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Sample records for vanrb sb tcs

  1. tcsBU: a tool to extend TCS network layout and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múrias dos Santos, António; Cabezas, Maria Pilar; Tavares, Ana Isabel; Xavier, Raquel; Branco, Madalena

    2016-02-15

    TCS is a widely used haplotype network reconstruction software, but lacks the capability of overlapping genetic with geographic structure, which is often a first step in phylogeographic analysis. tcsBU is a web-based program that extends the capabilities of TCS, by implementing haplotype classification into an arbitrary user-defined scheme, which is displayed as pie-chart like graphs embedded into the network. Taking advantage of modern graphic libraries, tcsBU also improves the speed at which the final network layout is reached. Networks can be saved as a Scalable Vector Graphics format. tcsBU is available on-line at http://cibio.up.pt/software/tcsBU/. The source code is freely available from https://github.com/sairum/tcsbu/ under a standard MIT license. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. TCS Amsterdam Marathon 2014 : economische impact, tevredenheid, gezondheidseffecten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart de la Faille-Deutekom, Marije; Verhoogt, Pieter

    Op zondag 19 oktober 2014 vond de 39ste editie plaats van de TCS Amsterdam Marathon. Met 44.100 deelnemers is het evenement uitgegroeid tot één van de grootste participatiesportevenementen van ons land. Dankzij het stadsparcours is de TCS Amsterdam Marathon voor zowel de deelnemers als de inwoners

  3. Study on consumers’ attitudes towards Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) : final report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elshout, M.; Elsen, M.; Leenheer, J.; Loos, M.; Luzak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that when buying products and services online, the vast majority of consumers accept Terms and Conditions (T&Cs) without even reading them. The current research examined effects of interventions aimed at making consumers aware of the quality of such T&Cs. This was done by

  4. IAEA training course series TCS-37 clinical training of medical physicists specializing in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamura, Kiyonari

    2015-01-01

    Training program IAEA TCS-37 (Training course series No.37) 'Clinical Training Specializing in Radiation Oncology (2009)' was fixed to practical training syllabus at faculty and graduate course of medical physics of a university. TCS-47 for diagnostic radiology (2010) and TCS-50 for nuclear medicine (2011) were also involved in the syllabus. These training courses had been developed by IAEA RCA RAS6038 project since 2002. In this paper, first, comparison with other training programs in the world was made in terms of (1) Degree of extent of subject or field, (2) Concreteness or specificity, (3) Degree of completion, (4) Method of certification and (5) Practicability. IAEA TCS series got the most points among ten programs such as EMERALD/EMIT, AAPM rpt. No.90 and CAMPEP accredited programs. Second, TCS-37, TCS-47 and TCS-50 were broken down to 6, 5 and 6 subjects of training course respectively. Third, each subject was further broken down to 15 times of training schedule where every time was composed by 3 hours of training. Totally 45 hours of a subject were assigned to one semester for getting one unit of credit. Seventeen units should be credited up to three years in graduate course to finish the whole program. (author)

  5. TCS: a web server for multiple sequence alignment evaluation and phylogenetic reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Lefort, Vincent; Gascuel, Olivier; Notredame, Cedric

    2015-07-01

    This article introduces the Transitive Consistency Score (TCS) web server; a service making it possible to estimate the local reliability of protein multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) using the TCS index. The evaluation can be used to identify the aligned positions most likely to contain structurally analogous residues and also most likely to support an accurate phylogenetic reconstruction. The TCS scoring scheme has been shown to be accurate predictor of structural alignment correctness among commonly used methods. It has also been shown to outperform common filtering schemes like Gblocks or trimAl when doing MSA post-processing prior to phylogenetic tree reconstruction. The web server is available from http://tcoffee.crg.cat/tcs. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. On the interpretation of total current spectroscopy (TCS) spectra from MoS2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, M.H.; Moeller, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Total Current Spectroscopy (TCS) spectra from MoS 2 (0001) face for three different angles of incidence of the primary beam with respect to the c-axis as well as TCS spectrum from an edge surface cut perpendicularly to the (001) face of a molybdenite crystal are given. Energy positions of the TCS structure are found to be independent of the variations in the angle of incidence of the primary beam and also of the change of crystal face. From this it is concluded that the fine structure in the TCS spectra from molybdenite crystal for the primary energies studied is due to electron-electron scattering and not to Bragg interference effects. (author)

  7. Measurement of Non-Invasive Blood Glucose Level Based Sensor Color TCS3200 and Arduino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi Wardana, Humaidillah; Indahwati, Elly; Arifah Fitriyah, Lina

    2018-04-01

    Design and measurement of Arduino-based urinary (non-invasive) urine glucose using RGB tcs3200 sensor. This research was conducted by making use of the urine in diabetes patients detected by sensor colours then measured levels of colour based on the RGB colour of the urine of diabetics. The detection is done on 4 urine samples with each consisting of 3 diabetics and 1 non-diabetics. Equipment used in this research, among others, Arduino Uno, colour sensor tcs3200, LCD 16x4. The results showed that the detection of RGB values in diabetics 230 with blue and not diabetics 200 with red.

