WorldWideScience

Sample records for vap turbine plant

  1. Deflector plants turbine aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.E.; Sheppard, A.R.; Widener, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Water quality requirements have become a focal point in recent re-licensing of hydroelectric projects. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has significantly increased the relevance of license conditions to insure that turbine discharges meet state or other specific criteria for dissolved oxygen (D.O.). Due to naturally occurring depletion of D.O. at increased depths in large reservoirs, water withdrawn from this strata may result in unacceptably low levels of D.O. Different researchers have evaluated various methods of improving D.O. content in hydro turbine discharges, including; diffusers, weirs, oxygen injection, and variations of turbine venting. The authors describe an approach called deflector plate turbine aeration. This computer based, engineered approach allows systems to be evaluated, designed, and installed with predictable performance and costs. Many experts in this field now agree that, to the extent practical, turbine venting offers the most dependable, maintenance free, and cost effective solution to the low D.O. problem. The approach presented in this paper has resulted in proven results

  2. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosyak, Yu.F.

    1978-01-01

    Considered are the peculiarities of the design and operation of steam turbines, condensers and supplementary equipment of steam turbines for nuclear power plants; described are the processes of steam flow in humid-steam turbines, calculation and selection principles of main parameters of heat lines. Designs of the turbines installed at the Charkov turbine plant are described in detail as well as of those developed by leading foreign turbobuilding firms

  3. Large nuclear steam turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushidani, Haruo; Moriya, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Kunio; Fujita, Isao; Ebata, Sakae; Nagai, Yoji.

    1986-01-01

    The technical development of the large capacity steam turbines for ABWR plants was partially completed, and that in progress is expected to be completed soon. In this report, the outline of those new technologies is described. As the technologies for increasing the capacity and heightening the efficiency, 52 in long blades and moisture separating heaters are explained. Besides, in the large bore butterfly valves developed for making the layout compact, the effect of thermal efficiency rise due to the reduction of pressure loss can be expected. As the new technology on the system side, the simplification of the turbine system and the effect of heightening the thermal efficiency by high pressure and low pressure drain pumping-up method based on the recent improvement of feed water quality are discussed. As for nuclear steam turbines, the actual records of performance of 1100 MW class, the largest output at present, have been obtained, and as a next large capacity machine, the development of a steam turbine of 1300 MWe class for an ABWR plant is in progress. It can be expected that by the introduction of those new technologies, the plants having high economical efficiency are realized. (Kako, I.)

  4. Turbines for nuclear power plants. 2.ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1978-01-01

    In the second edition of the book considered are practically all the main problems of calculation and operation of turbines and turbine installations of nuclear power plants. As compared to the first edition, essentially addes is the reproduction of the problem on combined generation of heat and electric energy. Also represented is detailed material on methods of preliminary evaluation of turbine effectiveness. Considered are peculiarities of turbine operation on wet steam and the basis of their thermal calculation. Much attention is payed to the problem of wet stream current in the turbine elements and wetness effect on their characteristics. Problems of wetness separation and moving blade erosion as well as other turbine elements are extracted in a special section. Given are structural schemes of different methods of innerchannel and periphery wet removal as well as experimental materials on their effectiveness. Given are descriptions and critical analysis of a great number of typical constructions of nuclear power plant steam turbines, produced by native plants as well as by the main foreign firms. Considered also are constructions of outside separators and steam superheaters. Separately given is the problem of rotation frequency choise of nuclear power plant wet steam turbines. Represented are materials on turbine installation tests, considered are the problems of turbine starting and manoeuvrability, analyzed are their typical jailures and damages. One of the sections of the book is devoted to gas turbine installations of nuclear power plants. Different material on this theme scattered before in various sources is summarized in the book

  5. VAP rates unchanged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. In a research letter to JAMA Metersky and colleagues (1 report that ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP rates have remained near 10% since 2005. The authors reviewed Medicare Patient Safety Monitoring System (MPSMS data on a representative sample of more than 86,000 critically ill patients treated at 1330 US hospitals between 2005 and 2013. To meet a diagnosis of VAP patients were required to have at least 2 days' ventilation in intensive care units; a chest radiograph with a new finding suggesting pneumonia; a physician diagnosis of pneumonia; and an order for antibiotics. VAP incidence was 10.8% (95% confidence interval, 7.4% - 14.4% during 2005 to 2006 and 9.7% (95% confidence interval, 5.1% - 14.9% during 2012 to 2013. In contrast, data from the CDC's National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN have shown declines in VAP rates of 71% and 62% in medical and surgical intensive care units, respectively, between 2006 and 2012 …

  6. Optimization of a gas turbine cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, J.; Wessman, M.

    1991-11-01

    This work describes an analytical method of optimizing a cogeneration with a gas turbine as prime mover. The method is based on an analytical function. The function describes the total costs of the heat production, described by the heat load duration curve. The total costs consist of the prime costs and fixed costs of the gas turbine and the other heating plants. The parameters of interest at optimization are the heat efficiency produced by the gas turbine and the utilization time of the gas turbine. With todays prices for electricity, fuel and heating as well as maintenance- personnel and investment costs, extremely good conditions are needed to make the gas turbine profitable. Either a raise of the price for the electricity with about 33% is needed or that the ratio of electricity and fuel increases to approx 2.5. High investment subsidies for the gas turbines could make a gas turbine profitable, even with todays electricity- and fuel prices. Besides being a good help when projecting cogeneration plants with a gas turbine as prime mover, the method gives a possibility to optimize the annual operating time for a certain gas turbine when changing the operating conditions. 6 refs

  7. Low speed turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugol'nikov, V.V.; Kosyak, Yu.F.; Virchenko, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    Work of the Kharkov turbine plant on planning and manufacture for nuclear power plants of low-speed (1500 rpm) turbines with a power of 500-1000 MW is described. The selection of a construction diagram for the turbine assembly, determined basically by the presence or absence of parts of average pressure, is considered. Special construction features of the condenser and turbine are described. Turbine K-500, with a rate of 1500 rpm, was calculated for operation in a two-loop nuclear power plant with saturated steam with intermediate separation and two-stage steam regeneration. On the base of this turbine, three models of 1000-MW turbines were developed. The first model has a cylinder of average pressure (TsSD) and a lateral condenser. The second has no TsSD but a low location of the condensers. The third has no TsSD and the condensers are located laterally. Calculations of the heat efficiency of the three types of turbines showed that several advantages are offered by the model with a TsSD. Better aerodynamic properties of the exhaust nozzles and condensers with lateral location allows decreasing the specific heat consumption to 0.5-1% or, at the same power, a 10-20% decrease in cooling water consumption

  8. HTGR gas turbine power plant preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koutz, S.L.; Krase, J.M.; Meyer, L.

    1973-01-01

    The preliminary reference design of the HTGR gas turbine power plant is presented. Economic and practical problems and incentives related to the development and introduction of this type of power plant are evaluated. The plant features and major components are described, and a discussion of its performance, economics, development, safety, control, and maintenance is presented. 4 references

  9. Technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The technology of turbine plant operating with wet steam is a subject of continuing interest and importance, notably in view of the widespread use of wet steam cycles in nuclear power plants and the recent developments of advanced low pressure blading for both conventional and wet steam turbines. The nature of water formation in expanding steam has an important influence on the efficiency of turbine blading and on the integrity and safe operating life of blading and associated turbine and plant components. The subjects covered in this book include research, flow analysis and measurement, development and design of turbines and ancillary plant, selection of materials of construction, manufacturing methods and operating experience. (author)

  10. Modernization of turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing goal in the power generation industry is to maximize the output of currently installed assets. This is most important at nuclear power plants due to the large capital investments that went into these plants and their base loaded service demands. Recent trends in the United States show a majority of nuclear plants are either obtaining, or are in the process of obtaining NRC approvals for operating license extensions and power uprates. This trend is evident in other countries as well. For example, all Swedish nuclear power plants are currently working on projects to extend their service life and maximize capacity through thermal uprate and turbine-generator upgrade with newest technology. The replacement of key components with improved ones is a means of optimizing the service life and availability of power plants. Economic advantages result from increased efficiency, higher output, shorter startup and shutdown times as well as reduced outage times and service costs. The rapid advances over recent years in the development of calculation programs enables adaptation of the latest blading technology to the special requirements imposed by steam turbine upgrading. This results in significant potential for generating additional output with the implementation of new technology, even without increased thermal power. In contrast to maintenance and investment in pure replacement or repair of a component with the primary goal of maintaining operability and reliability, the additional output gained by upgrading enables a return on investment to be reaped. (orig.)

  11. Integrating a SOFC Plant with a Steam Turbine Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is integrated with a Steam Turbine (ST) cycle. Different hybrid configurations are studied. The fuel for the plants is assumed to be natural gas (NG). Since the NG cannot be sent to the anode side of the SOFC directly, a desulfurization reactor is used to remove...

  12. Risks of turbine generators at WWER-440 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, T.; Marttila, J.; Aulamo, H.

    1998-01-01

    Many serious fires and incidents have occurred in the turbine halls of nuclear power plants, resulting in serious damage and long shutdown outages. Some of these incidents have endangered the safe shutdown of the plants because of the location of lack of vital fire protection safety systems. A detailed analysis is necessary for all those plants that have equipment important for safe shutdown located in the turbine hall or its vicinity without strict fire separation by fire rated barriers. A reduction in the fire frequencies of the turbine hall is an additional way of improving safety. This is possible by improving all aspects of turbine generator operation. (author)

  13. Gas turbine cogeneration plant for textile dyeing plant in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonetti, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports the information (i.e., notes on specific plant component weaknesses and defects, e.g., exchanger tube fouling, improper positioning of temperature probes, incorrect choice of flow valves, etc., and relative remedial actions) gained during a one year cogeneration plant debugging campaign at the Colorama textile dyeing plant in Italy. The cogeneration plant consists of a Solar Saturn MK III gas turbine (1,080 kw at terminals, 500 degrees C exhaust gas temperature); a double (steam and hot water) circuit waste heat boiler contemporaneously producing, with 100 degrees C supply water, 4 tonnes/h steam at 5 bars and 9 cubic meters/h of 20 to 80 degrees C hot water; and a 1,470 kVA generator operating at 3 kV connected by a 3kV/15kV transformer to the national grid. The plant is protected against fire by independent halon fire protection systems, one for the gas turbine plant, the other, for the control room. A modem connects the plant control and monitoring system with the firm which supplied the equipment. The plant operator cites an urgent national requirement for trained cogeneration equipment technical consultants and designers in order to better promote the use of innovative cogeneration technology by Italian industry

  14. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  15. Simulation model of nuclear power plant turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta, Anu; Thangamani, I.; Chakraborty, G.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2006-04-01

    A computer code TURDYN has been developed for prediction of HP and LP turbine torque under thermodynamic transient conditions. The model is based on the conservation laws of mass and energy. All the important components of turbine systems e.g. high pressure turbine, low pressure turbine, feed heaters, reheater, moisture separator have been considered. The details of the mathematical formulation of the model and open loop responses for specific disturbances are presented. (author)

  16. Improved Governing of Kaplan Turbine Hydropower Plants Operating Island Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the consequences of a major fault in the electric power grid, functioning parts of the grid can be divided into smaller grid islands. The grid islands are operated isolated from the power network, which places new demands on a faster frequency regulation. This thesis investigates a Kaplan turbine hydropower plant operating an island grid. The Kaplan turbine has two control signals, the wicket gate and the turbine blade positions, controlling the mechanical power. The inputs are comb...

  17. Modernization of turbines in fossil and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, T.; Oeynhausen, H.

    2004-01-01

    Steam turbine power plants have a big share in power generation world-wide. In view of their age structure, they offer the biggest potential for increasing power plant performance, availability and environmental protection. Modernisation and replacement of key components by improved components will reduce fuel consumption and improve power plant performance by higher capacity, higher power, shorter start-up and shutdown times, and reduced standstill times. Modern steam turbine bladings will result in further improvements without additional fuel consumption. (orig.)

  18. Maintenance management of gas turbine power plant systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given the abundant availability of gas and the significant installed capacity of the electricity from Gas Turbine Power Systems; effective maintenance of Gas Turbine Power Plants in Nigeria could be the panacea for achieving regular power generation and supply. The study identified environmental impact on the machines, ...

  19. Death by acid rain: VAP or EXIT?

    OpenAIRE

    Thorburn, Kentigern; Darbyshire, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a new (nosocomial) lower respiratory tract infection diagnosed in mechanically ventilated patients 48 or more hours after intubation. There is no gold standard for establishing the diagnosis and its pathogenesis is iatrogenic and multifactorial. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in mechanically ventilated children, but its role in VAP remains speculative. VAP is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, prolonged duration of ventilation and ...

  20. Death by acid rain: VAP or EXIT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorburn, Kentigern; Darbyshire, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a new (nosocomial) lower respiratory tract infection diagnosed in mechanically ventilated patients 48 or more hours after intubation. There is no gold standard for establishing the diagnosis and its pathogenesis is iatrogenic and multifactorial. Gastro-oesophageal reflux is common in mechanically ventilated children, but its role in VAP remains speculative. VAP is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, prolonged duration of ventilation and hospital stay, and escalated costs of hospitalisation. VAP 'bundles' are championed as the antidote.

  1. Turbines, generators and associated plant incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Littler, DJ

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of new 500 MW and 660 MW turbine generator plant in nuclear, coal- and oil-fired power stations has been partly responsible for the increase in generating capacity of the CEGB over the last 30 years. This volume provides a detailed account of experience gained in the development, design, manufacture, operation and testing of large turbine-generators in the last 20 years. With the advance in analytical and computational techniques, the application of this experience to future design and operation of large turbine-generator plant will be of great value to engineers in the indust

  2. Heat exchangers for automotive gas turbine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penny, R.N.

    1974-01-01

    Automotive gas turbine power plants are now in the final stages of development for quantity manufacture. A crucial factor in this development is the regenerative heat exchanger. The relative merits of the rotary regenerative and static recuperative heat exchanger are compared. Thermal efficiency and initial cost are two vital issues involved in the design of small gas turbines for the commercial establishment of gas turbine vehicles. The selection of a material for the rotaty regenerator is essentially related to resolving the two vital issues of future small gas turbines and is, therefore, analysed. The account of the pioneering work involved in engineering the glass ceramic and other non-metal regenerators includes a complete failure analysis based on running experience with over 200 ceramic regenerators. The problems of sealing, supporting and manufacturing the ceramic regenerator are discussed and future practical designs are outlined. Heat exchange theory applied to small gas turbines is also reviewed

  3. Feasibility study on rehabilitation of MEPE gas turbine power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Myanmar generates majority of the whole electric power by using thermal power plants consisting of single gas turbines, and gas and steam composite turbines. However, because of chronic power shortage and fund unavailability, the major gas turbines are being operated in quite inadequate environment. As a result, reduction in power generation efficiency has become manifest due to aged deterioration, increasing the quantity of CO2 emission. The present project is, in order to link it to the 'Clean Development Mechanism' being carried out with developing countries, and placing Tharkayta Power Plant as the object, intended to comprehensively discuss a rehabilitation program to renew the existing gas turbines with advanced ones, in relation with feasibility of the project implementation including the effect of CO2 emission reduction, profitability, and proliferation effects. A prospect was acquired that, by replacing the gas turbines alone with 25-MW class gas turbines, the plant output will increase to 97.2 MW (78.5 MW in the existing facilities) and the plant efficiency to 43.3% (36.5% in the existing facilities). The energy saving effect during a period of 40 years would be 708,000 (toe) as heat consumption converted to crude oil, and the CO2 emission reducing effect would be 2,160,000 (t-CO2), respectively. (NEDO)

  4. Cogeneration steam turbine plant for district heating of Berovo (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin

    2000-01-01

    A plant for combined heat and electric power production, for central heating of the town Berovo (Macedonia) is proposed. The common reason to use a co-generation unit is the energy efficiency and a significant reduction of environmental pollution. A coal dust fraction from B rik' - Berovo coal mine is the main energy resource for cogeneration steam turbine plant. The heat consumption of town Berovo is analyzed and determined. Based on the energy consumption of a whole power plant, e. i. the plant for combined and simultaneous production of power is proposed. All necessary facilities of cogeneration plant is examined and determined. For proposed cogeneration steam turbine power plant for combined heat and electric production it is determined: heat and electric capacity of the plant, annually heat and electrical quantity production and annually coal consumption, the total investment of the plant, the price of both heat and electric energy as well as the pay back period. (Authors)

  5. Comparison of performances of full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hu; Zhang Weihong; Zhang Qiang; Li Shaohua

    2010-01-01

    The steam turbines of nuclear power plants can be divided into the full-speed turbine and half-speed turbine. Different speed leads to differences in many aspects. Therefore, the rational speed is the key point in the selection of steam turbines. This paper contrasts the economy between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, by calculating the relative internal efficiency of half-speed and full-speed steam turbines with the typical level of 1000 megawatt. At the same time, this paper also calculate the relative speed of high speed water drops in the last stage blade of half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine, to contrast the water erosion between the half-speed turbine and full-speed turbine. The results show that the relative internal efficiency of half-speed turbine is higher than that of the full-speed turbine, and that the security especially the ability of preventing water erosion of half-speed turbine is better than that of the full-speed turbine. (authors)

  6. Optimum gas turbine cycle for combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyzakis, A.L.; Koroneos, C.; Xydis, G.

    2008-01-01

    The gas turbine based power plant is characterized by its relatively low capital cost compared with the steam power plant. It has environmental advantages and short construction lead time. However, conventional industrial engines have lower efficiencies, especially at part load. One of the technologies adopted nowadays for efficiency improvement is the 'combined cycle'. The combined cycle technology is now well established and offers superior efficiency to any of the competing gas turbine based systems that are likely to be available in the medium term for large scale power generation applications. This paper has as objective the optimization of a combined cycle power plant describing and comparing four different gas turbine cycles: simple cycle, intercooled cycle, reheated cycle and intercooled and reheated cycle. The proposed combined cycle plant would produce 300 MW of power (200 MW from the gas turbine and 100 MW from the steam turbine). The results showed that the reheated gas turbine is the most desirable overall, mainly because of its high turbine exhaust gas temperature and resulting high thermal efficiency of the bottoming steam cycle. The optimal gas turbine (GT) cycle will lead to a more efficient combined cycle power plant (CCPP), and this will result in great savings. The initial approach adopted is to investigate independently the four theoretically possible configurations of the gas plant. On the basis of combining these with a single pressure Rankine cycle, the optimum gas scheme is found. Once the gas turbine is selected, the next step is to investigate the impact of the steam cycle design and parameters on the overall performance of the plant, in order to choose the combined cycle offering the best fit with the objectives of the work as depicted above. Each alterative cycle was studied, aiming to find the best option from the standpoint of overall efficiency, installation and operational costs, maintainability and reliability for a combined power

  7. Steam turbines for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stastny, M.

    1983-01-01

    A three-cylinder 220 MW saturated steam turbine was developed for WWER reactors by the Skoda concern. Twenty four of these turbines are currently in operation, in production or have been ordered. A 1000 MW four-cylinder turbine is being developed. The disign of the turbines has had to overcome difficulties connected with the unfavourable effects of wet steam at extreme power values. Great attention had to be devoted to the aerodynamics of control valves and to the prevention of flow separation areas. The problem of corrosion-erosion in guide wheels and the high pressure section was resolved by the use of ferritic stainless steels. For the low pressure section it was necessary to separate the moisture and to reheat the steam in the separator-reheater. Difficulties caused by the generation of wet steam in the low pressure section by spontaneous condensation were removed. Also limited was the erosion caused by droplets resulting from the disintegration of water films on the trailing edges. (A.K.)

  8. Construction of a power plant with prototype DLN combustion turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M.L. [CSW Energy, Dallas, TX (United States); Drummond, L.J. [Zurn NEPCO, Redmond, WA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Design and construction of a power plant is always a difficult process and this is especially true when the main keystone, the combustion turbine engine, is being modified by the manufacturer resulting in numerous changes in the design interfaces. The development of the design and construction of the Orange Cogeneration Facility has been in parallel with major modification of the LM6000 to DLE technology (a Dry Low NO{sub x} combustion system). The Dry Low NO{sub x} Combustion System for a combustion turbine offered a means to reduce water usage, lower Zero Liquid Discharge System operating costs and reduce emissions to meet Florida Department of Environmental Protection requirements. This development was successfully accomplished by Owner, EPC contractor and Combustion Turbine Manufacturer by maintaining flexibility in the design and construction while the design interfaces and performance of the combustion turbines were being finalized.

  9. Evaluation of turbine systems for compressed air energy storage plants. Final report for FY 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartsounes, G.T.

    1976-10-01

    Compressed air energy storage plants for electric utility peak-shaving applications comprise four subsystems: a turbine system, compressor system, an underground air storage reservoir, and a motor/generator. Proposed plant designs use turbines that are derived from available gas and steam turbines with proven reliability. The study examines proposed turbine systems and presents an evaluation of possible systems that may reduce capital cost and/or improve performance. Six new turbine systems are identified for further economic evaluation.

  10. Aseismic design of turbine houses of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danisch, R.; Labes, M.

    1975-01-01

    The turbine house does not belong to the safety-related parts of equipment of a nuclear power plant. A special protection against earthquakes is not demanded by the authorities as long as it is proven that safety-related parts of equipment will not be restricted in their function by a collaps of the turbine house. The degree of an aseismic design is largely up to the customer, who has to weigh the risk of costs and availability against the additional costs, that are necessary for the earthquake calculation and for constructive hardening. In comparison to the high-tuned turbine foundations as they are in use in the USA today, low-tuned turbine foundations as a result of helical-spring-support, which are constructed by the KWU exclusively, pose special problems with the aseismic design. This is discussed in the present report. The spring-supported mass constitutes about a quarter of the building-mass. For mechanical reasons the spring elements are chosen in such a way, that the turbine foundation has a natural frequency of approximately 3 Hz. Thus it remains within the same frequency range as the turbine house and within that very range which is particularly amplificated by an earthquake. It is therefore likely that resonance effects as well as oscillation annulment effects may occur. The standardized calculation methods for conventional buildings without safety function such as DIN 4149 (Germany) or SIA 162 (Switzerland) do not cover the oscillation conduct of such a complicate structure. One receives informations about possible relative displacements between the building and the turbine foundation (hammering-effect) and about the stresses on the turbine and other components only by dynamic calculation methods such as the time-history or the response-spectrum method

  11. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  12. Steam turbine chemistry in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Robert; Haertel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Steam turbines in boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plants of various manufacturers have been affected by corrosion fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Steam chemistry has not been a prime focus for related research because the water in nuclear steam generating systems is considered to be of high purity. Steam turbine chemistry however addresses more the problems encountered in fossil fired power plants on all volatile treatment, where corrosive environments can be formed in zones where wet steam is re-evaporated and dries out, or in the phase transition zone, where superheated steam starts to condense in the low-pressure (LP) turbine. In BWR plants the situation is aggravated by the fact that no alkalizing agents are used in the cycle, thus making any anionic impurity immediately acidic. This is illustrated by case studies of pitting corrosion of a 12 % Cr steel gland seal and of flow-oriented corrosion attack on LP turbine blades in the phase transition zone. In PWR plants, volatile alkalizing agents are used that provide some buffering of acidic impurities, but they also produce anionic decomposition products. (orig.)

  13. Biomarker kinetics in the prediction of VAP diagnosis: results from the BioVAP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Póvoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Ramirez, Paula; Bos, Lieuwe D.; Esperatti, Mariano; Silvestre, Joana; Gili, Gisela; Goma, Gema; Berlanga, Eugenio; Espasa, Mateu; Gonçalves, Elsa; Torres, Antoni; Artigas, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains difficult. Our aim was to assess the value of biomarker kinetics in VAP prediction. We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study to evaluate predictive accuracy of biomarker kinetics, namely C-reactive protein

  14. Gas turbine installations in nuclear power plants in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevestedt, Lars [Electrical Equipment and Gas Turbines, Swedish State Power Board, Ringhals Nuclear Power Plant, S-430 22 Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1986-02-15

    At each of the four nuclear power stations in Sweden (Ringhals, Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck) gas turbine generating sets have been installed. These units are normally used for peak load operation dictated of grid and System requirements but they are also connected to supply the electrical auxiliary load of the nuclear plant as reserve power sources. The gas turbines have automatic start capability under certain abnormal conditions (such as reactor trips, low frequency grid etc) but they can also be started manually from several different locations. Starting time is approximately 2- 3 minutes from start up to full load. (author)

  15. Thermal performance test for steam turbine of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Yubing; Xu Zongfu; Wang Shiyong

    2014-01-01

    Through study of steam turbine thermal performance test of CPR1000 nuclear power plant, we solve the enthalpy calculation problems of the steam turbine in wet steam zone using heat balance method which can help to figure out the real overall heat balance diagram for the first time, and we develop a useful software for thermal heat balance calculation. Ling'ao phase II as an example, this paper includes test instrument layout, system isolation, risk control, data acquisition, wetness measurement, heat balance calculation, etc. (authors)

  16. Gas turbine installations in nuclear power plants in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevestedt, Lars

    1986-01-01

    At each of the four nuclear power stations in Sweden (Ringhals, Forsmark, Oskarshamn, Barsebaeck) gas turbine generating sets have been installed. These units are normally used for peak load operation dictated of grid and System requirements but they are also connected to supply the electrical auxiliary load of the nuclear plant as reserve power sources. The gas turbines have automatic start capability under certain abnormal conditions (such as reactor trips, low frequency grid etc) but they can also be started manually from several different locations. Starting time is approximately 2- 3 minutes from start up to full load. (author)

  17. Performance analysis and optimization of power plants with gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besharati-Givi, Maryam

    The gas turbine is one of the most important applications for power generation. The purpose of this research is performance analysis and optimization of power plants by using different design systems at different operation conditions. In this research, accurate efficiency calculation and finding optimum values of efficiency for design of chiller inlet cooling and blade cooled gas turbine are investigated. This research shows how it is possible to find the optimum design for different operation conditions, like ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio. The simulated designs include the chiller, with varied COP and fogging cooling for a compressor. In addition, the overall thermal efficiency is improved by adding some design systems like reheat and regenerative heating. The other goal of this research focuses on the blade-cooled gas turbine for higher turbine inlet temperature, and consequently, higher efficiency. New film cooling equations, along with changing film cooling effectiveness for optimum cooling air requirement at the first-stage blades, and an internal and trailing edge cooling for the second stage, are innovated for optimal efficiency calculation. This research sets the groundwork for using the optimum value of efficiency calculation, while using inlet cooling and blade cooling designs. In the final step, the designed systems in the gas cycles are combined with a steam cycle for performance improvement.

  18. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Rajaei, Ali; Barzegar Avval, Hasan; Eslami, Elmira

    2016-01-01

    Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C) by solar power tower (SPT) as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simul...

  19. Method of operating a nuclear turbine plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hiraku; Ootawara, Yasuhiko; Imai, Tetsu

    1985-04-25

    A method is presented to prevent the lowering in the reactor feedwater temperature thereby secure necessary amount of steams even in a plant operation under low load. The feedwater temperature of a nuclear reactor is detected at the low load region of the plant and high enthalpy steams are supplied to a high pressure feedwater heater by opening a supply stream extract switching valve. This enables to maintain the feedwater temperature in the nuclear reactor at a constant level.

  20. The turbine oil fire in the nuclear power plant, Muehleberg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.R.

    1972-01-01

    At 21.15 hours on the evening of the 28th July 1971, a turbine oil fire broke out in the Nuclear Power Plant Muehleberg of the Bernische Kraftwerke AG, resulting in damage amounting to around 20 million Swiss Francs and a delay of some ten months in putting the plant into operation. The plant is equipped with a General Electric boiling water reactor and two BBC saturated steam turbines. Up to the time of the fire, both turbo-sets had already been run singly up to their full capacity of 160 MWe and the initial trials with both sets working parallel were shortly due to be carried out. Following the outbreak of fire, the causes of which are described in the contributions of the authors Hagn, L. and H. Huppmann and Christian, H. and H. Grupp, fire fighting action was immediately taken, in line with the emergency measures laid down in the operating regulations. With the assistance of the Berne City Fire Brigade, the blaze in the roof of the turbine hall was first extinguished and the spreading cable conflagration then fought, using foam and water. (orig.) [de

  1. Dynamic Models for Wind Turbines and Wind Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2011-10-01

    The primary objective of this report was to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind turbine and wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Manufacturer-specific models of wind turbines are favored for use in wind power interconnection studies. While they are detailed and accurate, their usages are limited to the terms of the non-disclosure agreement, thus stifling model sharing. The primary objective of the work proposed is to develop universal manufacturer-independent wind power plant models that can be shared, used, and improved without any restrictions by project developers, manufacturers, and engineers. Each of these models includes representations of general turbine aerodynamics, the mechanical drive-train, and the electrical characteristics of the generator and converter, as well as the control systems typically used. To determine how realistic model performance is, the performance of one of the models (doubly-fed induction generator model) has been validated using real-world wind power plant data. This work also documents selected applications of these models.

  2. Comparison study between bacteriological aetiology and outcome of VAT & VAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr H. Kahlil

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: From the study we concluded that VAT infection is as severe as VAP and it needs more attention to prevent its presence as, once present, it usually progress to VAP increasing mortality rate in ICU.

  3. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  4. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  5. Multiple regression approach to predict turbine-generator output for Chinshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Yea-Kuang; Tsai, Yu-Ching [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a turbine cycle model using the multiple regression approach to estimate the turbine-generator output for the Chinshan Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). The plant operating data was verified using a linear regression model with a corresponding 95% confidence interval for the operating data. In this study, the key parameters were selected as inputs for the multiple regression based turbine cycle model. The proposed model was used to estimate the turbine-generator output. The effectiveness of the proposed turbine cycle model was demonstrated by using plant operating data obtained from the Chinshan NPP Unit 2. The results show that this multiple regression based turbine cycle model can be used to accurately estimate the turbine-generator output. In addition, this study also provides an alternative approach with simple and easy features to evaluate the thermal performance for nuclear power plants.

  6. Feasibility study on rehabilitation of KESC gas turbine power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As to power generation facilities of Karachi Electric Power Supply Corporation in Karachi (KESC), the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, feasibility study on the rehabilitation was conducted in consideration of the CDM (clean development mechanism) project. In Pakistan, 13 gas turbine power plants started operation at the same time as the time when the power plant studied this time started operation, and therefore it is predicted that they also have the same troubles caused by the aged deterioration. As the rehabilitation project, two cases were proposed: In Case 1, gas turbine and generator are both exchanged, and in Case 2, gas turbine is only exchanged, and generator is reused after repair. The work term is approximately 9 months in both cases. The initial investment is $84 million in Case 1 and $78 million in Case 2. The energy conservation effect per cost is 107 t/y/million yen and 101 t/y/million yen, respectively. Further, the amount of greenhouse effect gas reduction per cost is 330 t-CO2/y/million yen and 313 t-CO2/y/million yen, respectively. The effect of profits can be obtained after the depreciation period since the fuel price is reduced approximately 0.5%. (NEDO)

  7. Enhanced efficiency steam turbine blading - for cleaner coal plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, A.; Bell, D.; Cao, C.; Fowler, R.; Oliver, P.; Greenough, C.; Timmis, P. [ALSTOM Power, Rugby (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this project was to increase the efficiency of the short height stages typically found in high pressure steam turbine cylinders. For coal fired power plant, this will directly lead to a reduction in the amount of fuel required to produce electrical power, resulting in lower power station emissions. The continual drive towards higher cycle efficiencies demands increased inlet steam temperatures and pressures, which necessarily leads to shorter blade heights. Further advances in blading for short height stages are required in order to maximise the benefit. To achieve this, an optimisation of existing 3 dimensional designs was carried out and a new 3 dimensional fixed blade for use in the early stages of the high pressure turbine was developed. 28 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Development of web based performance analysis program for nuclear power plant turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hoon; Yu, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seong Kun; Ji, Moon Hak; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seong Ryeol

    2002-01-01

    Performance improvement of turbine cycle affects economic operation of nuclear power plant. We developed performance analysis system for nuclear power plant turbine cycle. The system is based on PTC (Performance Test Code), that is estimation standard of nuclear power plant performance. The system is developed using Java Web-Start and JSP(Java Server Page)

  9. Hydraulic optimization of 'S' characteristics of the pump-turbine for Xianju pumped storage plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, W C; Zheng, J S; Cheng, J; Shi, Q H

    2012-01-01

    The pump-turbine with a rated power capacity of 375MW each at Xianju pumped storage plant is the most powerful one under construction in China. In order to avoid the instability near no-load conditions, the hydraulic design of the pump-turbine has been optimized to improving the 'S' characteristic in the development of the model pump-turbine. This paper presents the cause of 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine by CFD simulation of the internal flow. Based on the CFD analysis, the hydraulic design optimization of the pump-turbine was carried out to eliminate the 'S' characteristics of the machine at Xianju pumped storage plant and a big step for removing the 'S' characteristic of a pump-turbine has been obtained. The model test results demonstrate that the pump-turbine designed for Xianju pumped storage plant can smoothly operate near no-load conditions without an addition of misaligned guide vanes.

  10. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  11. Production costs: U.S. gas turbine ampersand combined-cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This fourth edition of UDI's gas turbine O ampersand M cost report gives 1991 operation and maintenance expenses for over 450 US gas turbine power plants. Modeled on UDI's popular series of O ampersand M cost reports for US steam-electric plants, this report shows operator and plant name, plant year-in-service, installed capacity, 1991 net generation, total fuel expenses, total non-fuel O ampersand M expenses, total production costs, and current plant capitalization. Coverage includes over 90 percent of the utility-owned gas/combustion turbine and combined-cycle plants installed in the country

  12. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ulloa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled “Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines.” This is one of the topics covered in the course “Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer,” which is offered in the second year of Mechanical Engineering at the Defense University Center at the Naval Academy in Vigo, Spain. While participating in the activity, students will be divided into groups of no more than 10 for seminars. The groups will create PowerPoint presentations that include all of the analyzed aspects. The topics to be discussed during the workshop on power plant turbines are the: (1 principles of operation; (2 processes involved; (3 advantages and disadvantages; (4 efficiency; (5 combined cycle; and (6 transversal competences, such as teamwork, oral and written presentations, and analysis and synthesis of information. This paper presents the use of Google Sites as a guide to the WebQuest so that students can access all information online, including instructions, summaries, resources, and information on qualifications.

  13. Performance review: PBMR closed cycle gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep Kumar, K.N.; Tourlidakis, A.; Pilidis, P.

    2001-01-01

    Helium is considered as one of the ideal working fluid for closed cycle using nuclear heat source due to its low neutron absorption as well as high thermodynamic properties. The commercial viability of the Helium turbo machinery depends on operational success. The past attempts failed due to poor performances manifested in the form of drop in efficiency, inability to reach maximum load, slow response to the transients etc. Radical changes in the basic design were suggested in some instances as possible solutions. A better understanding of the operational performance is necessary for the detailed design of the plant and the control systems. This paper describes the theory behind the off design and transient modelling of a closed cycle gas turbine plant. A computer simulation model has been created specifically for this cycle. The model has been tested for various turbine entry temperatures along the steady state and its replications at various locations were observed. The paper also looks at the various control methods available for a closed cycle and some of the options were simulated. (author)

  14. Combined heat and power plants with parallel tandem steam turbines; Smaaskalig kraftvaerme med parallellkopplade tandemturbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwall, Pontus; Norstroem, Urban; Pettersson, Camilla; Oesterlin, Erik

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the technical and economical conditions for a concept with parallel coupled tandem turbines in small scale combined heat and power plants fired with bio-fuel and waste. Performance and heat production costs at varying electricity prices for the concept with two smaller tandem coupled steam turbines has been compared to the traditional concept with one single multi-staged turbine. Three different types of plants have been investigated: - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th}; - Waste fired CHP plant with thermal capacity of 20 MW{sub th}; - Bio fuelled CHP plant with thermal capacity of 25 MW{sub th}. The simple steam turbines (Curtis turbines) used in the tandem arrangement has an isentropic efficiency of about 49 to 53% compared to the multi-staged steam turbines with isentropic efficiency in the range of 59% to 81%. The lower isentropic efficiency for the single staged turbines is to some extent compensated at partial load when one of the two turbines can be shut down leading to better operational conditions for the one still in operation. For concepts with saturated steam at partial load below 50% the tandem arrangements presents higher electricity efficiency than the conventional single turbine alternative. The difference in annual production of electricity is therefore less than the difference in isentropic efficiency for the two concepts. Production of electricity is between 2% and 42% lower for the tandem arrangements in this study. Investment costs for the turbine island has been calculated for the two turbine concepts and when the costs for turbines, generator, power transmission, condensing system, piping system, buildings, assembling, commissioning and engineering has been added the sum is about the same for the two concepts. For the bio-fuelled plant with thermal capacity of 15 MW{sub th} the turbine island amount to about 10-12 MSEK and about 13-15 MSEK for the waste fired plant with a thermal capacity of 20 MW

  15. Modeling of Turbine Cycles Using a Neuro-Fuzzy Based Approach to Predict Turbine-Generator Output for Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea-Kuang Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the very complex sets of component systems, interrelated thermodynamic processes and seasonal change in operating conditions, it is relatively difficult to find an accurate model for turbine cycle of nuclear power plants (NPPs. This paper deals with the modeling of turbine cycles to predict turbine-generator output using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS for Unit 1 of the Kuosheng NPP in Taiwan. Plant operation data obtained from Kuosheng NPP between 2006 and 2011 were verified using a linear regression model with a 95% confidence interval. The key parameters of turbine cycle, including turbine throttle pressure, condenser backpressure, feedwater flow rate and final feedwater temperature are selected as inputs for the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. In addition, a thermodynamic turbine cycle model was developed using the commercial software PEPSE® to compare the performance of the ANFIS based turbine cycle model. The results show that the proposed ANFIS based turbine cycle model is capable of accurately estimating turbine-generator output and providing more reliable results than the PEPSE® based turbine cycle models. Moreover, test results show that the ANFIS performed better than the artificial neural network (ANN, which has also being tried to model the turbine cycle. The effectiveness of the proposed neuro-fuzzy based turbine cycle model was demonstrated using the actual operating data of Kuosheng NPP. Furthermore, the results also provide an alternative approach to evaluate the thermal performance of nuclear power plants.

  16. Pitot-tube turbine as wind power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naake, L

    1978-10-19

    The use of the Pitot tube turbine as a wind power station is an application of the well known Pitot tube with the turbines built into jet engines. The novelty of this invention lies in the combined nozzle and turbine unit, where the wind is caught in the funnel opening, is accelerated in the narrow flow zone and then acts on the turbine blades. Due to the acceleration, a greater torque is exerted on the turbine than in free air flow. The Pitot tube turbine consists of a casing with a turbine inside, which is fixed by guide vane supports to the casing and which contains one or two stage turbine blades and electrical generators. The whole structure with the rotor is set on a sub-frame and rotation is contained by control surfaces. The subframe can be used as a building.

  17. Outlook for gas turbine plant utilization in htgr power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beknev, V.S.; Leont'ev, A.I.; Shmidt, K.L.; Surovtsev, I.G.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear reactor power plants that have found greatest favor in the nuclear power industry worldwide are pressurized water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and uranium-graphite channel reactors with saturated-steam steam turbine units (PTU). The efficiency of power generating stations built around reactors such as these does not exceed 30 to 32%, and furthermore they are ''tied down'' to water reservoirs, with the entailed severe thermal effects on the environmental surroundings. The low efficiency range cited is evidence of inefficacious utilization of the nuclear fuel, reserves of which have their limits just as there are limits to available reserves of fossil fuels. Forecasts are being floated of a possible uranium crisis (profitable mining of uranium) in the mid-1990's, even with the expected development of breeder reactors to bridge the gap

  18. A Comparative Study of CFD Models of a Real Wind Turbine in Solar Chimney Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Gholamalizadeh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar chimney power plant consists of four main parts, a solar collector, a chimney, an energy storage layer, and a wind turbine. So far, several investigations on the performance of the solar chimney power plant have been conducted. Among them, different approaches have been applied to model the turbine inside the system. In particular, a real wind turbine coupled to the system was simulated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD in three investigations. Gholamalizadeh et al. simulated a wind turbine with the same blade profile as the Manzanares SCPP’s turbine (FX W-151-A blade profile, while a CLARK Y blade profile was modelled by Guo et al. and Ming et al. In this study, simulations of the Manzanares prototype were carried out using the CFD model developed by Gholamalizadeh et al. Then, results obtained by modelling different turbine blade profiles at different turbine rotational speeds were compared. The results showed that a turbine with the CLARK Y blade profile significantly overestimates the value of the pressure drop across the Manzanares prototype turbine as compared to the FX W-151-A blade profile. In addition, modelling of both blade profiles led to very similar trends in changes in turbine efficiency and power output with respect to rotational speed.

  19. The condition monitoring system of turbine system components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2013-01-01

    The thermal and nuclear power plants have been imposed a stable supply of electricity. To certainly achieve this, we built the plant condition monitoring system based on the heat and mass balance calculation. If there are some performance changes on the turbine system components of their power plants, the heat and mass balance of the turbine system will change. This system has ability to detect the abnormal signs of their components by finding the changes of the heat and mass balance. Moreover we note that this system is built for steam turbine cycle operating with saturated steam conditions. (author)

  20. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  1. IEA Wind Task 37: Systems Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zahle, Frederik [Technical University of Denmark; Merz, Karl [SINTEF Energy Research; McWilliam, Mike [Technical University of Denmark; Bortolotti, Pietro [Technical University Munich

    2017-08-14

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common conceptual architecture for wind turbines and plants so that practitioners can more easily share descriptions of wind turbines and plants across multiple parties and reduce the effort for translating descriptions between models; integrate different models together and collaborate on model development; and translate models among different levels of fidelity in the system.

  2. Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multi-Level Risk Assessment of a Power Plant Gas Turbine Applying the Criticality Index Model. ... Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... This study has carefully shown and expressed a step by step computation of the severity level of the Turbine component parts, using the Criticality Index model.

  3. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  4. Exergy and Environmental Impact Assessment between Solar Powered Gas Turbine and Conventional Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rajaei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recuperator is a heat exchanger that is used in gas turbine power plants to recover energy from outlet hot gases to heat up the air entering the combustion chamber. Similarly, the combustion chamber inlet air can be heated up to temperatures up to 1000 (°C by solar power tower (SPT as a renewable and environmentally benign energy source. In this study, comprehensive comparison between these two systems in terms of energy, exergy, and environmental impacts is carried out. Thermodynamic simulation of both cycles is conducted using a developed program in MATLAB environment. Exergetic performances of both cycles and their emissions are compared and parametric study is carried out. A new parameter (renewable factor is proposed to evaluate resources quality and measure how green an exergy loss or destruction or a system as a whole is. Nonrenewable exergy destruction and loss are reduced compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 34.89% and 47.41%, respectively. Reductions in CO2, NOx, and CO compared to GT with recuperator cycle by 49.92%, 66.14%, and 39.77%, respectively, are in line with renewable factor value of around 55.7 which proves the ability of the proposed green measure to evaluate and compare the cycles performances.

  5. Dynamics and control modeling of the closed-cycle gas turbine (GT-HTGR) power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardia, A.

    1980-02-01

    The simulation if presented for the 800-MW(e) two-loop GT-HTGR plant design with the REALY2 transient analysis computer code, and the modeling of control strategies called for by the inherently unique operational requirements of a multiple loop GT-HTGR is described. Plant control of the GT-HTGR is constrained by the nature of its power conversion loops (PCLs) in which the core cooling flow and the turbine flow are directly related and thus changes in flow affect core cooling as well as turbine power. Additionally, the high thermal inertia of the reactor core precludes rapid changes in the temperature of the turbine inlet flow

  6. A small capacity co generative gas-turbine plant in factory AD 'Komuna' - Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, Konstantin; Armenski, Slave; Tashevski, Done

    2000-01-01

    The factory AD 'Komuna' -Skopje (Macedonia), has two steam block boilers, type ST 800 for steam production for process and space heating. The factory satisfies the electricity needs from the national grid. By the use of natural gas like fuel it is possible to produce electrical energy in its own co generative gas turbine plant. In this article, a co generative plant with small-scale gas turbine for electricity production is analyzed . The gas from gas turbine have been introduce in the steam block boiler. Also, a natural gas consumption, the electricity production, total investment and payback period of investment are determined. (Authors)

  7. Thermal expansion measurement of turbine and main steam piping by using strain gages in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Sang Soo; Chung, Jae Won; Bong, Suk Kun; Jun, Dong Ki; Kim, Yun Suk

    2000-01-01

    One of the domestic co-generation plants have undergone excessive vibration problems of turbine attributed to external force for years. The root cause of turbine vibration may be shaft alignment problem which sometimes is changed by thermal expansion and external force, even if turbine technicians perfectly performed it. To evaluate the alignment condition from plant start-up to full load, a strain measurement of turbine and main steam piping subjected to thermal loading is monitored by using strain gages. The strain gages are bonded on both bearing housing adjusting bolts and pipe stoppers which installed in the x-direction of left-side main steam piping near the turbine inlet in order to monitor closely the effect of turbine under thermal deformation of turbine casing and main steam piping during plant full load. Also in situ load of constant support hangers in main steam piping system is measured by strain gages and its results are used to rebalance the hanger rod load. Consequently, the experimental stress analysis by using strain gages turns out to be very useful tool to diagnose the trouble and failures of not only to stationary components but to rotating machinery in power plants

  8. Thermal performance of gas turbine power plant based on exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Thamir K.; Basrawi, Firdaus; Awad, Omar I.; Abdullah, Ahmed N.; Najafi, G.; Mamat, Rizlman; Hagos, F.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modelling theoretical framework for the energy and exergy analysis of the Gas turbine. • Investigated the effects of ambient temperature on the energy and exergy performance. • The maximum exergy loss occurs in the gas turbine components. - Abstract: This study is about energy and exergy analysis of gas turbine power plant. Energy analysis is more quantitatively while exergy analysis is about the same but with the addition of qualitatively. The lack quality of the thermodynamic process in the system leads to waste of potential energy, also known as exergy destruction which affects the efficiency of the power plant. By using the first and second law of thermodynamics, the model for the gas turbine power plant is built. Each component in the thermal system which is an air compressor, combustion chamber and gas turbine play roles in affecting the efficiency of the gas turbine power plant. The exergy flow rate for the compressor (AC), the combustion chamber (CC) and the gas turbine (GT) inlet and outlet are calculated based on the physical exergy and chemical exergy. The exergy destruction calculation based on the difference between the exergy flow in and exergy flow out of the component. The combustion chamber has the highest exergy destruction. The air compressor has 94.9% and 92% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. The combustion chamber has 67.5% and 61.8% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively while gas turbine has 92% and 82% of exergy and energy efficiency respectively. For the overall efficiency, the plant has 32.4% and 34.3% exergy and energy efficiency respectively. To enhance the efficiency, the intake air temperature should be reduced, modify the combustion chamber to have the better air-fuel ratio and increase the capability of the gas turbine to receive high inlet temperature.

  9. A lifecycle management program for NPP turbine balance of plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Jun; Yamakami, Katsuhiko; Hiraoka, Satoshi; Kawai, Toshinari

    2009-01-01

    A lifecycle management program, for turbine balance of plant of light water reactor units which had been operated for more than 20 years but still having a long intended residual life time, was proposed and implemented from the view point of system and equipment supplier. Here would be introduced the program executed for several utilities. The program consists of unit surveillance analyzing both operation and inspection data, degradation assessment for the equipment and prospecting for the future by planning the proper measures for the issues based on both technology and economy. The program is introduced exampling the generating power affected by main steam pressure reduction derived from the scale adhesion and degradation of equipment. Multidisciplinary optimum design for the replacement of the feedwater heaters, one of the items of the planning, is introduced. Additionally would be introduced the new concept maintenance support program, mainly applied to the units already replaced their principal machines and auxiliaries, configured with both the condition based maintenance system monitoring the trend of parameters of a component and the diagnosis of malfunctions ascertaining the equipment by analyzing and synthesizing operation parameters. (author)

  10. Exergy analysis of a gas turbine power plant | Oko | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exergy analysis of a 100MW gas turbine power plant that works on the. Brayton cycle is presented. The average increase in the thermodynamic degradation of the plant over the period of six (6) years at three different levels of load was assessed. The exergy analysis of the plant was done on two sets of data: one from the ...

  11. Helium turbomachinery operating experience from gas turbine power plants and test facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Colin F.

