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A network of lithium-filled tungsten heat pipes is being considered as a method of heat extraction from high temperature nuclear reactors. The need for material purity and shape versatility in these applications dictates the use of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) tungsten. Adaptability of CVD tungsten to complex heat pipe designs is shown. Deposition and welding techniques are described. Operation of two lithium-filled CVD tungsten heat pipes above 1800 K is discussed.

  3. Chemical vapor deposition growth of single-crystalline cesium lead halide microplatelets and heterostructures for optoelectronic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiliu Wang; Xun Guan; Dehui Li; Hung-Chieh Cheng; Xidong Duan; Zhaoyang Lin; Xiangfeng Duan

    2017-01-01

    Orgaruc-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites,such as CH3NH3PbI3,have emerged as an exciting class of materials for solar photovoltaic applications;however,they are currently plagued by insufficient environmental stability.To solve this issue,all-inorganic halide perovskites have been developed and shown to exhibit significantly improved stability.Here,we report a single-step chemical vapor deposition growth of cesium lead halide (CsPbX3) microcrystals.Optical microscopy studies show that the resulting perovskite crystals predominantly adopt a square-platelet morphology.Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) studies of the resulting crystals demonstrate a highly crystalline nature,with CsPbC13,CsPbBr3,and CsPbI3 showing tetragonal,monoclinic,and orthorhombic phases,respectively.Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies show that the resulting platelets exhibit well-faceted structures with lateral dimensions of the order of 10-50 μm,thickness around 1 μm,and ultra-smooth surface,suggesting the absence of obvious grain boundaries and the single-crystalline nature of the individual microplatelets.Photoluminescence (PL) images and spectroscopic studies show a uniform and intense emission consistent with the expected band edge transition.Additionally,PL images show brighter emission around the edge of the platelets,demonstrating a wave-guiding effect in high-quality crystals.With a well-defined geometry and ultra-smooth surface,the square platelet structure can function as a whispering gallery mode cavity with a quality factor up to 2,863 to support laser emission at room temperature.Finally,we demonstrate that such microplatelets can be readily grown on a variety of substrates,including silicon,graphene,and other two-dimensional materials such as molybdenum disulfide,which can readily allow the construction of heterostructure optoelectronic devices,including a graphene/perovskite/ graphene vertically-stacked photodetector with

  4. [Glass transition of Chinese medicine extract powder and its application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jian; Liu, Hui; Liang, Hong-Bo; Xiong, Lei; Rao, Xiao-Yong; Xie, Yin; He, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Glass transition theory is an important theory in polymer science, which is used to characterize the physical properties. It refers to the transition of amorphous polymer from the glassy state to the rubber state due to heating or the transition from rubber state to glassy state due to cooling. In this paper, the glassy state and glass transition of food and the similar relationship between the composition of Chinese medicine extract powder and food ingredients were described; the determination method for glass transition temperature (Tg) of Chinese medicine extract powder was established and its main influencing factors were analyzed. Meanwhile, the problems in drying process, granulation process and Chinese medicine extract powder and solid preparation storage were analyzed and investigated based on Tg, and then the control strategy was put forward to provide guidance for the research and production of Chinese medicine solid preparation. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  5. Immunostimulatory properties of mistletoe extracts and their application in oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Wrotek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For a long time cancer immunotherapy was overshadowed by chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recently, “Science”, one of the world’s top scientific journals, named the stimulation of the body’s own immune system to fight cancer cells as the “breakthrough of the year”. In Germany, Switzerland and Austria, extracts derived from mistletoe (Viscum album L. such as Iscador, Abnobaviscum, Helixor, Iscar, Iscucin and Isorel have been used in oncology for many years. These extracts have immunomodulating and immunostimulating properties, as demonstrated by experimental studies as well as in clinical trials. The aim of our paper is to present immunological disorders associated with cancer, which can be counteracted by treatment with extracts derived from mistletoe. Although these drugs cannot replace conventionalcancer treatment, they may improve the patient’s quality and length of life.

  6. Design and application of PDF model for extracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Lei

    2013-07-01

    In order to change the steps of contributions in editorial department system from two steps to one, this paper advocates that the technology of extracting the information of PDF files should be transplanted from PDF reader into IEEE Xplore contribution system and that it should be combined with uploading in batch skillfully to enable editors to upload PDF files about 1GB in batch for once. Computers will extract the information of the title, author, address, mailbox, abstract and key words of thesis voluntarily for later retrieval so as to save plenty of labor, material and finance for editorial department.

  7. Real time incorporation of random events in the reasoning of an on-line expert system. Application to the acoustic surveillance of vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launay, T.

    1989-03-01

    A study for improving an expert system applied in diagnostic assistance is presented. The results will be implemented in the vapor generators surveillance system. The aim of the work is to improve performances by reducing the time spent on reasoning and to strengthen the vigilance system. The investigation consists of four parts. In the first part, the state of the art of the different logics used in the artificial intelligence techniques is discussed, and the TMS and ATMS systems are presented. The second part of this thesis deals with problematics. Each point of the problem is studied and answered by applying the basic concepts used in the generation of on-line expert systems. In the third part, the on-line expert system generator ACTE is described. The ACTE aspects concerning the user, the inner structure and the functionality are considered. In the fourth part, an application to the surveillance of vapor generators and concluding remarks are presented [fr

  8. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  9. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  10. The lithium vapor box divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R J; Schwartz, J; Myers, R

    2016-01-01

    It has long been recognized that volumetric dissipation of the plasma heat flux from a fusion power system is preferable to its localized impingement on a material surface. Volumetric dissipation mitigates both the anticipated very high heat flux and intense particle-induced damage due to sputtering. Recent projections to a tokamak demonstration power plant suggest an immense upstream parallel heat flux, of order 20 GW m −2 , implying that fully detached operation may be a requirement for the success of fusion power. Building on pioneering work on the use of lithium by Nagayama et al and by Ono et al as well as earlier work on the gas box divertor by Watkins and Rebut, we present here a concept for a lithium vapor box divertor, in which lithium vapor extracts momentum and energy from a fusion-power-plant divertor plasma, using fully volumetric processes. At the high powers and pressures that are projected this requires a high density of lithium vapor, which must be isolated from the main plasma in order to avoid lithium build-up on the chamber walls or in the plasma. Isolation is achieved through a powerful multi-box differential pumping scheme available only for condensable vapors. The preliminary box-wise calculations are encouraging, but much more work is required to demonstrate the practical viability of this scheme, taking into account at least 2D plasma and vapor flows within and between the vapor boxes and out of the vapor boxes to the main plasma. (paper)

  11. Phase diagram of interfacial growth modes by vapor deposition and its application for ZnO nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Da-Jun; Xiong, Xiang; Liu, Ming; Wang, Mu

    2017-09-01

    Interfacial growth from vapor has been extensively studied. However, a straightforward picture of the growth mode under different growth conditions is still lacking. In this paper, we develop a comprehensive interfacial growth theory based on the stochastic approach. Using a critical interisland separation, we construct a general phase diagram of the growth modes. It has been revealed that if the Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier EES is smaller than a critical value, the interfacial growth proceeds in a layer-by-layer (LBL) mode at any deposition rate. However, if EES is larger than the critical value, LBL growth occurs only at very small or very large deposition rates relative to the intralayer hopping rate, and multilayer (ML) growth occurs at a moderate deposition rate. Experiments with zinc oxide growth by chemical vapor deposition have been designed to qualitatively demonstrate the theoretical model. By changing the flux of the carrier gas (nitrogen gas) in chemical vapor deposition, we realize LBL, ML, and then reentrance of LBL homoepitaxial growth of ZnO successively. Moreover, we find that surface kinetics of ZnO is suppressed by decreasing oxygen partial pressure by comparing the experimental observations and theoretical models, which is supported by our recent first-principles calculations. Since the influence of the substrate and the growth species on growth can approximately be represented by binding energy and surface kinetics, we suggest that the phase diagram is essential for interfacial growth of different materials by vapor deposition.

  12. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  13. Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Monofilament Vaporization Propulsion (MVP) is a new propulsion technology targeted at secondary payload applications. It does not compromise on performance while...

  14. Mobile vapor recovery and vapor scavenging unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, C.A.; Steppe, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a mobile anti- pollution apparatus, for the recovery of hydrocarbon emissions. It comprises a mobile platform upon which is mounted a vapor recovery unit for recovering vapors including light hydrocarbons, the vapor recovery unit having an inlet and an outlet end, the inlet end adapted for coupling to an external source of hydrocarbon vapor emissions to recover a portion of the vapors including light hydrocarbons emitted therefrom, and the outlet end adapted for connection to a means for conveying unrecovered vapors to a vapor scavenging unit, the vapor scavenging unit comprising an internal combustion engine adapted for utilizing light hydrocarbon in the unrecovered vapors exiting from the vapor recovery unit as supplemental fuel

  15. Selective extraction of actinides by calixarenes: application to bioassay analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulet, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the context of nuclear workers monitoring, the aim of this PhD was to selectively isolate U, Pu, and Am from urine to propose a new analytical procedure to the Medical and Biology Analysis Laboratories. The 1,3,5-OCH 3 -2,4,6-OCH 2 CONHOH-p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene molecule has been selected as a promising extractant for U, Pu, and Am. Its physico-chemical properties and its affinity for UO 2 2+ have been studied through two approaches, one theoretical (molecular modelling at DFT level), and one experimental. The extractions of the three actinides by the hydroxamic calix[6]arene were quantitative in liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Their separation has also been shown possible and efficient. After optimization, the proposed procedure should allow the laboratories to carry out the chemical treatment of urine, before the measurement, in one day instead of the three days needed nowadays. (author)

  16. Application of liquid metals for the extraction of solid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid metals dissolve several solid metals in considerable amounts at moderate temperatures. The dissolution processes may be based upon simple physical solubility, formation of intermetallic phases. Even chemical reactions are often observed in which non-metallic elements might be involved. Thus, the capacity to dissolve metals and chemical properties of the liquid metals play a role in these processes. Besides the solubility also chemical properties and thermochemical data are of importance. The dissolution of metals in liquid metals can be applied to separate the solutes from other metals or non-metallic phases. Relatively noble metals can be chemically reduced by the liquid phases. Such solution processes can be applied in the extractive metallurgy, for instance to extract metals from metallic waste. The recycling of metals is of high economical and ecological importance. Examples of possible processes are discussed. (author)

  17. Extraction of thalweg networks from DTMs: application to badlands

    OpenAIRE

    Thommeret , N.; Bailly , Jean-Stéphane; Puech , C.

    2010-01-01

    To study gully spatial patterns in the badlands using a continuous thalweg vector network, this paper presents methods to extract the badlands' thalweg network from a regular grid digital terrain model (DTM) by combining terrain morphology indices with a drainage algorithm. This method will delineate a thalweg only where the DTM denotes a significant curvature with respect to DTM accuracy and relies on three major steps. First, discontinuous concave areas were detected from the DTM using morp...

  18. Application of monocarboxylic acids for the extraction of metal ions-literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozka, Z.; Rozycki, C.

    1980-01-01

    In the paper there is presented a literature review concerning the application of monocarboxylic acids for extraction of metal ions. The following problems are discussed: characteristic of monocarboxylic acids and their mixtures, the equilibria between the acid solution in organic solvent and aqueous phase, the mechanism of acid partition, complexes of carboxylic acids and metal ions in aqueous phase, mechanism of extraction by means of carboxylic acids as well as the problems concerning the extraction of individual metal ions. Data about the extraction of metal ions are presented in table. The 138 references are given. (author)

  19. In situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as potential electrode materials for energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mombrú, Dominique [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Romero, Mariano, E-mail: mromero@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Faccio, Ricardo, E-mail: rfaccio@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Castiglioni, Jorge [Laboratorio de Fisicoquímica de Superficies – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay); Mombrú, Alvaro W., E-mail: amombru@fq.edu.uy [Centro NanoMat/CryssMat/Física – DETEMA – Facultad de Química – Universidad de la República, C.P. 11800 Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2017-06-15

    In situ preparation of polyaniline-ceramic nanocomposites has recently demonstrated that the electrical properties are highly improved with respect to the typical ex situ preparations. In this report, we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the in situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion as an easily adaptable route to prepare other ceramic-polymer nanocomposites. The main relevance of this method is the possibility to prepare ceramic quantum dots from alkoxide precursors using water vapor flow into any hydrophobic polymer host and to achieve good homogeneity and size-control. In addition, we perform full characterization by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, thermogravimetric and calorimetric analyses, confocal Raman microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analyses. The presence of the polymer host and interparticle Coulomb repulsive interactions was evaluated as an influence for the formation of ~3–8 nm equally-sized quantum dots independently of the concentration. The polyaniline polaron population showed an increase for the quantum dots diluted regime and the suppression at the concentrated regime, ascribed to the formation of chemical bonds at the interface, which was confirmed by theoretical simulations. In agreement with the previous observation, the in situ growth of ceramic quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion could be very useful as a novel approach to prepare electrode materials for energy conversion and storage applications. - Highlights: • In situ growth of titanium oxide quantum dots in polyaniline host via water vapor flow diffusion. • Polyaniline charge carriers at the interface and charge interactions between quantum dots. • Easy extrapolation to sol-gel derived quantum dots into polymer host as potential electrode materials.

  20. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Extraction of thalweg networks from DTMs: application to badlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Thommeret

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To study gully spatial patterns in the badlands using a continuous thalweg vector network, this paper presents methods to extract the badlands' thalweg network from a regular grid digital terrain model (DTM by combining terrain morphology indices with a drainage algorithm. This method will delineate a thalweg only where the DTM denotes a significant curvature with respect to DTM accuracy and relies on three major steps. First, discontinuous concave areas were detected from the DTM using morphological criteria, either the plan curvature or the convergence index. Second, the concave areas were connected using a drainage algorithm, which provides a continuous, thick, tree-structured scheme. We assumed that these areas were physically significant and corresponded to a gully floor. Finally, the thick path was reduced to its main course and vectorised to obtain a thalweg network. The methods were applied to both virtual and actual DTM cases. The actual case was a LiDAR DTM of the Draix badlands in the French Alps. The obtained networks were quantitatively compared, both with a network obtained using the usual drainage area criteria and with a reference network mapped in the field. The CI-based network showed the great potential for thalweg network extraction.

  2. Silver chemical vapor generation for atomic absorption spectrometry: Minimization of transport losses, interferences and application to water analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musil, Stanislav; Kratzer, Jan; Vobecký, Miloslav; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 10 (2010), s. 1618-1626 ISSN 0267-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/1783 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : chemical vapor generation * 111Ag radioindicator * transport losses Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.372, year: 2010

  3. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Thorpe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  4. Airborne DOAS retrievals of methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor concentrations at high spatial resolution: application to AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Andrew K.; Frankenberg, Christian; Thompson, David R.; Duren, Riley M.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Bue, Brian D.; Green, Robert O.; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Kort, Eric A.; Sweeney, Colm; Conley, Stephen; Roberts, Dar A.; Dennison, Philip E.

    2017-10-01

    At local scales, emissions of methane and carbon dioxide are highly uncertain. Localized sources of both trace gases can create strong local gradients in its columnar abundance, which can be discerned using absorption spectroscopy at high spatial resolution. In a previous study, more than 250 methane plumes were observed in the San Juan Basin near Four Corners during April 2015 using the next-generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) and a linearized matched filter. For the first time, we apply the iterative maximum a posteriori differential optical absorption spectroscopy (IMAP-DOAS) method to AVIRIS-NG data and generate gas concentration maps for methane, carbon dioxide, and water vapor plumes. This demonstrates a comprehensive greenhouse gas monitoring capability that targets methane and carbon dioxide, the two dominant anthropogenic climate-forcing agents. Water vapor results indicate the ability of these retrievals to distinguish between methane and water vapor despite spectral interference in the shortwave infrared. We focus on selected cases from anthropogenic and natural sources, including emissions from mine ventilation shafts, a gas processing plant, tank, pipeline leak, and natural seep. In addition, carbon dioxide emissions were mapped from the flue-gas stacks of two coal-fired power plants and a water vapor plume was observed from the combined sources of cooling towers and cooling ponds. Observed plumes were consistent with known and suspected emission sources verified by the true color AVIRIS-NG scenes and higher-resolution Google Earth imagery. Real-time detection and geolocation of methane plumes by AVIRIS-NG provided unambiguous identification of individual emission source locations and communication to a ground team for rapid follow-up. This permitted verification of a number of methane emission sources using a thermal camera, including a tank and buried natural gas pipeline.

  5. Properties of zinc selenide grown by chemical vapor transport and its application to room-temperature radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunett, B.A.; Toney, J.E.; Schlesinger, T.E.; Yoon, H.; Goorsky, M.S.; Rudolph, P.

    1998-01-01

    The authors have characterized ZnSe material grown by chemical vapor transport in iodine using triple-axis X-ray diffraction (TAD), photo-induced current transient spectroscopy (PICTS), photoluminescence (PL), current-voltage measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. The material was found to have inadequate carrier transport for nuclear spectrometer use, but there was a discernible difference in performance between crystals which could be correlated with crystallinity as determined by the TAD rocking curves

  6. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  7. SEAMIST trademark in-situ instrumentation and vapor sampling system applications in the Sandia Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.E.; Dunn, S.D.; Cremer, S.C.; Williams, C.

    1994-01-01

    The SEAMIST trademark inverting membrane deployment system has been used successfully at the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) for multipoint vapor sampling/pressure measurement/permeability measurement/sensor integration demonstrations and borehole lining. Several instruments were deployed inside the SEAMIST trademark lined boreholes to detect metals, radionuclides, moisture, and geologic variations. The liner protected the instruments from contamination, maintained support of the uncased borehole wall, and sealed the total borehole from air circulation. The current activities have included the installation of three multipoint vapor sampling systems and sensor integration systems in 100-foot-deep vertical boreholes. A long term pressure monitoring program has recorded barometric pressure effects at depth with relatively high spatial resolution. The SEAMIST trademark system has been integrated with a variety of hydrologic and chemical sensors for in-situ measurements, demonstrating its versatility as an instrument deployment system which allows easy emplacement and removal. Standard SEAMIST trademark vapor sampling systems were also integrated with state-of-the-art VOC analysis technologies (automated GC, UV laser fluorometer). The results and status of these demonstration tests are presented

  8. Transvaginal organ extraction: potential for broad clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Garth R; Barajas-Gamboa, Juan S; Coker, Alisa M; Cheverie, Joslin; Macias, C Aitor; Sandler, Bryan J; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago

    2014-02-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery procedures have evolved over the past few years. A transvaginal approach is a promising alternative for intraperitoneal procedures. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of transvaginal organ extraction. This institutional review board-approved protocol involved retrospective review of an ongoing prospective study. Female subjects who presented to our hospital for elective cholecystectomy, appendectomy, or sleeve gastrectomy were offered participation in the study. Eligible patients met the following criteria: age between 18 and 75, diagnosis of gallbladder disease, acute appendicitis, or morbid obesity who desired surgical treatment. A hybrid transvaginal natural orifice approach was used in this series. Thirty-four women underwent transvaginal organ extraction between September 2007 and January 2012. The mean age was 40 ± 12.1 years (range 23-63 years). The mean body mass index was 27 ± 6.4 kg/m(2) (range 16-43 kg/m(2)). All patients had an American Society of Anesthesiologists classification of two or below. The mean operative time for cholecystectomy, appendectomy, and sleeve gastrectomy was 90, 71, and 135 min, respectively. There were no conversions to open operation and no intraoperative complications. The mean hospital stay was 2 days for all cases. Patients were followed for a mean of 24 months (range 1-61 months). There were two pregnancies and two successful vaginal deliveries. Six patients (18 %) had minor complaints of spotting or heavy menses in the immediate postoperative period that resolved with conservative measures. There were no abdominal wall complications. There were no long-term complications and no mortalities. This initial experience suggests that this surgical approach is safe, does not increase length of stay, and has no long-term vaginal complications. Given this attractive profile, a transvaginal approach may prove to be a superior mode of organ extraction

  9. A method of ECG template extraction for biometrics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang; Lu, Yang; Chen, Meng; Bao, Shu-Di; Miao, Fen

    2014-01-01

    ECG has attracted widespread attention as one of the most important non-invasive physiological signals in healthcare-system related biometrics for its characteristics like ease-of-monitoring, individual uniqueness as well as important clinical value. This study proposes a method of dynamic threshold setting to extract the most stable ECG waveform as the template for the consequent ECG identification process. With the proposed method, the accuracy of ECG biometrics using the dynamic time wraping for difference measures has been significantly improved. Analysis results with the self-built electrocardiogram database show that the deployment of the proposed method was able to reduce the half total error rate of the ECG biometric system from 3.35% to 1.45%. Its average running time on the platform of android mobile terminal was around 0.06 seconds, and thus demonstrates acceptable real-time performance.

  10. Application of complexing agent for lanthanoides separation by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedinakova, V.; Dvorak, Z.; Blazek, P.

    1988-01-01

    The general characteristics are given of extraction separation of lanthanides by liquid separation in the presence of complex forming agents and the effects are discussed of the composition of the liquid and organic phase on their selective separation. Simple expressions may be derived on the basis of stability constants, for predicting the effects of the applied complex forming agents. The validity of the proposed mathematical models was confronted with experimental data and the confrontation confirmed that they may be used for modelling real systems. The proesented method allows to simulate the refining process from the known relationship of D Mi/Ma =f(c ma o ). (author). 3 figs., 3 tabs., 11 refs

  11. Extraction and applications of cyanotoxins and other cyanobacterial secondary metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Fatima; Banayan, Sara; Yee, Josephine; Chiang, Yi Wai

    2017-09-01

    The rapid proliferation of cyanobacteria in bodies of water has caused cyanobacterial blooms, which have become an increasing cause of concern, largely due to the presence of toxic secondary metabolites (or cyanotoxins). Cyanotoxins are the toxins produced by cyanobacteria that may be harmful to surrounding wildlife. They include hepatotoxins, neurotoxins and dermatotoxins, and are classified based on the organs they affect. There are also non-toxic secondary metabolites that include chelators and UV-absorbing compounds. This paper summarizes the optimal techniques for secondary metabolite extraction and the possible useful products that can be obtained from cyanobacteria, with additional focus given to products derived from secondary metabolites. It becomes evident that the potential for their use as biocides, chelators, biofuels, biofertilizers, pharmaceuticals, food and feed, and cosmetics has not yet been comprehensively studied or extensively implemented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Yoneda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old (n = 27 received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group or control ointment (control group to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group. At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05. Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  13. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  14. A Signature Comparing Android Mobile Application Utilizing Feature Extracting Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Grafilon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented one of the application that can be done using smartphones camera. Nowadays forgery is one of the most undetected crimes. With the forensic technology used today it is still difficult for authorities to compare and define what a real signature is and what a forged signature is. A signature is a legal representation of a person. All transactions are based on a signature. Forgers may use a signature to sign illegal contracts and withdraw from bank accounts undetected. A signature can also be forged during election periods for repeated voting. Addressing the issues a signature should always be secure. Signature verification is a reduced problem that still poses a real challenge for researchers. The literature on signature verification is quite extensive and shows two main areas of research off-line and on-line systems. Off-line systems deal with a static image of the signature i.e. the result of the action of signing while on-line systems work on the dynamic process of generating the signature i.e. the action of signing itself. The researchers have found a way to resolve the concerns. A mobile application that integrates the camera to take a picture of a signature analyzes it and compares it to other signatures for verification. It will exist to help citizens to be more cautious and aware with issues regarding the signatures. This might also be relevant to help organizations and institutions such as banks and insurance companies in verifying signatures that may avoid unwanted transactions and identity theft. Furthermore this might help the authorities in the never ending battle against crime especially against forgers and thieves. The project aimed to design and develop a mobile application that integrates the smartphone camera for verifying and comparing signatures for security using the best algorithm possible. As the result of the development the said smartphone camera application is functional and reliable.

  15. Study on the Extraction and Application of Natural Dyestuff from Onion Skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwe Yee Win; Moe Moe Swe

    2010-12-01

    The revival of the use of natural dyes on textiles is due to the increased environmental pollution today. Because of their non-toxic, biodegradable properties and health hazards associated with the synthetic dyes, there is a global interest in natural dyed textiles. This research mainly focuses on the extraction and application of natural dyestuff from onion skin which can be easily collected in Myanmar. The objectives of this study are to extract natural dyestuff from onion skin by studying the effect of dye extraction mediums, to study the optimum dye extraction condition, and to study the fastness properties on dyed sample material. Preliminary phytochemical tests are performed to determine the compounds present in the onion skin. The best dye extraction method is determined by using four types of extraction mediums.Then the determination of dye extraction conditions is investigated by studying the effect of extraction time and solvent ratio on dye yield percent. After that the dye powder extract is applied on cotton fabrics by using different types of fixing agents. Among them, the most suitable type of mordant with onion skin dyestuff is selected for further study. Fastness properties on dyed cotton fabrics such as light, rubbing and washing are carried out. And then the range of colour developed on dyed materials is studied by CIE L*a* b* colour coordinates

  16. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  17. Solid phase extraction of cadmium on 2-mercaptobenzothiazole loaded on sulfur powder in the medium of ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and cold vapor generation-atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourreza, N.; Ghanemi, K.

    2010-01-01

    A novel solid phase extractor for preconcentration of cadmium at ng L -1 levels has been developed. Cadmium ions were retained on a column packed with sulfur powder modified with 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (2-MBT) in the medium of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim] + PF 6 - ) ionic liquid. The presence of ionic liquid during modification of sulfur enhanced the retention of cadmium ions on the column. The retained cadmium ions were eluted with 2 mol L -1 solution of HCl and measured by cold vapor generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (CVG-AAS). By using reaction cell-gas liquid separator (RC-GLS), gaseous cadmium vapors were produced and reached the atomic absorption spectrometer, instantaneously. The influence of different variables on both processes of solid phase extraction and CVG-AAS determination of cadmium ions was investigated. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 10-200 ng L -1 of cadmium in the initial solution with r = 0.9992 (n = 8) under optimum conditions. The limit of detection based on three times the standard deviation of the blank (3S b , n = 10) was 4.6 ng L -1 . The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of 25 and 150 ng L -1 of cadmium was 4.1 and 2.2% (n = 8), respectively. The procedure was validated by the analysis of a certified reference material (DORM-3), water and fish samples.

  18. Oxygen source-oriented control of atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition of VO2 for capacitive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Vernardou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxides of different crystalline orientation planes have successfully been fabricated by chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure using propanol, ethanol and O2 gas as oxygen sources. The thick a-axis textured monoclinic vanadium dioxide obtained through propanol presented the best electrochemical response in terms of the highest specific discharge capacity of 459 mAh g-1 with a capacitance retention of 97 % after 1000 scans under constant specific current of 2 A g-1. Finally, the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy indicated that the charge transfer of Li+ through the vanadium dioxide / electrolyte interface was easier for this sample enhancing significantly its capacitance performance.

  19. Applications of extraction chromatography in the development of radionuclide generator systems for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, M.L.; Horwitz, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    Numerous methods have been described for the separation and purification of radionuclides for application in diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, among them ion exchange, solvent extraction, and various forms of chromatography. Although extraction chromatography has previously been shown to provide a means of performing a number of separations of potential use in radionuclide generator systems, the application of the technique to generator development has thus far been limited. Recent work directed at improved methods for the determination of radionuclides in biological and environmental samples has led to the development of a series of novel extraction chromatographic resins exhibiting enhanced metal ion retention from strongly acidic media and excellent selectivity, among them materials suitable for the isolation of 212 Bi, 90 Y, and 213 Bi. These resins, along with extraction chromatographic materials employing functionalized supports to improve their physical stability or metal ion retention properties, are shown to offer promise in the development of improved radionuclide generators

  20. Solvent extraction and its practical application for the recovery of copper and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, J.

    1975-01-01

    In recent years solvent extraction has been developed to a stage that allows practical application first for the recovery of uranium and later also for winning copper from low-grade acid-soluble ores. By now it has been realized in several plants with great technical and ecomomic success. Solvent extraction includes the following essential operations: leaching, solvent extraction, back extraction of the organically bonded valuable mineral to an acid, aqueous solution and finally separation of the valuable metal from the final acid by precipitation or electrolytic procedures. Upon assessing the cost of the solvent extraction process for the recovery of copper it turns out that from an economic point of view it is significantly superior to the conventional cementation process. (orig.) [de

  1. Develonment of novel organic extractants for applications in various radioactive waste remedistion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowafy, E. A.; El-Naggar, I.A.; Shalash, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    A major goal of our research program is to develop some new amides as extractants for various waste treatments. Heterocyclic amides have been recently employed successfully as extractants for lanthanide and actinide cations and also some fission products from strongly acidic media. Many of these heterocyclic amides extractants have been synthesized in our laboratory and characterized by different techniques. Their synthesis has been improved. By optimization of the formula, it is possible to use aliphatic diluents without third-phase formation in contact with nitric or hydrochloric acids. One of the most interesting applications of amides is their use as extractants in nuclear field. main advantages of these new extractants are ease of synthesis compared with phosphorus compounds, high chemical and radiolytic stability and complete incineration which leads to smaller amounts of radioactive waste. Studies concerning the utilization of these new synthesized reagents for uranium and thorium were explored

  2. Cadmium and zinc in soil solution extracts following the application of phosphate fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Raphaël; Grant, Cynthia; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated the solubility of cadmium and zinc in soils after the application of phosphate fertilizers containing those two metals. The solubility of cadmium and zinc was assessed by measuring their concentration in soil water extracts. Three monoammonium phosphate fertilizers containing various amounts of metals were applied on cultivated fields for 3 years at three different rates. In order to investigate the effects of long-term applications of fertilizers on the solubility of Cd and Zn, a similar design was used to apply contaminated fertilizers to soils in a laboratory experiment using a single fertilizer addition equivalent to 15 years of application. Phosphate fertilizers increased the concentration of Cd in soil extracts compared to control in 87% and 80% of the treatments in field and laboratory experiments respectively. Both increasing the rate of application and using fertilizer containing more Cd lead to higher Cd concentrations in extracts for the field and the laboratory experiments. The addition of the equivalent of 15 years of fertilizer application in the laboratory results in higher Cd concentration in extracts compared to the field experiment. For Zn, the fertilizer treatments enhanced the metal solution concentration in 83% of field treatments, but no significant correlations could be found between Zn inputs and its concentration in solution. In the laboratory, fertilizer additions increase the Zn concentrations in 53% of the treatments and decrease it in most of the other treatments. The decrease in Zn concentrations in the laboratory trial is attributed to the higher phosphate concentrations in the soil solution; which is presumed to have contributed to the precipitation of Zn-phosphates. For both trials, the metal concentrations in soil extracts cannot be related to the Zn concentration in the fertilizer or the rate of application. The high Zn to Cd ratio is presumably responsible for the Cd increase in the soil extracts due to

  3. Application of Solvent-In-Pulp Technique for Uranium Extraction from Mineralization Granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.M.; Hussein, A.E.M.; Youseif, W.M.; El Didamony, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Investigations on uranium extraction from a representative mineralized granite sample (Gattar granite GII) by solvent-in-pulp (SIP) technique were carried out in the present study. For this purpose, the solvent (tri-butyl amine) (TBA) was mixed with the leaching slurry without prior filtration. The influence of various factors affecting the SIP process, such as contact time, solvent concentration, dilution factor, type of surfactant, surfactant/solid ratio were studied. About 91% uranium extraction efficiency was attained by the application of the chosen extraction SIP conditions. Also, about 96% of the loaded uranium could be stripped by using sulfuric acid as an effective stripping agent

  4. Ultrasound assisted extraction of food and natural products. Mechanisms, techniques, combinations, protocols and applications. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Rombaut, Natacha; Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Meullemiestre, Alice; Fabiano-Tixier, Anne-Sylvie; Abert-Vian, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    This review presents a complete picture of current knowledge on ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) in food ingredients and products, nutraceutics, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and bioenergy applications. It provides the necessary theoretical background and some details about extraction by ultrasound, the techniques and their combinations, the mechanisms (fragmentation, erosion, capillarity, detexturation, and sonoporation), applications from laboratory to industry, security, and environmental impacts. In addition, the ultrasound extraction procedures and the important parameters influencing its performance are also included, together with the advantages and the drawbacks of each UAE techniques. Ultrasound-assisted extraction is a research topic, which affects several fields of modern plant-based chemistry. All the reported applications have shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a green and economically viable alternative to conventional techniques for food and natural products. The main benefits are decrease of extraction and processing time, the amount of energy and solvents used, unit operations, and CO 2 emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensing behavior of acetone vapors on TiO_2 nanostructures — application of density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nagarajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electronic properties of TiO_2 nanostructure are explored using density functional theory. The adsorption properties of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructure are studied in terms of adsorption energy, average energy gap variation and Mulliken charge transfer. The density of states spectrum and the band structure clearly reveals the adsorption of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructures. The variation in the energy gap and changes in the density of charge are observed upon adsorption of acetone on n-type TiO_2 base material. The results of DOS spectrum reveal that the transfer of electrons takes place between acetone vapor and TiO_2 base material. The findings show that the adsorption property of acetone is more favorable on TiO_2 nanostructure. Suitable adsorption sites of acetone on TiO_2 nanostructure are identified at atomistic level. From the results, it is confirmed that TiO_2 nanostructure can be efficiently utilized as a sensing element for the detection of acetone vapor in a mixed environment.

  6. Single-resonance optical pumping spectroscopy and application in dressed-state measurement with atomic vapor cell at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiangbing; Yang, Baodong; Zhang, Tiancai; Wang, Junmin

    2010-06-21

    By monitoring the transmission of probe laser beam (also served as coupling laser beam) which is locked to a cycling hyperfine transition of cesium D(2) line, while pumping laser is scanned across cesium D(1) or D(2) lines, the single-resonance optical pumping (SROP) spectra are obtained with atomic vapor cell. The SROP spectra indicate the variation of the zero-velocity atoms population of one hyperfine fold of ground state, which is optically pumped into another hyperfine fold of ground state by pumping laser. With the virtue of Doppler-free linewidth, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), flat background and elimination of crossover resonance lines (CRLs), the SROP spectra with atomic vapor cell around room temperature can be employed to measure dressed-state splitting of ground state, which is normally detected with laser-cooled atomic sample only, even if the dressed-state splitting is much smaller than the Doppler-broaden linewidth at room temperature.