  8. Challenges in Delivering Green Building Projects: Unearthing the Transaction Costs (TCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queena K. Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Delivering green building (GB projects involve some activities that are atypical in comparison with conventional buildings. Such new activities are characterized by uncertainty, and they incur hidden costs that have not been expected nor are they readily appreciated among the stakeholders. This paper develops a typology and chronology to examine the new activities that are associated with transaction costs (TCs in the real estate development process (REDP of green building. Through in-depth interviews with representatives from the major developers in Hong Kong who have experiences in GB practice, this study aims to unearth TCs involved at the critical stages of the REDP. Apart from reconfirming the early project planning stage as the most critical in the consideration of TCs, the study results also identified “extra legal liability risk of the GB product” as the major concern for any GB developer in Hong Kong. The key additional activities that bring significant TCs in developing GB are identified and compared to their traditional counterparts. In turn, project managers not only have to pursue overall cost management whilst winning more business, but they also have to pay particular attention to sustainability in order to minimize hidden societal costs. The study also provides a reference for governments and professionals that will aid in forming policy as well as advance the practice of the GB market by optimizing the societal costs.

  9. TCS Innovation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hannah Rajasingh

    Infection of the intestinal epithelium by gastrointestinal pathogens. Vicious cycle of infection and malnutrition. Infection adversely affects nutritional status. Malnutrition can predispose to infection. Presence of pathogens normally absent in the intestines of healthy subjects.

  10. Automatic Color Sorting Machine Using TCS230 Color Sensor And PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunhimohammed C K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sorting of products is a very difficult industrial process. Continuous manual sorting creates consistency issues. This paper describes a working prototype designed for automatic sorting of objects based on the color. TCS230 sensor was used to detect the color of the product and the PIC16F628A microcontroller was used to control the overall process. The identification of the color is based on the frequency analysis of the output of TCS230 sensor. Two conveyor belts were used, each controlled by separate DC motors. The first belt is for placing the product to be analyzed by the color sensor, and the second belt is for moving the container, having separated compartments, in order to separate the products. The experimental results promise that the prototype will fulfill the needs for higher production and precise quality in the field of automation.

  11. TCS1, a Microtubule-Binding Protein, Interacts with KCBP/ZWICHEL to Regulate Trichome Cell Shape in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available How cell shape is controlled is a fundamental question in developmental biology, but the genetic and molecular mechanisms that determine cell shape are largely unknown. Arabidopsis trichomes have been used as a good model system to investigate cell shape at the single-cell level. Here we describe the trichome cell shape 1 (tcs1 mutants with the reduced trichome branch number in Arabidopsis. TCS1 encodes a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. Pharmacological analyses and observations of microtubule dynamics show that TCS1 influences the stability of microtubules. Biochemical analyses and live-cell imaging indicate that TCS1 binds to microtubules and promotes the assembly of microtubules. Further results reveal that TCS1 physically associates with KCBP/ZWICHEL, a microtubule motor involved in the regulation of trichome branch number. Genetic analyses indicate that kcbp/zwi is epistatic to tcs1 with respect to trichome branch number. Thus, our findings define a novel genetic and molecular mechanism by which TCS1 interacts with KCBP to regulate trichome cell shape by influencing the stability of microtubules.

  12. Adaptable Single Active Loop Thermal Control System (TCS) for Future Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Lee, Seunghyun; Hasan, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will examine the development of a thermal control system (TCS) for future space missions utilizing a single active cooling loop. The system architecture enables the TCS to be reconfigured during the various mission phases to respond, not only to varying heat load, but to heat rejection temperature as well. The system will consist of an accumulator, pump, cold plates (evaporators), condenser radiator, and compressor, in addition to control, bypass and throttling valves. For cold environments, the heat will be rejected by radiation, during which the compressor will be bypassed, reducing the system to a simple pumped loop that, depending on heat load, can operate in either a single-phase liquid mode or two-phase mode. For warmer environments, the pump will be bypassed, enabling the TCS to operate as a heat pump. This presentation will focus on recent findings concerning two-phase flow regimes, pressure drop, and heat transfer coefficient trends in the cabin and avionics micro-channel heat exchangers when using the heat pump mode. Also discussed will be practical implications of using micro-channel evaporators for the heat pump.