    2012-01-01

    The closed-cycle gas turbine, pioneered and deployed in Europe, is not well known in the USA. Since nuclear power plant studies currently being conducted in several countries involve the coupling of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor with a helium closed-cycle gas turbine power conversion system, the experience gained from operated helium turbomachinery is the focus of this paper. A study done as early as 1945 foresaw the use of a helium closed-cycle gas turbine coupled with a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor, and some two decades later this was investigated but not implemented because of lack of technology readiness. However, the first practical use of helium as a gas turbine working fluid was recognized for cryogenic processes, and the first two small fossil-fired helium gas turbines to operate were in the USA for air liquefaction and nitrogen production facilities. In the 1970's a larger helium gas turbine plant and helium test facilities were built and operated in Germany to establish technology bases for a projected future high efficiency large nuclear gas turbine power plant concept. This review paper covers the experience gained, and the lessons learned from the operation of helium gas turbine plants and related test facilities, and puts these into perspective since over three decades have passed since they were deployed. An understanding of the many unexpected events encountered, and how the problems, some of them serious, were resolved is important to avoid them being replicated in future helium turbomachines. The valuable lessons learned in the past, in many cases the hard way, particularly from the operation in Germany of the Oberhausen II 50 MWe helium gas turbine plant, and the technical know-how gained from the formidable HHV helium turbine test facility, are viewed as being germane in the context of current helium turbomachine design work being done for future high efficiency nuclear gas turbine plant concepts. - Highlights:

  12. Gas--steam turbine combined cycle power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1978-10-01

    The purpose of this technology evaluation is to provide performance and cost characteristics of the combined gas and steam turbine, cycle system applied to an Integrated Community Energy System (ICES). To date, most of the applications of combined cycles have been for electric power generation only. The basic gas--steam turbine combined cycle consists of: (1) a gas turbine-generator set, (2) a waste-heat recovery boiler in the gas turbine exhaust stream designed to produce steam, and (3) a steam turbine acting as a bottoming cycle. Because modification of the standard steam portion of the combined cycle would be necessary to recover waste heat at a useful temperature (> 212/sup 0/F), some sacrifice in the potential conversion efficiency is necessary at this temperature. The total energy efficiency ((electric power + recovered waste heat) divided by input fuel energy) varies from about 65 to 73% at full load to 34 to 49% at 20% rated electric power output. Two major factors that must be considered when installing a gas--steam turbine combines cycle are: the realiability of the gas turbine portion of the cycle, and the availability of liquid and gas fuels or the feasibility of hooking up with a coal gasification/liquefaction process.

  13. Aggregated wind power plant models consisting of IEC wind turbine models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Göksu, Ömer; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The common practice regarding the modelling of large generation components has been to make use of models representing the performance of the individual components with a required level of accuracy and details. Owing to the rapid increase of wind power plants comprising large number of wind...... turbines, parameters and models to represent each individual wind turbine in detail makes it necessary to develop aggregated wind power plant models considering the simulation time for power system stability studies. In this paper, aggregated wind power plant models consisting of the IEC 61400-27 variable...... speed wind turbine models (type 3 and type 4) with a power plant controller is presented. The performance of the detailed benchmark wind power plant model and the aggregated model are compared by means of simulations for the specified test cases. Consequently, the results are summarized and discussed...

  14. Optimal integration of linear Fresnel reflector with gas turbine cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabwan, Yousef N.; Mokheimer, Esmail M.A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A LFR integrated solar gas turbine cogeneration plant (ISGCPP) has been simulated. • The optimally integrated LFR with gas turbine cogeneration plant can achieve an annual solar share of 23%. • Optimal integration of LFR with gas turbine cogeneration system can reduce CO 2 emission by 18%. • Compared to a fully-solar-powered LFR plant, the optimal ISGCPP reduces the LEC by 83%. • ISGCPP reduces the LEC by 50% compared to plants integrated with carbon capture technology. - Abstract: Solar energy is an abundant resource in many countries in the Sunbelt, especially in the middle east, countries, where recent expansion in the utilization of natural gas for electricity generation has created a significant base for introducing integrated solar‐natural gas power plants (ISGPP) as an optimal solution for electricity generation in these countries. ISGPP reduces the need for thermal energy storage in traditional concentrated solar thermal plants and results in dispatchable power on demand at lower cost than stand-alone concentrated thermal power and much cheaper than photovoltaic plants. Moreover, integrating concentrated solar power (CSP) with conventional fossil fuel based thermal power plants is quite suitable for large-scale central electric power generation plants and it can be implemented in the design of new installed plants or during retrofitting of existing plants. The main objective of the present work is to investigate the possible modifications of an existing gas turbine cogeneration plant, which has a gas turbine of 150 MWe electricity generation capacity and produces steam at a rate of 81.4 at 394 °C and 45.88 bars for an industrial process, via integrating it with concentrated solar power system. In this regard, many simulations have been carried out using Thermoflow software to explore the thermo-economic performance of the gas turbine cogeneration plant integrated with LFR concentrated solar power field. Different electricity

  15. Wave energy plants: Control strategies for avoiding the stalling behaviour in the Wells turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundarain, Modesto; Alberdi, Mikel; Garrido, Aitor J.; Garrido, Izaskun; Maseda, Javier [Dept. of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, EUITI Bilbao, University of the Basque Country, Plaza de la Casilla 3, 48012 Bilbao (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This study analyzes the problem of the stalling behaviour in Wells turbines, one of the most widely used turbines in wave energy plants. For this purpose two different control strategies are presented and compared. In the first one, a rotational speed control system is employed to appropriately adapt the speed of the double-fed induction generator coupling to the turbine, according to the pressure drop entry. In the second control strategy, an airflow control regulates the power generated by the turbine generator module by means of the modulation valve avoiding the stalling behaviour. It is demonstrated that the proposed rotational speed control design adequately matches the desired relationship between the slip of the double-fed induction generator and the pressure drop input, whilst the valve control using a traditional PID controller successfully governs the flow that modulates the pressure drop across the turbine. (author)

  16. Methods of increasing thermal efficiency of steam and gas turbine plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasserman, A. A.; Shutenko, M. A.

    2017-11-01

    Three new methods of increasing efficiency of turbine power plants are described. Increasing average temperature of heat supply in steam turbine plant by mixing steam after overheaters with products of combustion of natural gas in the oxygen. Development of this idea consists in maintaining steam temperature on the major part of expansion in the turbine at level, close to initial temperature. Increasing efficiency of gas turbine plant by way of regenerative heating of the air by gas after its expansion in high pressure turbine and before expansion in the low pressure turbine. Due to this temperature of air, entering combustion chamber, is increased and average temperature of heat supply is consequently increased. At the same time average temperature of heat removal is decreased. Increasing efficiency of combined cycle power plant by avoiding of heat transfer from gas to wet steam and transferring heat from gas to water and superheated steam only. Steam will be generated by multi stage throttling of the water from supercritical pressure and temperature close to critical, to the pressure slightly higher than condensation pressure. Throttling of the water and separation of the wet steam on saturated water and steam does not require complicated technical devices.

  17. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a steam turbine power plant in an existing phosphoric acid factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafdhi, Fathia; Khir, Tahar; Ben Yahyia, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operating mode of the factory and the power supply streams are presented. • Energetic Analysis of steam turbine power plant of an existing phosphoric acid factory. • Exergetic Analysis of each component of steam turbine power plant and the different heat recovery system. • Energy, exergy efficiency and irreversibility rates for the main components are determined. • The effect of the operating parameters on the plant performance are analyzed. - Abstract: An energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in the different parts of the plant are also considered in the study. Mass, energy and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the plant. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis considering real variation ranges of the main operating parameters such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. The effects of theses parameters on the system performances are investigated. The main sources of irreversibility are the melters, followed by the heat exchangers, the steam turbine generator and the pumps. The maximum energy efficiency is obtained for the blower followed by the heat exchangers, the deaerator and the steam turbine generator. The exergy efficiency obtained for the heat exchanger, the steam turbine generator, the deaerator and the blower are 88%, 74%, 72% and 66% respectively. The effects of High Pressure steam temperature and pressure on the steam turbine generator energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated.

  18. Analysis of combustion turbine inlet air cooling systems applied to an operating cogeneration power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacartegui, R.; Jimenez-Espadafor, F.; Sanchez, D.; Sanchez, T.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC) systems are analyzed from an economic outlook, their effects on the global performance parameters and the economic results of the power plant. The study has been carried out on a combined cogeneration system, composed of a General Electric PG 6541 gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator. The work has been divided into three parts. First, a revision of the present CTIAC technologies is shown, their effects on power plant performance and evaluation of the associated investment and maintenance costs. In a second phase of the work, the cogeneration plant was modelled with the objective of evaluating the power increase and the effects on the generated steam and the thermal oil. The cogeneration power plant model was developed, departing from the recorded operational data of the plant in 2005 and the gas turbine model offered by General Electric, to take into consideration that, in 2000, the gas turbine had been remodelled and the original performance curves should be corrected. The final objective of this model was to express the power plant main variables as a function of the gas turbine intake temperature, pressure and relative humidity. Finally, this model was applied to analyze the economic interest of different intake cooling systems, in different operative ranges and with different cooling capacities

  19. Effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from free water vortex hydro power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sritram, P; Treedet, W; Suntivarakorn, R

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of turbine materials on power generation efficiency from the water free vortex hydro power plant made of steel and aluminium. These turbines consisted of five blades and were twisted with angles along the height of water. These blades were the maximum width of 45 cm. and height of 32 cm. These turbines were made and experimented for the water free vortex hydro power plant in the laboratory with the water flow rate of 0.68, 1.33, 1.61, 2.31, 2.96 and 3.63 m 3 /min and an electrical load of 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 W respectively. The experimental results were calculated to find out the torque, electric power, and electricity production efficiency. From the experiment, the results showed that the maximum power generation efficiency of steel and aluminium turbine were 33.56% and 34.79% respectively. From the result at the maximum water flow rate of 3.63 m 3 /min, it was found that the torque value and electricity production efficiency of aluminium turbine was higher than that of steel turbine at the average of 8.4% and 8.14%, respectively. This result showed that light weight of water turbine can increase the torque and power generation efficiency. (paper)

  20. Summary of Investigations of the Use of Modified Turbine Inlet Conditions in a Binary Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mines, Gregory Lee

    2000-09-01

    Investigators at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are developing technologies that will enhance the feasibility of generating electrical power from a hydrothermal resource. One of the concepts investigated is the use of modified inlet conditions in geothermal binary power plant turbines to increase the power generation. An inlet condition of interest allows the expanding vapor to enter the two-phase region, a mode of operation typically avoided because of concern that condensate would form and damage the turbine, degrading performance. INEEL investigators postulated that initially a supersaturated vapor would be supported, and that no turbine damage would occur. This paper summarizes the investigation of these expansions that began with testing of their condensation behavior, and culminated with the incorporation of these expansions into the operation of several commercial binary plant turbines.

  1. Impact of inlet fogging and fuels on power and efficiency of gas turbine plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basha Mehaboob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A computational study to assess the performance of different gas turbine power plant configurations is presented in this paper. The work includes the effect of humidity, ambient inlet air temperature and types of fuels on gas turbine plant configurations with and without fogger unit. Investigation also covers economic analysis and effect of fuels on emissions. GT frames of various sizes/ratings are being used in gas turbine power plants in Saudi Arabia. 20 MWe GE 5271RA, 40 MWe GE-6561B and 70 MWe GE-6101FA frames are selected for the present study. Fogger units with maximum mass flow rate of 2 kg/s are considered for the present analysis. Reverse Osmosis unit of capacity 4 kg/s supplies required water to the fogger units. GT PRO software has been used for carrying out the analysis including; net plant output and net efficiency, break even electricity price and break even fuel LHV price etc., for a given location of Saudi Arabia. The relative humidity and temperature have been varied from 30 to 45 % and from 80 to 100° F, respectively. Fuels considered in the study are natural gas, diesel and heavy bunker oil. Simulated gas turbine plant output from GT PRO has been validated against an existing gas turbine plant output. It has been observed that the simulated plant output is less than the existing gas turbine plant output by 5%. Results show that variation of humidity does not affect the gas turbine performance appreciably for all types of fuels. For a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to increase by 5 and 2 %, respectively for all fuels, for GT only situation. However, for GT with Fogger scenario, for a decrease of inlet air temperature by 10 °F, net plant output and efficiency have been found to further increase by 3.2 and 1.2 %, respectively for all fuels. For all GT frames with fogger, the net plant output and efficiency are relatively higher as compared to GT only case for all

  2. An exploration of the ecological validity of the Virtual Action Planning-Supermarket (VAP-S) with people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Ginette; Béliveau, Marie-France; Klinger, Evelyne

    2018-07-01

    People with schizophrenia often have functional limitations that affect their daily activities due to executive function deficits. One way to assess these deficits is through the use of virtual reality programmes that reproduce real-life instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). One such programme is the Virtual Action Planning-Supermarket (VAP-S). This exploratory study aimed to examine the ecological validity of this programme, specifically, how task performance in both virtual and natural environments compares. Case studies were used and involved five participants with schizophrenia, who were familiar with grocery shopping. They were assessed during both the VAP-S shopping task and a real-life grocery shopping task using an observational assessment tool, the Perceive, Recall, Plan and Perform (PRPP) System of Task Analysis. The results show that when difficulties were present in the virtual task, difficulties were also observed in the real-life task. For some participants, greater difficulties were observed in the virtual task. These difficulties could be explained by the presence of perceptual deficits and problems remembering the required sequenced actions in the virtual task. In conclusion, performance on the VAP-S by these five participants was generally comparable to the performance in a natural environment.

  3. Estimation of skyshine dose from turbine building of BWR plant using Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuji, Nemoto; Toshihisa, Tsukiyama; Shigeki, Nemezawa [Hitachi. Ltd., Saiwai-cho, Hitachi (Japan); Tadashi, Yamasaki; Hidetsugu, Okada [Chubu Electric Power Company, Inc., Odaka-cho, Midori-ku Nagoya (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code (MCNP) was adopted to calculate the skyshine dose from the turbine building of a BWR plant for obtaining precise estimations at the site boundary. In MCNP calculation, the equipment and piping arranged on the operating floor of the turbine building were considered and modeled in detail. The inner and outer walls of the turbine building, the shielding materials around the high-pressure turbine, and the piping connected from the moisture separator to the low-pressure turbine were all considered. A three-step study was conducted to estimate the applicability of MCNP code. The first step is confirming the propriety of calculation models. The atmospheric relief diaphragms, which are installed on top of the low-pressure turbine exhaust hood, are not considered in the calculation model. There was little difference between the skyshine dose distributions that were considered when using and not using the atmospheric relief diaphragms. The calculated dose rates agreed well with the measurements taken around the turbine. The second step is estimating the dose rates on the outer roof surface of the turbine building. This calculation was made to confirm the dose distribution of gamma-rays on the turbine roof before being scattered into the air. The calculated dose rates agreed well with the measured data. The third step is making a final confirmation by comparing the calculations and measurements of skyshine dose rates around the turbine building. The source terms of the main steam system are based on the measured activity data of N-16 and C-15. As a conclusion, we were able to calculate reasonable skyshine dose rates by using MCNP code. (authors)

  4. Modernization of the turbine control technique and the turbine hydraulics aimed to improved maneuverability in the load range, system safety and plant availability, plant transparency for diagnosis and long-term performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Detlef

    2012-01-01

    In the contribution H.Mauell GmbH presents modernization projects for the nuclear power plants Tihange-3 and Doel-4. The project volume included control technique and the turbine hydraulics for the steam turbo generating set including turbine auxiliary devices and two turbine feeding pumps. The modernizations were successfully completed in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The nuclear power plants are trouble-free operated.

  5. Examination of turbine discs from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajkowski, C.J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigations were performed on a cracked turbine disc from the Cooper Nuclear Power Station, and on two failed turbine discs (governor and generator ends) from the Yankee-Rowe Nuclear Power Station. Cooper is a boiling water reactor (BWR) which went into commercial operation in July 1974, and Yankee-Rowe is a pressurized water reactor (PWR) which went into commercial operation in June 1961. Cracks were identified in the bore of the Cooper disc after 41,913 hours of operation, and the disc removed for repair. At Yankee-Rowe two discs failed after 100,000 hours of operation. Samples of the Cooper disc and both Yankee-Rowe disc (one from the governor and one from the generator end of the LP turbine) were sent to Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for failure analysis

  6. Dual turbine power plant and method of operating such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    A power plant including dual steam turbine-generators connected to pass superheat and reheat steam from a steam generator which derives heat from the coolant gas of a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. Associated with each turbine is a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a high pressure turbine portion, and a bypass line to conduct superheat steam in parallel with a lower pressure turbine portion. Auxiliary steam turbines pass a portion of the steam flow to the reheater of the steam generator and drive gas blowers which circulate the coolant gas through the reactor and the steam source. Apparatus and method are disclosed for loading or unloading a turbine-generator while the other produces a steady power output. During such loading or unloading, the steam flows through the turbine portions are coordinated with the steam flows through the bypass lines for protection of the steam generator, and the pressure of reheated steam is regulated for improved performance of the gas blowers. 33 claims, 5 figures

  7. Component design considerations for gas turbine HTGR waste-heat power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Vrable, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    Component design considerations are described for the ammonia waste-heat power conversion system of a large helium gas-turbine nuclear power plant under development by General Atomic Company. Initial component design work was done for a reference plant with a 3000-MW(t) High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR), and this is discussed. Advanced designs now being evaluated include higher core outlet temperature, higher peak system pressures, improved loop configurations, and twin 4000-MW(t) reactor units. Presented are the design considerations of the major components (turbine, condenser, heat input exchanger, and pump) for a supercritical ammonia Rankine waste heat power plant. The combined cycle (nuclear gas turbine and waste-heated plant) has a projected net plant efficiency of over 50 percent. While specifically directed towards a nuclear closed-cycle helium gas-turbine power plant (GT-HTGR), it is postulated that the bottoming waste-heat cycle component design considerations presented could apply to other low-grade-temperature power conversion systems such as geothermal plants

  8. Impact of a VAP bundle in Belgian intensive care units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadot, Laurent; Huyghens, Luc; De Jaeger, Annick; Bourgeois, Marc; Biarent, Dominique; Higuet, Adeline; de Decker, Koen; Vander Laenen, Margot; Oosterlynck, Baudewijn; Ferdinande, Patrick; Reper, Pascal; Brimioulle, Serge; Van Cromphaut, Sophie; De Clety, Stéphane Clement; Sottiaux, Thierry; Damas, Pierre

    2018-05-21

    In order to decrease the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in Belgium, a national campaign for implementing a VAP bundle involving assessment of sedation, cuff pressure control, oral care with chlorhexidine and semirecumbent position, was launched in 2011-2012. This report will document the impact of this campaign. On 1 day, once a year from 2010 till 2016, except in 2012, Belgian ICUs were questioned about their ventilated patients. For each of these, data about the application of the bundle and the possible treatment for VAP were recorded. Between 36.6 and 54.8% of the 120 Belgian ICUs participated in the successive surveys. While the characteristics of ventilated patients remained similar throughout the years, the percentage of ventilated patients and especially the duration of ventilation significantly decreased before and after the national VAP bundle campaign. Ventilator care also profoundly changed: Controlling cuff pressure, head positioning above 30° were obtained in more than 90% of cases. Oral care was more frequently performed within a day, using more concentrated solutions of chlorhexidine. Subglottic suctioning also was used but in only 24.7% of the cases in the last years. Regarding the prevalence of VAP, it significantly decreased from 28% of ventilated patients in 2010 to 10.1% in 2016 (p ≤ 0.0001). Although a causal relationship cannot be inferred from these data, the successive surveys revealed a potential impact of the VAP bundle campaign on both the respiratory care of ventilated patients and the prevalence of VAP in Belgian ICUs encouraging them to follow the guidelines.

  9. Completion of high-efficiency BWR turbine plant 'Hamaoka unit No. 4'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Kunio; Hamaura, Norikazu; Shibashita, Naoaki; Kazama, Seiichi

    1995-01-01

    Accompanying the increase of capacity of nuclear power plants in Japan, the plants having heightened economical efficiency, which are supported by the improvement of thermal efficiency and the reduction of dose, are demanded. Hitachi Ltd. has completed No. 4 turbine unit of 1137 MW output in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is the largest capacity machine in Japanese BWR plants. In this unit, the moisture separator heater, the steam turbine with high efficiency, and the hollow thread film condensate filter which treats the total flow rate of condensate are used as the reheating type BWR plant for the first time in Japan, and the plan of heightened economy and operation was adopted. It was confirmed by the trial for about 10 months that the planned performance was sufficiently satisfied, and the commercial operation was started in September, 1993. The features of the 1137 MW turbine unit are explained. The turbine is of tandem six-flow exhaust condensation type. Diffuser type low pressure turbine exhaust chambers, butterfly type combination intermediate valve are adopted. The stages with the blades having moisture-separating grooves were corrected. The reliability of the shaft system was improved. The adoption of the moisture separator heater and the application of the hollow thread film type condensate filter are explained. (K.I.)

  10. Dual-cycle power plant with internal and external heating of a gas turbine circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strach, L.

    1976-01-01

    The present proposal, after a preceding invention by the same inventor, aims at making possible the increased use of gas turbines in nuclear and coal-fired power plants. This is to be achieved by bringing the temperature of the combustion easily from a maximum of 900 0 C, as may be supplied, e.g., by the cooling media of nuclear reactors, up to the 1,700 to 2,000 0 C required as inlet temperature for gas turbines, with the aid of a fossil-fired recuperator. In fossil and nuclear power plants, gas turbines will more and more substitute steam turbines which affect the environment because of their high waste-heat losses. In coal power plants, only that part of the coal will be gasified whose resulting gas causes internal combustion within the furnace, while the remaining part of the coal is used for external combustion in a tabular heater. In a nuclear power plant, undisturbed maximum generation of electric power is to be achieved, even at reactor outages and shutdown periods for refuelling and maintenance, by almost inertia-free increase of the fossil fuel supply to the furnace (provided an extension of the latter for the capacity of heating the combustion air from room temperature till 1,700 to 2,000 0 C). The hazard of ruptures in the primary heat exchanging system is very low, because it is operated with a relative pressure of nearly zero between reactor coolant and gas turbine circuit. (RW) [de

  11. Heat extraction from turbines of Czechoslovak nuclear power plants for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two design are described of SKODA extraction turbines for Czechoslovak nuclear power plants with WWER-440 and WWER-1000 reactors. 220 MW steam turbines were originally designed as pure condensation turbines with uncontrolled steam extraction. Optimal ways are now being sought for their use for heating hot water for district heating. For district heating of the town of Trnava, the nuclear power plant at Jaslovske Bohunice will provide a two-step heating of water from 70 to 120 degC with a heat supply of 60 MW th from one turbine unit. The ratio of obtained heat power to lost electric power is 5.08. Investigations showed the possibility of extracting 85 MW th of heat from uncontrolled steam extraction, this at three-step water heating from 60 to 145 degC, the ratio of gained and lost power being 7.14. Information is presented on the SKODA 220 MW turbine with steam extraction for heat supply purposes and on the 1000 MW turbine with 893 MW th heat extraction. The specifications of both types are given. (Pu)

  12. Turbine protecting device in a BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Hajime; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent highly humid steams from flowing into the turbine upon abnormal reduction in the reactor water level in order to ensure the turbine soundness, as well as in order to trip the turbine with no undesired effect on the reactor. Constitution: A protection device comprising a judging device and a timer are disposed in a BWR type reactor, in order to control a water level signal from a reactor water level gage. If the reactor water level is reduced during rated power operation, steams are kept to be generated due to decay heat although reactor is scramed. When a signal from the reactor water level detector is inputted to the protection device, a trip signal is outputted by way of a judging device after 15 second by means of the timer, when the main steam check valve is closed to trip the turbine. With this delay of time, abrupt increase in the pressure of the reactor due to sudden shutdown can be prevented. (Nakamoto, H)

  13. The main features of control and operation of steam turbines at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czinkoczky, B.

    1981-01-01

    The output and speed control of steam turbines at nuclear power plants as well as the combination of both controls are reviewed and evaluated. At the same time the tasks of unit control at nuclear power plants, the control of steady main steam pressure and medium pressure of primary circuit, further the connection of reactor and turbine controls and the self-controlling properties of pressurized water reactor are dealt with. Hydraulic and electro-hydraulic speed control, the connection of cach-up dampers and speed control and the application of electro-hydraulic signal converters are discussed. The accomplishment of protection is also described. (author)

  14. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John [ALSTOM Power, Willans Works, Newbold Road, Rugby, Warwickshire CV21 2NH (United Kingdom); Gagelin, Jean-Philippe [ALSTOM Power Heat Exchange, 19-21 avenue Morane-Saulnier, BP 65, 78143 Velizy Cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  15. Optimized Application of MSR and Steam Turbine Retrofits in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crossland, Robert; McCoach, John; Gagelin, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The benefit to a nuclear power plant from a steam turbine retrofit has often been clearly demonstrated in recent years but, for light water nuclear plants, the Moisture Separator Reheaters (MSRs) are also of prime importance. This paper describes how refurbishment of these crucial components can only provide full potential performance benefit when made in conjunction with a steam turbine retrofit (although in practice these activities are frequently separated). Examples are given to show how combined application is best handled within a single organization to ensure optimized integration into the thermal cycle. (authors)

  16. Model and simulation of the hydraulic turbine speed regulator of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copparoni, G.; Etchepareborda, A.; Urrutia, G.

    1992-01-01

    The hydraulics turbines of Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant takes advantage of condenser cooling water level difference between the plant and the river to recover about 2,5 MW e. It also supplies emergency power until diesel generators start up. Speed regulation is needed due to the transients that during this process occur. The purpose is to minimize the diesels start up time, and to avoid overshoots on the internal grid frequency. The hydraulic turbine, its speed regulator and the electric system associated with this transient have been modeled. The models and some simulation results are presented in this work. (author)

  17. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunxue Guo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Toxin-antitoxin (TA systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein–protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  18. Characterization of the Deep-Sea Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999 Derived VapC/VapB Toxin-Antitoxin System in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yunxue; Yao, Jianyun; Sun, Chenglong; Wen, Zhongling; Wang, Xiaoxue

    2016-07-01

    Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid in E. coli. Furthermore, VapC cross-activated transcription of several TA operons via a partially Lon-dependent mechanism in E. coli, and the activated toxins accumulated more preferentially than their antitoxin partners. Collectively, we identified and characterized a new deep sea TA system in the deep sea Streptomyces sp. and demonstrated that the VapC toxin in this system can cross-activate TA operons in E. coli.

  19. Dynamic performance of a combined gas turbine and air bottoming cycle plant for off-shore applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benato, Alberto; Pierobon, Leonardo; Haglind, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    and a combined gas turbine coupled with an air bottoming cycle plant. The case study is the Draugen off-shore oil and gas platform, located in the North Sea, Norway. The normal electricity demand is 19 MW, currently covered by two gas turbines generating each 50% of the power demand, while the third turbine......When the Norwegian government introduced the CO2 tax for hydrocarbon fuels, the challenge became to improve the performance of off-shore power systems. An oil and gas platform typically operates on an island (stand-alone system) and the power demand is covered by two or more gas turbines. In order...... to improve the plant performance, a bottoming cycle unit can be added to the gas turbine topping module, thus constituting a combined cycle plant. This paper aims at developing and testing the numerical model simulating the part-load and dynamic behavior of a novel power system, composed of two gas turbines...

  20. Robust control of speed and temperature in a power plant gas turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Ebrahim; Ramezani, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an H(∞) robust controller has been designed for an identified model of MONTAZER GHAEM power plant gas turbine (GE9001E). In design phase, a linear model (ARX model) which is obtained using real data has been applied. Since the turbine has been used in a combined cycle power plant, its speed and also the exhaust gas temperature should be adjusted simultaneously by controlling fuel signals and compressor inlet guide vane (IGV) position. Considering the limitations on the system inputs, the aim of the control is to maintain the turbine speed and the exhaust gas temperature within desired interval under uncertainties and load demand disturbances. Simulation results of applying the proposed robust controller on the nonlinear model of the system (NARX model), fairly fulfilled the predefined aims. Simulations also show the improvement in the performance compared to MPC and PID controllers for the same conditions. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Web-based turbine cycle performance analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyun Young; Lee, Sung Jin; Chang, Soon Heung; Choi, Seong Soo

    2000-01-01

    As an approach to improve the economical efficiency of operating nuclear power plants, a thermal performance analysis tool for steam turbine cycle has been developed. For the validation and the prediction of the signals used in thermal performance analysis, a few statistical signal processing techniques are integrated. The developed tool provides predicted performance calculation capability that is steady-state wet steam turbine cycle simulation, and measurement performance calculation capability which determines component- and cycle-level performance indexes. Web-based interface with all performance analysis is implemented, so even remote users can achieve performance analysis. Comparing to ASME PTC6 (Performance Test Code 6), the focusing point of the developed tool is historical performance analysis rather than single accurate performance test. The proposed signal processing techniques are validated using actual plant signals, and turbine cycle models are tested by benchmarking with a commercial thermal analysis tool

  2. Steam turbine controls and their integration into power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kure-Jensen, J.; Hanisch, R.

    1989-01-01

    The main functions of a modern steam turbine control system are: speed and acceleration control during start-up; initialization of generator excitation; synchronization and application of load; pressure control of various forms: inlet, extraction backpressure, etc.; unloading and securing of the turbine; sequencing of the above functions under constraint of thermal stress overspeed protection during load rejection and emergencies; protection against serious hazards, e.g., loss of oil pressure, high bearing vibration; and testing of valves and vitally important protection functions. It is characteristic of the first group of functions that they must be performed with high control bandwidth, or very high reliability, or both, to ensure long-term satisfactory service of the turbine. It is for these reasons that GE has, from the very beginning of the technology, designed and provided the controls and protection for its units, starting with mechanical and hydraulic devices and progressing to analog electrohydraulic systems introduced in the 1960s, and now continuing with all-digital electrohydraulic systems

  3. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  4. Global Value Chain and Manufacturing Analysis on Geothermal Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akar, Sertac [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Augustine, Chad R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurup, Parthiv [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mann, Margaret K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-04

    The global geothermal electricity market has significantly grown over the last decade and is expected to reach a total installed capacity of 18.4 GWe in 2021 (GEA, 2016). Currently, geothermal project developers customize the size of the power plant to fit the resource being developed. In particular, the turbine is designed and sized to optimize efficiency and resource utilization for electricity production; most often, other power plant components are then chosen to complement the turbine design. These custom turbine designs demand one-off manufacturing processes, which result in higher manufacturing setup costs, longer lead-times, and higher capital costs overall in comparison to larger-volume line manufacturing processes. In contrast, turbines produced in standard increments, manufactured in larger volumes, could result in lower costs per turbine. This study focuses on analysis of the global supply chain and manufacturing costs for Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) turboexpanders and steam turbines used in geothermal power plants. In this study, we developed a manufacturing cost model to identify requirements for equipment, facilities, raw materials, and labor. We analyzed three different cases 1) 1 MWe geothermal ORC turboexpander 2) 5 MWe ORC turboexpander and 3) 20 MWe geothermal steam turbine, and calculated the cost of manufacturing the major components, such as the impellers/blades, shaft/rotor, nozzles, inlet guide lanes, disks, and casings. Then we used discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis to calculate the minimum sustainable price (MSP). MSP is the minimum price that a company must sell its product for in order to pay back the capital and operating expenses during the plant lifetime (CEMAC, 2017). The results showed that MSP could highly vary between 893 dollar/kW and 30 dollar/kW based on turbine size, standardization and volume of manufacturing. The analysis also showed that the economy of scale applies both to the size of the turbine and the number

  5. Dual turbine power plant and a reheat steam bypass flow control system for use therein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braytenbah, A.S.; Jaegtnes, K.O.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having dual turbine-generators connected to a steam source that includes a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is described. Each turbine comprises a high pressure portion operated by superheat steam and an intermediate-low pressure portion operated by reheat steam; a bypass line is connected across each turbine portion to permit a desired minimum flow of steam from the source at times when the combined flow of steam through the turbine is less than the minimum. Coolant gas is propelled through the reactor by a circulator which is driven by an auxiliary turbine which uses steam exhausted from the high pressure portions and their bypass lines. The pressure of the reheat steam is controlled by a single proportional-plus-integral controller which governs the steam flow through the bypass lines associated with the intermediate-low pressure portions. At times when the controller is not in use its output signal is limited to a value that permits an unbiased response when pressure control is resumed, as in event of a turbine trip. 25 claims, 2 figures

  6. Documentation, User Support, and Verification of Wind Turbine and Plant Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Zavadil; Vadim Zheglov; Yuriy Kazachkov; Bo Gong; Juan Sanchez; Jun Li

    2012-09-18

    As part of the Utility Wind Energy Integration Group (UWIG) and EnerNex's Wind Turbine Modeling Project, EnerNex has received ARRA (federal stimulus) funding through the Department of Energy (DOE) to further the progress of wind turbine and wind plant models. Despite the large existing and planned wind generation deployment, industry-standard models for wind generation have not been formally adopted. Models commonly provided for interconnection studies are not adequate for use in general transmission planning studies, where public, non-proprietary, documented and validated models are needed. NERC MOD (North American Electric Reliability Corporation) reliability standards require that power flow and dynamics models be provided, in accordance with regional requirements and procedures. The goal of this project is to accelerate the appropriate use of generic wind turbine models for transmission network analysis by: (1) Defining proposed enhancements to the generic wind turbine model structures that would allow representation of more advanced; (2) Comparative testing of the generic models against more detailed (and sometimes proprietary) versions developed by turbine vendors; (3) Developing recommended parameters for the generic models to best mimic the performance of specific commercial wind turbines; (4) Documenting results of the comparative simulations in an application guide for users; (5) Conducting technology transfer activities in regional workshops for dissemination of knowledge and information gained, and to engage electric power and wind industry personnel in the project while underway; (6) Designing of a "living" homepage to establish an online resource for transmission planners.

  7. Human Papillomavirus 16 Infection Induces VAP-Dependent Endosomal Tubulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqa, Abida; Massimi, Paola; Pim, David; Broniarczyk, Justyna; Banks, Lawrence

    2018-03-15

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection involves complex interactions with the endocytic transport machinery, which ultimately facilitates the entry of the incoming viral genomes into the trans -Golgi network (TGN) and their subsequent nuclear entry during mitosis. The endosomal pathway is a highly dynamic intracellular transport system, which consists of vesicular compartments and tubular extensions, although it is currently unclear whether incoming viruses specifically alter the endocytic machinery. In this study, using MICAL-L1 as a marker for tubulating endosomes, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a profound alteration in global levels of endocytic tubulation. In addition, we also show a critical requirement for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-anchored protein VAP in this process. VAP plays an essential role in actin nucleation and endosome-to-Golgi transport. Indeed, the loss of VAP results in a dramatic decrease in the level of endosomal tubulation induced by incoming HPV-16 virions. This is also accompanied by a marked reduction in virus infectivity. In VAP knockdown cells, we see that the defect in virus trafficking occurs after capsid disassembly but prior to localization at the trans -Golgi network, with the incoming virion-transduced DNA accumulating in Vps29/TGN46-positive hybrid vesicles. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that infection with HPV-16 virions induces marked alterations of endocytic transport pathways, some of which are VAP dependent and required for the endosome-to-Golgi transport of the incoming viral L2/DNA complex. IMPORTANCE Human papillomavirus infectious entry involves multiple interactions with the endocytic transport machinery. In this study, we show that incoming HPV-16 virions induce a dramatic increase in endocytic tubulation. This tubulation requires ER-associated VAP, which plays a critical role in ensuring the delivery of cargoes from the endocytic compartments to the trans -Golgi network. Indeed, the loss of

  8. Recent run-time experience and investigation of impurities in turbines circuit of Helium plant of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panchal, P.; Panchal, R.; Patel, R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the key sub-systems of Steady State superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is cryogenic 1.3 kW at 4.5 K Helium refrigerator/liquefier system. The helium plant consists of 3 nos. of screw compressors, oil removal system, purifier and cold-box with 3 turbo expanders (turbines) and helium cold circulator. During the recent SST-1 plasma campaigns, we observed high pressure drop of the order of 3 bar between the wheel outlet of turbine A and the wheel inlet of turbine - B. This was significant higher values of pressures drop across turbines, which reduced the speed of turbine A and B and in turn reduced the overall plant capacity. The helium circuits in the plant have 10-micron filter at the mouth of turbine - B. Initially, major suspects of such high blockage are assumed to be air-impurity, dust particles or collapse of filter. Several breaks in plant operation have been taken to warm up the turbines circuits up to 90 K to remove condensation of air-impurities at filter. Still this exercise did not solve blockage of filter in turbine circuits. A detailed investigation exercise with air/water regeneration and rinsing of cold box as well as purification of helium gas in buffer tanks are carried out to remove air impurities from cold-box. A trial run of cold box was executed in liquefier mode with turbines up to cryogenic temperatures and solved blockage in turbine circuits. The paper describes run-time experience of helium plant with helium impurity in turbine circuits, methods to remove impurity, demonstration of turbine performance and lessons learnt during this operation. (author)

  9. VapC toxins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis are ribonucleases that differentially inhibit growth and are neutralized by cognate VapB antitoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintou Ahmadou Ahidjo

    Full Text Available The chromosome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb encodes forty seven toxin-antitoxin modules belonging to the VapBC family. The role of these modules in the physiology of Mtb and the function(s served by their expansion are unknown. We investigated ten vapBC modules from Mtb and the single vapBC from M. smegmatis. Of the Mtb vapCs assessed, only Rv0549c, Rv0595c, Rv2549c and Rv2829c were toxic when expressed from a tetracycline-regulated promoter in M. smegmatis. The same genes displayed toxicity when conditionally expressed in Mtb. Toxicity of Rv2549c in M. smegmatis correlated with the level of protein expressed, suggesting that the VapC level must exceed a threshold for toxicity to be observed. In addition, the level of Rv2456 protein induced in M. smegmatis was markedly lower than Rv2549c, which may account for the lack of toxicity of this and other VapCs scored as 'non-toxic'. The growth inhibitory effects of toxic VapCs were neutralized by expression of the cognate VapB as part of a vapBC operon or from a different chromosomal locus, while that of non-cognate antitoxins did not. These results demonstrated a specificity of interaction between VapCs and their cognate VapBs, a finding corroborated by yeast two-hybrid analyses. Deletion of selected vapC or vapBC genes did not affect mycobacterial growth in vitro, but rendered the organisms more susceptible to growth inhibition following toxic VapC expression. However, toxicity of 'non-toxic' VapCs was not unveiled in deletion mutant strains, even when the mutation eliminated the corresponding cognate VapB, presumably due to insufficient levels of VapC protein. Together with the ribonuclease (RNase activity demonstrated for Rv0065 and Rv0617--VapC proteins with similarity to Rv0549c and Rv3320c, respectively--these results suggest that the VapBC family potentially provides an abundant source of RNase activity in Mtb, which may profoundly impact the physiology of the organism.

  10. Aging of turbine drives for safety-related pumps in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, D.F.

    1995-06-01

    This study was performed to examine the relationship between time-dependent degradation and current industry practices in the areas of maintenance, surveillance, and operation of steam turbine drives for safety-related pumps. These pumps are located in the Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) system for pressurized-water reactor plants and in the Reactor Core Isolation Cooling and High-Pressure Coolant Injection systems for boiling-water reactor plants. This research has been conducted by examination of failure data in the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, review of Licensee Event Reports, discussion of problems with operating plant personnel, and personal observation. The reported failure data were reviewed to determine the cause of the event and the method of discovery. Based on the research results, attempts have been made to determine the predictability of failures and possible preventive measures that may be implemented. Findings in a recent study of AFW systems indicate that the turbine drive is the single largest contributor to AFW system degradation. However, examination of the data shows that the turbine itself is a reliable piece of equipment with a good service record. Most of the problems documented are the result of problems with the turbine controls and the mechanical overspeed trip mechanism; these apparently stem from three major causes which are discussed in the text. Recent improvements in maintenance practices and procedures, combined with a stabilization of the design, have led to improved performance resulting in a reliable safety-related component. However, these improvements have not been universally implemented

  11. IEA Wind Task 37 System Modeling Framework and Ontology for Wind Turbines and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dykes, K; Sanchez Perez Moreno, S.; Zahle, Frederik; Ning, A; McWilliam, M.; Zaayer, M B

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the development of a system modeling framework and ontology for wind turbines and plants as part of the larger IEA Wind Task 37 on wind energy systems engineering. The goals of the effort are to create a set of guidelines for a common

  12. The wet compression technology for gas turbine power plants: Thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, Stefano; Pierfederici, Alessandro; Trucco, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines from a thermodynamic point of view the effects of wet compression on gas turbine power plants, particularly analysing the influence of ambient conditions on the plant performance. The results of the mathematical model, implemented in 'Matlab' software, have been compared with the simulation results presented in literature and in particular the values of the 'evaporative rate', proposed in Araimo et al. [L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Thermodynamic analysis of the wet compression process in heavy duty gas turbine compressors, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1249-1263; L. Araimo, A. Torelli, Wet compression technology applied to heavy duty gas turbines - GT power augmentation and efficiency upgrade, in: Proceedings of the 59th ATI Annual Congress, Genova, 2004, pp. 1265-1277] by 'Gas Turbines Department' of Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., have been taken into account to validate the model. The simulator permits to investigate the effects of the fogging and wet compression techniques and estimate the power and efficiency gain of heavy duty gas turbines operating in hot and arid conditions

  13. Wind Power Plant Control Optimisation with Incorporation of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant slope voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and STATCOMS. First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and the whole wind power plant are developed, being appropriate for voltage control...... assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative...... outcomes regarding the impact of system delays, grid conditions and various operating conditions of the wind power plant, with and without incorporation of STATCOMS....

  14. Exchange of availability/performance data on base-load gas turbine and combined cycle plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jesuthasan, D.K.; Kaupang, B.M. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1992-09-01

    This paper describes the recommendations developed to facilitate the international exchange of availability performance data on base-load gas turbines and combined cycle plant. Standardized formats for the collection of plant availability statistics, recognizing the inherent characteristics of gas turbines in simple and combined cycle plants are presented. The formats also allow for a logical expansion of the data collection detail as that becomes desirable. To assist developing countries in particular, the approach includes basic formats for data collection needed for international reporting. In addition, the participating utilities will have a meaningful database for internal use. As experience is gained with this data colletion system, it is expected that additional detail may be accommodated to enable further in-depth performance analysis on the plant and on the utility level. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 11 apps.

  15. Analysis of Axial Turbine Pico-Hydro Electrical Power Plant in North Sulawesi Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangari, F. J.; Rompas, P. T. D.

    2018-02-01

    This study presents analysis of pico-hydro electrical power plant in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The objective of this study is to get a design of axial turbine pico-hydro electrical power plant. The method used the study of literature, survey the construction site of the power plant and the characteristics of the location being a place of study, analysis of hydropower ability and analyzing costs of power plant. The result showed that the design of axial turbine pico-hydro installation is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy maximum can be used for household needs in villages. This analyze will be propose to local government of Minahasa, North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

  16. Evaluation of serum and tissue levels of VAP-1 in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Stephen T.; Weston, Christopher J.; Shepherd, Emma L.; Hejmadi, Rahul; Ismail, Tariq; Adams, David H.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelial adhesion molecule, vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1, AOC3) promotes lymphocyte recruitment to tumours, although the contribution that VAP-1 makes to lymphocyte recruitment in human colorectal cancer (CRC) is unknown. VAP-1 exists in circulating soluble form (sVAP-1). A previous study demonstrated elevated sVAP-1 levels in CRC patients. The aim of this study was to confirm this finding and study the differences in tissue VAP-1 expression between CRC and healthy tissues. sVAP-1 levels were measured in the serum of 31 patients with CRC and 31 age- and sex-matched controls. Tissue VAP-1 levels were measured by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mean sVAP-1 level ± SD was significantly lower in the CRC group compared with the control group (399 ± 138 ng/ml versus 510 ± 142 ng/ml, P = 0.003). Tissue VAP-1 protein and mRNA levels were significantly lower in CRC compared with normal colon tissue. VAP-1 immunostaining was practically absent from CRC. VAP-1 is downregulated in human CRC and although the molecular basis of this down regulation is not yet known, we suggest it may be part of a mechanism used by the tumour to prevent the recruitment of anti-tumour immune cells. Our data contradicts the findings of others with regard sVAP-1 levels in patients with CRC. Possible reasons for this are discussed

  17. Integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a hydro power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sedmak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents integrity and life estimation of turbine runner cover in a vertical pipe turbines, Kaplan 200 MW nominal output power, produced in Russia, and built in six hydro-generation units of hydroelectric power plant „Đerdap 1” in Serbia. Fatigue and corrosion-fatigue interaction have been taken into account using experimentally obtained material properties, as well as analytical and numerical calculations of stress state, to estimate appropriate safety factors. Fatigue crack growth rate, da/dN, was also calculated, indicated that internal defects of circular or elliptical shape, found out by ultrasonic testing, do not affect reliable operation of runner cover.

  18. Analysis of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP studies in Egyptian University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathy

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: It is important to establish large-scale multi center national studies to explore incidence of VAP, all possible risk factors (whether preventable or non preventable, causative organisms, and mortality due to VAP and its economic aspect.

  19. VapC from the leptospiral VapBC toxin-antitoxin module displays ribonuclease activity on the initiator tRNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre P Y Lopes

    Full Text Available The prokaryotic ubiquitous Toxin-Antitoxin (TA operons encode a stable toxin and an unstable antitoxin. The most accepted hypothesis of the physiological function of the TA system is the reversible cessation of cellular growth under stress conditions. The major TA family, VapBC is present in the spirochaete Leptospira interrogans. VapBC modules are classified based on the presence of a predicted ribonucleasic PIN domain in the VapC toxin. The expression of the leptospiral VapC in E. coli promotes a strong bacterial growth arrestment, making it difficult to express the recombinant protein. Nevertheless, we showed that long term induction of expression in E. coli enabled the recovery of VapC in inclusion bodies. The recombinant protein was successfully refolded by high hydrostatic pressure, providing a new method to obtain the toxin in a soluble and active form. The structural integrity of the recombinant VapB and VapC proteins was assessed by circular dichroism spectroscopy. Physical interaction between the VapC toxin and the VapB antitoxin was demonstrated in vivo and in vitro by pull down and ligand affinity blotting assays, respectively, thereby indicating the ultimate mechanism by which the activity of the toxin is regulated in bacteria. The predicted model of the leptospiral VapC structure closely matches the Shigella's VapC X-ray structure. In agreement, the ribonuclease activity of the leptospiral VapC was similar to the activity described for Shigella's VapC, as demonstrated by the cleavage of tRNAfMet and by the absence of unspecific activity towards E. coli rRNA. This finding suggests that the cleavage of the initiator transfer RNA may represent a common mechanism to a larger group of bacteria and potentially configures a mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation leading to the inhibition of global translation.

  20. Performance evaluation and economic analysis of a gas turbine power plant in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyedepo, S.O.; Fagbenle, R.O.; Adefila, S.S.; Adavbiele, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluate performance and economic analysis of a gas turbine power plant in Nigeria. • We examine the shortfall of energy generated and compared with the standard value. • Generation loss resulted in revenue loss of the plant. • Improvement in general housekeeping of the plant will improve performance indices. - Abstract: In this study, performance evaluation and economic analysis (in terms of power outage cost due to system downtime) of a gas turbine power plant in Nigeria have been carried out for the period 2001–2010. The thermal power station consists of nine gas turbine units with total capacity of 301 MW (9 × 31.5 MW). The study reveals that 64.3% of the installed capacity was available in the period. The percentage of shortfall of energy generated in the period ranged from 4.18% to 14.53% as against the acceptable value of 5–10%. The load factor of the plant is between 20.8% and 78.2% as against international best practice of 80%. The average availability of the plant for the period was about 64% as against industry best practice of 95%, while the average use factor was about 92%. The capacity factor of the plant ranged from 20.8% to 78.23% while the utilization factor ranged from 85.47% to 95.82%. For the ten years under review, there was energy generation loss of about 35.7% of expected energy generation of 26.411 TW h with consequent plant performance of 64.3%. The study further reveals that the 35.7% of generation loss resulted in revenue loss of about M$251 (approximately b▪40). The simple performance indicator developed to evaluate the performance indices and outage cost for the station can also be applicable to other power stations in Nigeria and elsewhere. Measures to improve the performance indices of the plant have been suggested such as training of operation and maintenance (O and M) personnel regularly, improvement in O and M practices, proper spare parts inventory and improvement in general housekeeping of the

  1. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power plant having a cross compound steam turbine and a steam source that includes a high temperature gas-cooled nuclear reactor is described. The steam turbine includes high and intermediate-pressure portions which drive a first generating means, and a low-pressure portion which drives a second generating means. The steam source supplies superheat steam to the high-pressure turbine portion, and an associated bypass permits the superheat steam to flow from the source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion. The intermediate and low-pressure portions use reheat steam; an associated bypass permits reheat steam to flow from the source to the low-pressure exhaust. An auxiliary turbine driven by steam exhausted from the high-pressure portion and its bypass drives a gas blower to propel the coolant gas through the reactor. While the bypass flow of reheat steam is varied to maintain an elevated pressure of reheat steam upon its discharge from the source, both the first and second generating means and their associated turbines are accelerated initially by admitting steam to the intermediate and low-pressure portions. The electrical speed of the second generating means is equalized with that of the first generating means, whereupon the generating means are connected and acceleration proceeds under control of the flow through the high-pressure portion. 29 claims, 2 figures

  2. Ambient temperature effects on gas turbine power plant: A case study in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorji, M.; Fouladi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Actual thermal efficiency, electric-power output, fuel-air ratio and specific fuel consumption (SFC) vary according to the ambient conditions. The amount of these variations greatly affects those parameters as well as the plant incomes. In this paper the effect of ambient temperature as a seasonal variation on a gas power plant has been numerically studied. For this purpose, the gas turbine model and different climate seasonal variations of Ray in Iran are considered in this study. For the model, by using average monthly temperature data of the region, the different effective parameters were compared to those in standard design conditions. The results show that ambient temperature increase will decrease thermal efficiency, electric-power out put and fuel-air ratio of the gas turbine plant whereas increases the specific fuel consumption

  3. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer

    2014-01-01

    Large amount of wind power installations introduce modeling challenges for power system operators at both the planning and operational stages of power systems. Depending on the scope of the study, the modeling details of the wind turbine or the wind power plant are required to be different. A wind...... turbine model which is developed for the short-term voltage stability studies can be inaccurate and sufficient for the frequency stability studies. Accordingly, a complete and detailed wind power plant model for every kind of study is not feasible in terms of the computational time and also...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system....