  7. Extraction of Plant-based Capsules for Microencapsulation Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potroz, Michael G; Mundargi, Raghavendra C; Park, Jae Hyeon; Tan, Ee-Lin; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-11-09

    Microcapsules derived from plant-based spores or pollen provide a robust platform for a diverse range of microencapsulation applications. Sporopollenin exine capsules (SECs) are obtained when spores or pollen are processed so as to remove the internal sporoplasmic contents. The resulting hollow microcapsules exhibit a high degree of micromeritic uniformity and retain intricate microstructural features related to the particular plant species. Herein, we demonstrate a streamlined process for the production of SECs from Lycopodium clavatum spores and for the loading of hydrophilic compounds into these SECs. The current SEC isolation procedure has been recently optimized to significantly reduce the processing requirements which are conventionally used in SEC isolation, and to ensure the production of intact microcapsules. Natural L. clavatum spores are defatted with acetone, treated with phosphoric acid, and extensively washed to remove sporoplasmic contents. After acetone defatting, a single processing step using 85% phosphoric acid has been shown to remove all sporoplasmic contents. By limiting the acid processing time to 30 hr, it is possible to isolate clean SECs and avoid SEC fracturing, which has been shown to occur with prolonged processing time. Extensive washing with water, dilute acids, dilute bases, and solvents ensures that all sporoplasmic material and chemical residues are adequately removed. The vacuum loading technique is utilized to load a model protein (Bovine Serum Albumin) as a representative hydrophilic compound. Vacuum loading provides a simple technique to load various compounds without the need for harsh solvents or undesirable chemicals which are often required in other microencapsulation protocols. Based on these isolation and loading protocols, SECs provide a promising material for use in a diverse range of microencapsulation applications, such as, therapeutics, foods, cosmetics, and personal care products.

  8. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meiying; Yu, Daquan; Liu, Yijun; Wan, Lixi; Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei; Xue, Kai; Jing, Xiangmeng; Guidotti, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO 2 films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity

  9. Solvothermal Vapor Annealing of Lamellar Poly(styrene)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) Block Copolymer Thin Films for Directed Self-Assembly Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cian; Mokarian-Tabari, Parvaneh; Andreazza, Pascal; Sinturel, Christophe; Morris, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    Solvothermal vapor annealing (STVA) was employed to induce microphase separation in a lamellar forming block copolymer (BCP) thin film containing a readily degradable block. Directed self-assembly of poly(styrene)-block-poly(d,l-lactide) (PS-b-PLA) BCP films using topographically patterned silicon nitride was demonstrated with alignment over macroscopic areas. Interestingly, we observed lamellar patterns aligned parallel as well as perpendicular (perpendicular microdomains to substrate in both cases) to the topography of the graphoepitaxial guiding patterns. PS-b-PLA BCP microphase separated with a high degree of order in an atmosphere of tetrahydrofuran (THF) at an elevated vapor pressure (at approximately 40-60 °C). Grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) measurements of PS-b-PLA films reveal the through-film uniformity of perpendicular microdomains after STVA. Perpendicular lamellar orientation was observed on both hydrophilic and relatively hydrophobic surfaces with a domain spacing (L0) of ∼32.5 nm. The rapid removal of the PLA microdomains is demonstrated using a mild basic solution for the development of a well-defined PS mask template. GISAXS data reveal the through-film uniformity is retained following wet etching. The experimental results in this article demonstrate highly oriented PS-b-PLA microdomains after a short annealing period and facile PLA removal to form porous on-chip etch masks for nanolithography application.

  10. Contaminant Gradients in Trees: Directional Tree Coring Reveals Boundaries of Soil and Soil-Gas Contamination with Potential Applications in Vapor Intrusion Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan L; Samaranayake, V A; Limmer, Matthew A; Schumacher, John G; Burken, Joel G

    2017-12-19

    Contaminated sites pose ecological and human-health risks through exposure to contaminated soil and groundwater. Whereas we can readily locate, monitor, and track contaminants in groundwater, it is harder to perform these tasks in the vadose zone. In this study, tree-core samples were collected at a Superfund site to determine if the sample-collection location around a particular tree could reveal the subsurface location, or direction, of soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes. Contaminant-centroid vectors were calculated from tree-core data to reveal contaminant distributions in directional tree samples at a higher resolution, and vectors were correlated with soil-gas characterization collected using conventional methods. Results clearly demonstrated that directional tree coring around tree trunks can indicate gradients in soil and soil-gas contaminant plumes, and the strength of the correlations were directly proportionate to the magnitude of tree-core concentration gradients (spearman's coefficient of -0.61 and -0.55 in soil and tree-core gradients, respectively). Linear regression indicates agreement between the concentration-centroid vectors is significantly affected by in planta and soil concentration gradients and when concentration centroids in soil are closer to trees. Given the existing link between soil-gas and vapor intrusion, this study also indicates that directional tree coring might be applicable in vapor intrusion assessment.

  11. Properties and electric characterizations of tetraethyl orthosilicate-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition oxide film deposited at 400 °C for through silicon via application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meiying, E-mail: sumeiying@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Yu, Daquan, E-mail: yudaquan@ime.ac.cn [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jiangsu R and D Center for Internet of Things, Wuxi 214135 (China); Liu, Yijun [Piotech Co. Ltd, Shenyang 110179 (China); Wan, Lixi [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Song, Chongshen; Dai, Fengwei [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Xue, Kai [National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Jing, Xiangmeng [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); National Center for Advanced Packaging, Wuxi 214135 (China); Guidotti, Daniel [Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2014-01-01

    The dielectric via liner of through silicon vias was deposited at 400 °C using a tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)-based plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process in a via-middle integration scheme. The morphology, conformality and chemical compositions of the liner film were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. The thermal properties and electrical performance of blanket TEOS films were investigated by high temperature film stress and mercury probe Capacitance–Voltage measurements. The TEOS SiO{sub 2} films show good conformality, excellent densification, low thermal stress, high breakdown voltage and low current leakage. - Highlights: • Tetraethyl orthosilicate-based oxide films were deposited for packaging application. • The oxide films deposited plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at 400 °C. • The PECVD oxide films exhibit good step coverage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films exhibit low thermal stress and current leakage. • The 400 °C PECVD oxide films show high breakdown voltage and acceptable permittivity.

  12. Comments on: Accuracy of Raman Lidar Water Vapor Calibration and its Applicability to Long-Term Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    In a recent publication, LeBlanc and McDermid proposed a hybrid calibration technique for Raman water vapor lidar involving a tungsten lamp and radiosondes. Measurements made with the lidar telescope viewing the calibration lamp were used to stabilize the lidar calibration determined by comparison with radiosonde. The technique provided a significantly more stable calibration constant than radiosondes used alone. The technique involves the use of a calibration lamp in a fixed position in front of the lidar receiver aperture. We examine this configuration and find that such a configuration likely does not properly sample the full lidar system optical efficiency. While the technique is a useful addition to the use of radiosondes alone for lidar calibration, it is important to understand the scenarios under which it will not provide an accurate quantification of system optical efficiency changes. We offer examples of these scenarios.

  13. Fabrication of Vertically Aligned CNT Composite for Membrane Applications Using Chemical Vapor Deposition through In Situ Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the fabrication of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT composite using thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD. A forest of vertically aligned CNTs was grown using catalytic CVD. Fluorocarbon polymer, films were deposited in the spaces between vertically aligned MWCNTs using thermal CVD apparatus developed in-house. The excessive polymer top layer was etched by exposing the sample to water plasma. Infrared spectroscopy confirmed the attachment of functional groups to CNTs. Alignment of CNTs, deposition of polymer and postetched specimens were analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM. Uniform distribution of monomodel vertically aligned CNTs embedded in the deposited polymer matrix was observed in the micrograph. Observed uniform distribution otherwise is not possible using conventional techniques such as spin coating.

  14. Resolving the nanostructure of plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposited nanocrystalline SiOx layers for application in solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingsporn, M.; Kirner, S.; Villringer, C.; Abou-Ras, D.; Costina, I.; Lehmann, M.; Stannowski, B.

    2016-06-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon suboxides (nc-SiOx) have attracted attention during the past years for the use in thin-film silicon solar cells. We investigated the relationships between the nanostructure as well as the chemical, electrical, and optical properties of phosphorous, doped, nc-SiO0.8:H fabricated by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The nanostructure was varied through the sample series by changing the deposition pressure from 533 to 1067 Pa. The samples were then characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected-area electron diffraction, and a specialized plasmon imaging method. We found that the material changed with increasing pressure from predominantly amorphous silicon monoxide to silicon dioxide containing nanocrystalline silicon. The nanostructure changed from amorphous silicon filaments to nanocrystalline silicon filaments, which were found to cause anisotropic electron transport.

  15. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komada�s selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  16. Pathogenic Fungi Transmitted Through Cucumber Seeds and Safely Elimination by Application of Peppermint Extract and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman S.H. FARRAG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Diseases induced by Fusarium, like damping-off and wilt on cucumber, are serious problems around the world. Samples of cucumber seeds were collected from commercial markets in Egypt and tested for seed-borne fungi. In order to detect the maximum number of internal and external seed-borne fungi, agar plate examination of disinfected and non-disinfected seeds were used. Two species of Fusarium were the most frequent and predominant fungi. Facultative parasites of the genera Alternaria, Rhizoctonia, Helminthosporium and Penicillium were also found. A total 33 isolates of Fusarium spp. were obtained using Komadas selective medium. Fusarium oxysporum and F. solani were highly frequent. Pathogenicity test indicated that, F. oxysporum isolate (Fem8 was the main causal organism of pre- and post-emergence damping off. Furthermore, it occurred in all seed parts tested. Some infected seeds germinate, but they were either rapidly overgrown by F. oxysporum or they developed into a diseased seedling. The water extract of garlic, peppermint and rheum completely inhibited the conidiospore germination and mycelial growth of F. oxysporum at tested conc. 3, 2 and 3%, respectively. Soaked seeds in 2% peppermint extract and evaporated seeds by vapor of peppermint oil caused a highly reduction in the infection and reduced transmission of the referred fungi from seeds to the growing seedlings. The vigor of cucumber seedlings raised from the treated seeds was better than that developed from untreated ones.

  17. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  18. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  19. Application of liquid-liquid extraction in uranium hydrometallurgy (Paper No. : V-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, T K.S.; Koppiker, K S

    1979-01-01

    Uranium recovery from the ores is carried out exclusively by hydrometallurgical techniques. The initial solubilisation of uranium is achieved by either sodium carbonate or sulphuric acid leaching, the latter being more common. Further purification and upgrading of uranium from the sulphate liquors is carried out by an ion-exchange process. Solid resin type anion exchangers or liquid ion-exchangers are employed. The processing of uranium liquors is, perhaps, the first major application of liquid-liquid extraction in metal recovery. Organophosphoric acids were initially used but later the long-chain aliphatic amines have superseded them. The amine extraction system has been widely studied and several variations are now known. Chloride, nitrate, carbonate or sulphate or acid stripping can be used for getting back the uranium into the aqueous phase. Combination of ion exchange (resin type) and solvent extraction processes called Eluex processes are developed for special applications. Studies have also been made of solvent extraction of uranium from leach pulps instead of clear liquors. Tributylphosphate has found wide application in the refining of uranium concentrates to meet the stringent needs of nuclear purity. liquid-liquid extraction is, perhaps, the only successful technique for the recovery of uranium, as by-product, from wet-process phosphoric acid. This has opened up a new source of uranium.

  20. Biogenic silver and gold nanoparticles synthesized using red ginseng root extract, and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyanka; Kim, Yeon Ju; Wang, Chao; Mathiyalagan, Ramya; El-Agamy Farh, Mohamed; Yang, Deok Chun

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we report a green methodology for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles, using the root extract of the herbal medicinal plant Korean red ginseng. The silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized within 1 h and 10 min respectively. The nanoparticles generated were not aggregated, and remained stable for a long time, which suggests the nature of nanoparticles. The phytochemicals and ginsenosides present in the root extract assist in reducing and stabilizing the synthesized nanoparticles. The red ginseng root extract-generated silver nanoparticles exhibit antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms including Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Candida albicans. In addition, the silver nanoparticles exhibit biofilm degrading activity against S. aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus, the present study opens up a new possibility of synthesizing silver and gold nanoparticles in a green and rapid manner using Korean red ginseng root extract, and explores their biomedical applications.

  1. Study of PWR reactor efficiency as a function of turbine steam extractions; Estudo da otimizacao da eficiencia de reator PWR em funcao das extracoes de vapor da turbina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Janine Gandolpho da; Alvim, Antonio Carlos Marques; Martinez, Aquilino Senra [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this work is to optimize the extractions of the low-pressure turbine of a PWR nuclear reactor, in order to obtain the best thermodynamic cycle efficiency. We have analyzed typical data of a 1300 MW PWR reactor, operating at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% capacities, respectively. The first stage of this study consists of generating a mathematical model capable of describing the reactor behavior and efficiency at any power level. The second stage of this study consists of to combine the generated mathematical model in an optimization computer program that optimize the extractions flow of the low-pressure turbine until it finds the optimal system efficiency. This work does not alter the nuclear facility project in any way. (author)

  2. Application of ion-exchange unit in uranium extraction process in China (to be continued)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Chuanwen

    2004-01-01

    The application conditions of five different ion exchange units in uranium milling plant and wastewater treatment plant of uranium mine in China are introduced, including working parameters, existing problems and improvements. The advantages and disadvantages of these units are reviewed briefly. The procedure points to be followed in selecting ion exchange unit are recommended in the engineering design. The primary views are presented upon the application prospects of some ion exchange units in uranium extraction process in China

  3. Technical note: New applications for on-line automated solid phase extraction

    OpenAIRE

    MacFarlane, John D.

    1997-01-01

    This technical note explains the disadvantages of manual solid phase extraction (SPE) techniques and the benefits to be gained with automatic systems. The note reports on a number of general and highly specific applications using the Sample Preparation Unit OSP-2A.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of hop extracts against foodborne pathogens for meat applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, B; Thielmann, J; Hickisch, A; Muranyi, P; Wunderlich, J; Hauser, C

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was the fundamental investigation of the antimicrobial efficiency of various hop extracts against selected foodborne pathogens in vitro, as well as their activity against Listeria monocytogenes in a model meat marinade and on marinated pork tenderloins. In a first step, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of three hop extracts containing either α- or β-acids or xanthohumol were determined against test bacteria including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli by a colorimetric method based on the measurement of bacterial metabolic activity. Moreover, the influence of either lactic or citric acid on the antimicrobial activity of the hop extracts was evaluated. The efficiency of hop extracts as a natural food preservative was then tested in a model meat marinade at 2 and 8°C, respectively, and finally on marinated pork. The experiments showed that Gram-positive bacteria were strongly inhibited by hop extracts containing β-acids and xanthohumol (MIC values of 6.3 and 12.5 ppm, respectively), whereas the antimicrobial activity of the investigated α-acid extract was significantly lower (MIC values of 200 ppm). Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant against all tested hop extracts. Acidification of the test media led to a decrease of the MIC values. The inhibitory activity of the hop extracts against L. monocytogenes was strongly reduced in a fat-containing model meat marinade, but the efficiency of β-acids in this matrix could be increased by lowering pH and storage temperatures. By applying 0.5 % β-acids at pH = 5 in a model marinade, the total aerobic count of pork tenderloins was reduced up to 0.9 log10 compared with marinated pork without hop extract after 2 weeks of storage at 5°C. β-acid containing hop extracts have proven to possess a high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in a practice-related application for food preservation

  5. Dry transfer of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown graphene onto liquid-sensitive surfaces for tunnel junction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Ying; Chen, Ke

    2015-01-01

    We report a dry transfer method that can tranfer chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene onto liquid-sensitive surfaces. The graphene grown on copper (Cu) foil substrate was first transferred onto a freestanding 4 μm thick sputtered Cu film using the conventional wet transfer process, followed by a dry transfer process onto the target surface using a polydimethylsiloxane stamp. The dry-transferred graphene has similar properties to traditional wet-transferred graphene, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and electrical transport measurements. It has a sheet resistance of 1.6 ∼ 3.4 kΩ/□, hole density of (4.1 ∼ 5.3) × 10 12 cm −2 , and hole mobility of 460 ∼ 760 cm 2 V −1 s −1 without doping at room temperature. The results suggest that large-scale CVD-grown graphene can be transferred with good quality and without contaminating the target surface by any liquid. Mg/MgO/graphene tunnel junctions were fabricated using this transfer method. The junctions show good tunneling characteristics, which demonstrates the transfer technique can also be used to fabricate graphene devices on liquid-sensitive surfaces. (paper)

  6. Assimilation of lightning data by nudging tropospheric water vapor and applications to numerical forecasts of convective events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Kenneth

    A lightning data assimilation technique is developed for use with observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN). The technique nudges the water vapor mixing ratio toward saturation within 10 km of a lightning observation. This technique is applied to deterministic forecasts of convective events on 29 June 2012, 17 November 2013, and 19 April 2011 as well as an ensemble forecast of the 29 June 2012 event using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Lightning data are assimilated over the first 3 hours of the forecasts, and the subsequent impact on forecast quality is evaluated. The nudged deterministic simulations for all events produce composite reflectivity fields that are closer to observations. For the ensemble forecasts of the 29 June 2012 event, the improvement in forecast quality from lightning assimilation is more subtle than for the deterministic forecasts, suggesting that the lightning assimilation may improve ensemble convective forecasts where conventional observations (e.g., aircraft, surface, radiosonde, satellite) are less dense or unavailable.

  7. Vapor phase epitaxy of silicon on meso porous silicon for deposition on economical substrate and low cost photovoltaic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quoizola, S.

    2003-01-01

    The silicon is more and more used in the industry. Meanwhile the production cost is a problem to solve to develop the photovoltaic cells production. This thesis presents a new technology based on the use of a meso-porous silicon upper layer,to grow the active silicon layer of 50 μm width. The photovoltaic cell is then realized, the device is removed and placed on a low cost substrate. The silicon substrate of beginning can be used again after cleaning. The first chapter presents the operating and the characteristics of the silicon photovoltaic cell. The second chapter is devoted to the growth technique, the vapor phase epitaxy, and the third chapter to the epitaxy layer. The chapter four deals with the porous silicon and the structure chosen in this study. The chapter five is devoted to the characterization of the epitaxy layer on porous silicon. The photovoltaic cells realized on these layers are presented in the last chapter. (A.L.B.)

  8. Estimation of Dermatological Application of Creams with St. John’s Wort Oil Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Runjaić-Antić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oleum Hyperici, the oil extract of St. John’s Wort (SJW, is one of the oldest folk remedies, traditionally used in the topical treatment of wounds, bruises, ulcers, cuts, burns, hemorrhoids and also as an antiseptic. Considering the advantageous characteristics of emulsion applications, in the present study we have formulated three O/W creams containing 15% (w/v of SJW oil extract as an active ingredient. The aim was to estimate dermatological application of the prepared creams for the abovementioned indications. The extracts were prepared according to the prescriptions from traditional medicine, however with different vegetable oils used as an extractant, namely: Olive, palm and sunflower oil. The investigated O/W creams demonstrated significant antiinflammatory effects in an in vivo double-blind randomized study, using a sodium lauryl sulphate test. Both skin parameters assessed in the study (electrical capacitance and erythema index, were restored to the baseline value after a seven-day treatment with the tested creams. Almost all investigated SJW oil extracts and corresponding creams displayed the same antimicrobial activity against the most of the investigated microorganisms with obtained minimal inhibitory concentrations values of 1,280 µg/mL, 2,560 µg/mL or >2,560 µg/mL.

  9. Vapor-phase biofiltration: Laboratory and field experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, P.J.; Bourbonais, K.A.; Peterson, L.E.; Lee, J.H.; Laakso, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    Application of vapor-phase bioreactors (VPBs) to petroleum hydrocarbons is complicated by the different mass transfer characteristics of aliphatics and aromatics. Laboratory- and pilot-scale VPB studies were conducted to evaluate treatment of soil vapor extraction (SVE) off-gas. A mixture of compost, perlite, and activated carbon was the selected medium based on pressure drop, microbial colonization, and adsorption properties. Two different pilot-scale reactors were built with a difference of 70:1 in scale. The smaller VPB's maximum effective elimination capacity (EC) was determined to be 7.2 g m -3 h -1 ; the larger unit's EC was 70% to 80% of this value. Low EC values may be attributable to a combination of mass-transfer and kinetic limitations

  10. Metal nanoparticles (other than gold or silver) prepared using plant extracts for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasca, Roxana-Diana; Santa, Szabolcs; Racz, Levente Zsolt; Racz, Csaba Pal

    2016-12-01

    There are many modalities to prepare metal nanoparticles, but the reducing of the metal ions with plant extracts is one of the most promising because it is considerate less toxic for the environment, suitable for the use of those nanoparticles in vivo and not very expensive. Various metal ions have been already studied such as: cobalt, copper, iron, platinum, palladium, zinc, indium, manganese and mercury and the number of plant extracts used is continuously increasing. The prepared systems were characterized afterwards with a great number of methods of investigation: both spectroscopic (especially UV-Vis spectroscopy) and microscopic (in principal, electron microscopy-TEM) methods. The applications of the metal nanoparticles obtained are diverse and not completely known, but the medical applications of such nanoparticles occupy a central place, due to their nontoxic components, but some diverse industrial applications do not have to be forgotten.

  11. Oil vaporizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumontier, F

    1904-03-31

    An oil burner particularly applicable to heavy oils, composed essentially of one or more gasification chambers, heated by the flame from the burners, to which the combustible gases are fed by the collectors suitably fixed on the chambers, all parts of the apparatus and especially the gasification chambers being easily demountable to permit cleaning, and all arranged in such a manner as to avoid fouling by reducing or localizing the deposition of solid deposits in the coking chamber.

  12. A 3D edge detection technique for surface extraction in computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Ontiveros, S.; Jiménez, R.

    2013-01-01

    Many factors influence the measurement uncertainty when using computed tomography for dimensional metrology applications. One of the most critical steps is the surface extraction phase. An incorrect determination of the surface may significantly increase the measurement uncertainty. This paper...... presents an edge detection method for the surface extraction based on a 3D Canny algorithm with sub-voxel resolution. The advantages of this method are shown in comparison with the most commonly used technique nowadays, i.e. the local threshold definition. Both methods are applied to reference standards...

  13. Bidentate organophosphorus extractants: purification, properties and applications to removal of actinides from acidic waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.; McIsaac, L.D.

    1977-05-01

    At both Hanford and Idaho, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamylmethylene phosphonate) continuous counter-current solvent extraction processes are being developed for removal of americium, plutonium, and, in some cases, other actinides from acidic wastes generated at these locations. Bench and, eventually, pilot and plant-scale testing and application of these processes have been substantially enhanced by the discovery of suitable chemical and physical methods of removing deleterious impurities from technical-grade DHDECMP. Flowsheet details, as well as various properties of purified DHDECMP extractants, are enumerated

  14. Demonstration of the potential for designing extractants with preselected extraction properties: possible application to reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, G.W.; Griffin, H.E.

    1979-01-01

    From the knowledge of the extractant characteristics of both neutral and mono-acidic phosphorus-based organic compounds now available, it is possible to tailor-make extractants for a specifically desired separation of two metals. The present study is concerned with neutral mono-nuclear, phosphorus-based extractants for use in affecting the mutual separation of U(VI) and Th

  15. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Tamrin Abdullah; Ahdin Gassa; Sri Nur Aminah Ngatimin; Nurariaty Agus And Abdul Fattah

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conduc...

  16. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Tamrin; Gassa, Ahdin; Ngatimin, Sri Nur Aminah; Agus, Nurariaty; Fattah, Abdul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e: neem seed extract together with rice planting, neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting, synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting (Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice), respectively. Research was conducted...

  17. LOADS TRANSMITED TO THE METALLIC TOWERS OF THE EXTRACTING INSTALLATIONS IN THE CASE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE SAFETY BRAKE

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan Itu; Alexandru Ioan Pop

    2016-01-01

    In the paper there are presented certain aspects concerning the determination of loads transmitted through the bearings of the extracting pulleys of the structure of the metallic towers of the extracting installations In the case of the application of the safety brake The exemplification of the determination of the loads transmitted to the metallic tower in the case of the application of the emergency brake has been done by taking into study the extracting installation ,, Auxiliar...

  18. Thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, J.; Pfender, E.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal plasmas, with temperatures up to and even exceeding 10 4 K, are capable of producing high density vapor phase precursors for the deposition of relatively thick films. Although this technology is still in its infancy, it will fill the void between the relatively slow deposition processes such as physical vapor deposition and the high rate thermal spray deposition processes. In this chapter, the present state-of-the-art of this field is reviewed with emphasis on the various types of reactors proposed for this emerging technology. Only applications which attracted particular attention, namely diamond and high T c superconducting film deposition, are discussed in greater detail. (orig.)

  19. Application of Different Extraction Methods for Investigation of Nonmetallic Inclusions and Clusters in Steels and Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Janis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nonmetallic inclusions is of importance for the production of clean steel in order to improve the mechanical properties. In this respect, a three-dimensional (3D investigation is considered to be useful for an accurate evaluation of size, number, morphology of inclusions, and elementary distribution in each inclusion particle. In this study, the application of various extraction methods (chemical extraction/etching by acid or halogen-alcohol solutions, electrolysis, sputtering with glow discharge, and so on for 3D estimation of nonmetallic Al2O3 inclusions and clusters in high-alloyed steels was examined and discussed using an Fe-10 mass% Ni alloy and an 18/8 stainless steel deoxidized with Al. Advantages and limitations of different extraction methods for 3D investigations of inclusions and clusters were discussed in comparison to conventional two-dimensional (2D observations on a polished cross section of metal samples.

  20. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J

    2011-01-01

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  1. Rule Extracting based on MCG with its Application in Helicopter Power Train Fault Diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M; Hu, N Q; Qin, G J, E-mail: hnq@nudt.edu.cn, E-mail: wm198063@yahoo.com.cn [School of Mechatronic Engineering and Automation, National University of Defense Technology, ChangSha, Hunan, 410073 (China)

    2011-07-19

    In order to extract decision rules for fault diagnosis from incomplete historical test records for knowledge-based damage assessment of helicopter power train structure. A method that can directly extract the optimal generalized decision rules from incomplete information based on GrC was proposed. Based on semantic analysis of unknown attribute value, the granule was extended to handle incomplete information. Maximum characteristic granule (MCG) was defined based on characteristic relation, and MCG was used to construct the resolution function matrix. The optimal general decision rule was introduced, with the basic equivalent forms of propositional logic, the rules were extracted and reduction from incomplete information table. Combined with a fault diagnosis example of power train, the application approach of the method was present, and the validity of this method in knowledge acquisition was proved.

  2. Application of FTA technology to extraction of sperm DNA from mixed body fluids containing semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yoshihiko; Kubo, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    FTA technology is a novel method designed to simplify the collection, shipment, archiving and purification of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological sources. In this study, we report a rapid and simple method of extracting DNA from sperm when body fluids mixed with semen were collected using FTA cards. After proteinase K digestion of the sperm and body fluid mixture, the washed pellet suspension as the sperm fraction and the concentrated supernatant as the epithelial cell fraction were respectively applied to FTA cards containing DTT. The FTA cards were dried, then directly added to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) mix and processed by PCR. The time required from separation of the mixed fluid into sperm and epithelial origin DNA extractions was only about 2.5-3h. Furthermore, the procedure was extremely simple. It is considered that our designed DNA extraction procedure using an FTA card is available for application to routine work.

  3. Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Mint Extract and their Application in Chitosan/Gelatin Composite Packaging Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Chawla, S. P.

    The present study reports synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using mint extract (ME) in the presence of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as capping material. PVA, ME and silver nitrate at concentration of 1%, 0.01% and 0.02%, respectively were found to be optimum for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The formation of AgNPs was confirmed by measuring surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak. The intensity of SPR peak remained unaltered thus suggesting stability of colloid without aggregation during storage. The nanoparticles inhibited the growth of food borne bacteria namely Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. The incorporation of these nanoparticles in chitosan and gelatin blend resulted in homogenous films. Mechanical properties and water vapor transmission rate of chitosan-gelatin films improved due to addition of AgNPs, whereas optical (opacity and UV light transmittance) and oxygen permeability properties remained unchanged. These films had the ability to inhibit growth of 5 log CFU of the above test organisms. These findings suggest that the AgNPs obtained by reduction of silver by ME can be effectively utilized to prepare antibacterial eco-friendly food packaging material.

  4. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Afiqah Arham

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The hydroxyl groups of the polyphenols are capable to act as reducing agent for reduction reaction. The effect of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration were evaluated using central composite design which consists of 20 experimental runs. Response surface methodology (RSM was used to estimate the optimum parameters in extracting polyphenols from the palm leaves. The correspondence analysis of the results yielded a quadratic model which can be used to find optimum conditions of extraction process. The optimum extraction condition of drying temperature, extraction temperature and extraction duration are 70°C, at 70°C of 10 minutes, respectively. Total polyphenols were determined by application of the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method and the extract was found contain of 8 mg GAE/g dry palm leaves at optimum conditions. Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.95-100 [How to cite this article: Arham, N.A., Mohamad, N.A.N., Jai, J., Krishnan, J., Noorsuhana Mohd Yusof, N.M. (2013. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Extraction of Bioactive Component from Palm Leaves (Elaeis guineensis. International Journal of Science and

  5. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for the extractive distillation of 2-propanol + water mixtures using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orchillés, A. Vicent; Miguel, Pablo J.; González-Alfaro, Vicenta; Llopis, Francisco J.; Vercher, Ernesto; Martínez-Andreu, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • VLE of binary and ternary systems of 2-propanol, water and [emim][DCA] at 100 kPa. • The e-NRTL model fits the VLE data of 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] system. • [emim][DCA] breaks the 2-propanol + water azeotrope at an IL mole fraction >0.085. - Abstract: Isobaric vapor–liquid equilibria for the binary systems 2-propanol + water, 2-propanol + 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide ([emim][DCA]), and water + [emim][DCA] as well as the vapor–liquid equilibria for the 2-propanol + water + [emim][DCA] ternary system have been obtained at 100 kPa using a recirculating still. The electrolyte nonrandom two-liquid (e-NRTL) model was used for fitting successfully the experimental data. The effect of [emim][DCA] on the 2-propanol + water system has been compared with that produced by other ionic liquids reported in the literature. From the results, [emim][DCA] appears as a good entrainer for the extractive distillation of this solvent mixture, causing the azeotrope to disappear at 100 kPa when the ionic liquid mole fraction is greater than 0.085.

  6. Application of ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of the directive action beverage from black currant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Rodionova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of experimental determination of physical-and chemical parameters, the amount of anthocyanins, the definition of color and organoleptic characteristics of the beverage prepared with ultrasonic extraction method in comparison with the fruit-drink, obtained according to traditional recipe. Black currant was chosen the main raw material for the development of the beverage production technology. It is characterized by a high content of bioactive components that increase the adaptive abilities of human body. The purpose is to use ultrasonic extraction method in the preparation of functionally directed actions beverages. Extractor with submerged ultrasonic emitter was used as an experimental device. The essence of its operation is as follows: a mixture of the extractant and the plant substrate in different ratios was loaded into a container with the emitter, then the ultrasonic generator was turned on. The vibrations of ultrasonic frequency (22 kHz made high-frequency mechanical vibrations that caused the formation of intense cavitation areas and diffuse dissolution of cell substrates in the extractant in the treated mixture. The ultrasonic extraction technique involves brief contact of berries and extractant (up to 15 minutes upon application of ultrasonic vibrations. With an increase in exposure time, the yield of biologically active substances increases to reach an equilibrium state corresponding to the most complete exhaustion of raw materials. All this leads to a significant acceleration of the transition from the active ingredients from the raw materials into the extractant to obtain a product with improved physical - and chemical, organoleptic characteristics, as well as a higher antioxidant activity.

  7. Application of a molecularly imprinted polymer for the extraction of kukoamine a from potato peels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piletska, Elena V; Burns, Rosemary; Terry, Leon A; Piletsky, Sergey A

    2012-01-11

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the purification of N(1),N(12)-bis(dihydrocaffeoyl)spermine (kukoamine A) was computationally designed and tested. The properties of the polymer were characterized. The protocol of the solid phase extraction (SPE) of kukoamine A from potato peels was optimized. A HPLC-MS method for the quantification of kukoamine A was developed and used for all optimization studies. The capacity of the MIP in relation to kukoamine A from the potato peels extract was estimated at 54 mg/g of the polymer. The kukoamine A purified from potato extract using MIP was exceptionally pure (≈ 90%). Although the corresponding blank polymer was less selective than the MIP for the extraction of kukoamine A from the potato extract, it was shown that the blank polymer could be effectively used for the purification of the crude synthetic kukoamine (polymer capacity = 80 mg of kukoamine A/g of the adsorbent, kukoamine A purity ≈ 86%). Therefore, selective adsorbents could be computationally designed for other plant products, allowing their purification in quantities that would be sufficient for more detailed studies and potential practical applications.

  8. [Study on moisture sorption process model and application traditional Chinese medicine extract powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; He, Yan; Xiao, Xiong; Yuan, Liang; Rao, Xiaoyong; Luo, Xiaojian

    2010-04-01

    Study on the moisture sorption process characteristics of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder, to establish a mathematical model, provide a new method for in-depth study for moisture sorption behavior of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder and a reference for determine the production cycle, and predict product stability. Analyzed moisture absorption process of traditional Chinese medicine extract powder by utilized the law of conservation of mass and Fick's first law to establish the double exponential absorption model, fitted the moisture absorption data and compared with other commonly used five kinds of model to estimate the double-exponential absorption model. The statistical analysis showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) of double exponential model, Weibull distribution model and first order kinetics model were large, but the residues sum of squares (RSS) and AIC values were small. Synthesized the practical application meaning, we consided that the double exponential model was more suitable for simulating the process of Chinese medicine extract powder moisture absorption. The double exponential is suitable for characterization the process of traditional Chinese medicine extract moisture absorption.

  9. Long-term changes in the extractability and bioavailability of zinc and cadmium after sludge application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, S.P.; Zhao, F.J.; Dunham, S.J.; Crosland, A.R.; Coleman, K.

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the extractability and uptake by crops of sludge metals in a long-term field experiment, started in 1942, were measured to assess whether Zn and Cd are either fixed by the sludge/soil constituents or are released as the sludge organic matter (OM) decomposes. Total and 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}-extractable concentrations of Zn and Cd in soil and total concentrations in crops were measured on archived crop and soil samples. Extractability of Zn as a proportion of the total ranged from 0.5 to 3% and that of Cd from 4 to 18%, and were higher in sludge-amended than farmyard manure or fertilizer-amended soils. Over a 23-yr period after 1961, when sludge was last applied, the extractability of both metals fluctuated, but neither decreased nor increased consistently. The relationships between total soil and crop metal concentrations were linear, with no evidence of a plateau across the range of soil metal concentrations achieved. The slopes of the soil-plant relationships depended on the type of crop or crop part examined, but were generally in the order red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) > carrot (Daucus carota L.) > barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). However, there also were large seasonal differences in metal concentrations in the crops. It is concluded from the available evidence that up to 23 yr after sludge applications cease, Zn and Cd extractability and bioavailability do not decrease.