  13. Yield of 117Sb, 118mSb, 120mSb, 122Sb, 124Sb in reactions Sn (p, xn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, P.P.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1993-01-01

    Yield of 117 Sb, 118m Sb, 120m Sb, 122 Sb, 124 Sb from thick target depending on proton energy is measured. The maximum proton energy is 21.7±0.2 MeV. Antimony isotopes yield in separate reactions when irradiating of tin isotopes with 100% enrichment is determined using the method published earlier. The methods for production of 117 Sb, 118m Sb, 120m Sb, 122 Sb, 124 Sb with high radioisotope purity are shown. 13 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. EPOS Thematic Core Service ANTHROPOGENIC HAZARDS (TCS AH) - development of e-research platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata

    2017-04-01

    TCS AH is based on IS-EPOS Platform. The Platform facilitates research on anthropogenic hazards and is available online, free of charge https://tcs.ah-epos.eu/. The Platform is a final product of the IS-EPOS project, founded by the national programme - POIG - which was implemented in 2013-2015 (POIG.02.03.00-14-090/13-00). The platform is a result of a joint work of scientific community and industrial partners. Currently, the development of TCS AH is carried under EPOS IP project (H2020-INFRADEV-1-2015-1, INFRADEV-3-2015). Platform is an open virtual access point for researchers and Ph. D. students interested in anthropogenic seismicity and related hazards. This environment is designed to ensure a researcher the maximum possible liberty for experimentation by providing a virtual laboratory, in which the researcher can design own processing streams and process the data integrated on the platform. TCS AH integrates: data and specific high-level services. Data gathered in the so-called "episodes", comprehensively describing a geophysical process, induced or triggered by human technological activity, which, under certain circumstances can become hazardous for people, infrastructure and the environment. 7 sets of seismic, geological and technological data were made available on the Platform. The data come from Poland, Germany, UK and Vietnam, and refer to underground mining, reservoir impoundment, shale gas exploitation and geothermal energy production. The next at least 19 new episodes related to conventional hydrocarbon extraction, reservoir treatment, underground mining and geothermal energy production are being integrated within the framework of EPOS IP project. The heterogeneous multi-disciplinary data (seismic, displacement, geomechanical data, production data etc.) are transformed to unified structures to form integrated and validated datasets. To deal with this various data the problem-oriented services were designed and implemented. The particular attention

  15. Thermal analysis of hybrid single-phase, two-phase and heat pump thermal control system (TCS) for future spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Mudawar, I.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) is proposed for future spacecraft. • Thermodynamic performance of H-TCS is examined for different space missions. • Operational modes including single-phase, two-phase and heat pump are explored. • R134a is deemed most appropriate working fluid. - Abstract: An urgent need presently exists to develop a new class of versatile spacecraft capable of conducting different types of missions and enduring varying gravitational and temperature environments, including Lunar, Martian and Near Earth Object (NEOs). This study concerns the spacecraft's Thermal Control System (TCS), which tackles heat acquisition, especially from crew and avionics, heat transport, and ultimate heat rejection by radiation. The primary goal of the study is to explore the design and thermal performance of a Hybrid Thermal Control System (H-TCS) that would satisfy the diverse thermal requirements of the different space missions. The H-TCS must endure both ‘cold’ and ‘hot’ environments, reduce weight and size, and enhance thermodynamic performance. Four different operational modes are considered: single-phase, two-phase, basic heat pump and heat pump with liquid-side, suction-side heat exchanger. A thermodynamic trade study is conducted for six different working fluids to assess important performance parameters including mass flow rate of the working fluid, maximum pressure, radiator area, compressor/pump work, and coefficient of performance (COP). R134a is determined to be most suitable based on its ability to provide a balanced compromise between reducing flow rate and maintaining low system pressure, and a moderate coefficient of performance (COP); this fluid is also both nontoxic and nonflammable, and features zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP). It is shown how specific mission stages dictate which mode of operation is most suitable, and this information is used to size the radiator for the

  16. Analysis of a Non-Developing Tropical Circulation System During the Tropical Cyclone Structure (TCS08) Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    dropwindsondes each flight. For each of the three flights, the WC-130J aircraft flew in a variety of patterns including a lawn mower , square spiral...130J flew a modified lawn mower pattern through TCS025 at approximately 300 hPa and launched dropwindsondes approximately every 10 minutes (Figure 23

  17. 41 CFR 302-3.422 - What expenses will my agency pay when I complete my TCS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Separation from Government Service § 302-3.422 What expenses will my agency pay when I complete my TCS? Your...; (c) Transportation of a mobile home instead of transportation of our household goods under part 302... privately owned vehicle(s) under part of this chapter; and (g) A relocation income tax allowance under part...

  18. Modeling the green building (GB) investment decisions of developers and end-users with transaction costs (TCs) considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qian, Q.K.; Chan, E.H.W.; Visscher, H.J.; Lehmann, S.

    2015-01-01

    The paper, through a “regenerative” lens, has focused upon a new conceptual game system involving transaction costs (TCs) for creating a more accessible green buildings (GB) market. Individual stakeholders steadfastly guard their own interests in any investment decision, which seldom considers any

  19. 41 CFR 302-3.418 - Will my agency pay for property management services when I am authorized a TCS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... station as a rental property. Services provided by the company may include, but are not limited to... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will my agency pay for property management services when I am authorized a TCS? 302-3.418 Section 302-3.418 Public Contracts and...