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Veers, P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces the development of a new software framework for research, design, and development of wind energy systems which is meant to 1) represent a full wind plant including all physical and nonphysical assets and associated costs up to the point of grid interconnection, 2) allow use of interchangeable models of varying fidelity for different aspects of the system, and 3) support system level multidisciplinary analyses and optimizations. This paper describes the design of the overall software capability and applies it to a global sensitivity analysis of wind turbine and plant performance and cost. The analysis was performed using three different model configurations involving different levels of fidelity, which illustrate how increasing fidelity can preserve important system interactions that build up to overall system performance and cost. Analyses were performed for a reference wind plant based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 5-MW reference turbine at a mid-Atlantic offshore location within the United States.

  5. Improvement of testing techniques for inspecting steam turbine rotor in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Yeong Shuenn; Wei, Chieng Neng; Wu, Chien Wen; Wu, Yung How

    1997-01-01

    Steam turbine rotor is important to the Utility industry, it degrades over time due to fatigue and corrosion under high temperature and high pressure environment. Periodic inspection is required in the wake of plant annual overhaul to ensure the integrity of turbine rotor. Non-Destructive Testing of turbine rotor is usually performed using magnetic particle testing with wet fluorescent magnetic particle. However, it is very difficult to ensure the reliability of inspection due to the limitation of using one NDT method only. The crack-susceptible areas, such as turbine blade, and blade root have high incidence of stress corrosion cracking, The blade root section is difficult to locate cracks because of the complex geometry which may cause inadequate magnetic field and poor accessibility. Improved inspection practices was developed by our Department, together with remaining life analysis, in maintaining the high availability of steam turbine rotor. The newly-developed inspection system based on the practical study of magnetic field strength distribution, quality of magnetic particle bath and a combination of different NDT methods with Eddy Current Testing using absolute pen-type coil and Visual Testing using reflective mirror to examine the key areas concerned are described. TPC' experience with the well-trained technicians together with the adequate inspection procedure in detecting blade-root flaws are also discussed in the paper. Many of these inspection improvement have been applied in the fields for several times and the inspection reliability has been enhanced substantially. Results are quite encouraging and satisfactory.

  6. Large-site air-storage gas-turbine plants in electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, H C

    1980-08-01

    The article gives a detailed description of the construction and the operation of the 290 MW air-storage gas-turbine power station at the town of Huntorf. The cavities of a 300,000 cbm storage capacity needed for accomodating compressed air have been solution-mined in a salt dome at a depth of c. 700 m. The air-mass-flow-controlled gas turbine consists of a 6-stage HP part and a 5-stage LP part with a combustion chamber each. The turbine is used to cover peak loads, whereas slack periods are covered by the generator which drives to air compressors connected in series to refill the underground compressed-air stores. Since December 1978, the plant has been in operation. As a gas turbine, it has attained a high level of start frequency, indeed, with its 400 starts within the first 5 months. Energy cost of this power station range within the optimum (between half and full load) at about 70% of the energy cost required by a conventionally natural-gas-fired turbine.

  7. Hydroelectric plant turbine, stream and spillway flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampa, J.; Lemon, D.; Buermans, J. [ASL AQ Flow Inc., Sidney, BC (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation provided schematics of the turbine flow measurements and typical bulb installations at the Kootenay Canal and Wells hydroelectric power facilities in British Columbia. A typical arrangement for measuring stream flow using acoustic scintillation was also illustrated. Acoustic scintillation is portable, non-intrusive, suitable for short intakes, requires minimal maintenance and is cost effective and accurate. A comparison between current meters and acoustic scintillation was also presented. Stream flow measurement is valuable in evaluating downstream areas that are environmentally important for fish habitat. Stream flow measurement makes it possible to define circulation. The effects of any changes can be assessed by combining field measurements and numerical modelling. The presentation also demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics modelling appears promising in determining stream flow and turbulent flow at spillways. tabs., figs.

  8. Trace coupled with PARCS benchmark against Leibstadt plant data during the turbine trip test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekhri, Abdelkrim; Baumann, Peter, E-mail: abdelkrim.sekhri@kkl.ch, E-mail: peter.Baumann@kkl.ch [KernkraftwerkLeibstadt AG, Leibstadt (Switzerland); Hidalga, Patricio; Morera, Daniel; Miro, Rafael; Barrachina, Teresa; Verdu, Gumersindo, E-mail: pathigar@etsii.upv.es, E-mail: dmorera@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: rmiro@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: tbarrachina@isirym.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@isirym.upv.es [Universitat Politecnica de Valencia (ISIRYM/UPV), Valencia, (Spain). Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety

    2013-07-01

    In order to enhance the modeling of Nuclear Power Plant Leibstadt (KKL), the coupling of 3D neutron kinetics PARCS code with TRACE has been developed. To test its performance a complex transient of Turbine Trip has been simulated comparing the results with the existing plant data of Turbine Trip test. For this transient also Cross Sections have been generated and used by PARCS. The thermal-hydraulic TRACE model is retrieved from the already existing model. For the benchmarking the Turbine Trip transient has been simulated according to the test resulting in the closure of the turbine control valve (TCV) and the following opening of the bypass valve (TBV). This transient caused a pressure shock wave towards the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) which provoked the decreasing of the void level and the consequent slight power excursion. The power control capacity of the system showed a good response with the procedure of a Selected Rod Insertion (SRI) and the recirculation loops performance which resulted in the proper thermal power reduction comparable to APRM data recorder from the plant. The comparison with plant data shows good agreement in general and assesses the performance of the coupled model. Due to this, it can be concluded that the coupling of PARCS and TRACE codes in addition with the Cross Section used works successfully for simulating the behavior of the reactor core during complex plant transients. Nevertheless the TRACE model shall be improved and the core neutronics corresponding to the test shall be used in the future to allow quantitative comparison between TRACE and plant recorded data. (author)

  9. Role of oral care to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP.

  10. Role of oral care to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A; Gupta, A; Singh, T K; Saxsena, A

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP.

  11. Role of oral care to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated Intensive Care Unit patients

    OpenAIRE

    A Gupta; A Gupta; T K Singh; A Saxsena

    2016-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection in Intensive Care Unit. One major factor causing VAP is the aspiration of oral colonization because of poor oral care practices. We feel the role of simple measure like oral care is neglected, despite the ample evidence of it being instrumental in preventing VAP.

  12. Power plant and system for accelerating a cross compound turbine in such plant, especially one having an HTGR steam supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaegtnes, K.O.; Braytenbah, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, a power plant includes a steam source to generate superheat and reheat steam which flows through a turbine-generator and an associated bypass system. A high-pressure and an intermediate-pressure turbine portion drive a first electrical generating means, and a low-pressure turbine portion drives a second electrical generating means. A first flow of superheat steam flows through the high-pressure portion, while a second flow of reheat steam flows through the intermediate and low-pressure portions in succession. Provision is made for bypassing steam around the turbine portions; in particular, one bypass means permits a flow of superheat steam from the steam source to the exhaust of the high-pressure portion, and another bypass means allows reheated steam to pass from the source to the exhaust of the low-pressure portion. The first and second steam flows are governed independently. While one of such flows is varied for purposes of controlling the rotational speed of the first generating means according to a desired speed, the other flow is varied to regulate a power plant variable at its desired level. (author)

  13. Theoretical Investigation For The Effect of Fuel Quality on Gas Turbine Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulRazzak khudair, Omar; Alwan Abass, Khetam; Saadi Abed, Noor; Hussain Ali, Khalid; AbdulAziz, Saad; Chlaib Shaboot, Ali

    2018-05-01

    Gas turbine engine power generation is declined dramatically because of the reduction in thermodynamic parameters as a work of turbine, compressor ratio, compressor work, and air mass flow rate and fuel consumption. There are two main objectives of this work, the first is related with the effect of fuel kinds and their quality on the operation of fuel flow divider and its performance specifically gear pump displacement and fuel flow rate to the combustion chambers of gas power plant. AL-DORA gas turbine power plant 35MW was chosen to predict these effects on its performance MATLAB Software program is used to perform thermodynamic calculations. Fuel distribution stage before the process of combustion and as a result of the kind and its quality, chemical reaction will occur between the fuel and the parts of the gear system of each pump of the flow divider, which causes the erosion of the internal pump wall and the teeth of the gear system, thus hampering the pump operation in terms of fuel discharge. The discharge of fuel form the eight external gates of flow divider is decreased and varied when going to the combustion chambers, so that, flow divider does not give reliable mass flow rate due to absence of accurate pressure in each of eight exit pipes. The second objective deals with the stage of fuel combustion process inside the combustion chamber. A comparative study based upon performance parameters, such as specific fuel consumption for gas and gasoil and power generation. Fuel poor quality causes incomplete combustion and increased its consumption, so that combustion products are interacted with the surface of the turbine blades, causing the erosion and create surface roughness of the blade and disruption of gas flow. As a result of this situation, turbulence flow of these gases will increase causing the separation of gas boundary layers over the suction surface of the blade. Therefore the amount of extracted gas will decrease causing retreat work done by

  14. Modeling energy production of solar thermal systems and wind turbines for installation at corn ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrke, Elizabeth

    Nearly every aspect of human existence relies on energy in some way. Most of this energy is currently derived from fossil fuel resources. Increasing energy demands coupled with environmental and national security concerns have facilitated the move towards renewable energy sources. Biofuels like corn ethanol are one of the ways the U.S. has significantly reduced petroleum consumption. However, the large energy requirement of corn ethanol limits the net benefit of the fuel. Using renewable energy sources to produce ethanol can greatly improve its economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this study was to model the useful energy received from a solar thermal array and a wind turbine at various locations to determine the feasibility of applying these technologies at ethanol plants around the country. The model calculates thermal energy received from a solar collector array and electricity generated by a wind turbine utilizing various input data to characterize the equipment. Project cost and energy rate inputs are used to evaluate the profitability of the solar array or wind turbine. The current state of the wind and solar markets were examined to give an accurate representation of the economics of each industry. Eighteen ethanol plant locations were evaluated for the viability of a solar thermal array and/or wind turbine. All ethanol plant locations have long payback periods for solar thermal arrays, but high natural gas prices significantly reduce this timeframe. Government incentives will be necessary for the economic feasibility of solar thermal arrays. Wind turbines can be very profitable for ethanol plants in the Midwest due to large wind resources. The profitability of wind power is sensitive to regional energy prices. However, government incentives for wind power do not significantly change the economic feasibility of a wind turbine. This model can be used by current or future ethanol facilities to investigate or begin the planning process for a

  15. A Comparison of Prediction Methods for Design of Pump as Turbine for Small Hydro Plant: Implemented Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Hossein; Nayebi Shahabi, Mina; Mohammadi, Sohrab

    2017-08-01

    In developing countries, small and micro hydropower plants are very effective source for electricity generation with energy pay-back time (EPBT) less than other conventional electricity generation systems. Using pump as turbine (PAT) is an attractive, significant and cost-effective alternative. Pump manufacturers do not normally provide the characteristic curves of their pumps working as turbines. Therefore, choosing an appropriate Pump to work as a turbine is essential in implementing the small-hydro plants. In this paper, in order to find the best fitting method to choose a PAT, the results of a small-hydro plant implemented on the by-pass of a Pressure Reducing Valve (PRV) in Urmia city in Iran are presented. Some of the prediction methods of Best Efficiency Point of PATs are derived. Then, the results of implemented project have been compared to the prediction methods results and the deviation of from measured data were considered and discussed and the best method that predicts the specifications of PAT more accurately determined. Finally, the energy pay-back time for the plant is calculated.

  16. Probabilistic analysis of turbine missile damage to nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.; Frank, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the EPRI project that focused on the development of the overall probabilistic methodology to assess the risks of turbine missile induced damage to nuclear power plant structures and components. The project was structured to use the results of other EPRI projects that provided information on turbine failure and missile generation frequencies, models to predict the characteristics and exit conditions of the missiles, and experimental data for use in updating empirical impact formulas for reinforced concrete barriers. The research effort included: (1) adaptation and implementation of the missile generation probability and turbine casing impact models developed in Ref. [2]; (2) development of a methodology for the prediction of the motion of the postulated missile fragments that perforate the turbine casing; (3) development of a model using the experimental impact data to predict the effects of fragment impact on nuclear power plant barriers and components; (4) construction of a probabilistic damage assessment methodology using Monte Carlo simulation methodology; and (5) implementation of the methodology into an independent computer program (TURMIS), demonstration of its application to an example case study problem, and assessment of prediction sensitivity. (orig./RW)

  17. Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated With SOFC and Gas Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of a SOFC is fed wherein...

  18. Integration of a municipal solid waste gasification plant with solid oxide fuel cell and gas turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellomare, Filippo; Rokni, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    An interesting source of producing energy with low pollutants emission and reduced environmental impact are the biomasses; particularly using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) as fuel, can be a competitive solution not only to produce energy with negligible costs but also to decrease the storage...... in landfills. A Municipal Solid Waste Gasification Plant Integrated with Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Gas Turbine (GT) has been studied and the plant is called IGSG (Integrated Gasification SOFC and GT). Gasification plant is fed by MSW to produce syngas by which the anode side of an SOFC is fed wherein...

  19. Nuclear closed-cycle gas turbine (HTGR-GT): dry cooled commercial power plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Boland, C.R.

    1979-11-01

    Combining the modern and proven power conversion system of the closed-cycle gas turbine (CCGT) with an advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) results in a power plant well suited to projected utility needs into the 21st century. The gas turbine HTGR (HTGR-GT) power plant benefits are consistent with national energy goals, and the high power conversion efficiency potential satisfies increasingly important resource conservation demands. Established technology bases for the HTGR-GT are outlined, together with the extensive design and development program necessary to commercialize the nuclear CCGT plant for utility service in the 1990s. This paper outlines the most recent design studies by General Atomic for a dry-cooled commercial plant of 800 to 1200 MW(e) power, based on both non-intercooled and intercooled cycles, and discusses various primary system aspects. Details are given of the reactor turbine system (RTS) and on integrating the major power conversion components in the prestressed concrete reactor vessel

  20. Some research and development on power plants with helium gas turbine units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Research and development projects pursued at the S. M. Kirov Kharkov Turbine Factory Production Association for Nuclear Turbomachinery Manufacturing have probed into prospective use of helium as the working medium in nuclear power facilities. The projects under study are compared mainly in terms of heat efficiency. Solutions are also being sought for problems centering around high efficiency in helium turbocompressors combined with shortening of axial dimensions. Different types of power plants are being compared with attention given to features of the flow passages of turbocompressors. The projects were developed for helium temperatures and pressures downstream of the reactor 950 0 C and 4.8 MPa, and thermal reactor output 2250 MW(th). The reactor is assumed to be served by two turbine plants in the turbocompressor designs

  1. Experience with and techniques of diagnosing power plant steam turbines without dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drapal, A.; Kopecek, K.

    1987-01-01

    Within the framework of vibration diagnostics of steam turbines at the Dukovany nuclear power plant the following factors were monitored: the summation signal of vibrations (usually the path of vibration movement), the time course of the vibration and the phase angle. In non-steady states also run-in and run-out curves, the absolute vibration of bearing stands and the relative vibration of the rotor are monitored. The method has so far not allowed to diagnose failures of antifriction bearings, loose parts, some gear box defects, the development of cracks in vanes, radial cracks in the disk, etc. Briefly characterized is the portable equipment which is available at the Dukovany nuclear power plant for vibration diagnostics of steam turbines. Suggestions are made for completing the system for monitoring service life, operation economics, the diagnosis of control circuits, etc. (Z.M.)

  2. Cogen-absorption plants for refrigeration purposes and turbine air inlet cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langreck, Juergen [Colibri bv (Netherlands)

    2000-04-01

    Most cogeneration systems produce power and heat but with absorption refrigeration plants (ARP) the products are power and 'cold'. An ARP driven by heat from a turbine exhaust can provide the cooling for the inlet air with very low consumption of electricity, consequently there is a significant increase in power output from the cogeneration unit. Two different ARP systems are currently available but the author describes only the ammonia-water system, which can achieve temperatures down to -60 degrees C. The article discusses the principle behind ARP, the capital cost and returns on investment, how the cogeneration plant is linked to the ARP, ARP for turbine inlet air cooling, and the potential applications of cogeneration-ARP.

  3. Selection of axial hydraulic turbines for low-head microhydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šoukal, J.; Pochylý, F.; Varchola, M.; Parygin, A. G.; Volkov, A. V.; Khovanov, G. P.; Naumov, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The creation of highly efficient hydroturbines for low-head microhydropower plants is considered. The use of uncontrolled (propeller) hydroturbines is a promising means of minimizing costs and the time for their recoupment. As an example, experimental results from Brno University of Technology are presented. The model axial hydraulic turbine produced by Czech specialists performs well. The rotor diameter of this turbine is 194 mm. In the design of the working rotor, ANSYS Fluent software is employed. Means of improving the efficiency of microhydropower plants by optimal selection of the turbine parameters in the early stages of design are outlined. The energy efficiency of the hydroturbine designed for use in a microhydropower plant may be assessed on the basis of the coefficient of energy utilization, which is a function of the total losses in all the pipeline elements and losses in the channel including the hydroturbine rotor. The limit on the coefficient of energy utilization in the pressure pipeline is the hydraulic analog of the Betz-Joukowsky limit, which is widely used in the design of wind generators. The proposed approach is experimentally verified at Moscow Power Engineering Institute. A model axial hydraulic turbine with four different rotors is designed for the research. The diameter of all four rotors is the same: 80 mm. The pipeline takes the form of a siphon. Working rotor R2, designed with parameter optimization, is characterized by the highest coefficient of energy utilization of the pressure pipeline and maximum efficiency. That confirms that the proposed approach is a promising means of maximizing the overall energy efficiency of the microhydropower plant.

  4. Operational safety of turbine-generators at Loviisa nuclear power plant; Turbiini-generaattoreiden kaeyttoeturvallisuus Loviisan ydinvoimalaitoksella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virolainen, T.

    1997-06-01

    The goal of the study is to assess the operational safety of the turbine-generators at the Loviisa NPP. The lay-out, operation, control, monitoring and testing of turbine-generators have been studied. Taking these findings into consideration and by using operational data of Loviisa and other power plants, the most significant safety issues of the turbine-generator system have been identified. The frequencies for initiating events and possible consequences have been determined based on plant operational experience and related literature. (58 refs.).

  5. Algebraic approach for the diagnosis of turbine cycles in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Gyunyoung; Chang, Soon Heung

    2005-01-01

    According to plant operating staff's practical needs, authors proposed a diagnosis model to identify the performance degradation of steam turbine cycles in nuclear power plants (NPPs). The essential idea of this study is how to identify the intrinsically degraded component which causes electric loss. Authors found that there were not so many turbine cycle diagnosis applications in NPPs currently because of technical, financial, or social characteristics of the plant. So a great part of the diagnosis has been dependent on operating staff's experience and knowledge. However as economic competition becomes severe, the efficiency staffs is asking for reliable and practical advisory tools. For the solution of these shortcomings, authors proposed a simple and intuitive diagnosis concept based on the superposition rule of degradation phenomena, which can be derived by simple algebra and correlation analysis. Though the superposition rule is not so significant statistically, almost all of the performance indices under normal operation are fairly compatible with this model. Authors developed a prototype model of quantitative root-cause diagnosis and validated the background theory using the simulated data. The turbine cycle advisory system using this model was applied to Gori NPP units 3 and 4

  6. Feasibility improvement project for the gas turbine power plant in Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  7. Preliminary conceptual design of the secondary sodium circuit-eliminated JSFR (Japan Sodium Fast Reactor) adopting a supercritical CO2 turbine system (2). Turbine system and plant size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko; Kotake, Shoji

    2014-09-01

    Research and development of the supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) cycle turbine system is underway in various countries for further improvement of the safety and economy of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The Component Design and Balance-Of-Plant (CD and BOP) of the Generation IV International Nuclear Forum (Gen-IV) has addressed this study, and their analytical and experimental results have been discussed between the relevant countries. JAEA, who is a member of the CD and BOP, has performed a design study of an S-CO 2 gas turbine system applied to the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR). In this study, the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system was directly connected to the primary sodium system of the JSFR to eliminate the secondary sodium circuit, aiming for further economical improvement. This is because there is no risk of sodium-water reaction in the S-CO 2 cycle turbine system of SFRs. This report describes the system configuration, heat/mass balance, and main components of the S-CO 2 turbine system, based on the JSFR specifications. The layout of components and piping in the reactor and turbine buildings were examined and the dimensions of the buildings were estimated. The study has revealed that the reactor and turbine buildings could be reduced by 7% and 40%, respectively, in comparison with those in the existing JSFR design with the secondary sodium circuit employing the steam turbine. The cycle thermal was also calculated as 41.9-42.3%, which is nearly the same as that of the JSFR with the water/steam system. (author)

  8. Processing ARM VAP data on an AWS cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.; Macduff, M.; Shippert, T.

    2017-12-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Management Facility (DMF) manages over 18,000 processes and 1.3 TB of data each day. This includes many Value Added Products (VAPs) that make use of multiple instruments to produce the derived products that are scientifically relevant. A thermodynamic and cloud profile VAP is being developed to provide input to the ARM Large-eddy simulation (LES) ARM Symbiotic Simulation and Observation (LASSO) project (https://www.arm.gov/capabilities/vaps/lasso-122) . This algorithm is CPU intensive and the processing requirements exceeded the available DMF computing capacity. Amazon Web Service (AWS) along with CfnCluster was investigated to see how it would perform. This cluster environment is cost effective and scales dynamically based on demand. We were able to take advantage of autoscaling which allowed the cluster to grow and shrink based on the size of the processing queue. We also were able to take advantage of the Amazon Web Services spot market to further reduce the cost. Our test was very successful and found that cloud resources can be used to efficiently and effectively process time series data. This poster will present the resources and methodology used to successfully run the algorithm.

  9. How best management practices affect emissions in gas turbine power plants - an important factor to consider when strengthening emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinghai; Xing, Min; Hou, Min; England, Glenn C; Yan, Jing

    2018-04-27

    The Beijing Municipal Environmental Protection Bureau (EPB) is considering strengthening the Emission Standard of Air Pollutants for Stationary Gas Turbines, originally published in 2011 (DB11/847-2011), with a focus on reducing nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions. A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate the current operation of twelve (12) existing combined-cycle gas turbine power plants and the design of two (2) new plants in Beijing and their emission reduction potential, in comparison with a state-of-the-art power plant in California, United States. The study found that Best Management Practices (BMPs) could potentially improve the emission level of the power plants, and should be implemented to minimize emissions under current design characteristics. These BMPs include (1) more frequent tuning of turbine combustors; (2) onsite testing of natural gas characteristics in comparison to turbine manufacturer's specifics and tuning of turbine to natural gas quality; (3) onsite testing of aqueous ammonia to ensure adequate ammonia concentration in the mixed solution, and the purity of the solution; (4) more careful inspection of the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) during operation and maintenance; (5) annual testing of the catalyst coupon on the SCR to ensure catalyst effectiveness; and (6) annual ammonia injection grid (AIG) tuning. The study found that without major modification to the plants, improving the management of the Beijing gas turbine power plants may potentially reduce the current hourly-average NOx emission level of 5-10 parts per million (ppm, ranges reflects plant variation) by up to 20%. The exact improvement associated with each BMP for each facility requires more detailed analysis, and requires engagement of turbine, HRSG, and SCR manufacturers. This potential improvement is an important factor to consider when strengthening the emission standard. However it is to be noted that with the continuous

  10. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  11. Advanced combustion technologies for gas turbine power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandsburger, U.; Desu, S.B. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Roe, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    During the second half of fiscal year 1995 progress was made in all three funded subject areas of the project as well as in a new area. Work in the area of mixing and combustion management through flow actuation was transferred into an enclosed facility. Jet mixing in a ducted co-flow was examined. The same jets were also subjected to a strong acoustic field established in the duct. Excitation of the jet with static spatial modes was shown to be effective even in the presence of co-flow and the acoustic field. Only when a wall is placed at the jet exit plane did the acoustic field dominate the jet dispersion (as expected due to reflective boundary conditions and the jet shear layer receptivity). This case is, however, not the most relevant to gas turbine combustors since it precludes co-flow. In the area of combustor testing, the design, fabrication, and assembly of a modular combustor test rig for project has been completed at the University of Arkansas. In the area of high temperature piezoceramic actuator materials development, Sr{sub 2}(Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} powders have been synthesized, and bulk samples and thick films sintered. These materials have a curie temperature of about 1400{degrees}C compared with 300{degrees}C for the commercially available PZT. While at room temperature the new materials show a piezoelectric constant (d{sub 33}) which is a factor of 100 lower than PZT, at high temperatures they can exhibit significant action. A new area of non-linear, neural-net based, controllers for mixing and combustion control has been added during the second contract year. This work is not funded by the contract. Significant progress was made in this area. Neural nets with up to 15 neurons in the hidden layer were trained with experimental data and also with data generated using linear stability theory. System ID was performed successfully. The network was then used to predict the behavior of jets excited at other modes not used for the training.

  12. A Toxin-Antitoxin System VapBC15 from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Shows Distinct Regulatory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA systems play important roles in bacterial stress survival by regulating cell growth or death. They are highly abundant in cyanobacteria yet remain poorly characterized. Here, we report the identification and regulation of a putative type II TA system from Synechocystis PCC6803, VapBC15. The VapBC15 system is encoded by the chromosomal operon vapBC15. Exogenous expression of VapC15 dramatically arrested cell growth of Escherichia coli and reduced the numbers of colony-forming units (CFU. The VapC15 toxicity could be which was counteracted neutralized by simultaneous or delayed production of VapB15. Biochemical analysis demonstrated the formation of VapB15-VapC15 complexes by the physical interaction between VapB15 and VapC15. Notably, the VapB15 antitoxin up-regulated the transcription of the vapBC15 operon by directly binding to the promoter region, and the VapC15 toxin abolished the up-regulatory effect by destabilizing the binding. Moreover, VapB15 can be degraded by the proteases Lons and ClpXP2s from Synechocystis PCC6803, thus activating the latent toxicity of VapBC15. These findings suggest that VapBC15 represents a genuine TA system that utilizes a distinct mechanism to regulate toxin activity.

  13. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  14. GESIT: a thermodynamic program for single cycle gas turbine plants with and without intercoolers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, J

    1973-08-01

    A computer program for the thermodynamic modeling of singlecycle gas turbine plants is described. A high-temperature reactor is assumed as a heat source in the program, but the HTR can be replaced with another heat source without difficulty. Starting from a set of independent data, the program calculates efficiencies and mass flows. It indicates all values for a heat and power balance and prints out the temperatures and pressures for the different parts of the cycle. Besides this, the program is able to optimize the compression ratios for minimal power input. It also takes into account turbine rotor cooling (at the roots of the blades). Furthermore, the program is able to use either total pressure loss or specified losses in different parts of the cycle. The program GESlT can also handle systems with one or two intercoolers, or with no intercooler. GESIT gives all input and output values for the heat exchangers and turbo-machines. First the single-cycle gas turbine plant is described. After that the computational basis for the program and the program structure is explained. Instructions for data input are given so that the program can be immediately utilized. An example of input data together with the associated output is presented. (auth)

  15. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  16. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  17. Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Utilizing Wind Turbine Inertia as Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen Nygård; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2011-01-01

    For a wind power plant (WPP) the upper limit for active power output is bounded by the instantaneous wind conditions and therefore a WPP must curtail its power output when system services with active power are delivered. Here, a power oscillation damping controller (POD) for WPPs is presented...... that utilizes the stored kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) mechanical system as energy storage from which damping power can be exchanged. This eliminates the need for curtailed active power production. Results are presented using modal analysis and induced torque coefficients (ITC) to depict the torques...... induced on the synchronous generators from the POD. These are supplemented with nonlinear time domain simulations with and without an auxiliary POD for the WPP. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....

  18. A locomotive inspection robot for turbine building interior inspection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obama, M.; Ozaki, F.; Asano, K.

    1985-01-01

    A locomotive inspection robot, named Turbine Building Inspection System (TBIS), has been developed for turbine building interior inspections in nuclear power plants. This robot is made up of a vehicle, a telescopic support, turning head and a multijoint arm which has dual TV cameras and a diagnostic rod on its tip. The multijoint arm has 17 degrees of freedom and its length is 243 cm. Minimum and maximum heights for the multijoint arm shoulder are 1.5 meter and 4 meters respectively. The total degree of freedom in the combination of the multijoint arm, turning head and telescopic support is 19 and the area, it is capable of inspecting, is equal to the cylindrical dome whose height and diameter are 6.4 meters and 4.8 meters respectively. The design philosophy, hardware structure and operation method of the TBIS are described. 2 refs.; 10 figs

  19. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Repowering is a process consisting in a transformation of an old power plant in order to have a greater nameplate capacity or more efficiency, which result in a net increase of power generated. As a consequence of the higher efficiency, the repow ered plant is characterized by higher power output...... and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, a repowering is performed adding one or more gas turbines to an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combine d cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as SOFC) could also be used as a topping cycle......, reaching global plant efficiency even higher and specific CO2 emissions even lower. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less compl ex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity cost. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable...

  20. Performance Analysis of 20MW gas turbine power plant by Energy and Exergy Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebele-Alawa, B. T.; Asuo, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Energy and exergy analysis were conducted to evaluate the optimal performance of a 20 MW gas turbine power plant. The energy analysis was based on First Law of Thermodynamics, while the exergy method used both First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics. The locations and magnitude of losses which inhibited the performance of the power plant were identified by balance system equations. The internal losses associated with each plant component were estimated for improvement to be made to such component for maximum power output. The energy efficiency was 20.73 %, while the exergeric efficiency was 16.39 %; but the exergy loss of 38.62 % in the combustor was the largest among the components of plant. (au)

  1. Thermoeconomic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Felipe Raul Ponce; Lora, Electo Silva [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Estudos de Sistemas Termicos]. E-mails: aponce@iem.efei.br; electo@iem.efei.br; Perez, Silvia Azucena Nebra de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: sanebra@fem. unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    Using thermoeconomics as a tool to identify the location and magnitude of the real thermodynamic losses (energy waste, or exergy destruction and exergy losses) it is possible to assess the production costs of each product (electric power and heat) and the exergetic and exergoeconomic cost of each flow in a cogeneration plant to assist in decision-marketing procedures concerning to plant design, investment, operation and allocations of research funds. Thermo economic analysis of Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (BIG GT CC) cogeneration plant for its applications in sugar cane mills brings the following results: the global exergetic efficiency is low; the highest irreversibilities occur in the following equipment, by order: scrubber (38%), gas turbine (16%), dryer (12%), gasifier and HRSG (6%); due to the adopted cost distribution methodology, the unit exergetic cost of the heat (4,11) is lower than electricity (4,71); the lower market price of biomass is one of the most sensible parameter in the possible implementation of BIG-GT technology in sugar cane industry; the production costs are 31 US$/MWh and 32 US$/MWh for electricity and heat, respectively. The electricity cost is, after all, competitive with the actual market price. The electricity and heat costs are lower or almost equal than other values reported for actual Rankine cycle cogeneration plants. (author)

  2. Turbine-generators for 400 mw coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelke, W.; Bergmann, D.; Boer, J.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that presently, standard coal-fired power plant concepts including flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and DENO x systems are in the design stage to be built on relatively short delivery schedules. The rating in the 400 MW range has generally been selected, because such small power plant units with short delivery times cause a minimum financial burden during planning, delivery and installation. They also follow more closely the growth of electric energy demand at specific locations. However economical considerations could lead to larger unit ratings, since the planning and building process of higher capacity plants is not significantly different but specific plant costs are certainly smaller with increased unit size. Historically large tandem-compound steam turbine-generators have been built and have proven reliable operation with ratings in excess of 800 MW. Already in the late 1950's main steam pressures and temperatures as high as 4,500 psig and 1,200 degrees F respectively were successfully used for smaller steam turbines

  3. Operation and Performance of a Biphase Turbine Power Plant at the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hays, Lance G. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    A full scale, wellhead Biphase turbine was manufactured and installed with the balance of plant at Well 103 of the Cerro Prieto geothermal resource in Baja, California. The Biphase turbine was first synchronized with the electrical grid of Comision Federal de Electricidad on August 20, 1997. The Biphase power plant was operated from that time until May 23, 2000, a period of 2 years and 9 months. A total of 77,549 kWh were delivered to the grid. The power plant was subsequently placed in a standby condition pending replacement of the rotor with a newly designed, higher power rotor and replacement of the bearings and seals. The maximum measured power output of the Biphase turbine, 808 kWe at 640 psig wellhead pressure, agreed closely with the predicted output, 840 kWe. When combined with the backpressure steam turbine the total output power from that flow would be increased by 40% above the power derived only from the flow by the present flash steam plant. The design relations used to predict performance and design the turbine were verified by these tests. The performance and durability of the Biphase turbine support the conclusion of the Economics and Application Report previously published, (Appendix A). The newly designed rotor (the Dual Pressure Rotor) was analyzed for the above power condition. The Dual Pressure Rotor would increase the power output to 2064 kWe by incorporating two pressure letdown stages in the Biphase rotor, eliminating the requirement for a backpressure steam turbine. The power plant availability was low due to deposition of solids from the well on the Biphase rotor and balance of plant problems. A great deal of plant down time resulted from the requirement to develop methods to handle the solids and from testing the apparatus in the Biphase turbine. Finally an online, washing method using the high pressure two-phase flow was developed which completely eliminated the solids problem. The availability of the Biphase turbine itself was 100

  4. A study on reliability of electro-hydraulic governor control system for large steam turbine in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Gu Hwa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Moon, Seung Jae; Lee, Jae Heon; Yoo, Ho Seon

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the right management procedure for hydraulic power oil will be discussed and suggested. A thermal power plant turbine should respond to the change of load status. However, to satisfy the frequency of alternating current, the revolution per minute should be kept constant. Therefore, by controlling the flow rate of the steam to the turbine, the governor satisfies the load variation without alternating the revolution per minutes of the turbine. To protect the governor, the hydraulic power unit should be managed carefully by controlling the quality and the flow rate of the oil

  5. Simulations research of the global predictive control with self-adaptive in the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Jie; Xia Guoqing; Zhang Wei

    2007-01-01

    For further improving the dynamic control capabilities of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant, this paper puts forward to apply the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive in the rotate speed control of the gas turbine, including control structure and the design of controller in the base of expounding the math model of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant. the simulation results show that the respond of the change of the gas turbine speed under the control algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive is ten second faster than that under the PID control algorithm, and the output value of the gas turbine speed under the PID control algorithm is 1%-2% higher than that under the control slgorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive. It shows that the algorithm of global predictive control with self-adaptive can better control the output of the speed of the gas turbine of the nuclear power plant and get the better control effect. (authors)

  6. Critical Analysis of the Factors Associated with Enteral Feeding in Preventing VAP: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-01-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving a...

  7. ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERNS OF DIFFERENT BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM PATIENTS WITH VENTILATOR ASSOCIATED PNEUMONIA (VAP)

    OpenAIRE

    Alqurashi, Abdulrahman M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent complication of mechanical ventilation (MV) and it is a leading cause of death in MV patients. The development of VAP has been demonstrated as being due to aspiration of oropharyngeal secretion, ventilator tubing condensate, or gastric contents that are colonized with pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the present study is to isolate and identify bacteria that cause VAP and to study antibiotic susceptibility. Material and Metho...

  8. Emergency cooling system for a nuclear reactor in a closed gas turbine plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frutschi, H.U.

    1974-01-01

    In undisturbed operation of the closed gas turbine plant with compressor stages, reactor, and turbine, a compressor stage driven by a separate motor is following with reduced power. The power input this way is so small that the working medium is just blown through without pressure increase. The compressor stage is connected with the reactor by means of a reactor feedback pipe with an additional cooler and with the other compressor stages by means of a recuperator in the pipe between these and the turbine. In case of emergency cooling, e.g. after the rupture of a pipe with decreasing pressure of the working medium, the feedback pipe is closed short and the additional compressor stage is brought to higher power. It serves as a coolant blower and transfers the necessary amount of working medium to the reactor. The compressor stage is controlled at a constant torque, so that the heat removal from the reactor is adapted to the conditions of the accident. (DG) [de

  9. Feasibility study of VLH hydro turbine installation at Nam Pung hydropower plant, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerapon Nuantong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the feasibility of installing a Very Low Head (VLH hydro turbine at downstream of the Nam Pung hydropower plant by increasing the potential of renewable energy sources for the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT. Due to the constraints of the local site, the water head level was limited to less than 2 meters and the flow rate to below 5 m3/ s. The hydro turbine selected was an axial flow turbine with performance of 86.4%. The outcome of the power output was 84.61 kW. Investment analysis was subsequently applied to estimate feasibility of the project using engineering economics. The analyses of results have shown that the project is worthwhile in terms of an investment decision. The payback period of actual price was 0.83 and 0.88 years and general price case of 3.68 and 4.04 years, along with an interest rate of 6.75% and 12.625% respectively. Projected project lifespan is 25 years.

  10. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  11. Estimate for interstage water injection in air compressor incorporated into gas-turbine cycles and combined power plants cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.

    2017-05-01

    The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of two vascular apoptosis-inducing proteins (VAPs) from Crotalus atrox venom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Tomoko; Oishi, Yuko; Araki, Satohiko; Mori, Hidezo; Takeda, Soichi

    2006-01-01

    Vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1) and VAP2 from C. atrox venom were crystallized in variety of different crystal forms. Diffraction data sets were obtained to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution for VAP1 and VAP2, respectively. VAPs are haemorrhagic snake-venom toxins belonging to the reprolysin family of zinc metalloproteinases. In vitro, VAPs induce apoptosis specifically in cultured vascular endothelial cells. VAPs have a modular structure that bears structural homology to mammalian ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinases). VAP1 is a homodimer with a MW of 110 kDa in which the monomers are connected by a single disulfide bridge. VAP2 is homologous to VAP1 and exists as a monomer with a MW of 55 kDa. In the current study, several crystal forms of VAP1 and VAP2 were obtained using the vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected using SPring-8 beamlines. The best crystals of VAP1 and VAP2 generated data sets to 2.5 and 2.15 Å resolution, respectively

  13. Gas-steam turbine plant for cogenerative process at 'Toplifikacija' - Skopje (Joint-Stock Co. for district heating - Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetkovski, Andrijan

    2003-01-01

    The gas-steam power plant for combined heat and electric power production at A.D. 'Toplifikacija' Skopje - TO 'Zapad' is analyzed and determined. The analyzed plant is consisted of gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) and condensate steam turbine with controlled steam extraction. It operates on natural gas as a main fuel source. The heating of the water for the district heating is dine in the heat exchanger, with // heat of controlled extraction from condensate turbine. The advantages of the both binary plant and centralized co generative production compared with the individual are analyzed. The natural gas consumption of for both specific heating and electrical capacity in join production as well as fuel savings compared to the separate production of the same quantity of energy is also analyzed. (Original)

  14. Wind Plant Models in IEC 61400-27-2 and WECC - latest developments in international standards on wind turbine and wind plant modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortmann, Jens; Miller, Nicholas; Kazachkov, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the latest developments in the standardization of wind plant and wind plant controller models. As a first step IEC TC88 WG 27 and WECC jointly developed generic wind turbine models which have been published by WECC in 2014 and IEC in 2015 as IEC 61400-27-1, which also include...

  15. Novel Functionally Graded Thermal Barrier Coatings in Coal-Fired Power Plant Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Indiana Univ., Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This project presents a detailed investigation of a novel functionally graded coating material, pyrochlore oxide, for thermal barrier coating (TBC) in gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Thermal barrier coatings are refractory materials deposited on gas turbine components, which provide thermal protection for metallic components at operating conditions. The ultimate goal of this research is to develop a manufacturing process to produce the novel low thermal conductivity and high thermal stability pyrochlore oxide based coatings with improved high-temperature durability. The current standard TBC, yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), has service temperatures limited to <1200°C, due to sintering and phase transition at higher temperatures. In contrast, pyrochlore oxide, e.g., lanthanum zirconate (La2Zr2O7, LZ), has demonstrated lower thermal conductivity and better thermal stability, which are crucial to high temperature applications, such as gas turbines used in coal-fired power plants. Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) has collaborated with Praxair Surface Technologies (PST), and Changwon National University in South Korea to perform the proposed research. The research findings are critical to the extension of current TBCs to a broader range of high-temperature materials and applications. Several tasks were originally proposed and accomplished, with additional new opportunities identified during the course of the project. In this report, a description of the project tasks, the main findings and conclusions are given. A list of publications and presentations resulted from this research is listed in the Appendix at the end of the report.

  16. An evaluation of thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines with open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    A performance analysis of innovative solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle, with and without intercooling and regeneration, is presented. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it seems able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. -- Highlights: ► Innovative CPS solar plants, operating with air in open Joule–Brayton cycle, are proposed. ► They are attractive for their simplicity and present interesting values of global efficiency. ► They seem able to compete well with other more complex solar plants.

  17. A modeling and control approach to advanced nuclear power plants with gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablay, Günyaz

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Load frequency control strategies in nuclear plants are researched. • Nuclear reactor-centered control system may not be suitable for load control. • Local unit controllers improve stability and overall time constant. • Coolant loops in nuclear plants should be controlled locally. - Abstract: Advanced nuclear power plants are currently being proposed with a number of various designs. However, there is a lack of modeling and control strategies to deal with load following operations. This research investigates a possible modeling approach and load following control strategy for gas turbine nuclear power plants in order to provide an assessment way to the concept designs. A load frequency control strategy and average temperature control mechanism are studied to get load following nuclear power plants. The suitability of the control strategies and concept designs are assessed through linear stability analysis methods. Numerical results are presented on an advanced molten salt reactor concept as an example nuclear power plant system to demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed modeling and load following control strategies

  18. Integration optimisation of elevated pressure air separation unit with gas turbine in an IGCC power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Long; Deng, Guangyi; Li, Zheng; Wang, Qinhui; Ileleji, Klein E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • IGCC thermodynamic model was setup carefully. • Simulations focus on integration between an elevated pressure ASU with gas turbine. • Different recommended solutions from those of low pressure ASUs are figured out. • Full N 2 injection and 80% air extraction was suggested as the optimum integration. - Abstract: The integration optimisation between an elevated pressure air separation unit (EP-ASU) and gas turbine is beneficial to promote net efficiency of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant. This study sets up the thermodynamic model for a 400 MW plant specially coupled with an EP-ASU, aiming to examine system performances under different integrations and acquire the optimum solution. Influences of air extraction rate at conditions of without, partial and full N 2 injection, as well as the effects of N 2 injection rate when adopting separate ASU, partial and full integrated ASU were both analysed. Special attention has been paid to performance differences between utilising an EP-ASU and a low pressure unit. Results indicated that integration solution with a separate EP-ASU or without N 2 injection would not be reasonable. Among various recommended solutions for different integration conditions, N 2 injection rate increased with the growth of air extraction rate. The integration with an air extraction rate of 80% and full N 2 injection was suggested as the optimum solution. It is concluded that the optimum integration solution when adopting an EP-ASU is different from that using a low pressure one.

  19. Waste heat recovery options in a large gas-turbine combined power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upathumchard, Ularee

    This study focuses on power plant heat loss and how to utilize the waste heat in energy recovery systems in order to increase the overall power plant efficiency. The case study of this research is a 700-MW natural gas combined cycle power plant, located in a suburban area of Thailand. An analysis of the heat loss of the combustion process, power generation process, lubrication system, and cooling system has been conducted to evaluate waste heat recovery options. The design of the waste heat recovery options depends to the amount of heat loss from each system and its temperature. Feasible waste heat sources are combustion turbine (CT) room ventilation air and lubrication oil return from the power plant. The following options are being considered in this research: absorption chillers for cooling with working fluids Ammonia-Water and Water-Lithium Bromide (in comparison) and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) with working fluids R134a and R245fa. The absorption cycles are modeled in three different stages; single-effect, double-effect and half-effect. ORC models used are simple ORC as a baseline, ORC with internal regenerator, ORC two-phase flash expansion ORC and ORC with multiple heat sources. Thermodynamic models are generated and each system is simulated using Engineering Equation Solver (EES) to define the most suitable waste heat recovery options for the power plant. The result will be synthesized and evaluated with respect to exergy utilization efficiency referred as the Second Law effectiveness and net output capacity. Results of the models give recommendation to install a baseline ORC of R134a and a double-effect water-lithium bromide absorption chiller, driven by ventilation air from combustion turbine compartment. The two technologies yield reasonable economic payback periods of 4.6 years and 0.7 years, respectively. The fact that this selected power plant is in its early stage of operation allows both models to economically and effectively perform waste heat

  20. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA

  1. LCA-LCCA of oil fired steam turbine power plant in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Tso, C.P.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.

    2004-01-01

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to quantify the non-renewable energy use and global warming potential in electricity generation from a typical oil fired steam turbine plant in Singapore. As the conventional LCA does not include any cost analysis, which is a major criterion in decision making, the cost of power generation is estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. It is estimated that the hidden processes consumed about 9% additional energy on top of the fuel embedded energy, while the hidden GHG emission is about 12%. A correlation is established to estimate the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions directly from the power plant net efficiency. The study methodology, results and the empirical relations are presented, together with a brief overview of the Singapore power sector. It also highlights the need for consideration of the reserves availability in the pricing mechanism and how such cost indices could be developed based on the LCA-LCCA. (Author)

  2. An opportunity for capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plant in Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.

    2005-01-01

    In connection with earlier and forced decommissioning of the Kozloduy NPP units 1 - 4, an alternative has to be found in order to substitute these capacities. As a reasonable options, capacity up-rating of 1000 MW steam turbine plants without nuclear reactor thermal capacity increase, is investigated in the present study. The cooling water for these units is delivered by Danube river. The cooling water temperatures substantially decrease during the winter months. These changes create an opportunity for steam back end pressure reduction. It was found that when the cooling water temperature decreases from 15 0 C to 3 0 C, the steam back end pressure is on the decrease of from 3.92 kPa to 2.3 kPa. As a result capacity of the plant could be raised up to 50 MW without any substantial equipment and systems change

  3. Topping turbine (103-JAT) rotor instability in 1150-STPD Kellogg ammonia plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R.

    1985-01-01

    In two of Agrico's three plants, instabilities in the rotor/bearing system have been an ongoing problem. On occasion plant rates, i.e., machine speed, have been restricted in order to limit the exhaust and shaft relative vibration on the 103-JAT to a maximum value of 89 micrometer (0.0035) peak to peak. The purpose is to acquaint one with Agrico's experiences with exhaust end vibration and rotor instabilities on the 103-JAT topping turbine. The final conclusions arrived at were based on: (1) field acquired data both during steady state and transient conditions; (2) computer modeling of the rotor/bearing system; and (3) vibration data taken from a control rotor during a series of test runs in a high speed balancing machine from 0 to 110% of operating speed.