  10. Application of eigen value expansion to feature extraction from MRI images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinosada, Yasutomi; Takeda, Kan; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi

    1991-01-01

    The eigen value expansion technique was utilized for feature extraction of magnetic resonance (MR) images. The eigen value expansion is an orthonormal transformation method which decomposes a set of images into some statistically uncorrelated images. The technique was applied to MR images obtained with various imaging parameters at the same anatomical site. It generated one mean image and another set of images called bases for the images. Each basis corresponds to a feature in the images. A basis is, therefore, utilized for the feature extraction from MR images and a weighted sum of bases is also used for the feature enhancement. Furthermore, any MR image with specific feature can be obtained from a linear combination of the mean image and all of the bases. Images of hemorrhaged brain with a spin echo sequence and a series of cinematic cerebro spinal fluid flow images with ECG gated gradient refocused echo sequence were employed to estimate the ability of the feature extraction and the contrast enhancement. Results showed us that proposed application of an eigen value expansion technique to the feature extraction of MR images is good enough to clinical use and superior to other feature extraction methods such as producing a calculated MR image with a given TR and TE or the matched-filter method in processing speed and reproducibility of results. (author)

  11. Application of liquid-liquid extraction in separation of rare earths [Paper No. : V-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.M.; Krishnan, N.P.K.; Murthy, T.K.S.; Swaminathan, T.V.

    1979-01-01

    The rare earths consist of fifteen elements which have very similar chemical properties and are difficult to separate from each other. Since they exist together in all naturally occurring minerals their separation is one of the important and difficult aspects of their technology. Liquid-liquid extraction has proved to be an efficient technique for their separation. The two important extraction systems that find practical and large scale application, the nitric acid + tri-n-butyl phosphate, and mineral acid (particularly hydrochloric acid) + organo phosphoric acid (like di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid), are briefly reviewed. The factors affecting the extraction and separation of rare earths in the two systems are discussed. On an industrial scale the extraction process is very often employed for an initial concentration of the desired rare earths from complex mixtures. The final purification is generally achieved by the ion exchange method. The utility of the solvent extraction process for the upgrading of selected rare earths-europium, samarium and gadolinium-from a mixed rare earth chloride, derived from monazite, is illustrated by the work carried out in this laboratory and pilot plant operation at the Alwaye plant of M/s. Indian Rare Earths Ltd. (author)

  12. [Application of saw palmetto fruit extract in the treatment of prostate diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xu-xin; Shang, Xue-jun; Huang, Yu-feng

    2015-09-01

    Saw palmetto fruit extract (SPE), as a herbal product, is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Recent studies show that SPE also has some therapeutic effects on chronic prostatitis, prostate cancer, sexual dysfunction, and so on. This article presents an overview on the application of SPE in the treatment of BPH, prostate cancer, and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, with a discussion on its action mechanisms.

  13. Application of genetic algorithm for extraction of the parameters from powder EPR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalek, T.; Pietrzyk, P.; Sojka, Z.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the stochastic genetic algorithm in tandem with the deterministic Powell method to automated extraction of the magnetic parameters from powder EPR spectra was described. The efficiency and robustness of such hybrid approach were investigated as a function of the uncertainty range of parameters, using simulated data sets. The discussed results demonstrate superior performance of the hybrid genetic algorithm in fitting of complex spectra in comparison to the common Monte Carlo Method joint with the Powell refinement. (author)

  14. The separation of hydrocarbons from waste vapor streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behling, R.D.; Ohlrogge, K.; Peinemann, K.V.; Kyburz, E.

    1989-01-01

    Hydrocarbon vapors generated from industrial processes dispersed into air are contributing factors for the creation of photochemical smog. The separation of hydrocarbon vapor by means of membranes is in case of some applications a technically simple and economic process. A membrane vapor separation process with a following treatment of the retentate by catalytic incineration is introduced in this paper

  15. Demonstration of the potential for designing extractants with preselected extraction properties: possible application to reactor fuel reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G W; Griffin, H E

    1979-01-01

    From the knowledge of the extractant characteristics of both neutral and mono-acidic phosphorus-based organic compounds now available, it is possible to tailor-make extractants for a specifically desired separation of two metals. The present study is concerned with neutral mono-nuclear, phosphorus-based extractants for use in affecting the mutual separation of U(VI) and Th(IV).

  16. Developing a Process Model for the Forensic Extraction of Information from Desktop Search Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Pavlic

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Desktop search applications can contain cached copies of files that were deleted from the file system. Forensic investigators see this as a potential source of evidence, as documents deleted by suspects may still exist in the cache. Whilst there have been attempts at recovering data collected by desktop search applications, there is no methodology governing the process, nor discussion on the most appropriate means to do so. This article seeks to address this issue by developing a process model that can be applied when developing an information extraction application for desktop search applications, discussing preferred methods and the limitations of each. This work represents a more structured approach than other forms of current research.

  17. Application of Text Analytics to Extract and Analyze Material–Application Pairs from a Large Scientific Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kalathil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the importance of materials (or other components to a given set of applications, machine analysis of a very large corpus of scientific abstracts can provide an analyst a base of insights to develop further. The use of text analytics reduces the time required to conduct an evaluation, while allowing analysts to experiment with a multitude of different hypotheses. Because the scope and quantity of metadata analyzed can, and should, be large, any divergence from what a human analyst determines and what the text analysis shows provides a prompt for the human analyst to reassess any preliminary findings. In this work, we have successfully extracted material–application pairs and ranked them on their importance. This method provides a novel way to map scientific advances in a particular material to the application for which it is used. Approximately 438,000 titles and abstracts of scientific papers published from 1992 to 2011 were used to examine 16 materials. This analysis used coclustering text analysis to associate individual materials with specific clean energy applications, evaluate the importance of materials to specific applications, and assess their importance to clean energy overall. Our analysis reproduced the judgments of experts in assigning material importance to applications. The validated methods were then used to map the replacement of one material with another material in a specific application (batteries.

  18. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    agricultural crops. To meet the requirements for these and other demanding applications, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required...of these vapors with key side- chain amino acids. DNT-binding peptide receptors were further conjugated to an oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel for vapor...coefficient for DNT over TNT vapor. Vapor-phase binding performance was attributed to the ability of the oligo(ethylene glycol) hydrogel to maintain the

  19. Chemical vapor deposition of SiC on C-C composites as plasma facing materials for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. J.; Lee, M. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Hong, G. W.; Kim, J. I.; Choi, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the low activation and excellent mechanical properties at elevated temperatures, carbon-fiber reinforced carbon(C-C) composites have received much attention for plasma facing materials for fusion reactor and high-temperature structural applications such as aircrafts and space vehicles. These proposed applications have been frustrated by the lack of resistance to hydrogen erosion and oxidation on exposure to ambient oxidizing conditions at high temperature. Although Silicon Carbide (SiC) has shown excellent properties as an effective erosion-and oxidation-protection coating, many cracks are developed during fabrication and thermal cycles in use due to the Coefficients of Thermal Expansion(CTE) mismatch between SiC and C-C composite. In this study, we adopted a pyrolitic carbon as an interlayer between SiC and C-C substrate in order to minimize the CTE mismatch. The oxidation-protection performance of this composite was investigated as well

  20. [Applicational evaluation of split tooth extractions of upper molars using piezosurgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D; Guo, C B; Liu, Y; Wang, E B

    2016-08-18

    To evaluate the efficacy of Piezosurgery in split teeth extractions. A single-center, randomized, split-mouth study was performed using a consecutive serious of unrelated healthy patients attending the departing of oral and maxillofacial surgery, Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology. 40 patients were selected for extraction of maxillary molars without reservation value,splitting or nonvital teeth. They were divided into control (20 patients) and test groups (20 patients) randomly. Surgical treatments for both groups were under local anesthesia. Molar teeth of control group were extracted by common equipments like dental elevators, chisels, forceps, etc. While molar teeth of experimental group were extracted by Piezosurgery, aided with the use of common equipments if needed. Then we compared the duration of surgery, frequency of the usage of chisels, expansion of postoperative bony socket surgical discomfort and postoperative pain between two groups. The average of operation time was (629.5±171.0) s in control group and (456.0±337.2) s in test group. The buccal alveolar bone reduced (1.07±0.64) mm in control group and (1.49±0.61) mm in test group. There was a significant difference between the two groups (P0.05). Piezosugery can be better to preserve alveolar bone, reduce trauma and patient's fear. Application of the piezosugery reflect the characteristics of minimally invasive extraction, which has the value of promotion. The Piezosurgery technique have the advantage of reducing change of buccal alveolar bone during the surgery, but a longer surgical time was required when compared with the conventional technique. VAS value of surgical discomfort, expansion of postoperative bony socket and the operative fear rate, there were no significant difference. Minimally invasive tooth extraction technique has good clinical results and high satisfaction. Piezosurgery proved its worth as the instrument adapted to limiting the destruction of bone tissue.

  1. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from

  2. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  3. Application of supercritical and subcritical fluids for the extraction of hazardous materials from soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupan Dara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Subcritical and supercritical extractions are novel, non destructive techniques which can be applied for the removal of hazardous compounds from contaminated soil without any changes of the soil composition and structure. The aim of the presented review paper is to give information on up-to day results of this method commonly applied by several institutions worldwide. Interest in the application of SC CO2 has been more expressed in the last two decades, which may be related to its favorable characteristics (non-toxic, non-flammable, increase diffusion into small pores, low viscosity under SC conditions, low price and others. However, interest in wet oxidation (WO and especially in SCWO (the application of water under supercritical conditions with air has also increased in the last few years. Interest in H2O as a SC fluid, as well as in extraction with water under subcritical conditions may also be related to specific characteristics and the enhanced rate of extraction. Moreover, the solubility of some specific compounds present in soil can be easily changed by adjusting the pressure and temperature of extraction. The high price of the units designed to operate safely at a pressure and temperature much higher than the a critical one of the applied fluids is the main reason why, at present, there is no more broader application of such techniques for the removal hazardous materials from contaminated soil. In the present paper, among many literature citations and their overall review, some specific details related to the development of specific analytical methods under SC conditions are also considered.

  4. Physical properties of Gelidium corneum-gelatin blend films containing grapefruit seed extract or green tea extract and its application in the packaging of pork loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y-H; Lim, G-O; Song, K B

    2009-01-01

    Edible Gelidium corneum-gelatin (GCG) blend films containing grapefruit seed extract (GFSE) or green tea extract (GTE) were manufactured, and the quality of pork loins packed with the film during storage was determined. Tensile strength (TS) and water vapor permeability (WVP) of the films containing GFSE or GTE were better than those of the control. The film's antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes increased with increasing antimicrobial concentration, resulting in a decrease in the populations of bacteria by 0.77 to 2.08 and 0.91 to 3.30 log CFU/g, respectively. Pork loin samples were inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes. The samples packed with the GCG film containing GFSE (0.08%) or GTE (2.80%) had a decrease in the populations of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes of 0.69 to 1.11 and 1.05 to 1.14 log CFU/g, respectively, compared to the control after 4 d of storage. The results showed that the quality of pork loins during storage could be improved by packaging them with the GCG film containing GFSE or GTE.

  5. Application of the code Slac to the study of Ion Extraction Systems in Neutral Injectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, M.; Liniers, M.; Guasp, J.

    1997-01-01

    In this study different extraction geometries for intense ion beams have been analyzed with the code SLAC, in view of its possible application to the neutral injectors of TJ-II. With this aim, we have introduced several modifications in the code in order to correctly simulate the transition between the ion source plasma and the extraction region, which has great impact on the beam optics. These modifications include the introduction of a population of Boltzmann electrons in the transition region, and the implementation of an option to simulate the thermal velocity of the ions in the source. We have found a better agreement between the results obtained with the new version of the code and the experimental data in two well known systems. With this new version of the code two different studies have been carried out: in the first place an optimization of the ATF injectors extraction system for its use on TJ-II, leading to an optimum value of the gap in the energy range 30-40 KeV, and in the second place a systematic study of extraction geometries at 40 KeV. As a result of this second study we have found the combinations of parameters that can be used under different working conditions (e.g. different pulse lengths), leading to acceptable values of the beam divergence. (Author)

  6. Extraction and Optimization of Potato Starch and Its Application as a Stabilizer in Yogurt Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar B. Altemimi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Starch is increasingly used as a functional group in many industrial applications and foods due to its ability to work as a thickener. The experimental values of extracting starch from yellow skin potato indicate the processing conditions at 3000 rpm and 15 min as optimum for the highest yield of extracted starch. The effect of adding different concentrations of extracted starch under the optimized conditions was studied to determine the acidity, pH, syneresis, microbial counts, and sensory evaluation in stored yogurt manufactured at 5 °C for 15 days. The results showed that adding sufficient concentrations of starch (0.75%, 1% could provide better results in terms of the minimum change in the total acidity, decrease in pH, reduction in syneresis, and preferable results for all sensory parameters. The results revealed that the total bacteria count of all yogurt samples increased throughout the storage time. However, adding different concentrations of optimized extracted starch had a significant effect, decreasing the microbial content compared with the control sample (YC. In addition, the results indicated that coliform bacteria were not found during the storage time.

  7. Active films based on cocoa extract with antioxidant, antimicrobial and biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calatayud, Marta; López-de-Dicastillo, Carolina; López-Carballo, Gracia; Vélez, Dinoraz; Hernández Muñoz, Pilar; Gavara, Rafael

    2013-08-15

    Novel films of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (EVOH) containing flavonoid-rich cocoa were developed. To understand their potential application as active packaging material, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the films were determined as well as the antioxidant activity of the release compounds in Caco-2 human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Exposure of the films to aqueous food simulant showed antioxidant capacity. The release of cocoa extract components was dependent on the antioxidant concentration incorporated in the film and on temperature. Cocoa extract and the fraction obtained after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion presented antioxidant activity against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide in Caco-2 cells. Films with 10%, 15%, and 20% cocoa extract produced bactericidal effect against Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica. The application of films to an infant milk formula, previously inoculated with L. monocytogenes, inhibited the growth of bacteria 1.5 log units the first day and showed sustained release, inhibiting 0.52 and 0.76 log units, respectively, by the sixth day, while cocoa powder added directly did not produce any effect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Performance Analysis of the SIFT Operator for Automatic Feature Extraction and Matching in Photogrammetric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nex

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In the photogrammetry field, interest in region detectors, which are widely used in Computer Vision, is quickly increasing due to the availability of new techniques. Images acquired by Mobile Mapping Technology, Oblique Photogrammetric Cameras or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles do not observe normal acquisition conditions. Feature extraction and matching techniques, which are traditionally used in photogrammetry, are usually inefficient for these applications as they are unable to provide reliable results under extreme geometrical conditions (convergent taking geometry, strong affine transformations, etc. and for bad-textured images. A performance analysis of the SIFT technique in aerial and close-range photogrammetric applications is presented in this paper. The goal is to establish the suitability of the SIFT technique for automatic tie point extraction and approximate DSM (Digital Surface Model generation. First, the performances of the SIFT operator have been compared with those provided by feature extraction and matching techniques used in photogrammetry. All these techniques have been implemented by the authors and validated on aerial and terrestrial images. Moreover, an auto-adaptive version of the SIFT operator has been developed, in order to improve the performances of the SIFT detector in relation to the texture of the images. The Auto-Adaptive SIFT operator (A2 SIFT has been validated on several aerial images, with particular attention to large scale aerial images acquired using mini-UAV systems.

  9. Extraction of bioflocculants from activated sludge and their application to wastewater treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilieva Zh. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS – biopolymers produced by the microorganisms – are effective flocculants of wastewater pollution and lack the shortcomings of traditional coagulants and flocculants, which can pose direct threat to health and human life, as well as to the sustainable existence of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. EPS do not form secondary contamination of their degradation intermediates, are biodegradable and eco-friendly. Industrial production of bacterial EPS is associated with high cost of growing specific microbial biomass and the functioning of technologies for the synthesis of microbial products. At the same time, there is an underused resource of excess activated sludge, which can be used as cheap substrate for producing bioflocculants and a possible measure to reduce costs. The conducted researches have shown the prospects of extracting EPS from excess activated sludge for their subsequent use as wastewater treatment bioflocculants. EPS extraction has been conducted using three methods: combination of centrifugation processes, extraction using the aqueous solution of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, and precipitation with isopropyl alcohol (the EDTA method; combination of centrifugation, extraction with (NH22CO, precipitation and ethanol reprecipitation (the (NH22CO method; combination of activated sludge ultrasonic treatment, centrifugation, extraction with glacial acetic acid, and precipitation with acetone (the CH3COOH method. The research has shown that the extraction method affects not only the efficiency of EPS extraction, but also the possibility of EPS application for the purification of certain types of sewage. The (NH22CO method has shown the best extraction efficiency, but at the same time EPSs produced have not be able to perform fish processing wastewater treatment. The EDTA and CH3COOH methods are more preferable for producing efficient bioflocculants for fish processing wastewater

  10. LOADS TRANSMITED TO THE METALLIC TOWERS OF THE EXTRACTING INSTALLATIONS IN THE CASE OF THE APPLICATION OF THE SAFETY BRAKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Itu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the paper there are presented certain aspects concerning the determination of loads transmitted through the bearings of the extracting pulleys of the structure of the metallic towers of the extracting installations In the case of the application of the safety brake The exemplification of the determination of the loads transmitted to the metallic tower in the case of the application of the emergency brake has been done by taking into study the extracting installation ,, Auxiliary well No.12”, from Lupeni Mining Plant. The extracting installation is unbalanced. The wrapping organ of the installation machine is a double wheel with the wrapping of the extracting cable in one layer. The extracting vessels are untipping cages with two levels, with two trolleys per level. The drive of the installation‟s machine is asynchronous, the machine‟ s reducer having two drives.

  11. Application of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil as Vapor on Postharvest Storage of Plum Fruit cv. ‘Golden Drop’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra FAKHAR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased interest in theuse of natural compounds instead of chemicals is due to concerns about the effect of synthetic ingredients on humans’ health and over environment. Therefore, in this study essential oil from Ocimum basilicum as a natural and safe compound, was applied at three levels (100, 200 and 300 μl/l as vapor and its effects on postharvest quality and storage life of ‘Golden Drop’ plums was evaluated. After application of treatments, the fruits were stored at +1 °C and 80-85% relative humidity for 42 days. During the storage period, samplings were carried out every week and to simulate market condition, they were kept at room temperate for 24 h. Then some of the qualitative and quantitative traits, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titrable acidity (TA, TSS/TA ratio, weight loss, firmness, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants, as well as color (L*,  hue angle were measured. Results showed that the basil essential oil contributed to a better maintenance of

  12. An NPT Monte Carlo Molecular Simulation-Based Approach to Investigate Solid-Vapor Equilibrium: Application to Elemental Sulfur-H2S System

    KAUST Repository

    Kadoura, Ahmad Salim

    2013-06-01

    In this work, a method to estimate solid elemental sulfur solubility in pure and gas mixtures using Monte Carlo (MC) molecular simulation is proposed. This method is based on Isobaric-Isothermal (NPT) ensemble and the Widom insertion technique for the gas phase and a continuum model for the solid phase. This method avoids the difficulty of having to deal with high rejection rates that are usually encountered when simulating using Gibbs ensemble. The application of this method is tested with a system made of pure hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S) and solid elemental sulfur. However, this technique may be used for other solid-vapor systems provided the fugacity of the solid phase is known (e.g., through experimental work). Given solid fugacity at the desired pressure and temperature, the mole fraction of the solid dissolved in gas that would be in chemical equilibrium with the solid phase might be obtained. In other words a set of MC molecular simulation experiments is conducted on a single box given the pressure and temperature and for different mole fractions of the solute. The fugacity of the gas mixture is determined using the Widom insertion method and is compared with that predetermined for the solid phase until one finds the mole fraction which achieves the required fugacity. In this work, several examples of MC have been conducted and compared with experimental data. The Lennard-Jones parameters related to the sulfur molecule model (ɛ, σ) have been optimized to achieve better match with the experimental work.

  13. The effectiveness of betel leaf (Piper betle Linn extract gel and cocoa bean (Theobroma cacao L extract gel application against the hardness of enamel surface in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Jekti Nugroho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Nowadays several ways  have been evolved  to increase the hardness of the enamel surface as an effort to prevent caries. One of the alternatives that can be used is application of gel with herbal basic material. Material and Methods : The use of herbal basic material is preferred by people because the side effects are relatively small compared to synthetic drugs. Piper betle and cocoa beans are medicinal plants that is often used by people to inhibit caries. This is because piper betle and cocoa beans contain hardness that may influence the enamel surface. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of piper betle extract gel and cocoa bean extract gel against the hardness of enamel surface. The samples, maxillary first premolar teeth, which has been extracted and does not have caries, were divided into 3 treatment groups: piper betle extract gel, cocoa bean extract gel, and distilled water as a negative control. Each treatment group consisted of 8 samples. The samples are decoronated in cemento-enamel junction (CEJ areas and planted on orthoplast blocks with labial surface facing up. Samples were applied in labial enamel surface to 5, 15 and 35 minutes period times. Samples before and after the application in each treatment group were measured using Universal Hardness Tester. Data were collected and analyzed using ANNOVA Repeated test. Results : Showed there were significant differences (p 0.05 of enamel surface hardness before and after the application of piper betel extract gel and distilled water. Conclusion : Therefore it can be concluded that cocoa been extract gel is more effective to increase the hardness of email surface.

  14. Modeling and analysis of power extraction circuits for passive UHF RFID applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bo; Dai Yujie; Zhang Xiaoxing; Lue Yingjie

    2009-01-01

    Modeling and analysis of far field power extraction circuits for passive UHF RF identification (RFID) applications are presented. A mathematical model is derived to predict the complex nonlinear performance of UHF voltage multiplier using Schottky diodes. To reduce the complexity of the proposed model, a simple linear approximation for Schottky diode is introduced. Measurement results show considerable agreement with the values calculated by the proposed model. With the derived model, optimization on stage number for voltage multiplier to achieve maximum power conversion efficiency is discussed. Furthermore, according to the Bode-Fano criterion and the proposed model, a limitation on maximum power up range for passive UHF RFID power extraction circuits is also studied.

  15. Recent Application of Solid Phase Based Techniques for Extraction and Preconcentration of Cyanotoxins in Environmental Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashile, Geaneth Pertunia; Nomngongo, Philiswa N

    2017-03-04

    Cyanotoxins are toxic and are found in eutrophic, municipal, and residential water supplies. For this reason, their occurrence in drinking water systems has become a global concern. Therefore, monitoring, control, risk assessment, and prevention of these contaminants in the environmental bodies are important subjects associated with public health. Thus, rapid, sensitive, selective, simple, and accurate analytical methods for the identification and determination of cyanotoxins are required. In this paper, the sampling methodologies and applications of solid phase-based sample preparation methods for the determination of cyanotoxins in environmental matrices are reviewed. The sample preparation techniques mainly include solid phase micro-extraction (SPME), solid phase extraction (SPE), and solid phase adsorption toxin tracking technology (SPATT). In addition, advantages and disadvantages and future prospects of these methods have been discussed.

  16. SYNTHESE D’EXTRACTANTS ACIDES HEXADECYL- ET DECYLAMINOBIMETHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIQUES APPLICATION A L’EXTRACTION LIQUIDE-LIQUIDE DE Ni (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A DIDI

    2007-06-01

    Après purification puis caractérisation des produits, nous avons réalisé divers tests d’extraction liquide - liquide de Ni (II en milieu sulfaté. Le temps d’équilibre déterminé par étude cinétique a été fixé à 40 minutes. Les paramètres changeant tels la température ( T = 20°C, 30°C et 50°C, le rapport du nombre de moles (n extractant / n métal (Q =1 à 6 et le rapport des volumes (Vaq / Vorg= 1, 2, 3 et 4 ont permis de maximiser le rendement d’extraction qui est de 46% avec le HABMP et de 44% pour le DADMP et ceci pour des extractions à un seul plateau.

  17. Principles and applications of colorimetric solid-phase extraction with negligible depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Neil C.; Porter, Marc D.; Fritz, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Colorimetric solid-phase extraction (C-SPE) is an integrated technique in which an analyte is selectively concentrated onto a disk and then quantitated by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. This paper describes the results of an investigation that applies the concept of negligible depletion (ND) to C-SPE, representing the first application of ND concepts to solid-phase extractions. The approach relies on passing the minimal volume of sample through the disk required to reach an equilibrium in which the concentration of analyte in the sample entering and exiting the disk are equal. At this point, the amount of analyte extracted by the disk is proportional to the sample concentration but is independent of the sample volume passed through the disk. With this new method, called C-SPE/ND, the precise measurement of sample volume is no longer necessary. The work herein details the general principles of this new methodology, and validates its basic tenets in an investigation of the extraction of the organic dye methyl violet. The analytical capabilities of C-SPE/ND are then demonstrated by its application to measurements of iodine. Iodine is a biocide increasingly used as a simple and effective disinfectant for water in locations where municipal water treatment systems are potentially compromised. Thus, the ability to operate C-SPE in an ND mode notably enhances the broad-based utility of this methodology as a reliable and an easy-to-use analysis tool for water quality assessments. Since iodine is also the biocide used on NASAs Space Shuttle, C-SPE/ND has the potential to overcome problems associated with the removal of air bubbles entrapped in a water sample in the microgravity environment encountered in space exploration. Extensions of C-SPE/ND to facile determinations of other water quality parameters with respect to both earth- and space-based needs are briefly discussed

  18. A Suitable Method for DNA Extraction from Bones for Forensic Applications: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqeela S. Abuidrees

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human identification techniques are constantly developing. Before the discovery of DNA, anthropology accompanied with odontology was the most applicable technique for human identification. With the new era of molecular biology and the revolution of DNA and PCR techniques, DNA profiling has become the core of the human forensic identification process. Different types of samples can be exploited in forensic DNA analysis. In some extreme cases, bone samples are the only accessible samples of DNA due to the bad conditions of putrefaction or degradation of other biological materials and tissues. Therefore, an appropriate method should be determined to yield a full and clean profile. A case study is presented here in order to identify human remains and conclude the most appropriate method of DNA extraction from human remains. In addition, this study looks at the best part of the skeletal remains to be considered in the extraction of DNA for the purposes of identification. A suspect admitted that he buried his aborted son six months ago. The remains were recovered and DNA analysis was performed in order to determine any genetic link of the remains to the suspect and the female who delivered the baby. Two extraction methods were compared, the standard organic (phenol:chloroform:isoamyl alcohol and automated extraction using magnetic beads coated with silica (Qiagen EZ1 Advanced XL. Two bone parts, femur and clavicle, were also compared in terms of DNA yield. The efficiency of the two methods of DNA extraction from bones is illustrated quantitatively and qualitatively. Paternity testing was performed and the suspect was excluded from being the alleged father.

  19. The versatile biopolymer chitosan: potential sources, evaluation of extraction methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Surinder; Dhillon, Gurpreet Singh

    2014-05-01

    Among the biopolymers, chitin and its derivative chitosan (CTS) have been receiving increasing attention. Both are composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine units. On commercial scale, CTS is mainly obtained from the crustacean shells. The chemical methods employed for extraction of CTS from crustacean shells are laden with many disadvantages. Waste fungal biomass represents a potential biological source of CTS, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties, such as high degree of deacetylation, low molecular weight, devoid of protein contamination and high bioactivity. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize CTS production and extraction from fungal sources. Fungi are promising and environmentally benign source of CTS and they have the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived CTS. Waste fungal biomass resulting from various pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries is grown on inexpensive agro-industrial wastes and its by-products are a rich and inexpensive source of CTS. CTS is emerging as an important natural polymer having broad range of applications in different fields. In this context, the present review discusses the potential sources of CTS and their advantages and disadvantages. This review also deals with potential applications of CTS in different fields. Finally, the various attributes of CTS sought in different applications are discussed.

  20. An Application for Data Preprocessing and Models Extractions in Web Usage Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena DINUCA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Web servers worldwide generate a vast amount of information on web users’ browsing activities. Several researchers have studied these so-called clickstream or web access log data to better understand and characterize web users. The goal of this application is to analyze user behaviour by mining enriched web access log data. With the continued growth and proliferation of e-commerce, Web services, and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached astronomical proportions. This information can be exploited in various ways, such as enhancing the effectiveness of websites or developing directed web marketing campaigns. The discovered patterns are usually represented as collections of pages, objects, or re-sources that are frequently accessed by groups of users with common needs or interests. In this paper we will focus on displaying the way how it was implemented the application for data preprocessing and extracting different data models from web logs data, finding association as a data mining technique to extract potentially useful knowledge from web usage data. We find different data models navigation patterns by analysing the log files of the web-site. I implemented the application in Java using NetBeans IDE. For exemplification, I used the log files data from a commercial web site www.nice-layouts.com.

  1. Solid phase extraction for analysis of biogenic carbonates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS): an investigation of rare earth element signatures in otolith microchemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Zikri; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2003-01-01

    Uptake of trace elements into fish otoliths is governed by several factors such as life histories and environment in addition to stock and species differences. In an attempt to elucidate the elemental signatures of rare earth elements (REEs) in otoliths, a solid phase extraction (SPE) protocol was used in combination with electrothermal vaporization (ETV) as a sample introduction procedure for the determinations by inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Effects of various parameters, such as carrier gas flow rate, atomization temperature and chemical modification, were examined for optimization of the conditions by ETV-ICP-MS. Atomization was achieved at 2800 deg. C. Lower temperatures (i.e. 2600 deg. C) resulted in severe memory problems due to incomplete atomization. Palladium was used as a chemical modifier. It was found that an increase in Pd concentration up to 0.5 μg in the injection volume (70 μl) led up to four-fold enhancement in the integrated signals. This phenomenon is attributed to the carrier effect of Pd rather than the stabilization since no significant losses were observed for high temperature drying around 700 deg. C even in the absence of Pd. Preconcentration was performed on-line at pH 5 by using a mini-column of Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650M chelating resin, which also eliminated the calcium matrix of otolith solutions. After preconcentration of 6.4 ml of solution, the concentrate was collected in 0.65 ml of 0.5% (v/v) HNO 3 in autosampler cups, and then analyzed by ETV-ICP-MS. The method was validated with the analysis of a fish otolith certified reference material (CRM) of emperor snapper, and then applied to samples. Results obtained from otoliths of fish captured in the same habitat indicated that otolith rare earth element concentrations are more dependent on environmental conditions of the habitat than on species differences

  2. Fuel vapor pressure (FVAPRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.E.

    1979-04-01

    A subcode (FVAPRS) is described which calculates fuel vapor pressure. This subcode was developed as part of the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at EG and G Idaho, Inc. The fuel vapor pressure subcode (FVAPRS), is presented and a discussion of literature data, steady state and transient fuel vapor pressure equations and estimates of the standard error of estimate to be expected with the FVAPRS subcode are included

  3. Buoyancy-Driven Heat Transfer During Application of a Thermal Gradient for the Study of Vapor Deposition at Low Pressure Using and Ideal Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, D. O.; Hung, R. J.; Paley, M. S.; Penn, B. G.; Long, Y. T.

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to determine heat transfer during vapor deposition of source materials under a variety of orientations relative to gravitational accelerations. The model demonstrates that convection can occur at total pressures as low as 10-2 mm Hg. Through numerical computation, using physical material parameters of air, a series of time steps demonstrates the development of flow and temperature profiles during the course of vapor deposition. These computations show that in unit gravity vapor deposition occurs by transport through a fairly complicated circulating flow pattern when applying heat to the bottom of the vessel with parallel orientation with respect to the gravity vector. The model material parameters for air predict the effect of kinematic viscosity to be of the same order as thermal diffusivity, which is the case for Prandtl number approx. 1 fluids. Qualitative agreement between experiment and the model indicates that 6-(2-methyl-4-nitroanilino)-2,4-hexadiyn-l-ol (DAMNA) at these pressures indeed approximates an ideal gas at the experiment temperatures, and may validate the use of air physical constants. It is apparent that complicated nonuniform temperature distribution in the vapor could dramatically affect the homogeneity, orientation, and quality of deposited films. The experimental test i's a qualitative comparison of film thickness using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy on films generated in appropriately oriented vapor deposition cells. In the case where heating of the reaction vessel occurs from the top, deposition of vapor does not normally occur by convection due to a stable stratified medium. When vapor deposition occurs in vessels heated at the bottom, but oriented relative to the gravity vector between these two extremes, horizontal thermal gradients induce a complex flow pattern. In the plane parallel to the tilt axis, the flow pattern is symmetrical and opposite in direction from that where the vessel is

  4. Waste Tank Vapor Project: Tank vapor database development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seesing, P.R.; Birn, M.B.; Manke, K.L.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of the Tank Vapor Database (TVD) Development task in FY 1994 was to create a database to store, retrieve, and analyze data collected from the vapor phase of Hanford waste tanks. The data needed to be accessible over the Hanford Local Area Network to users at both Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The data were restricted to results published in cleared reports from the laboratories analyzing vapor samples. Emphasis was placed on ease of access and flexibility of data formatting and reporting mechanisms. Because of time and budget constraints, a Rapid Application Development strategy was adopted by the database development team. An extensive data modeling exercise was conducted to determine the scope of information contained in the database. a A SUN Sparcstation 1000 was procured as the database file server. A multi-user relational database management system, Sybase reg-sign, was chosen to provide the basic data storage and retrieval capabilities. Two packages were chosen for the user interface to the database: DataPrism reg-sign and Business Objects trademark. A prototype database was constructed to provide the Waste Tank Vapor Project's Toxicology task with summarized and detailed information presented at Vapor Conference 4 by WHC, PNL, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Oregon Graduate Institute. The prototype was used to develop a list of reported compounds, and the range of values for compounds reported by the analytical laboratories using different sample containers and analysis methodologies. The prototype allowed a panel of toxicology experts to identify carcinogens and compounds whose concentrations were within the reach of regulatory limits. The database and user documentation was made available for general access in September 1994

  5. Development of a Biochar-Plant-Extract-Based Nitrification Inhibitor and Its Application in Field Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhónatan Reyes-Escobar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The global use of nitrogen (N fertilizer has increased 10-fold in the last fifty years, resulting in increased N losses via nitrate leaching to groundwater bodies or from gaseous emissions to the atmosphere. One of the biggest problems farmers face in agricultural production systems is the loss of N. In this context, novel biological nitrification inhibitors (BNI using biochar (BC as a renewable matrix to increase N use efficiency, by reducing nitrification rates, have been evaluated. The chemical and morphological characteristics of BC were analyzed and BC-BNI complexes were formulated using plant extracts from pine (Pinus radiata, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus and peumo (Cryptocarya alba. In field experiments, fertilizer and treatments, based on crude plant extracts and BC-BNI complexes, were applied and the effect on nitrification was periodically monitored, and at the laboratory level, a phytotoxicity assay was performed. The biochar-peumo (BCPe complex showed the highest nitrification inhibition (66% on day 60 after application compared with the crude plant extract, suggesting that BCPe complex protects the BNI against biotic or abiotic factors, and therefore BC-BNI complexes could increase the persistence of biological nitrification inhibitors. None of the biochar complexes had toxic effect on radish plants.