  20. Comparison of the electrochemical performance of mesoscopic Cu2Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb alloy powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ge; Huang Kelong; Liu Suqin; Zhang Wei; Gong Benli

    2006-01-01

    Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb mesoscopic alloy powders were prepared by chemical reduction, respectively. The crystal structures and particle morphology of Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical performances of the Cu 2 Sb, SnSb and Sn/SnSb electrodes were investigated by galvanostatic charge and discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results showed the first charge and discharge capacities of SnSb and Sn/SnSb were higher than Cu 2 Sb, but after 15 cycles, the charge capacity fading rates of Cu 2 Sb, Sn/SnSb and Sn/SnSb were 26.16%, 55.33% and 47.39%, respectively. Cu 2 Sb had a better cycle performance, and Sn/SnSb multiphase alloy was prior to pure SnSb due to the existence of excessive Sn in Sn/SnSb system

  1. TCS: a new multiple sequence alignment reliability measure to estimate alignment accuracy and improve phylogenetic tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Ming; Di Tommaso, Paolo; Notredame, Cedric

    2014-06-01

    Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) is a key modeling procedure when analyzing biological sequences. Homology and evolutionary modeling are the most common applications of MSAs. Both are known to be sensitive to the underlying MSA accuracy. In this work, we show how this problem can be partly overcome using the transitive consistency score (TCS), an extended version of the T-Coffee scoring scheme. Using this local evaluation function, we show that one can identify the most reliable portions of an MSA, as judged from BAliBASE and PREFAB structure-based reference alignments. We also show how this measure can be used to improve phylogenetic tree reconstruction using both an established simulated data set and a novel empirical yeast data set. For this purpose, we describe a novel lossless alternative to site filtering that involves overweighting the trustworthy columns. Our approach relies on the T-Coffee framework; it uses libraries of pairwise alignments to evaluate any third party MSA. Pairwise projections can be produced using fast or slow methods, thus allowing a trade-off between speed and accuracy. We compared TCS with Heads-or-Tails, GUIDANCE, Gblocks, and trimAl and found it to lead to significantly better estimates of structural accuracy and more accurate phylogenetic trees. The software is available from www.tcoffee.org/Projects/tcs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Effects of triclosan (TCS) on fecundity, the antioxidant system, and oxidative stress-mediated gene expression in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jun Chul; Han, Jeonghoon; Lee, Min-Chul; Seo, Jung Soo; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2017-08-01

    Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial agent that has been widely dispersed and detected in the marine environment. However, the effects of TCS in marine invertebrates are poorly understood. In this study, the effects of TCS on life cycle history (e.g. mortality and fecundity) along with cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, GSH content, antioxidant enzymatic activities, and mRNA expression levels of oxidative stress-mediated genes were measured in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus. The no observed effect concentration (NOEC) and median lethal concentration (LC50) of TCS in the adult stage were determined to be 300μg/L and 437.476μg/L, respectively, while in the nauplius stages the corresponding values were 20μg/L, and 51.76μg/L, respectively. Fecundity was significantly reduced (Pcopepod T. japonicus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and characterization of an InSb infrared photoconductor on Si via an AlSb/GaSb buffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2018-05-01

    A 99.6% relaxed InSb layer is grown on a 6° offcut (1 0 0) Si substrate via an AlSb/GaSb buffer using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). A 200 nm GaSb buffer is first grown on Si and the lattice mismatch between them is accommodated by an interfacial misfit (IMF) array consisting of uniformly distributed 90° misfit dislocations. Si delta doping is introduced during the growth of GaSb to reduce the density of threading dislocation. Subsequently, a 50 nm AlSb buffer is grown followed by a 0.8 μm InSb layer. The InSb layer exhibits a 300 K electron mobility of 22,300 cm2/Vs. An InSb photoconductor on Si is demonstrated with a photoconductive gain from 77 K to 200 K under a 700 °C maintained blackbody.

  4. DWPF SB6 Initial CPC Flowsheet Testing SB6-1 TO SB6-4L Tests Of SB6-A And SB6-B Simulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Best, D.