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  5. VapC toxins drive cellular dormancy under uranium stress for the extreme thermoacidophile Metallosphaera prunae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arpan; Wheaton, Garrett H; Counts, James A; Ijeomah, Brenda; Desai, Jigar; Kelly, Robert M

    2017-07-01

    When abruptly exposed to toxic levels of hexavalent uranium, the extremely thermoacidophilic archaeon Metallosphaera prunae, originally isolated from an abandoned uranium mine, ceased to grow, and concomitantly exhibited heightened levels of cytosolic ribonuclease activity that corresponded to substantial degradation of cellular RNA. The M. prunae transcriptome during 'uranium-shock' implicated VapC toxins as possible causative agents of the observed RNA degradation. Identifiable VapC toxins and PIN-domain proteins encoded in the M. prunae genome were produced and characterized, three of which (VapC4, VapC7, VapC8) substantially degraded M. prunae rRNA in vitro. RNA cleavage specificity for these VapCs mapped to motifs within M. prunae rRNA. Furthermore, based on frequency of cleavage sequences, putative target mRNAs for these VapCs were identified; these were closely associated with translation, transcription, and replication. It is interesting to note that Metallosphaera sedula, a member of the same genus and which has a nearly identical genome sequence but not isolated from a uranium-rich biotope, showed no evidence of dormancy when exposed to this metal. M. prunae utilizes VapC toxins for post-transcriptional regulation under uranium stress to enter a cellular dormant state, thereby providing an adaptive response to what would otherwise be a deleterious environmental perturbation. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of different bacteria isolated from patients with ventilator associated pneumonia (vap).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqurashi, Abdulrahman M

    2005-09-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent complication of mechanical ventilation (MV) and it is a leading cause of death in MV patients. The development of VAP has been demonstrated as being due to aspiration of oropharyngeal secretion, ventilator tubing condensate, or gastric contents that are colonized with pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of the present study is to isolate and identify bacteria that cause VAP and to study antibiotic susceptibility. This study was carried out on 95 patients who fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for VAP. Quantitative cultures of endotracheal aspirates (EA) using a cut-off point of 10(6) cfu/ml was done. The microbiological results revealed that gram negative bacilli were the most common bacterial agents responsible for VAP and accounted for 78.8% of all the causative agents. The most common isolated organisms were Klebsiella pnemouniae (30.9 %) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (22.5%), Staphylococcus aureus (21.2%), Eschericia coli (12.8 %), Proteus spp. (9.8%), and Citrobacter spp. (2.8%). Blood cultures were positive in 25.9% of patients with Klebsiella pnemouniae in about 33.3%. From this study, it can be concluded that VAP is an important nosocomial infection. EA is a simple procedure to obtain respiratory samples and perform sensitivity testing in patients with VAP. Also, the commonest cause of VAP is gram negative bacilli.

  7. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergant, A.; Gregorc, B.; Gale, J.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatoličje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  8. Numerical and in-situ investigations of water hammer effects in Drava river Kaplan turbine hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergant, A; Gregorc, B; Gale, J

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with critical flow regimes that may induce unacceptable water hammer in Kaplan turbine hydropower plants. Water hammer analysis should be performed for normal, emergency and catastrophic operating conditions. Hydropower plants with Kaplan turbines are usually comprised of relatively short inlet and outlet conduits. The rigid water hammer theory can be used for this case. For hydropower plants with long penstocks the elastic water hammer should be used. Some Kaplan turbine units are installed in systems with long open channels. In this case, water level oscillations in the channels should be carefully investigated. Computational results are compared with results of measurements in recently rehabilitated seven Drava river hydroelectric power plants in Slovenia. Water hammer in the six power plants is controlled by appropriate adjustment of the wicket gates and runner blades closing/opening manoeuvres. Due to very long inflow and outflow open channels in Zlatolicje HPP a special vaned pressure regulating device attenuates extreme pressures in Kaplan turbine flow-passage system and controls unsteady flow in both open channels. Comparisons of results include normal operating regimes. The agreement between computed and measured results is reasonable.

  9. A study of a high temperature nuclear power plant incorporating a non-integrated indirect cycle gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarlos, G.; Helbling, W.; Zollinger, E.; Gregory, N.; Luchsinger, H.

    1982-04-01

    In connection with the HHT-project, the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research has performed a study of a 1640-MWth HTR-plant incorporating a non-integrated indirect cycle gas turbine with two-stage intercooling, as a possibility of simplifying and reducing the cost of the HHT-demonstration plant. In this paper, the plant design is described and compared with the HHT-demonstration plant (a CCGT integrated plant with single stage intercooling). Also included is an evaluation of the various advantages and disadvantages of this design together with the presentation of some of the sensitivity results. (Auth.)

  10. Understanding Dynamic Model Validation of a Wind Turbine Generator and a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Zhang, Ying Chen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Kosterev, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Regional reliability organizations require power plants to validate the dynamic models that represent them to ensure that power systems studies are performed to the best representation of the components installed. In the process of validating a wind power plant (WPP), one must be cognizant of the parameter settings of the wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the operational settings of the WPP. Validating the dynamic model of a WPP is required to be performed periodically. This is because the control parameters of the WTGs and the other supporting components within a WPP may be modified to comply with new grid codes or upgrades to the WTG controller with new capabilities developed by the turbine manufacturers or requested by the plant owners or operators. The diversity within a WPP affects the way we represent it in a model. Diversity within a WPP may be found in the way the WTGs are controlled, the wind resource, the layout of the WPP (electrical diversity), and the type of WTGs used. Each group of WTGs constitutes a significant portion of the output power of the WPP, and their unique and salient behaviors should be represented individually. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the process of dynamic model validations of WTGs and WPPs, the available data recorded that must be screened before it is used for the dynamic validations, and the assumptions made in the dynamic models of the WTG and WPP that must be understood. Without understanding the correct process, the validations may lead to the wrong representations of the WTG and WPP modeled.

  11. Evaluation of the energy efficiency of combined cycle gas turbine. Case study of Tashkent thermal power plant, Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminov, Zarif; Nakagoshi, Nobukazu; Xuan, Tran Dang; Higashi, Osamu; Alikulov, Khusniddin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The combined cycle power plant (CCPP) has a steam turbine and a gas turbine. • Fossil fuel savings and reduction of the CCGT of was evaluated. • The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. • Energy efficiency of the combined cycle was 58.28%. • An annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum can be achieved. - Abstract: The power generation of Tashkent Thermal Power Plant (TPP) is based on conventional power units. Moreover, the facility suffers from limited efficiency in electricity generation. The plant was constructed during the Soviet era. Furthermore, the power plant is being used for inter-hour power generation regulation. As a result, the efficiency can be reduced by increasing specific fuel consumption. This research focuses on the evaluation of the energy efficiency of the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) for the Tashkent TPP. Specifically, the objective is an evaluation of fossil fuel savings and reduction of CO_2 and NO_x emissions with the using CCGT technology at conventional power plant. The proposed combined cycle power plant (CCPP) includes an existing steam turbine (ST) with 160 MW capacity, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and gas turbine (GT) technology with 300 MW capacity. The performance of a three pressure CCGT is modelled under different modes. As a result, the efficiency of the combined cycle was evaluated at 58.28%, while the conventional cycle had an efficiency of 34.5%. We can achieve an annual reduction of 1760.18 tNO_x/annum and 981.25 ktCO_2/annum.

  12. Environmental feasibility study for deployment and construction of mobile gas turbine power plants in urbanized areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryukhan Fedor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the view of current electrical shortage in some regions of Russia, mobile gas turbine power plants (MGTPP have become urgent in recent years. Usually they are used as back-up power sources to cover peak loads in power networks and to ensure uninterrupted power supply to consumers. This paper deals with environmental feasibility study for deployment and construction of the MGTPP in an urban setting. Technogehic factors of the MGTPP impact on the environment have been assessed and possibility of the MGTPP deployment at various sites in different regions of Russia has been identified. The necessity of using the technology of water injection into the gas turbine units combustion chamber to suppress nitrogen oxides in some cases is mentioned. Quantitative assessments of the MGTPP technogehic impact on the environment components have been performed using standard techniques. The calculations have revealed that the MGTPP specifications ensure the levels of technogehic impacts within the standard limits. The results have ensured preparation of pre-design and design documentation related to protection of the environment against the MGTPP complex technogehic impact.

  13. Analysis of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy; Indagine sulla funzionalita` degli impianti di cogenerazione conturbina a gas operanti in Italia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, Rino; Vignati, Sigfrido [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to improve, by random analysis, the current knowledge about functional and running data of gas turbine cogeneration plants in Italy. The analysis consider simple and combined cycle gas turbines plant with electric power less 30.000 k W per unit and involves a sample of 44 units according to a randomized model consisting of 112 gas turbines. The collected data show different plant selection criteria, energy performances, reliability and availability values as well as maintenance costs. These data support some general suggestions and recommendations for a better selection and utilization of these plants.

  14. Modeling Creep-Fatigue-Environment Interactions in Steam Turbine Rotor Materials for Advanced Ultra-supercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Chen [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this project is to model creep-fatigue-environment interactions in steam turbine rotor materials for advanced ultra-supercritical (A-USC) coal power Alloy 282 plants, to develop and demonstrate computational algorithms for alloy property predictions, and to determine and model key mechanisms that contribute to the damages caused by creep-fatigue-environment interactions.

  15. Design and Tuning of Wind Power Plant Voltage Controller with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and STATCOMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lennart; Kryezi, Fitim; Iov, Florin

    2017-01-01

    This study addresses a detailed design and tuning of a wind power plant voltage control with reactive power contribution of wind turbines and static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs). First, small-signal models of a single wind turbine and STATCOM are derived by using the state-space approach....... A complete phasor model of the entire wind power plant is constructed, being appropriate for voltage control assessment. An exemplary wind power plant located in the United Kingdom and the corresponding grid code requirements are used as a base case. The final design and tuning process of the voltage...... controller results in a guidance, proposed for this particular control architecture. It provides qualitative outcomes regarding the parametrisation of each individual control loop and how to adjust the voltage controller depending on different grid stiffnesses of the wind power plant connection...

  16. Use of ventilator associated pneumonia bundle and statistical process control chart to decrease VAP rate in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadat, Reem; Al-Bardan, Hussam; Mazloum, Mona N; Shamah, Asem A; Eltayeb, Mohamed F E; Marie, Ali; Dakkak, Abdulrahman; Naes, Ola; Esber, Faten; Betelmal, Ibrahim; Kherallah, Mazen

    2012-10-01

    Implementation of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle as a performance improvement project in the critical care units for all mechanically ventilated patients aiming to decrease the VAP rates. VAP bundle was implemented in 4 teaching hospitals after educational sessions and compliance rates along with VAP rates were monitored using statistical process control charts. VAP bundle compliance rates were steadily increasing from 33 to 80% in hospital 1, from 33 to 86% in hospital 2 and from 83 to 100% in hospital 3 during the study period. The VAP bundle was not applied in hospital 4 therefore no data was available. A target level of 95% was reached only in hospital 3. This correlated with a decrease in VAP rates from 30 to 6.4 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 1, from 12 to 4.9 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 3, whereas VAP rate failed to decrease in hospital 2 (despite better compliance) and it remained high around 33 per 1000 ventilator days in hospital 4 where VAP bundle was not implemented. VAP bundle has performed differently in different hospitals in our study. Prevention of VAP requires a multidimensional strategy that includes strict infection control interventions, VAP bundle implementation, process and outcome surveillance and education.

  17. Operation efficiency increasing of dual-purpose NPP's by means of improving turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Borovkov, V.M.; Levit, I.G.; Averbakh, Yu.A.; Titova, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    Ways of operation efficiency increasing power plants for combined electrisity prodUction and centralized heating with WWER-440 reactors and wet-steam heating-condensating turbines are considered. Two variants of floWsheets of by-pass steam distribution permitting to use energy of excess steam in a wide pressure range in the secondary circuit for keeping electric or thermal power of the power unit at a possibly higher level are analyzed. Optimum time of operating cycle prolongation of a heating WWER-440 poWer unit when using the suggested flowsheets with pipelines of by-pass distribution of excess steam covers 16-40 days for the range of change in expenditures at reconstruction for electric power and heat 13.5-17 rub/MWxh and 2-3 rub./MWxh. The maximum time of the reactor operating cycle prolongation for the considered situations makes up 30-80 days

  18. Waste heat gas utilization for HTGR gas turbine plant for sea water desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A thermodynamic analysis is performed for a HTGR - Gas Turbine Plant, coupled with a Rankine cycle for additional power generation and/or desalination of sea water with a multistage flash evaporator. Three basic alternatives are studied: a) Brayton cycle with inter-cooling and without regeneration, coupled with a Rankine cycle for power generation and steam for evaporator. b) Same as a) but without inter-cooling and with regeneration. c) Brayton cycle with regeneration, without inter-cooling, coupled with a Rankine cycle for sea water evaporator steam generation. The behavior of the three alternatives is established with a parametric study for the most representative variables. Economy, safety and control aspects were considered for the three different conceptions. (Author) [pt

  19. Dynamic analysis of multi layer foundation of steam turbines in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseni, D.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, the coupled Rotor-pedestal-foundation motion is modeled and formulated. Transfer matrix method is implemented in the modeling. The model is adequate for multi layer foundation systems of steam turbines in nuclear power plants. The rotor modeled used is distributed mass model. Bearings are modeled with eight stiffness and damping coefficients and pedestals by mass, stiffness and damping property. Foundation is modeled with distributed mass and stiffness properties in which properties in vertical and horizontal direction may be different. The model is examined using analytical results and good agreement is achieved. Results of the coupled modeling indicate less error in comparison with previous separate modeling and lumped-mass methods

  20. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an exi......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  1. HTGR-GT closed-cycle gas turbine: a plant concept with inherent cogeneration (power plus heat production) capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.

    1980-04-01

    The high-grade sensible heat rejection characteristic of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor-gas turbine (HTGR-GT) plant is ideally suited to cogeneration. Cogeneration in this nuclear closed-cycle plant could include (1) bottoming Rankine cycle, (2) hot water or process steam production, (3) desalination, and (4) urban and industrial district heating. This paper discusses the HTGR-GT plant thermodynamic cycles, design features, and potential applications for the cogeneration operation modes. This paper concludes that the HTGR-GT plant, which can potentially approach a 50% overall efficiency in a combined cycle mode, can significantly aid national energy goals, particularly resource conservation

  2. Plant accident dynamics of high-temperature reactors with direct gas turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waloch, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    In the paper submitted, a one-dimensional accident simulation model for high-temperature reactors with direct-cycle gas turbine (single-cycle facilities) is described. The paper assesses the sudden failure of a gas duct caused by the double-ended break of one out of several parallel pipes before and behind the reactor for a non-integrated plant, leading to major loads in the reactor region, as well as the complete loss of vanes of the compressor for an integrated plant. The results of the calculations show especially high loads for the break of a hot-gas pipe immediately behind the flow restrictors of the reactor outlet, because of prolonged effects of pressure gradients in the reactor region and the maximum core differential pressure. A plant accident dynamics calculation therefore allows to find a compromise between the requirements of stable compressor operation, on the one hand, and small loads in the reactor in the course of an accident, on the other, by establishing in a co-ordinated manner the narrowing ratio of the flow restrictors. (GL) [de

  3. Verification of Kaplan turbine cam curves realization accuracy at power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of approximately constant value of Kaplan turbine efficiency, for relatively large net head changes, is a result of turbine runner variable geometry. Dependence of runner blades position change on guide vane opening represents the turbine cam curve. The cam curve realization accuracy is of great importance for the efficient and proper exploitation of turbines and consequently complete units. Due to the reasons mentioned above, special attention has been given to the tests designed for cam curves verification. The goal of this paper is to provide the description of the methodology and the results of the tests performed in the process of Kaplan turbine cam curves verification.

  4. Conceptual design of a commercial supercritical CO2 gas turbine for the fast reactor power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Aritomi, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design results of turbine and compressors of a supercritical CO 2 gas turbine connected to the commercial sodium cooled fast reactor. Power output of the gas turbine-generator system is 750 MWe. The system consists of turbine, main compressor and bypass compressor. Turbine is axial flow type. Both axial flow and centrifugal compressors were designed. Aerodynamic, blade strength and rotor dynamics calculations were conducted. Achievable adiabatic efficiencies and cross-sectional structures are given. For this design conditions, the axial flow compressor is superior to the centrifugal compressor due to the large mass flow rate. (authors)

  5. Frequency Response Analysis of Hydroelectric Power Plants with Influence From a Non-Linearized Frictional Damping and the Turbine Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brekke

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the dissertation has been to establish a complete stability analysis of a hydroelectric power plant. The most important part in this study has been to establish a theory for the damping of oscillatory flow in tunnels and pipes. The influence of the turbine characteristics is also important and has been included by differentiation of the turbine equation. The partial derivative values can be found by means of the characteristic diagram of the turbine. Special attention is paid to establishing an empirical friction function for tunnels with rough walls. The author has based his theory on experimental tests carried out for damping of sea waves on rough beds, and the friction factor is a function of both frequency, amplitudes, cross section area and roughness of the wall (Jonsson 1978. Further, the damping of oscillations in shafts leading to tunnels taking into account the mean velocity in the tunnel has been established.

  6. Design of an Adaptive Power Regulation Mechanism and a Nozzle for a Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbine Test Rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mert, Burak; Aytac, Zeynep; Tascioglu, Yigit; Celebioglu, Kutay; Aradag, Selin; ETU Hydro Research Center Team

    2014-11-01

    This study deals with the design of a power regulation mechanism for a Hydroelectric Power Plant (HEPP) model turbine test system which is designed to test Francis type hydroturbines up to 2 MW power with varying head and flow(discharge) values. Unlike the tailor made regulation mechanisms of full-sized, functional HEPPs; the design for the test system must be easily adapted to various turbines that are to be tested. In order to achieve this adaptability, a dynamic simulation model is constructed in MATLAB/Simulink SimMechanics. This model acquires geometric data and hydraulic loading data of the regulation system from Autodesk Inventor CAD models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis respectively. The dynamic model is explained and case studies of two different HEPPs are performed for validation. CFD aided design of the turbine guide vanes, which is used as input for the dynamic model, is also presented. This research is financially supported by Turkish Ministry of Development.

  7. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  8. An alternative approach to continuous compliance monitoring and turbine plant optimization using a PEMS (predictive emission monitoring system)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, B.G.; Lawrence, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviewed the use of a predictive emissions monitoring system (PEMS) at 3 different gas turbine facilities in the United States and highlighted the costs and benefits of using a PEMS for documenting emissions of priority pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG). The PEMS interfaces directly to the turbine control system and represents a lower cost alternative to the traditional continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS). The PEMS can track combustion efficiency through modeling of the turbine's operation and emissions. Excess emissions can be tracked and the causes of pollution can be determined and mitigated. The PEMS installed at the 3 turbine plants must meet rigorous performance specification criteria and the sites perform ongoing quality assurance tasks such as periodic audits with portable analyzers. The PEMS is much less expensive to install, operate, and maintain compared to the standard CEMS gas analyzer. Empirical PEMS achieves very high accuracy levels and has demonstrated superior reliability over CEMS for various types of continuous process applications under existing air compliance regulations in the United States. Annual accuracy testing at the gas turbine sites have shown that the PEMS predictions are usually within 5 per cent of the reference method. PEMS can be certified as an alternative to gas analyzer based CEMS for nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide compliance and for GHG trading purposes. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Complementary Power Control for Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Tidal Stream Turbine Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Ghefiri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest forecasts on the upcoming effects of climate change are leading to a change in the worldwide power production model, with governments promoting clean and renewable energies, as is the case of tidal energy. Nevertheless, it is still necessary to improve the efficiency and lower the costs of the involved processes in order to achieve a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCoE that allows these devices to be commercially competitive. In this context, this paper presents a novel complementary control strategy aimed to maximize the output power of a Tidal Stream Turbine (TST composed of a hydrodynamic turbine, a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG and a back-to-back power converter. In particular, a global control scheme that supervises the switching between the two operation modes is developed and implemented. When the tidal speed is low enough, the plant operates in variable speed mode, where the system is regulated so that the turbo-generator module works in maximum power extraction mode for each given tidal velocity. For this purpose, the proposed back-to-back converter makes use of the field-oriented control in both the rotor side and grid side converters, so that a maximum power point tracking-based rotational speed control is applied in the Rotor Side Converter (RSC to obtain the maximum power output. Analogously, when the system operates in power limitation mode, a pitch angle control is used to limit the power captured in the case of high tidal speeds. Both control schemes are then coordinated within a novel complementary control strategy. The results show an excellent performance of the system, affording maximum power extraction regardless of the tidal stream input.

  10. Performance analysis of a bio-gasification based combined cycle power plant employing indirectly heated humid air turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, S., E-mail: sankha.deepp@gmail.com; Mondal, P., E-mail: mondal.pradip87@gmail.com; Ghosh, S., E-mail: sudipghosh.becollege@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah – 711103, West Bengal (India)

    2016-07-12

    Rapid depletion of fossil fuel has forced mankind to look into alternative fuel resources. In this context, biomass based power generation employing gas turbine appears to be a popular choice. Bio-gasification based combined cycle provides a feasible solution as far as grid-independent power generation is concerned for rural electrification projects. Indirectly heated gas turbine cycles are promising alternatives as they avoid downstream gas cleaning systems. Advanced thermodynamic cycles have become an interesting area of study to improve plant efficiency. Water injected system is one of the most attractive options in this field of applications. This paper presents a theoretical model of a biomass gasification based combined cycle that employs an indirectly heated humid air turbine (HAT) in the topping cycle. Maximum overall electrical efficiency is found to be around 41%. Gas turbine specific air consumption by mass is minimum when pressure ratio is 6. The study reveals that, incorporation of the humidification process helps to improve the overall performance of the plant.

  11. Pola Kuman Penyebab Ventilator Associated Pneumonia(VAP dan Sensitivitas Terhadap Antibiotik di RSAB Harapan Kita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Widyaningsih

    2016-11-01

    Kesimpulan. Basil gram negatif aerob (79,5% merupakan mikroorganisme penyebab yang paling dominan. Ceftazidime, diikuti terhadap amikacin serta netilmicin masih mempunyai sensitivitas yang tinggi sehingga dapat dipakai sebagai terapi awal VAP.

  12. Safety improvements made at the Loviisa nuclear power plant to reduce fire risks originating from the turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, T.; Marttila, J.; Aulamo, H.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive upgrading measures have been completed for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (modified VVER440/V213). These were carried out from the start of the design phase and during operation to ensure safe plant shutdown in the event of a large turbine generator oil fire. These modifications were made mainly on a deterministic basis according to specific risk studies and fire analyses. As part of the probabilistic safety assessment, a fire risk analysis was made that confirmed the importance of these upgrading measures. In fact, they should be considered as design basis modifications for all VVER440 plants. (author)

  13. Improvement of automatic control systems of high-power turbines of PAO tubroatom for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The main technical solutions applied by PAO Turboatom used as the compensatory measures at the increase of the period of nonstop operation of nuclear power plants' (NPP) turbines with VVER-1000 type reactors up to 18 months are (1) replacing the standard hydraulic speed controller with an electronic one, (2) introduction of overclocking protection, (3) modernization of units of stop-control valves of high pressures, (4) installation of locking dampers on the receiver tubes of turbines of the first and second modification, and (5) improving the quality of repairs by reviewing the requirements for their implementation. The introduction of complex diagnostics of a control system on the basis of automatic treatment of results of registration of working parameters of the turbine is allocated as a separate prospective direction. Using an electronic controller of speed makes it possible to simplify the procedure of its inclusion in work at the failure of an electro-hydraulic system of control and vice versa. The regimes of maintaining the turbine rotor speed, steam pressure on the outlet of turbine, and the positions of main servomotors were introduced into the functions of the electronic controller. An electronic controller of speed includes its own electro-hydraulic transducer, turbine rotor speed sensor, and sensors of the position of main servomotors. Into the functions of electro- hydraulic control system and electronic speed controller, the function of overclocking protection, which determines the formation of commands for stopping the turbine at the exceeding of both the defined level of rotation speed and the defined combination of achieved rotation speed and angular acceleration of rotor, was introduced. To simplify the correction of forces acting on the control valve cups, the design of the cups was changed, and it has the profiled inserts. The solutions proposed were implemented on K-1100-60/1500-2M turbines of Rostov NPP. From the composition of control system

  14. Problems in creation of modern air inlet filters of power gas turbine plants in Russia and methods of their solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylov, V. E.; Khomenok, L. A.; Sherapov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The main problems in creation and operation of modern air inlet paths of gas turbine plants installed as part of combined-cycle plants in Russia are presented. It is noted that design features of air inlet filters shall be formed at the stage of the technical assignment not only considering the requirements of gas turbine plant manufacturer but also climatic conditions, local atmospheric air dustiness, and a number of other factors. The recommendations on completing of filtration system for air inlet filter of power gas turbine plants depending on the facility location are given, specific defects in design and experience in operation of imported air inlet paths are analyzed, and influence of cycle air preparation quality for gas turbine plant on value of operating expenses and cost of repair works is noted. Air treatment equipment of various manufacturers, influence of aerodynamic characteristics on operation of air inlet filters, features of filtration system operation, anti-icing system, weather canopies, and other elements of air inlet paths are considered. It is shown that nonuniformity of air flow velocity fields in clean air chamber has a negative effect on capacity and aerodynamic resistance of air inlet filter. Besides, the necessity in installation of a sufficient number of differential pressure transmitters allowing controlling state of each treatment stage not being limited to one measurement of total differential pressure in the filtration system is noted in the article. According to the results of the analysis trends and methods for modernization of available equipment for air inlet path, the importance of creation and implementation of new technologies for manufacturing of filtering elements on sites of Russia within the limits of import substitution are given, and measures on reliability improvement and energy efficiency for air inlet filter are considered.

  15. Predictive control strategy of a gas turbine for improvement of combined cycle power plant dynamic performance and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Omar; Wang, Jihong; Khalil, Ashraf; Limhabrash, Marwan

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel strategy for implementing model predictive control (MPC) to a large gas turbine power plant as a part of our research progress in order to improve plant thermal efficiency and load-frequency control performance. A generalized state space model for a large gas turbine covering the whole steady operational range is designed according to subspace identification method with closed loop data as input to the identification algorithm. Then the model is used in developing a MPC and integrated into the plant existing control strategy. The strategy principle is based on feeding the reference signals of the pilot valve, natural gas valve, and the compressor pressure ratio controller with the optimized decisions given by the MPC instead of direct application of the control signals. If the set points for the compressor controller and turbine valves are sent in a timely manner, there will be more kinetic energy in the plant to release faster responses on the output and the overall system efficiency is improved. Simulation results have illustrated the feasibility of the proposed application that has achieved significant improvement in the frequency variations and load following capability which are also translated to be improvements in the overall combined cycle thermal efficiency of around 1.1 % compared to the existing one.

  16. Status on the Component Models Developed in the Modelica Framework: High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis Plant & Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk Kim, Jong [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McKellar, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boardman, Richard D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-01

    This report has been prepared as part of an effort to design and build a modeling and simulation (M&S) framework to assess the economic viability of a nuclear-renewable hybrid energy system (N-R HES). In order to facilitate dynamic M&S of such an integrated system, research groups in multiple national laboratories have been developing various subsystems as dynamic physics-based components using the Modelica programming language. In fiscal year (FY) 2015, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed a dynamic analysis of two region-specific N-R HES configurations, including the gas-to-liquid (natural gas to Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel) and brackish water reverse osmosis desalination plants as industrial processes. In FY 2016, INL has developed two additional subsystems in the Modelica framework: a high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE) plant and a gas turbine power plant (GTPP). HTSE has been proposed as a high priority industrial process to be integrated with a light water reactor (LWR) in an N-R HES. This integrated energy system would be capable of dynamically apportioning thermal and electrical energy (1) to provide responsive generation to the power grid and (2) to produce alternative industrial products (i.e., hydrogen and oxygen) without generating any greenhouse gases. A dynamic performance analysis of the LWR/HTSE integration case was carried out to evaluate the technical feasibility (load-following capability) and safety of such a system operating under highly variable conditions requiring flexible output. To support the dynamic analysis, the detailed dynamic model and control design of the HTSE process, which employs solid oxide electrolysis cells, have been developed to predict the process behavior over a large range of operating conditions. As first-generation N-R HES technology will be based on LWRs, which provide thermal energy at a relatively low temperature, complementary temperature-boosting technology was suggested for integration with the

  17. Impact of VAP bundle adherence among ventilated critically ill patients and its effectiveness in adult ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Rabie Samra

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The application of VAP bundle is a feasible reality that produces improvement in microbiological measures and nosocomal infection rates resulting in lowering mortality, shortened lengths of hospitalization and decreased medical care costs. However, education and periodic training remain a fundamental process of improving health services. VAPs were reduced by improving bundle compliance and ensuring the same standard of care to all ICU patients. Direct, on-site observation was a more accurate method of monitoring.

  18. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 4: Open recuperated and bottomed gas turbine cycles. [performance prediction and energy conversion efficiency of gas turbines in electric power plants (thermodynamic cycles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Grube, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Open-cycle recuperated gas turbine plant with inlet temperatures of 1255 to 1644 K (1800 to 2500 F) and recuperators with effectiveness values of 0, 70, 80 and 90% are considered. A 1644 K (2500 F) gas turbine would have a 33.5% plant efficiency in a simple cycle, 37.6% in a recuperated cycle and 47.6% when combined with a sulfur dioxide bottomer. The distillate burning recuperated plant was calculated to produce electricity at a cost of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh). Due to their low capital cost $170 to 200 $/kW, the open cycle gas turbine plant should see duty for peaking and intermediate load duty.

  19. Basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation in fiscal 2000. Efficiency improvement project for gas turbine power plant in Iran; 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. Iran gas turbine hatsuden plant no koritsu kaizen project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Investigations and discussions have been given on measures to improve energy conservation and efficiency at a power plant of Kish Water and Power Company (KWPC) in Iran. The site has high ambient temperature throughout a year, making the gas turbine power plant capable of generating power only at about 70% of the rated output, with the power generation efficiency decreasing. The project has analyzed the current situation at the plant, and evaluated different means that appear effective in improving the efficiency, including the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, the steam injection system, and the combined cycle. As a result of the discussions, it was revealed that energy saving effect can be obtained at 145 TJ with the gas turbine absorbed air cooling system, 224 TJ with the steam injection system, and 1017 TJ with the combined cycle. The annual reduction of greenhouse gas emission due to the above energy conservation would be about 11 thousand tons, 16.5 thousand tons, and 75 thousand tons, respectively. However, the investment payback period would be about 2.45 years, 8.31 years, and 14.21 years, respectively. Therefore, the profitability does not appear very attractive because of low fuel unit cost. (NEDO)

  20. Is the gram stain useful in the microbiologic diagnosis of VAP? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Horo, John C; Thompson, Deb; Safdar, Nasia

    2012-08-01

    In a meta-analysis examining respiratory specimen Gram stain for diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia, absence of bacteria on Gram stain had a high negative predictive value, but a positive Gram stain correlated poorly with organisms recovered in culture. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a major challenge and no generally accepted gold standard exists for VAP diagnosis. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the role of respiratory specimen Gram stain to diagnose VAP, and the correlation with final culture results. In 21 studies, pooled sensitivity of Gram stain for VAP was 0.79 (95% confidence interval [CI], .77-0.81; P Gram stain for a VAP prevalence of 20%-30% was 91%, suggesting that VAP is unlikely with a negative Gram stain but the positive predictive value of Gram stain was only 40%. Pooled kappa was 0.42 for gram-positive organisms and 0.34 for gram-negative organisms, suggesting fair concordance between organisms on Gram stain and recovery by culture. Therefore, a positive Gram stain should not be used to narrow anti-infective therapy until culture results become available.

  1. The function of probiotics on the treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP): facts and gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacaer, Feride; Hamed, Imen; Özogul, Fatih; Glew, Robert H; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2017-09-01

    Probiotics have been used for centuries in making fermented dairy products. The health benefits related to probiotics consumption are well recognized and they are generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Their therapeutic effects are due to the production of a variety of antimicrobial compounds, such as short-chain fatty acids, organic acids (such as lactic, acetic, formic, propionic and butyric acids), ethanol, hydrogen peroxide and bacteriocins. Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection associated with high mortality in intensive care units. VAP can result from endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. These interventions increase the risk of infection as patients lose the natural barrier between the oropharynx and the trachea, which in turn facilitates the entry of pathogens through the aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions containing bacteria into the lung. In order to prevent this, probiotics have been used extensively against VAP. This review is an update containing information extracted from recent studies on the use of probiotics to treat VAP. In addition, probiotic safety, the therapeutic properties of probiotics, the probiotic strains used and the action of the probiotics mechanism are reviewed. Furthermore, the therapeutic effects of probiotic treatment procedures for VAP are compared to those of antibiotics. Finally, the influences of bacteriocin on the growth of human pathogens, and the side-effects and limitations of using probiotics for the treatment of VAP are addressed.

  2. ORCENT-2, Full Load Steam Turbine Cycle Thermodynamics for LWR Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ORCENT-2 performs heat and mass balance calculations at valves-wide-open design conditions, maximum guaranteed rating conditions, and an approximation of part-load conditions for steam turbine cycles supplied with throttle steam, characteristic of contemporary light-water reactors. The program handles both condensing and back-pressure turbine exhaust arrangements. Turbine performance calculations are based on the General Electric Company method for 1800-rpm large steam turbine- generators operating with light-water-cooled nuclear reactors. Output includes all information normally shown on a turbine-cycle heat balance diagram. 2 - Method of solution: The turbine performance calculations follow the procedures outlined in General Electric report GET-6020. ORCENT-2 utilizes the 1967 American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) formulations and procedures for calculating the properties of steam, adapted for ORNL use by D.W. Altom. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of: 12 feed-water heaters, 5 moisture removal stages in the low-pressure turbine section. ORCENT-2 is limited to 1800-rpm tandem-compound turbine-generators with single- or double-flow high pressure sections and one, two, or three double-flow low-pressure turbine sections. Steam supply for LWR cycles should be between 900 and 1100 psia and slightly wet to 100 degrees F of initial superheat. Generator rating should be greater than 100 MVA

  3. Steady-state analysis of a conceptual offshore wind turbine driven electricity and thermocline energy extraction plant

    OpenAIRE

    Buhagiar, Daniel; Sant, Tonio

    2014-01-01

    A system for using offshore wind energy to generate electricity and simultaneously extract thermal energy is proposed. This concept is based on an offshore wind turbine driven hydraulic pump supplying deep seawater under high pressure to a land based plant consisting of a hydroelectric power generation unit and heat exchanger. A steady-state system model is developed using empirical formulae. The mathematical model comprises the fundamental system sub-models that are categoris...

  4. System analysis for HTTR-GT/H2 plant. Safety analysis of HTTR for coupling helium gas turbine and H2 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Yan, Xing L.; Ohashi, Hirofumi

    2017-08-01

    High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is expected to extend the use of nuclear heat to a wider spectrum of industrial applications because of the high temperature heat supply capability and inherently safe characteristics. Japan Atomic Energy Agency initiated a nuclear cogeneration demonstration project with helium gas turbine power generation and thermochemical hydrogen production utilizing the High Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR), the first HTGR in Japan. This study carries out safety evaluation for the HTTR gas turbine hydrogen cogeneration test plant (HTTR-GT/H 2 plant). The evaluation was conducted for the events newly identified corresponding to the coupling of helium gas turbine and hydrogen production plant to the HTTR. The results showed that loss of load event does not have impact on temperature of fuel and reactor coolant pressure boundary. In addition, reactor coolant pressure does not exceed the evaluation criteria. Furthermore, it was shown that reactor operation can be maintained against temperature transients induced by abnormal events in hydrogen production plant. (author)

  5. Combined Heat and Power: Coal-Fired Air Turbine (CAT)-Cycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Recca

    1999-01-01

    By combining an integrated system with a gas turbine, coal-fired air turbine cycle technology can produce energy at an efficiency rate of over 40%, with capital and operating costs below those of competing conventional systems. Read this fact sheet to discover the additional benefits of this exciting new technology

  6. Optimization of hydropower plants with respect to fine sediment focusing on turbine switch-offs during floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    At medium- and high-head hydropower plants (HPPs) on sediment-laden rivers, hydro-abrasive erosion in turbines is an important economic issue. In HPPs with headwater storage, reservoir sedimentation is another problem related to fine sediment. On the one hand, turbine erosion is mitigated by reducing the sediment load in power waterways. On the other hand, reservoir sedimentation may be mitigated by conveying more fine sediment through power waterways to downstream river reaches. To optimize the operation of HPP schemes on the long-term, it is recommended to find a balance between these options based on real-time data using available monitoring techniques. An operational measure to mitigate turbine erosion is to close intakes and switch-off turbines in periods of high suspended sediment concentration (SSC) and coarse particles, typically during floods. Prerequisites for such operation are (i) there is no obligation to generate electricity, (ii) real-time SSC measurements are available, and (iii) the value of the ‘switch-off SSC’ is known. In a case study at the high-head HPP Fieschertal, a switch-off SSC of 10 g/l was estimated. The economic analysis showed that it would have been clearly profitable to practice such a switch-off during the major flood in 2012 which had an SSC peak of 50 g/l.

  7. The cross flow turbine (Michell - Banki) as option for small hydroelectric power plants; A turbina de fluxo cruzado (Michell - Banki) como opcao para centrais hidraulicas de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello Junior, Antonio Goncalves de

    2000-07-01

    Several types of hydraulic turbines can be used in small hydroelectric power plant, as Pelton, Francis, Turgo, Kaplan, Propeller, Banki, etc. In Brazil the more used are Francis and Kaplan followed by Pelton. The usage of the other types is almost unknown, mainly the Turgo turbine. The cross flow turbine, also known by the names of Michell-Banki, Banki, and Michell-Ossberger is defined as an action turbine that can be applicable to falls from 1 to 200 m and flows from 0,025 to 13 m{sup 3}/s. With the technical evolution mainly in the last two decades by traditional firms like Ossberger Turbinenfabrik and new firms like CINK, that turbine can reach diameters of rotors of 1,0 m with width of 2,6 m and to develop capacity up to 2,000 k W, with efficiency near 90%. The main evolutions are concentrated in modifications presented in the injector of the turbine by several manufacturers, and the use of new materials in the blades of the runner, shafts, bearings and the use of the draft tube. Case study shows the technical and economical implications using a cross flow turbine in comparison to a Francis turbine and a Kaplan. The conclusions will be reported after technical and economical viability analysis among the three types of turbines. (author)

  8. Application of wire sawing method to decommissioning of nuclear power plant. Cutting test with turbine pedestal of thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Hideki; Uchiyama, Noriyuki; Sugiyama, Kazuya; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Morishige

    1995-01-01

    It is very important to reduce radioactive waste volume, and to reduce radiation dose to workers and to the public during dismantling of the activated concrete in the decommissioning stage of a nuclear power plant. For the above, we studied a dismantling method which can separate activated concrete from non-activated concrete safely and effectively. Considering the state of legal regulation about radioactive waste disposal, and the state of developing of decommissioning technologies, we come to a conclusion that wire sawing method is feasible as a concrete cutting method. This study was carried out to evaluate the availability of the wire sawing method to dismantling of concrete structures of nuclear power plants. This study consists of concrete cutting rate test and concrete block cutting test. The former is to obtain data about cutting rate with various steel ratios while the latter is to obtain data about working time and man hour of the whole work with wire sawing. Thirty-six year old turbine pedestal of a thermal power plant was selected as a test piece to simulate actual decommissioning work of nuclear power plant, taking its massive concrete volume and age. Taking account of the handling in the building, the wire sawing machine with motor driven was used in this study considering that it did not produce exhaust gas. The concrete cutting rate test was performed with parameter of steel ratio in the concrete, wire tension and cutting direction. In the concrete block cutting test, imaging the actual cutting situation, cubic blocks which side was approximately 1 meter were taken out, and a large block to be cut and to be taken out is a section of 1m x 1.5m x 10m. Test results are shown below. The difference of cutting rate was mainly caused by the difference of reinforcement steel ratio. Working time data of installation, removal of machines and cutting were obtained. Data on secondary waste (dust, drainage and sludge) and environmental effect (noise and

  9. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  10. Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittingham, Jean L.; Blagova, Elena V.; Finn, Ciaran E.; Luo, Haixia; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl; Turkenburg, Johan P.; Leech, Andrew P.; Walton, Paul H.; Murzin, Alexey G.; Meijer, Wim G.; Wilkinson, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The crystal structure reveals an eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel fold and a glycine rich ‘bald’ surface. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans. Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. equi to divert the normal processes of endosomal maturation, enabling bacterial survival and proliferation in alveolar macrophages. To provide a basis for probing the function of the Vap proteins in virulence, the crystal structure of VapD was determined. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. The structure reveals an elliptical, compact eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel strand topology and pseudo-twofold symmetry, suggesting evolution from an ancestral dimer. Surface-associated octyl-β-d-glucoside molecules may provide clues to function. Circular-dichroism spectroscopic analysis suggests that the β-barrel structure is preceded by a natively disordered region at the N-terminus. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R. equi strains are similar to that of VapD. It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. equi Vap-like proteins occur in diverse bacterial species. Finally, the functional implications of the structure are discussed in the light of the unique structural features of VapD and its partial structural similarity to other β-barrel proteins

  11. Structure of the virulence-associated protein VapD from the intracellular pathogen Rhodococcus equi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittingham, Jean L.; Blagova, Elena V. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Finn, Ciaran E.; Luo, Haixia; Miranda-CasoLuengo, Raúl [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Turkenburg, Johan P.; Leech, Andrew P.; Walton, Paul H. [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Murzin, Alexey G. [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Francis Crick Avenue, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom); Meijer, Wim G. [University College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Wilkinson, Anthony J., E-mail: tony.wilkinson@york.ac.uk [University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    VapD is one of a set of highly homologous virulence-associated proteins from the multi-host pathogen Rhodococcus equi. The crystal structure reveals an eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel fold and a glycine rich ‘bald’ surface. Rhodococcus equi is a multi-host pathogen that infects a range of animals as well as immune-compromised humans. Equine and porcine isolates harbour a virulence plasmid encoding a homologous family of virulence-associated proteins associated with the capacity of R. equi to divert the normal processes of endosomal maturation, enabling bacterial survival and proliferation in alveolar macrophages. To provide a basis for probing the function of the Vap proteins in virulence, the crystal structure of VapD was determined. VapD is a monomer as determined by multi-angle laser light scattering. The structure reveals an elliptical, compact eight-stranded β-barrel with a novel strand topology and pseudo-twofold symmetry, suggesting evolution from an ancestral dimer. Surface-associated octyl-β-d-glucoside molecules may provide clues to function. Circular-dichroism spectroscopic analysis suggests that the β-barrel structure is preceded by a natively disordered region at the N-terminus. Sequence comparisons indicate that the core folds of the other plasmid-encoded virulence-associated proteins from R. equi strains are similar to that of VapD. It is further shown that sequences encoding putative R. equi Vap-like proteins occur in diverse bacterial species. Finally, the functional implications of the structure are discussed in the light of the unique structural features of VapD and its partial structural similarity to other β-barrel proteins.

  12. LM5000 gas turbine generating plant for Tenaga Nasional Berhad Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz power station (Malaysia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, T.; Shioya, Y.; Furuya, M.; Saito, K. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indutries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-01-01

    The LM5000 gas turbine generating plant (35,000 kW) for Tenaga Nasional Berhad Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station (Malaysia) was outlined. The lightweight power turbine of 16 ton was adopted to reduce an on-site installation time, and integrated into a single package together with the gas generator, while all the auxiliary units were assembled completely before delivery. Because the plant was for peak cut use, the hydraulic starting unit was adopted, in particular, considering starting operation, and the diesel engine generator was provided to drive the unit in complete power failure. The reliability of operation and monitoring was also enhanced by triplicated digital control. The plant output capacity was well beyond the required one during actual operation, and the thermal efficiency of 36.0-36.3% was obtained. Because the power plant was installed in the rainy western part of Malaysia, protective measures of the plant from rain were taken into careful consideration, for example, the air intake port of the air-cooled generator was faced downward, and provided with a condensation eliminator. 4 figs.

  13. Protection device for use in stopping a turbine generator in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagahama, Mizuo.

    1974-01-01

    Object: To supply to as great an extent as possible the residual output of a nuclear reactor to a turbine after the reactor is shutdown and to prevent overpower and motoring of a turbine by connecting a power direction relay to a secondary circuit of a current transformer and an instrumentation transformer at the high voltage side of a main transformer of a transmission bus line. Structure: When the output power of a generator after shuttingdown a nuclear reactor decreases below the sum of the mechanical losses of the turbine and the generator and the power for the house-auxiliaries connected to a fixed bus line, the direction of the current is reversed and the power is supplied from the transmission bus line through a circuit breaker for the generator and a main transformer onto the house-side, whereby a time limit relay of the power direction relay is actuated to disconnect the generator and the turbine. (Kamimura, M.)

  14. Methodologies for Wind Turbine and STATCOM Integration in Wind Power Plant Models for Harmonic Resonances Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    -domain. As an alternative, a power based averaged modelling is also proposed. Type IV wind turbine harmonic signature and STATCOM active harmonic mitigation are considered for the simulation case studies. Simulation results provide a good insight of the features and limitations of the proposed methodologies.......This paper approaches modelling methodologies for integration of wind turbines and STATCOM in harmonic resonance studies. Firstly, an admittance equivalent model representing the harmonic signature of grid connected voltage source converters is provided. A simplified type IV wind turbine modelling...... is then straightforward. This linear modelling is suitable to represent the wind turbine in the range of frequencies at which harmonic interactions are likely. Even the admittance method is suitable both for frequency and time domain studies, some limitations arise in practice when implementing it in the time...

  15. Critical review of use of high pressure saturated steam turbine economizers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.

    1981-01-01

    In the high-pressure part of the turbine drops of moisture condensate, which causes erosion and has negative impact on the service-life of the turbine and on its thermodynamic efficiency. Various designs have been put forward to eliminate moisture. A good combination is moisture separation combined with the offtake of steam for the regeneration of feed water or for the steam re-heater. As concerns the high-pressure component of the turbine it is best to offtake steam for the feed water heater and for heating the steam between the high- and low-pressure components of the turbine. The connections of the heater and re-heater in diagrams of various manufacturers are evaluated and compared. It appears to be uneconomical to use the heater in cases where feed water would be heated to temperature considerably below its optimal value. (M.D.)

  16. Development and improvement of the operating diagnostics systems of NPO CKTI works for turbine of thermal and nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, I. A.; Rakovskii, V. G.; Isakov, N. Yu.; Sandovskii, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The work results on the development and improvement of the techniques, algorithms, and software-hardware of continuous operating diagnostics systems of rotating units and parts of turbine equipment state are presented. In particular, to ensure the full remote service of monitored turbine equipment using web technologies, the web version of the software of the automated systems of vibration-based diagnostics (ASVD VIDAS) was developed. The experience in the automated analysis of data obtained by ASVD VIDAS form the basis of the new algorithm of early detection of such dangerous defects as rotor deflection, crack in the rotor, and strong misalignment of supports. The program-technical complex of monitoring and measuring the deflection of medium pressure rotor (PTC) realizing this algorithm will alert the electric power plant staff during a deflection and indicate its value. This will give the opportunity to take timely measures to prevent the further extension of the defect. Repeatedly, recorded cases of full or partial destruction of shrouded shelves of rotor blades of the last stages of low-pressure cylinders of steam turbines defined the need to develop a version of the automated system of blade diagnostics (ASBD SKALA) for shrouded stages. The processing, analysis, presentation, and backup of data characterizing the mechanical state of blade device are carried out with a newly developed controller of the diagnostics system. As a result of the implementation of the works, the diagnosed parameters determining the operation security of rotating elements of equipment was expanded and the new tasks on monitoring the state of units and parts of turbines were solved. All algorithmic solutions and hardware-software implementations mentioned in the article were tested on the test benches and applied at some power plants.

  17. On usage of heat-condensation type nuclear heat-and-power plants with the TK type turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boldyrev, V.M.; Smirnov, I.A.; Fedyaev, A.V.; Khrilev, L.S.