  6. Mercury and trace element fractionation in Almaden soils by application of different sequential extraction procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.J.; Fernandez, M.; Hernandez, C.; Schmid, T.; Millan, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Aldea, M.; Martin, R.; Morante, R. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-01

    A comparative evaluation of the mercury distribution in a soil sample from Almaden (Spain) has been performed by applying three different sequential extraction procedures, namely, modified BCR (three steps in sequence), Di Giulio-Ryan (four steps in sequence), and a specific SEP developed at CIEMAT (six steps in sequence). There were important differences in the mercury extraction results obtained by the three procedures according to the reagents applied and the sequence of their application. These findings highlight the difficulty of setting a universal SEP to obtain information on metal fractions of different mobility for any soil sample, as well as the requirement for knowledge about the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of the samples. The specific six-step CIEMAT sequential extraction procedure was applied to a soil profile (Ap, Ah, Bt1, and Bt2 horizons). The distribution of mercury and major, minor, and trace elements in the different fractions were determined. The results indicate that mercury is mainly released with 6 M HCl. The strong association of mercury with crystalline iron oxyhydroxides, present in all the horizons of the profile, and/or the solubility of some mercury compounds in such acid can explain this fact. Minor mercury is found in the fraction assigned to oxidizable matter and in the final insoluble residue (cinnabar). (orig.)

  7. Reactive liquid/liquid extraction of heavy metals from landfill seepage waters. Its characterisation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woller, N.

    1994-06-01

    This study demonstrates the applicability of liquid-liquid extraction by means of the commercial complexers LIX26 R and LIX84 R to heavy metal removal from waste waters. The composition of this oil-soluble complex is MeR 2 , where Me denotes Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , Zn 2+ , Cu 2+ , and Ni 2+ , and R denotes LIX84 R . This composition makes the complex electrically neutral, and all polar groups are located inside the molecule. The extraction efficiency of the complexer LIX84 R for the various metal ions is evident in the succession Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ >> Zn 2+ > Hg 2+ > Cd 2+ . These heavy metal ions are even readily extractable at chloride concentrations of up to 1 mol/l. As the structure of the complexer is that of an oil-soluble surfactant with complexing properties, it accumulates at the phase boundary between oil and water. Measurement of interfacial tension in various solvent systems showed that the polar solvent chloroform permits only a weak accumulation of the complexer (400 nmol/m 2 ), whereas the unpolar solvent kerosine permits greater accumulation specifically on the water side of the phase boundary (1958 nmol/m 2 ). Organic solvents solvate the complexer so well, that it is even removed from the air side of the phase boundary. The differing accumulation of the complexer at the water/oil phase boundary explains the differing increase of phase separation time for polar and unpolar solvents. (orig.) [de

  8. Preliminary study on a polymer carrier containing ginger extract with possible applications in cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia-Cristina Borcan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND The aim of the study was to synthesize and characterize a polyurethane drug delivery system used for a ginger extract with possible applications in cardiovascular disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS The obtained procedure is based on a poly-addition reaction between a diisocyanate and a mixture of polyols and a spontaneous emulsification in the presence of a surfactant. Only aliphatic compounds were used as raw materials and no other chemicals were added as reaction catalyst or promoters. RESULTS Nanostructures sized between 92 and 128 nm, with a medium tendency of agglomeration and very stable to thermal degradation between 30 and 300oC were obtained. We observed the fact that nanostructures’ diluted aqueous solution presents a pH around 6.7 and no evidence of any irritation potential was found after using different assays. CONCLUSIONS The obtained nanostructures can be used as a polymer carrier for ginger extract based on our results. Graphical abstract: Chemical structures of: (a gingerol, (b eucalyptol, (c borneol. REFERENCES 1. Prasad EM, Mopuri R, Islam MS, Kodidhela LD. Cardioprotective effect of Vitex negundo on isoproterenol-induced myocardial necrosis in wistar rats: A dual approach study. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016 [epub ahead of print]. 2. Abdel-Naeem HH, Mohamed HM. Improving the physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of camel meat burger patties using ginger extract and papain. Meat Sci. 2016;118:52-60. 3. Shirpoor A, Rezaei F, Fard AA, Afshari AT, Gharalari FH, Rasmi Y. Ginger extract protects rat’s kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration. Biomed Pharmacother. 2016;84:698-704.

  9. The influence of topical application of grapeseed extract gel on enamel surface hardness after demineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragih, D. A.; Herda, E.; Triaminingsih, S.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of topical application of 6.5% and 12.5% grapeseed extract gels for duration of application 16 and 32 minutes on the enamel surface hardness following tooth demineralization by an energy drink. The samples were 21 bovine teeth that underwent demineralization by immersion in the energy drink for 5 minutes in an incubator at 37°C. The demineralized specimens were randomly divided into a control group and 2 treatment groups. The control group was immersed in artificial saliva for 6 hours at 37°C, whereas the treatment groups were treated with topical 6.5% and 12.5% grapeseed extract gels for durations of 16 and 32 minutes and then immersed in artificial saliva for 6 hours at 37°C. The hardness was measured with a Knoop hardness tester. Statistical analysis by repeated ANOVA and one-way ANOVA revealed a significant increase in the enamel hardness value (p0.05).

  10. Process monitor design for an extraction column: an application of estimation/detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candy, J.V.; Emmert, R.A.; Patterson, G.K.

    1979-03-01

    The NRC Safeguards Program at LLL is directed toward developing a methodology for assessing the effectiveness of material control and accounting systems at processing/reprocessing facilities for special nuclear material. The methodology under development requires many types of mathematical models including performance models of safeguard components. Included in the class of safeguard components are real-time measurement systems which incorporate on-line estimators/detectors for the timely detection of material losses. Performance modeling generally involves mathematical model development and simulation of the physical process being measured. This report discusses the development of material estimator designs for a liquid--liquid extraction column using a reprocessing application. These designs are applicable to any processing unit which can be adequately represented by linear or nonlinear models in state space form. Although this work is discussed in the context of a plutonium extraction column, it is representative of two classes of safeguard components which are generic to any fuel cycle involving chemical separations/purifications

  11. Electrochemical vapor generation of selenium species after online photolysis and reduction by UV-irradiation under nano TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis and its application to selenium speciation by HPLC coupled with atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Jing; Wang, Qiuquan; Huang, Benli [Xiamen University (China). Department of Chemistry; MOE Key Laboratory of Analytical Sciences, Xiamen (China)

    2005-01-01

    An online UV photolysis and UV/TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis reduction device (UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD) and an electrochemical vapor generation (ECVG) cell have been used for the first time as an interface between high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS) for selenium speciation. The newly designed ECVG cell of approximately 115 {mu}L dead volume consists of a carbon fiber cathode and a platinum loop anode; the atomic hydrogen generated on the cathode was used to reduce selenium to vapor species for AFS determination. The noise was greatly reduced compared with that obtained by use of the UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD-KBH{sub 4}-acid interface. The detection limits obtained for seleno-DL-cystine (SeCys), selenite (Se{sup IV}), seleno-DL-methionine (SeMet), and selenate (Se{sup VI}) were 2.1, 2.9, 4.3, and 3.5 ng mL{sup -1}, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the speciation of selenium in water-soluble extracts of garlic shoots cultured with different selenium species. The results obtained suggested that UV-UV/TiO{sub 2} PCRD-ECVG should be an effective interface between HPLC and AFS for the speciation of elements amenable to vapor generation, and is superior to methods involving KBH{sub 4}. (orig.)

  12. Ovine tendon collagen: Extraction, characterisation and fabrication of thin films for tissue engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauzi, M.B.; Lokanathan, Y. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aminuddin, B.S. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ear, Nose & Throat Consultant Clinic, Ampang Puteri Specialist Hospital, Taman Dato Ahmad Razali, 68000 Ampang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ruszymah, B.H.I. [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Physiology, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chowdhury, S.R., E-mail: shiplu@ppukm.ukm.edu.my [Tissue Engineering Centre, UKM Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latiff, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix (ECM) protein in the human body, thus widely used in tissue engineering and subsequent clinical applications. This study aimed to extract collagen from ovine (Ovis aries) Achilles tendon (OTC), and to evaluate its physicochemical properties and its potential to fabricate thin film with collagen fibrils in a random or aligned orientation. Acid-solubilized protein was extracted from ovine Achilles tendon using 0.35 M acetic acid, and 80% of extracted protein was measured as collagen. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of alpha 1 and alpha 2 chain of collagen type I (col I). Further analysis with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirms the presence of triple helix structure of col I, similar to commercially available rat tail col I. Drying the OTC solution at 37°C resulted in formation of a thin film with randomly orientated collagen fibrils (random collagen film; RCF). Introduction of unidirectional mechanical intervention using a platform rocker prior to drying facilitated the fabrication of a film with aligned orientation of collagen fibril (aligned collagen film; ACF). It was shown that both RCF and ACF significantly enhanced human dermal fibroblast (HDF) attachment and proliferation than that on plastic surface. Moreover, cells were distributed randomly on RCF, but aligned with the direction of mechanical intervention on ACF. In conclusion, ovine tendon could be an alternative source of col I to fabricate scaffold for tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Isolated collagen from ovine tendon was characterized as collagen type I. • Collagen film was fabricated via air drying of ovine tendon collagen. • Collagen fibril alignment was realized via unidirectional platform rocker. • Orientation of cells was attained depending on collagen fibril direction in the film. • Collagen films

  13. Physical and photoelectrochemical properties of Sb-doped SnO2 thin films deposited by chemical vapor deposition: application to chromate reduction under solar light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outemzabet, R.; Doulache, M.; Trari, M.

    2015-05-01

    Sb-doped SnO2 thin films (Sb-SnO2) are prepared by chemical vapor deposition. The X-ray diffraction indicates a rutile phase, and the SEM analysis shows pyramidal grains whose size extends up to 200 nm. The variation of the film thickness shows that the elaboration technique needs to be optimized to give reproducible layers. The films are transparent over the visible region. The dispersion of the optical indices is evaluated by fitting the diffuse reflectance data with the Drude-Lorentz model. The refractive index ( n) and absorption coefficient ( k) depend on both the conditions of preparation and of the doping concentration and vary between 1.4 and 2.0 and 0.2 and 0.01, respectively. Tin oxide is nominally non-stoichiometric, and the conduction is dominated by thermally electrons jump with an electron mobility of 12 cm2 V-1 s-1 for Sb-SnO2 (1 %). The ( C 2- V) characteristic in aqueous electrolyte exhibits a linear behavior from which an electrons density of 4.15 × 1018 cm-3 and a flat-band potential of -0.83 V SCE are determined. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy shows a semicircle attributed to a capacitive behavior with a low density of surface states. The center lies below the real axis with a depletion angle (12°), due to a constant phase element, i.e., a deviation from a pure capacitive behavior, presumably attributed to the roughness and porosity of the film. The straight line at low frequencies is attributed to the Warburg diffusion. The energy diagram reveals the photocatalytic feasibility of Sb-SnO2. As application, 90 % of the chromate concentration (20 mg L-1, pH ~3) disappears after 6 h of exposure to solar light.

  14. Fast Growth of GaN Epilayers via Laser-Assisted Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition for Ultraviolet Photodetector Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiee Golgir, Hossein; Li, Da Wei; Keramatnejad, Kamran; Zou, Qi Ming; Xiao, Jun; Wang, Fei; Jiang, Lan; Silvain, Jean-François; Lu, Yong Feng

    2017-06-28

    In this study, we successfully developed a carbon dioxide (CO 2 )-laser-assisted metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (LMOCVD) approach to fast synthesis of high-quality gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers on Al 2 O 3 [sapphire(0001)] substrates. By employing a two-step growth procedure, high crystallinity and smooth GaN epilayers with a fast growth rate of 25.8 μm/h were obtained. The high crystallinity was confirmed by a combination of techniques, including X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. By optimizing growth parameters, the ∼4.3-μm-thick GaN films grown at 990 °C for 10 min showed a smooth surface with a root-mean-square surface roughness of ∼1.9 nm and excellent thickness uniformity with sharp GaN/substrate interfaces. The full-width at half-maximum values of the GaN(0002) X-ray rocking curve of 313 arcsec and the GaN(101̅2) X-ray rocking curve of 390 arcsec further confirmed the high crystallinity of the GaN epilayers. We also fabricated ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors based on the as-grown GaN layers, which exhibited a high responsivity of 0.108 A W -1 at 367 nm and a fast response time of ∼125 ns, demonstrating its high optical quality with potential in optoelectronic applications. Our strategy thus provides a simple and cost-effective means toward fast and high-quality GaN heteroepitaxy growth suitable for fabricating high-performance GaN-based UV detectors.

  15. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  16. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  17. Antimicrobial effect of bee collected pollen extract to Enterobacteriaceae genera after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hleba

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we researched antimicrobial activity of bee pollen extracts to Enterobacteriaceae genera isolated from chicken intestinal tract after application of bee collected pollen in their feeding. We used well plate agar diffusion method for antimicrobial testing of bee pollen extract and disc diffusion method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria by EUCAST. Identification of bacteria was done by test kit Enterotest 24. We identified tree bacterial strains: E. coli, P. mirabilis and K. oxytoca. We determined that K. oxytoca was resistant to ampicillin only and others identified strain were sensitive to used antibiotics. Also we determined antimicrobial effect of bee pollen extract to all tested strains of Enterobacteriaceae genera which were isolated from intestinal tract of chicken after application of bee collected pollen extract in their feeding. From obtained results we could be conclude that bacteria isolated from chicken after application of bee pollen extract had more resistance to bee collected pollen extract in in vitro experiment as E. coli CCM 3988, which did not be in contact with bee pollen extract.

  18. Application of a puffer fish skin gelatin film containing Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract to the packaging of Gouda cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Yang, Hyun-Ju; Song, Kyung Bin

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to develop a puffer fish skin gelatin (PSG) film that contains Moringa oleifera Lam. leaf extract (ME) as a new biodegradable film. With the increase in ME concentration, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the PSG film increased, whereas the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability decreased. In addition, the PSG film with ME exhibited antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes and antioxidant activity. To apply the ME-containing PSG film to food packaging, Gouda cheese was wrapped with the ME-containing PSG film. During storage, the cheese packaging with the ME-containing PSG film effectively inhibited the microbial growth and retarded the lipid oxidation of cheese compared with the control sample. Thus, the ME-containing PSG film can be used as an antimicrobial and antioxidative packaging material to improve the quality of food products.

  19. Investigations on extraction separation of noble metals from secondary raw materials by means of tracer technique application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban'ski, T.S.; Migdal, V.; Lada, V.

    1979-01-01

    In laboratory scale equilibrium and kinetics of the liquid extraction of gold, platinum and palladium from chloride and nitrate-chloride solutions were investigated. Experiments were done using model solutions and solutions, obtained in processing of secondary raw materials, for example: solutions in aqua regia of anode slurries after electrical refining of silver and jewelry wastes, as well as solutions after extraction of silver from nitrate mwdia. In investigations for determination of the extraction factor, the radioisotope indicators method have been used. Gold-198, platinum-197, palladium-109, silver-110 m and copper-64 were used. Radioisotope platinum-197 was refined from gold-199 on the ionite Dauex 50VX2 in the medium of hydrobromic acid. Gold was extracted by neutral extraction agents such as tributilphosphate; methylizobutylketone; amylacetate; amil alcohol; 2-ethylhexanol and dibutylcarbitol. In details extraction of palladium and platinum by tri-n-actylamine in different diluents with additions of modifiers, as well as their extraction by aliquat 336 in benzene and by some petroleum products. Influence was determined of the time of phases contact, of application of diluents, influence of extracting agents concentrations on the magnitude of extraction factor and on the separation factor for investigated metals [ru

  20. Piezoelectric trace vapor calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkouteren, R. Michael; Gillen, Greg; Taylor, David W.

    2006-01-01

    The design and performance of a vapor generator for calibration and testing of trace chemical sensors are described. The device utilizes piezoelectric ink-jet nozzles to dispense and vaporize precisely known amounts of analyte solutions as monodisperse droplets onto a hot ceramic surface, where the generated vapors are mixed with air before exiting the device. Injected droplets are monitored by microscope with strobed illumination, and the reproducibility of droplet volumes is optimized by adjustment of piezoelectric wave form parameters. Complete vaporization of the droplets occurs only across a 10 deg. C window within the transition boiling regime of the solvent, and the minimum and maximum rates of trace analyte that may be injected and evaporated are determined by thermodynamic principles and empirical observations of droplet formation and stability. By varying solution concentrations, droplet injection rates, air flow, and the number of active nozzles, the system is designed to deliver--on demand--continuous vapor concentrations across more than six orders of magnitude (nominally 290 fg/l to 1.05 μg/l). Vapor pulses containing femtogram to microgram quantities of analyte may also be generated. Calibrated ranges of three explosive vapors at ng/l levels were generated by the device and directly measured by ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). These data demonstrate expected linear trends within the limited working range of the IMS detector and also exhibit subtle nonlinear behavior from the IMS measurement process

  1. Sesamin from Cuscuta palaestina natural plant extracts: Directions for new prospective applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Makhamra, Sadam; Rayan, Ibrahim; Barriah, Waseim; Nasser, Ahmed; Abu Farkh, Basheer; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to disclose the potential bioactive components of Cuscuta palaestina, a native parasitic natural plant of flora palaestina and to open direction towards new prospective application. GC-MS analysis identified 18 components in the methanolic extract of C. palaestina for the first time. The most appealing among them are Sesamin and two other phytosterols (Campesterol and Stigmasterol), all of which are documented in the scientific literature for their anticancer activity. Quantitation of Sesamin extracted from C. palaestina by HPLC-PDA with the use of three organic solvents showed that the Sesamin content in the methanolic extract was the highest. Following the disclosure of Sesamin presence in C. palaestina, we raised the question of whether it is produced naturally in C. palaestina or acquired from the host plant. The quantitation of Sesamin in C. palaestina was performed while being with five different host plants, and was compared with the amount of Sesamin in C. palaestina grown alone. The findings reveal that Sesamin is an endogenous secondary metabolite in C. palaestina. Thus, further studies are required to prove if C. palaestina can be used as an alternative source of anticancer phytochemicals, mainly Sesamin, and if proteins in the Sesamin production pathway could be valid biological targets for the development of novel and selective pesticides for control/ eradication of C. palaestina and maybe some other Cuscuta species. As well, the findings from this study raise a big question of whether inferring Sesamin production in C. palaestina could reduce its attack ability to host plants.

  2. Immunomodulatory properties of cacao extracts – potential consequences for medical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kathrin; Geisler, Simon; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar; Gostner, Johanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Anti-inflammatory properties of cacao, fruits of Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculiaceae), are well documented, and therapeutic applications are described for gastrointestinal, nervous, and cardiovascular abnormalities. Most, if not all of these disease conditions involve inflammation or immune activation processes. The pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and related biochemical pathways like tryptophan breakdown by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and neopterin formation are deeply involved in their pathogenesis. Neopterin concentrations and the kynurenine to tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp, an estimate of IDO activity) are elevated in a significant proportion of patients with virus infections, cancer, autoimmune syndrome, neurodegeneration, and coronary artery disease. Moreover, higher neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations are indicative for poor prognosis. When investigating the effect of aqueous or ethanolic extracts of cacao on IFN-γ, neopterin and Kyn/Trp concentrations in mitogen-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, breakdown of tryptophan by IDO, and formation of neopterin and IFN-γ were dose-dependently suppressed. The effects observed in the cell-based assays are associated with the antioxidant activity of the cacao extracts as determined by the cell-free oxygen radical absorption capacity assay. The influence of cacao extracts on IDO activity could be of particular relevance for some of the beneficial health effects ascribed to cacao: tryptophan breakdown by IDO is strongly involved in immunoregulation, and the diminished availability of tryptophan limits the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter serotonin. The inhibition of tryptophan breakdown by cacao constituents could thus be relevant not only for immune system restoration in patients, but also contribute to mood elevation and thereby improve quality of life. However, the available data thus far are merely in vitro only and future studies need to investigate the influence of cacao on

  3. Application of Freezing and Thawing in Apple (Malus domestica) Juice Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadulski, Rafał; Kobus, Zbigniew; Wilczyński, Kamil; Zawiślak, Kazimierz; Grochowicz, Józef; Guz, Tomasz

    2016-09-28

    The paper presents the results of the research on the impact of enzymatic liquefaction, freezing and thawing on the efficiency of juice pressure extraction from apple pulp and quality of the obtained juices. The research was conducted using three types of pretreatment prior the pressing: crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 25 °C, crushing and enzymatic liquefaction in temperature of 45 °C and crushing followed by freezing and thawing of the pulp. The study included three varieties of apples. The juice was obtained using a laboratory basket press. It was determined that the pretreatment of the pulp as well as the varietal characteristics of the fruits have a significant impact on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process. The enzymatic treatment of the pulp, irrespective of the temperature at which it was conducted, significantly increased the efficiency of the process. No effect of the temperature (25 or 45 °C) of enzymatic treatment on the efficiency of the pressure extraction process was found. Pretreatment of the pulp based on freezing and thawing contributes to the increase of efficiency of pressing in the case of two apple cultivars, that is, Idared and Red Delicious. It was showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity, the soluble solids content and juice acidity (pH) depend on the pretreatment of the pulp and the varietal characteristics of apples. Following the application of pretreatment of the pulp, an increase was observed in the content of polyphenols and in the antioxidant activity of the juices obtained. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Application of Fungicides and Microalgal Phenolic Extracts for the Direct Control of Fumonisin Contamination in Maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaglioni, Priscila Tessmer; Blandino, Massimo; Scarpino, Valentina; Giordano, Debora; Testa, Giulio; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2018-05-16

    Fungicides and, for the first time, microalgal phenolic extracts (MPE) from Spirulina sp. and Nannochloropsis sp. were applied on maize culture media under field conditions to evaluate their ability to minimize Fusarium species development and fumonisin production. An in vitro assay against F. verticillioides was carried out using maize grains as the culture medium. An open-field experiment was carried out in Northwest Italy under natural infection conditions. The compared treatments were factorial combinations of two insecticide treatments (an untreated control and pyrethroid, used against European Corn Borer), four antifungal treatments (an untreated control, MPE from Spirulina sp., MPE from Nannochloropsis sp., and a synthetic fungicide), and two timings of the application of the antifungal compounds (at maize flowering and at the milk stage). The MPE compounds were capable of inhibiting fumonisin production in vitro more efficiently than tebuconazole. Insecticide application reduced the infection by Fusarium species and subsequent fumonisin contamination. However, fumonisins in maize fields were not significantly controlled by either fungicide or MPE application.

  5. Application of extraction chromatography to the recovery of neptunium, plutonium and americium from an industrial waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Kertesz, C.; Sontag, R.; Koehly, G.

    1980-01-01

    A pilot scale investigation was made to evaluate the possible application of the extraction chromatographic method (LLC) to the partitioning of alpha emitters from liquid wastes containing traces of transuranium elements. A secondary purpose was to obtain pure Am0 2 , which is used to produce alpha, gamma, and neutron sources. The process developed for alpha partitioning consists essentially of the extraction of macro amounts of uranium with 30% TBP in dodecane in mixer-settlers, then coextraction of Np-237, Pu-239, and Am-241 by LLC on a macro column filled with di-n-hexyl-octoxy-methyl-phosphine oxide (POX.11) adsorbed on an inert support. In each run about 200 liters of initial waste are decontaminated of alpha emitters. The loading step is followed by selective elution of americium, neptunium, and plutonium. The americium eluate is then subjected to the following operations: (1) separation of Am from Fe and Cd by LLC on a TBP column and (2) separation of Am from lanthanide traces by LLC on an HD(DiBM)P column after oxidation of Am(III) to Am(VI). The Am in the eluate is subsequently reduced to Am(III) and precipitated as oxalate with oxalic acid. The oxalate is then filtered and calcined to yield pure AmO 2

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract and its application to optical limiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyavathi, R; Krishna, M Bala Murali; Rao, D Narayana

    2011-03-01

    The Development of biologically inspired experimental processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is evolving into an important branch of nanotechnology. The work presented here with the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Moringa oleifera leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agent and its application in nonlinear optics. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to Moringa oleifera leaf extract are reduced resulting in silver nanoparticles demonstrating the biosynthesis. The silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-Visible, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. TEM analysis shows a dispersion of the nanoparticles in a range of 5-80 nm with the average around 46 nm and are crystallized in face centred cubic symmetry. To show that these biosynthesized silver nanoparticles possess very good nonlinear properties similar to those nanoparticles synthesized by chemical route, we carried out the Z-scan studies with a 6 ns, 532 nm pulsed laser. We estimated the nonlinear absorption coefficient and compare it with the literature values of the nanoparticles synthesized through chemical route. The silver nanoparticles suspended in solution exhibited reverse saturable absorption with optical limiting threshold of 100 mJ/cm2.

  7. Application of extraction paper chromatography in the analysis of Pu in aqueous samples containing 241Am

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagasia, Poonam; Dhami, P.S.; Tripathi, S.C.; Gandhi, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Closing the fuel cycle is an inevitable option for sustained growth and is hallmark of Indian Atomic Energy Programme. Analysis of fissile component especially plutonium is very important for almost all the process streams at the back end of the fuel cycle. Among the various Isotopes of plutonium, 241 Pu is β emitter and decays to 241 Am (T 1/2 of ∼432 y) which is an α emitter and having γ energy of ∼60 keV. Its specific activity is about 56 times higher than that Pu. Therefore, Pu stream is always associated with 241 Am and its activity increases with time needing its separation prior to radiometric assay. Among the various separation techniques, solvent extraction method employing thenoytrifluoroacetone (TTA) is commonly employed for its selective separation under particular experimental conditions. In an alternate approach, 2-ethyl hexyl 2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid (KSM-17) based extraction paper chromatography (EPC) was attempted for separation of 241 Am from plutonium prior to radiometry. Pu 4+ forms strong complex with KSM-17 and is held at the point of application whereas 241 Am migrates towards the solvent front under the experimental conditions. During migration clear separation is observed in ∼15 minutes using 0.5 M HNO 3 as developing reagent. After separation is achieved, 1 cm 2 spot area containing Pu is desorbed in 1 mL xylene phase and used for radiometric counting

  8. Fully Automated Electro Membrane Extraction Autosampler for LC-MS Systems Allowing Soft Extractions for High-Throughput Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, David; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Jensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    was optimized for soft extraction of analytes and high sample throughput. Further, it was demonstrated that by flushing the EME-syringe with acidic wash buffer and reverting the applied electric potential, carry-over between samples can be reduced to below 1%. Performance of the system was characterized (RSD......, a complete analytical workflow of purification, separation, and analysis of sample could be achieved within only 5.5 min. With the developed system large sequences of samples could be analyzed in a completely automated manner. This high degree of automation makes the developed EME-autosampler a powerful tool...

  9. Improvements to vapor generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Arthur; Monroe, Neil.

    1976-01-01

    A supporting system is proposed for vapor generators of the 'supported' type. Said supporting system is intended to compensate the disparities of thermal expansion due to the differences in the vertical dimensions of the tubes in the walls of the combustion chamber and their collectors compared to that of the balloon tanks and the connecting tube clusters of vaporization, the first one being longer than the second ones. Said system makes it possible to build said combustion chamber higher than the balloon tanks and the tube clusters of vaporization. The capacity of steam production is thus enhanced [fr

  10. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maria Helena; Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C.; Neves, Juliana S.; Mansur, Herman S.; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D.

    2013-01-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: ► Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. ► A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. ► The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. ► The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. ► The purify collagen has shown potential use as a biomaterial in tissue engineering.

  11. Effects of topical application of Curcuma longa extract in the treatment of early periodontal diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment of plaque-induced periodontal disease is largely based on the mechanical debridement of the tooth surface and meticulous maintenance of oral hygiene thereafter. Various chemical plaque control agents are used as adjuncts along with the mechanical plaque control methods for this treatment. Most of these chemical plaque control agents have varied side effects. This has led to the search of natural products which are highly effective in controlling plaque microbes while being biocompatible. Turmeric is one such well-known plant product, known for its varied medicinal value. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical efficacy of Curcuma longa oral formulation in treatment of infective inflammatory early periodontal diseases. Materials and Methods: This clinical study comprised twenty individuals presenting with clinical features of plaque-induced gingivitis and mild periodontitis. Three groups were randomly made in mouth of each patient selected for the study. Group I was treated with scaling and root planing (SCRP only. Group II was treated with SCRP plus C. longa oral formulation topical application for 2 weeks. Group III was treated only with topical application of C. longa extract oral formulation for 2 weeks. Gingival index, sulcus bleeding index, and plaque index were scored in each group before and after the treatment. Results: The results showed statistically significant improvement with respect to all the clinical parameters in all the three groups. However, Group II showed the maximum improvement (P < 0.001, followed by Group I (P < 0.001 and Group III (P < 0.05. The intergroup difference between the three groups for the improvements in clinical parameters was statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion: The oral formulation containing C. longa extract is effective in treating early infective-inflammatory periodontal diseases not only when used as an adjunct to SCRP but also when used alone.

  12. Extraction and characterization of highly purified collagen from bovine pericardium for potential bioengineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Maria Helena, E-mail: mariahelena.santos@gmail.com [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Silva, Rafael M.; Dumont, Vitor C. [Department of Dentistry, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Neves, Juliana S. [Center for Assessment and Development of Biomaterials-BioMat, Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJM, Diamantina/MG 39100-000 (Brazil); Mansur, Herman S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Federal University of Minas Gerais-UFMG, Belo Horizonte/MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Heneine, Luiz Guilherme D. [Department of Health Science, Ezequiel Dias Foundation-FUNED, Belo Horizonte/MG 30510-010 (Brazil)

    2013-03-01

    Bovine pericardium is widely used as a raw material in bioengineering as a source of collagen, a fundamental structural molecule. The physical, chemical, and biocompatibility characteristics of these natural fibers enable their broad use in several areas of the health sciences. For these applications, it is important to obtain collagen of the highest possible purity. The lack of a method to produce these pure biocompatible materials using simple and economically feasible techniques presents a major challenge to their production on an industrial scale. This study aimed to extract, purify, and characterize the type I collagen protein originating from bovine pericardium, considered to be an abundant tissue resource. The pericardium tissue was collected from male animals at slaughter age. Pieces of bovine pericardium were enzymatically digested, followed by a novel protocol developed for protein purification using ion-exchange chromatography. The material was extensively characterized by electrophoresis, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The results showed a purified material with morphological properties and chemical functionalities compatible with type I collagen and similar to a highly purified commercial collagen. Thus, an innovative and relatively simple processing method was developed to extract and purify type I collagen from bovine tissue with potential applications as a biomaterial for regenerative tissue engineering. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Type I collagen was obtained from bovine pericardium, an abundant tissue resource. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A simple and feasible processing technique was developed to purify bovine collagen. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The appropriate process may be performed on industrial scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pure collagen presented appropriate morphological and molecular characteristics. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The purify

  13. A development and an application of Mixset-X computer code for simulating the Purex solvent extraction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shida, M.; Naito, M.; Suto, T.; Omori, E.; Nojiri, T.

    2001-01-01

    MIXSET is a FORTRAN code developed to simulate the Purex solvent extraction system using mixer-settler extractors. Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has been developing the MIXSET code since the years 1970 to analyze the behavior of nuclides in the solvent extraction processes in Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP). This paper describes the history of MIXSET code development, the features of the latest version, called MIXSET-X and the application of the code for safety evaluation work. (author)

  14. Application of the medical data warehousing architecture EPIDWARE to epidemiological follow-up: data extraction and transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkri, E; Quantin, C; Yetongnon, K; Allaert, F A; Dusserre, L

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present an application of EPIDWARE, medical data warehousing architecture, to our epidemiological follow-up project. The aim of this project is to extract and regroup information from various information systems for epidemiological studies. We give a description of the requirements of the epidemiological follow-up project such as anonymity of medical data information and data file linkage procedure. We introduce the concept of Data Warehousing Architecture. The particularities of data extraction and transformation are presented and discussed.

  15. Multi-component vapor-liquid equilibrium model for LES of high-pressure fuel injection and application to ECN Spray A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matheis, Jan; Hickel, S.

    2018-01-01

    We present and evaluate a two-phase model for Eulerian large-eddy simulations (LES) of liquid-fuel injection and mixing at high pressure. The model is based on cubic equations of state and vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations and can represent the coexistence of supercritical states and

  16. Single and Double Infrared Transitions in Rapid Vapor Deposited Parahydrogen Solids: Application to Sample Thickness Determination and Quantitative Infrared Absorption Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tam, Simon

    2001-01-01

    ...) solid from its infrared (IR) absorption spectrum. Millimeters-thick pH2 solids of exceptional optical clarity can be produced by the rapid vapor deposition method M.E. Fajardo and S. Tam, J. Chem. Phys. 108, 4237 (1998...