    2009-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will transition from Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing to Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) processing in late fiscal year 2010. Tests were conducted using non-radioactive simulants of the expected SB6 composition to determine the impact of varying the acid stoichiometry during the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) processes. The work was conducted to meet the Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2008-0043, Rev.0 and followed the guidelines of a Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TT and QAP). The flowsheet studies are performed to evaluate the potential chemical processing issues, hydrogen generation rates, and process slurry rheological properties as a function of acid stoichiometry. These studies were conducted with the estimated SB6 composition at the time of the study. This composition assumed a blend of 101,085 kg of Tank 4 insoluble solids and 179,000 kg of Tank 12 insoluble solids. The current plans are to subject Tank 12 sludge to aluminum dissolution. Liquid Waste Operations assumed that 75% of the aluminum would be dissolved during this process. After dissolution and blending of Tank 4 sludge slurry, plans included washing the contents of Tank 51 to ∼1M Na. After the completion of washing, the plan assumes that 40 inches on Tank 40 slurry would remain for blending with the qualified SB6 material. There are several parameters that are noteworthy concerning SB6 sludge: (1) This is the second batch DWPF will be processing that contains sludge that has had a significant fraction of aluminum removed through aluminum dissolution; (2) The sludge is high in mercury, but the projected concentration is lower than SB5; (3) The sludge is high in noble metals, but the projected concentrations are lower than SB5; and(4) The sludge is high in U and Pu - components that are not added in sludge simulants. Six DWPF process simulations were completed in 4-L laboratory-scale equipment using

  5. Proposal for the award of a contract for the supply of TCP and TCS collimators for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of 40 TCP and TCS collimators for the LHC cleaning insertions. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with CERCA (FR), the lowest bidder, for the supply of 40 collimators for a total amount of 1 122 173 euros (1 718 720 Swiss francs), not subject to revision, with options for up to 11 collimators for an amount of up to 279 280 euros (427 745 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007, bringing the total amount to 1 401 453 euros (2 146 465 Swiss francs), subject to revision for inflation from 1 January 2007. The rate of exchange used is that stipulated in the tender.

  6. Distribution, speciation and availability of antimony (Sb) in soils and terrestrial plants from an active Sb mining area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Zhu Yongguan; Luo Lei; Lei Ming; Li Xi; Mulder, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Here, we present one of the first studies investigating the mobility, solubility and the speciation-dependent in-situ bioaccumulation of antimony (Sb) in an active Sb mining area (Xikuangshan, China). Total Sb concentrations in soils are high (527-11,798 mg kg -1 ), and all soils, including those taken from a paddy field and a vegetable garden, show a high bioavailable Sb fraction (6.3-748 mg kg -1 ), dominated by Sb(V). Elevated concentrations in native plant species (109-4029 mg kg -1 ) underpin this. Both chemical equilibrium studies and XANES data suggest the presence of Ca[Sb(OH) 6 ] 2 , controlling Sb solubility. A very close relationship was found between the citric acid extractable Sb in plants and water or sulfate extractable Sb in soil, indicating that citric acid extractable Sb content in plants may be a better predictor for bioavailable Sb in soil than total acid digestible Sb plant content. - Highlights: → Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable. → Sb occurs mainly as Sb(V) in Sb mining impacted soils and plants. → Sb solubility in Sb mining impacted soils is governed by Ca[Sb(OH) 6 ] 2 . → Citric acid extractable Sb in plants and bioavailable Sb in soils are strongly correlated. - Antimony (Sb) in soils from an active Sb mining area is highly bioavailable and controlled by the solubility of calcium antimonate.

  7. Electronic structures of ReS2, ReSe2 and TcS2 in the real and the hypothetical undistorted structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, CM; Wiegers, GA; Haas, C; deGroot, RA

    1997-01-01

    The transition-metal dichalcogenides ReX2 (X = Sor Se) and TcS2 with a d(3) electron configuration have distorted; CdCl2 and Cd(OH)(2) structures, respectively, with the Re(Tc) atoms in each layer forming parallelogram-shaped connected clusters (diamond chain). Ab-initio band-structure calculations

  8. Bonding in ZnSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt

    Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details of the lo......Thermoelectric materials are capable of converting waste heat into usable electric energy. The conversion efficiency depends critically on the electronic band structure. Theoretical calculations predict the semiconducting ZnSb to have a promising efficiency if it is n-doped. The details...... of the lowest conduction band have therefore been investigated. Electrons placed in the lowest conduction band are predicted to increase the bonding between second nearest neighbour atoms. This causes a lowering of the energy at special points in the first Brillouin zone. Thereby, the dispersion of the lowest...

  9. Self-diffusion in 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Bracht, H.; Nicols, S. P.; Haller, E. E.; Silveira, Juan Pedro; Briones Fernández-Pola, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    Gallium and antimony self-diffusion experiments have been performed in undoped 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures at temperatures between 571 and 708 °C under Sb- and Ga-rich ambients. Ga and Sb profiles measured with secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that Ga diffuses faster than Sb by several orders of magnitude. This strongly suggests that the two self-atom species diffuse independently on their own sublattices. Experimental results lead us to conclude that Ga and Sb diffusio...

  10. Self-diffusion in 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracht, H.; Nicols, S. P.; Haller, E. E.; Silveira, J. P.; Briones, F.