    1978-01-01

    The problems of the efficiency of nuclear heat-and-plants (NHPP) in the heat-andpower energetics of the USSR are discussed. Most attention is centered on an NHPP of heat-condensation type equipped with constant steam flow turbines of the TK-450/500-60 and K-500-60 types and WWER-1000 reactors. According to the specially developed procedure, the problem of selecting the profile of a TK-type turbine, NHPP composition and applications are subjected to the technico-economic analysis. The distance to the urban area from a central heat-and-power plant utilizing organic and atomic fuel is adopted to be the same and equal to 5, 10 and 15 km, and the thermal load is variable between 500 and 7000 Gcal/hour (the share of hot water supply load in the total thermal load being 0.2). The heat supply system is open-circuited, the hot/return water temperatures being 150/70 deg C. The optimum calculated heat production factor for the NHPP does not exceed 0.7, and the optimum heat production values from controlled turbine outputs are within 500-600 Gcal/hour. The mininum thermal load, for which the NHPP with TK turbines is more effective than an organic fuel heat-and-power station, is about 1000-1500 Gcal/hour if cooling towers are used in the technical water supply system, and if it is possible to construct a water reservoir-cooler for the NHPP, this range is reduced to a thermal load level, at which the combined system becomes more effective than the separate power generation systems, i.e. to 500-600 Gcal/hour

  18. Development of a micro-turbine plant to run on gasifier producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report presents the results of a work programme to test a Capstone micro gas turbine using producer gas (1) in a test facility using synthetic producer gas at Advantca's research laboratories and (2) at the premises of Biomass Engineering Ltd where the micro gas turbine was coupled to an existing 80 kWe downdraft gasifier operating on clean wood and wood wastes. The initial tests at Advantica achieved successful operation of the Capstone micro gas turbine on 100% producer gas at a net electrical output of 5.5 kWe and with very low NOx emissions (<2 ppm). The micro turbine was then moved and recommissioned at a site belonging to Biomass Engineering where 350 hours of operation were achieved using producer gas and over 800 hours using natural gas. Problems were experienced during start-up due to limited access to control software and late delivery of the gas compressor for the micro turbine. Gas emissions and performance were deemed satisfactory. The report describes the test work at Advantica and at Biomass Engineering and discusses the technical and economic aspects of biomass gasification and micro turbine systems.

  19. Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP in a Patient with Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anti Dharmayanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old man was admitted to ICU with a diagnosis at the time of admission of Guillain Barre Syndrome (GBS and sepsis due to suspected Ventilator-Associated Pneumoniae (VAP. Specimens for the following laboratory workup were inquired, i.e. complete blood count, culture and resistance workup using specimens obtained from the tip of suction pipe, urinalysis and urine culture, blood culture and resistance, procalcitonin and lactate levels. Neutrophilia was found along with increased procalcitonin and lactate levels, which supported the sepsis diagnosis. Moreover, the result of culture from suction pipe demonstrated colonies of Pseudomonas luteola MDRO, which might be originated from the oropharyngeal colonization of the patients due to poor oral hygiene and ineffective oral hygiene nursing; therefore, the colonies of the microorganism were swabbed away when obtaining the specimens. Ineffective oral hygiene nursing may have a potency to cause VAP and recurrent VAP.

  20. [The comparison of different bronchial aspirate culturing methods in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk, Wojciech; Rybicki, Zbigniew; Tomaszewski, Dariusz; Truszczyński, Andrzej; Guzek, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    Although broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) culture and protected specimen brush (PSB) are regarded as the most effective methods in the diagnosis of VAP, a simple endotracheal aspiration (EA) is frequently performed during routine care, because of its simplicity and low cost. We compared the effectiveness of EA with BAL and PSB in VAP patients. Sixty-one adult VAP patients, ventilated for longer than 48 h, were cultured with all three methods. Positive cultures were obtained from 63.9% of patients, with Acinetobacter baumannii being the most common pathogen. There was a high positive correlation between simple aspirates and BAL (k 0.817, CI 0.664-0.840, p aspirates and PSB (k 0.667, CI 0.483-0.871, p aspirate culturing, compared to BAL and PSB, it can be used successfully in most cases.

  1. ARM Climate Research Facility Spectral Surface Albedo Value-Added Product (VAP) Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, S; Gaustad, K; Long, C; Mlawer, E

    2011-07-15

    This document describes the input requirements, output data products, and methodology for the Spectral Surface Albedo (SURFSPECALB) value-added product (VAP). The SURFSPECALB VAP produces a best-estimate near-continuous high spectral resolution albedo data product using measurements from multifilter radiometers (MFRs). The VAP first identifies best estimates for the MFR downwelling and upwelling shortwave irradiance values, and then calculates narrowband spectral albedo from these best-estimate irradiance values. The methodology for finding the best-estimate values is based on a simple process of screening suspect data and backfilling screened and missing data with estimated values when possible. The resulting best-estimate MFR narrowband spectral albedos are used to determine a daily surface type (snow, 100% vegetation, partial vegetation, or 0% vegetation). For non-snow surfaces, a piecewise continuous function is used to estimate a high spectral resolution albedo at 1 min temporal and 10 cm-1 spectral resolution.

  2. Research and engineering application of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    The coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator (TG) usually is very significant and complicated for a new construction of nuclear power plant, because it carries the safety, economy and availability of nuclear power plant. Based on successful practice of a nuclear power plant, the experience on interface design and hardware architecture of coordinated instrumentation control and protection technology between reactor and steam turbine generator was abstracted and researched. In this paper, the key points and engineering experience were introduced to give the helpful instructions for the new project. (author)

  3. APACHE II as an indicator of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelser de Souza Kock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: strategies for risk stratification in severe pathologies are extremely important. The aim of this study was to analyze the accuracy of the APACHE II score as an indicator of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP in ICU patient sat Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceição (HNSC Tubarão-SC. Methods: It was conducted a prospective cohort study with 120 patients admitted between March and August 2013, being held APACHE II in the first 24 hours of mechanical ventilation (MV. Patients were followed until the following gout comes: discharge or death. It was also analyzed the cause of ICU admission, age, gender, days of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU and outcome. Results: The incidence of VAP was 31.8% (38/120. Two variables showed a relative riskin the development of VAP, APACHE II above average (RR = 1,62; IC 95% 1,03-2,55 and males (RR = 1,56; IC 95 % 1,18-2,08. The duration of mechanical ventilation (days above average18.4± 14.9(p =0.001, ICU stay (days above average 20.4± 15.3(p =0.003 presented the development of VAP. The accuracy of APACHE II in predicting VAP score >23, showed a sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 33%. Inrelation to death, two variables showed relative risk, age above average (RR=2.08; 95% CI =1.34 to 3.23 and ICU stay above average (RR=2.05; CI 95 =1.28 to 3.28%. Conclusion: The APACHE II score above or equal 23 might to indicate the risk of VAP. Keywords: Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated, Intensive Care Units, APACHE. Prognosis

  4. Optimizing NSSS power and turbine/generator performance for standardized nuclear power plant designs in tropical climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parece, M.V.; Stack, T.G.; Huffman, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    The EPR was developed by AREVA as a standardized nuclear power plant design that could be deployed throughout the world. The first EPR is currently being constructed at Olkiluoto, Finland. Many of the plant systems for this first-of-a-kind unit are optimized for the climate and heat rejection method (once-through cooling) used at Olkiluoto. Two such systems are the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the Turbine/Generator (T/G) system. To achieve the EPR's target net electrical output for tropical climates and various condenser heat rejection methods, design studies were performed that showed that the NSSS and T/G system designs developed for the Olkiluoto site conditions required modification. The business case for EPR on U.S. sites where average ambient temperature is above 60 F, implies an economical design that provides an average net electrical output of at least 1600 MWe. It has been shown through parametric studies that the key features of the design needed to achieve this goal are: -) rated core thermal power of 4590 MWth, which is supported by plant systems, structures and components; -) the use of mechanical draft cooling towers rather than natural draft cooling towers; -) a low pressure turbine design with reduced exhaust annulus area; and -) a multi-pressure condenser configuration

  5. Frequency Activated Fast Power Reserve for Wind Power Plant Delivered from Stored Kinetic Energy in the Wind Turbine Inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Thuring, P.; Kumar, S

    2011-01-01

    is proposed that delivers a short-term power reserve from the kinetic energy in the wind turbine (WT) inertia, while considering the inherent characteristics of a wind power plant. The aim is to contribute with a fast power reserve to stabilize the frequency drop during large and sudden production deficits......With increased penetration of converter interfaced generation, synchronous generators may start to be displaced to keep the overall power balance. As a consequence the resulting inertia in the system may decrease and make the power system more exposed to frequency excursions. Here, a control...

  6. Applications of field portable computers to NDE of nuclear power plant steam turbine/generator rotors, discs, and retaining rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhart, E.R.; Leon-Salamanca, T.

    2004-01-01

    The new generation of compact, powerful portable computers have been incorporated into a number of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) systems used to inspect critical areas of the steam turbine and generator units of nuclear power plants. Due to the complex geometry of turbine rotors, generator rotors, retaining rings, and shrunk-on turbine discs, the computers are needed to rapidly calculate the optimum position of an ultrasonic transducer or eddy current probe in order to detect defects at several critical areas. Examples where computers have been used to overcome problems in nondestructive evaluation include; analysis of large numbers of closely spaced near-bore ultrasonic reflectors to determine their potential for link-up in turbine and generator rotor bores, distinguishing ultrasonic crack signals from other reflectors such as the shrink-fit form reflector detected during ultrasonic scanning of shrunk-on generator retaining rings, and detection and recording of eddy current and ultrasonic signals from defects that could be missed by data acquisition systems with inadequate response. The computers are also used to control scanners to insure total inspection coverage. To facilitate the use of data from detected discontinuities in conjunction with stress and fracture mechanics analysis programs, the computers provide presentations of flaws in color and in three dimensions. The field computers have been instrumental in allowing the inspectors to develop on-site reports that enable the owner/operator to rapidly make run/repair/replace decisions. Examples of recent experiences using field portable computers in NDE systems will be presented along with anticipated future developments. (author)

  7. Basic chemically recuperated gas turbines--power plant optimization and thermodynamics second law analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Lourenco Gobira; Nebra, Silvia Azucena

    2004-01-01

    One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility

  8. Knowledge of Pediatric Critical Care Nurses Regarding Evidence Based Guidelines for Prevention of Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gehan EL Nabawy; Abosamra, Omyma Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is a costly, preventable, and often fatal consequence of medical therapy that increases hospital and intensive care stays in mechanically ventilated patients. The prevention of VAP is primarily the responsibility of the bedside nurse whose knowledge, beliefs, and practices influence the health outcome of ICU…

  9. Biomarkers kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia response to antibiotics - results from the BioVAP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Póvoa, Pedro; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio; Ramirez, Paula; Bos, Lieuwe D.; Esperatti, Mariano; Silvestre, Joana; Gili, Gisela; Goma, Gemma; Berlanga, Eugenio; Espasa, Mateu; Gonçalves, Elsa; Torres, Antoni; Artigas, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our aim was to evaluate the role of biomarker kinetics in the assessment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) response to antibiotics. Materials and methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study to evaluate in 37 microbiologically documented VAP, the kinetics of

  10. Survey of consolidation for gas turbine re-powering combined WPP (waste power plant) project; Gas turbine repowering haikibutsu fukugo hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report describes the survey of gas turbine re-powering combined WPP (or super WPP), which was commercialized by Gunma Prefecture for the first time as an electric power wholesaler in Japan. An outline of the survey is introduced. The system optimization for the commercialization of WPP was studied by considering waste as un-utilized energy. A successful condition and preparation method of the commercialization of a public power plant was also studied, which is a combination of the garbage collection business of a local government and an electric power generation business of a municipal company. For the introduction of the aforementioned system, the problems and supporting methods were studied by making allowance for the profitability of the WPP introduction, because they also need to deliberate it from the economical point of view as electric power companies. Based on the results of foregoing items, commercialization plans, problems encountered from the construction phase through the maintenance and service phase, and the supporting method were arranged. 30 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Structural analysis of the active site architecture of the VapC toxin from Shigella flexneri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Kehan; Dedic, Emil; Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    2016-01-01

    The VapC toxin from the Shigella flexneri 2a virulence plasmid pMYSH6000 belongs to the PIN domain protein family, which is characterized by a conserved fold with low amino acid sequence conservation. The toxin is a bona fide Mg2+-dependent ribonuclease and has been shown to target initiator t...

  12. Wind power integration : From individual wind turbine to wind park as a power plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.

    2009-01-01

    As power capacities of single wind turbine, single wind park and total wind power installation are continuously increasing, the wind power begins to challenge the safety operation of the power system. This thesis focuses on the grid integration aspects such as the dynamic behaviours of wind power

  13. A strategy for the economic optimization of combined cycle gas turbine power plants by taking advantage of useful thermodynamic relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E.; Benz, S.J.; Scenna, N.J.

    2011-01-01

    Optimal combined cycle gas turbine power plants characterized by minimum specific annual cost values are here determined for wide ranges of market conditions as given by the relative weights of capital investment and operative costs, by means of a non-linear mathematical programming model. On the other hand, as the technical optimization allows identifying trends in the system behavior and unveiling optimization opportunities, selected functional relationships are obtained as the thermodynamic optimal values of the decision variables are systematically linked to the ratio between the total heat transfer area and the net power production (here named as specific transfer area). A strategy for simplifying the resolution of the rigorous economic optimization problem of power plants is proposed based on the economic optima distinctive characteristics which describe the behavior of the decision variables of the power plant on its optima. Such approach results in a novel mathematical formulation shaped as a system of non-linear equations and additional constraints that is able to easily provide accurate estimations of the optimal values of the power plant design and operative variables. Research highlights: → We achieve relationships between power plants' economic and thermodynamic optima. → We achieve functionalities among thermodynamic optimal values of decision variables. → The rigorous optimization problem is reduced to a non-linear equations system. → Accurate estimations of power plants' design and operative variables are obtained.

  14. Critical analysis of the factors associated with enteral feeding in preventing VAP: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Chih

    2009-04-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre-post) studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent), feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel), and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late). The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP still need further

  15. Critical Analysis of the Factors Associated with Enteral Feeding in Preventing VAP: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chih Chen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP is a common cause of morbidity in critically ill patients. Appropriate enteral feeding is the most important factor associated with the prevention of VAP. However, the standardization of enteral feeding methods needs clarification. The purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the factors associated with enteral feeding in order to prevent VAP and to describe the characteristics of these factors. A comprehensive search was undertaken involving all major databases from their inception to September 2008 using medical subject heading terms associated with enteral feeding in relation to VAP. The overall reference list of identified studies was audited, and eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, controlled before-and-after (pre–post studies and meta-analyses. To generate the characteristics of the factors associated with VAP, the reported components of these trials were pinpointed and categorized. A total of 14 papers were found that had investigated the factors linking enteral feeding and VAP. For these, 11 were randomized controlled trials, 1 was a meta-analysis and 2 were case-controlled analyses. Twelve of these 14 studies were conducted at a single institute and 2 were conducted at multiple institutes. The sample sizes varied from 10 to 2,528 subjects. Three major issues were identified based on the purpose of study interventions, and these were the effects of feeding method (continuous vs. intermittent, feeding site on aspiration (gastric vs. small bowel, and the timing of enteral feeding (early vs. late. The evidence suggests that a correct choice of enteral feeding method can effectively reduce complications due to aspiration. Furthermore, intermittent enteral feeding and with a small residual volume feed can reduce gastroesophageal reflux, and increased total intake volume and early feeding can reduce ICU mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of these choices on preventing VAP

  16. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  17. Thermodynamic effects when utilizing waste heat from condensation in cases of a reduced vacuum in steam turbine plants of thermal power stations, to provide heat at low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiljevic, N.; Savic, B.; Stojakovic, M.

    1986-01-01

    There is an interesting variant of cogeneration in the steam turbine system of a thermal power plant, i.e. the utilisation of the waste heat of condensation with a reduced vacuum without reconstruction of the thermal power plant. The thermodynamic effect in cogeneration was calculated in consideration of the dynamics of heat consumption. This cogeneration process has the advantage of saving primary energy without reconstruction of the thermal power plant.

  18. Going Large or Going Small in Plant Design: Comparison between a P.P. with three small Kaplan turbines and a P.P. with just one Large Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Otero, C.

    2017-04-01

    Very often small turbine manufacturers are requested to produce sizeable turbines, too large in terms of physical dimensions, power or designing capacity. In these cases clever alternative solutions should be found to meet customers’ needs. For instance: in the old times twin runner Francis turbines were an option instead of one large machine, or if a too large Pelton turbine cannot be manufactured or designed, a good option is to install a medium size Francis and a small Pelton. Likewise, a similar approach needs to be taken should the manufacturer be asked for a too large Kaplan. Facing this situation a good option is to install three or more small Kaplan turbines. This particular case was studied in depth and after all the considerations had been made, the following question arouse: Is this a way out for the manufacturer or is it really the best option for the customer? The choice made as a way out for the manufacturer became the best option for the customer and a success for both parties. This paper aims to encourage developers and engineering firms to search for more options than the traditional one to find the best option in plant design.

  19. The impact of the new investments in combined cycle gas turbine power plants on the Italian electricity price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontini, Fulvio; Paloscia, Lorenzo

    2007-01-01

    The paper measures the variation of the electricity price in Italy within the next 10 years due to the recent investment flow in combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants. It starts by investigating the possibility of decoupling gas and oil prices on the basis of hypotheses about the amount of existing resources and plausible technical substitutability assumptions of the latter with the former. In particular, it is supposed that, in the Italian market, natural gas will play a crucial role which oil has had in power generation. The price of electricity stemming from natural gas is then calculated taking into account the role of the power mix restructuring that derives from the CCGT power plants investments. Under reasonable assumptions, it is shown that a net reduction of at least 17% on the electric price is likely to be expected. (author)

  20. Nosocomial pneumonia in 27 ICUs in Europe: perspectives from the EU-VAP/CAP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulenti, D; Tsigou, E; Rello, J

    2017-11-01

    We report on intensive care nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in Europe through a review of EU-VAP/CAP manuscripts: a prospective observational study, enrolling patients from 27 ICUs in nine European countries. From 2,436 eligible ICU patients, 827 cases presented NP, with 18.3 episodes of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days. Most common findings were worsening oxygenation, purulent respiratory secretions and temperature increase. At least three criteria from Clinical Pulmonary Infection score (CPIS) were present in 77.9 % of episodes, but only 0.2 % met six CPIS criteria. Diagnosis was confirmed mainly noninvasively (74.8 %), with half qualitative and quantitative cultures. The dominant isolate was S. aureus in Spain, France, Belgium and Ireland, P. aeruginosa in Italy and Portugal, Acinetobacter in Greece and Turkey, but Escherichia coli in Germany. NP resulted in 6 % higher mortality, longer ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation (12 and 10 days). COPD and age ≥45 years were not associated with higher VAP incidence but did correlate with increased mortality. Trauma had higher VAP incidence but lower mortality. Bacteremia (led by MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii) was documented in 14.6 %, being associated with extra ICU stay and mortality. Vasopressors and ICUs with above 25 % prevalence of Potential Resistant Organisms (PRM) were independently associated with PRM, being documented in 50.7 % of patients with early-onset VAP without known risk factors. Most patients initially received combination therapy. Delay in appropriate antimicrobial choice significantly increased mortality, and LOS in survivors was six days longer (p < 0.05). In conclusion, NP management in Europe presents local differences and major shifts when compared to reports from North America, outcomes of randomized trials and general guidelines.

  1. Ecological interface design for turbine secondary systems in a nuclear power plant : effects on operator situation awareness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, J.

    2007-01-01

    Investigations into past accidents at nuclear power generating facilities such as that of Three Mile Island have identified human factors as one of the foremost critical aspects in plant safety. Errors resulting from limitations in human information processing are of particular concern for human-machine interfaces (HMI) in plant control rooms. This project examines the application of Ecological Interface Design (EID) in HMI information displays and the effects on operator situation awareness (SA) for turbine secondary systems based on the Swedish Forsmark 3 boiling-water reactor nuclear power plant. A work domain analysis was performed on the turbine secondary systems yielding part-whole decomposition and abstraction hierarchy models. Information display requirements were subsequently extracted from the models. The resulting EID information displays were implemented in a full-scope simulator and evaluated with six licensed operating crews from the Forsmark 3 plant. Three measures were used to examine SA: self-rated bias, Halden Open Probe Elicitation (HOPE), and Situation Awareness Control Room Inventory (SACRI). The data analysis revealed that operators achieved moderate to good SA; operators unfamiliar with EID information displays were able to develop and maintain comparable levels of SA to operators using traditional forms of single sensor-single indicator (SS-SI) information displays. With sufficient training and experience, operator SA is expected to benefit from the knowledge-based visual elements in the EID information displays. This project was researched in conjunction with the Cognitive Engineering Laboratory at the University of Toronto and the Institute for Energy Technology (IFE) in Halden, Norway. (author)

  2. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  3. Thermoeconomic Modeling and Parametric Study of Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell â Gas Turbine â Steam Turbine Power Plants Ranging from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe

    OpenAIRE

    Arsalis, Alexandros

    2007-01-01

    Detailed thermodynamic, kinetic, geometric, and cost models are developed, implemented, and validated for the synthesis/design and operational analysis of hybrid solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) â gas turbine (GT) â steam turbine (ST) systems ranging in size from 1.5 MWe to 10 MWe. The fuel cell model used in this thesis is based on a tubular Siemens-Westinghouse-type SOFC, which is integrated with a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) integrated in turn with a steam turbi...

  4. Optimisation of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Intraday Market: Riga CHP-2 Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova P.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In the research, the influence of optimised combined cycle gas turbine unit – according to the previously developed EM & OM approach with its use in the intraday market – is evaluated on the generation portfolio. It consists of the two combined cycle gas turbine units. The introduced evaluation algorithm saves the power and heat balance before and after the performance of EM & OM approach by making changes in the generation profile of units. The aim of this algorithm is profit maximisation of the generation portfolio. The evaluation algorithm is implemented in multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLab on the example of Riga CHP-2. The results show that the use of EM & OM approach in the intraday market can be profitable or unprofitable. It depends on the initial state of generation units in the intraday market and on the content of the generation portfolio.

  5. The chemical monitoring and control during temporary turbine trip or reactor scram of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2012-01-01

    During normal operation, a malfunction of equipment or improper operation sometimes results in a turbine trip or reactor scram or even cold shutdown. Because present chemical control strategy and programs aimed at the situation of normal operation and planed refueling outage, no integrate emergency program of radiochemical and chemical control had been developed to focus on this urgent and unexpected situation. After many years of practice and experience feedback, chemists have created an emergency collaborative program of radiochemical and chemical control which aims at these unexpected situations such as unplanned unit down power, turbine trip, or reactor scram. The program defines different radiochemical and chemical control measures and steps during different status to monitor primary loop dose rate variation, fuel assembly integrity and water chemical excursion to prevent components from corrosion. (author)

  6. Optimisation of Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Plant in Intraday Market: Riga CHP-2 Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, P.; Grebesh, E.; Linkevics, O.

    2018-02-01

    In the research, the influence of optimised combined cycle gas turbine unit - according to the previously developed EM & OM approach with its use in the intraday market - is evaluated on the generation portfolio. It consists of the two combined cycle gas turbine units. The introduced evaluation algorithm saves the power and heat balance before and after the performance of EM & OM approach by making changes in the generation profile of units. The aim of this algorithm is profit maximisation of the generation portfolio. The evaluation algorithm is implemented in multi-paradigm numerical computing environment MATLab on the example of Riga CHP-2. The results show that the use of EM & OM approach in the intraday market can be profitable or unprofitable. It depends on the initial state of generation units in the intraday market and on the content of the generation portfolio.

  7. Analysis of the behaviour of biofuel-fired gas turbine power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilisation of biofuels in gas turbines is a promising alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. It would lead to a significant reduction of CO2 emissions using an existing combustion technology, although considerable changes appear to be required and further technological development is necessary. The goal of this work is to conduct energy and exergy analyses of the behaviour of gas turbines fired with biogas, ethanol and synthesis gas (bio-syngas, compared with natural gas. The global energy transformation process (i.e., from biomass to electricity also has been studied. Furthermore, the potential reduction of CO2 emissions attained by the use of biofuels has been determined, after considering the restrictions regarding biomass availability. Two different simulation tools have been used to accomplish this work. The results suggest a high interest in, and the technical viability of, the use of Biomass Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (BioIGCC systems for large scale power generation.

  8. Contribution at the study of by pass turbine lines of thermal or nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentolila, C.

    1988-07-01

    The objective of this thesis is to understand and to interpret the complex structure of transitories flows met by rapid expansion of dry steam in turbine bypass. The first chapter gives the general condition of the turbine bypass, the role and the operating conditions. Each part, taken in account separately, is described and permits to situate their particularities. The second chapter concerns the instationary one dimensional study of the flow in order to situate quantitatively the pressure, the temperature and the Mach number. The third chapter concerns the tests realized on mockup in order to put in clearness some large parameters such as diaphragm structure, lenghts and expansion chamber shapes. The last chapter concerns a more elaborate study on one expansion stage in terms of enter diaphragm geometry, number of holes, cylindrical or rectangular shape. This study in two dimensional flows, has for objective to specify the flow structure of supersonic jet on flat wall [fr

  9. Check of condition of steam generators, volume compensators and turbine condensers in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J.; Holy, F.; Sobotka, J.

    1989-01-01

    A negative pressure leak detector is described designed for leak testing of tubes in steam generators and steam turbine condensers. The principle, operation and use are described of inflatable bags and an inflatable platform. The bags are designed for insulating and sealing spaces in nuclear reactor components while the inflatable platform is used in pressurizer inspections and repairs. Their properties, and other facilities for detecting leaks in steam generator tubes are briefly described. (M.D.). 3 figs

  10. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    1951-06-01

    Ink , New York, 1945. W. Ley, Rockets. Viking Press. New York. 1945. LI. S. Zim, Rockets and jets. Harcourt Brace, New York, 1945. Jet propulsion...Hausenblas, Design nomograms for turbine stages. Motortechnische Zeit. 11, 96 (Aug. 1950). S. L. Koutz et al., Effect of beat and power extraction on...Edelman, The pulsating engine-its evolution and future prospects. SAE Quart. Trans. 1, 204 (1947). R. McLarren, Project Squid probes pulsejet. Aviation

  11. A full three dimensional Navier-Stokes numerical simulation of flow field inside a power plant Kaplan turbine using some model test turbine hill chart points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Raja, A.; Hajikhani, S.

    2012-06-01

    A full three dimensional Navier - Stokes numerical simulation has been performed for performance analysis of a Kaplan turbine which is installed in one of the Irans south dams. No simplifications have been enforced in the simulation. The numerical results have been evaluated using some integral parameters such as the turbine efficiency via comparing the results with existing experimental data from the prototype Hill chart. In part of this study the numerical simulations were performed in order to calculate the prototype turbine efficiencies in some specific points which comes from the scaling up of the model efficiency that are available in the model experimental Hill chart. The results are very promising which shows the good ability of the numerical techniques for resolving the flow characteristics in these kind of complex geometries. A parametric study regarding the evaluation of turbine performance in three different runner angles of the prototype is also performed and the results are cited in this paper.

  12. Guidelines for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia and their implementation. The Spanish "Zero-VAP" bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Sánchez García, M; Lorente, L; Gordo, F; Añón, J M; Álvarez, J; Palomar, M; García, R; Arias, S; Vázquez-Calatayud, M; Jam, R

    2014-05-01

    "Zero-VAP" is a proposal for the implementation of a simultaneous multimodal intervention in Spanish intensive care units (ICU) consisting of a bundle of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) prevention measures. An initiative of the Spanish Societies of Intensive Care Medicine and of Intensive Care Nurses, the project is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Health, and participation is voluntary. In addition to guidelines for VAP prevention, the "Zero-VAP" Project incorporates an integral patient safety program and continuous online validation of the application of the bundle. For the latter, VAP episodes and participation indices are entered into the web-based Spanish ICU Infection Surveillance Program "ENVIN-HELICS" database, which provides continuous information about local, regional and national VAP incidence rates. Implementation of the guidelines aims at the reduction of VAP to less than 9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation. A total of 35 preventive measures were initially selected. A task force of experts used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group methodology to generate a list of 7 basic "mandatory" recommendations (education and training in airway management, strict hand hygiene for airway management, cuff pressure control, oral hygiene with chlorhexidine, semi-recumbent positioning, promoting measures that safely avoid or reduce time on ventilator, and discouraging scheduled changes of ventilator circuits, humidifiers and endotracheal tubes) and 3 additional "highly recommended" measures (selective decontamination of the digestive tract, aspiration of subglottic secretions, and a short course of iv antibiotic). We present the Spanish VAP prevention guidelines and describe the methodology used for the selection and implementation of the recommendations and the organizational structure of the project. Compared to conventional guideline documents, the associated safety assurance program, the

  13. Occupational exposures to styrene vapor in a manufacturing plant for fiber-reinforced composite wind turbine blades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Duane; Garcia, Alberto; Feng, H Amy

    2011-07-01

    A utility-scale wind turbine blade manufacturing plant requested assistance from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in controlling worker exposures to styrene at a plant that produced 37 and 42 m long fiber-reinforced wind turbine blades. The plant requested NIOSH assistance because previous air sampling conducted by the company indicated concerns about peak styrene concentrations when workers entered the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. NIOSH researchers conducted two site visits and collected personal breathing zone and area air samples while workers performed the wind turbine blade manufacturing tasks of vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM), gelcoating, glue wiping, and installing the safety platform. All samples were collected during the course of normal employee work activities and analyzed for styrene using NIOSH Method 1501. All sampling was task based since full-shift sampling from a prior Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance inspection did not show any exposures to styrene above the OSHA permissible exposure limit. During the initial NIOSH site visit, 67 personal breathing zone and 18 area air samples were collected while workers performed tasks of VARTM, gelcoating, glue wipe, and installation of a safety platform. After the initial site visit, the company made changes to the glue wipe task that eliminated the need for workers to enter the confined space inside of the wind turbine blade. During the follow-up site visit, 12 personal breathing zone and 8 area air samples were collected from workers performing the modified glue wipe task. During the initial site visit, the geometric means of the personal breathing zone styrene air samples were 1.8 p.p.m. (n = 21) for workers performing the VARTM task, 68 p.p.m. (n = 5) for workers installing a safety platform, and 340 p.p.m. (n = 14) for workers performing the glue wipe task, where n is the number of workers sampled for a

  14. Siphon-based turbine - Demonstration project: hydropower plant at a paper factory in Perlen, Switzerland; Demonstrationsprojekt Saugheber - Turbinen. Wasserturbinenanlage Papierfabrik Perlen (WTA-PF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes the demonstration project that concerned the re-activation and refurbishing of a very low-head hydropower installation. The functional principles of the siphon-turbine used are explained and the potential for its use at many low-head sites examined. The authors are of the opinion that innovative technology and simple mechanical concepts could be used to reactivate out-of-use hydropower plant or be used to refurbish existing plant to provide increased efficiency and reliability. Various other points that are to be considered when planning the refurbishment of a hydropower plant such as retaining mechanical and hydraulic symmetry in the plant are listed and concepts for reducing operating costs are discussed. Figures on the three runner-regulated turbines installed in Perlen are quoted.

  15. Impact of Wind Power Plants with Full Converter Wind Turbines on Power System Small-Signal Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nygaard Nielsen, Jørgen; Dixon, Andrew

    Wind power is being developed in power systems all around the world, and already today wind power covers more than 20 % of the electricity consumption in some countries. As the size of each wind power plant (WPP) increases and as the levels of penetration reaches certain magnitudes, the inclusion...... of the dynamic properties of the WPPs in the power system stability studies become important. The work presented in this report deal with the impact of WPPs based on full converter wind turbines (WTs) on the power system small-signal rotor angle stability. During small disturbances in the power system, the rotor...... speed of the synchronous machines will eventually return to its steady state if the power system is small-signal stable. The dynamic properties of a WPP are fundamentally dierent from those of a synchronous machine, and the interaction of WPPs with the synchronous machines in power system oscillations...

  16. Induced Torques on Synchronous Generators from Operation of Wind Power Plant based on Full-Load Converter Interfaced Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.

    2011-01-01

    It is expected that large wind power plants (WPP) contribute to stable and reliable operation of the electric power system. This includes participation with delivery of system services such as voltage and frequency support. With variable-speed WPPs this can be achieved by adding auxiliary...... be predicted with the presented method. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power wind turbine....... controllers that control the active and reactive power output accordingly. While being designed for a given system service, any feedback control affects the closed-loop behavior of the overall system and thereby its small-signal stability properties. Eigenvalue analysis conveniently determines the stability...

  17. Towards a Reactive Power Oscillation Damping Controller for Wind Power Plant Based on Full Converter Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Kumar, Sathess; Thuring, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a power oscillation damping controller (POD) based on modulation of reactive power (Q POD) is analyzed where the modular and distributed characteristics of the wind power plant (WPP) are considered. For a Q POD it is essential that the phase of the modulated output is tightly...... contributes to a collective response. This ability is shown with a 150 wind turbine (WT) WPP with all WTs represented, and it is demonstrated that the WPP contributes to the inter-area damping. The work is based on a nonlinear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... controlled to achieve a positive damping contribution. It is investigated how a park level voltage, reactive power, and power factor control at different grid strengths interact with the Q POD in terms of a resulting phase shift. A WPP is modular and distributed and a WPP Q POD necessitate that each WT...

  18. Power oscillation damping capabilities of wind power plant with full converter wind turbines considering its distributed and modular characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knüppel, Thyge; Nielsen, Jørgen N.; Jensen, Kim H.

    2013-01-01

    Wind power plants (WPP) are for power system stability studies often represented with aggregated models where several wind turbines (WT) are aggregated into a single up-scaled model. The advantage is a reduction in the model complexity and the computational time, and for a number of study types...... aggregation is investigated and it is shown that the level of WPP aggregation only has limited impact on the resulting modal damping. The study is based on a non-linear, dynamic model of the 3.6 MW Siemens Wind Power WT....... the accuracy of the results has been found acceptable. A large WPP is, however, both modular and distributed over a large geographical area, and feasibility of aggregating the WTs, thus, have to be reassessed when new applications are introduced for WPPs. Here, the power oscillation damping capabilities...

  19. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  20. Thermodynamic Model of a Very High Efficiency Power Plant based on a Biomass Gasifier, SOFCs, and a Gas Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P V Aravind

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations with a power plant based on a biomass gasifier, SOFCs and a gas turbine are presented. The SOFC anode off-gas which mainly consists of steam and carbon dioxides used as a gasifying agent leading to an allothermal gasification process for which heat is required. Implementation of heat pipes between the SOFC and the gasifier using two SOFC stacks and intercooling the fuel and the cathode streams in between them has shown to be a solution on one hand to drive the allothermal gasification process and on the other hand to cool down the SOFC. It is seen that this helps to reduce the exergy losses in the system significantly. With such a system, electrical efficiency around 73% is shown as achievable.

  1. Increase of Gas-Turbine Plant Efficiency by Optimizing Operation of Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, V.; Goriachkin, E.; Volkov, A.

    2018-01-01

    The article presents optimization method for improving of the working process of axial compressors of gas turbine engines. Developed method allows to perform search for the best geometry of compressor blades automatically by using optimization software IOSO and CFD software NUMECA Fine/Turbo. The calculation of the compressor parameters was performed for work and stall point of its performance map on each optimization step. Study was carried out for seven-stage high-pressure compressor and three-stage low-pressure compressors. As a result of optimization, improvement of efficiency was achieved for all investigated compressors.

  2. Power plant including an exhaust gas recirculation system for injecting recirculated exhaust gases in the fuel and compressed air of a gas turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy; Shaffer, Jason Brian; York, William David

    2014-05-13

    A power plant is provided and includes a gas turbine engine having a combustor in which compressed gas and fuel are mixed and combusted, first and second supply lines respectively coupled to the combustor and respectively configured to supply the compressed gas and the fuel to the combustor and an exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system to re-circulate exhaust gas produced by the gas turbine engine toward the combustor. The EGR system is coupled to the first and second supply lines and configured to combine first and second portions of the re-circulated exhaust gas with the compressed gas and the fuel at the first and second supply lines, respectively.

  3. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Juliano S; Santiago, André da S; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Rosselli-Murai, Luciana K; Favaro, Marianna T P; Santos, Clelton A; Horta, Maria Augusta C; Crucello, Aline; Beloti, Lilian L; Romero, Fabian; Tasic, Ljubica; de Souza, Alessandra A; de Souza, Anete P

    2015-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC), a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD) is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c) and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12) strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem.

  4. VAP/VAT: video analytics platform and test bed for testing and deploying video analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorodnichy, Dmitry O.; Dubrofsky, Elan

    2010-04-01

    Deploying Video Analytics in operational environments is extremely challenging. This paper presents a methodological approach developed by the Video Surveillance and Biometrics Section (VSB) of the Science and Engineering Directorate (S&E) of the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) to resolve these problems. A three-phase approach to enable VA deployment within an operational agency is presented and the Video Analytics Platform and Testbed (VAP/VAT) developed by the VSB section is introduced. In addition to allowing the integration of third party and in-house built VA codes into an existing video surveillance infrastructure, VAP/VAT also allows the agency to conduct an unbiased performance evaluation of the cameras and VA software available on the market. VAP/VAT consists of two components: EventCapture, which serves to Automatically detect a "Visual Event", and EventBrowser, which serves to Display & Peruse of "Visual Details" captured at the "Visual Event". To deal with Open architecture as well as with Closed architecture cameras, two video-feed capture mechanisms have been developed within the EventCapture component: IPCamCapture and ScreenCapture.

  5. VapD in Xylella fastidiosa Is a Thermostable Protein with Ribonuclease Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano S Mendes

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa strain 9a5c is a gram-negative phytopathogen that is the causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, a disease that is responsible for economic losses in Brazilian agriculture. The most well-known mechanism of pathogenicity for this bacterial pathogen is xylem vessel occlusion, which results from bacterial movement and the formation of biofilms. The molecular mechanisms underlying the virulence caused by biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we provide evidence showing that virulence-associated protein D in X. fastidiosa (Xf-VapD is a thermostable protein with ribonuclease activity. Moreover, protein expression analyses in two X. fastidiosa strains, including virulent (Xf9a5c and nonpathogenic (XfJ1a12 strains, showed that Xf-VapD was expressed during all phases of development in both strains and that increased expression was observed in Xf9a5c during biofilm growth. This study is an important step toward characterizing and improving our understanding of the biological significance of Xf-VapD and its potential functions in the CVC pathosystem.

  6. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  7. Development of helium turbines associated with high temperature nuclear reactors for electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaboseau, J.

    1975-01-01

    First, the system is defined and found perfectly adapted, in the industrial meaning of the term, to the utilization with high temperature nuclear reactors. Subsequently, a realistic determination of its original feature and that of the turbine is tempted: these features are few, particularly if the existence of numerous, already utilized, direct cycle devices is considered. Then, the influence of main characteristic parameters is evaluated, i.e. the choice of thermodynamic cycle, the utilization of helium, the principle of the layout and the rating of the power station. It appears to be sure that the engineering designs are of great importance for the turbine designer. For the latter, however, the technical aspects of the required developments will be of the conventional type. The character and the importance of these developments will mainly depend on how the system is spread in industry. It seems possible that the reasonable choice of the data of the first generating station allows to reduce the preliminary developments to a minimum amount while ensuring the subsequent evolution of the techniques. The inherent research of perfectness of the system justifies to anticipate long-term developments which are pursued in parallel with the commissioning of subsequent generations of power stations [fr

  8. Weld-forged rotors of the turbines for nuclear and thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudkovskij, A.F.; German, S.I.

    1979-01-01

    Considered is a principally new technology and equipment for assembling and welding superheavy rotors with mass up to 200 tons. Construction peculiarities and advantages of the application of weld-forged rotors are noted. The technology proposed permits to provide for a horizontal assembling, subsequent welding and quality control of rotors, one bench being used instead of three ones. The application of horizontal assembling and complex welding of rotors in one position permits not only to shorten the cycle of assembling and welding, too decrease the equipment costs and release production capacities, but also to improve substantially the quality of welds and especially the accuracy of rotor production. The equipment allows one to assemble and weld rotors with the mass up to 250 tons at maximum rotor diameter up to 2500 mm and length up to 13000 mm. Presented are data characterizing chemical composition and mechanical properties of steels used for forging of welded rotors. Also given are the results of studying mechanical properties of welded joints, welding and thermal treatment of which were made in accordance with the technology proposed. Serial production of rotors for turbines with the power of 500, 1000 and 1200 Mw is shown to be mastered along with the manufacture of welded rotors for cylinders of low, medium and high pressure turbines

  9. Steam turbines for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trassl, W.

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 75% of the electrical energy produced in the world is generated in power plants with steam turbines (fossil and nuclear). Although gas turbines are increasingly applied in combined cycle power plants, not much will change in this matter in the future. As far as the steam parameters and the maximum unit output are concerned, a certain consolidation was noted during the past decades. The standard of development and mathematical penetration of the various steam turbine components is very high today and is applied in the entire field: For saturated steam turbines in nuclear power plants and for steam turbines without reheat, with reheat and with double reheat in fossil-fired power plants and for steam turbines with and without reheat in combined cycle power plants. (orig.) [de

  10. Effects of upgrading systems on energy conversion efficiency of a gasifier - fuel cell - gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrazzi, Simone; Allesina, Giulio; Tartarini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced gasifier-SOFC-MGT system is modeled. • An overall electrical efficiency of 32.81% is reached. • Influence of all the sub-system modeled on the power plant efficiency is discussed. • Compression storage of syngas is taken into account. - Abstract: This work focuses on a DG-SOFC-MGT (downdraft gasifier - solid oxide fuel cell - micro gas turbine) power plant for electrical energy production and investigates two possible performance-upgrading systems: polyphenylene oxide (PPO) membrane and zeolite filters. The first is used to produce oxygen-enriched air used in the reactor, while the latter separates the CO_2 content from the syngas. In order to prevent power plant shutdowns during the gasifier reactor scheduled maintenance, the system is equipped with a gas storage tank. The generation unit consists of a SOFC-MGT system characterized by higher electrical efficiency when compared to conventional power production technology (IC engines, ORC and EFGT). Poplar wood chips with 10% of total moisture are used as feedstock. Four different combinations with and without PPO and zeolite filtrations are simulated and discussed. One-year energy and power simulation were used as basis for comparison between all the cases analyzed. The modeling of the gasification reactions gives results consistent with literature about oxygen-enriched processes. Results showed that the highest electrical efficiency obtained is 32.81%. This value is reached by the power plant equipped only with PPO membrane filtration. Contrary to the PPO filtering, zeolite filtration does not increase the SOFC-MGT unit performance while it affects the energy balance with high auxiliary electrical consumption. This solution can be considered valuable only for future work coupling a CO_2 sequestration system to the power plant.

  11. Steam turbine power plant having improved testing method and system for turbine inlet valves associated with downstream inlet valves preferably having feedforward position managed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lardi, F.; Ronnen, U.G.

    1981-01-01

    A throttle valve test system for a large steam turbine functions in a turbine control system to provide throttle and governor valve test operations. The control system operates with a valve management capability to provide for pre-test governor valve mode transfer when desired, and it automatically generates feedforward valve position demand signals during and after valve tests to satisfy test and load control requirements and to provide smooth transition from valve test status to normal single or sequential governor valve operation. A digital computer is included in the control system to provide control and test functions in the generation of the valve position demand signals

  12. An improved model to evaluate thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines in open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants

  13. Cracking of low-pressure steam turbine rotor discs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMinn, A.; Burghard, H.C. Jr.; Lyle, F.F. Jr.; Leverant, G.R.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the results of several metallurgical analyses of retired low pressure (LP) turbine discs that had suffered in-service cracking. Cracks were found in four locations; keyways, bores, web faces and rim attachment areas. In every case, the metallurgical analyses identified intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) as the operative mechanism. The cracks normally have been filled with iron oxides; but chlorides, sulphates, carbonates, copper and copper oxide have been found in, or near cracks. In some cases deposits have been strongly alkaline. However, no specific corrodent has been identified as being uniquely responsible for the cracking in any of the discs. In every case, the disc materials met all mechanical-properties and chemical-composition requirements, and had normal microstructures

  14. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  15. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geerds, Christina; Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert; Niemann, Hartmut H.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology

  16. Structure of Rhodococcus equi virulence-associated protein B (VapB) reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel consisting of two Greek-key motifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geerds, Christina [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany); Wohlmann, Jens; Haas, Albert [University of Bonn, Ulrich-Haberland Strasse 61a, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Niemann, Hartmut H., E-mail: hartmut.niemann@uni-bielefeld.de [Bielefeld University, Universitaetsstrasse 25, 33615 Bielefeld (Germany)

    2014-06-18

    The structure of VapB, a member of the Vap protein family that is involved in virulence of the bacterial pathogen R. equi, was determined by SAD phasing and reveals an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel similar to avidin, suggestive of a binding function. Made up of two Greek-key motifs, the topology of VapB is unusual or even unique. Members of the virulence-associated protein (Vap) family from the pathogen Rhodococcus equi regulate virulence in an unknown manner. They do not share recognizable sequence homology with any protein of known structure. VapB and VapA are normally associated with isolates from pigs and horses, respectively. To contribute to a molecular understanding of Vap function, the crystal structure of a protease-resistant VapB fragment was determined at 1.4 Å resolution. The structure was solved by SAD phasing employing the anomalous signal of one endogenous S atom and two bound Co ions with low occupancy. VapB is an eight-stranded antiparallel β-barrel with a single helix. Structural similarity to avidins suggests a potential binding function. Unlike other eight- or ten-stranded β-barrels found in avidins, bacterial outer membrane proteins, fatty-acid-binding proteins and lysozyme inhibitors, Vaps do not have a next-neighbour arrangement but consist of two Greek-key motifs with strand order 41238567, suggesting an unusual or even unique topology.

  17. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousri M.A. Welaya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heat-recovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a combined gas turbine power plant with a solid oxide fuel cell for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and gas turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. It includes a study of a heatrecovery system for 18 MW SOFC fuelled by natural gas, to provide the electric power demand onboard commercial vessels. Feasible heat-recovery systems are investigated, taking into account different operating conditions of the combined system. Two types of SOFC are considered, tubular and planar SOFCs, operated with either natural gas or hydrogen fuels. This paper includes a detailed thermodynamic analysis for the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed, not only for the whole plant but also for each individual component, in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effect of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance is investigated. It is found that a high overall efficiency approaching 70% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using SOFC system under pressure. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  19. Fundamental investigations for a OWC-tidal power plant with a conventional hydraulic turbine; Basisuntersuchungen fuer ein OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk mit konventioneller Hydroturbine. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graw, K.U.; Lengricht, J.; Schimmels, S.