  17. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  18. R-22 vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.P.; Armstrong, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Previous experimental and theoretical studies of R-22 vapor explosions are reviewed. Results from two experimental investigations of vapor explosions in a medium scale R-22/water system are reported. Measurements following the drop of an unrestrained mass of R-22 into a water tank demonstrated the existence of two types of interaction behavior. Release of a constrained mass of R-22 beneath the surface of a water tank improved the visual resolution of the system thus allowing identification of two interaction mechansims: at low water temperatures, R-22/water contact would produce immediate violent boiling; at high water temperatures a vapor film formed around its R-22 as it was released, explosions were generated by a surface wave which initiated at a single location and propagated along the vapor film as a shock wave. A new vapor explosion model is proposed, it suggests explosions are the result of a sequence of three independent steps: an initial mixing phase, a trigger and growth phase, and a mature phase where a propagating shock wave accelerates the two liquids into a collapsing vapor layer causing a high velocity impact which finely fragments and intermixes the two liquids

  19. A Hybrid Network Model to Extract Key Criteria and Its Application for Brand Equity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yi Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Making a decision implies that there are alternative choices to be considered, and a major challenge of decision-making is to identify the adequate criteria for program planning or problem evaluation. The decision-makers’ criteria consists of the characteristics or requirements each alternative must possess and the alternatives are rated on how well they possess each criterion. We often use criteria developed and used by different researchers and institutions, and these criteria have similar means and can be substituted for one another. Choosing from existing criteria offers a practical method to engineers hoping to derive a set of criteria for evaluating objects or programs. We have developed a hybrid model for extracting evaluation criteria which considers substitutions between the criteria. The model is developed based on Social Network Analysis and Maximum Mean De-Entropy algorithms. In this paper, the introduced methodology will also be applied to analyze the criteria for assessing brand equity as an application example. The proposed model demonstrates that it is useful in planning feasibility criteria and has applications in other evaluation-planning purposes.

  20. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  1. Metal vapor vacuum arc ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, I.G.; Dickinson, M.R.; Galvin, J.E.; Godechot, X.; MacGill, R.A.

    1990-06-01

    We have developed a family of metal vapor vacuum are (MEVVA) high current metal ion sources. The sources were initially developed for the production of high current beams of metal ions for heavy ion synchrotron injection for basic nuclear physics research; more recently they have also been used for metal ion implantation. A number of different embodiments of the source have been developed for these specific applications. Presently the sources operate in a pulsed mode, with pulse width of order 1 ms and repetition rate up to 100 pps. Beam extraction voltage is up to 100 kV, and since the ions produced in the vacuum arc plasma are in general multiply ionized the ion energy is up to several hundred keV. Beam current is up to several Amperes peak and around 10 mA time averaged delivered onto target. Nearly all of the solid metals of the Periodic Table have been use to produce beam. A number of novel features have been incorporated into the sources, including multiple cathodes and the ability to switch between up to 18 separate cathode materials simply and quickly, and a broad beam source version as well as miniature versions. here we review the source designs and their performance. 45 refs., 7 figs

  2. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-30

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results.

  3. Voltammetric behaviour at gold electrodes immersed in the BCR sequential extraction scheme media Application of underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry to determination of copper in soil extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beni, Valerio; Newton, Hazel V.; Arrigan, Damien W.M.; Hill, Martin; Lane, William A.; Mathewson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The development of mercury-free electroanalytical systems for in-field analysis of pollutants requires a foundation on the electrochemical behaviour of the chosen electrode material in the target sample matrices. In this work, the behaviour of gold working electrodes in the media employed in the BCR sequential extraction protocol, for the fractionation of metals in solid environmental matrices, is reported. All three of the BCR sequential extraction media are redox active, on the basis of acidity and oxygen content as well as the inherent reducing or oxidising nature of some of the reagents employed: 0.11 M acetic acid, 0.1 M hydroxylammonium chloride (adjusted to pH 2) and 1 M ammonium acetate (adjusted to pH 2) with added trace hydrogen peroxide. The available potential ranges together with the demonstrated detection of target metals in these media are presented. Stripping voltammetry of copper or lead in the BCR extract media solutions reveal a multi-peak behaviour due to the stripping of both bulk metal and underpotential metal deposits. A procedure based on underpotential deposition-stripping voltammetry (UPD-SV) was evaluated for application to determination of copper in 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. A preliminary screening step in which different deposition times are applied to the sample enables a deposition time commensurate with UPD-SV to be selected so that no bulk deposition or stripping occurs thus simplifying the shape and features of the resulting voltammograms. Choice of the suitable deposition time is then followed by standards addition calibration. The method was validated by the analysis of a number of BCR 0.11 M acetic acid soil extracts. Good agreement was obtained been the UPD-SV method and atomic spectroscopic results

  4. Performances of different protocols for exocellular polysaccharides extraction from milk acid gels: Application to yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, An Thi-Binh; Nigen, Michaël; Jimenez, Luciana; Ait-Abderrahim, Hassina; Marchesseau, Sylvie; Picart-Palmade, Laetitia

    2018-01-15

    Dextran or xanthan were used as model exocellular polysaccharides (EPS) to compare the extraction efficiency of EPS from skim milk acid gels using three different protocols. Extraction yields, residual protein concentrations and the macromolecular properties of extracted EPS were determined. For both model EPS, the highest extraction yield (∼80%) was obtained when samples were heated in acidic conditions at the first step of extraction (Protocol 1). Protocols that contained steps of acid/ethanol precipitation without heating (Protocols 2 and 3) show lower extraction yields (∼55%) but allow a better preservation of the EPS macromolecular properties. Changing the pH of acid gels up to 7 before extraction (Protocol 3) improved the extraction yield of anionic EPS without effect on the macromolecular properties of EPS. Protocol 1 was then applied for the quantification of EPS produced during the yogurt fermentation, while Protocol 3 was dedicated to their macromolecular characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of Embryos Extracted from Individual Cannabis sativa Seeds for Genetic Studies and Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Salvador; Borràs, Dionís; Vilanova, Santiago; Sifres, Alicia; Andújar, Isabel; Figàs, Maria R; Llosa, Ernesto R; Prohens, Jaime

    2016-03-01

    Legal limits on the psychoactive tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in Cannabis sativa plants have complicated genetic and forensic studies in this species. However, Cannabis seeds present very low THC levels. We developed a method for embryo extraction from seeds and an improved protocol for DNA extraction and tested this method in four hemp and six marijuana varieties. This embryo extraction method enabled the recovery of diploid embryos from individual seeds. An improved DNA extraction protocol (CTAB3) was used to obtain DNA from individual embryos at a concentration and quality similar to DNA extracted from leaves. DNA extracted from embryos was used for SSR molecular characterization in individuals from the 10 varieties. A unique molecular profile for each individual was obtained, and a clear differentiation between hemp and marijuana varieties was observed. The combined embryo extraction-DNA extraction methodology and the new highly polymorphic SSR markers facilitate genetic and forensic studies in Cannabis. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Application of extraction of gallium molybdotungstate HPA for their investigation in solutions and gallium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kol'tsova, E.G.; Vakulich, A.N.; Tsyganok, L.P.

    2001-01-01

    Extraction of gallium molybdotungstate heteropolyacids and their associates with a row of triphenylmethane dyes, use of extraction for study of complexing in Mo 6 -W 6 -Ga 3+ -H 3 O + system are investigated. Research of optimal analytical states and development of extraction spectrophotometric methods of gallium determination are done. It is shown that increase of Mo 6 part in heteropolyanion improves solvation interaction of heteropolyacids with organic solvents elevating extraction properties of polyanion [ru

  7. Analysis and extension of the Furter equation, and its application in the simulation of saline extractive distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto O. Timmermann

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Simulation of saline extractive distillation columns is a difficult task owing to the high nonlinearity of the rigorous models that represent these systems. The use of simple models to obtain initial estimates of equilibrium compositions may improve the stability and rate of convergence. One of the simplest models to study the vapor-liquid equilibrium of binary liquid mixtures + salt systems is the Furter equation. This model was analyzed in the present work by means of the incorporation of activity coefficient models in the ratio of relative volatility. This approach allowed systematic extensions of the Furter equation and a brief review of the theoretical basis of the original equation. As a result of these extensions, two simple equations were proposed and tested with experimental data from 20 systems, including binary liquid mixtures + salt systems and binary liquid mixtures + ionic liquid systems. Finally, one of these proposed equations was incorporated into the GKTM software in order to assess the utility of these simple models in the simulation of saline extractive distillation columns. The obtained results showed a significant improvement over the previous algorithm.

  8. Recent results of examination of the applicability of polyoxonium compounds to the extraction separation of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchalova, M.

    1992-01-01

    Macrocyclic polyethers possess an extraordinary ability to bond with high selectivity to metal ions. The salt-polyether complex is formed by ion-dipole interaction between the cation and the negatively charged oxygen atoms symmetrically positioned in the polyether ring. Compounds of cyclic polyethers can be employed as extractants in solvent extraction systems, which not only can be applied to the separation of ions but also can provide information on the mechanism of the complexation. The process of extraction of lanthanides in the presence of hydrophobic counter-ions is described, and the calculated equilibrium constants are given. A survey is presented of the application of polyoxonium compounds to the extraction separation of rare earths. (M.D.). 12 figs., 3 tabs., 40 refs

  9. Application of the Positron Annihilation Technique to the study of vapors absorption process in polyethylene (LDPE) and in imide polymer (6FDA-TMPD PI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Mendieta, V.

    1992-01-01

    It is well recognized that positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectra in polymers have a long-lived component that can be ascribed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The lifetime, τ 3 , is considered to be a measure of the size of the micro-vacancies in which o-Ps is trapped and is annihilated through pick-off annihilation with the rate which depends on the size of the vacancy. Positron lifetime measurements were performed for two different kinds of polymers (low density polyethylene and a polyimide (6FDA-TMPD) during sorption of various vapors (hexane, cyclohexane, benzene, acrylic acid, methyl acrylate, water and oxygen). The vapor sorption affected the long-lived component (ortho-positronium component) in a systematic way regardless of the kind of the vapor molecules, i.e. for the polyethylene both the lifetime and the intensity of the long-lived component were enhanced, while for the polyimide they were decreased significantly. These different effects are interpreted in terms of different states of sorbed molecules in rubbery (the polyethylene) and in glassy (the polyimide) polymers. (Author)

  10. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu, E-mail: suixiaoyu@outlook.com; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-15

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  11. Application of ionic liquids based enzyme-assisted extraction of chlorogenic acid from Eucommia ulmoides leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Li; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Xin; Li, Wenjing; Zhang, Honglian; Fu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    A new approach for ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction (ILEAE) of chlorogenic acid (CGA) from Eucommia ulmoides is presented in which enzyme pretreatment was used in ionic liquids aqueous media to enhance extraction yield. For this purpose, the solubility of CGA and the activity of cellulase were investigated in eight 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids. Cellulase in 0.5 M [C6mim]Br aqueous solution was found to provide better performance in extraction. The factors of ILEAE procedures including extraction time, extraction phase pH, extraction temperatures and enzyme concentrations were investigated. Moreover, the novel developed approach offered advantages in term of yield and efficiency compared with other conventional extraction techniques. Scanning electronic microscopy of plant samples indicated that cellulase treated cell wall in ionic liquid solution was subjected to extract, which led to more efficient extraction by reducing mass transfer barrier. The proposed ILEAE method would develope a continuous process for enzyme-assisted extraction including enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process. In this research, we propose a novel view for enzyme-assisted extraction of plant active component, besides concentrating on enzyme facilitated cell wall degradation, focusing on improvement of bad permeability of ionic liquids solutions. - Highlights: • An ionic liquid based enzyme-assisted extraction method of natural product was explored. • ILEAE utilizes enzymatic treatment to improve permeability of ionic liquids solution. • Enzyme incubation and solvent extraction process were ongoing simultaneously. • ILEAE process simplified operating process and suitable for more complete extraction.

  12. Monolithic microwave integrated circuit water vapor radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukamto, L. M.; Cooley, T. W.; Janssen, M. A.; Parks, G. S.

    1991-01-01

    A proof of concept Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) Water Vapor Radiometer (WVR) is under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). WVR's are used to remotely sense water vapor and cloud liquid water in the atmosphere and are valuable for meteorological applications as well as for determination of signal path delays due to water vapor in the atmosphere. The high cost and large size of existing WVR instruments motivate the development of miniature MMIC WVR's, which have great potential for low cost mass production. The miniaturization of WVR components allows large scale deployment of WVR's for Earth environment and meteorological applications. Small WVR's can also result in improved thermal stability, resulting in improved calibration stability. Described here is the design and fabrication of a 31.4 GHz MMIC radiometer as one channel of a thermally stable WVR as a means of assessing MMIC technology feasibility.

  13. Optimization design and application of composite ultrasonic extraction method for effective constituents of green tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A composite ultrasonic process is used to extract five constituent components of green tea, namely caffeine, catechin, epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin, and chlorogenic acid. The optimal parameters of the extraction process are determined using the robust Taguchi design method. The extracted products are analyzed using gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The experimental results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed ultrasonic technique in extracting the components of interest. Moreover, it is shown that the optimal extraction parameters depend on the particular component. In general, the present findings provide a useful reference for further research on the processing of green tea.

  14. DSMC simulations of vapor transport toward development of the lithium vapor box divertor concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoe, Christopher; Schwartz, Jacob; Goldston, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The lithium vapor divertor box concept attempts to achieve volumetric dissipation of the high heat efflux from a fusion power system. The vapor extracts the heat of the incoming plasma by ionization and radiation, while remaining localized in the vapor box due to differential pumping based on rapid condensation. Preliminary calculations with lithium vapor at densities appropriate for an NSTX-U-scale machine give Knudsen numbers between 0.01 and 1, outside both the range of continuum fluid dynamics and of collisionless Monte Carlo. The direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, however, can simulate rarefied gas flows in this regime. Using the solver contained in the OpenFOAM package, pressure-driven flows of water vapor will be analyzed. The use of water vapor in the relevant range of Knudsen number allows for a flexible similarity experiment to verify the reliability of the code before moving to tests with lithium. The simulation geometry consists of chains of boxes on a temperature gradient, connected by slots with widths that are a representative fraction of the dimensions of the box. We expect choked flow, sonic shocks, and order-of-magnitude pressure and density drops from box to box, but this expectation will be tested in the simulation and then experiment. This work is supported by the Princeton Environmental Institute.

  15. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verevkin, Sergey P.; Emel'yanenko, Vladimir N.; Algarra, Manuel; Manuel Lopez-Romero, J.; Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization Δ l g H m of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  16. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens and its application in palm olein oil industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Marwan M A; Tong, Qunyi; Abdelhai, Mandour H; Gasmalla, Mohammed A A; Ndayishimiye, Jean B; Chen, Long; Ren, Fei

    2016-03-01

    The aims of the current study were to evaluate the best technique for total phenolic extraction from Lavandula pubescens (Lp) and its application in vegetable oil industries as alternatives of synthetic food additives (TBHQ and BHT). To achieve these aims, three techniques of extraction were used: ultrasonic-microwave (40 kHz, 50 W, microwave power 480 W, 5 min), ultrasonic-homogenizer (20 kHz, 150 W, 5 min) and conventional maceration as a control. By using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the total phenolic contents (TPC) (mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry matter) were found to be 253.87, 216.96 and 203.41 for ultrasonic-microwave extract, ultrasonic-homogenizer extract and maceration extract, respectively. The ultrasonic-microwave extract achieved the higher scavenger effect of DPPH (90.53%) with EC50 (19.54 μg/mL), and higher inhibition of β-carotene/linoleate emulsion deterioration (94.44%) with IC50 (30.62 μg/mL). The activity of the ultrasonic-microwave treatment could prolong the induction period (18.82 h) and oxidative stability index (1.67) of fresh refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein oil (RBDPOo) according to Rancimat assay. There was an important synergist effect between citric acid and Lp extracts in improving the oxidative stability of fresh RBDPOo. The results of this work also showed that the ultrasonic-microwave assisted extract was the most effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains that were assessed in this study. The uses of ultrasonic-microwave could induce the acoustic cavitation and rupture of plant cells, and this facilitates the flow of solvent into the plant cells and enhances the desorption from the matrix of solid samples, and thus would enhance the efficiency of extraction based on cavitation phenomenon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Geometrical Feature Extraction from Ultrasonic Time Frequency Responses: An Application to Nondestructive Testing of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naranjo Valery

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal processing is an essential tool in nondestructive material characterization. Pulse-echo inspection with ultrasonic energy provides signals (A-scans that can be processed in order to obtain parameters which are related to physical properties of inspected materials. Conventional techniques are based on the use of a short-term frequency analysis of the A-scan, obtaining a time-frequency response (TFR, to isolate the evolution of the different frequency-dependent parameters. The application of geometrical estimators to TFRs provides an innovative way to complement conventional techniques based on the one-dimensional evolution of an A-scan extracted parameter (central or centroid frequency, bandwidth, etc.. This technique also provides an alternative method of obtaining similar meaning and less variance estimators. A comparative study of conventional versus new proposed techniques is presented in this paper. The comparative study shows that working with binarized TFRs and the use of shape descriptors provide estimates with lower bias and variance than conventional techniques. Real scattering materials, with different scatterer sizes, have been measured in order to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed estimators to distinguish among scattering soft tissues. Superior results, using the proposed estimators in real measures, were obtained when classifying according to mean scatterer size.

  18. Chemical Compositional, Biological, and Safety Studies of a Novel Maple Syrup Derived Extract for Nutraceutical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

  19. APPLICATION OF ESSENTIAL OILS EXTRACTED FROM PEELS OF ORANGES AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE OF FLOCCULANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kowalczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to determine the optimum conditions of the process of mechanical dewatering of municipal sewage sludge and reduction of odours emitted during this process. The process of dewatering of municipal sewage sludge was carried out using laboratory sedimentation centrifuge of MPW-350 type. Municipal sewage sludge stabilized during anaerobic digestion, taken from Wastewater Treatment Plant Jamno. The dewatering process was aided by cationic flocculant Praestol 855BS of real solution concentration 0.3% and essential oil from orange, which was extracted from orange peels in the process of steam distillation. Constant parameters of dewatering process were: pH, temperature, colour, texture, smell, water content and dry matter content. Independent variables of dewatering process were: centrifugation time (in the range 1–10 min, centrifugation speed (in the range 1000–3000 rotations/min and dose of mixture of flocculant Praestol 855BS (79% + essential oil of orange (21% in the range 0–48 ml/dm3. Water content in the sludge after the process, dry matter content in the effluent and the duration of the smell of oil in the sediment were determined. Studies showed that the essential oil from orange may be used as a partial substitute of flocculant Praestol 855BS in the process of centrifugal sedimentation. Essential oil of orange significantly reduces unpleasant odours which are emitted from sludge during mechanical dewatering. Simultaneous application of both reagents, ie. flocculant Praestol 855BS 79%, and essential oil of orange 21% of volume is recommended.

  20. A new method to extract dental pulp DNA: application to universal detection of bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Tran-Hung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dental pulp is used for PCR-based detection of DNA derived from host and bacteremic microorganims. Current protocols require odontology expertise for proper recovery of the dental pulp. Dental pulp specimen exposed to laboratory environment yields contaminants detected using universal 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed a new protocol by encasing decontaminated tooth into sterile resin, extracting DNA into the dental pulp chamber itself and decontaminating PCR reagents by filtration and double restriction enzyme digestion. Application to 16S rDNA-based detection of bacteria in 144 teeth collected in 86 healthy people yielded a unique sequence in only 14 teeth (9.7% from 12 individuals (14%. Each individual yielded a unique 16S rDNA sequence in 1-2 teeth per individual. Negative controls remained negative. Bacterial identifications were all confirmed by amplification and sequencing of specific rpoB sequence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The new protocol prevented laboratory contamination of the dental pulp. It allowed the detection of bacteria responsible for dental pulp colonization from blood and periodontal tissue. Only 10% such samples contained 16S rDNA. It provides a new tool for the retrospective diagnostic of bacteremia by allowing the universal detection of bacterial DNA in animal and human, contemporary or ancient tooth. It could be further applied to identification of host DNA in forensic medicine and anthropology.

  1. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

    2014-07-16

    Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup.

  3. STUDY OF RASPBERRY EXTRACT APPLICATIONS AS TEXTILE COLORANT ON NATURAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COMAN Diana

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the biomordant assisted application of natural extracts obtained from red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. fruits onto two different cellulosic supports – flax and bamboo. The study relies on the improvement of multifunctionalities such as colour fastness, washing and rubbing fastness, due to the synergism provided by the co-assistance of both a biomordant, and the complex resulted by inclusion of the pigment molecule, in the cavity of MCT-β-CD; it is well known that natural dye molecule have a good selectivity binding to the hydrophobic monochloro-triazynil-cyclodextrin’s (MCT-β-CD cavity to form inclusion complexes. An investigation system provided the characterization of the composites: FT-IR spectroscopy stressed the main chemical bonds created between MCT-β-CD as host molecule and guest molecule represented by natural colorant molecule; Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET Surface Area Analysis completes the analysis, proving the positive contribution of MCT-β-cyclodextrin grafting. Dyeing fastness and colour modifications were conclusive for this research. Samples of bamboo knitting are less colorful than those of the flax fabric in terms of high absorption capacity and stability / durability of natural dye applied by inclusion within cyclodextrin’s inner. The results of analysis revealed improvement of washing and rubbing fastness (1-1.5 points. Colour modifications noticed due to the colorant deposition were quantified from up to 3 points.

  4. Extracting surface diffusion coefficients from batch adsorption measurement data: application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Khim Hoong

    2017-11-09

    Surface diffusion coefficients may be estimated by fitting solutions of a diffusion model to batch kinetic data. For non-linear systems, a numerical solution of the diffusion model's governing equations is generally required. We report here the application of the classic Langmuir kinetics model to extract surface diffusion coefficients from batch kinetic data. The use of the Langmuir kinetics model in lieu of the conventional surface diffusion model allows derivation of an analytical expression. The parameter estimation procedure requires determining the Langmuir rate coefficient from which the pertinent surface diffusion coefficient is calculated. Surface diffusion coefficients within the 10 -9 to 10 -6  cm 2 /s range obtained by fitting the Langmuir kinetics model to experimental kinetic data taken from the literature are found to be consistent with the corresponding values obtained from the traditional surface diffusion model. The virtue of this simplified parameter estimation method is that it reduces the computational complexity as the analytical expression involves only an algebraic equation in closed form which is easily evaluated by spreadsheet computation.

  5. Applications of genetic algorithms to optimization problems in the solvent extraction process for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Ryota, Sakakibara, Yasushi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki

    1997-01-01

    Applications of genetic algorithms (GAs) to optimization problems in the solvent extraction process for spent nuclear fuel are described. Genetic algorithms have been considered a promising tool for use in solving optimization problems in complicated and nonlinear systems because they require no derivatives of the objective function. In addition, they have the ability to treat a set of many possible solutions and consider multiple objectives simultaneously, so they can calculate many pareto optimal points on the trade-off curve between the competing objectives in a single iteration, which leads to small computing time. Genetic algorithms were applied to two optimization problems. First, process variables in the partitioning process were optimized using a weighted objective function. It was observed that the average fitness of a generation increased steadily as the generation proceeded and satisfactory solutions were obtained in all cases, which means that GAs are an appropriate method to obtain such an optimization. Secondly, GAs were applied to a multiobjective optimization problem in the co-decontamination process, and the trade-off curve between the loss of uranium and the solvent flow rate was successfully obtained. For both optimization problems, CPU time with the present method was estimated to be several tens of times smaller than with the random search method

  6. Application of Moringa Oleifera seed extract to treat coffee fermentation wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, William K; Buchberger, Steven G; Wendell, David; Kupferle, Margaret J

    2017-05-05

    Wastewater generated from wet processing of coffee cherries degrades stream water quality downstream of processing mills and impacts human health. The widespread popularity of coffee as an export makes this a global problem, although the immediate impact is local. Approximately 40% of all coffee around the world is wet processed, producing wastewater rich in organic nutrients that can be hazardous to aquatic systems. Moringa Oleifera Seed Extract (MOSE) offers promise as a local and affordable "appropriate" coagulation technology for aiding in the treatment of coffee wastewater. Field research was conducted at the Kauai Coffee Company to investigate the application of MOSE to treat coffee fermentation wastewater (CFW). Coagulation tests were conducted at five pH CFW levels (3-7) and MOSE doses (0-4g/L). After settling, TSS, COD, nitrate, nitrite, total nitrogen, and pH of supernatant from each test were measured. MOSE reduced TSS, COD, nitrate, and nitrite in CFW to varying degrees dependent on pH and dose applied. TSS removal ranged from 8% to 54%. Insoluble COD removal ranged from 26% to 100% and total COD removal ranged from 1% to 25%. Nitrate and nitrite reduction ranged from 20% to 100%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Water vapor and Gas Transport through Polymeric Membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water vapor transport through polymeric materials plays an important role in a large number of applications such as: food packaging, breathable clothing, roofing membranes, diapers, and the removal of water vapor from gas streams (e.g. dehydration of natural gas or the drying of compressed air).

  8. Ultrasound assisted enhancement in natural dye extraction from beetroot for industrial applications and natural dyeing of leather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Venkatasubramanian; Anna, J Lakshmi; Vijayeeswarri, J; Swaminathan, G

    2009-08-01

    There is a growing demand for eco-friendly/non-toxic colorants, specifically for health sensitive applications such as coloration of food and dyeing of child textile/leather garments. Recently, dyes derived from natural sources for these applications have emerged as an important alternative to potentially harmful synthetic dyes and pose need for suitable effective extraction methodologies. The present paper focus on the influence of process parameters for ultrasound assisted leaching of coloring matter from plant materials. In the present work, extraction of natural dye from beetroot using ultrasound has been studied and compared with static/magnetic stirring as a control process at 45 degrees C. The influence of process parameters on the extraction efficiency such as ultrasonic output power, time, pulse mode, effect of solvent system and amount of beetroot has been studied. The use of ultrasound is found to have significant improvement in the extraction efficiency of colorant obtained from beetroot. Based on the experiments it has been found that a mixture of 1:1 ethanol-water with 80W ultrasonic power for 3h contact time provided better yield and extraction efficiency. Pulse mode operation may be useful in reducing electrical energy consumption in the extraction process. The effect of the amount of beetroot used in relation to extraction efficiency has also been studied. Two-stage extraction has been studied and found to be beneficial for improving the yield for higher amounts of beetroot. Significant 8% enhancement in % yield of colorant has been achieved with ultrasound, 80W as compared to MS process both using 1:1 ethanol-water. The coloring ability of extracted beet dye has been tested on substrates such as leather and paper and found to be suitable for dyeing. Ultrasound is also found to be beneficial in natural dyeing of leather with improved rate of exhaustion. Both the dyed substrates have better color values for ultrasonic beet extract as inferred from

  9. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (psausages (pSausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (psausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  10. Soil remediation via bioventing, vapor extraction and transition regime between vapor extraction and bioventing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Comparison of the BV, SVE and AIBV technologies indicated that all of those technologies are efficient for remediation of unsaturated zone, but after specific remediation time frames, only AIBV able to support guide line values and protect ground waters.

  11. The application of SVR model in the improvement of QbD: a case study of the extraction of podophyllotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chun-Hui; Xuan, Jian-Bang; Fan, Hai-Liu; Zhao, Teng-Fei; Jiang, Jian-Lan

    2018-05-03

    In order to make a further optimization of process design via increasing the stability of design space, we brought in the model of Support Vector Regression (SVR). In this work, the extraction of podophyllotoxin was researched as a case study based on Quality by Design (QbD). We compared the fitting effect of SVR and the most used quadratic polynomial model (QPM) in QbD, and an analysis was made between the two design spaces obtained by SVR and QPM. As a result, the SVR stayed ahead of QPM in prediction accuracy, the stability of model and the generalization ability. The introduction of SVR into QbD made the extraction process of podophyllotoxin well designed and easier to control. The better fitting effect of SVR improved the application effect of QbD and the universal applicability of SVR, especially for non-linear, complicated and weak-regularity problems, widened the application field of QbD.

  12. Evaluation of extractables in processed and unprocessed polymer materials used for pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults, Cheryl L M; Ansell, Jennifer M; Shaw, Arthur J; Nagao, Lee M

    2015-02-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables during stability studies late in the development process, or components that may fail extractables release criteria, it is proposed that extractables testing on polymer resins may be useful as a screening tool. Two studies have been performed to evaluate whether the extractables profile generated from a polymer resin is representative of the extractables profile of components made from that same resin. The ELSIE Consortium pilot program examined polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, and another study evaluated polypropylene and a copolymer of polycarbonate and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. The test materials were comprised of polymer resin and processed resin or molded components. Volatile, semi-volatile, and nonvolatile chemical profiles were evaluated after headspace sampling and extraction with solvents of varying polarity and pH. The findings from these studies indicate that there may or may not be differences between extractables profiles obtained from resins and processed forms of the resin depending on the type of material, the compounds of interest, and extraction conditions used. Extractables testing of polymer resins is useful for material screening and in certain situations may replace routine component testing.

  13. Direct extraction of genomic DNA from maize with aqueous ionic liquid buffer systems for applications in genetically modified organisms analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez García, Eric; Ressmann, Anna K; Gaertner, Peter; Zirbs, Ronald; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Bica, Katharina; Brunner, Kurt

    2014-12-01

    To date, the extraction of genomic DNA is considered a bottleneck in the process of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. Conventional DNA isolation methods are associated with long extraction times and multiple pipetting and centrifugation steps, which makes the entire procedure not only tedious and complicated but also prone to sample cross-contamination. In recent times, ionic liquids have emerged as innovative solvents for biomass processing, due to their outstanding properties for dissolution of biomass and biopolymers. In this study, a novel, easily applicable, and time-efficient method for the direct extraction of genomic DNA from biomass based on aqueous-ionic liquid solutions was developed. The straightforward protocol relies on extraction of maize in a 10 % solution of ionic liquids in aqueous phosphate buffer for 5 min at room temperature, followed by a denaturation step at 95 °C for 10 min and a simple filtration to remove residual biopolymers. A set of 22 ionic liquids was tested in a buffer system and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate, as well as the environmentally benign choline formate, were identified as ideal candidates. With this strategy, the quality of the genomic DNA extracted was significantly improved and the extraction protocol was notably simplified compared with a well-established method.

  14. Hydrogen isotope correction for laser instrument measurement bias at low water vapor concentration using conventional isotope analyses: application to measurements from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L R; Sharp, Z D; Galewsky, J; Strong, M; Van Pelt, A D; Dong, F; Noone, D

    2011-03-15

    The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of water vapor can be measured with commercially available laser spectroscopy analyzers in real time. Operation of the laser systems in relatively dry air is difficult because measurements are non-linear as a function of humidity at low water concentrations. Here we use field-based sampling coupled with traditional mass spectrometry techniques for assessing linearity and calibrating laser spectroscopy systems at low water vapor concentrations. Air samples are collected in an evacuated 2 L glass flask and the water is separated from the non-condensable gases cryogenically. Approximately 2 µL of water are reduced to H(2) gas and measured on an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. In a field experiment at the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO), we ran Picarro and Los Gatos Research (LGR) laser analyzers for a period of 25 days in addition to periodic sample collection in evacuated flasks. When the two laser systems are corrected to the flask data, they are strongly coincident over the entire 25 days. The δ(2)H values were found to change by over 200‰ over 2.5 min as the boundary layer elevation changed relative to MLO. The δ(2)H values ranged from -106 to -332‰, and the δ(18)O values (uncorrected) ranged from -12 to -50‰. Raw data from laser analyzers in environments with low water vapor concentrations can be normalized to the international V-SMOW scale by calibration to the flask data measured conventionally. Bias correction is especially critical for the accurate determination of deuterium excess in dry air. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Note: implementation of a cold spot setup for controlled variation of vapor pressures and its application to an InBr containing discharge lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefi, S

    2013-02-01

    In order to allow for a systematic investigation of the plasma properties of discharges containing indium halides, which are proposed as an efficient alternative for mercury based low pressure discharge lamps, a controlled variation of the indium halide density is mandatory. This can be achieved by applying a newly designed setup in which a well-defined cold spot location is implemented and the cold spot temperature can be adjusted between 50 and 350 °C without influencing the gas temperature. The performance of the setup has been proved by comparing the calculated evaporated InBr density (using the vapor pressure curve) with the one measured via white light absorption spectroscopy.

  16. Empirical model for calculating vapor-liquid equilibrium and associated phase enthalpy for the CO2--O2--Kr--Xe system for application to the KALC process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.W.; Gilliam, T.M.; Fowler, V.L.

    1976-01-01

    An empirical model is presented for vapor-liquid equilibria and enthalpy for the CO 2 -O 2 system. In the model, krypton and xenon in very low concentrations are combined with the CO 2 -O 2 system, thereby representing the total system of primary interest in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor program for removing krypton from off-gas generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel. Selected properties of the individual and combined components being considered are presented in the form of tables and empirical equations

  17. In-well vapor stripping drilling and characterization work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegler, K.J.

    1994-01-01

    This work plan provides the information necessary for drilling, sampling, and hydrologic testing of wells to be completed in support of a demonstration of the in-well vapor stripping system. The in-well vapor stripping system is a remediation technology designed to preferentially extract volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from contaminated groundwater by converting them to a vapor phase. Air-lift pumping is used to lift and aerate groundwater within the well. The volatiles escaping the aerated water are drawn off by a slight vacuum and treated at the surface while the water is allowed to infiltrate the vadose zone back to the watertable

  18. Liquid--liquid extraction of gold with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate) and its application to activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajo, S.; Wyttenbach, A.

    1977-10-01

    The extraction of Au/sup 3 +/ with nickel bis(diethyldithiocarbamate), Ni((C/sub 2/H/sub 5/)/sub 2/NCS/sub 2/)/sub 2/, is investigated. It is shown that this extraction offers a simple, fast, and selective isolation of Au from a variety of matrices. Applications of this separation scheme to the neutron activation analysis of Sn, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, standard rocks, and biological materials are given. The recovery of Au is quantitative, and there is therefore no need to determine the chemical yield of the separation. The recovered Au is of high radiochemical purity.