    2001-05-01

    Gallium and antimony self-diffusion experiments have been performed in undoped 69Ga121Sb/71Ga123Sb isotope heterostructures at temperatures between 571 and 708 °C under Sb- and Ga-rich ambients. Ga and Sb profiles measured with secondary ion mass spectrometry reveal that Ga diffuses faster than Sb by several orders of magnitude. This strongly suggests that the two self-atom species diffuse independently on their own sublattices. Experimental results lead us to conclude that Ga and Sb diffusion are mediated by Ga vacancies and Sb interstitials, respectively, and not by the formation of a triple defect proposed earlier by Weiler and Mehrer [Philos. Mag. A 49, 309 (1984)]. The extremely slow diffusion of Sb up to the melting temperature of GaSb is proposed to be a consequence of amphoteric transformations between native point defects which suppress the formation of those native defects which control Sb diffusion. Preliminary experiments exploring the effect of Zn indiffusion at 550 °C on Ga and Sb diffusion reveal an enhanced intermixing of the Ga isotope layers compared to undoped GaSb. However, under the same conditions the diffusion of Sb was not significantly affected.

  11. Sequential and simultaneous adsorption of Sb(III) and Sb(V) on ferrihydrite: Implications for oxidation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Pengfei; Pichler, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a naturally occurring element of growing environmental concern whose toxicity, adsorption behavior and other chemical properties are similar to that of arsenic (As). However, less is known about Sb compared to As. Individual and simultaneous adsorption experiments with Sb(III) and Sb(V) were conducted in batch mode with focus on the Sb speciation of the remaining liquid phase during individual Sb(III) adsorption experiments. The simultaneous adsorption and oxidation of Sb(III) was confirmed by the appearance of Sb(V) in the solution at varying Fe/Sb ratios (500, 100 and 8) and varying pH values (3.8, 7 and 9). This newly formed Sb(V) was subsequently removed from solution at a Fe/Sb ratio of 500 or at a pH of 3.8. However, more or less only Sb(V) was observed in the liquid phase at the end of the experiments at lower Fe/Sb ratios and higher pH, indicating that competition took place between the newly formed Sb(V) and Sb(III), and that Sb(III) outcompeted Sb(V). This was independently confirmed by simultaneous adsorption experiments of Sb(III) and Sb(V) in binary systems. Under such conditions, the presence of Sb(V) had no influence on the adsorption of Sb(III) while Sb(V) adsorption was significantly inhibited by Sb(III) over a wide pH range (4-10). Thus, in the presence of ferrihydrite and under redox conditions, which allow the presence of both Sb species, Sb(V) should be the dominant species in aquatic environments, since Sb(III) is adsorbed preferentially and at the same time oxidized to Sb(V). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Redundant Sb condensation on GaSb epilayers grown by molecular beam epitaxy during cooling procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arpapay, B.; Şahin, S.; Arıkan, B.; Serincan, U.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of four different cooling receipts on the surface morphologies of unintentionally-doped GaSb epilayers on GaSb (100) substrates grown by molecular beam epitaxy is reported. Those receipts include three different Sb beam equivalent pressure (BEP) levels and two different termination temperatures. Surface morphologies of epilayers were examined by wet etching, surface profiler, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results demonstrate that during the cooling period, a Sb BEP of 4.00 × 10 −4 Pa at a termination temperature of 400 °C induces a smooth surface without Sb condensation whereas same Sb BEP at a termination temperature of 350 °C forms a 300 nm thick Sb layer on the surface. In addition, it is revealed that by applying a wet etching procedure and using a surface profiler it is possible to identify this condensed layer from the two-sloped feature of mesa profile. - Highlights: • Sb beam flux termination temperature is crucial for redundant Sb condensation. • Sb beam flux level has a role on the thickness of redundant condensed Sb layer. • Redundant Sb layer thickness can be measured by two-sloped mesa structure

  13. Electronic structures of ReS sub 2 , ReSe sub 2 and TcS sub 2 in the real and the hypothetical undistorted structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, C M; Haas, C; Groot, R A D

    1997-01-01

    The transition-metal dichalcogenides ReX sub 2 (X = S or Se) and TcS sub 2 with a d sup 3 electron configuration have distorted CdCl sub 2 and Cd(OH) sub 2 structures, respectively, with the Re(Tc) atoms in each layer forming parallelogram-shaped connected clusters (diamond chain). Ab-initio band-structure calculations were performed for ReX sub 2 and TcS sub 2 , and the hypothetical undistorted 1T-TcS sub 2 and 3R-ReX sub 2 structures. The calculations show that ReS sub 2 , ReSe sub 2 and TcS sub 2 are semiconductors with energy gaps of about 1.0 eV, 0.5 eV and 0.7 eV, respectively, while for the undistorted structures the Fermi level is in the partly filled band of d sub x sub sup 2 sub - sub y sub sup 2 and d sub x sub y orbitals of the t sub 2 sub g manifold. X-ray photoemission spectra for the core levels and valence band of ReSe sub 2 and ReS sub 2 are presented. The valence x-ray photoemission spectra showed that ReS sub 2 is a p-type semiconductor with an energy gap of about 1.5 eV, while ReSe sub 2 i...