    2001-07-01

    At the present the OWC-tidal power plant is the most forward-looking way of converting tidal energy into usable electric power. Current research works focus on the dimensions of the structures in terms of occurring loads, the minimisation of hydraulic losses and the development of new turbine-generator types. The development of all air-turbine systems, which have been investigated so far, is considered as problematic and the commercialisation is likely to be a hindrance. Based on international research results an inventory tata of available hydraulic turbines is supposed to be gathered and fundamental investigations are supposed to check, if the application of conventional hydraulic turbines are an energetic progress in the OWC-tidal power plant. In order to considerably increase the efficiency compared to current developments, small-scale investigations at a physical model are supposed to show if and how a hydraulic turbine can be realised in a OWC-tidal power plant and how a concept of flow rectification as well as a flow-optimised form of inflow and outflow chambers can be achieved. (orig.) [German] Das OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk ist der zur Zeit zukunftstraechtigste Typ zur Umwandlung von Wellenenergie in nutzbaren Strom. Die laufenden Forschungsarbeiten beschaeftigen sich insbesondere mit der Dimensionierung der Strukturen hinsichtlich auftretender Belastungen, der Minimierung der hydraulischen Verluste und der Entwicklung von neuartigen Turbinen-Generatoren-Typen. Die Entwicklung aller bisher untersuchten Luftturbinensysteme wird jedoch als problematisch und die Kommerzialisierung hindernd angesehen. Aufbauend auf den internationalen Forschungsergebnissen sollen eine Bestandaufnahme der verfuegbaren Hydroturbinen durchgefuehrt und mit Baisuntersuchungen geprueft werden, ob ein Einsatz konventionaller Hydroturbinen im OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk eine energetische Weiterentwicklung darstellen kann. Um den Wirkungsgrad gegenueber derzeitigen Entwicklungen

  20. Evaluation of the DTBird video-system at the Smoela wind-power plant. Detection capabilities for capturing near-turbine avian behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roel, May; Hamre, Oeyvind; Vang, Roald; Nygaard, Torgeir

    2012-07-01

    Collisions between birds and wind turbines can be a problem at wind-power plants both onshore and offshore, and the presence of endangered bird species or proximity to key functional bird areas can have major impact on the choice of site or location wind turbines. There is international consensus that one of the mail challenges in the development of measures to reduce bird collisions is the lack of good methods for assessment of the efficacy of inventions. In order to be better abe to assess the efficacy of mortality-reducing measures Statkraft wishes to find a system that can be operated under Norwegian conditions and that renders objective and quantitative information on collisions and near-flying birds. DTbird developed by Liquen Consultoria Ambiental S.L. is such a system, which is based on video-recording bird flights near turbines during the daylight period (light levels>200 lux). DTBird is a self-working system developed to detect flying birds and to take programmed actions (i.e. warming, dissuasion, collision registration, and turbine stop control) linked to real-time bird detection. This report evaluates how well the DTBird system is able to detect birds in the vicinity of a wind turbine, and assess to which extent it can be utilized to study near-turbine bird flight behaviour and possible deterrence. The evaluation was based on the video sequence recorded with the DTBird systems installed at turbine 21 and turbine 42 at the Smoela wind-power plant between March 2 2012 and September 30 2012, together with GPS telemetry data on white-tailed eagles and avian radar data. The average number of falsely triggered video sequences (false positive rate) was 1.2 per day, and during daytime the DTBird system recorded between 76% and 96% of all bird flights in the vicinity of the turbines. Visually estimated distances of recorded bird flights in the video sequences were in general assessed to be farther from the turbines com pared to the distance settings used within

  1. Bibliography of Books and Published Reports on Gas Turbines, Jet Propulsion, and Rocket Power Plants, January 1950 through December 1953

    Science.gov (United States)

    1953-12-01

    75. Aeronautics In 1950. Engineer 191,67 and 100. Critical review of gas turbine progress in 1950. Engineer 191, 50. Gas turbines in 1950. Engineer 191...1952) ; Trans. ASME 75,121. A critical review of gas turbine progress, 1952. Engineer 195, 124. Aeronautics in 1952. Engineer 195, 24, 55 and 91...Physical fundamentals of jet propulsion. Forsch. Gebiete Ingenieurw. B19, Forschungaheft 437, p 5. 0. Santangelo, Metodo di calcolo delle

  2. To the choice of the regeneration system of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant for the NPP with a vertical-type steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, N.M.; Piskarev, A.A.; Grinman, M.I.; Kruglikov, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    Several variants of the heat regeneration system for the NPP with WWER-1000 type reactors using vertical steam generator (SG) generating saturated steam at 7.2 MPa pressure and 200 deg C feed water temperature at the SG inlet are considered. The results of comparison of variants in water and steam circuits of turbine plants are greatly influenced by integral economy account, i.e. efficiency indexes account under variable conditions of power unit operation. From variants of water and steam circuits of the K-1000-68/1500 turbine plant considered preference is given to the variant with four low pressure heaters with increased up to 1.25 MPa pressure in a deacrator without high pressure heater with pumping intermediate steam superheater condensate into feedwater circuit

  3. Fiscal 1980 Sunshine Project research report. Development of hydrothermal power plant. Development of binary cycle power plant (Research on heat cycle, heat medium, material and heat medium turbine); 1980 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (netsu cycle oyobi netsubaitai no kenkyu, zairyo no kenkyu narabini netsubaitai turbine no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1981-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1980 research result on each element of the next 10MW class geothermal binary cycle power plant, following last year. In the research on heat cycle and heat medium, measurement was made on the liquid density, vapor density, liquid specific heat, vapor specific heat and thermal conductivity of 8 heat media to prepare the precise pressure enthalpy chart. The thermal stability of each medium was also measured under a flow condition. The heat cycle of each medium was calculated in a hydrothermal temperature range of 120-160 degrees C for evaluation of its output. In the research on material, field corrosion test and laboratory simulation were made on 3 kinds of heat exchanger martials for acidic hot water to study the corrosion behavior of welding members. In the research on heat medium turbine, study was made on sealing characteristics such as differential pressure, flow rate and friction of sealing oil for oil film seal and mechanical seal as shaft seal devices of heat medium turbines for the 10MW class geothermal plant. (NEDO)

  4. Simulation and thermoeconomic analysis of different configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP) and hybrid plants (HP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensonnet, Thibaut; Uche, Javier; Serra, Luis

    2007-01-01

    This paper contains a simulation and a thermoeconomic analysis of several configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP): Gas turbine with reverse osmosis (GT+RO), combined cycle with reverse osmosis (CC+RO), combined cycle with multi-effect distillation (CC+MED) and two different hybrid plant (HP) arrangements combining CC, MED and RO (CC+MED+RO, CC+MED+RO bis ). The last two configurations only differ from the feed solution to the MED units (raw seawater or brine coming from the RO discharge). A complete thermodynamic simulation at both design and at part load conditions has been made, as well as an exergy and an exergo-economic (thermoeconomic) analysis of each configuration, in order to compare the evolution of the water and electricity cost for different arrangements. The results show that even for a significantly reduced fuel cost (1.42 $/GJ), the CC is much more profitable than a GT operating in open cycle, with electricity cost values of 1.647 and 2.166 c$/kWh, respectively. As was expected, RO is more efficient and profitable than MED desalination processes, the difference in the obtained desalted water cost being significant. In the hybrid configuration with MED fed by the RO brine discharge, a decrease in the equivalent electrical consumption of nearly 2 kWh/m 3 was achieved, but even in this case RO was more efficient (14.15 vs. 4.048 kWh/m 3 ). The evolution of electricity cost in each configuration is more similar at part load operation than at full load, but in the case of water cost, RO is once again more profitable and less sensitive to load variations. Costs given in this paper correspond to investment and fuel costs. Further, profitability and operation strategies of HP, i.e., DPPDP combining distillation and membrane processes, are also analyzed. It is shown that HP can be more profitable than RO plants in the case of increasing the water production capacity of existing DPPDP, because the profit

  5. Use of VAP3D software in the construction of pathological anthropomorphic phantoms for dosimetric evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de; Lima, Fernando R.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper performs a new type of dosimetric evaluation, where it was used a phantom of pathological voxels (representative phantom of sick person). The software VAP3D (Visualization and Analysis of Phantoms 3D) were used for, from a healthy phantom (phantom representative of healthy person), to introduce three dimensional regions to simulate tumors. It was used the Monte Carlo ESGnrc code to simulate the X ray photon transport, his interaction with matter and evaluation of absorbed dose in organs and tissues from thorax region of the healthy phantom and his pathological version. This is a computer model of typical exposure for programming the treatments in radiodiagnostic

  6. Study of the characteristic response of the pressure control system for the design parameters of the new turbine control system, MARK VI, in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo anaya, M. J.; Ruiz Bueno, G.; Mora, J. A.; Vaquer, J. I.; Bucho, L.; Lopez, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of the characteristic response of the ancient Pressure and Turbine Control System for the OCP-4300 Project in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, made by Tatiana Servicios Tecnologicos in collaboration with the Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety. This work was done as one of the preliminary work necessary for replacing the old control system by Mark VI.

  7. Technical evaluation of the proposed deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50-percent power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, W.E.

    1979-12-01

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the Duquesne Light Company's proposed license amendment for the deletion of a reactor trip on a turbine trip below 50% power for the Beaver Valley nuclear power plant, Unit 1. This report is supplied as part of the Selected Electrical, Instrumentation, and Control Systems Issues Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory

  8. Graphene in turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  9. Space and Terrestrial Power System Integration Optimization Code BRMAPS for Gas Turbine Space Power Plants With Nuclear Reactor Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2007-01-01

    In view of the difficult times the US and global economies are experiencing today, funds for the development of advanced fission reactors nuclear power systems for space propulsion and planetary surface applications are currently not available. However, according to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 the U.S. needs to invest in developing fission reactor technology for ground based terrestrial power plants. Such plants would make a significant contribution toward drastic reduction of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions and associated global warming. To accomplish this goal the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project (NGNP) has been established by DOE under the Generation IV Nuclear Systems Initiative. Idaho National Laboratory (INL) was designated as the lead in the development of VHTR (Very High Temperature Reactor) and HTGR (High Temperature Gas Reactor) technology to be integrated with MMW (multi-megawatt) helium gas turbine driven electric power AC generators. However, the advantages of transmitting power in high voltage DC form over large distances are also explored in the seminar lecture series. As an attractive alternate heat source the Liquid Fluoride Reactor (LFR), pioneered at ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) in the mid 1960's, would offer much higher energy yields than current nuclear plants by using an inherently safe energy conversion scheme based on the Thorium --> U233 fuel cycle and a fission process with a negative temperature coefficient of reactivity. The power plants are to be sized to meet electric power demand during peak periods and also for providing thermal energy for hydrogen (H2) production during "off peak" periods. This approach will both supply electric power by using environmentally clean nuclear heat which does not generate green house gases, and also provide a clean fuel H2 for the future, when, due to increased global demand and the decline in discovering new deposits, our supply of liquid fossil fuels will have been used up. This is

  10. Comparison of technical and economical factors of 1000-MW steam turbines at 3000 and 1500 r.p.m. for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, N.M.; Safonov, L.P.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of unification of the low-pressure cilinders (LPC) for turbo-generator units of nuclear power plants with power of 1000 MW on base of the WWER and RBMK type reactors is discussed. The results of the comparison of the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines in the thermal efficiency of flow passages and arrangements masses and dimensions, static and dynamic strength manoeurrability and reliability are given. To cerry out the correct comparison methods adoped as branch standards thermal calculations, calculation of low-potential part and thermal arrangements, calculations of temperature fields and of low cycle fatigue calculation of the erosion failure accumulation of blades calculation of the blades for the last steps have been used. A conclusion is made that in the nearest future it is necessary to produce the K-1000-60/1500 and K-1000-60/3000 turbines simultaneously. The low-speed lurbines with three LPC are preferable for the nuclear power plants with average annual temperatures of water up to 20 deg C and the high-speed turbines and the K-1000-60/1500 units with two LPC are expedient for nuclear power plants with temperatures higher than 20 deg C. Introduction of the turboplants with reduced number of LPC in the nuclear power engineering provides the increase of reliability, maintenance fitness and the decrease of building costs and transport expenses

  11. A mutation in human VAP-B--MSP domain, present in ALS patients, affects the interaction with other cellular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitne-Neto, M; Ramos, C R R; Pimenta, D C; Luz, J S; Nishimura, A L; Gonzales, F A; Oliveira, C C; Zatz, M

    2007-09-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset Motor Neuron Disease (MND), characterized by motor neurons death in the cortex, brainstem and spinal cord. Ten loci linked to Familial ALS have been mapped. ALS8 is caused by a substitution of a proline by a serine in the Vesicle-Associated Membrane Protein-Associated protein-B/C (VAP-B/C). VAP-B belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins implicated in Endoplasmic Reticulum-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport and microtubules stabilization. Previous studies demonstrated that the P56S mutation disrupts the subcellular localization of VAP-B and that this position would be essential for Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) induced by VAP-B. In the present work we expressed and purified recombinant wild-type and P56S mutant VAP-B-MSP domain for the analysis of its interactions with other cellular proteins. Our findings suggest that the P56S mutation may lead to a less stable interaction of this endoplasmic reticulum protein with at least two other proteins: tubulin and GAPDH. These two proteins have been previously related to other forms of neurodegenerative diseases and are potential key points to understand ALS8 pathogenesis and other forms of MND. Understanding the role of these protein interactions may help the treatment of this devastating disease in the future.

  12. Wind Power Plant Voltage Control Optimization with Embedded Application of Wind Turbines and Statcom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Solanas, Jose Ignacio Busca; Zhao, Haoran

    2017-01-01

    Increasing wind power penetration and the size of wind power plants (WPPs) brings challenges to the operation and control of power systems. Most of WPPs are located far from load centers and the short circuit ratio at the point of common coupling (PCC) is low. The fluctuations of wind power...

  13. A wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Preliminay engineering and financial evaluation. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for Canadian sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. The first phase consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system and is the subject of this report. This analysis focuses on British Columbia since it is the largest potential market for the sawmill cogeneration system. In order to provide design parameters for the cogeneration system, operational characteristics were compiled for a typical sawmill in the interior of British Columbia. A number of alternative design concepts were reviewed before arriving at the indirect-fired turbine concept selected for development in this project. The general concept involves the use of an open Brayton-cycle gas turbine as the prime mover to generate electrical power, while process heat for the dry-kiln is obtained by waste heat recovery from the turbine exhaust gas. The proposed system has many advantages over a conventional steam based cogeneration system and economic analysis indicates that the system generates very attractive financial returns over a variety of conditions. 7 refs., 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Behaviour of steam turbine power control of large power plant units in case of network short-circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindermann, W.; Fork, K.

    1978-01-01

    In order to investigate the behaviour of the turbine control system during strong pendulum motions, an analysis is carried out using a digital computer program by which the reactor, the turbine, the generator and, in a simplified way, the network can be simulated to the necessary degree. Plotter pictures can show the main physical quantities. In all cases, the turbine control system should be able to distinguish between strong pendulum amplitude with acceleration of the rotational angles and sudden release criteria. This demand can be satisfied by a simple adjustment in the Kraftwerk Union turbine control system. Only a few seconds after shut-off of a severe network failure, the turbines are back to their rated power, thus contributing to reliability of supply in this critical network situation. (orig.) [de

  15. Families of optimal thermodynamic solutions for combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoy, E.; Scenna, N.J.; Benz, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Optimal designs of a CCGT power plant characterized by maximum second law efficiency values are determined for a wide range of power demands and different values of the available heat transfer area. These thermodynamic optimal solutions are found within a feasible operation region by means of a non-linear mathematical programming (NLP) model, where decision variables (i.e. transfer areas, power production, mass flow rates, temperatures and pressures) can vary freely. Technical relationships among them are used to systematize optimal values of design and operative variables of a CCGT power plant into optimal solution sets, named here as optimal solution families. From an operative and design point of view, the families of optimal solutions let knowing in advance optimal values of the CCGT variables when facing changes of power demand or adjusting the design to an available heat transfer area.

  16. Use of VAP3D software for production and manipulation of synthetic radiographies of anthropomorphic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de, E-mail: lindeval@dmat.ufrr.b [Universidade Federal de Roraima (DMAT/UFRR), Boa Vista, RR (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica; Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Vieira, Jose W. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (IFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Universidade de Pernambuco (EPP/UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica de Pernambuco; Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Leal Neto, Viriato [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    The Grupo de Dosimetria Numerica has developed exposure computational models (ECM) involving a Monte Carlo code and voxel phantoms to simulate various situations of internal and external exposure to ionizing radiation. Most analyses of the produced results are presented in tables and graphics formats. An alternative to this traditional way of analyzing results is to save voxels of Regions of Interest (ROI) of the phantom irradiated with information like the location of the voxel and the energy deposited in it during the simulation. Such information can be saved to a text file and later turned into 3D objects. In this paper the VAP3D software has been used to read text files produced in simulations using the ECM of DEN (Nuclear Energy Dept. - UFPE), converting them into binary files of the type RAW, and visualize them. In order to reflect the radiosensitivity of the organs and tissues suggested by ICRP-60, for conversion of text file to binary, of the energy deposited values are multiplied by the weighting factor of the tissue to which the voxel belongs. The result of the multiplication is normalized to the interval [0, 255]. The files transformed are referred herein as synthetic radiographies. In VAP3D software, it is possible to generate stacks from theses radiographies in transverse, sagittal and coronal directions. In order to illustrate the production of synthetic radiographies, some images are presented in this paper, and dosimetric results are obtained from a variety of ROIs of the phantoms of DEN for radiological exams. (author)

  17. Engineering management of gas turbine power plant co2 for microalgae biofuel production

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Domoyi; Pilidis, Pericles; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppina

    2013-01-01

    Fossil fuel accounts for over 80% of the world`s primary energy, particularly in areas of transportation, manufacturing and domestic heating. However, depletion of fossil reserves, frequent threats to the security of fossil fuel supply, coupled with concerns over emissions of greenhouse gases associated with fossil fuel use has motivated research towards developing renewable and sustainable sources for energy fuels. Consequently, the use of microalgae culture to convert CO2 from power plants ...

  18. Report on investigations in fiscal 2000 on the basic investigation on promotion of joint implementation. Rehabilitation of gas turbine power plants owned by Myanmar Electric Power Enterprise (MEPE); 2000 nendo kyodo jisshi nado suishin kiso chosa hokokusho. MEPE/gas turbine hatsudensho rihabiri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Myanmar generates majority of the whole electric power by using thermal power plants consisting of single gas turbines, and gas and steam composite turbines. However, because of chronic power shortage and fund unavailability, the major gas turbines are being operated in quite inadequate environment. As a result, reduction in power generation efficiency has become manifest due to aged deterioration, increasing the quantity of CO2 emission. The present project is, in order to link it to the 'Clean Development Mechanism' being carried out with developing countries, and placing Tharkayta Power Plant as the object, intended to comprehensively discuss a rehabilitation program to renew the existing gas turbines with advanced ones, in relation with feasibility of the project implementation including the effect of CO2 emission reduction, profitability, and proliferation effects. A prospect was acquired that, by replacing the gas turbines alone with 25-MW class gas turbines, the plant output will increase to 97.2 MW (78.5 MW in the existing facilities) and the plant efficiency to 43.3% (36.5% in the existing facilities). The energy saving effect during a period of 40 years would be 708,000 (toe) as heat consumption converted to crude oil, and the CO2 emission reducing effect would be 2,160,000 (t-CO2), respectively. (NEDO)

  19. Fiscal 1981 Sunshine Project research report. Development of hydrothermal power plant. Development of binary cycle power plant (Research on heat cycle and heat medium, materials, and heat medium turbine); 1981 nendo nessui riyo hatsuden plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Binary cycle hatsuden plant no kaihatsu (netsu cycle oyobi netsubaitai no kenkyu, zairyo no kenkyu narasbini netsubaitai turbine no kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This report summarizes the final fiscal 1981 research result on components of the next 10MW class geothermal binary cycle power plant. In the research on heat cycle and heat medium, R-C318 and R-124 were excellent in output characteristics in a low-temperature zone and high-temperature zone in a hot water temperature range of 120-160 degreesC, respectively, however, at present R-114 was most reasonable from the viewpoint of heat medium price and supply system. In the research on martials, study was made on inlet-attack and stress corrosion of heat exchanger pipes of 18Cr-13Ni-2Mo steel, and combination use of inexpensive materials (carbon steel). As used giving attention to stress corrosion, at present 18Cr-13Ni-2Mo steel was most suitable material, while clad carbon steel was also usable. In the research on heat medium turbine, the 1000-hour durability test result of mechanical seal showed that mechanical seal is best for heat medium turbines. (NEDO)

  20. Control and operation of wind turbine converters during faults in an offshore wind power plant grid with VSC-HVDC connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Voltage source converter (VSC) based high voltage dc (HVDC) transmission is an attractive technique for large offshore wind power plants, especially when long cable transmission is required for connection to the onshore grid. New multi-MW wind turbines are likely to be equipped with full scale...... converters to meet the stringent grid code requirements. In such a scenario, the offshore grid is terminated to the power electronic converters on all the ends. This paper presents a control scheme for the synchronization and control of the grid side converters (GSC) of the wind turbine generators (WTG......). Current limit control enables the GSC to sustain the fault currents during short circuits in the offshore wind collector system grid. However, power transmission is affected, and the fault has to be isolated. It can be resynchronized after the fault has been cleared and the breaker reclosed. Healthy WTG...

  1. Hydro turbines: An introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The various types of hydraulic turbines currently used in hydroelectric power plants are described. The descriptions are intended for use by non-engineers who are concerned with fish passage and fish mortality at a hydro power facility. Terminology used in the hydro industry is explained. Since the extent of cavitation is one of the factors affecting mortality rates of fish passing through hydraulic turbines, an equation is introduced which measures the extent of cavitation likely to be experienced in a turbine. An example of how the cavitation index can be calculated is provided for two typical power plants. The relation between certain parameters of power plant operation and the extent of cavitation, and therefore of fish mortality, is illustrated. 2 refs., 14 figs

  2. Turbine disintegration debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holecek, M.; Martinec, P.; Malotin, V.; Peleska, P.; Voldrich, J.

    1997-01-01

    The determination, evaluation and analysis of possible unacceptable consequences of the disintegration turbine (turbo-set) missiles is a part of the wide conceived project put by the company Nuclear Power Plant Mochovce (NPPM), the Slovak Republic. The aim of the project is to take measures reducing the probability of striking a target of safety importance in NPPM by a turbine (turbo-set) missile below the prescribed limit of 10 -6 per turbine year. Following the IAEA Safety Guides, all potential events leading to the generation of a missile are to be analysed. It is necessary to evaluate the probability of unacceptable consequences of such missiles and analyse each event whose probability is not acceptable low. This complex problem thus carries especially: complex analysis of fragment generation; evaluation of the probability of unacceptable events; location of strike zones of possible turbine missiles; assessment the possibility of the turbo-set casing penetration; and projection of additional design requirements if necessary

  3. Analysis of non-typeable Haemophilous influenzae VapC1 mutations reveals structural features required for toxicity and flexibility in the active site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke Hamilton

    Full Text Available Bacteria have evolved mechanisms that allow them to survive in the face of a variety of stresses including nutrient deprivation, antibiotic challenge and engulfment by predator cells. A switch to dormancy represents one strategy that reduces energy utilization and can render cells resistant to compounds that kill growing bacteria. These persister cells pose a problem during treatment of infections with antibiotics, and dormancy mechanisms may contribute to latent infections. Many bacteria encode toxin-antitoxin (TA gene pairs that play an important role in dormancy and the formation of persisters. VapBC gene pairs comprise the largest of the Type II TA systems in bacteria and they produce a VapC ribonuclease toxin whose activity is inhibited by the VapB antitoxin. Despite the importance of VapBC TA pairs in dormancy and persister formation, little information exists on the structural features of VapC proteins required for their toxic function in vivo. Studies reported here identified 17 single mutations that disrupt the function of VapC1 from non-typeable H. influenzae in vivo. 3-D modeling suggests that side chains affected by many of these mutations sit near the active site of the toxin protein. Phylogenetic comparisons and secondary mutagenesis indicate that VapC1 toxicity requires an alternative active site motif found in many proteobacteria. Expression of the antitoxin VapB1 counteracts the activity of VapC1 mutants partially defective for toxicity, indicating that the antitoxin binds these mutant proteins in vivo. These findings identify critical chemical features required for the biological function of VapC toxins and PIN-domain proteins.

  4. Performance and safety of hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, H

    2010-01-01

    The first part of the paper contains the choice of small turbines for run of the river power plants. Then a discussion is given on the optimization of the performance of different types of large turbines. Finally a discussion on the safety and necessary maintenance of turbines is given with special attention to bolt connections.

  5. Small Wind Turbine Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avia Aranda, F.; Cruz Cruz, I.

    1999-01-01

    The result of the study carried out under the scope of the ATYCA project Test Plant of Wind Systems for Isolated Applications, about the state of art of the small wind turbine technology (wind turbines with swept area smaller than 40 m 2 ) is presented. The study analyzes the collected information on 60 models of wind turbines from 23 manufacturers in the worldwide market. Data from Chinese manufacturers, that have a large participation in the total number of small wind turbines in operation, are not included, due to the unavailability of the technical information. (Author) 15 refs

  6. Residue-based evaluation of the use of wind power plants with full converter wind turbines for power oscillation damping control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morato, Josep; Knüppel, Thyge; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    As wind power plants (WPPs) gradually replace the power production of the conventional generators, many aspects of the power system may be affected, in which the small signal stability is included. Additional control may be needed for wind turbine generators (WTGs) to participate in the power...... oscillation damping. The feasibility of implementing this control needs to be assessed. This paper studies how the damping contribution of a WPP is affected by different operating conditions and its dependence to selected feedback signals. The WPP model used includes individual WTGs to study how internal...

  7. Combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on dynamic performance of turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Wencheng; Yang, Jiandong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nonlinear mathematical model and Hopf bifurcation analysis of turbine regulating system are presented. • Dynamic performance of turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area is analyzed and a novel dynamic performance is revealed. • Relationship between two bifurcation lines and wave superposition is studied. • Combined effect mechanisms of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel on stability are revealed and optimization methods are proposed. - Abstract: Based on the nonlinear mathematical model of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant with upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel and the Hopf bifurcation theory, this paper firstly studies the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system under 0.5 times Thoma sectional area of surge chamber, and reveals a novel dynamic performance. Then, the relationship between the two bifurcation lines and the wave superposition of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel is analyzed. Finally, the effect mechanisms of the wave superposition on the system stability are investigated, and the methods to improve the system stability are proposed. The results indicate that: Under the combined effect of upstream surge chamber and sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel, the dynamic performance of the turbine regulating system of hydroelectric power plant shows an obvious difference on the two sides of the critical sectional area of surge chamber. There are two bifurcation lines for the condition of 0.5 times Thoma sectional area, i.e. Bifurcation line 1 and Bifurcation line 2, which represent the stability characteristics of the flow oscillation of “penstock-sloping ceiling tailrace tunnel” and the water-level fluctuation in upstream surge chamber, respectively. The stable domain of the system is determined by Bifurcation line 2. The effect of upstream surge chamber mainly depends on its sectional area, while the

  8. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  9. Experience in integration of on-line control systems for turbine plants at the Ignalina and Zaporozhe NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapunin, A.Ya.; Guchshin, V.I.; Kozlov, N.Yu.; Kravtsov, V.F.; Rasskazov, I.Eh.; Fridman, P.Yu.

    1989-01-01

    The main stages of designing and improvement of turbine on-line control systems (TOCS) are considered. TOCS is mainly designed for the optimization of NPP equipment operation modes taking into account power system requirements, as well as reactor and steam generator capabilities. TOCS of the Ignalina (K750-65/1300 turbine) and Zaporozhe (K1000-60/1500-2) NPPs are the systems of the third generation and are produced in the form of decentralized complex of software and hardware on the basis of the Ehlektronika S5-2200 computer. 3 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, John [Siemens Energy, Inc., Orlando, FL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratories, Siemens has completed the Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development Program to develop an advanced gas turbine for incorporation into future coal-based Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants. All the scheduled DOE Milestones were completed and significant technical progress was made in the development of new technologies and concepts. Advanced computer simulations and modeling, as well as subscale, full scale laboratory, rig and engine testing were utilized to evaluate and select concepts for further development. Program Requirements of: A 3 to 5 percentage point improvement in overall plant combined cycle efficiency when compared to the reference baseline plant; 20 to 30 percent reduction in overall plant capital cost when compared to the reference baseline plant; and NOx emissions of 2 PPM out of the stack. were all met. The program was completed on schedule and within the allotted budget

  11. Laboratory developments of a diagonal turbine for medium head small hydro power plants (25 - 100 m). Final report; Turbines diagonales. Programme de developpement d'une turbine hydraulique diagonale destinee a equiper les petites centrales a moyenne chute (25 a 100 m) - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Denis, V.

    2009-11-15

    power plant, to use the reserved flow characterized by a constant discharge of 500 l/s and a variable head, from 24.5 to 45.0 m. The delivery of the turbine is planned in the first semester of 2013. (authors)

  12. Experience in small hydropower indigenous manufacture of mini hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gao Rong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydropowers

    1995-07-01

    This document reports the China experience with fabrication of mini hydraulic turbines for small hydroelectric power plants. The document presents the necessity of indigenous manufacture for MHP equipment, the standardized and serialized production, the planning of the series of turbines, the manufacturing of turbine runners, and as a case study the basic conditions for manufacturing MHP turbines.

  13. Details about turbine design of the new RADAG hydro power plant; Details der Maschinentechnik des Neubaus des RADAG-Wehrkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Stephan; Merkle, Dieter [Schluchseewerk AG, Laufenburg (Germany); Kesselring, Peter [Ing.-Buero Kesselring, Rheinfelden (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The installed turbine is a Kaplan type with a horizontal axis. The 4 blades of the runner and the runner's cover are manufactured in stainless steel, having a diameter of 6 100 mm. The circle of guide vanes is driven by two hydraulic servos and can be closed in an emergency situation by an additional 11 to weight. (orig.)

  14. Integrated turbine bypass system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.H.; Dickenson, R.J.; Parry, W.T.; Retzlaff, K.M.

    1982-07-01

    Turbine steam-flow bypasses have been used for years in various sizes and applications. Because of differing system requirements, their use has been more predominant in Europe than in the United States. Recently, some utilities and consulting engineers have been re-evaluating their need for various types of bypass operation in fossil-fuelled power plants.

  15. The gas turbine - a bundle of energy - requires tender care

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarinen, J.; Uronen, J.; Leisio, C. [ed.

    1997-11-01

    The ability of a power plant to generate energy economically depends to a great extent on the functioning of the turbine. These days, an increasingly large number of these power plant `motors` are gas turbines. IVO`s expertise in the operation, maintenance and repair of gas turbines is based on long practical experience and the company`s own research. And IVO is also no stranger to the design and construction of new gas turbine plants

  16. Evaluation of power investment decisions under uncertain carbon policy: A case study for converting coal fired steam turbine to combined cycle gas turbine plants in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahnazari, Mahdi; McHugh, Adam; Maybee, Bryan; Whale, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Policy uncertainty effects quantified in Australian power generation investments. • A decision criterion provided to recommend optimal investment timing. • The Clean Energy Act 2011 and high carbon price policy scenarios investigated. • Post- implementation policy uncertainty creates disincentive for policy objectives. • Setting a higher carbon price may dampen effects of political uncertainty. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) intensive fuels are currently a major input into the Australian electricity sector. Accordingly, climate change mitigation policies represent a systematic risk to investment in electricity generation assets. Although the Australian government introduced carbon pricing in 2012 and announced a commitment to the continuation of the Kyoto protocol beyond 2012, the opposition at the time signalled that should they be provided the opportunity they would repeal these policies. This paper uses a real options analysis (ROA) framework to investigate the optimal timing of one potential business response to carbon pricing: investment in the conversion of coal plant to lower emission CCGT plant. An American-style option valuation method is used for this purpose. The viewpoint is from that of a private investor assessing three available options for an existing coal plant: (1) to invest in its conversion to CCGT; (2) to abandon it, or; (3) to take no immediate action. The method provides a decision criterion that informs the investor whether or not to delay the investment. The effect of market and political uncertainty is studied for both the Clean Energy Act 2011 (CEA) and high carbon price (HCP) policy scenarios. The results of the modelling suggest that political uncertainty after the implementation of carbon pricing impedes the decision to switch to cleaner technologies. However, this effect can be mitigated by implementing higher expected carbon prices

  17. VAP3D: a software for dosimetric analysis and visualization of phantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2011-01-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry of the ionizing radiation, usually called voxel phantom, are produced from image stacks CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from patient or volunteer scanning. These phantoms are the geometry to be radiated in the computing arrangements of exposure, using a Monte Carlo code, allowing the estimation of the energy deposited in each voxel of the virtual body. From these data collected in the simulation, it is possible to evaluate the average absorbed dose in various organs and tissues radiosensitive cataloged by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Therefore, a computational model of the exhibition is constituted primarily by the Monte Carlo code to simulate the transport, deposition and interaction of radiation and the phantom being irradiated. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computer skills like a transformation format of images, compression of 2D images for 3D image construction, quantization, resampling and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often this results in a decrease in the pace of their research or the use, sometimes inadequate, the alternative tools. This paper presents the VAP3D (Visualization and Analysis of Phantoms), a software developed with Qt/VTK with C++, in order to operationalize some of the tasks mentioned above. The current version has been based on DIP software (Digital Imaging Processing), containing the File menu, Conversions and tools, where the user interacts with the software. (author)

  18. Advanced LP turbine blade design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, M.; Pfeiffer, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1990-01-01

    In the 1960's and early 1970's, the development of steam turbines for the utility industry was mainly influenced by the demand for increasing unit sizes. Nuclear plants in particular, required the design of LP turbines with large annulus areas for substantial mass and volumetric steam flows. Since then the development of more efficient LP turbines became an ongoing challenge. Extensive R and D work was performed in order to build efficient and reliable LP turbines often exposed to severe corrosion, erosion and dynamic excitation conditions. This task led to the introduction of an advanced disk-type rotor design for 1800 rpm LP turbines and the application of a more efficient, reaction-type blading for all steam turbine sections including the first stages of LP turbines. The most recent developments have resulted in an advanced design of large LP turbine blading, typically used in the last three stages of each LP turbine flow section. Development of such blading required detailed knowledge of the three dimensional, largely transonic, flow conditions of saturated steam. Also the precise assessment of blade stressing from dynamic conditions, such as speed and torsional resonance, as well as stochastic and aerodynamic excitation is of extreme importance

  19. Metallurgical failure analysis for a blade failed in a gas-turbine engine of a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, Zainul

    2009-01-01

    The failed gas-turbine blades (first stage blades) (type Siemens V94.2 KWU) were acquired from TNB Research Sdn. Bhd: a subsidiary of Malaysian power-generation industry (TNB, Malaysia). The blades were sectioned for metallographic investigations. The microstructural characterization involved use of both optical as well as electron microscopes including application of EPMA technique. The Microstructures were compared for three spots selection i.e. leading edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), trailing edge of the blade (transverse and longitudinal), and centre (near the platform of the blade) (transverse and longitudinal). The material properties and behavior at high temperature were interpreted on the basis of the observed microstructures and the phases present in the alloy. The interpretations were related to the operating conditions of the turbine blade; and main cause of failure was found to be creep damage. Recommendations have been made for improved material performance.

  20. Operating Point Optimization of a Hydrogen Fueled Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell-Steam Turbine (SOFC-ST Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanjo Ugartemendia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a hydrogen powered hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-steam turbine (SOFC-ST system and studies its optimal operating conditions. This type of installation can be very appropriate to complement the intermittent generation of renewable energies, such as wind generation. A dynamic model of an alternative hybrid SOFC-ST configuration that is especially suited to work with hydrogen is developed. The proposed system recuperates the waste heat of the high temperature fuel cell, to feed a bottoming cycle (BC based on a steam turbine (ST. In order to optimize the behavior and performance of the system, a two-level control structure is proposed. Two controllers have been implemented for the stack temperature and fuel utilization factor. An upper supervisor generates optimal set-points in order to reach a maximal hydrogen efficiency. The simulation results obtained show that the proposed system allows one to reach high efficiencies at rated power levels.

  1. Comparative Genomics of Rhodococcus equi Virulence Plasmids Indicates Host-Driven Evolution of the vap Pathogenicity Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacArthur, Iain; Anastasi, Elisa; Alvarez, Sonsiray; Scortti, Mariela; Vázquez-Boland, José A

    2017-05-01

    The conjugative virulence plasmid is a key component of the Rhodococcus equi accessory genome essential for pathogenesis. Three host-associated virulence plasmid types have been identified the equine pVAPA and porcine pVAPB circular variants, and the linear pVAPN found in bovine (ruminant) isolates. We recently characterized the R. equi pangenome (Anastasi E, et al. 2016. Pangenome and phylogenomic analysis of the pathogenic actinobacterium Rhodococcus equi. Genome Biol Evol. 8:3140-3148.) and we report here the comparative analysis of the virulence plasmid genomes. Plasmids within each host-associated type were highly similar despite their diverse origins. Variation was accounted for by scattered single nucleotide polymorphisms and short nucleotide indels, while larger indels-mostly in the plasticity region near the vap pathogencity island (PAI)-defined plasmid genomic subtypes. Only one of the plasmids analyzed, of pVAPN type, was exceptionally divergent due to accumulation of indels in the housekeeping backbone. Each host-associated plasmid type carried a unique PAI differing in vap gene complement, suggesting animal host-specific evolution of the vap multigene family. Complete conservation of the vap PAI was observed within each host-associated plasmid type. Both diversity of host-associated plasmid types and clonality of specific chromosomal-plasmid genomic type combinations were observed within the same R. equi phylogenomic subclade. Our data indicate that the overall strong conservation of the R. equi host-associated virulence plasmids is the combined result of host-driven selection, lateral transfer between strains, and geographical spread due to international livestock exchanges. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  3. Optimal design of marine steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chengyang; Yan Changqi; Wang Jianjun

    2012-01-01

    The marine steam turbine is one of the key equipment in marine power plant, and it tends to using high power steam turbine, which makes the steam turbine to be heavier and larger, it causes difficulties to the design and arrangement of the steam turbine, and the marine maneuverability is seriously influenced. Therefore, it is necessary to apply optimization techniques to the design of the steam turbine in order to achieve the minimum weight or volume by means of finding the optimum combination of design parameters. The math model of the marine steam turbine design calculation was established. The sensitivities of condenser pressure, power ratio of HP turbine with LP turbine, and the ratio of diameter with height at the end stage of LP turbine, which influence the weight of the marine steam turbine, were analyzed. The optimal design of the marine steam turbine, aiming at the weight minimization while satisfying the structure and performance constraints, was carried out with the hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results show that, steam turbine weight is reduced by 3.13% with the optimization scheme. Finally, the optimization results were analyzed, and the steam turbine optimization design direction was indicated. (authors)

  4. Evaluation of different turbine concepts for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Sandra; Bernhoff, Hans; Leijon, Mats [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity and Lightning Research, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    Every year the number of installed wind power plants in the world increases. The horizontal axis wind turbine is the most common type of turbine but there exist other types. Here, three different wind turbines are considered; the horizontal axis wind turbine and two different concepts of vertical axis wind turbines; the Darrieus turbine and the H-rotor. This paper aims at making a comparative study of these three different wind turbines from the most important aspects including structural dynamics, control systems, maintenance, manufacturing and electrical equipment. A case study is presented where three different turbines are compared to each other. Furthermore, a study of blade areas for different turbines is presented. The vertical axis wind turbine appears to be advantageous to the horizontal axis wind turbine in several aspects. (author)

  5. Profitability aspects of combined power/heat plants based on the example of a gas turbine; Wirtschaftlichkeitsbetrachtungen ueber KWK-Anlagen am Beispiel einer Gasturbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimek, W. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany)

    1998-04-01

    The efficiency of a combined power/heat plant is treated in an example relating to a gas turbine. An important prior condition for optimum planning of a combined power/heat plant is assessment of the current position in addition to a demand analysis. Constituting a vital planning instrument for the process are systematic annual continuous curves in respect of electricity and heat. Aided by a PC software program it is possible, on the basis of a few key figures, to establish whether a detailed study is able to bring about any economical solution. In addition, a primary-energy and emission balance-sheet is compiled illustrating the advantages to be gained from combined power/heat systems of relevance to the environment. A sensitivity analysis shows main influential factors exercised on the efficiency of the gas turbine project. As might be expected, the greatest influenc eon profitability comes from the electricity proceeds, the price of fuel and capital costs. Finally, different financing models for combined power/heat plants are discussed along with a price safeguarding method. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Wirtschaftlichkeit einer KWK-Anlage wird am Beispiel einer Gasturbine erlaeutert. Wichtige Voraussetzung fuer die optimale Planung einer KWK-Anlage ist die Bestandsaufnahme mit Bedarfsanalyse. Ein entscheidendes Planungsinstrument stellen hierbei geordnete Jahresdauerlinien fuer Strom und Waerme dar. Mit Hilfe eines PC-Programms kann anhand weniger Eckdaten festgestellt werden, ob eine Detailbetrachtung zu einer wirtschaftlichen Loesung fuehren koennte. Zusaetzlich wird eine Primaerenergie- und Emissionsbilanz erstellt, die die umweltrelevanten Vorteile der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung verdeutlicht. Eine Sensitivitaetsanalyse zeigt Haupteinflussfaktoren auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit des Gasturbinenprojektes. Die Stromgutschrift, der Brennstoffpreis und die Investitionskosten ueben erwartungsgemaess den groessten Einfluss auf die Wirtschaftlichkeit aus. Abschliessend werden

  6. Problems of steam turbine diagnostics and the 'Simens' diagnosis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tserner, V.; Andrea, K.

    1993-01-01

    Diagnostics system, allowing one to detect changes in the state on single turbine elements at an early stage is described. Besides this system allows one to utilize the turbine plant optimally and efficiency from the viewpoint of the equipment durability. Specially oriented monitoring of the turbine plant and equipment element state saves resources necessary to keep up the working order of the equipment

  7. A wood-waste fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill application. Phase 1. Preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    Most sawmills generate more than enough wood waste to be potentially self-sufficient in both dry-kiln heat and electricity requirements. It is not generally economically viable to use conventional steam/electricty cogeneration systems at the sawmill scale of operation. As a result, Canadian sawmills are still large consumers of purchased fuels and electricity. The overall objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective wood waste-fired power generation and lumber drying system for sawmill applications. The system proposed and evaluated in this project is a wood waste-fuelled, indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant. Research, design, and development of the system has been planned to take place in a number of phases. Phase 1 consists of a preliminary engineering design and financial evaluation of the system, the subjects of this report. The results indicate that the proposed indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration system is both technically and financially feasible under a variety of conditions. 8 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Evolution of gas turbine SGT5-4000F. Experiences at combined cycle plant Mainz-Wiesbaden; Die Evolution der Gasturbine SGT5-4000F. Erfahrungen im GuD-Kraftwerk Mainz-Wiesbaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taud, R.; Kreyenberg, O. [Siemens Power Generation, Nuernberg (Germany); Thun, O. [Kraftwerke Mainz-Wiesbaden AG, Mainz (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Large combined-cycle plants using natural gas emerged as the outstanding trend in electricity production in the 1990s. Pacemaker for this development has been modern gas turbine technology. High efficiency and reliability, low emissions, high operating and fuel flexibility at low investment, together with short construction times, provide extremely attractive features to the customer. (orig.)

  9. Type IV Wind Turbine Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Margaris, Ioannis D.

    . In the project, this wind turbine model will be further incorporated in a wind power plant model together with the implementation in the wind power control level of the new control functionalities (inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping). For this purpose an aggregate wind power plant......This document is created as part of the EaseWind project. The goal of this project is to develop and investigate new control features for primary response provided by wind power plants. New control features as inertial response, synchronising power and power system damping are of interest to EaseWind...... project to be incorporated in the wind power plant level. This document describes the Type 4 wind turbine simulation model, implemented in the EaseWind project. The implemented wind turbine model is one of the initial necessary steps toward integrating new control services in the wind power plant level...

  10. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  11. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  12. Hydro turbine rehab benefits from modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, D.R.; Veatch, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    The turbine aging process, while seemingly imperceptible, inevitably results in reduced turbine efficiency and capacity. The primary causes of these reductions are runner hydraulic profile changes during weld repairs, surface finish deterioration from cavitation, and runner seal clearance increases due to wear. Many aging turbines require more frequent repairs due to runner cavitation, and wicket gate mechanism, shaft seal, and guide bearing wear. In many instances turbine component repair can be performed in-place. On older units, runner seals, wicket gate bearings, and wicket gate end seals can be repaired only when the turbine is disassembled. Since the significant cost to disassemble and overhaul units must be offset by future maintenance savings and generation increases, turbine rehabilitation is often postponed as owners consider other alternatives. Rehabilitation is a general term used to describe a wide range of turbine reconditioning and design alternatives. Turbine rehabilitation can include a major overhaul of components, runner replacement, and component modifications. Deteriorated runners can be replaced with either a new identical runner or a new modern design having increased efficiency and capacity. The comparative turbine performance of an original, existing, and a modern runner design are shown in this paper. Component overhauls can extend turbine life and restore original efficiency and capacity to existing units. However, the overhaul of existing components cannot increase plant capacity and generation above the as-new values. As a result, owners of aging plants are considering the benefits of replacing existing turbines with modern, more efficient, higher capacity turbines, or expanding the sites. Where expansion is not feasible, hydroelectric power plant owners are finding that turbine rehabilitation is the most cost-effective method to increase plant value and life

  13. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural

    2008-07-01

    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  14. Horizon Expansion of Thermal-Hydraulic Activities into HTGR Safety Analysis Including Gas-Turbine Cycle and Hydrogen Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, Hee Cheon; Yoon, Ho Joon; Kim, Seung Jun; Lee, Byeng Jin; Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Hyeun Min; Lim, Hong Sik

    2009-01-01

    We present three nuclear/hydrogen-related R and D activities being performed at KAIST: air-ingressed LOCA analysis code development, gas turbine analysis tool development, and hydrogen-production system analysis model development. The ICE numerical technique widely used for the safety analysis of water-reactors is successfully implemented into GAMMA, with which we solve the basic equations for continuity, momentum conservation, energy conservation of the gas mixture, and mass conservation of 6 species (He, N2, O2, CO, CO2, and H2O). GAMMA has been extensively validated using data from 14 test facilities. We developed a tool to predict the characteristics of HTGR helium turbines based on the through flow calculation with a Newton- Raphson method that overcomes the weakness of the conventional method based on the successive iteration scheme. It is found that the current method reaches stable and quick convergence even under the off-normal condition with the same degree of accuracy. The dynamic equations for the distillation column of HI process are described with 4 material components involved in the HI process: H2O, HI, I2, H2. For the HI process we improved the Neumann model based on the NRTL (Non-Random Two-Liquid) model. The improved Neumann model predicted a total pressure with 8.6% maximum relative deviation from the data and 2.5% mean relative deviation, and liquid-liquid-separation with 9.52% maximum relative deviation from the data

  15. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  16. Probability and containment of turbine missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, G.C.K.

    1976-01-01

    With the trend toward ever larger power generating plants with large high-speed turbines, an important plant design consideration is the potential for and consequences of mechanical failure of turbine rotors. Such rotor failure could result in high-velocity disc fragments (turbine missiles) perforating the turbine casing and jeopardizing vital plant systems. The designer must first estimate the probability of any turbine missile damaging any safety-related plant component for his turbine and his plant arrangement. If the probability is not low enough to be acceptable to the regulatory agency, he must design a shield to contain the postulated turbine missiles. Alternatively, the shield could be designed to retard (to reduce the velocity of) the missiles such that they would not damage any vital plant system. In this paper, some of the presently available references that can be used to evaluate the probability, containment and retardation of turbine missiles are reviewed; various alternative methods are compared; and subjects for future research are recommended. (Auth.)

  17. Probabilistic methodology for turbine missile risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twisdale, L.A.; Dunn, W.L.; Frank, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology has been developed for estimation of the probabilities of turbine-generated missile damage to nuclear power plant structures and systems. Mathematical models of the missile generation, transport, and impact events have been developed and sequenced to form an integrated turbine missile simulation methodology. Probabilistic Monte Carlo techniques are used to estimate the plant impact and damage probabilities. The methodology has been coded in the TURMIS computer code to facilitate numerical analysis and plant-specific turbine missile probability assessments. Sensitivity analyses have been performed on both the individual models and the integrated methodology, and probabilities have been estimated for a hypothetical nuclear power plant case study. (orig.)

  18. Use of VAP3D software in the construction of pathological anthropomorphic phantoms for dosimetric evaluations; Uso do software VAP3D na construcao de fantomas antropomorficos patologicos para avaliacoes dosimetricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Lindeval Fernandes de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (DEM/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica; Vieira, Jose Wilson [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Lima, Fernando R.A., E-mail: falima@cnen.gov.b [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    This paper performs a new type of dosimetric evaluation, where it was used a phantom of pathological voxels (representative phantom of sick person). The software VAP3D (Visualization and Analysis of Phantoms 3D) were used for, from a healthy phantom (phantom representative of healthy person), to introduce three dimensional regions to simulate tumors. It was used the Monte Carlo ESGnrc code to simulate the X ray photon transport, his interaction with matter and evaluation of absorbed dose in organs and tissues from thorax region of the healthy phantom and his pathological version. This is a computer model of typical exposure for programming the treatments in radiodiagnostic

  19. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  20. Fracture toughness evaluation of elastic-plastic J-integral for high temperature components of gas turbine in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Nam Yong; Kim, Moon Young; Kim, Jong Woo

    1999-01-01

    In the study, the analysis of elastic-plastic J-integral was performed in high temperature components for gas turbine based on elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. It had been operated on the range of about 700 deg C and degraded by high temperature. It was tested for material properties of used component because of material properties changing at high temperature condition. The elastic-plastic fracture mechanics parameter, J is obtained with finite element method. A method is suggested which determines J Ic applying analysis of elastic-plastic finite element method and results of experimental load-displacements with CT specimen. It is also investigated that J-integral is applied for the elastic-plastic analysis in high temperature components. The elastic-plastic fracture toughness. J Ic determined by finite element was obtained with high accuracy using the experimental method.=20

  1. Wood-waste fuelled indirectly-fired gas turbine cogeneration plant for sawmill applications. Phase 2. Site-specific preliminary engineering and financial analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-01

    The use of conventional steam/electricity cogeneration systems is not generally economical at the sawmill scale of operation. This paper describes an evaluation of a wood-waste fueled and, indirectly, gas fired turbine cogeneration plant aimed at developing a cost-effective wood-waste fired power generation and dry kiln heating system for sawmill applications. A preliminary engineering design and financial analysis of the system was prepared for a demonstration site in British Columbia. A number of alternative system configurations were identified and preliminary engineering designs prepared for each. In the first option , wood wastes combusted in a wet cell hot gas generator powered a 600 kW turbine, and produced 7,000 kW for the drying kilns. The second option provided the same electrical and heat output but used a down-fired suspension burner unit fuelled by clean, dried sawdust, together with an integral air heater heat exchanger. The third option represented a commercial-scale configuration with an electrical output of 1,800 kW, and sufficient heat output for the dry kilns. A financial analyis based on a computerized feasibility model was carried out on the last two options. Low electricity rates in British Columbia combined with the small scale of a demonstration project provide an inadequate rate of return at the site without substantial outside support. At a commercial scale of operation and with the higher electricity prices that exist outside of British Columbia the financial analysis indicates that the incremental investment in the electric generation portion of the system provides very attractive rates of return for the 3 options. 11 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Simulation of the turbine trip of Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant using the code Simulate-3K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria A, A.; Filio L, C.; Ortiz V, J.