  19. Selective extraction of actinides by calixarenes: application to bioassay analysis; Extraction selective des actinides par les calixarenes: application a l'analyse radiotoxicologique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulet, B

    2006-01-15

    In the context of nuclear workers monitoring, the aim of this PhD was to selectively isolate U, Pu, and Am from urine to propose a new analytical procedure to the Medical and Biology Analysis Laboratories. The 1,3,5-OCH{sub 3}-2,4,6-OCH{sub 2}CONHOH-p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene molecule has been selected as a promising extractant for U, Pu, and Am. Its physico-chemical properties and its affinity for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} have been studied through two approaches, one theoretical (molecular modelling at DFT level), and one experimental. The extractions of the three actinides by the hydroxamic calix[6]arene were quantitative in liquid-liquid and solid-liquid systems. Their separation has also been shown possible and efficient. After optimization, the proposed procedure should allow the laboratories to carry out the chemical treatment of urine, before the measurement, in one day instead of the three days needed nowadays. (author)

  20. Vaporization of irradiated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.L.; O'Rourke, P.J.; Zardecki, A.

    1986-01-01

    The vaporization of a spherically symmetric liquid droplet subject to a high-intensity laser flux is investigated on the basis of a hydrodynamic description of the system composed of the vapor and ambient gas. In the limit of the convective vaporization, the boundary conditions at the fluid--gas interface are formulated by using the notion of a Knudsen layer in which translational equilibrium is established. This leads to approximate jump conditions at the interface. For homogeneous energy deposition, the hydrodynamic equations are solved numerically with the aid of the CON1D computer code (''CON1D: A computer program for calculating spherically symmetric droplet combustion,'' Los Alamos National Laboratory Report No. LA-10269-MS, December, 1984), based on the implict continuous--fluid Eulerian (ICE) [J. Comput. Phys. 8, 197 (1971)] and arbitrary Lagrangian--Eulerian (ALE) [J. Comput. Phys. 14, 1227 (1974)] numerical mehtods. The solutions exhibit the existence of two shock waves propagating in opposite directions with respect to the contact discontinuity surface that separates the ambient gas and vapor

  1. Vapor liquid fraction determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This invention describes a method of measuring liquid and vapor fractions in a non-homogeneous fluid flowing through an elongate conduit, such as may be required with boiling water, non-boiling turbulent flows, fluidized bed experiments, water-gas mixing analysis, and nuclear plant cooling. (UK)

  2. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  3. Enthalpy of Vaporization and Vapor Pressures: An Inexpensive Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battino, Rubin; Dolson, David A.; Hall, Michael A.; Letcher, Trevor M.

    2007-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive method to determine the enthalpy of vaporization of liquids by measuring vapor pressure as a function of temperature is described. The vapor pressures measured with the stopcock cell were higher than the literature values and those measured with the sidearm rubber septum cell were both higher and lower than literature…

  4. Soil sampling and extraction methods with possible application to pear thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Bater

    1991-01-01

    Techniques are described for the sampling and extraction of microarthropods from soil and the potential of these methods to extract the larval stages of the pear thrips, Taeniothrips inconsequens (Uzel), from soil cores taken in sugar maple stands. Also described is a design for an emergence trap that could be used to estimate adult thrips...

  5. Application of Box-Behnken design for ultrasonic-assisted extraction of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ajaz; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Wani, Tanveer A; Raish, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the ultrasonic assisted extraction and optimization of polysaccharides from Paeonia emodi and evaluation of its anti-inflammatory response. Specifically, the optimization of polysaccharides was carried out using Box-Behnken statistical experimental design. Response surface methodology (RSM) of three factors (extraction temperature, extraction time and liquid solid ratio) was employed to optimize the percentage yield of the polysaccharides. The experimental data were fitted to quadratic response surface models using multiple regression analysis with high coefficient of determination value (R) of 0.9906. The highest polysaccharide yield (8.69%) as per the Derringer's desirability prediction tool was obtained under the optimal extraction condition (extraction temperature 47.03 °C, extraction time 15.68 min, and liquid solid ratio 1.29 ml/g) with a desirability value of 0.98. These optimized values of tested parameters were validated under similar conditions (n = 6), an average of 8.13 ± 2.08% of polysaccharide yield was obtained in an optimized extraction conditions with 93.55% validity. The anti-inflammatory effect of polysaccharides of P. emodi were studied on carrageenan induced paw edema. In vivo results showed that the P. emodi 200mg/kg of polysaccharide extract exhibited strong potential against inflammatory response induced by 1% suspension of carrageenean in normal saline. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. New opportunities of the application of natural herb and spice extracts in plant oils: application of electron paramagnetic resonance in examining the oxidative stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Zawada, Katarzyna; Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the applicability of natural water-ethanol extracts of herbs and spices in increasing the oxidative stability of plant oils and in the production of novel food. Different concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, and 700 ppm) of spice extracts and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) (100 ppm) were added to the studied oils. The antioxidant activity of spice extracts was determined with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical assay. The study showed that the extracts significantly increased the oxidative stability of the examined oils when compared to one of the strongest synthetic antioxidants--BHA. The applied simple production technology and addition of herb and spice extracts to plant oils enabled enhancement of their oxidative stability. The extracts are an alternative to the oils aromatized with an addition of fresh herbs, spices, and vegetables because it did not generate additional flavors thus enabling the maintenance of the characteristic ones. Moreover, it will increase the intake of natural substances in human diet, which are known to possess anticarcinogenic properties. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Improvement of Aluminum-Air Battery Performances by the Application of Flax Straw Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, Ekaterina; Gelman, Danny; Belopukhov, Sergey; Starosvetsky, David; Groysman, Alec; Ein-Eli, Yair

    2016-08-23

    The effect of a flax straw extract on Al corrosion inhibition in a strong alkaline solution was studied by using electrochemical measurements, weight-loss analysis, SEM, and FTIR spectroscopy. Flax straw extract added (3 vol %) to the 5 m KOH solution to act as a mixed-type Al corrosion inhibitor. The electrochemistry of Al in the presence of a flax straw extract in the alkaline solution, the effect of the extract on the Al morphology and surface films formed, and the corrosion inhibition mechanism are discussed. Finally, the Al-air battery discharge capacity recorded from a cell that used the flax straw extract in the alkaline electrolyte is substantially higher than that with only a pure alkaline electrolyte. This improved sustainability of the Al anode is attributed to Al corrosion inhibition and, consequently, to hydrogen evolution suppression. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Vrushali M; Rathod, Virendra K

    2015-06-01

    This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP) was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica . Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t -butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP). Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  9. A novel method to augment extraction of mangiferin by application of microwave on three phase partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali M. Kulkarni

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work reports a novel approach where three phase partitioning (TPP was combined with microwave for extraction of mangiferin from leaves of Mangifera indica. Soxhlet extraction was used as reference method, which yielded 57 mg/g in 5 h. Under optimal conditions such as microwave irradiation time 5 min, ammonium sulphate concentration 40% w/v, power 272 W, solute to solvent ratio 1:20, slurry to t-butanol ratio 1:1, soaking time 5 min and duty cycle 50%, the mangiferin yield obtained was 54 mg/g by microwave assisted three phase partitioning extraction (MTPP. Thus extraction method developed resulted into higher extraction yield in a shorter span, thereby making it an interesting alternative prior to down-stream processing.

  10. Disposition of the iron, influenced by the application of humic acid, extracted of filter cake of sugar cane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales L, Carmen Soledad; Garcia Ocampo, Alvaro

    1995-01-01

    Two extracting (NaOH and KOH) and several acidifying solutions were used to get humic acids from filter cake of sugar cane, composted coffee beans and hen manure. The humic acids obtained were characterized and applied to evaluate their effect on the iron availability to tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in nutrient solutions. The amount of humic acids extracted from filter cake is between hen manure and composted coffee beans. The nuclear magnetic resonance characterization of the different humic materials indicated that the ones extracted from filter cake have a carboxylic chain larger than the other two materials and an aliphatic chain lower than the leonardite humic acids and also are younger. Application of 40 to 80 mg/L of humic acids to nutrient solutions promote physiological responses on tomato plants due to greater assimilation of N, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu and Mn

  11. Miniaturized preconcentration methods based on liquid-liquid extraction and their application in inorganic ultratrace analysis and speciation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena-Pereira, Francisco; Lavilla, Isela; Bendicho, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) is widely used as a pre-treatment technique for separation and preconcentration of both organic and inorganic analytes from aqueous samples. Nevertheless, it has several drawbacks, such as emulsion formation or the use of large volumes of solvents, which makes LLE expensive and labour intensive. Therefore, miniaturization of conventional liquid-liquid extraction is needed. The search for alternatives to the conventional LLE using negligible volumes of extractant and the minimum number of steps has driven the development of three new miniaturized methodologies, i.e. single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fibre liquid-phase microextraction (HF-LPME) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME). The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of these novel preconcentration approaches and their potential use in analytical labs involved in inorganic (ultra)trace analysis and speciation. Relevant applications to the determination of metal ions, metalloids, organometals and non-metals are included

  12. [Application of microwave technology in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng-kuan; Zhou, Mao; Liu, Yuan; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, optimization of the conditions of microwave technique in extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule in the condition of a pilot scale was carried out. First of all, through the single factor experiment investigation of various factors, the overall impact tendency and range of each factor were determined. Secondly, L9 (3(4)) orthogonal test optimization was used, and the contents of gallic acid in liquid, paeoniflorin, benzoic acid, cinnamic acid, benzoyl paeoniflorin, amygdalin of the liquid medicine were detected. The extraction rate and comprehensive evaluation were calculated with the extraction effect, as the judgment basis. Theoptimum extraction process of Guizhi Fuling capsule by microwave technology was as follows: the ratio of liquid to solid was 6: 1 added to drinking water, the microwave power was 6 kW, extraction time was 20 min for 3 times. The process of the three batch of amplification through verification, the results are stable, and compared with conventional water extraction has the advantages of energy saving, time saving, high efficiency advantages. The above results show the optimum extracting technology of high efficiency, stable and feasible.

  13. Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Sofia Ribeiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand.

  14. Application of extraction replicas and analytical electron microscopy to precipitate phase studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenik, E.A.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extraction replicas provide a powerful extension of AEM techniques for analysis of fine precipitates. In many cases, replicas allow more accurate analyses to be performed and, in some cases, allow unique analyses which cannot be performed in-foil. However, there are limitations to the use of extraction replicas in AEM, of which the analyst must be aware. Many can be eliminated by careful preparation. Often, combined AEM studies of precipitates in-foil and on extraction replicas provide complementary and corroborative information for the fullest analysis of precipitate phases

  15. Impact Of Different Time Planting In Soybeans And Neem Seed Extract Application To Insect Population On Rice Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamrin Abdullah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of research is to study impact of different time planting of soybean and neem seed extract application to pest insect population on rice field. The research was used Random Block Design in three treatment of insecticides application i.e neem seed extract together with rice planting neem seed extract on soybean 17 days after rice planting synthetic insecticides on 17 days after rice planting Delthametrin on soybean and Chlorpirifos on rice respectively. Research was conducted in rice fields with irrigation channels. The land area is 0.8 hectares with extensive experiments each rice terraces approximately 900 m2 with separate by rice terraces for every treatment. Each treatment consisted of three groups and using nine rice terraces. Samples of the rice plant population is 25 plants per sample unit. The results was showed treatment by neem seed extract with different time planting of soybeans able to reduce number of pest insects populations such as N. virescens 80.38 N. lugens 67.17 S. incertulas 66.5 and L. oratorius 93.46 when compared to treatment with synthetic insecticides Delthamethrin and Chlorpyrifos.

  16. Antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract (cinnamomum burmannii) and its application as a mouthwash to inhibit streptococcus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waty, Syahdiana; Suryanto, Dwi; Yurnaliza

    2018-03-01

    Cinnamon bark has been commonly used as spicy and traditional medicine. It contains several antibacterial compounds such as flavonoids, saponins, and cinnamaldehyde. Several studies have been done to know the antibacterial effect on bacteria such as Streptococcus in vitro. This study aimed to examine the antibacterial activity of cinnamon ethanol extract against Streptococcus and its application as mouthwash to inhibit the bacteria. The cinnamon bark was macerated followed by extracted in 80% ethanol. Bacterial samples were isolated from dental plaque of patients visiting dental clinic drg. Syahdiana Waty in Medan, North Sumatra. The isolates were identified using Vitek 2 compact. Secondary metabolites were detected using previously described method. Antibacterial assay was done at extract concentration of 6.25%, 12.5%, and 25%. The result showed that alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, and glycoside were detected in the extract. Nine bacterial species were identified as Streptococcus mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S. pluranimalium, S. pneumoniae, S. alactolyticus, Kocuria rosea, Kocuria kristinae, and Spingomonas paucimolis. It showed that the extract of Cinnamon bark significantly inhibited Streptococcus growth, and it was effective as mouthwash.

  17. Detection of {alpha} particles using semiconductors. Application to the control of plutonium extraction; Detection des particules {alpha} par semiconducteurs application au controle de l'extraction du plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanguy, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    A study is made of a particles produced by thick sources, using either diffused junction or surface barrier semiconductor detectors for controlling continuously the plutonium extraction process. For this, a presenting apparatus is described in which the solutions to be analyzed flow in contact with the detector protected by a thin mica membrane. A method is described which gives a precise recording of the spectra and which thus allows the separation of two or more {alpha} emitters present in the same solution. This method has been applied to the measurement of {sup 239}Pu in the the presence of {sup 241}Am with an accuracy of {+-}5 per cent. In the second part of the report is considered the detection of plutonium in solutions of {beta} - {gamma} emitting fission products. Pile-up is reduced by using a fast amplification chain associated to totally depleted thin detectors. Under these conditions a few mg of {sup 239}Pu can be detected in solutions of fission products having an activity of 100 curies/liter. A method is given for discriminating {alpha} and {beta} particles, it is based on the difference in the collection times for the charges liberated by these particles in the detector. (author) [French] On etudie la detection de particules {alpha} issues de sources epaisses par detecteurs semiconducteurs a jonction diffusee ou a barriere de surface pour le controle continu du procede d'extraction du plutonium. A cet effet on decrit un appareil presentateur dans lequel les solutions a analyser circulent au contact du detecteur protege par une membrane mince de mica. On decrit une methode qui permet par le trace precis des spectres de separer deux ou plusieurs emetteurs {alpha} presents dans une meme solution. Cette methode a ete appliquee a la mesure du {sup 239}Pu en presence de {sup 241}Am avec une precision de {+-} 5 pour cent. Dans la deuxieme partie on traite de la detection du plutonium dans des solutions de produits de fission emetteurs {beta} and {gamma}. On

  18. Vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of linear aliphatic alkanediamines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, Vasiliy A.; Verevkin, Sergey P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We measured vapor pressure of diamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = 3 to 12. → Vaporization enthalpies at 298 K were derived. → We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. → Enthalpies of vaporization show linear dependence on numbers n. → Enthalpies of vaporization correlate linearly with Kovat's indices. - Abstract: Vapor pressures and the molar enthalpies of vaporization of the linear aliphatic alkanediamines H 2 N-(CH 2 ) n -NH 2 with n = (3 to 12) have been determined using the transpiration method. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization (at T = 298.15 K) of the alkanediamines with the number n and with the Kovat's indices has been found, proving the internal consistency of the measured data.

  19. Adsorption characteristics of water vapor on ferroaluminophosphate for desalination cycle

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Youngdeuk; Thu, Kyaw; Ng, Kim Choon

    2014-01-01

    The adsorption characteristics of microporous ferroaluminophosphate adsorbent (FAM-Z01, Mitsubishi Plastics) are evaluated for possible application in adsorption desalination and cooling (AD) cycles. A particular interest is its water vapor uptake

  20. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, J.H

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe{sub (1-x)}S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir

  1. The applications of microwave energy to improve grindability and extraction of gold ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.H.

    2000-10-01

    In this study, the applications of microwave energy in gold ore processing were investigated. An investigation of microwave heating characteristics indicated that the heating rate of an ore was not only related to the applied microwave field, but also to the mineralogy of the ore. Heating rate and the difference between the bulk temperature of an ore and the local temperature of high dielectric loss minerals increased with applied microwave power level, the content of high dielectric loss minerals, the particle size of the ore and the disseminated high dielectric loss minerals. The relationship between heating rate and surrounding environment is also discussed in this study. Investigations indicated that the microwave exposure could reduce the grindability of ores. For the Lihir gold ore, a decrease of 11% in the comparative grindability was obtained when it was exposed to 1500W microwave energy for 8 minutes. The decrease in grinding resistance resulted predominantly from the fractures induced by thermal stresses and differential thermal expansion of mineral phases during microwave heating. Experimental results showed that marcasite and pyrite could be decomposed into elemental sulphur and pyrrhotite-like Fe-S phases in an inert atmosphere, or oxidised into a porous hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ) in an air atmosphere when they were exposed to microwaves. Microwave power had a significant impact on the decomposition of pyrite and marcasite. Marcasite was more readily decomposed than pyrite at the same exposure conditions. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and X-ray diffraction results indicated that the alterations during microwave treatment were complex. Some intermediate products (e.g. Fe (1-x) S) were formed before the sulphides were completely oxidised into hematite (Fe 2 O 3 ). Oxidation developed from the surfaces into the cores of the microwaved particles. Metallic particles were also formed during microwave exposure. Lihir gold ore, in which

  2. Extraction of Jatropha curcas proteins and application in polyketone-based wood adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamarneh, A. I.; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha proteins were successfully extracted from the corresponding seeds using the principle of isoelectric precipitation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the obtained

  3. Development of Axial Compressor Heat-Extraction Capability for Thermal Management Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ATA Engineering, Inc. (ATA) proposes a small business innovation research (SBIR) program for a novel compressor heat-extraction development program in response to...

  4. Application of enzymatic methods for chia (Salvia hispanica L oil extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Ciau-Solís

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim was to evaluate the use of different enzymatic treatments on the oil extraction yield from Chia (Salvia hispanica L. seeds Methods. Enzymatic extraction was performed by treating of whole and degummed chia flours with different conditions of enzyme concentration, pH and temperature. Commercial enzymes were employed: Viscozyme LTM (endo-1,3 (4-betaglucanase derived from Aspergillus aculeatus, with 100 FBG g (Beta Glucanase-unit Fungal and Neutrase0.8LTM, neutral protease with 0.8 AU-NH/g of activity, derived from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Results. All treatments of enzymatic oil extraction were different (P <0.05 and the maximum oil yield obtained was 9.35%. Conclusion. Oil extraction using enzymatic methods is not a viable for chia seed

  5. Application of Moringa Peregrina seed extract as a natural coagulant for Phenol removal from aqueous solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edris Bazrafshan

    2013-02-01

    Conclusion: According to the obtained results, Moringa peregrina seed extract, with respect to its high efficacy, can be used as an effective, efficient, and inexpensive coagulant in removing phenol from aqueous environments.

  6. Investigation of actinide extraction by calixarenes. Application to radio-toxicological analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinse, Christelle

    1999-01-01

    As measurement of uranium in urine is one of the controls performed for a dosimetric survey of workers exposed to risk of internal contamination, this research thesis aimed at the selection of a new ligand able to selectively extract uranium (even traces of uranium) from urine. Optimal extraction conditions have been achieved and an analysis protocol has been proposed. A calixarene compound comprising three carboxylic functions has been chosen as selective ligand for the uranyl ion. Extraction properties of this calixarene have been studied in a two phase system. The influence of complexing anions generally present in urines (such as chloride, sulphate or phosphate ions) has been assessed. This protocol allows uranium to be isolated in a more repeatable, while simpler and quicker way. Moreover, after de-extraction, uranium measurement can be quickly performed by ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) [fr

  7. Application of the Taguchi analytical method for optimization of effective parameters of the chemical vapor deposition process controlling the production of nanotubes/nanobeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Maheshwar; Apte, P R; Purandare, S C; Zacharia, Renju

    2005-02-01

    Seven variable parameters of the chemical vapor deposition system have been optimized with the help of the Taguchi analytical method for getting a desired product, e.g., carbon nanotubes or carbon nanobeads. It is observed that almost all selected parameters influence the growth of carbon nanotubes. However, among them, the nature of precursor (racemic, R or Technical grade camphor) and the carrier gas (hydrogen, argon and mixture of argon/hydrogen) seem to be more important parameters affecting the growth of carbon nanotubes. Whereas, for the growth of nanobeads, out of seven parameters, only two, i.e., catalyst (powder of iron, cobalt, and nickel) and temperature (1023 K, 1123 K, and 1273 K), are the most influential parameters. Systematic defects or islands on the substrate surface enhance nucleation of novel carbon materials. Quantitative contributions of process parameters as well as optimum factor levels are obtained by performing analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of mean (ANOM), respectively.

  8. Secondary Electrons from Water Vapor with the Impact of 6.0 MeV/u He2+ Ions: Atomic Data and their Application to Biomedical Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Y.; Soga, F.; Ohsawa, D.; Higashi, A.; Kawauchi, H.; Hirabayashi, M.; Okada, Y.; Uehara, S.; Nikjoo, H.

    2005-01-01

    We measured the energy and angular distributions (7 eV-10 keV and 20 degree sign -160 degree sign ) of secondary electrons produced in collisions of 6.0 MeV/u He2+ ions with water vapor. Binary-encounter collision peaks were clearly observed at the calculated energies at angles of 3keV. To assess the new cross sections, these values were incorporated in the kurbuc Monte-Carlo track structure code system for a simulation of secondary electrons. Radial dose distributions for 6.0 MeV/u He2+ ions were obtained by analyzing the tracks generated by the code kurbuc using the new DDCS values. In the core with a radius (r) of less than 1 nm, the dose is very high due mainly to excitation events, induced by low-energy electrons. The penumbra shows a well-known r-2 dependence

  9. Method for estimating critical properties of heavy compounds suitable for cubic equations of state and its application to the prediction of vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Ioannis, Smirlis; Iakovos, Yakoumis

    1997-01-01

    S. The proposed scheme employs a recent group-contribution method (Constantinou et al. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1995, 103 (1), 11) for estimating the acentric factor. The two critical properties are estimated via a generalized correlation for the ratio T-c/P-c (with the van der Waals surface area) and the cubic Eo...... pressures for several nonpolar and slightly polar heavy compounds with very satisfactory results, essentially independent of the experimental point used. Furthermore, the method yields critical properties for heavy alkanes (N-c > 20) and other compounds which are in very good agreement with recent available......Cubic equations of state (EoS) are often used for correlating and predicting phase equilibria. Before extending any EoS to mixtures, reliable vapor-pressure prediction is essential. This requires experimental, if possible, critical temperatures T-c, pressures P-c, and acentric factor omega...

  10. Development of feature extraction analysis for a multi-functional optical profiling device applied to field engineering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xu; Xie, Guangping; Laflen, Brandon; Jia, Ming; Song, Guiju; Harding, Kevin G.

    2015-05-01

    In the real application environment of field engineering, a large variety of metrology tools are required by the technician to inspect part profile features. However, some of these tools are burdensome and only address a sole application or measurement. In other cases, standard tools lack the capability of accessing irregular profile features. Customers of field engineering want the next generation metrology devices to have the ability to replace the many current tools with one single device. This paper will describe a method based on the ring optical gage concept to the measurement of numerous kinds of profile features useful for the field technician. The ring optical system is composed of a collimated laser, a conical mirror and a CCD camera. To be useful for a wide range of applications, the ring optical system requires profile feature extraction algorithms and data manipulation directed toward real world applications in field operation. The paper will discuss such practical applications as measuring the non-ideal round hole with both off-centered and oblique axes. The algorithms needed to analyze other features such as measuring the width of gaps, radius of transition fillets, fall of step surfaces, and surface parallelism will also be discussed in this paper. With the assistance of image processing and geometric algorithms, these features can be extracted with a reasonable performance. Tailoring the feature extraction analysis to this specific gage offers the potential for a wider application base beyond simple inner diameter measurements. The paper will present experimental results that are compared with standard gages to prove the performance and feasibility of the analysis in real world field engineering. Potential accuracy improvement methods, a new dual ring design and future work will be discussed at the end of this paper.

  11. Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant Extracts in Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Sofia Ribeiro; Marilene Estanqueiro; M. Beatriz Oliveira; José Manuel Sousa Lobo

    2015-01-01

    Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. Howev...

  12. Quartz fast component opticallystimulated luminescence: Towards routine extraction for dating applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Zhixiong; Lang, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Using an uncontaminated fast component is a key for improving the reliability of quartz OSL dating for many deposits. So far no approach to extract the fast component of quartz OSL has routinely been adopted for dating practice. Key challenges for extracting fast components are (1) the difficulty of finding a unique solution in curve-fitting deconvolution of OSL decay curves and (2) the relatively poor dating precision when using experimental fast component extraction. Here, a simple mathematic solution for fast component extraction is presented that is not relying on curve-fitting deconvolution and can easily be adopted into routine dating practices. By using specifically selected data points from smoothed OSL decay curves, the precision of equivalent doses calculated using the extracted fast component can be improved over equivalent doses calculated using bulk OSL. The fast component extraction is tested on a group of age-constrained samples containing both insufficiently bleached and sufficiently bleached deposits. Fast component OSL ages are as accurate as bulk OSL ages for the sufficiently bleached deposits, but more accurate for samples where bulk OSL is affected by insufficient bleaching. We also demonstrate how using a curve smoothing procedure can improve dating precision in case of both sufficiently and insufficiently bleached deposits. - Highlights: • A simple mathematical method to extract quartz OSL fast component is presented. • The method can be adopted in D_e calculation programs for routine extraction. • The method leads to an increase in accuracy and precision of D_e. • The method works for relatively dim samples with low signal-to-noise ratios.

  13. Application of IC and HPLC as an analytical tool in solvent extraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Debasish; Sureshkumar, M.K.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Ion chromatography and HPLC was used for analyzing the concentration of various metal ions present in the aqueous phase after solvent extraction using a number of novel organic extractants such as CMPO, DMDBTDMA and TODGA. Calibration plots were obtained for each of the metal ions studied. Interference of one group of metal ions on the other was investigated. The error in the expected values was within the < 10% even in the presence of interfering elements. (author)

  14. Theoretical investigations on the fragmentation of drops of melt with respect to the description of thermal detonations (vapor explosions) and their application in the code Frademo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, M.; Carachalios, C.; Kim, D.S.; Unger, H.

    1986-01-01

    Vapor explosions caused by the contact of molten core material with coolant are an important issue within reactor safety analysis, because they could produce an early threat to the containment during a core melt accident. The case of steady-state propagation of a detonation wave through a coarse premixture of melt and coolant represents the most severe case of a large scale vapor explosion under reactor conditions with the highest rate and largest heat release and therefore also the highest yield of mechanical energy. The present contribution starts with the description of the integral model of the detonation wave. The fragmentation processes, which are decisive for these exchange terms and the detonation process as a whole, are dealt with also. Hydrodynamic fragmentation processes as well as a thermally induced one are considered. The processes which take place inside a detonation wave, especially the fragmentation of the drops of melt and the velocity equilibration between the melt and the coolant, determine the behavior of the wave. In the present model these processes are described within a three-phase approach, considering the drops of melt, the fragments and the coolant as separate flow phases. In the frame of this work, the computer code FRADEMO has been developed. It consists of an overall description of the processes inside a steady-state detonation wave in combination with a full description of the detailed models on hydrodynamic and thermal fragmentation presented in this report. Some useful information for the potential code user is given in the appendix of the detailed report also

  15. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghrib, M., E-mail: mondherghrib@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ben Salam, M. [L3M, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique (L.P.V.), Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2011-08-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  16. Morphological and optical properties changes in nanocrystalline Si (nc-Si) deposited on porous aluminum nanostructures by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition for Solar energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghrib, M.; Gaidi, M.; Ghrib, T.; Khedher, N.; Ben Salam, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was used to determine the electrical band gap of nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) deposited by plasma enhancement chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on porous alumina structure by fitting the experimental spectra using a model based on the quantum confinement of electrons in Si nanocrystallites having spherical and cylindrical forms. This model permits to correlate the PL spectra to the microstructure of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) structure. The microstructure of aluminum surface layer and nc-Si films was systematically studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the structure of the nanocrystalline silicon layer (NSL) is dependent of the porosity (void) of the porous alumina layer (PAL) substrate. This structure was performed in two steps, namely the PAL substrate was prepared using sulfuric acid solution attack on an Al foil and then the silicon was deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) on it. The optical constants (n and k as a function of wavelength) of the deposited films were obtained using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the UV-vis-NIR regions. The SE spectrum of the porous aluminum silicon layer (PASL) was modeled as a mixture of void, crystalline silicon and aluminum using the Cauchy model approximation. The specific surface area (SSA) was estimated and was found to decrease linearly when porosity increases. Based on this full characterization, it is demonstrated that the optical characteristics of the films are directly correlated to their micro-structural properties.

  17. Heterogeneous nucleation in multi-component vapor on a partially wettable charged conducting particle. II. The generalized Laplace, Gibbs-Kelvin, and Young equations and application to nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noppel, M; Vehkamäki, H; Winkler, P M; Kulmala, M; Wagner, P E

    2013-10-07

    Based on the results of a previous paper [M. Noppel, H. Vehkamäki, P. M. Winkler, M. Kulmala, and P. E. Wagner, J. Chem. Phys. 139, 134107 (2013)], we derive a thermodynamically consistent expression for reversible or minimal work needed to form a dielectric liquid nucleus of a new phase on a charged insoluble conducting sphere within a uniform macroscopic one- or multicomponent mother phase. The currently available model for ion-induced nucleation assumes complete spherical symmetry of the system, implying that the seed ion is immediately surrounded by the condensing liquid from all sides. We take a step further and treat more realistic geometries, where a cap-shaped liquid cluster forms on the surface of the seed particle. We derive the equilibrium conditions for such a cluster. The equalities of chemical potentials of each species between the nucleus and the vapor represent the conditions of chemical equilibrium. The generalized Young equation that relates contact angle with surface tensions, surface excess polarizations, and line tension, also containing the electrical contribution from triple line excess polarization, expresses the condition of thermodynamic equilibrium at three-phase contact line. The generalized Laplace equation gives the condition of mechanical equilibrium at vapor-liquid dividing surface: it relates generalized pressures in neighboring bulk phases at an interface with surface tension, excess surface polarization, and dielectric displacements in neighboring phases with two principal radii of surface curvature and curvatures of equipotential surfaces in neighboring phases at that point. We also re-express the generalized Laplace equation as a partial differential equation, which, along with electrostatic Laplace equations for bulk phases, determines the shape of a nucleus. We derive expressions that are suitable for calculations of the size and composition of a critical nucleus (generalized version of the classical Kelvin-Thomson equation).

  18. Constrained Vapor Bubble Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Shripad; Plawsky, Joel; Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Zheng, Ling; Wang, Ying-Xi

    2002-11-01

    Microgravity experiments on the Constrained Vapor Bubble Heat Exchanger, CVB, are being developed for the International Space Station. In particular, we present results of a precursory experimental and theoretical study of the vertical Constrained Vapor Bubble in the Earth's environment. A novel non-isothermal experimental setup was designed and built to study the transport processes in an ethanol/quartz vertical CVB system. Temperature profiles were measured using an in situ PC (personal computer)-based LabView data acquisition system via thermocouples. Film thickness profiles were measured using interferometry. A theoretical model was developed to predict the curvature profile of the stable film in the evaporator. The concept of the total amount of evaporation, which can be obtained directly by integrating the experimental temperature profile, was introduced. Experimentally measured curvature profiles are in good agreement with modeling results. For microgravity conditions, an analytical expression, which reveals an inherent relation between temperature and curvature profiles, was derived.

  19. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocira, Anna; Świeca, Michał; Kocira, Sławomir; Złotek, Urszula; Jakubczyk, Anna

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL - a water soluble concentrate) was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska) was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality.

  20. Enhancement of yield, nutritional and nutraceutical properties of two common bean cultivars following the application of seaweed extract (Ecklonia maxima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kocira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, application of Ecklonia maxima extract (Kelpak SL – a water soluble concentrate was optimized and its impact on yield, nutraceutical and nutritional potential of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (var. Aura and Toska was measured. The study was carried out in 2012 and 2013 in Poland. During the growing season, 0.2% and 0.4% solution of Kelpak SL was applied by single and double spraying of plants. These four treatments with Kelpak SL were compared with the control, where no biostimulator was applied. Kelpak SL treatments stimulated the yield of both cultivars studied. The application of E. maxima extract had no effect on the content of starch, free sugars or proteins in seeds of either of the tested cultivars. The highest level of phenolics was found for double sprayed Toska plants. All the tested variants of Kelpak SL application significantly increased the content of anthocyanins in the seeds. Also, both the reducing power and antiradical ability of Aura seeds were elevated in all the studied treatments. E. maxima extract is a natural, environmentally friendly and safe preparation increasing the yield and nutraceutical quality of beans without any negative effect on their nutritional quality. Keywords: Antioxidant capacity, Ecklonia maxima, Kelpak SL, Nutrients, Phaseolus vulgaris L., Yield

  1. Copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of graphene on dielectric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wu, Tianru; Wang, Haomin; Zhang, Xuefu; Shi, Zhiyuan; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-07-01

    Direct synthesis of high-quality graphene on dielectric substrates is important for its application in electronics. In this work, we report the process of copper-vapor-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition of high-quality and large graphene domains on various dielectric substrates. The copper vapor plays a vital role on the growth of transfer-free graphene. Both single-crystal domains that are much larger than previous reports and high-coverage graphene films can be obtained by adjusting the growth duration. The quality of the obtained graphene was verified to be comparable with that of graphene grown on Cu foil. The progress reported in this work will aid the development of the application of transfer-free graphene in the future.

  2. Vapor condensation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Manabu; Hirayama, Fumio; Kurosawa, Setsumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention enables to separate and remove 14 C as CO 3 - ions without condensation in a vapor condensation can of a nuclear facility. That is, the vapor condensation device of the nuclear facility comprises (1) a spray pipe for spraying an acidic aqueous solution to the evaporation surface of an evaporation section, (2) a spray pump for sending the acidic aqueous solution to the spray pipe, (3) a tank for storing the acidic aqueous solution, (4) a pH sensor for detecting pH of the evaporation section, (5) a pH control section for controlling the spray pump, depending on the result of the detection of the pH sensor. With such a constitution, the pH of liquid wastes on the vaporization surface is controlled to 7 by spraying an aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid to the evaporation surface, thereby enabling to increase the transfer rate of 14 C to condensates to 60 to 70%. If 14 C is separated and removed as a CO 2 gas from the evaporation surface, the pH of the liquid wastes returns to the alkaline range of 9 to 10 and the liquid wastes are returned to a heating section. The amount of spraying the aqueous solution of dilute sulfuric acid can be controlled till the pH is reduced to 5. (I.S.)

  3. The vapor pressures of explosives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Robert G.; Waltman, Melanie J.; Atkinson, David A.; Grate, Jay W.; Hotchkiss, Peter

    2013-01-05

    The vapor pressures of many explosive compounds are extremely low and thus determining accurate values proves difficult. Many researchers, using a variety of methods, have measured and reported the vapor pressures of explosives compounds at single temperatures, or as a function of temperature using vapor pressure equations. There are large variations in reported vapor pressures for many of these compounds, and some errors exist within individual papers. This article provides a review of explosive vapor pressures and describes the methods used to determine them. We have compiled primary vapor pressure relationships traceable to the original citations and include the temperature ranges for which they have been determined. Corrected values are reported as needed and described in the text. In addition, after critically examining the available data, we calculate and tabulate vapor pressures at 25 °C.