  14. Zr3NiSb7: a new antimony-enriched ZrSb2 derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Romaka

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of trizirconium nickel heptaantimonide were synthesized from the constituent elements by arc-melting. The compound crystallizes in a unique structure type and belongs to the family of two-layer structures. All crystallographically unique atoms (3 × Zr, 1 × Ni and 7 × Sb are located at sites with m symmetry. The structure contains `Zr2Ni2Sb5' and `Zr4Sb9' fragments and might be described as a new ZrSb2 derivative with a high Sb content.

  15. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Gabardi, S; Caravati, S; Bernasconi, M; Parrinello, M

    2012-01-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge 1Sb 1Te 1 and Ge 2Sb 4Te 5. Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge 2Sb 2Te 5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high fr...

  16. Dissimilatory Sb(V) reduction by microorganisms isolated from Sb-contaminated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovick, M. A.; Kulp, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mining and smelting are major sources of trace metal contamination in freshwater systems. Arsenic (As) is a common contaminant derived from certain mining operations and is a known toxic metalloid and carcinogen. Antimony (Sb) is listed as a pollutant of priority interest by the EPA and is presumed to share similar geochemical and toxicological properties with arsenic. Both elements can occur in four different oxidation states (V, III, 0, and -III) under naturally occurring conditions. In aqueous solutions As(V) and Sb(V) predominate in oxygenated surface waters whereas As(III) and Sb(III) are stable in anoxic settings. Numerous studies have examined microbiological redox pathways that utilize As(V) as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration, however there have been few studies on microbial mechanisms that may affect the biogeochemical cycling of Sb in the environment. Here we report bacterial reduction of Sb(V) to Sb(III) in anoxic enrichment cultures and bacterial isolates grown from sediment collected from an Sb contaminated pond at a mine tailings site in Idaho (total pond water Sb concentration = 235.2 +/- 136.3 ug/L). Anaerobic sediment microcosms (40 mL) were established in artificial freshwater mineral salt medium, amended with millimolar concentrations of Sb(V), acetate or lactate, and incubated at 27°C for several days. Antimony(V), lactate, and acetate concentrations were monitored during incubation by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and Ion Chromatography (IC). Live sediment microcosms reduced millimolar amendments of Sb(V) to Sb(III) coupled to the oxidation of acetate and lactate, while no activity occurred in killed controls. Enrichment cultures were established by serially diluting Sb(V)-reducing microcosms in mineral salt medium with Sb(V) and acetate, and a Sb(V)-reducing bacterial strain was isolated by plating on anaerobic agar plates amended with millimolar Sb(V) and acetate. Direct cell counting demonstrated that

  17. New superconductor LaRhSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishigori, S.; Moriwaki, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Tanaka, H.; Takabatake, T.; Fujii, H.

    1994-01-01

    Superconductivity in LaRhSb was newly found below the transition temperature T c = 2.67 K by the measurements of the electrical resistivity, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat in magnetic fields. The characteristics of the superconductivity determined in this study indicate that LaRhSb is a type II superconductor following the BCS theory. (orig.)

  18. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabardi, S; Bernasconi, M; Caravati, S; Parrinello, M

    2012-01-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge 1 Sb 1 Te 1 and Ge 2 Sb 4 Te 5 . Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high frequencies above 200 cm -1 are localized in tetrahedra around Ge atoms in Sb-rich compounds as well as in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . All compounds are semiconducting in the amorphous phase, with a band gap in the range 0.7-1.0 eV.

  19. Density functional simulations of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, S.; Caravati, S.; Bernasconi, M.; Parrinello, M.

    2012-09-01

    We generated models of the amorphous phase of Sb-rich GeSbTe phase change alloys by quenching from the melt within density functional molecular dynamics. We considered the two compositions Ge1Sb1Te1 and Ge2Sb4Te5. Comparison with previous results on the most studied Ge2Sb2Te5 allowed us to draw some conclusions on the dependence of the structural properties of the amorphous phase on the alloy composition. Vibrational and electronic properties were also scrutinized. Phonons at high frequencies above 200 cm-1 are localized in tetrahedra around Ge atoms in Sb-rich compounds as well as in Ge2Sb2Te5. All compounds are semiconducting in the amorphous phase, with a band gap in the range 0.7-1.0 eV.

  20. High quality InAsSb grown on InP substrates using AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, B.-R.; Liao, C.; Cheng, K. Y.