    2017-09-01

    In order to compare the results obtained from the model developed in the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) with the code Simulate-3K (S3K) with respect to those reported by the process computer of the Central (SIIP), the simulation of the turbine trip transient was carried out, caused by the firing of the main generator, the low differential pressure of oil of its seals and the automatic Scram of Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant, at 87% of power nominal during the operation cycle 16. Since the reactor was brought to a safe stop due to Scram, was enough to simulate 20 seconds to observe the maximum increase in pressure with S3K. In this work, the following parameters are shown and compared: the neutron flux, the thermal power, the pressure in the dome, the flow at the entrance to the core, the steam flow that leaves the vessel and the minimal critical power ratio (MCPR). The neutron flux of the average power range monitors of the nuclear power plant was compared with the S3K detectors model. Finally, the MCPR was calculated with a different correlation to that of the fuel supplier and its deviation from its safety limit was determined. In conclusion, the results obtained show the current state of the model for the simulation of reactivity transients and the opportunity areas to consolidate this tool in support of the process of licensing refueling in the CNSNS. (Author)

  3. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  4. Wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Jr., Marvin C.

    1982-01-01

    A wind turbine of the type having an airfoil blade (15) mounted on a flexible beam (20) and a pitch governor (55) which selectively, torsionally twists the flexible beam in response to wind turbine speed thereby setting blade pitch, is provided with a limiter (85) which restricts unwanted pitch change at operating speeds due to torsional creep of the flexible beam. The limiter allows twisting of the beam by the governor under excessive wind velocity conditions to orient the blades in stall pitch positions, thereby preventing overspeed operation of the turbine. In the preferred embodiment, the pitch governor comprises a pendulum (65,70) which responds to changing rotor speed by pivotal movement, the limiter comprising a resilient member (90) which engages an end of the pendulum to restrict further movement thereof, and in turn restrict beam creep and unwanted blade pitch misadjustment.

  5. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenglarz, R.A.

    1994-08-01

    Several technology advances since the early coal-fueled turbine programs that address technical issues of coal as a turbine fuel have been developed in the early 1980s: Coal-water suspensions as fuel form, improved methods for removing ash and contaminants from coal, staged combustion for reducing NO{sub x} emissions from fuel-bound nitrogen, and greater understanding of deposition/erosion/corrosion and their control. Several Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Systems programs were awarded to gas turbine manufacturers for for components development and proof of concept tests; one of these was Allison. Tests were conducted in a subscale coal combustion facility and a full-scale facility operating a coal combustor sized to the Allison Model 501-K industrial turbine. A rich-quench-lean (RQL), low nitrogen oxide combustor design incorporating hot gas cleanup was developed for coal fuels; this should also be applicable to biomass, etc. The combustor tests showed NO{sub x} and CO emissions {le} levels for turbines operating with natural gas. Water washing of vanes from the turbine removed the deposits. Systems and economic evaluations identified two possible applications for RQL turbines: Cogeneration plants based on Allison 501-K turbine (output 3.7 MW(e), 23,000 lbs/hr steam) and combined cycle power plants based on 50 MW or larger gas turbines. Coal-fueled cogeneration plant configurations were defined and evaluated for site specific factors. A coal-fueled turbine combined cycle plant design was identified which is simple, compact, and results in lower capital cost, with comparable efficiency and low emissions relative to other coal technologies (gasification, advanced PFBC).

  6. Thermodynamic, ecological and economic aspects of the use of the gas turbine for heat supply to the stripping process in a supercritical CHP plant integrated with a carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartela, Łukasz; Skorek-Osikowska, Anna; Kotowicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Variants of integration of CHP plant with CCS and gas turbine unit were analyzed. • The simulations of operation of plants under changing load were realized. • Conditions of competitiveness for all solutions were identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach values >60 €/MgCO 2 . - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermodynamic and economic analyses for eight variants of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant fuelled with coal working under supercritical steam parameters and integrated with a CO 2 capture installation and a gas turbine system. The motivation behind using a gas turbine in the system was to generate steam to supply heat for the stripping process that occurs in the separation installation to regenerate the sorbent. Additional analyses were conducted for the reference case, a CHP unit in which the CO 2 separation process was not conducted, to enable an economic evaluation of the integration of a CHP unit with a CO 2 separation installation according to the variants proposed. The break-even price of electricity and avoided emission costs were used to evaluate the respective solutions. In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation indicators in terms of the change in the annual operation time, price of emission allowance and heat demand rate for the realization of the stripping process for all cases are presented

  7. Nuclear steam turbines for power production in combination with heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frilund, B.; Knudsen, K.

    1977-01-01

    The general operating conditions for nuclear steam turbines in district heating system are briefly outlined. The turbine plant can consist of essentially the same types of machines as in conventional district heating systems. Some possible arrangements of back-pressure turbines, back-pressure turbines with condensing tails, or condensing turbines with heat extraction are considered for nuclear power and heat stations. Principles of control for hot water temperature and electrical output are described. Optimization of the plant, considering parallel variations during the year between heat load, cooling water temperature, and required outgoing temperature is discussed. (U.K.)

  8. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  9. MAINTAINANCE OF KAPLAN TURBINE TO ENHANCE THE EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Shakti Prasanna Khadanga*; Nitish Kumar; Milind Kumar Singh; L. Raj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Hydro power plant is the source of renewable energy which leads to reduction in burning of fossil fuels. So the environment is no longer polluted. This project depicts how sediment erosion occurs in Kaplan turbine and the various components of Kaplan turbine where actually erosion takes place. It reduces efficiency [7] and life of hydro power turbine but also causes problems in operations and maintenance. We conducted some necessary test on Kaplan turbine in fluid power laboratory. We are d...

  10. High-power condensation turbine application to district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virchenko, M.A.; Arkad'ev, B.A.; Ioffe, V.Yu.

    1982-01-01

    In general outline the role of condensation turbines in NPP district heating is considered. The expediency of expansion of central heating loading of turbines of operating as well as newly designed condensation power plants on the basis of the WWER-1000-type reactors is shown. The principle heat flowsheet of the 1000 MW power turbine is given. An advantage in using turbines with uncontrolled steam bleeding is pointed out [ru

  11. Turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Sliter, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designers are required to provide safety-related components with adequate protection against hypothetical turbine-missile impacts. In plants with a ''peninsula'' arrangement, protection is provided by installing the turbine axis radially from the reactor building, so that potential missile trajectories are not in line with the plant. In plants with a ''non-peninsula'' arrangement (turbine axis perpendicular to a radius), designers rely on the low probability of a missile strike and on the protection provided by reinforced concrete walls in order to demonstrate an adequate level of protection USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.115). One of the critical first steps in demonstrating adequacy is the determination of the energy and spin of the turbine segments as they exit the turbine casing. The spin increases the probability that a subsequent impact with a protective barrier will be off-normal and therefore less severe than the normal impact assumed in plant designs. Two full-scale turbine-missile casing exit tests which were conducted by Sandia Laboratories at their rocket-sled facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are described. Because of wide variations in turbine design details, postulated failure conditions, and missile exit scenarios, the conditions for the two tests were carefully selected to be as prototypical as possible, while still maintaining the well-controlled and well-characterized test conditions needed for generating benchmark data

  12. Thermodynamic Performance Analysis of a Biogas-Fuelled Micro-Gas Turbine with a Bottoming Organic Rankine Cycle for Sewage Sludge and Food Waste Treatment Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhee Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Korea, efficient biogas-fuelled power systems are needed to use the excess biogas that is currently burned due to a lack of suitable power technology. We examined the performance of a biogas-fuelled micro-gas turbine (MGT system and a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC. The MGT provides robust operation with low-grade biogas, and the exhaust can be used for heating the biodigester. Similarly, the bottoming ORC generates additional power output with the exhaust gas. We selected a 1000-kW MGT for four co-digestion plants with 28,000-m3 capacity. A 150-kW ORC system was selected for the MGT exhaust gas. We analysed the effects of the system size, methane concentration, and ORC operating conditions. Based on the system performance, we analysed the annual performance of the MGT with a combined heat and power (CHP system, bottoming ORC, or both a bottoming ORC and CHP system. The annual net power outputs for each system were 7.4, 8.5, and 9.0 MWh per year, respectively.

  13. Data-driven wind plant control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebraad, P.M.O.

    2014-01-01

    Each wind turbine in a cluster of wind turbines (a wind power plant) can influence the performance of other turbines through the wake that forms downstream of its rotor. The wake has a reduced wind velocity, since the turbine extracts energy from the flow, and the obstruction by the wind turbine

  14. Across the dam for turbines; Over dammen etter turbiner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Marte

    2010-07-01

    Raanaasfoss is one step closer to upgrading. Model testing in the U.S. have now shown that the upgrade can provide approximately 20 G Wh higher production per year. The power plant is 90 years old and is to be upgraded by six new turbines and generators. Buildings and dams are to remain. (AG)

  15. Improving fish survival through turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Much of what is known about fish passage through hydroturbines has been developed by studying migratory species of fish passing through large Kaplan turbine units. A review of the literature on previous fish passage research presented in the accompanying story illustrates that studies have focused on determining mortality levels, rather than identifying the causal mechanism involved. There is a need for understanding how turbine designs could be altered to improve fish passage conditions, how to retrofit existing units, and how proposed hydro plant operational changes may affect fish survival. The US Army Corps of Engineers has developed a research program to define biologically based engineering criteria for improving fish passage conditions. Turbine designs incorporating these criteria can be evaluated for their effects on fish survival, engineering issues, costs, and power production. The research program has the following objectives: To gain a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of fish mortality; To define the biological sensitivities of key fish species to these mechanisms of mortality; To develop new turbine design criteria to reduce fish mortality; To construct prototype turbine designs, and to test these designs for fish passage, hydro-mechanical operation, and power production; and To identify construction and power costs associated with new turbine designs

  16. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  17. Best possible cycle chemistry control in steam turbine plants; Baesta moejliga oevervakning av vattenkemin i anlaeggningar med aangturbin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Mats [Hellman Vatten AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    A project has been conducted of a large number of power and pulp plants in Sweden. Production managers and those responsible for water quality control were visited and interviewed. In addition, a research of cycle chemistry literature has been conducted to determine what has been done in other countries. The review of this literature shows that the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA and ESKOM in South Africa are in the forefront regarding QA/QC and have come a long way in water control management. A key requirement for successful plant cycle chemistry is corporate management support. The project makes it clear that cycle chemistry control was best at plants where production management was aware of the importance of high water quality. There is a real need for feed water technique and water quality education at all company levels. The objective should be that 'everyone should know the importance of right water quality'. Personnel without an education in chemistry often regard cycle chemistry as somewhat complicated. Better understanding and better working cycle chemistry control can be obtained by making the control easier and clearer for persons without training in chemistry. Extensive on-line instrumentation with well-designed systems for presenting the data, by-far, gives the best cycle chemistry control. It is important to have a holistic view when water treatment systems and on-line instrumentation are planned. It is not the amount of instruments or the number of chemistry personnel that is important. The important thing is to ensure that all functions needed fit together in the best way possible. Today, when cycle chemistry monitoring is heavily dependent on on-line instrumentation, the reliability of the instruments is crucial. Therefore, it is important to have well-established routines for maintenance, calibration and service. In order to decrease forced outages of plants due to poor cycle chemistry, the focus of chemistry control should

  18. Thermo-economic analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell and steam injected gas turbine plant integrated with woodchips gasification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzucco, Andrea; Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    cost on the generation cost is also presented. In order to discuss the investment cost, an economic analysis has been carried out and main parameters such as Net Present Value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and Time of Return of Investment (TIR) are calculated and discussed.......% respectively which are significantly greater than conventional 10 MWe plants fed by biomass. Thermo-economic analysis provides an average cost of electricity for best performing layouts close to 6.4 and 9.4 c€/kWe which is competitive within the market. A sensitivity analysis of the influence of SOFC stack...

  19. Crystal Structure of the VapBC Toxin–Antitoxin Complex from Shigella flexneri Reveals a Hetero-Octameric DNA-Binding Assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dienemann, Christian; Bøggild, Andreas; Winther, Kristoffer S.

    2011-01-01

    the crystal structure of the intact Shigella flexneri VapBC TA complex, determined to 2.7 Å resolution. Both in solution and in the crystal structure, four molecules of each protein combine to form a large and globular hetero-octameric assembly with SpoVT/AbrB-type DNA-binding domains at each end and a total...

  20. Turbine stage model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantsev, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    A model of turbine stage for calculations of NPP turbine department dynamics in real time was developed. The simulation results were compared with manufacturer calculations for NPP low-speed and fast turbines. The comparison results have shown that the model is valid for real time simulation of all modes of turbines operation. The model allows calculating turbine stage parameters with 1% accuracy. It was shown that the developed turbine stage model meets the accuracy requirements if the data of turbine blades setting angles for all turbine stages are available [ru

  1. Manufacturing of welded polyblock turbine rotors for pressurized water reactor nuclear plants; Optimization of the steel grade; Effect of impurities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisseloup, J.; Poitrault, I.S.; De Badereau, A.; Bocquet, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Le Creusot Heavy Forge has been manufacturing low-pressure (LP) disks and shaft ends for 1300-MW nuclear power plants. These forgings, in weldable 1.8Cr-1Ni-0.8Mo steel, are welded by Alsthom Atlantique. With the aim of improved quality, homogeneity of mechanical properties, hardenability, and weldability, this metallurgical research has been carried out: 1. Optimization of the steel grade (the effect of silicon, manganese, and molybdenum). 2. The influence of tempering and stress relief treatment parameters. 3. The effect of impurities. These studies have led the Steel Melting Shop of Creusot-Loire Factory to invest in a high-performance process of steelmaking: the heating ladle refining process. This new process has had spectacular results that have been confirmed by investigations on cut-up industrial forgings

  2. Some aspects of optimising the reactor core for a 600 MW(e) high temperature helium turbine power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, U; Presser, W

    1972-04-24

    For the HHT 600 MW(e) power plant a core design with Triagonal blocks containing 24 channels with directly cooled fuel pins was considered. The design was found to require a low HM loading in the fuel zone to achieve favourable economic merits. For low HM densities a strong incentive exists to aim for burn-ups between 80 and 100 GWd/t. At the present an average discharge irradiation of 80 GWd/t was thought feasible and a reference design with a HM density of 0.6 g/cm {sup 3} in both core zones was chosen. The optimisation is not likely to be upset by local hot channel effects as a special investigation into the influence of safety margins found no changes in fuel cycle economics.

  3. Grid integration impacts on wind turbine design and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overall perspective on contemporary issues like wind power plants and grid integration. The purpose is to present and discuss the impacts of emerging new grid connection requirements on modern wind turbines. The grid integration issue has caused several new challenges......, the grid integration aspect has also an effect on wind turbines' role in the power system, on wind turbine technologies' survival on the market, as well as on the wind turbines' loads. Over the last years, it became obviously, that there it is an increasing need for design and research of wind turbines...... to the wind turbine design and development. The survival of different wind turbine concepts and controls is strongly conditioned by their ability to comply with stringent grid connection requirements, imposed by utility companies. Beside its impact on the mechanical design and control of wind turbines...

  4. Focusing millimeter wave radar for radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines; Fokussierendes Radarverfahren im Millimeterwellenbereich zur Radialspaltmessung in Kraftwerksturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicht, Andreas

    2011-07-11

    In this work a method for spatially resolved radial gap measurements in power plant combustion turbines by means of an autofocusing imaging radar technique in the millimeter wave range was developed and verified experimentally. The radial gap measurement has been subject of engineering studies for many years, as a reliable, simple solution does not seem to be possible due to the given boundary conditions. These include on the one hand the adverse measurement conditions such as high temperature and pressure, corrosive atmosphere and high speed of motion. On the other hand, the geometrical structure of the rotor blades at their tips turns out to be a key problem for the distance measurement. In particular, the blade tip is composed of small extended portions forming thin ribs of only a few millimeters width. Many established distance sensors like e. g. capacitive sensors cannot detect the correct tip clearance of the blade edge independently from other structures on the blade end only due to their large surface area and thus their lack of spatial resolution. The problem of small structure sizes is overcome by choosing a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in the millimeter wave range capable of resolving the edges of a typical blade tip. The clearance is determined by measuring the reflection at the blade tip while passing by the antenna, subsequently focusing the data by means of a matched filter operation and interpreting the phase of the blade edge reflection according to the CW radar principle. For this, an autofocus approach was developed, which provides an estimate of the clearance as a first result, which is utilized to overcome the phase ambiguity and thus to increase the measurement range. The autofocus algorithm applies a weighted phase gradient of the point-like blade edge reflection as cost function and sensitive indicator for the focal quality.

  5. Design of CO{sub 2} absorption plant for recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofarahi, Masoud [Chemical Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr (Iran); Khojasteh, Yaser; Khaledi, Hiwa; Farahnak, Arsalan [Delta Consultant Engineering Group, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    The ongoing human-induced emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) threatens to change the earth's climate. A major factor in global warming is CO{sub 2} emission from thermal power plants, which burn fossil fuels. One possible way of decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is to apply CO{sub 2} removal, which involves recovering of CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes. This study is focused on recovery of CO{sub 2} from gas turbine exhaust of Sarkhun gas refinery power station. The purpose of this study is to recover the CO{sub 2} with minimum energy requirement. Many of CO{sub 2} recovery processes from flue gases have been studied. Among all CO{sub 2} recovery processes which were studied, absorption process was selected as the optimum one, due to low CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas. The design parameters considered in this regard, are: selection of suitable solvent, solvent concentration, solvent circulation rate, reboiler and condenser duty and number of stages in absorber and stripper columns. In the design of this unit, amine solvent such as, diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and monoethanolamine (MEA) were considered and the effect of main parameters on the absorption and stripping columns is presented. Some results with simultaneous changing of the design variables have been obtained. The results show that DGA is the best solvent with minimum energy requirement for recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  6. Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesph Fadok

    2008-01-01

    Siemens has developed a roadmap to achieve the DOE goals for efficiency, cost reduction, and emissions through innovative approaches and novel technologies which build upon worldwide IGCC operational experience, platform technology, and extensive experience in G-class operating conditions. In Phase 1, the technologies and concepts necessary to achieve the program goals were identified for the gas turbine components and supporting technology areas and testing plans were developed to mitigate identified risks. Multiple studies were conducted to evaluate the impact in plant performance of different gas turbine and plant technologies. 2015 gas turbine technologies showed a significant improvement in IGCC plant efficiency, however, a severe performance penalty was calculated for high carbon capture cases. Thermodynamic calculations showed that the DOE 2010 and 2015 efficiency targets can be met with a two step approach. A risk management process was instituted in Phase 1 to identify risk and develop mitigation plans. For the risks identified, testing and development programs are in place and the risks will be revisited periodically to determine if changes to the plan are necessary. A compressor performance prediction has shown that the design of the compressor for the engine can be achieved with additional stages added to the rear of the compressor. Tip clearance effects were studied as well as a range of flow and pressure ratios to evaluate the impacts to both performance and stability. Considerable data was obtained on the four candidate combustion systems: diffusion, catalytic, premix, and distributed combustion. Based on the results of Phase 1, the premixed combustion system and the distributed combustion system were chosen as having the most potential and will be the focus of Phase 2 of the program. Significant progress was also made in obtaining combustion kinetics data for high hydrogen fuels. The Phase 1 turbine studies indicate initial feasibility of the

  7. Power engineering and turbine manufacture in Japan. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanovskij, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    Vapour turbines designs of thermal power plants, including those with increased steam parameters, nuclear power plants, vapour-gas facilities are considered. Data on efficiency of turbofacilities, turbinesmaterials, maneuverability characteristics, releases from gas-turbine facilities are presented. 21 refs.; 6 figs.; 5 tabs

  8. Robust, Gain-Scheduled Control of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck

    Wind turbines are today large and efficient machines, which are combined into wind farms operating on par with conventional power plants. When looking back, this is significantly different from the status only a few years ago, when wind turbines were sold mainly to private people. This change...... in turbine owners has resulted in a new focus on operational reliability instead of turbine size. This research deals with investigating model-based gain-scheduling control of wind turbines by use of linear parameter varying (LPV) methods. The numerical challenges grow quickly with the model size...

  9. Wind Turbine Control: Robust Model Based Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood

    . Wind turbines are the most common wind energy conversion systems and are hoped to be able to compete economically with fossil fuel power plants in near future. However this demands better technology to reduce the price of electricity production. Control can play an essential part in this context....... This is because, on the one hand, control methods can decrease the cost of energy by keeping the turbine close to its maximum efficiency. On the other hand, they can reduce structural fatigue and therefore increase the lifetime of the wind turbine. The power produced by a wind turbine is proportional...... to the square of its rotor radius, therefore it seems reasonable to increase the size of the wind turbine in order to capture more power. However as the size increases, the mass of the blades increases by cube of the rotor size. This means in order to keep structural feasibility and mass of the whole structure...

  10. Gas turbines and operation of gas turbines 2011; Gasturbinen und Gasturbinenbetrieb 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Conference at 11th and 12th May, 2011 in Offenbach/Main (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) The future of high temperature gas turbines in power plants (Konrad Vogeler); (2) Development of reliable thermal barrier coatings for high-loaded turbine and combustor parts (Hans-Peter Bossmann); (3) CCPP Irsching 4 with gas turbine SGT5-8000H, on the way to 60 % CC efficiency (Willibald Fischer); (4) First test results of MAN's new 6 MW gas turbine (Markus Beukenberg); (5) Design characteristics and key thermodynamic parameters of the recuperated 4 MW solar turbines Mercury 50 gas turbines: - Economics and environmental feasibility, - operating experience in combined cycle applications with recuperation (Ulrich Stang); (6) Medium size gas turbines - OEM concept for continued reduction of life cycle costs (Vladimir Navrotsky); (7) Fracture mechanical analysis on fatigue failures of gas turbine components: - Root cause analysis - fracture mechanics - stress corrosion cracking - examples of failure analysis (Peter Verstraete); (8) The effectiveness of blade superalloy reheat treatment (Michael Wood); (9) An innovative combustion technology for high efficient gas turbines (Christian Oliver Paschereit); (10) Damping of thermo-acoustic vibrations in gas turbine combustion chambers (Sermed Sadig); (11) Alstom GT13E2 combustor upgrade for Vattenfalls Berlin Mitte combined heat and power plant (Klaus Doebbeling); (12) Optimisation of air inlet filtration for dust, rain and humidity (Heiko Manstein); (13) Life cycle cost reduction through high efficiency membrane based air intake filters (Helmut Krah); (14) Status and impact of national, European and international standardization on GT plants; GT standardizing status quo? (Gerd Weber); (15) Technical and thermodynamic aspects of compresssed air energy storage (Peter Radgen); (16) Requirements on the gas turbine in the course of time - intelligent OEM-concepts to ensure reliable

  11. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  12. Numerical simulation of a cogeneration plant with micro gas turbine using computational tool EES; Simulacao numerica de uma planta de cogeracao com microturbina a gas natural utilizando ferramenta computacional EES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Guilherme L.B. de; Oliveira, Andrezza C.C.T.; Dutra, Jose C.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Today, the cogeneration of energy has been widely disseminated and presents itself as a very viable alternative for energy savings, reducing CO2 emissions by conducting reuse energy. This study aims to develop a software for simulation, analysis and optimization of a cogeneration system that uses a natural gas turbine as a primary source. The data contained in the software were similar to existing data in a micro-cogeneration plant installed at UFPE and the results showed up in the standard presented by actual plant. We conclude that the software serves as a tool to pre-analysis of the plant of choice for cogeneration equipment to be installed as: pumps, heat exchangers, chillers, cooling towers. (author)

  13. STUDY OF THE ISOLATES OF SUSPECTED VAP, PREVALENCE OF THE DIFFERENT ORGANISMS AND MIC PATTERNS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swagnik Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The development of nosocomial infections mostly ventilator-associated pneumonia due to prolonged stay in the ICUs varies grossly in different outcomes including increased morbidity and mortality. The American Thoracic Society (ATS guidelines recommend that quantitative cultures can be performed on ETA or samples collected either bronchoscopically or nonbronchosopically. 1 More importantly, recent small trials have repeatedly shown that there is no advantage of bronchoscopic cultures over quantitative endotracheal aspirate. 2,3,4 Detection of causative organisms and their antibiotic MIC determination is absolutely necessary to initiate the specific antibiotic with appropriate dose thereby reducing the adverse effects of inadequate antibiotic treatment on the patient prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective study was carried out during the period from August 2012 to January 2015 in Department of Microbiology from the samples those were received as a routine culture from VAP suspected patients from the ICU. There were 373 samples from which 123 were culture positives. Inclusion criteria were all the patients 18 years and more age group who were intubated in mechanical ventilator and others were excluded in the study. Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS was given to each patient included in the study on daily basis. CPIS of greater than six was used as diagnostic criteria for VAP. 5 Clinically diagnosed ventilator-associated pneumonia were observed and clinical parameters were recorded from their medical records and bedside charts. All patients with clinical and radiological signs suggestive of pneumonia on admission. Endotracheal aspirate was collected by using a 22-inch Romsons suction catheter. Chest vibration or percussion for 10 mins. was used. Only 1 ETA sample was collected from each patient and was immediately taken to the laboratory for processing. RESULTS Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated 39.02%, Pseudomonas

  14. Turbine system and adapter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2017-05-30

    A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.

  15. NEXT GENERATION TURBINE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William H. Day

    2002-05-03

    The Next Generation Turbine (NGT) Program's technological development focused on a study of the feasibility of turbine systems greater than 30 MW that offer improvement over the 1999 state-of-the-art systems. This program targeted goals of 50 percent turndown ratios, 15 percent reduction in generation cost/kW hour, improved service life, reduced emissions, 400 starts/year with 10 minutes to full load, and multiple fuel usage. Improvement in reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM), while reducing operations, maintenance, and capital costs by 15 percent, was pursued. This program builds on the extensive low emissions stationary gas turbine work being carried out by Pratt & Whitney (P&W) for P&W Power Systems (PWPS), which is a company under the auspices of the United Technologies Corporation (UTC). This study was part of the overall Department of Energy (DOE) NGT Program that extends out to the year 2008. A follow-on plan for further full-scale component hardware testing is conceptualized for years 2002 through 2008 to insure a smooth and efficient transition to the marketplace for advanced turbine design and cycle technology. This program teamed the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), P&W, United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), kraftWork Systems Inc., a subcontractor on-site at UTRC, and Multiphase Power and Processing Technologies (MPPT), an off-site subcontractor. Under the auspices of the NGT Program, a series of analyses were performed to identify the NGT engine system's ability to serve multiple uses. The majority were in conjunction with a coal-fired plant, or used coal as the system fuel. Identified also was the ability of the NGT system to serve as the basis of an advanced performance cycle: the humid air turbine (HAT) cycle. The HAT cycle is also used with coal gasification in an integrated cycle HAT (IGHAT). The NGT systems identified were: (1) Feedwater heating retrofit to an existing coal-fired steam plant, which

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  17. Advanced IGCC/Hydrogen Gas Turbine Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    York, William [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Hughes, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Berry, Jonathan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Russell, Tamara [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lau, Y. C. [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Liu, Shan [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Arnett, Michael [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Peck, Arthur [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Tralshawala, Nilesh [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Weber, Joseph [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Benjamin, Marc [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Iduate, Michelle [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Kittleson, Jacob [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Garcia-Crespo, Andres [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Delvaux, John [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Casanova, Fernando [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Lacy, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Brzek, Brian [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Wolfe, Chris [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Palafox, Pepe [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Ding, Ben [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Badding, Bruce [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States); Zemsky, Christine [General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    2015-07-30

    The objective of this program was to develop the technologies required for a fuel flexible (coal derived hydrogen or syngas) gas turbine for IGCC that met DOE turbine performance goals. The overall DOE Advanced Power System goal was to conduct the research and development (R&D) necessary to produce coal-based IGCC power systems with high efficiency, near-zero emissions, and competitive capital cost. To meet this goal, the DOE Fossil Energy Turbine Program had as an interim objective of 2 to 3 percentage points improvement in combined cycle (CC) efficiency. The final goal is 3 to 5 percentage points improvement in CC efficiency above the state of the art for CC turbines in IGCC applications at the time the program started. The efficiency goals were for NOx emissions of less than 2 ppm NOx (@15 % O2). As a result of the technologies developed under this program, the DOE goals were exceeded with a projected 8 point efficiency improvement. In addition, a new combustion technology was conceived of and developed to overcome the challenges of burning hydrogen and achieving the DOE’s NOx goal. This report also covers the developments under the ARRA-funded portion of the program that include gas turbine technology advancements for improvement in the efficiency, emissions, and cost performance of gas turbines for industrial applications with carbon capture and sequestration. Example applications could be cement plants, chemical plants, refineries, steel and aluminum plants, manufacturing facilities, etc. The DOE’s goal for more than 5 percentage point improvement in efficiency was met with cycle analyses performed for representative IGCC Steel Mill and IGCC Refinery applications. Technologies were developed in this program under the following areas: combustion, larger latter stage buckets, CMC and EBC, advanced materials and coatings, advanced configurations to reduce cooling, sealing and rotor purge flows, turbine aerodynamics, advanced sensors, advancements in first

  18. Exergetic analysis of a gas turbine plant with chemical recuperation; Analise exergetica de uma planta de turbina a gas com recuperacao quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Mario G. Sanchez; Nebra, Silvia Azucena; Gallo, Waldir L. Ribeiro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: 192572rg@discovery.fem.unicamp.br; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; wgallo@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    One of the proposals that has been more recently analyzed with growing interest in Gas Turbine cycles, with the purpose of obtaining gains in the power output and thermal efficiency, is the Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine Cycle, (CRGT). Such systems are equipped of chemical heat recovery components in which the waste heat in the turbine exhaust is used to convert a methane-steam mixture into a hydrogen-rich fuel in a methane steam reformer. One additional aspect of these cycles that represents a potential benefit is explained by the ultra-low NO{sub x} emission levels, even less than those system which use steam injection This paper, with the aid of the concepts emanated from the Second Thermodynamic Law, is presenting an evaluation of the exergetic performance of one installation of this type. Exergetic efficiencies are evaluated according to the relation fuel-product, considering one control volume for each component of the system. (author)

  19. Gas turbines: performance curves influence in the analysis of the technical viability of thermal power plants; Analise de viabilidade tecnica de plantas termeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Augusto Milan da; Borba, Ricardo Alexandre Pereira; Bazzo, Edson [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Combustao e Engenharia de Sistemas Termicos (LABCET)]. E-mail: milan@cet.ufsc.br

    2003-07-01

    The performance of gas turbines is analyzed taking into account the oscillations of electrical load and environmental conditions for thermal power generating application. Two scenarios are considered for analysis, taking into account one year collected data, obtained at every hour from a ceramic company in the south region of Santa Catarina. The first scenario consists of a current used simplified model, considering the oscillation of electrical load but having the gas turbine running at ISO operation (15 deg C, 0 m, 60% u.r.). The second scenario corresponds to the proposed model, considering also the oscillations in the environmental temperature and moisture air. Three gas turbines were selected for analysis. The found results suggest the application of the proposed model as the basis in the evaluation of future projects. (author)

  20. Functional Problems and Maintenance Operations of Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Topliceanu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation in good conditions of the hydroelectric power plant imposes a rigorous maintenance of equipment and operating facilities, primarily of the turbine. The efficiency of the turbine is strongly affected by any defects which could occur during the operation. The paper makes a synthesis of the most frequent failures which have occurred during the functioning of Kaplan turbines plant and the required maintenance plan that has to be adopted. The maintenance rules for the optimal working of these turbines are also emphasized.

  1. Illustration of Modern Wind Turbine Ancillary Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margaris, Ioannis D.; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2010-01-01

    Increasing levels of wind power penetration in modern power systems has set intensively high standards with respect to wind turbine technology during the last years. Security issues have become rather critical and operation of wind farms as conventional power plants is becoming a necessity as wind...... turbines replace conventional units on the production side. This article includes a review of the basic control issues regarding the capability of the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) wind turbine configuration to fulfill the basic technical requirements set by the system operators and contribute...

  2. Determination of turbine relative efficiency in SHPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the fulfillment of contract conditions for the equipment delivery, determining the properties and capabilities of a generating unit or some part of it, the measurements carried out under real operating conditions were necessary. In this paper, the results of the test that was carried out in a small hydropower plant (SHPP, aimed at determining the relative efficiency of the hydraulic turbine and its comparison with the guaranteed values, are presented. The dependence of the turbine efficiency on the turbine discharge was determined based on the test results, using the index method. The test was performed at one net head.

  3. Offshore wind turbines reliability, availability and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Tavner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The first book to specifically focus on offshore wind turbine technology and which addresses practically wind turbine reliability and availability. The book draws on the author's experience of power generation reliability and availability and the condition monitoring of that plant to describe the problems facing the developers of offshore wind farms and the solutions available to them to raise availability, reduce cost of energy and improve through life cost.

  4. The Simulation Study of Horizontal Axis Water Turbine Using Flow Simulation Solidworks Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, H.; Budiana, EP; Tjahjana, DDDP; Hadi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The design of Horizontal Axis Water Turbine in pico hydro power plants involves many parameters. To simplify that, usually using computer simulation is applied. This research performs simulation process variation on turbine blade number, turbine blade curvature angle, turbine bucket angle and blocking system tilt angle. Those four variations were combined in order to obtain the best design of turbine. The study used Flow Simulation Solidworks application, and obtain data on turbine speed, pressure, force, and torque. However, this research focused on turbine torque value. The best design of turbine was obtained in the turbine with 6 blades, blade curvature angle of 65° and bucket angle of 10°, and blocking system tilt angle of 40°. In the best turbine, the produced torque value was 8.464 Nm.

  5. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  6. Steam turbine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuzumi, Naoaki.

    1994-01-01

    In a steam turbine cycle, steams exhausted from the turbine are extracted, and they are connected to a steam sucking pipe of a steam injector, and a discharge pipe of the steam injector is connected to an inlet of a water turbine. High pressure discharge water is obtained from low pressure steams by utilizing a pressurizing performance of the steam injector and the water turbine is rotated by the high pressure water to generate electric power. This recover and reutilize discharged heat of the steam turbine effectively, thereby enabling to improve heat efficiency of the steam turbine cycle. (T.M.)

  7. The swirl turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, M.; Pochylý, F.; Rudolf, P.

    2012-11-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHηh = -u2vu2. From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  8. Respective impact of implementation of prevention strategies, colonization with multiresistant bacteria and antimicrobial use on the risk of early- and late-onset VAP: An analysis of the OUTCOMEREA network

    OpenAIRE

    Ibn Saied, Wafa; Souweine, Bertrand; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Ruckly, Stéphane; Darmon, Michael; Bailly, Sébastien; Cohen, Yves; Azoulay, Elie; Schwebel, Carole; Radjou, Aguila; Kallel, Hatem; Adrie, Christophe; Dumenil, Anne-Sylvie; Argaud, Laurent; Marcotte, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Rationale: The impact of prevention strategies and risk factors for early-onset (EOP) versus late-onset (LOP) ventilator -associated pneumonia (VAP) are still debated.Objectives: To evaluate, in a multicenter cohort, the risk factors for EOP and LOP, as the evolution of prevention strategies.Methods: 7,784 patients with mechanical ventilation (MV) for at least 48 hours were selected into the multicenter prospective OUTCOMEREA database (1997-2016). VAP occurring between...

  9. Clean coal technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The oil- and gas-fired turbine combined-cycle penetration of industrial and utility applications has escalated rapidly due to the lower cost, higher efficiency and demonstrated reliability of gas turbine equipment in combination with fuel economics. Gas turbine technology growth has renewed the interest in the use of coal and other solid fuels in combined cycles for electrical and thermal energy production to provide environmentally acceptable plants without extra cost. Four different types of systems utilizing the gas turbine advantages with solid fuel have been studied: direct coal combustion, combustor processing, fuel processing and indirect cycles. One of these, fuel processing (exemplified by coal gasification), is emerging as the superior process for broad scale commercialization at this time. Advances in gas turbine design, proven in operation above 200 MW, are establishing new levels of combined-cycle net plant efficiencies up to 55% and providing the potential for a significant shift to gas turbine solid fuel power plant technology. These new efficiencies can mitigate the losses involved in gasifying coal and other solid fuels, and economically provide the superior environmental performance required today. Based on demonstration of high baseload reliability for large combined cycles (98%) and the success of several demonstrations of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants in the utility size range, it is apparent that many commercial IGCC plants will be sites in the late 1990s. This paper discusses different gas turbine systems for solid fuels while profiling available IGCC systems. The paper traces the IGCC option as it moved from the demonstration phase to the commercial phase and should now with planned future improvements, penetrate the solid fuel power generation market at a rapid pace.

  10. Full scale turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.; Sliter, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Two full-scale tests have simulated the impact of a fragment from a failed turbine disk upon the steel casing of a low-pressure steam turbine with the objective of providing data for making more realistic assessments of turbine missile effects for nuclear power plant designers. Data were obtained on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and the post-impact trajectory of the fragment. (orig.)

  11. Steam turbines of large output. Vol. 1, 2, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The proceedings contain 52 papers of which 14 have been inputted in INIS. They concern the development of high output turbines for power plants, the designing and testing of moisture separators, aerodynamics and vibrations of revolving parts of turbines, turbines suitable for heat extraction, the calculations and testing of steam flow characteristics, the mathematical model of thermodynamic cycles in wet steam, reliability, corrosion, and the questions of economics. (M.D.)

  12. Recent technology for nuclear steam turbine-generator units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Kuwashima, Hidesumi; Ueno, Takeshi; Ooi, Masao

    1988-01-01

    As the next nuclear power plants subsequent to the present 1,100 MWe plants, the technical development of ABWRs was completed, and the plan for constructing the actual plants is advanced. As for the steam turbine and generator facilities of 1,350 MWe output applied to these plants, the TC6F-52 type steam turbines using 52 in long blades, moisture separation heaters, butterfly type intermediate valves, feed heater drain pumping-up system and other new technologies for increasing the capacity and improving the thermal efficiency were adopted. In this paper, the outline of the main technologies of those and the state of examination when those are applied to the actual plants are described. As to the technical fields of the steam turbine system for ABWRs, the improvement of the total technologies of the plants was promoted, aiming at the good economical efficiency, reliability and thermal efficiency of the whole facilities, not only the main turbines. The basic specification of the steam turbine facilities for 50 Hz ABWR plants and the main new technologies applied to the turbines are shown. The development of 52 in long last stage blades, the development of the analysis program for the coupled vibration of the large rotor system, the development of moisture separation heaters, the turbine control system, condensate and feed water system, and the generators are described. (Kako, I.)

  13. Study of cavitation in hydro turbines. A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pardeep; Saini, R.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2010-01-15

    Reaction turbines basically Francis turbines and propeller/Kaplan turbines are suitable for medium and low head hydropower sites. The management of the small hydropower plants is an important factor, for achieving higher efficiency of hydro turbines with time. Turbines show declined performance after few years of operation, as they get severely damaged due to various reasons. One of the important reasons is erosive wear of the turbines due to cavitation. Reaction turbines, however are more prone to cavitation especially Francis turbines where a zone in the operating range is seriously affected by cavitation and considered as forbidden zone. Cavitation is a phenomenon which manifests itself in the pitting of the metallic surfaces of turbine parts because of the formation of cavities. In the present paper, studies undertaken in this field by several investigators have been discussed extensively. Based on literature survey various aspects related to cavitation in hydro turbines, different causes for the declined performance and efficiency of the hydro turbines and suitable remedial measures suggested by various investigators have been discussed. (author)

  14. Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its second edition, it has been entirely updated and substantially extended to reflect advances in technology, research into rotor aerodynamics and the structural...... response of the wind turbine structure. Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element...... Momentum method is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behavior of a turbine. The new material includes a description of the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modeled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Further...

  15. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...... is also covered, as are eigenmodes and the dynamic behaviour of a turbine. The book describes the effects of the dynamics and how this can be modelled in an aeroelastic code, which is widely used in the design and verification of modern wind turbines. Furthermore, it examines how to calculate...

  16. TurbinAID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, M.A.; Chow, M.P.; Osborne, R.L.; Jenkins, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Westinghouse Turbine Artificial Intelligence Diagnostics system or TurbinAID, can diagnose both thermodynamic and mechanical component anomalies within the turbine, and around the turbine cycle. any monitoring system can detect that a variable is in an abnormal state, but TurbinAID can also indicate the cause, and provide recommended corrective action(s). The TurbinAID Expert Systems utilize multiple sensor and variable inputs, and their interdependencies in the generation of a diagnosis. The system performs sensor validation as part of the data acquisition scheme. The TurbinAID system has been in operation for several years. This paper describes the monitoring and diagnostic functions provided by TurbinAID, and how the utility industry both nuclear and fossil, can utilize the system to enhance unit operation

  17. Turbine oil change - the smart way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlf, J.; Prenzel, H.; Ertelt, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Nuclear Plant Unterweser (KKU) was commissioned in 1978. The gross installed capacity amounts to 1,410 MW. Prior to commissioning the nuclear power plant in 1978, the turbine was filled with fresh oil. This turbine oil did not display any significant ageing or operational restrictions in the following 15 years. Based on our experience, we believe that this behaviour is typical for all initial fillings in new plants. Since the beginning of the 90ies, the contamination of the entire turbine cycle has increased due to the precipitation of oil ageing products and additives decomposed by oxygen. Therefore, the initial filling was replaced by a new oil in 1994, without measures to remove ageing products or additive deposits from the oil cycle. Therefore, it is not surprising that after merely four years this oil filling displayed the same properties as the first filling after 15 years. As a consequence, another oil change was urgently required in 1999. (orig.) [de

  18. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  19. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  20. Modeling, simulating and validating wind turbine behavior during grid disturbances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coster, E.J.; Ishchenko, A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Kling, W.L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the liberalized energy market Distributed Generation, DG, is increasing. At this moment, most of the power produced by DG, is generated by CHP-plants and variable speed wind turbines. Integration of wind turbines have impact on several aspects of power systems such as power system stability,

  1. Progress on the biphase turbine at Cerro Prieto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerini, D.; Hays, L.; Studhalter, W. [Douglas Energy Company, Placentia, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The status of a Biphase turbine power plant being installed at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field is presented. The major modules for the power plant are completed except for a back pressure steam turbine. The power plant will be started in April 1997 with the Biphase turbine alone followed by the addition of the steam turbine module two months later. The current power plant performance level is 2780 kWe due to a decline in the well. An increase in power output to 4060 kWe by adding the flow from another well is planned. The addition of five Biphase power plants with a total power output of 21.2 megawatts is described.

  2. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  3. Turbine related fish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicher, G.J.

    1993-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the factors affecting turbine-related fish mortality. The mechanics of fish passage through a turbine is outlined, and various turbine related stresses are described, including pressure and shear effects, hydraulic head, turbine efficiency, and tailwater level. The methodologies used in determining the effects of fish passage are evaluated. The necessity of adequate controls in each test is noted. It is concluded that mortality is the result of several factors such as hardiness of study fish, fish size, concentrations of dissolved gases, and amounts of cavitation. Comparisons between Francis and Kaplan turbines indicate little difference in percent mortality. 27 refs., 5 figs

  4. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions

  5. Micro-turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashevski, Done

    2003-01-01

    In this paper a principle of micro-turbines operation, type of micro-turbines and their characteristics is presented. It is shown their usage in cogeneration and three generation application with the characteristics, the influence of more factors on micro-turbines operation as well as the possibility for application in Macedonia. The paper is result of the author's participation in the training program 'Micro-turbine technology' in Florida, USA. The characteristics of different types micro-turbines by several world producers are shown, with accent on US micro-turbines producers (Capstone, Elliott). By using the gathered Author's knowledge, contacts and the previous knowledge, conclusions and recommendations for implementation of micro-turbines in Macedonia are given. (Author)

  6. Thermoelastic steam turbine rotor control based on neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzadkowski, Romuald; Dominiczak, Krzysztof; Radulski, Wojciech; Szczepanik, R.

    2015-12-01

    Considered here are Nonlinear Auto-Regressive neural networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) as a mathematical model of a steam turbine rotor for controlling steam turbine stress on-line. In order to obtain neural networks that locate critical stress and temperature points in the steam turbine during transient states, an FE rotor model was built. This model was used to train the neural networks on the basis of steam turbine transient operating data. The training included nonlinearity related to steam turbine expansion, heat exchange and rotor material properties during transients. Simultaneous neural networks are algorithms which can be implemented on PLC controllers. This allows for the application neural networks to control steam turbine stress in industrial power plants.

  7. High Power Density Power Electronic Converters for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, Osman Selcuk

    . For these VSCs, high power density is required due to limited turbine nacelle space. Also, high reliability is required since maintenance cost of these remotely located wind turbines is quite high and these turbines operate under harsh operating conditions. In order to select a high power density and reliability......In large wind turbines (in MW and multi-MW ranges), which are extensively utilized in wind power plants, full-scale medium voltage (MV) multi-level (ML) voltage source converters (VSCs) are being more preferably employed nowadays for interfacing these wind turbines with electricity grids...... VSC solution for wind turbines, first, the VSC topology and the switch technology to be employed should be specified such that the highest possible power density and reliability are to be attained. Then, this qualitative approach should be complemented with the power density and reliability...

  8. System control model of a turbine for a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas O, Y.; Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A.

    2009-10-01

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  9. ORTURB, HTGR Steam Turbine Dynamic for FSV Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORTURB was written specifically to calculate the dynamic behavior of the Fort St. Vrain (FSV) High- Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) steam turbines. The program is divided into three main parts: the driver subroutine; turbine subroutines to calculate the pressure-flow balance of the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines; and feedwater heater subroutines. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses a relationship derived for ideal gas flow in an iterative fashion that minimizes computational time to determine the pressure and flow in the FSV steam turbines as a function of plant transient operating conditions. An important computer modeling characteristic, unique to FSV, is that the high-pressure turbine exhaust steam is used to drive the reactor core coolant circulators prior to entering the reheater. A feedwater heater dynamic simulation model utilizing seven state variables for each of the five heaters is included in the ORTURB computer simulation of the regenerative Rankine cycle steam turbines. The seven temperature differential equations are solved at each time- step using a matrix exponential method. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The turbine shaft is assumed to rotate at a constant (rated) speed of 3600 rpm. Energy and mass storage of steam in the high-, intermediate-, and low-pressure turbines is assumed to be negligible. These limitations exclude the use of ORTURB during a turbine transient such as startup from zero power or very low turbine flows

  10. Mapping of grid faults and grid codes[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iov, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology (Denmark); Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul; Cutululis, N.A. [Risoe National Lab. - DTU, Wind Enegy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this project is to investigate into the consequences of the new grid connection requirements for the fatigue and extreme loads of wind turbines. The goal is also to clarify and define possible new directions in the certification process of power plant wind turbines, namely wind turbines, which participate actively in the stabilisation of power systems. Practical experience shows that there is a need for such investigations. The grid connection requirements for wind turbines have increased significantly during the last 5-10 years. Especially the requirements for wind turbines to stay connected to the grid during and after voltage sags, imply potential challenges in the design of wind turbines. These requirements pose challenges for the design of both the electrical system and the mechanical structure of wind turbines. An overview over the frequency of grid faults and the grid connection requirements in different relevant countries is done in this report. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. The goal of this report is to present a mapping of different grid fault types and their frequency in different countries. The report provides also a detailed overview of the Low Voltage Ride-Through Capabilities for wind turbines in different relevant countries. The most relevant study cases for the quantification of the loads' impact on the wind turbines' lifetime are defined. (au)

  11. Logical model for the control of a BWR turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas O, Y.; Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work a design of a logical model is presented for the turbine control of a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model is sought to implement later on inside the thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The logical model is developed for the control and protection of the turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control will be been able to use for one or several turbines in series. The quality of the present design of the logical model of the turbine control is that it considers the most important parameters in the operation of a turbine, besides that they have incorporated to the logical model the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a detailed model. The development of the logical model of a turbine will be of utility in the short and medium term to carry out analysis on the turbine operation with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction, specific steps of the turbine to feed other equipment s, in addition to analyze the separate and the integrated effect. (Author)

  12. Molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi isolates from horses in Poland: pVapA characteristics and plasmid new variant, 85-kb type V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Lucjan; Rzewuska, Magdalena; Takai, Shinji; Chrobak-Chmiel, Dorota; Kizerwetter-Świda, Magdalena; Feret, Małgorzata; Gawryś, Marta; Witkowski, Maciej; Kita, Jerzy

    2017-01-26

    Rhodococcus equi is one of the most significant bacterial pathogens affecting foals up to 6 months of age worldwide. Rhodococcosis is present in Poland however information about molecular characterization of R. equi isolates is scarce. This study describes molecular characterization of Rhodococcus equi infection on 13 horse breeding farms in Poland between 2001 and 2012. Samples were collected by tracheobronchial aspiration from pneumonic foals or during necropsy. The R. equi isolates were genotyped by plasmid profiling and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Totally, 58 R. equi isolates were investigated. One isolate lost its plasmid. Among the 57 VapA-positive isolates, 48 contained 85-kb type I plasmid (82.8%), 8 contained 87-kb type I plasmid (13.8%). One isolate (1.7%) had a unique restriction cleavage pattern and the 2nd fragment of EcoRI digests of this plasmid DNA was about 2600 bases smaller than that of the 85 kb type I. This new plasmid variant was designated as the "85-kb type V". Among the 58 isolates typeable with VspI-PFGE, ten PFGE clusters were detected. The majority of foals were infected mostly with isolates of low genetic diversity. Most of clinical isolates of R. equi from foals in Poland contain pVapA 85-kb type I and 87-kb type I similarly to the other European countries and the United States. However, the new variant of pVapA 85-kb type V was identified. The chromosomal variability was detected among some of the investigated isolates and the presence of farm-specific isolates might be possible.