  4. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.C.; Paisner, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) is a general and powerful technique. A major present application to the enrichment of uranium for light-water power reactor fuel has been under development for over 10 years. In June 1985 the Department of Energy announced the selection of AVLIS as the technology to meet the nation's future need for the internationally competitive production of uranium separative work. The economic basis for this decision is considered, with an indicated of the constraints placed on the process figures of merit and the process laser system. We then trace an atom through a generic AVLIS separator and give examples of the physical steps encountered, the models used to describe the process physics, the fundamental parameters involved, and the role of diagnostic laser measurements

  5. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  6. Extraction and determination of arsenic species in leafy vegetables: Method development and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Yang, Zhaoguang; Kong, Qian; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-15

    Extraction of arsenic (As) species in leafy vegetables was investigated by different combinations of methods and extractants. The extracted As species were separated and determined by HPLC-ICP-MS method. The microwave assisted method using 1% HNO3 as the extractant exhibited satisfactory efficiency (>90%) at 90°C for 1.5h. The proposed method was applied for extracting As species from real leafy vegetables. Thirteen cultivars of leafy vegetables were collected and analyzed. The predominant species in all the investigated vegetable samples were As(III) and As(V). Moreover, both As(III) and As(V) concentrations were positive significant (p<0.01) correlated with total As (tAs) concentration. However, the percentage of As(V) reduced with tAs concentration increasing probably due to the conversion and transformation of As(V) to As(III) after uptake. The hazard quotient results indicated no particular risk to 94.6% of local consumers. Considerably carcinogenic risk by consumption of the leafy vegetables was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Solid-phase extraction versus matrix solid-phase dispersion: Application to white grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopico-García, M S; Valentão, P; Jagodziñska, A; Klepczyñska, J; Guerra, L; Andrade, P B; Seabra, R M

    2007-11-15

    The use of matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was tested to, separately, extract phenolic compounds and organic acids from white grapes. This method was compared with a more conventional analytical method previously developed that combines solid liquid extraction (SL) to simultaneously extract phenolic compounds and organic acids followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) to separate the two types of compounds. Although the results were qualitatively similar for both techniques, the levels of extracted compounds were in general quite lower on using MSPD, especially for organic acids. Therefore, SL-SPE method was preferred to analyse white "Vinho Verde" grapes. Twenty samples of 10 different varieties (Alvarinho, Avesso, Asal-Branco, Batoca, Douradinha, Esganoso de Castelo Paiva, Loureiro, Pedernã, Rabigato and Trajadura) from four different locations in Minho (Portugal) were analysed in order to study the effects of variety and origin on the profile of the above mentioned compounds. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied separately to establish the main sources of variability present in the data sets for phenolic compounds, organic acids and for the global data. PCA of phenolic compounds accounted for the highest variability (77.9%) with two PCs, enabling characterization of the varieties of samples according to their higher content in flavonol derivatives or epicatechin. Additionally, a strong effect of sample origin was observed. Stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SLDA) was used for differentiation of grapes according to the origin and variety, resulting in a correct classification of 100 and 70%, respectively.

  8. Application of orbital strong magnet in the extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chen Jia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the surgical method and efficacy of extraction of deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of patients with deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies(OMFBin Hebei Eye Hospital from June 2014 to May 2017 was processed. A total of 23 eyes were enrolled, among them, 14 eyes of extraorbital OMFB, 9 eyes of intraorbital OMFB. The rate of extraction of foreign bodies and the postoperative complications were observed. RESULTS: All eyes of intraorbital foreign bodies were successfully extracted with 100% success rate. Twelve of 14 eyes of extraorbital foreign bodies were extracted with 86% success rate. Mild orbital hemorrhage were found in 2 eyes. There was no other obvious complication such as visual loss, orbital massive hemorrhage or limited ocular movement. CONCLUSION: It's an ideal surgical method to extract the deep orbital magnetic foreign bodies by mean of an orbital strong magnet, with mini-injury, high success rate, short duration and few complications.

  9. Some extractable iron contents as influenced by some organic manures application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddiq Abdullahi Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic manures are safer sources of plant nutrients and a good source of micronutrients therefore; pot experiments were carried out to estimate some extractable iron contents as influenced by organic manure application in the soils of Lake Geriyo, Adamawa state, Nigeria. Two types of organic manures; poultry droppings, cow dung and control were used for the experiment. Three levels of organic manures; 5, 10 and 15 tons per hectare (ton ha-1 and three sampling time (30, 60 and 90 DAS were laid down in a completely randomized (CRD design replicated three times. Results obtained revealed that rate, type of organic manures and time of submergence significantly (P ≤ 0.05 changed Fe content in the soil. Mean extractable iron concentrations of 42.01, 56.13 and 24.63 mgkg-1 were recorded for ammonium oxalate extractable iron, Citrate Bicarbonate Dithionite extractable iron and sodium pyrophosphate extractable iron in the first experiment while 45.81, 59.29 and 28.89 mgkg-1 were recorded for the second experiment respectively. However, CBD which extracts both amorphous and crystalline Fe recorded the highest Fe contents throughout the treatments with poultry droppings applied pots recording superior values than that of cowdung manure. similarly, higher values of oxa-Fe and Pyro-Fe were recorded in both manures compared to the control. In conclusion poultry droppings may result in iron accumulation and toxicity hence should be used with caution in the soil of Lake Geriyo and similar soils to avoid serious soil reduction leading to iron toxicity and soil phosphorus antagonism.

  10. Irradiation application for color removal and purification of green tea leaves extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Son, J.H.; Lee, H.J.; Byun, M.W.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was introduced to develop a new processing method for brighter-colored green tea leaves extract without changes of physiological activities. Dried green tea leaves were purchased and extracted by 70% ethanol solution and irradiated at 0, 5, 10, and 20 kGy with gamma rays. Hunter color L-value increased and a- and b-value decreased by irradiation, resulting in bright yellow from dark brown. There was no difference in radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition effect by irradiation. The irradiation effect in the solution disappeared during storage for 3 weeks at room temperature but vitamin C addition was effective in reducing the color change. Results indicated that irradiation may be a good technology to remove undesirable color in green tea leaves extract

  11. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyung [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Cheorun [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Han Joon [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Jin [Graduate School of Biotechnology, Korea University, 5-1, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Ji [Division of Food Beverage and Culinary Arts, Younganm College of Science and Technology, Daegu 705-703 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung Woo [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology Team, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1266 Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2006-03-15

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (Canada) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products.

  12. Application of dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 to selective extraction of radioactive strontium from waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakshin, V.V.; Myasoedov, B.F.; Vilkova, O.M.; Tuzova, A.M.; Fedorova, A.T.; Rodionova, I.M.

    1989-01-01

    Influence of various factors on strontium extraction in the system nitric acid-dicyclohexyl-18-crown-6 was studied to develop the technique for determining 89 Sr and 90 Sr content in natural waters and aqueous salt solutions. Conditions for selective strontium extraction from complex salt systems containing Ba, Cs, Ru, Ce and other radionuclides were found. It is shown that coefficient of strontium distribution is sufficiently higher, as compared to coefficients of Cs, Ru, Ce distribution. Extraction performance under chosen conditions enables to elevate sufficiently the distribution coefficient of these substances. The scheme of radiochemical analysis is given. Strontium content in natural waters and salt solutions was determined with the use of described radiochemical method

  13. Research on Techniques of Multifeatures Extraction for Tongue Image and Its Application in Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is one of the important methods in the Chinese traditional medicine. Doctors can judge the disease’s situation by observing patient’s tongue color and texture. This paper presents a novel approach to extract color and texture features of tongue images. First, we use improved GLA (Generalized Lloyd Algorithm to extract the main color of tongue image. Considering that the color feature cannot fully express tongue image information, the paper analyzes tongue edge’s texture features and proposes an algorithm to extract them. Then, we integrate the two features in retrieval by different weight. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve the detection rate of lesion in tongue image relative to single feature retrieval.

  14. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyung; Jo, Cheorun; Hwang, Han Joon; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young Ji; Byun, Myung Woo

    2006-01-01

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (Canada) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products

  15. Color improvement by irradiation of Curcuma aromatica extract for industrial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Kyung; Jo, Cheorun; Hwang, Han Joon; Park, Hyun Jin; Kim, Young Ji; Byun, Myung Woo

    2006-03-01

    Curcuma species are medicinal herbs with various pharmacological activities. They have a characteristic yellow color and contain curcuminoids which are natural antioxidants. In this study, Curcuma aromatica (CA) and Curcuma longa (CL) extracts were gamma-irradiated for improving the color, and the irradiation effects on the curcuminoids contents in CA and CL extracts were determined in order to evaluate if CA can replace CL on the market, where the price of CA is 70% lower than the price of CL. The Hunter color L*-values were increased significantly in all the samples with increasing dose, while the a*-values and b*-values decreased, which implies that the color of the CA and CL extracts changed from dark yellow to brighter yellow. Curcuminoids contents of all the samples were evaluated, and CA contains more curcuminoids than CL. These results indicated that irradiation improved the properties of CA for possible industrial use in manufacturing food and cosmetic industrial products.

  16. Application of enzymes for efficient extraction, modification, and development of functional properties of lime pectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominiak, Malgorzata Maria; Marie Søndergaard, Karen; Wichmann, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    pectin. The most efficient enzyme preparation was Laminex C2K derived from Penicillium funiculosum which, during 4 h treatment at pH 3.5, 50 °C, released pectin with similar yield (23% w/w), molecular weight (69 kDa), and functional properties e.g. gelling, stabilization of acidified milk drinks...... and viscosity as the classically acid-extracted pectins (8 h treatment at 70 °C, pH ... at higher temperatures. The Laminex CK2 extracted pectin polymers were not sensitive to the presence of Ca2+ ions, they formed a gel at low pH in the presence of sugar and were able to stabilize acidified milk drinks. Further modification by enzymatic de-esterification of the pectin extracted with Laminex C...

  17. Extraction of molybdenum with TBP-dodecane mixture in nitric medium. Application to uranium refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnet, Louis

    1993-01-01

    Uranium ores may contain high quantities of molybdenum which represents an undesirable impurity in the uranium conversion process. Thus it is necessary to check carefully its extraction and its stripping during the purification step. The purpose of this study was to investigate the molybdenum behaviour during this step. We have developed a radiochemical method for the determination of the molybdenum concentration in each phase. This method used gamma radiation of technetium 99m issued from molybdenum 99 disintegration. After a systematic study of all the extraction parameters, we have proposed mechanisms accounting for molybdenum extraction and we have calculated the constants for the different equilibria. In particular, we have furnished new data concerning the extraction of polymerised molybdenum species with tri butyl phosphate. We have also determined the polymerization constants of molybdenum in the aqueous phase. The influence of uranium and phosphate ions on the molybdenum behaviour during the extraction and stripping has been investigated. We have shown that the extraction of molybdenum was not modified by uranium but improved in the presence of phosphate ions. In the general case, we have shown that uranium, phosphate ions and the ageing of the solvent have an unfavourable effect on stripping. We have explained this result by the evolution of the complex in the organic phase to an un-stripped polymeric form. In conclusion, our study has allowed to explain the behaviour of molybdenum during the purification process, and the role of impurities present in the industrial solutions. It would serve as a guide to improve the exploitation for a better molybdenum-uranium separation. (author) [fr

  18. Quantitative Structure-Relative Volatility Relationship Model for Extractive Distillation of Ethylbenzene/p-Xylene Mixtures: Application to Binary and Ternary Mixtures as Extractive Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Young-Mook; Oh, Kyunghwan; You, Hwan; No, Kyoung Tai; Jeon, Yukwon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Sung Bo; Shin, Hyun Kil; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Namseok; Son, Hyoungjun; Chu, Young Hwan; Cho, Kwang-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    Ethylbenzene (EB) and p-xylene (PX) are important chemicals for the production of industrial materials; accordingly, their efficient separation is desired, even though the difference in their boiling points is very small. This paper describes the efforts toward the identification of high-performance extractive agents for EB and PX separation by distillation. Most high-performance extractive agents contain halogen atoms, which present health hazards and are corrosive to distillation plates. To avoid this disadvantage of extractive agents, we developed a quantitative structure-relative volatility relationship (QSRVR) model for designing safe extractive agents. We have previously developed and reported QSRVR models for single extractive agents. In this study, we introduce extended QSRVR models for binary and ternary extractive agents. The QSRVR models accurately predict the relative volatilities of binary and ternary extractive agents. The service to predict the relative volatility for binary and ternary extractive agents is freely available from the Internet at http://qsrvr.o pengsi.org/.

  19. Quantitative Structure-Relative Volatility Relationship Model for Extractive Distillation of Ethylbenzene/p-Xylene Mixtures: Application to Binary and Ternary Mixtures as Extractive Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young-Mook; Oh, Kyunghwan; You, Hwan; No, Kyoung Tai [Bioinformatics and Molecular Design Research Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Yukwon; Shul, Yong-Gun; Hwang, Sung Bo; Shin, Hyun Kil; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Namseok; Son, Hyoungjun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chu, Young Hwan [Sangji University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kwang-Hwi [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Ethylbenzene (EB) and p-xylene (PX) are important chemicals for the production of industrial materials; accordingly, their efficient separation is desired, even though the difference in their boiling points is very small. This paper describes the efforts toward the identification of high-performance extractive agents for EB and PX separation by distillation. Most high-performance extractive agents contain halogen atoms, which present health hazards and are corrosive to distillation plates. To avoid this disadvantage of extractive agents, we developed a quantitative structure-relative volatility relationship (QSRVR) model for designing safe extractive agents. We have previously developed and reported QSRVR models for single extractive agents. In this study, we introduce extended QSRVR models for binary and ternary extractive agents. The QSRVR models accurately predict the relative volatilities of binary and ternary extractive agents. The service to predict the relative volatility for binary and ternary extractive agents is freely available from the Internet at http://qsrvr.o pengsi.org/.

  20. Metallorganic chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition approaches for the growth of hafnium-based thin films from dialkylamide precursors for advanced CMOS gate stack applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Steven P.

    To continue the rapid progress of the semiconductor industry as described by Moore's Law, the feasibility of new material systems for front end of the line (FEOL) process technologies needs to be investigated, since the currently employed polysilicon/SiO2-based transistor system is reaching its fundamental scaling limits. Revolutionary breakthroughs in complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology were recently announced by Intel Corporation and International Business Machines Corporation (IBM), with both organizations revealing significant progress in the implementation of hafnium-based high-k dielectrics along with metal gates. This announcement was heralded by Gordon Moore as "...the biggest change in transistor technology since the introduction of polysilicon gate MOS transistors in the late 1960s." Accordingly, the study described herein focuses on the growth of Hf-based dielectrics and Hf-based metal gates using chemical vapor-based deposition methods, specifically metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and atomic layer deposition (ALD). A family of Hf source complexes that has received much attention recently due to their desirable properties for implementation in wafer scale manufacturing is the Hf dialkylamide precursors. These precursors are room temperature liquids and possess sufficient volatility and desirable decomposition characteristics for both MOCVD and ALD processing. Another benefit of using these sources is the existence of chemically compatible Si dialkylamide sources as co-precursors for use in Hf silicate growth. The first part of this study investigates properties of MOCVD-deposited HfO2 and HfSixOy using dimethylamido Hf and Si precursor sources using a customized MOCVD reactor. The second part of this study involves a study of wet and dry surface pre-treatments for ALD growth of HfO2 using tetrakis(ethylmethylamido)hafnium in a wafer scale manufacturing environment. The third part of this study is an investigation of

  1. Comparison of analyzer-based imaging computed tomography extraction algorithms and application to bone-cartilage imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diemoz, Paul C; Bravin, Alberto; Coan, Paola; Glaser, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In x-ray phase-contrast analyzer-based imaging, the contrast is provided by a combination of absorption, refraction and scattering effects. Several extraction algorithms, which attempt to separate and quantify these different physical contributions, have been proposed and applied. In a previous work, we presented a quantitative comparison of five among the most well-known extraction algorithms based on the geometrical optics approximation applied to planar images: diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI), extended diffraction-enhanced imaging (E-DEI), generalized diffraction-enhanced imaging (G-DEI), multiple-image radiography (MIR) and Gaussian curve fitting (GCF). In this paper, we compare these algorithms in the case of the computed tomography (CT) modality. The extraction algorithms are applied to analyzer-based CT images of both plastic phantoms and biological samples (cartilage-on-bone cylinders). Absorption, refraction and scattering signals are derived. Results obtained with the different algorithms may vary greatly, especially in the case of large refraction angles. We show that ABI-CT extraction algorithms can provide an excellent tool to enhance the visualization of cartilage internal structures, which may find applications in a clinical context. Besides, by using the refraction images, the refractive index decrements for both the cartilage matrix and the cartilage cells have been estimated.

  2. Automatic dataflow model extraction from modal real-time stream processing applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuns, S.J.; Hausmans, J.P.H.M.; Bekooij, Marco Jan Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Many real-time stream processing applications are initially described as a sequential application containing while-loops, which execute for an unknown number of iterations. These modal applications have to be executed in parallel on an MPSoC system in order to meet their real-time throughput

  3. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E.; Cassidy, S.; Henari, F.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε ′ ∞ ≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z * (ω) and modulus M * (ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices

  4. Extraction and dielectric properties of curcuminoid films grown on Si substrate for high-k dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakhel, A.A.; Jasim, Khalil E. [Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038 (Bahrain); Cassidy, S. [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain); Henari, F.Z., E-mail: fzhenari@rcsi-mub.com [Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, Medical University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 15503 (Bahrain)

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: • The unknown insulating properties of curcuminoid extract are systematically studied. • Optical study gives a bandgap of 3.15 eV and a refractive index of 1.92 at 505 nm. • Turmeric is a high-k environmental friendly material for use in microelectronics. • Curcuminoid extract can be used as insulator of MIS devices with ε{sup ′}{sub ∞}≈54.2. -- Abstract: Curcuminoids were extracted from turmeric powder and evaporated in vacuum to prepare thin films on p-Si and glass substrates for dielectric and optical investigations. The optical absorption spectrum of the prepared amorphous film was not identical to that of the molecular one, which was identified by a strong wide absorption band in between ∼220 and 540 nm. The onset energy of the optical absorption of the film was calculated by using Hamberg et al. method. The dielectric properties of this material were systematically studied for future eco friendly applications in metal–insulator–semiconductor MIS field of applications. The complex dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range of 1–1000 kHz and was analysed in-terms of dielectric impedance Z{sup *}(ω) and modulus M{sup *}(ω). Generally, the curcuminoid complex can be considered as a high-k material and can be used in the environmental friendly production of microelectronic devices.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Olea europaea Linné extracts and their applicability as natural food preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielmann, J; Kohnen, S; Hauser, C

    2017-06-19

    The antimicrobial activity of phenolic compounds from Olea (O.) europaea Linné (L.) is part of the scientific discussion regarding the use of natural plant extracts as alternative food preservative agents. Although, the basic knowledge on the antimicrobial potential of certain molecules such as oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol or elenolic acid derivatives is given, there is still little information regarding their applicability for food preservation. This might be primarily due to the lack of information regarding the full antimicrobial spectrum of the compounds, their synergisms in natural or artificial combinations and their interaction with food ingredients. The present review accumulates available literature from the past 40 years, investigating the antimicrobial activity of O. europaea L. derived extracts and compounds in vitro and in food matrices, in order to evaluate their food applicability. In summary, defined extracts from olive fruit or leaves, containing the strongest antimicrobial compounds hydroxytyrosol, oleacein or oleacanthal in considerable concentrations, appear to be suitable for food preservation. Nonetheless there is still need for consequent research on the compounds activity in food matrices, their effect on the natural microbiota of certain foods and their influence on the sensorial properties of the targeted products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of direct solid sample analysis for the determination of chlorine in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos de Gois, Jefferson; Pereira, Éderson R. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); INCT de Energia e Ambiente do CNPq (Brazil)

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology developed to carry out Cl determination in biological materials using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and direct solid sample analysis. The solid samples were directly weighed into graphite ‘cups’ and inserted into the graphite furnace. The RF power and the carrier gas flow rate were optimized at 1300 W and 0.7 L min{sup −1}, respectively. Calibration could be carried out using aqueous standard solutions with pre-dried modifiers (Pd + Nd or Pd + Ca) or using solid certified reference materials with the same pre-dried modifiers or without the use of modifiers. The limit of quantification was determined as 5 μg g{sup −1} under optimized conditions and the Cl concentration was determined in five certified reference materials with certified concentrations for Cl, in addition to three certified reference materials, for which certified values for Cl were unavailable; in the latter case, the results were compared with those obtained using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry. Good agreement at a 95% statistical confidence level was achieved between determined and certified or reference values. - Highlights: • Direct determination of chlorine in solid biological materials is described for the first time using ICP-MS. • Calibration against aqueous standards is feasible. • The method is accurate and sensitive, regardless of the composition of the solid sample.

  7. Applications of the Simple Multi-Fluid Model to Correlations of the Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium of Refrigerant Mixtures Containing Carbon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Ryo

    This study presents a simple multi-fluid model for Helmholtz energy equations of state. The model contains only three parameters, whereas rigorous multi-fluid models developed for several industrially important mixtures usually have more than 10 parameters and coefficients. Therefore, the model can be applied to mixtures where experimental data is limited. Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) of the following seven mixtures have been successfully correlated with the model: CO2 + difluoromethane (R-32), CO2 + trifluoromethane (R-23), CO2 + fluoromethane (R-41), CO2 + 1,1,1,2- tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), CO2 + pentafluoroethane (R-125), CO2 + 1,1-difluoroethane (R-152a), and CO2 + dimethyl ether (DME). The best currently available equations of state for the pure refrigerants were used for the correlations. For all mixtures, average deviations in calculated bubble-point pressures from experimental values are within 2%. The simple multi-fluid model will be helpful for design and simulations of heat pumps and refrigeration systems using the mixtures as working fluid.

  8. Impact of hydrogen dilution on optical properties of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon films prepared by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition for solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huai-Yi; Lee, Yao-Jen; Chang, Chien-Pin; Koo, Horng-Show; Lai, Chiung-Hui

    2013-01-01

    P-i-n single-junction hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film solar cells were successfully fabricated in this study on a glass substrate by high density plasma chemical vapor deposition (HDP-CVD) at low power of 50 W, low temperature of 200°C and various hydrogen dilution ratios (R). The open circuit voltage (Voc ), short circuit current density (Jsc ), fill factor (FF) and conversion efficiency (η) of the solar cell as well as the refractive index (n) and absorption coefficient (α) of the i-layer at 600 nm wavelength rise with increasing R until an abrupt drop at high hydrogen dilution, i.e. R > 0.95. However, the optical energy bandgap (Eg ) of the i-layer decreases with the R increase. Voc and α are inversely correlated with Eg . The hydrogen content affects the i-layer and p/i interface quality of the a-Si:H thin film solar cell with an optimal value of R = 0.95, which corresponds to solar cell conversion efficiency of 3.85%. The proposed a-Si:H thin film solar cell is expected to be improved in performance.

  9. A New Variational Method for Bias Correction and Its Applications to Rodent Brain Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Huibin; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Chunlin; Huang, Su; Guan, Cuntai; Sekar, Sakthivel; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Duan, Yuping

    2017-03-01

    Brain extraction is an important preprocessing step for further analysis of brain MR images. Significant intensity inhomogeneity can be observed in rodent brain images due to the high-field MRI technique. Unlike most existing brain extraction methods that require bias corrected MRI, we present a high-order and L 0 regularized variational model for bias correction and brain extraction. The model is composed of a data fitting term, a piecewise constant regularization and a smooth regularization, which is constructed on a 3-D formulation for medical images with anisotropic voxel sizes. We propose an efficient multi-resolution algorithm for fast computation. At each resolution layer, we solve an alternating direction scheme, all subproblems of which have the closed-form solutions. The method is tested on three T2 weighted acquisition configurations comprising a total of 50 rodent brain volumes, which are with the acquisition field strengths of 4.7 Tesla, 9.4 Tesla and 17.6 Tesla, respectively. On one hand, we compare the results of bias correction with N3 and N4 in terms of the coefficient of variations on 20 different tissues of rodent brain. On the other hand, the results of brain extraction are compared against manually segmented gold standards, BET, BSE and 3-D PCNN based on a number of metrics. With the high accuracy and efficiency, our proposed method can facilitate automatic processing of large-scale brain studies.

  10. Credible Set Estimation, Analysis, and Applications in Synthetic Aperture Radar Canonical Feature Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    83 5.1 Marginal PMFs for the cylinder scene at coarse zoom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.2 SAR image of a Nissan Sentra with canonical...of a Nissan Sentra with canonical features extracted by the SPLIT algorithm. 5.2.4 Experiment Summary. A notional algorithm is presented in Figure 5.3

  11. Biological application of green silver nanoparticle synthesized from leaf extract of Rauvolfi serpentina Benth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudipta Panja

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth and examination of their various biological activities. Methods: An ecofriendly, easy, one step, non-toxic and inexpensive approach is used, where aqueous plant extract acts as a reducing as well as stabilizing agent of AgNPs. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis. Results: Surface plasmon resonance of the nanoparticles was observed at 427 nm in UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy result confirms that the plant extract acts as the reducing as well as the capping agent of the AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the synthesized nanoparticles are spherical in shape and approximately 7–10 nm in size, whereas the crystalline nature with face-centered cubic structure of the AgNPs was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. Presence of silver in the AgNPs is 31.43% by weight, as confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The synthesized AgNPs have antimicrobial activities against human pathogenic microorganisms. It also shows larvicidal activity and cytotoxicity against HeLa, MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusions: Synthesized spherical shaped AgNPs from the leaf extract of Rauvolfia serpentina Benth have antimicrobial and larvicidal activities as well as cytotoxicity against HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines.

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil A. Dharaskar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper the experimental data of extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [BMIM]BF4 have been presented. The data of FTIR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]BF4. Further, the thermal properties, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of the [BMIM]BF4 were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on dibenzothiophene removal of liquid fuel were presented. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 73.02% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild reaction conditions. The ionic liquids could be reused four times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurizations of real fuels, multistage extraction were presented. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazoled ILs for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

  13. A Novel Model for Multicomponent Supercritical Fluid Extraction and its Application to Ruta graveolens.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sovová, Helena; Sajfrtová, Marie; Stateva, R.P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120, Part 1 (2017), s. 102-112 ISSN 0896-8446 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B06049 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : supercritical fluid extraction * multicomponent equilibrium * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering OBOR OECD: Chemical process engineering Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2016

  14. Post-extraction application of beta-tricalcium phosphate in alveolar socket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Muñoz-Corcuera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim The objective of this study was to assess the capacity of beta-tricalcium phosphate to facilitate bone formation in the socket and prevent post-extraction alveolar resorption. Materials and methods After premolar extraction in 16 patients, the sockets were filled with beta-tricalcium phosphate. Six months later, during the implant placement surgery, a trephine was used to harvest the bone samples which were processed for histological and histomorphometrical analyses. Data were gathered on patient, clinical, histological and histomorphometric variables at the extraction and implant placement sessions, using data collection forms and pathological reports. Results Clinical outcomes were satisfactory, the biomaterial was radio-opaque on X-ray. Histological study showed: partial filling with alveolar bone of appropriate maturation and mineralization for the healing time, osteoblastic activity and bone lacunae containing osteocytes. The biomaterial was not completely resorbed at six months. Conclusion Beta-tricalcium phosphate is a material capable of achieving preservation of the alveolar bone when it is positioned in the immediate post-extraction socket followed by suture; it also helps the formation of new bone in the socket. Further studies are needed comparing this technique with other available biomaterials, with growth factors and with sites where no alveolar preservation techniques are performed.

  15. [Application of near-infrared spectroscopy technology in extraction and concentration process of Reduning injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Fei; Zuo, Xiang-Yun; Bi, Yu-An; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; L, Ping; Xiao, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To establish a rapid quantitative analysis method for the content of chlorogenic acid and solid content in the extraction liquid concentration process during the production of Reduning injection by using the near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, in order to reflect the concentration state in a real-time manner and really realize the quality control of concentrating process of the extraction and concentration process. The samples during the Jinqing extraction liquid concentration process were collected. After the removal of abnormal samples, the spectra pretreatment and the wave band selection, the quantitative calibration model between NIR spectra and chlorogenic acid HPLC analytical value and solid content was established by using PLS algorithm, and unknown samples were predicted. The correlation coefficients between the chlorogenic acid content and the solid content were respectively 0.992 1 and 0.994 0, and the correlation coefficients of the verification model were respectively 0.994 4 and 0.998 4, with the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.814 6 and 2.656 1 and the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.704 6 and 1.876 7 respectively, and the relative standard errors of predictions (RSEP) were 6.01% and 2.93% respectively. The method is simple, rapid, nondestructive, accurate and reliable, thus could be adopted for the fast monitoring of the chlorogenic acid content and the solid content during the concentration process of Reduning injection extraction liquid.

  16. Regularized generalized eigen-decomposition with applications to sparse supervised feature extraction and sparse discriminant analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Xixuan; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    2015-01-01

    We propose a general technique for obtaining sparse solutions to generalized eigenvalue problems, and call it Regularized Generalized Eigen-Decomposition (RGED). For decades, Fisher's discriminant criterion has been applied in supervised feature extraction and discriminant analysis, and it is for...

  17. Application of hollow cylindrical wheat stem for electromembrane extraction of thorium in water samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeh, Mostafa; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Barkhordar, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    -octanol and 5%v/v Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (DEHP) immobilized in the pores of a porous stem, and into an acceptor phase solution present inside the lumen of the stem. The pH of donor and acceptor phases, extraction time, voltage, and stirring speed were optimized. At the optimum conditions...

  18. [Application of DNA extraction kit, 'GM quicker' for detection of genetically modified soybeans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriko; Sugiura, Yoshitsugu; Tanaka, Toshitsugu

    2012-01-01

    Several DNA extraction methods have been officially introduced to detect genetically modified soybeans, but the choice of DNA extraction kits depend on the nature of the samples, such as grains or processed foods. To overcome this disadvantage, we examined whether the GM quicker kit is available for both grains and processed foods. We compared GM quicker with four approved DNA extraction kits in respect of DNA purity, copy numbers of lectin gene, and working time. We found that the DNA quality of GM quicker was superior to that of the other kits for grains, and the procedure was faster. However, in the case of processed foods, GM quicker was not superior to the other kits. We therefore investigated an unapproved GM quicker 3 kit, which is available for DNA extraction from processed foods, such as tofu and boiled soybeans. The GM quicker 3 kit provided good DNA quality from both grains and processed foods, so we made a minor modification of the GM quicker-based protocol that was suitable for processed foods, using GM quicker and its reagents. The modified method enhanced the performance of GM quicker with processed foods. We believe that GM quicker with the modified protocol is an excellent tool to obtain high-quality DNA from grains and processed foods for detection of genetically modified soybeans.

  19. Potential applications for Annona squamosa leaf extract in the treatment and prevention of foodborne bacterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholvitayakhun, Achara; Trachoo, Nathanon; Sakee, Uthai; Cushnie, T P Tim

    2013-03-01

    Foodborne disease is a major public health problem. The present study examined Annona squamosa leaves, which are traditionally used to treat diarrhea and other infections, for their potential to be used in modern food safety or medicine. Active constituents were partially purified by ethanol extraction and column chromatography. MICs of the extract were 62.5 to 125 microg/mL against Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, and 250 microg/mL against Campylobacter jejuni. In time-kill assays, 500 microg/mL of the extract reduced colony forming unit numbers of C. jejuni almost 10 000-fold within 12 hours. Similar decreases were seen against B. cereus, but over a longer time-frame. LC-MS analysis indicated the presence of reticuline and oxophoebine. Assessment of stability by MIC assay showed activity was heat-labile, with loss of activity greatest following high temperature treatments. Activity was relatively stable at refrigeration temperature. These results indicate A. squamosa has broad-spectrum but heat-labile activity against foodborne bacterial pathogens, and bactericidal activity against B. cereus and C. jejuni. This bactericidal activity is not sufficiently rapid for A. squamosa to be used as a food sanitizer, but the extract could potentially be developed as an additive for refrigerated foods, or a modern treatment for foodborne illness.

  20. Study on the uranium-cerium extraction and his application to the treatment of irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobao, Afonso dos Santos Tome

    1979-01-01

    It was made a study on the behavior of uranium and cerium(IV) extraction, using the latter element as a plutonium simulator in a flowsheet of the treatment of irradiated uranium. Cerium(IV) was used under the same conditions as a plutonium in the Purex process because the admitted similar properties. An experimental work was initiated to determine the equilibrium curves of uranium, under the following conditions: concentration of 1 to 20 g U/1 and acidity varying from 1 to 5M in HNO 3 . Other parameters studied were the volumetric ratio of the phases and the influence of the concentration of TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate). To guarantee the cerium(IV) extraction, the diluent (varsol) was previously treated with 10% potassium dichromate in perchloric acid, potassium permanganate in 1M sulphuric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid at 70 deg to eliminate reducing compounds. The results obtained for cerium extraction, allowed a better understanding of its behavior in solution. The results permitted to conclude that the decontamination for cerium are very high in the first Purex extraction cycle. The easy as cerium(IV) is reduced to the trivalent state contributes a great deal to its decontamination. (author)

  1. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anilkumar, M; Sneha Saj, A; Bindu, K R; Anila, E I

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. (paper)

  2. Enhanced biocompatibility of ZnS:Mn quantum dots encapsulated with Aloe vera extract for therapeutic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, M.; Bindu, K. R.; Sneha Saj, A.; Anila, E. I.

    2016-08-01

    Toxicity of nanoparticles remains to be a major issue in their application to the biomedical field. Aloe vera (AV) is one of the most widely exploited medicinal plants that have a multitude of amazing properties in the field of medicine. Methanol extract of Aloe vera can be used as a novel stabilising agent for quantum dots to reduce toxicity. We report the synthesis, structural characterization, antibacterial activity and cytotoxicity studies of ZnS:Mn quantum dots synthesized by the colloidal precipitation method, using methanol extract of Aloe vera (AVME) as the capping agent. The ZnS:Mn quantum dots capped with AVME exhibit superior performances in biocompatibility and antibacterial activity compared with ZnS:Mn quantum dots without encapsulation. Project supported by the Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India.

  3. Extracting ballistic forensic intelligence: microstamped firearms deliver data for illegal firearm traffic mapping: technology, implementation, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohar, Orest P.; Lizotte, Todd E.

    2009-08-01

    Over the years law enforcement has become increasingly complex, driving a need for a better level of organization of knowledge within policing. The use of COMPSTAT or other Geospatial Information Systems (GIS) for crime mapping and analysis has provided opportunities for careful analysis of crime trends. By identifying hotspots within communities, data collected and entered into these systems can be analyzed to determine how, when and where law enforcement assets can be deployed efficiently. This paper will introduce in detail, a powerful new law enforcement and forensic investigative technology called Intentional Firearm Microstamping (IFM). Once embedded and deployed into firearms, IFM will provide data for identifying and tracking the sources of illegally trafficked firearms within the borders of the United States and across the border with Mexico. Intentional Firearm Microstamping is a micro code technology that leverages a laser based micromachining process to form optimally located, microscopic "intentional structures and marks" on components within a firearm. Thus when the firearm is fired, these IFM structures transfer an identifying tracking code onto the expended cartridge that is ejected from the firearm. Intentional Firearm Microstamped structures are laser micromachined alpha numeric and encoded geometric tracking numbers, linked to the serial number of the firearm. IFM codes can be extracted quickly and used without the need to recover the firearm. Furthermore, through the process of extraction, IFM codes can be quantitatively verified to a higher level of certainty as compared to traditional forensic matching techniques. IFM provides critical intelligence capable of identifying straw purchasers, trafficking routes and networks across state borders and can be used on firearms illegally exported across international borders. This paper will outline IFM applications for supporting intelligence led policing initiatives, IFM implementation strategies

  4. Covering sources of toxic vapors with foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aue, W. P.; Guidetti, F.

    2009-01-01

    In a case of chemical terrorism, first responders might well be confronted with a liquid source of toxic vapor which keeps spreading out its hazardous contents. With foam as an efficient and simple means, such a source could be covered up in seconds and the spread of vapors mitigated drastically. Once covered, the source could then wait for a longer time to be removed carefully and professionally by a decontamination team. In order to find foams useful for covering up toxic vapor sources, a large set of measurements has been performed in order to answer the following questions: - Which foams could be used for this purpose? - How thick should the foam cover be? - For how long would such a foam cover be effective? - Could the practical application of foam cause a spread of the toxic chemical? The toxic vapors sources included GB, GD and HD. Among the foams were 10 fire fighter foams (e.g. AFFF, protein) and the aqueous decontamination foam CASCAD. Small scale experiments showed that CASCAD is best suited for covering a toxic source; a 10 cm layer of it covers and decontaminates GB. The large scale experiments confirmed that any fire fighter foam is a suitable cover for a longer or shorter period.(author)

  5. Similarities and differences in vapor explosion criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronenberg, A.W.

    1978-01-01

    An overview of recent ideas pertaining to vapor explosion criteria indicates that in general sense, a consensus of opinion is emerging on the conditions applicable to explosive vaporization. Experimental and theoretical work has lead a number of investigators to the formulation of such conditions which are quite similar in many respects, although the quantitative details of the model formulation of such conditions are somewhat different. All model concepts are consistent in that an initial period of stable film boiling, separating molten fuel from coolant, is considered necessary (at least for large-scale interactions and efficient intermixing), with subsequent breakdown of film boiling due to pressure and/or thermal effects, followed by intimate fuel-coolant contact and a rapid vaporization process which is sufficient to cause shock pressurization. Although differences arise as to the conditions for and the energetics associated with film boiling destabilization and the mode and energetics of fragmentation and intermixing. However, the principal area of difference seems to be the question of what constitutes the requisite condition(s) for rapid vapor production to cause shock pressurization

  6. A study on vapor explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.; Shoji, M.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out for vapor explosions of molten tin falling in water. For various initial metal temperatures and subcooling of water, transient pressure of the explosions, relative frequency of the explosions and the position where the explosions occur were measured in detail. The influence of ambient pressure was also investigated. From the results, it was concluded that the vapor explosion is closely related to the collapse of a vapor film around the molten metal. (author)

  7. Fast pyrolysis of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor: in-situ filtering of the vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, E.; Hogendoorn, Kees; Wang, X.; Westerhof, Roel Johannes Maria; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria; Groeneveld, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    A system to remove in situ char/ash from hot pyrolysis vapors has been developed and tested at the University of Twente. The system consists of a continuous fluidized bed reactor (0.7 kg/h) with immersed filters (wire mesh, pore size 5 μm) for extracting pyrolysis vapors. Integration of the filter

  8. Extending the applicability of pressurized hot water extraction to compounds exhibiting limited water solubility by pH control: curcumin from the turmeric rhizome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euterpio, Maria Anna; Cavaliere, Chiara; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Crescenzi, Carlo

    2011-11-01

    Pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE, also known as subcritical water extraction) is commonly considered to be an environmentally friendly extraction technique that could potentially replace traditional methods that use organic solvents. Unfortunately, the applicability of this technique is often limited by the very low water solubility of the target compounds, even at high temperatures. In this paper, the scope for broadening the applicability of PHWE by adjusting the pH of the water used in the extraction is demonstrated in the extraction of curcumin (which exhibits very limited water solubility) from untreated turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) rhizomes. Although poor extraction yields were obtained, even at high temperatures when using degassed water or neutral phosphate buffer as the extraction medium, yields exceeding those obtained by Soxhlet extraction were achieved using highly acidic pH buffers due to curcumin protonation. The influence of the temperature, pH, and buffer concentration on the extraction yield were investigated in detail by means of a series of designed experiments. Optimized conditions for the extraction of curcumin from turmeric by PHWE were estimated at 197 °C using 62 g/L buffer concentration at pH 1.6. The relationships between these variables were subjected to statistical analysis using response surface methodology.

  9. Ceramic composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stinton, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Composites consisting of silicon carbide matrices reinforced with continuous ceramic fibers are being developed for high-temperature structural applications. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques are very effective in fabricating composites with high strengths and exceptional fracture toughness. Mechanical properties of infiltrated composites are controlled by the strength of the interfacial bond between the fibers and matrix. This paper describes two CVD techniques and reviews the models being developed to better understand and control the infiltration process

  10. Highly efficient electrocatalytic vapor generation of methylmercury based on the gold particles deposited glassy carbon electrode: A typical application for sensitive mercury speciation analysis in fish samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Meng-Ting; Yang, Xin-An; Qin, Li-Ming; Zhang, Wang-Bing

    2018-09-26

    A gold particle deposited glassy carbon electrode (Au/GCE) was first used in electrochemical vapor generation (ECVG) technology and demonstrated to have excellent catalytic property for the electrochemical conversion process of aqueous mercury, especially for methylmercury (CH 3 Hg + ), to gaseous mercury. Systematical research has shown that the highly consistent or distinct difference between the atomic fluorescence spectroscopy signals of CH 3 Hg + and Hg 2+ can be achieved by controlling the electrolytic parameters of ECVG. Hereby, a new green and accurate method for mercury speciation analysis based on the distinguishing electrochemical reaction behavior of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  on the modified electrode was firstly established. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectra and the square wave voltammetry displayed that the ECVG reaction of CH 3 Hg +  may belong to the electrocatalytic mechanism. Under the selected conditions, the limits of detection of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  are 5.3 ng L -1 and 4.4 ng L -1 for liquid samples and 0.53 pg mg -1 and 0.44 pg mg -1 for solid samples, respectively. The precision of the 5 measurements is less than 6% within the concentration of Hg 2+ and CH 3 Hg +  ranging from 0.2 to 15.0 μg L -1 . The accuracy and practicability of the proposed method was verified by analyzing the mercury content in the certified reference material and several fish as well as water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Recovery of atmospheric water vapor total column abundance from imaging spectrometer data around 940 nm - Sensitivity analysis and application to Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrere, V.; Conel, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    Two simple techniques to retrieve path precipitable water from the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) high spectral resolution radiance data (Continuum Interpolated Band Ratio, CIBR, and Narrow/Wide ratio, N/W), using the 940 nm water absorption band, are compared. Since the shape and depth of the atmospheric water bands are influenced not only by the water present but also by surface (background) reflectance, atmospheric scattering, and instrument radiance by calibration, a sensitivity analysis was performed using the radiative transfer code LOWTRAN 7 to determine which one of these two approaches will provide a better estimate over land and water areas. The CIBR proved to be the technique less sensitive to perturbing effects, except for errors in visibility estimate. Both techniques were applied to AVIRIS radiance data acquired over Salton Sea, California. Resulting images confirmed that the used of a constant gray reflectance in the model led to a higher overestimation of the amount of water retrieved for N/W over vegetated areas. Validation was performed through comparison between an independent estimate of water vapor from concurrent Reagan sunphotometer measurements and AVIRIS estimates. Amounts retrieved using the N/W approach match more closely in situ measurements, even after adjusting model parameters for background reflectance, viewing geometry and type of aerosol at the site. The 13% underestimation observed for the CIBR was explained by small differences ΔL(λ i ) between AVIRIS and LOWTRAN 7 modeled radiances. Results from this study emphasizes the importance of accurate instrument calibration in flight and correct physical modeling of atmospheric absorptions

  12. Cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks and their application in hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Jean Paulo de; Bruni, Graziella Pinheiro; Lima, Karina Oliveira; Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello El; Rosa, Gabriela Silveira da; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-04-15

    The commercial cellulose fibers and cellulose fibers extracted from rice and oat husks were analyzed by chemical composition, morphology, functional groups, crystallinity and thermal properties. The cellulose fibers from rice and oat husks were used to produce hydrogels with poly (vinyl alcohol). The fibers presented different structural, crystallinity, and thermal properties, depending on the cellulose source. The hydrogel from rice cellulose fibers had a network structure with a similar agglomeration sponge, with more homogeneous pores compared to the hydrogel from oat cellulose fibers. The hydrogels prepared from the cellulose extracted from rice and oat husks showed water absorption capacity of 141.6-392.1% and high opacity. The highest water absorption capacity and maximum stress the compression were presented by rice cellulose hydrogel at 25°C. These results show that the use of agro-industrial residues is promising for the biomaterial field, especially in the preparation of hydrogels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE MORPHOLOGICAL PYRAMID AND ITS APPLICATIONS TO REMOTE SENSING: MULTIRESOLUTION DATA ANALYSIS AND FEATURES EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laporterie Florence

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In remote sensing, sensors are more and more numerous, and their spatial resolution is higher and higher. Thus, the availability of a quick and accurate characterisation of the increasing amount of data is now a quite important issue. This paper deals with an approach combining a pyramidal algorithm and mathematical morphology to study the physiographic characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. Our pyramidal strategy involves first morphological filters, then extraction at each level of resolution of well-known landscapes features. The approach is applied to a digitised aerial photograph representing an heterogeneous landscape of orchards and forests along the Garonne river (France. This example, simulating very high spatial resolution imagery, highlights the influence of the parameters of the pyramid according to the spatial properties of the studied patterns. It is shown that, the morphological pyramid approach is a promising attempt for multi-level features extraction by modelling geometrical relevant parameters.

  14. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panee, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine.

  15. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  16. The application of extraction chromatography for analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomazic, B.; Cukovic, M.

    1978-01-01

    A method for rapid analysis of alkali and alkaline earth uranates is proposed. The method is based on the use of an HDEHP extraction chromatographic column, which makes possible quantitative separations of alkaline earth ions from macroamounts of uranium(VI). Composition of alkaline earth uranates, based on regression analysis, are presented. The results, which show that under the given experimental conditions alkaline earth triuranates precipitate, are in good agreement with previous data from same laboratory. In addition the HDEHP extraction chromatographic column can be suggested as a tool for separation of representative fission products from irradiated uranium for the purpose of determination of the burn-up factor of nuclear reactor materials. (T.G.)

  17. Nuclear system vaporization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougault, R.; Brou, R.; Colin, J.; Cussol, D.; Durand, D.; Le Brun, C.; Lecolley, J.F.; Lopez, O.; Louvel, M.; Nakagawa, T.; Peter, J.; Regimbart, R.; Steckmeyer, J.C.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E.; Yuasa-Nakagawa, K.; Wieloch, A.

    1998-01-01

    A particular case of the hot nuclei de-excitation is the total nuclear dislocation into light particles (n, p, d, t, 3 He and α). Such events were first observed at bombarding energies lower than 100 MeV/nucleon due to high detection performances of the INDRA multidetector. The light system Ar + Ni was studied at several bombarding energies ranging from 32 to 95 MeV/nucleon. The events associated to a total vaporization of the system occur above the energy threshold of ∼ 50 MeV/nucleon. A study of the form of these events shows that we have essentially two sources. The excitation energy of these sources may be determined by means of the kinematic properties of their de-excitation products. A preliminary study results in excitation energy values of the order 10 - 14 MeV/nucleon. The theoretical calculation based on a statistical model modified to take into account high excitation energies and excited levels in the lightest nuclei predicts that the vaporization of the two partner nuclei in the Ar + Ni system takes place when the excitation energy exceeds 12 MeV/nucleon what is qualitatively in agreement with the values deduced from calorimetric analysis

  18. The Application of Special Computing Techniques to Speed-Up Image Feature Extraction and Processing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    noise supression and data clustering . Another significant step or stage in image processing and exploitation is feature extraction. The objectives and...PAMI-3, no. 3, May, 1981. 16. L.G. Shapiro, "A Structural Model of Shape," IEEE Trans. on Pattern AnalIsis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-2, no...Theoretic Clustering ," IEEE Trans. on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. PAMI-1, no. 1, Jan., 1979. 34. P.M. Narendra, "A Separable Median

  19. Evaluation of Extractables in Processed and Unprocessed Polymer Materials Used for Pharmaceutical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Stults, Cheryl L. M.; Ansell, Jennifer M.; Shaw, Arthur J.; Nagao, Lee M.

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric materials are often used in pharmaceutical packaging, delivery systems, and manufacturing components. There is continued concern that chemical entities from polymeric components may leach into various dosage forms, particularly those that are comprised of liquids such as parenterals, injectables, ophthalmics, and inhalation products. In some cases, polymeric components are subjected to routine extractables testing as a control measure. To reduce the risk of discovering leachables du...

  20. Synthesis and characterization of novel silver nanoparticles using Chamaemelum nobile extract for antibacterial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erjaee, Hoda; Rajaian, Hamid; Nazifi, Saeed

    2017-06-01

    The present study reports green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at room temperature using aqueous Chamaemelum nobile extract for the first time. The effect of silver nitrate concentration, quantity of the plant extract and the reaction time on particle size was optimized and studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. The appearance of brownish color with λ max of 422 nm confirmed the formation of AgNPs. Synthesized nanoparticles were further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs against Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis was evaluated based on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay and measurement of minimal inhibition concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration by standard microdilution method. In conclusion, synthesis of nanoparticle with aqueous Chamaemelum nobile extract is simple, rapid, environmentally benign and inexpensive. Moreover, these synthesized nanoparticles exhibit significant antibacterial activity.

  1. Application of solid phase micro extraction (SPME) in profiling hydrocarbons in oil spill cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuraidah Abdullah Munir; Norashikin Saim; Nurul Huda Mamat Ghani

    2008-01-01

    In environmental forensic, it is extremely important to have a fast and reliable method in identifying sources of spilled oil and petroleum products. In this study, solid phase micro extraction (SPME) method coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for the analysis of hydrocarbons in diesel and petroleum contaminated soil samples. Optimization of SPME parameters such as extraction time, extraction temperature and desorption time, was performed using 100-μm poly dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber. These parameters were studied at three levels by means of a central composite experimental design and the optimum experimental conditions were determined using response surface method. The developed SPME method was applied to determine the profiles of hydrocarbons in several oil contaminated soil sample. The SPME method was also used to study the effects of weathering on the profiles of hydrocarbons in unleaded gasoline, diesel and kerosene contaminated soil samples. After several days, significant losses of the lighter hydrocarbons were observed compared to the heavier ones. From these data, SPME method can be used to differentiate possible candidate sources in oil spill cases. (author)

  2. Rapid DNA extraction from dried blood spots on filter paper: potential applications in biobanking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun-Hye; Lee, Sang Kwang; Ihm, Chunhwa; Sohn, Young-Hak

    2014-12-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) technology is a microsampling alternative to traditional plasma or serum sampling for pharmaco- or toxicokinetic evaluation. DBS technology has been applied to diagnostic screening in drug discovery, nonclinical, and clinical settings. We have developed an improved elution protocol involving boiling of blood spots dried on Whatman filter paper. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality, purity, and quantity of DNA isolated from frozen blood samples and DBSs. We optimized a method for extraction and estimation of DNA from blood spots dried on filter paper (3-mm FTA card). A single DBS containing 40 μL blood was used. DNA was efficiently extracted in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer by incubation at 37°C overnight. DNA was stable in DBSs that were stored at room temperature or frozen. The housekeeping genes GAPDH and beta-actin were used as positive standards for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) validation of general diagnostic screening. Our simple and convenient DBS storage and extraction methods are suitable for diagnostic screening by using very small volumes of blood collected on filter paper, and can be used in biobanks for blood sample storage.

  3. Vaporization Studies of Olivine via Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, G. C. C.; Jacobson, N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Olivine is the major mineral in the Earth's upper mantle occurring predominantly in igneous rocks and has been identified in meteorites, asteroids, the Moon and Mars. Among many other important applications in planetary and materials sciences, the thermodynamic properties of vapor species from olivine are crucial as input parameters in computational modelling of the atmospheres of hot, rocky exoplanets (lava planets). There are several weight loss studies of olivine vaporization in the literature and one Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS) study. In this study, we examine a forsterite-rich olivine (93% forsterite and 7% fayalite, Fo93Fa7) with KEMS to further understand its vaporization and thermodynamic properties.

  4. Biomimetic polymers in analytical chemistry. Part 1: preparation and applications of MIP (Molecularly Imprinted Polymers) in extraction and separation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarley, Cesar Ricardo Teixeira; Sotomayor, Maria del Pilar Taboada; Kubota, Lauro Tatsuo

    2005-01-01

    MIPs are synthetic polymers that are used as biomimetic materials simulating the mechanism verified in natural entities such as antibodies and enzymes. Although MIPs have been successfully used as an outstanding tool for enhancing the selectivity or different analytical approaches, such as separation science and electrochemical and optical sensors, several parameters must be optimized during their synthesis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art of MIP production as well as the different polymerization methods are discussed. The potential selectivity of MIPs in the extraction and separation techniques focusing mainly on environmental, clinical and pharmaceutical samples as applications for analytical purposes is presented. (author)

  5. Controle do caruncho Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 (Coleóptera: Bruchidae utilizando extratos de Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae pelo método de vapor Control of cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775(Coleóptera: Bruchidae using extracts of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae by the steam method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Considerando os prejuízos causados pelo inseto-praga Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 ao feijão Vigna unguiculata Walp. armazenado, com o presente trabalho objetivou-se avaliar a eficácia de extratos de Piper nigrum L. na mortalidade de adultos daquela espécie. O delineamento estatístico utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso com quatro repetições e arranjo fatorial 3 x 5, constituído por três concentrações do extrato e cinco períodos de exposições dos extratos (5, 10, 15, 20 e 25 minutos. Utilizaram-se frutos secos triturados de P. nigrum para extração em percolador com solvente álcool etílico (70, 50 e 30%. Os extratos foram aplicados na forma de vapor, por meio de um compressor adaptado, para dentro de recipiente contendo 100 insetos. Os resultados permitiram concluir que a mortalidade dos insetos aumenta com o aumento do período de exposição aos extratos, e que todas as concentrações se mostraram eficientes, embora, em termos de valores absolutos, o extrato com 70% de álcool etílico foi o mais eficaz.Considering the damage caused by the insect pest Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabr., 1775 to stored Vigna unguiculata Walp beans, this work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of extracts of Piper nigrum L. in the control of adults of the referred species. The statistical outline used was made at random with four repetitions and factorial arrangement 3 x 5, formed by three concentrations of the extract and five periods of exposure to the extracts (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 minutes. P. nigrum grounded dry fruits were used for extraction , which was done with ethyl alcohol (70, 50 and 30%, using a percolator. The extracts were applied as steam, using an adapted compressor into a container having 100 insects. By the results it was possible to conclude that the mortality of the insects becomes higher as the period of exposure to the extracts is increased, and that all the concentrations were shown to be effective, although, in

  6. In-situ active/passive bioreclamation of vadose zone soils contaminated with gasoline and waste oil using soil vapor extraction/bioventing: Laboratory pilot study to full scale site operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachary, S.P.; Everett, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The use of soil venting to supply oxygen and remove metabolites from the biodegradation of light hydrocarbons is a cost effective in-situ remediation approach. To date, little data exists on the effective in-situ bioreclamation of vadose zone soil contaminated with waste/hydraulic oil without excavation or the addition of water or nutrients to degrade the heavy petroleum contaminants. Gasoline and waste/hydraulic oil contaminated soils below an active commercial building required an in-situ non-disruptive remediation approach. Initial soil vapor samples collected from the vadose zone revealed CO 2 concentrations in excess of 16% and O 2 concentrations of less than 1% by volume. Soil samples were collected from below the building within the contaminated vadose zone for laboratory chemical and physical analysis as well as to conduct a laboratory biotreatability study. The laboratory biotreatability study was conducted for 30 days to simulate vadose zone bioventing conditions using soil taken from the contaminated vadose zone. Results of the biotreatability study revealed that the waste oil concentrations had been reduced from 960 mg/Kg to non-detectable concentrations within 30 days and the volatile hydrocarbon content had decreased exponentially to less than 0.1% of the original concentration. Post treatability study biological enumeration revealed an increase in the microbial population of two orders of magnitude

  7. Vapor Intrusion Facility Points, South Bay CA, 2014, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — POINT locations for the South Bay Vapor Instrusion Sites were derived from the NPL data for Region 9. One site, Philips Semiconductor, was extracted from the...

  8. Optimization and application of octadecyl-modified monolithic silica for solid-phase extraction of drugs in whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namera, Akira; Saito, Takeshi; Ota, Shigenori; Miyazaki, Shota; Oikawa, Hiroshi; Murata, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masataka

    2017-09-29

    Monolithic silica in MonoSpin for solid-phase extraction of drugs from whole blood samples was developed to facilitate high-throughput analysis. Monolithic silica of various pore sizes and octadecyl contents were synthesized, and their effects on recovery rates were evaluated. The silica monolith M18-200 (20μm through-pore size, 10.4nm mesopore size, and 17.3% carbon content) achieved the best recovery of the target analytes in whole blood samples. The extraction proceeded with centrifugal force at 1000rpm for 2min, and the eluate was directly injected into the liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system without any tedious steps such as evaporation of extraction solvents. Under the optimized condition, low detection limits of 0.5-2.0ngmL -1 and calibration ranges up to 1000ngmL -1 were obtained. The recoveries of the target drugs in the whole blood were 76-108% with relative standard deviation of less than 14.3%. These results indicate that the developed method based on monolithic silica is convenient, highly efficient, and applicable for detecting drugs in whole blood samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Application of Chinese High-Spatial Remote Sensing Satellite Image in Land Law Enforcement Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, N.; Yang, R.

    2018-04-01

    Chinese high -resolution (HR) remote sensing satellites have made huge leap in the past decade. Commercial satellite datasets, such as GF-1, GF-2 and ZY-3 images, the panchromatic images (PAN) resolution of them are 2 m, 1 m and 2.1 m and the multispectral images (MS) resolution are 8 m, 4 m, 5.8 m respectively have been emerged in recent years. Chinese HR satellite imagery has been free downloaded for public welfare purposes using. Local government began to employ more professional technician to improve traditional land management technology. This paper focused on analysing the actual requirements of the applications in government land law enforcement in Guangxi Autonomous Region. 66 counties in Guangxi Autonomous Region were selected for illegal land utilization spot extraction with fusion Chinese HR images. The procedure contains: A. Defines illegal land utilization spot type. B. Data collection, GF-1, GF-2, and ZY-3 datasets were acquired in the first half year of 2016 and other auxiliary data were collected in 2015. C. Batch process, HR images were collected for batch preprocessing through ENVI/IDL tool. D. Illegal land utilization spot extraction by visual interpretation. E. Obtaining attribute data with ArcGIS Geoprocessor (GP) model. F. Thematic mapping and surveying. Through analysing 42 counties results, law enforcement officials found 1092 illegal land using spots and 16 suspicious illegal mining spots. The results show that Chinese HR satellite images have great potential for feature information extraction and the processing procedure appears robust.

  10. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, N. Narayana, E-mail: nagireddynarayana@gmail.com [Center for Advanced Biomaterials for Healthcare, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia@CRIB, Largo Barsanti e Matteucci 53, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Ravindra, S. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Reddy, N. Madhava [Department of Environmental Science, Gates Institute of Technology, NH-7, Gooty, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rajinikanth, V. [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa); Raju, K. Mohana [Synthetic Polymer Laboratory, Department of Polymer Science & Technology, S.K. University, Anantapuram, Andhra Pradesh (India); Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu [Department of Physics, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, University of South Africa, Johannesburg 1709 (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel.

  11. Study of extraction-spectrophotometric micro-determination of boron with methylene blue and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Daohong

    1990-08-01

    A sensitive extraction-spectrophotometric method for microdetermination of boron with methylene blue was investigated. The method was based on the extraction of a BF 4 - -methylene blue complex into dichloroethane. Boron was determined directly by measuring the absorbance at 658 nm. The calibration graph was linear over the range of 2.5 x 10 -9 to 8 x 10 -8 g/mL. The blank, mechanism of the reactions, interference of other ions and some optimum conditions of the method were studied in detail. The main source of the blank resulted from methylene blue and the complex of F - -methylene blue. In order to reduce the blank, the amounts of methylene blue, H 2 SO 4 and HF were used as less as possible. Only one to one complex BF 4 - -methylene blue was formed in the medium of H 2 SO 4 . About 90% of methylene blue and F - -methylene blue complex was removre with 5 ml of water and only a little amount of BF 4 -methylene blue complex was decomposed. The extraction-spectrophotometric method with methylene blue was first applied to the microdetermination of boron in sodium metal and UF 6 . The sample of sodium metal was taken and weighed in the glovebox filled with argon. Then sodium metal was oxidized, hydrolyzed, netralized and fluorizated with H 2 O, H 2 SO 4 and HF, respectively. The 0.5 ppm of boron in sodium metal was determined with a relative error about ±4%. This method can be applied to the determination of boron in sodium metal, sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide at diffeent grades. The species of boron in the hydrolysate of UF 6 is BF 4 - anion, so the sample can be directly analyzed. Boron contents in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 ppm was determined with a relative error about ±3%. Six samples could be analysed in 2h

  12. Temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites for hyperthermia and metal extraction applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, N. Narayana; Ravindra, S.; Reddy, N. Madhava; Rajinikanth, V.; Raju, K. Mohana; Vallabhapurapu, Vijaya Srinivasu

    2015-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of temperature and magnetic responsive hydrogel networks based on poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)/acrylamido propane sulfonic acid. The hydrogel matrices are synthesized by polymerizing N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) monomer in the presence of acrylamido propane sulphonicacid (AMPS) using a cross-linker (N,N-methylenebisacrylamide, MBA) and redox initiating system [ammonium persulphate (APS)/tetramethylethylenediamine (TMEDA)]. The magnetic nanoparticles are generated throughout the hydrogel networks using in situ method by incorporating iron ions and subsequent treatment with ammonia. A series of hydrogel-magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are developed by varying AMPS composition. The synthesized hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) are characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Thermal Analyses and Electron Microscopy analysis (Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscope). The metal extraction capacities of the prepared hydrogel (HG) and hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNC) were studied at different temperatures. The results suggest that HGMNCs have higher extraction capacity compared to HG and HG loaded iron ions. This data also reveals that the extraction of metals by hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites (HGMNCs) is higher at higher temperatures than room temperature. The prepared HGMNCs are also subjected to hyperthermia (cancer therapy) studies. - Highlights: • We have developed temperature responsive hydrogel magnetic nanocomposites. • Addition of AMPS monomer to this magnetic hydrogel enhances the temperature sensitivity to 40–43 °C. • Similarly the sulfonic groups present in the AMPS units enhances the swelling ratio of magnetic hydrogels. • AMPS acts as good stabilizing agent for nanoparticles in the magnetic nanogel

  13. Effect of heavy metal and edta application on plant growth and phyto-extraction potential of sorghum (sorghum bicolor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacaha, N.; Shamas, R.; Bakht, J.; Rafi, A.; Farhatullah, M.; Gillani, S.

    2015-01-01

    Pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the phyto-extraction capacity of heavy metals by Sorghum. Sorghum bicolor was grown in soil artificially contaminated with different concentrations of lead (300, 350 and 400 mg/kg), chromium (50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) and cadmium (100, 150 and 200 mg/kg). Five mM EDTA was applied, as chelating agent to the plants after 4 weeks of sowing. Plants were grown for a total of two months and fresh weight and dry weight of shoot and heavy metal accumulation were analyzed at six and eight weeks after sowing. The results revealed that application of cadmium, chromium and lead and EDTA adversely affected shoot length, fresh weight and dry weight of S. bicolor at both time intervals. Heavy metals uptake increased with the increment of heavy metal by S. bicolor species. Application of 5mM EDTA enhanced the uptake of heavy metal. (author)

  14. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina, E-mail: sinajahanbakhsh@gmail.com; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  15. Extraction, characterization and application of antioxidants from the Nordic brown alga Fucus vesiculosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermund, Ditte Baun

    investigated the possibilities of using extracts from Nordic F. vesiculosus as natural antioxidants in food and skin care products. All tested food products were fortified with fish oil rich in polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids. The fish oil was added specifically in order to examine the effectiveness.......g. in the formulation of functional foods enriched with fish oil.......Marine algae are a huge underutilized resource in the Nordic countries with a potential to be used in the development of new natural ingredients for the food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry. Such ingredients can act as natural preservatives and prevent product deterioration during storage...

  16. Chemical vapor composites (CVC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reagan, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Chemical Vapor Composite, CVC trademark , process fabricates composite material by simply mixing particles (powders and or fibers) with CVD reactants which are transported and co-deposited on a hot substrate. A key feature of the CVC process is the control provided by varing the density, geometry (aspect ratio) and composition of the entrained particles in the matrix material, during deposition. The process can fabricate composite components to net shape (± 0.013 mm) on a machined substrate in a single step. The microstructure of the deposit is described and several examples of different types of particles in the matrix are illustrated. Mechanical properties of SiC composite material fabricated with SiC powder and fiber will be presented. Several examples of low cost ceramic composite products will be shown. (orig.)

  17. Iron bromide vapor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V. B.; Shiyanov, D. V.; Trigub, M. V.; Dimaki, V. A.; Evtushenko, G. S.

    2016-03-01

    We have studied the characteristics of a pulsed gas-discharge laser on iron bromide vapor generating radiation with a wavelength of 452.9 nm at a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 5-30 kHz. The maximum output power amounted to 10 mW at a PRF within 5-15 kHz for a voltage of 20-25 kV applied to electrodes of the discharge tube. Addition of HBr to the medium produced leveling of the radial profile of emission. Initial weak lasing at a wavelength of 868.9 nm was observed for the first time, which ceased with buildup of the main 452.9-nm line.

  18. Direct gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite residues in the absence and presence of water vapor: a feasibility study for carbon dioxide sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veetil, Sanoopkumar Puthiya; Pasquier, Louis-César; Blais, Jean-François; Cecchi, Emmanuelle; Kentish, Sandra; Mercier, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Mineral carbonation of serpentinite mining residue offers an environmentally secure and permanent storage of carbon dioxide. The strategy of using readily available mining residue for the direct treatment of flue gas could improve the energy demand and economics of CO2 sequestration by avoiding the mineral extraction and separate CO2 capture steps. The present is a laboratory scale study to assess the possibility of CO2 fixation in serpentinite mining residues via direct gas-solid reaction. The degree of carbonation is measured both in the absence and presence of water vapor in a batch reactor. The gas used is a simulated gas mixture reproducing an average cement flue gas CO2 composition of 18 vol.% CO2. The reaction parameters considered are temperature, total gas pressure, time, and concentration of water vapor. In the absence of water vapor, the gas-solid carbonation of serpentinite mining residues is negligible, but the residues removed CO2 from the feed gas possibly due to reversible adsorption. The presence of small amount of water vapor enhances the gas-solid carbonation, but the measured rates are too low for practical application. The maximum CO2 fixation obtained is 0.07 g CO2 when reacting 1 g of residue at 200 °C and 25 barg (pCO2 ≈ 4.7) in a gas mixture containing 18 vol.% CO2 and 10 vol.% water vapor in 1 h. The fixation is likely surface limited and restricted due to poor gas-solid interaction. It was identified that both the relative humidity and carbon dioxide-water vapor ratio have a role in CO2 fixation regardless of the percentage of water vapor.

  19. Application-Oriented Optimal Shift Schedule Extraction for a Dual-Motor Electric Bus with Automated Manual Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Zhao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The conventional battery electric buses (BEBs have limited potential to optimize the energy consumption and reach a better dynamic performance. A practical dual-motor equipped with 4-speed Automated Manual Transmission (AMT propulsion system is proposed, which can eliminate the traction interruption in conventional AMT. A discrete model of the dual-motor-AMT electric bus (DMAEB is built and used to optimize the gear shift schedule. Dynamic programming (DP algorithm is applied to find the optimal results where the efficiency and shift time of each gear are considered to handle the application problem of global optimization. A rational penalty factor and a proper shift time delay based on bench test results are set to reduce the shift frequency by 82.5% in Chinese-World Transient Vehicle Cycle (C-WTVC. Two perspectives of applicable shift rule extraction methods, i.e., the classification method based on optimal operating points and clustering method based on optimal shifting points, are explored and compared. Eventually, the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL simulation results demonstrate that the proposed structure and extracted shift schedule can realize a significant improvement in reducing energy loss by 20.13% compared to traditional empirical strategies.

  20. Logistic Principles Application for Managing the Extraction and Transportation of Solid Minerals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurin Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reducing the cost of resources in solid mineral extraction is an urgent task. For its solution the article proposes logistic approach use to management of mining company all resources, including extraction processes, transport, mineral handling and storage. The account of the uneven operation of mining, transport units and complexes for processing and loading coal into railroad cars allows you to identify the shortcomings in the work of the entire enterprise and reduce resources use at the planned production level. In the article the mining planning model taking into account the dynamics of the production, transport stations and export coal to consumers rail transport on example of Krasnoyarsk region Nazarovo JSC «Razrez Sereul'skiy». Rolling planning methods use and data aggregation allows you to split the planning horizon (month on equal periods and to use of dynamic programming method for building mining optimal production programme for the month. Coal mining production program definition technique will help align the work of all enterprise units, to optimize resources of all areas, to establish a flexible relationship between manufacturer and consumer, to take into account the irregularity of rail transport.