  13. Advanced LP turbine installation at 1300 MW nuclear power station Unterweser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, G.; Oeynhausen, H.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on Preussen Elektra AG's Unterweser power plant. The steam turbine-generator features a disk-type LP turbine rotor design developed in the late 1960's to early 1970's. This rotor design has been installed in 19 nuclear power plants. The 47 rotors in these plants have been in operation for an average of almost 10 years. The design of the 1970 vintage nuclear LP turbine rotors was based on extensive experience gained with disk-type rotors of fossil turbines built in the 1950's. When EPRI reported about corrosion cracking in nuclear LP turbines, a program was initiated by Siemens/KWU as original steam turbine supplier to ultrasonically inspect all their disk-type rotors in nuclear power plats. Indications on one rotor disk in the Unterweser plant was found. This single event was the only one found out of 310 disks inspected in nuclear power plants

  14. Study of characteristic response of pressure control system in order to obtain the design parameters of the new control system MARK V1 turbine in Cofrentes nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Ruiz Bueno, Gregorio; Vauqer Perez, Juan I.; Curiel Nieva, Marceliano

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained from the IBE-CNC/DAQ-090827 project, conducted by the company Titania Servicios Tecnologicos, S.L. in collaboration with the Instituto de Seguridad Industrial, Radiofisica y Medioambiental (ISIRYM), in the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, for the company Iberdrola Generacion S.A. The objective is the acquisition of the pressure sensor signal and the measurement at points C85 and N32 from the cabin of the Turbine Control System in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant. With the study of previous data, one can obtain the Bode plot of the crossed signals as requested in the technical specification IM 0191 I. Frequency response (i.e. how the system varies its gain and offset depending on the frequency) defines the dynamics. (author)

  15. Through wall degradation problem of the turbine extraction steam drain piping due to liquid drop impingement and measures taken for this problem at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Takeyuki; Kobayashi, Teruaki; Shimada, Shigeru; Inoue, Ryousuke; Usuba, Satoshi; Kimura, Takeo

    2011-01-01

    Through wall degradation was found on the extraction steam drain piping of Unit 6 of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company after replacement of the turbine rotors with those of higher thermal efficiency. The mechanism of this degradation was loss of material due to liquid drop impingement. Since the estimated life time of the piping based on wall thickness measurements before the replacement was at least 9 years, the rapid wall thinning occurred after the replacement. This paper describes a summary of the phenomenon, its degradation mechanism and root cause, a temporary measurement taken for an immediate action and permanent measures taken during the next refueling outage. (author)

  16. Comparative Evaluation of Integrated Waste Heat Utilization Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants Based on In-Depth Boiler-Turbine Integration and Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwei Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To maximize the system-level heat integration, three retrofit concepts of waste heat recovery via organic Rankine cycle (ORC, in-depth boiler-turbine integration, and coupling of both are proposed, analyzed and comprehensively compared in terms of thermodynamic and economic performances. For thermodynamic analysis, exergy analysis is employed with grand composite curves illustrated to identify how the systems are fundamentally and quantitatively improved, and to highlight key processes for system improvement. For economic analysis, annual revenue and investment payback period are calculated based on the estimation of capital investment of each component to identify the economic feasibility and competitiveness of each retrofit concept proposed. The results show that the in-depth boiler-turbine integration achieves a better temperature match of heat flows involved for different fluids and multi-stage air preheating, thus a significant improvement of power output (23.99 MW, which is much larger than that of the system with only ORC (6.49 MW. This is mainly due to the limitation of the ultra-low temperature (from 135 to 75 °C heat available from the flue gas for ORC. The thermodynamic improvement is mostly contributed by the reduction of exergy destruction within the boiler subsystem, which is eventually converted to mechanical power; while the exergy destruction within the turbine system is almost not changed for the three concepts. The selection of ORC working fluids is performed to maximize the power output. Due to the low-grade heat source, the cycle with R11 offers the largest additional net power generation but is not significantly better than the other preselected working fluids. Economically, the in-depth boiler-turbine integration is the most economic completive solution with a payback period of only 0.78 year. The ORC concept is less attractive for a sole application due to a long payback time (2.26 years. However, by coupling both

  17. The comparative analysis of model and prototype test results of Bulb turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisek, M; Bozic, I; Ignjatovic, B

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the problem of the hydropower plant oblique water inflow and its influence on the turbines operation. Oblique water inflow on the low head hydropower plant with bulb turbines influences turbine characteristics. The characteristics change occurs due to swirl incidence in the turbine inlet which spreads to the guide vanes inlet. Downstream, the flow conditions change is caused in the turbine runner in relation to the flow conditions without swirl inflow. Special attention is paid to the phenomenon of swirl flow incidence in the turbine conduit. With the aim of presenting and analyzing the oblique water inflow consequences on the hydropower plant operation, the existing turbine model tests results, performed in the laboratories, and the in situ prototype testing results have been used.

  18. Microfabricated rankine cycle steam turbine for power generation and methods of making the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frechette, Luc (Inventor); Muller, Norbert (Inventor); Lee, Changgu (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the present invention, an integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip has been provided. The integrated micro steam turbine power plant on-a-chip of the present invention comprises a miniature electric power generation system fabricated using silicon microfabrication technology and lithographic patterning. The present invention converts heat to electricity by implementing a thermodynamic power cycle on a chip. The steam turbine power plant on-a-chip generally comprises a turbine, a pump, an electric generator, an evaporator, and a condenser. The turbine is formed by a rotatable, disk-shaped rotor having a plurality of rotor blades disposed thereon and a plurality of stator blades. The plurality of stator blades are interdigitated with the plurality of rotor blades to form the turbine. The generator is driven by the turbine and converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.

  19. Combined Turbine and Cycle Optimization for Organic Rankine Cycle Power Systems—Part A: Turbine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Meroni

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Axial-flow turbines represent a well-established technology for a wide variety of power generation systems. Compactness, flexibility, reliability and high efficiency have been key factors for the extensive use of axial turbines in conventional power plants and, in the last decades, in organic Rankine cycle power systems. In this two-part paper, an overall cycle model and a model of an axial turbine were combined in order to provide a comprehensive preliminary design of the organic Rankine cycle unit, taking into account both cycle and turbine optimal designs. Part A presents the preliminary turbine design model, the details of the validation and a sensitivity analysis on the main parameters, in order to minimize the number of decision variables in the subsequent turbine design optimization. Part B analyzes the application of the combined turbine and cycle designs on a selected case study, which was performed in order to show the advantages of the adopted methodology. Part A presents a one-dimensional turbine model and the results of the validation using two experimental test cases from literature. The first case is a subsonic turbine operated with air and investigated at the University of Hannover. The second case is a small, supersonic turbine operated with an organic fluid and investigated by Verneau. In the first case, the results of the turbine model are also compared to those obtained using computational fluid dynamics simulations. The results of the validation suggest that the model can predict values of efficiency within ± 1.3%-points, which is in agreement with the reliability of classic turbine loss models such as the Craig and Cox correlations used in the present study. Values similar to computational fluid dynamics simulations at the midspan were obtained in the first case of validation. Discrepancy below 12 % was obtained in the estimation of the flow velocities and turbine geometry. The values are considered to be within a

  20. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desulfurization system, particulate removal system, electric wiring and control systems, mechanical equipment installation (including turbine installation and plant piping), power plant building (foundation and... installations. Engineering services, turbine/generator, civil works and powerhouse construction, electrical...

  1. Natural gas turbine topping for the iris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C.; Paramonov, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designs are typically characterized by high capital and low fuel costs, while the opposite is true for fossil power generation including the natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle currently favored by many utilities worldwide. This paper examines potential advantages of combining nuclear and fossil (natural gas) generation options in a single plant. Technical and economic feasibility and attractiveness of a gas turbine - nuclear reactor combined cycle where gas turbine exhaust is used to superheat saturated steam produced by a low power light water reactor are examined. It is shown that in a certain range of fuel and capital costs of nuclear and fossil options, the proposed cycle offers an immediate economic advantage over stand-alone plants resulting from higher efficiency of the nuclear plant. Additionally, the gas turbine topping will result in higher fuel flexibility without the economic penalty typically associated with nuclear power. (author)

  2. Design and Optimization of a Turbine Intake Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fošumpaur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate design of the turbine intake structure of a hydropower plant is based on assumptions about its suitable function, and the design will increase the total efficiency of operation. This paper deals with optimal design of the turbine structure of run-of-river hydropower plants. The study focuses mainly on optimization of the hydropower plant location with respect to the original river banks, and on the optimal design of a separating pier between the weir and the power plant. The optimal design of the turbine intake was determined with the use of 2-D mathematical modelling. A case study is performed for the optimal design of a turbine intake structure on the Nemen river in Belarus. 

  3. Natural gas turbine topping for the iris reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oriani, L.; Lombardi, C. [Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy); Paramonov, D. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., LLC, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear power plant designs are typically characterized by high capital and low fuel costs, while the opposite is true for fossil power generation including the natural gas-fired gas turbine combined cycle currently favored by many utilities worldwide. This paper examines potential advantages of combining nuclear and fossil (natural gas) generation options in a single plant. Technical and economic feasibility and attractiveness of a gas turbine - nuclear reactor combined cycle where gas turbine exhaust is used to superheat saturated steam produced by a low power light water reactor are examined. It is shown that in a certain range of fuel and capital costs of nuclear and fossil options, the proposed cycle offers an immediate economic advantage over stand-alone plants resulting from higher efficiency of the nuclear plant. Additionally, the gas turbine topping will result in higher fuel flexibility without the economic penalty typically associated with nuclear power. (author)

  4. Static and dynamic modelling of gas turbines in advanced cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Jan-Olof

    1998-12-01

    Gas turbines have been in operation for at least 50 years. The engine is used for propulsion of aircraft and high speed ships. It is used for power production in remote locations and for peak load and emergency situations. Gas turbines have been used in combined cycles for 20 to 30 years. Highly efficient power plants based on gas turbines are a competitive option for the power industry today. The thermal efficiency of the simple cycle gas turbine has increased due to higher turbine inlet temperatures and improved compressor and expander designs. Equally important are the improved cycles in which the gas turbine operates. One example is the combined cycle that uses steam for turbine cooling. Steam is extracted from the bottoming cycle, then used as airfoil coolant in a closed loop and returned to the bottoming cycle. The Evaporative Gas Turbine (EvGT), also known as the Humid Air Turbine (HAT), is another advanced cycle. A mixture of air and water vapour is used as working media. Air from the compressor outlet is humidified and then preheated in a recuperator prior to combustion. The static and dynamic performance is changed when the gas turbine is introduced in an evaporative cycle. The cycle is gaining in popularity, but so far it has not been demonstrated. A Swedish joint program to develop the cycle has been in operation since 1993. As part of the program, a small pilot plant is being erected at the Lund Institute of Technology (LTH). The plant is based on a 600 kW gas turbine, and demonstration of the EvGT cycle started autumn 1998 and will continue, in the present phase, for one year. This thesis presents static and dynamic models for traditional gas turbine components, such as, the compressor, combustor, expander and recuperator. A static model for the humidifier is presented, based on common knowledge for atmospheric humidification. All models were developed for the pilot plant at LTH with the objective to support evaluation of the process and individual

  5. Optimal placement of biomass fuelled gas turbines for reduced losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurado, Francisco; Cano, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the optimal location and sizing of biomass fuelled gas turbine power plants. Both profitability in using biomass and power loss are considered in the cost function. The first step is to assess the plant size that maximizes the profitability of the project. The second step is to determine the optimal location of the gas turbines in the electric system to minimize the power loss of the system

  6. Liquid-phase problems in steam turbine LP stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc-Feraud, P.

    1978-01-01

    Wet steam formation owing to incipient condensation in final steam turbine pressure stages results in a loss of efficiency and possible rotor blading erosion. The effects of erosion are now clearly understood and quite easily counteracted, but loss of thermodynamics, mechanical and aerodynamic efficiency is still a problem. Only the final LP stages of conventional power station plant operate with wet steam, whereas nuclear plant turbines use it to produce most of their total output [fr

  7. Wind turbine operated sailboat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.

    1990-07-31

    A wind powered boat is disclosed which incorporates a vertical axis rotary turbine. A shaft portion extends downwardly from the turbine to a water pump, with the boat being provided with a forwardly opening inlet and a rearwardly opening outlet from the water pump. When rotating, the turbine operates the pump by the shaft to draw in water through the inlet, thereby creating a low pressure area in front of the boat, and to force the water out through the outlet for propelling the boat. In a preferred embodiment, the boat has a catamaran construction or is a large ocean going vessel with enough width to provide a buffer to either side of the turbine, and the turbine is the Darrieus rotor type. The pump is a standard centrifugal type of pump. A self adjusting braking device for the turbine is also disclosed, which prevents over-rotation and is also capable of storing heat energy generated during braking. 4 figs.

  8. The swirl turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, M; Pochylý, F; Rudolf, P

    2012-01-01

    In the article is introduced the new type of the turbine - swirl turbine. This turbine is based on opposite principle than Kaplan turbine. Euler equation is satisfied in the form gHη h = −u 2 v u2 . From this equation is seen, that inflow of liquid into the runner is without rotation and on the outflow is a rotation of liquid opposite of rotation of runner. This turbine is suitable for small head and large discharge. Some constructional variants of this turbine are introduced in the article and theoretical aspects regarding losses in the draft tube. The theory is followed by computational simulations in Fluent and experiments using laser Doppler anemometry.

  9. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  10. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  11. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J. [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R.; Nicol, Ch.

    1995-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  12. Tiger: knowledge based gas turbine condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trave-Massuyes, L [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 31 - Toulouse (France); Quevedo, J [University of Catalonia, (Spain); Milne, R; Nicol, Ch

    1996-12-31

    Exxon petrochemical plant in Scotland requires continuous ethylene supply from offshore site in North Sea. The supply is achieved thanks to compressors driven by a 28 MW gas turbine, whose monitoring is of major importance. The TIGER fault diagnostic system is a knowledge base system containing a prediction model. (D.L.) 11 refs.

  13. Optimization under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, Julian; Dykes, Katherine; Graf, Peter; Zahle, Frederik

    2016-11-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  14. Dynamic computer simulation of the Fort St. Vrain steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is described for the dynamic response of the Fort St. Vrain nuclear reactor regenerative intermediate- and low-pressure steam turbines. The fundamental computer-modeling assumptions for the turbines and feedwater heaters are developed. A turbine heat balance specifying steam and feedwater conditions at a given generator load and the volumes of the feedwater heaters are all that are necessary as descriptive input parameters. Actual plant data for a generator load reduction from 100 to 50% power (which occurred as part of a plant transient on November 9, 1981) are compared with computer-generated predictions, with reasonably good agreement

  15. Optimization Under Uncertainty of Site-Specific Turbine Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, J.; Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Zahle, F.

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty affects many aspects of wind energy plant performance and cost. In this study, we explore opportunities for site-specific turbine configuration optimization that accounts for uncertainty in the wind resource. As a demonstration, a simple empirical model for wind plant cost of energy is used in an optimization under uncertainty to examine how different risk appetites affect the optimal selection of a turbine configuration for sites of different wind resource profiles. If there is unusually high uncertainty in the site wind resource, the optimal turbine configuration diverges from the deterministic case and a generally more conservative design is obtained with increasing risk aversion on the part of the designer.

  16. Flow in Pelton turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Kjartan

    2013-01-01

    The flow in Pelton turbines is subsonic, turbulent, multiphase (water, air, and water vapor from cavitation), has high speeds, sharp gradients, free surface and dynamic boundary conditions. A static grid is unsuitable for modeling this mainly due to the turbine wheel and the liquid having a non-stationary relative motion.In recent times, significant progress in CFD simulation has been made, which also is relevant for Pelton turbines.Nevertheless, it is still common to perform costly model tes...

  17. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  18. Comparative study of energy consumption in phase 1. train (turbine) with phase 2. train (motor) at GP1/Z plant, Algeria; Etude comparative de la consommation energetique d'un train de phase 1. (turbine) et d'un train de phase 2. (moteur) du complexe GP1/Z (Algerie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belfatmi, A.; Saad Azzouz, M. [Sonatrach, Dir. Production, Hydra, Alger (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    LPG is one of the Sonatrach developing schema priority. The increase of the production capacity of LPG plant from 4.8 x 10{sup 6} to 7.2 x 10{sup 6} Tons per year is part of a large developing schema of the co-hole LPG production line. This schema consisting into recovering large quantities of LPG from the East south Algerian fields, transporting them into the separation plants so as to valorize and sell them in local and overseas markets, thereby increasing the exportation capacity of commercial butane and propane. Six production trains of 1.2 x 10{sup 6} Tons yearly capacity each, two being recently constructed, are separating the LPG load into propane and butane so as to cool them to storage temperature of 41 deg. C for propane and -10 deg. C for butane. The cooling process in the forth trains of phase I is achieved by propane centrifugal compressors driven by a 4250 kw Sulzer S-3 type gas turbines whereas in phase II, a 4750 kw capacity electric motors are used. The main energies consumed in both type of trains are electric power, natural gas and ethane. The objective of this paper is to carry out a comparative analysis of energy consumption in each type of trains. (authors)

  19. Digital implementation, simulation and tests in MATLAB of the models of Steam line, the turbines, the pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this phase of the project they were carried out exhaustive tests to the models of the steam lines, turbines and pressure regulator of a BWR type nucleo electric central for to verify that their tendencies and behaviors are it more real possible. For it, it was necessary to also analyze the transfer functions of the different components along the steam line until the power generator. Such models define alone the dominant poles of the system, what is not limitation to reproduce a wide range of anticipated transitoriness of a power station operation. In the same manner, it was integrated and proved the integrated model form with the models of feeding water of the SUN-RAH, simulating the nuclear reactor starting from predetermined entrances of the prospective values of the vessel. Also it was coupled with the graphic interface developed with the libraries DirectX implementing a specific monitoring panel for this system. (Author)

  20. Reduction in the specific consumption of heat by the thermal circuit, achieved by rationalization of the steam turbine condensation at nuclear power plants of the WWER-440 type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubacek, A.

    1992-01-01

    Specific consumption of heat needed for the production of a net electricity unit is a criterion for assessing the efficiency of conversion of thermal energy into mechanical energy in the steam turbine. Based on theoretical calculations and analyses, a way of evaluating the specific heat consumption is demonstrated for the thermal circuit of the steam-engine equipment with one turbogenerator. The dependence of the specific heat consumption on the steam condensation temperature and on the amount of cooling water flowing through the condenser is calculated, as is the dependence of the limiting pressure on the relative loss of vacuum of the condenser and on the cooling water temperature. Such dependences can be used to upgrade the thermal circuit condensation regime. (M.D.). 2 figs., 12 refs

  1. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  2. Hybrid high solar share gas turbine systems with innovative gas turbine cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Puppe, Michael; Giuliano, Stefano; Buck, Reiner; Krüger, Michael; Lammel, Oliver; Boje, Sven; Saidi, Karim; Gampe, Uwe; Felsmann, Christian; Freimark, Manfred; Langnickel, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    In this paper results from an ongoing research project (HYGATE) are presented, which is performed to reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and to increase the CO2 reduction potential of the solar-hybrid gas turbine plant concept (SHGT). Key improvements are the integration of thermal energy storage and the reduction of the operating temperature of the gas turbine to 950°C. As a result the solar receiver can provide the necessary temperature for solar-only operation of the plant at d...

  3. Advanced gas turbine cycles a brief review of power generation thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Horlock, JH

    2003-01-01

    Primarily this book describes the thermodynamics of gas turbine cycles. The search for high gas turbine efficiency has produced many variations on the simple ""open circuit"" plant, involving the use of heat exchangers, reheating and intercooling, water and steam injection, cogeneration and combined cycle plants. These are described fully in the text. A review of recent proposals for a number of novel gas turbine cycles is also included. In the past few years work has been directed towards developing gas turbines which produce less carbon dioxide, or plants from which the CO2 can be d

  4. Experience on CP1 turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moinaud, C.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of the experience acquired on the behaviour of the turbine itself, excluding alternators, superheaters... of the nuclear power plants of the French program contract CP1 (Fessenhein prototype): method of anomaly process (assumption, scenarios, calculations and hierarchy of the assumptions), study of the accidents on the shutdown valves and control valves (HP admission devices), on the LP admission devices, on the HP module (leakage at the parting line, bolt and screw accidents), on the LP module (diaphragm, diapragm support erosion, rotor anomaly, blade anomaly with rupture of the wire bracing), behaviour of the shafting and of the pillars (radial and axial floating) and at last global behaviour of the group [fr

  5. A Summary of Environmentally Friendly Turbine Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odeh, Mufeed [United States Geological Survey - BRD, Turners Falls, MA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program (AHTS) was created in 1994 by the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Power Research Institute, and the Hydropower Research Foundation. The Program’s main goal is to develop “environmentally friendly” hydropower turbines. The Program’s first accomplishment was the development of conceptual designs of new environmentally friendly turbines. In order to do so, two contractors were competitively selected. The ARL/NREC team of engineers and biologists provided a conceptual design for a new turbine runner*. The new runner has the potential to generate hydroelectricity at close to 90% efficiency. The Voith team produced new fish-friendly design criteria for Kaplan and Francis turbines that can be incorporated in units during rehabilitation projects or in new hydroelectric facilities**. These include the use of advanced plant operation, minimum gap runners, placement of wicket gates behind stay vanes, among others. The Voith team will also provide design criteria on aerating Francis turbines to increase dissolved oxygen content. Detailed reviews of the available literature on fish mortality studies, causation of injuries to fish, and available biological design criteria that would assist in the design of fish-friendly turbines were performed. This review identified a need for more biological studies in order to develop performance criteria to assist turbine manufacturers in designing a more fish-friendly turbine.

  6. Digital electro-hydraulic control system for nuclear turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yutaka; Tone, Youichi; Ozono, Jiro

    1985-01-01

    The unit capacity of steam turbines for nuclear power generation is very large, accordingly their unexpected stop disturbs power system, and the lowering of their capacity ratio exerts large influence on power generation cost. Therefore, very high reliability is required for turbine EHC controllers which directly control the turbines for nuclear power generation. In order to meet such requirement, Toshiba Corp. has developed high reliability type analog tripled turbine EHC controllers, and delivered them to No. 3 plant in the Fukushima No. 2 Nuclear Power Station and No. 1 plant in the Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. At present, the trial operation is under way. The development of digital EHC controllers was begun in 1976, and through the digital EHC for a test turbine and that for a small turbine, the digital EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation were developed. In this paper, the function, constitution, features and maintenance of the digital tripled EHC controllers for the turbines for nuclear power generation, the application of new technology to them, and the confirmation of the control function by simulation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Recent technology for BWR nuclear steam turbine unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shin-ichi; Masuda, Toyohiko; Kashiwabara, Katsuto; Oshima, Yoshikuni

    1990-01-01

    As to the ABWR plants which is the third improvement standard boiling water reactor type plants, already the construction of a plant of 1356 MWe class for 50 Hz is planned. Hitachi Ltd. has accumulated the technology for the home manufacture of a whole ABWR plant including a turbine. As the results, the application of a butterfly type combination intermediate valve to No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc., which began the commercial operation recently and later plants, the application of a moisture separating heater to No.4 plant in Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station, Chubu Electric Power Co., Inc., which is manufactured at present and later plants and so on were carried out. As to the steam turbine facilities for nuclear power generation manufactured by Hitachi Ltd., three turbines of 1100 MWe class for 50 Hz and one turbine for 60 Hz are in operation. As the new technologies for the steam turbines, the development of 52 in long last stage blades, the new design techniques for the rotor system, the moisture separating heater, the butterfly type combination intermediate valve, cross-around pipes and condensate and feedwater system are reported. (K.I.)

  8. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D K [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  9. Experience with unconventional gas turbine fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, D.K. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1996-12-31

    Low grade fuels such as Blast Furnace Gas, biomass, residual oil, coke, and coal - if used in conjunction with appropriate combustion, gasification, and clean-up processes and in combination with a gas turbine combined cycle -offer attractive and environmentally sound power generation. Recently, the Bao Shan Iron and Steel Company in Shanghai placed an order with Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Japan, to supply a combined-cycle power plant. The plant is to employ ABB`s GT 11N2 with a combustor modified to burn blast furnace gas. Recent tests in Shanghai and at Kawasaki Steel, Japan, have confirmed the burner design. The same basic combustor concept can also be used for the low BTU gas derived from airblown gasification processes. ABB is also participating in the API project: A refinery-residual gasification combined-cycle plant in Italy. The GT 13E2 gas turbine employees MBTU EV burners that have been successfully tested under full operating conditions. These burners can also handle the MBTU gas produced in oxygenblown coal gasification processes. ABB`s vast experience in burning blast furnace gas (21 plants built during the 1950s and 1960s), residuals, crude, and coal in various gas turbine applications is an important asset for building such power plants. This presentation discusses some of the experience gained in such plants. (orig.) 6 refs.

  10. The effects of solarization on the performance of a gas turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homann, Christiaan; van der Spuy, Johan; von Backström, Theodor

    2016-05-01

    Various hybrid solar gas turbine configurations exist. The Stellenbosch University Solar Power Thermodynamic (SUNSPOT) cycle consists of a heliostat field, solar receiver, primary Brayton gas turbine cycle, thermal storage and secondary Rankine steam cycle. This study investigates the effect of the solarization of a gas turbine on its performance and details the integration of a gas turbine into a solar power plant. A Rover 1S60 gas turbine was modelled in Flownex, a thermal-fluid system simulation and design code, and validated against a one-dimensional thermodynamic model at design input conditions. The performance map of a newly designed centrifugal compressor was created and implemented in Flownex. The effect of the improved compressor on the performance of the gas turbine was evident. The gas turbine cycle was expanded to incorporate different components of a CSP plant, such as a solar receiver and heliostat field. The solarized gas turbine model simulates the gas turbine performance when subjected to a typical variation in solar resource. Site conditions at the Helio100 solar field were investigated and the possibility of integrating a gas turbine within this system evaluated. Heat addition due to solar irradiation resulted in a decreased fuel consumption rate. The influence of the additional pressure drop over the solar receiver was evident as it leads to decreased net power output. The new compressor increased the overall performance of the gas turbine and compensated for pressure losses incurred by the addition of solar components. The simulated integration of the solarized gas turbine at Helio100 showed potential, although the solar irradiation is too little to run the gas turbine on solar heat alone. The simulation evaluates the feasibility of solarizing a gas turbine and predicts plant performance for such a turbine cycle.

  11. Guide to hydro turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This listing is a guide to turbines for hydroelectric projects of independent energy projects. The listing is in directory format and includes the supplier's name, the name of the supplier's contact, address, telephone and FAX numbers and a description of the company and the types of turbines, services and expertise available for energy projects. The listing is international in scope

  12. Improvement of turbine materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobeit, W.; Pfeifer, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Materials for turbine blades and rotors are discussed with a view to the following subjects: Long period creep behaviour, gas/metal reactions, fatigue behaviour in long-term and creep strength testing, fracture mechanics testing, creep/fatigue interactions, development of a turbine blade of TZM, jointing of TZM, decontamination. (orig./IHOE) [de

  13. Development of 52 inch last stage blade for steam turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadoya, Yoshiki; Harada, Masakatsu; Watanabe, Eiichiro

    1985-01-01

    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the last stage blades with 1320 mm length for a 1800 rpm LP turbine, and the verification by rotating vibration test using actual blades was finished, thus the blades were completed. In a nuclear power plant with an A-PWR of 3800 MW thermal output, the 1350 MW steam turbine has one HP turbine and three LP turbines coupled in tandem, and the optimum last stage blades for the LP turbines became the 1320 mm blades. The completion of these blades largely contributes to the improvement of thermal efficiency and the increase of generator output in large nuclear power plants, and has the possibility to decrease three LP turbines to two in 900 MW plants, which reduces the construction cost. The velocity energy of steam coming out of last stage blades is abandoned as exhaust loss in a condenser, which is the largest loss in a turbine. The increase of exhaust area using long blades reduces this loss. The economy of the 1320 mm blades, the features of the 1320 mm blades, the aerodynamic design and its verification, the prevention of the erosion of the 1320 mm blades due to wet steam, the strength design, the anti-vibration design and its verification, and the CAD/CAM system are reported. (Kako, I.)

  14. Test Program for High Efficiency Gas Turbine Exhaust Diffuser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Thomas R.

    2009-12-31

    This research relates to improving the efficiency of flow in a turbine exhaust, and thus, that of the turbine and power plant. The Phase I SBIR project demonstrated the technical viability of “strutlets” to control stalls on a model diffuser strut. Strutlets are a novel flow-improving vane concept intended to improve the efficiency of flow in turbine exhausts. Strutlets can help reduce turbine back pressure, and incrementally improve turbine efficiency, increase power, and reduce greenhouse gas emmission. The long-term goal is a 0.5 percent improvement of each item, averaged over the US gas turbine fleet. The strutlets were tested in a physical scale model of a gas turbine exhaust diffuser. The test flow passage is a straight, annular diffuser with three sets of struts. At the end of Phase 1, the ability of strutlets to keep flow attached to struts was demonstrated, but the strutlet drag was too high for a net efficiency advantage. An independently sponsored followup project did develop a highly-modified low-drag strutlet. In combination with other flow improving vanes, complicance to the stated goals was demonstrated for for simple cycle power plants, and to most of the goals for combined cycle power plants using this particular exhaust geometry. Importantly, low frequency diffuser noise was reduced by 5 dB or more, compared to the baseline. Appolicability to other diffuser geometries is yet to be demonstrated.

  15. Turbines in the ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, F. G. W.; Charlier, R. H.

    1981-10-01

    It is noted that the relatively high-speed ocean currents flowing northward along the east coast of the U.S. may be able to supply a significant proportion of the future electric power requirements of urban areas. The Gulf Stream core lies only about 20 miles east of Miami; here its near-surface water reaches velocities of 4.3 miles per hour. Attention is called to the estimate that the energy available in the current of the Gulf Stream adjacent to Florida is approximately equivalent to that generated by 25 1,000-megawatt power plants. It is also contended that this power could be produced at competitive prices during the 1980s using large turbines moored below the ocean surface near the center of the Stream. Assuming an average ocean-current speed between 4 and 5 knots at the current core, the power density of a hydroturbine could reach 410 watts per square foot, about 100 times that of a wind-driven device of similar scale operating in an airflow of approximately 11 knots.

  16. Advanced condition monitoring program for turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Shigetoshi

    2015-01-01

    It is important for utilities to achieve a stable operation in nuclear power plants. To achieve it, plant anomalies that affect a stable operation must be found out and eliminated. Therefore, the advanced condition monitoring program was developed. In this program, a sophisticated heat balance model based on the actual plant data is adopted to identify plant anomalies at an incipient stage and the symptoms of plant anomalies are found by heat balance changes from the model calculation. The model calculation results have shown precise prediction for actual plant parameters. Moreover, this program has the diagnostic engine that helps operators derive the cause of plant anomalies. By using this monitoring program, the component reliability in the turbine system can be periodically monitored and assessed, and as a result the stable operation of nuclear power plants can be achieved. (author)

  17. Noise from wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, B.; Larsen, P.

    1993-01-01

    Denmark has 3200 wind turbines with an installed maximum capacity of 418MW. The most important Danish research projects into wind turbine noise and the main results are listed. These date from 1983. Two comprehensive studies are currently in progress. The first is an analytical and empirical investigation of aerodynamic noise from wind turbine rotors and has so far dealt mainly with tip noise. The measurement method, using a hard board mounted microphone on the ground near the turbine, is described. Four different tip designs have been tested. Some examples of reference sound power level spectra for three of the designs are presented. During the past two years a computerbased data acquisition system has been used for real-time determination of sound power levels. The second study, which has just commenced, is on annoyance from wind turbine noise. It will include noise measurements, masking calculations and a social survey on the perceived nuisance. (UK)

  18. Steam Turbine Flow Path Seals (a Review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuimin, V. M.

    2018-03-01

    such seals in the turbine flow path is achieved with the sealing material-to-blade linear wear ratio equal to 10 : 1. According to estimates of the developers, application of abradable (sealing) coatings to all problem surfaces (resulting in the power output increased by 0.5-1.0%) is economically profitable even if this procedure is carried out under field conditions at a thermal power plant.

  19. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank Macri

    2003-10-01

    Rolls-Royce Corporation has completed a cooperative agreement under Department of Energy (DOE) contract DE-FC21-96MC33066 in support of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program to stimulate industrial power generation markets. This DOE contract was performed during the period of October 1995 to December 2002. This final technical report, which is a program deliverable, describes all associated results obtained during Phases 3A and 3B of the contract. Rolls-Royce Corporation (formerly Allison Engine Company) initially focused on the design and development of a 10-megawatt (MW) high-efficiency industrial gas turbine engine/package concept (termed the 701-K) to meet the specific goals of the ATS program, which included single digit NOx emissions, increased plant efficiency, fuel flexibility, and reduced cost of power (i.e., $/kW). While a detailed design effort and associated component development were successfully accomplished for the 701-K engine, capable of achieving the stated ATS program goals, in 1999 Rolls-Royce changed its focus to developing advanced component technologies for product insertion that would modernize the current fleet of 501-K and 601-K industrial gas turbines. This effort would also help to establish commercial venues for suppliers and designers and assist in involving future advanced technologies in the field of gas turbine engine development. This strategy change was partly driven by the market requirements that suggested a low demand for a 10-MW aeroderivative industrial gas turbine, a change in corporate strategy for aeroderivative gas turbine engine development initiatives, and a consensus that a better return on investment (ROI) could be achieved under the ATS contract by focusing on product improvements and technology insertion for the existing Rolls-Royce small engine industrial gas turbine fleet.

  20. Wind Turbine Wake-Redirection Control at the Fishermen's Atlantic City Windfarm: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M.; Fleming, P.; Bulder, B.; White, S.

    2015-05-06

    In this paper, we will present our work towards designing a control strategy to mitigate wind turbine wake effects by redirecting the wakes, specifically applied to the Fishermen’s Atlantic City Windfarm (FACW), proposed for deployment off the shore of Atlantic City, New Jersey. As wind turbines extract energy from the air, they create low-speed wakes that extend behind them. Full wake recovery Full wake recovery to the undisturbed wind speed takes a significant distance. In a wind energy plant the wakes of upstream turbines may travel downstream to the next row of turbines, effectively subjecting them to lower wind speeds, meaning these waked turbines will produce less power.

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen on SCC of LP turbine steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeng, W. Y.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, W. C.

    2002-01-01

    Slow Strain Rate Tests (SSRT) were carried out to investigate the effect of dissolved oxygen on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) susceptibility of 3.5NiCrMoV steels used in discs of Low-Pressure (LP) steam turbines in electric power generating plants. The influence of dissolved oxygen on cracking in water was studied; for this purpose, specimens were strained to fracture at 150 .deg. C in water environments with various amounts of dissolved oxygen. The maximum elongation of the turbine steel decreased with increasing dissolved oxygen. Dissolved oxygen significantly affected the SCC susceptibility of turbine steel in water. The increase of the SCC susceptibility of the turbine steel in a higher dissolved oxygen environment is due to the non protectiveness of the oxide layer of the turbine steel surface and the increase of corrosion current

  2. AFB/open cycle gas turbine conceptual design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, T. W.; Tashjian, R.

    1983-09-01

    Applications of coal fired atmospheric fluidized bed gas turbine systems in industrial cogeneration are identified. Based on site-specific conceptual designs, the potential benefits of the AFB/gas turbine system were compared with an atmospheric fluidized design steam boiler/steam turbine system. The application of these cogeneration systems at four industrial plant sites is reviewed. A performance and benefit analysis was made along with a study of the representativeness of the sites both in regard to their own industry and compared to industry as a whole. A site was selected for the conceptual design, which included detailed site definition, AFB/gas turbine and AFB/steam turbine cogeneration system designs, detailed cost estimates, and comparative performance and benefit analysis. Market and benefit analyses identified the potential market penetration for the cogeneration technologies and quantified the potential benefits.

  3. Performance analysis of a gas turbine for power generation using syngas as a fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Jun; Cha Kyu Sang; Kim, Tong Seop; Sohn, Jeong Lak; Joo, Yong Jin

    2008-01-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant converts coal to syngas, which is mainly composed of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, by the gasification process and produces electric power by the gas and steam turbine combined cycle power plant. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of using syngas in a gas turbine, originally designed for natural gas fuel, on its performance. A commercial gas turbine is selected and variations of its performance characteristics due to adopting syngas is analyzed by simulating off-design gas turbine operation. Since the heating value of the syngas is lower, compared to natural gas, IGCC plants require much larger fuel flow rate. This increase the gas flow rate to the turbine and the pressure ratio, leading to far larger power output and higher thermal efficiency. Examination of using two different syngases reveals that the gas turbine performance varies much with the fuel composition

  4. Steam turbine of WWER-1000 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahy, J.

    1986-01-01

    The manufacture was started by Skoda of a saturated steam, 1,000 MW, 3,000 rpm turbine designed for the Temelin nuclear power plant. The turbine provides steam for heating water for district heating, this either with an output of 893 MW for a three-stage water heating at 150/60 degC, or of 570 MW for a two-stage water heating at 120/60 degC. The turbine features one high-pressure and three identical low-pressure stages. The pressure gradient between the high-pressure and the low-pressure parts was optimized with respect to the thermal efficiency of the cycle and to the thermodynamic efficiency of the low-pressure part. A value of 0.79 MPa was selected corresponding to the maximum through-flow of steam entering the turbine. This makes 5,495 t/h, the admission steam parameters are 273.3 degC and 5.8 MPa. The feed water temperature is 220.9 degC. 300 cold starts, 1,000 starts after shutdowns for 55 to 88 hours and 600 starts after shutdown for 8 hours are envisaged for the entire turbine service life. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 1 tab., 6 refs

  5. Advanced hydropower turbine: AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System Program; Turbinas hidraulicas avancadas: Programa AHTS-Advanced Hydropower Turbine System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macorin, Adriano De Figueiredo; Tomisawa, Alessandra Terumi; Van Deursen, Gustavo Jose Ferreira; Bermann, Celio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], email: brunosilva@usp.br

    2010-07-01

    Due to a privileged hydrography and energy policies that remounts to the beginning of the 20th century, Brazilian's electrical grid can be considered one of the cleanest in the world regarding the emission of atmospheric pollutants. Nevertheless, as in every human large enterprise, it is well known that hydroelectric power plants also lead to harmful environmental impacts. This article presents the AHTS Program (Advanced Hydropower Turbine System) started in 1994 in USA and developed to assess and conceive new hydro turbines to mitigate two of the main negative impacts of the installation and operation of this kind of power plant: (a) turbine-passed fish mortality and (b) the low dissolved oxygen - DO - levels downstream of the dams. The criteria used to concept the turbines are also justified in this article. As well as the modifications made in each case by the following companies: Alden Research Lab e o Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (ARL/NREC) and Voith Hydro (Voith). (author)

  6. New gas turbine technology 2012-2014 - Gas Turbine Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genrup, Magnus; Thern, Marcus [LTH, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-03-15

    The last three years have certainly been a game changer with respect to combined cycle efficiency and operational flexibility. All major manufacturers are able to offer plants with efficiencies around 61 percent. Siemens has a TUV-certified performance of 60.75 percent at the Kraftwerke Ulrich Hartmann (formerly Irsching 4) site outside Berlin. The old paradigm that high performance meant advanced steam-cooled gas turbines and slow started bottoming cycles has definitely proven false. Both Siemens and General Electric are able to do a hot restart within 30 minutes to, more or less, full load. This is, by far, faster than possible with steam cooling and the only technology that is capable of meeting the future flexibility requirements due to high volatile renewable penetration. All major manufacturers have developed air-cooled engines for combined cycles with 61 percent efficiency. Steam cooling will most likely only be used for 1600 deg firing level since there will be an air shortage for both dry low emission combustion and turbine cooling. The increased combined cycle efficiency is a combination of better (or higher) performing gas turbines and improved bottoming cycles. The higher gas turbine performance has been achieved whilst maintaining a 60 deg high pressure admission temperature - hence the gain in combined cycle performance. The mentioned requirements of both high gas turbine performance and sufficient exhaust temperature, should impose both an increase in pressure ratio and increased firing level. The price level (2012) was on average 30-35 percent higher than the minimum level in 2004. The cost of ownership (or per produced unit of power) is strongly governed by the difference between the electricity and the fuel price. The importance of evaluating all factors (like degradation and de-icing operation) in the economic model cannot be stressed too much since it may have a profound impact on the analysis. The test code guarantee verification test is indeed

  7. Study of the characteristic response of the pressure control system for the design parameters of the new turbine control system, MARK VI, in Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant; Resultados del estudio de la respuesta caracteristica del sistema de control de presion para el Proyecto OCP-4300 Nuevo Sistema de Control de Turbina MARK VI en la C.N. Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo anaya, M. J.; Ruiz Bueno, G.; Mora, J. A.; Vaquer, J. I.; Bucho, L.; Lopez, B.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the study of the characteristic response of the ancient Pressure and Turbine Control System for the OCP-4300 Project in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant, made by Titania Servicios Tecnologicos in collaboration with the Institute for Industrial, Radiophysical and Environmental Safety. This work was done as one of the preliminary work necessary for replacing the old control system by Mark VI.

  8. Turbine blade vibration dampening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, C.C.; Pytanowski, G.P.; Vendituoli, J.S.

    1997-07-08

    The present turbine wheel assembly increases component life and turbine engine longevity. The combination of the strap and the opening combined with the preestablished area of the outer surface of the opening and the preestablished area of the outer circumferential surface of the strap and the friction between the strap and the opening increases the life and longevity of the turbine wheel assembly. Furthermore, the mass ``M`` or combined mass ``CM`` of the strap or straps and the centrifugal force assist in controlling vibrations and damping characteristics. 5 figs.

  9. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  10. Nuclear turbine efficiency improvement by wet steam study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Morson, A.; Markytan, R.

    2000-01-01

    Most of the turbine used at the nuclear power plant are operated at environment of wet steam, which composes of a big factor of its inner loss in comparison with those of the thermal power plant. If an analytical method predictable on behavior of the wet steam is established, it could be upgraded efficiency of the turbine and also reliability against corrosion formed by moisture. This study, therefore, aims at understanding of physical property of the wet steam flow scarcely known at present, development of an optimum turbine cascade design tool reflected by the property, development of a turbine cascade design reducible of steam loss due to wet steam by using the tool, and development on a method of removing moisture in the turbine to its outer portion. For the tool, a new three dimensional flow numerical analysis is necessary to be developed, to aim at accurately and numerically understanding of the behavior of wet steam. As this study is in advancing now, by using a turbine cascade optimized on the wet steam flow and a developed moisture removing apparatus, about 0.6 % of upgrading in turbine efficiency can be predicted in comparison with that of the advanced aero-cascade of the GE Corporation. (G.K.)

  11. Future on Power Electronics for Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2013-01-01

    networks and more and more wind power stations, acting as power plants, are connected directly to the transmission networks. As the grid penetration and power level of the wind turbines increase steadily, the wind power starts to have significant impacts to the power grid system. Therefore, more advanced...... generators, power electronic systems, and control solutions have to be introduced to improve the characteristics of the wind power plant and make it more suitable to be integrated into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are also some emerging technology challenges, which need to be further clarified......Wind power is still the most promising renewable energy in the year of 2013. The wind turbine system (WTS) started with a few tens of kilowatt power in the 1980s. Now, multimegawatt wind turbines are widely installed even up to 6-8 MW. There is a widespread use of wind turbines in the distribution...

  12. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  13. ANALYTICAL EVALUATION OF CRACK PROPAGATION FOR BULB HYDRAULIC TURBINES SHAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea O. POPOVICU

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hydroelectric Power Plants uses the regenerating energy of rivers. The hydraulic Bulb turbines running with low heads are excellent alternative energy sources. The shafts of these units present themselves as massive pieces, with cylindrical shape, manufactured from low-alloyed steels. The paper analyses the fatigue cracks occurring at some turbines in the neighbourhood of the connection zone between the shaft and the turbine runner flange. To obtain the tension state in this zone ANSIS and AFGROW computing programs were used. The number of running hours until the piercing of the shaft wall is established as a useful result.

  14. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    within ranges expected for conventional radial flow machines. Based on these measurements, the expected efficiency peak for prototype application is 93.64%. These data were used in the final sizing of the supporting mechanical and balance of plant equipment. The preliminary equipment cost for the design specification is $1450/kW with a total supply schedule of 28 months. This equipment supply includes turbine, generator, unit controls, limited balance of plant equipment, field installation, and commissioning. Based on the selected head and flow design conditions, fish passage survival through the final turbine is estimated to be approximately 98% for 7.9-inch (200-mm) fish, and the predicted survival reaches 100% for fish 3.9 inches (100 mm) and less in length. Note that fish up to 7.9- inches (200 mm) in length make up more than 90% of fish entrained at hydro projects in the United States. Completion of these efforts provides a mechanical and electrical design that can be readily adapted to site-specific conditions with additional engineering development comparable to costs associated with conventional turbine designs.

  15. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  16. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  17. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  18. The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation; Die neue 6 MW Gasturbine fuer die Stromerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaswich, Michael; Theis, Sascha [MAN Diesel and Turbo SE, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    MAN Diesel and Turbo SE (Oberhausen, Federal Republic of Germany) had developed a new gas turbine in the 6 MW class. This device is the founding stone for a family of gas turbines which at first cover the power range from 6 to 8 MW for the propulsion of pumps, compressors and electric devices. The two-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of a gas generator with an axial compressor with eleven levels, six external single combustion chambers, one two-step high-pressure turbine and a two-step power turbine. Beside the two-shaft industrial gas turbine, there exists a single-shaft industrial gas turbine for the power generation. The single-shaft industrial gas turbine consists of three turbine stages, a gas turbine compressor and combustion chamber being identical in construction to the two-shaft industrial gas turbine. The gas turbine package contains the gas turbine module as well as a filter module. The gas turbine was successfully tested. Further tests and the commissioning of the first customer's plant are planned for this year.

  19. Blade number impact on pressure and performance of archimedes screw turbine using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Muhammad Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad; Nawawi, Muhammad

    2018-02-01

    Many rivers in Indonesia can be used as source of mini/micro hydro power plant using low head turbine. The most suitable type of turbine used in fluid flow with low head is the Archimedes screw turbine. The Archimedes screw hydro turbine is a relative newcomer to the small-scale hydropower that can work efficiently on heads as low as 10 meter. In this study, the performance of Archimedes water turbines that has different blade numbers that are thoroughly evaluated to obtain proper blade configuration. For this purpose, numerical simulations are used to predict the pressure changes that occur along the turbine. The simulation results show that turbines with an amount of two blades have more sloping pressure distribution so that it has better stability.

  20. Effect of blades number to performance of Savonius water turbine in water pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Imron; Prasetyo, Ari; Tjahjana, D. D. D. Prija; Hadi, Syamsul

    2018-02-01

    Savonius is usually known as a wind turbine that works efficiently at low wind speed. In this research, the Savonius turbine is proposed for a pico hydro power plant that is installed straightly on the 3-inch vertical pipeline of rainwater and household waste. The Savonius water turbine was designed with blade curvature angle of 70°, the aspect ratio of 1, turbine diameter of 82 mm, and endplate ratio of 1,1. The experimental study investigated the effect of blades number to the performance of Savonius turbine on various volume flow rate of water. Savonius turbine with three blades number generated the highest coefficient of performance of 0.23 on tip speed ratio of 1.7 compared to turbines with the number of other blades.