    2008-01-01

    High quality InAsSb grown on semi-insulating InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy was achieved using AlSb/AlAsSb structure as the buffer layer. A 1000 A InAsSb layer grown on top of 1 μm AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer showed a room temperature electron mobility of ∼12 000 cm 2 /V s. High structural quality and low misfit defect density were also demonstrated in the InAsSb layer. This novel AlSb/AlAsSb buffer layer structure with the AlAsSb layer lattice matched to InP substrates could enhance the performance of optoelectronic devices utilizing 6.1 A family of compound semiconductor alloys

  1. Crystallographic study of the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb3Zn4 and Sb2Zn3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjadj, Fouzia; Belbacha, El-djemai; Bouharkat, Malek; Kerboub, Abdellah

    2006-01-01

    The processes of development of semiconductor ceramics made up of bismuth, antimony and zinc often require during their preparation to know the nature of the involved phases. For that, it is always essential to refer to the diagrams of balance between phases of the binary systems or ternary. We presented in this work the study by X-rays diffraction relating to the intermediate compounds SbZn, Sb 3 Zn 4 and Sb 2 Zn 3 . The analysis by X-rays is often useful to give supplement the results of the other experimental methods

  2. Sustainable access to data, products, services and software from the European seismological Research Infrastructures: the EPOS TCS Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Florian; Dupont, Aurelien; Michelini, Alberto; Rietbrock, Andreas; Sleeman, Reinoud; Wiemer, Stefan; Basili, Roberto; Bossu, Rémy; Cakti, Eser; Cotton, Fabrice; Crawford, Wayne; Diaz, Jordi; Garth, Tom; Locati, Mario; Luzi, Lucia; Pinho, Rui; Pitilakis, Kyriazis; Strollo, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Easy, efficient and comprehensive access to data, data products, scientific services and scientific software is a key ingredient in enabling research at the frontiers of science. Organizing this access across the European Research Infrastructures in the field of seismology, so that it best serves user needs, takes advantage of state-of-the-art ICT solutions, provides cross-domain interoperability, and is organizationally and financially sustainable in the long term, is the core challenge of the implementation phase of the Thematic Core Service (TCS) Seismology within the EPOS-IP project. Building upon the existing European-level infrastructures ORFEUS for seismological waveforms, EMSC for seismological products, and EFEHR for seismological hazard and risk information, and implementing a pilot Computational Earth Science service starting from the results of the VERCE project, the work within the EPOS-IP project focuses on improving and extending the existing services, aligning them with global developments, to at the end produce a well coordinated framework that is technically, organizationally, and financially integrated with the EPOS architecture. This framework needs to respect the roles and responsibilities of the underlying national research infrastructures that are the data owners and main providers of data and products, and allow for active input and feedback from the (scientific) user community. At the same time, it needs to remain flexible enough to cope with unavoidable challenges in the availability of resources and dynamics of contributors. The technical work during the next years is organized in four areas: - constructing the next generation software architecture for the European Integrated (waveform) Data Archive EIDA, developing advanced metadata and station information services, fully integrate strong motion waveforms and derived parametric engineering-domain data, and advancing the integration of mobile (temporary) networks and OBS deployments in

  3. Thermodynamic stability studies of Ce-Sb compounds with Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yi; Zhang, Jinsuo; Benson, Michael T.; Mariani, Robert D.

    2018-02-01

    Lanthanide fission products can migrate to the fuel periphery and react with cladding, causing fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI). Adding a fuel additive dopant, such as Sb, can bind lanthanide, such as Ce, into metallic compounds and thus prevent migration. The present study focuses on the thermodynamic stability of Ce-Sb compounds when in contact with the major cladding constituent Fe by conducting diffusion couple tests. Ce-Sb compounds have shown high thermodynamic stability as they did not react with Fe. When Fe-Sb compounds contacted with Ce, Sb was separated out of Fe-Sb compounds and formed the more stable Ce-Sb compounds.

  4. Different culture conditions affect the growth of human tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs) within a mixed tendon cells (TCs) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, M; Perucca Orfei, C; Colombini, A; Stanco, D; Randelli, P; Sansone, V; de Girolamo, L

    2017-12-01

    Tendon resident cells (TCs) are a mixed population made of terminally differentiated tenocytes and tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). Since the enrichment of progenitors proportion could enhance the effectiveness of treatments based on these cell populations, the interest on the effect of culture conditions on the TSPCs is growing. In this study the clonal selection and the culture in presence or absence of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were used to assess their influences on the stemness properties and phenotype specific features of tendon cells. Cells cultured with the different methods were analyzed in terms of clonogenic and differentiation abilities, stem and tendon specific genes expression and immunophenotype at passage 2 and passage 4. The clonal selection allowed to isolate cells with a higher multi-differentiation potential, but at the same time a lower proliferation rate in comparison to the whole population. Moreover, the clones express a higher amounts of stemness marker OCT4 and tendon specific transcription factor Scleraxis (SCX) mRNA, but a lower level of decorin (DCN). On the other hand, the number of cells obtained by clonal selection was extremely low and most of the clones were unable to reach a high number of passages in cultures. The presence of bFGF influences TCs morphology, enhance their proliferation rate and reduce their clonogenic ability. Interestingly, the expression of CD54, a known mesenchymal stem cell marker, is reduced in presence of bFGF at early passages. Nevertheless, bFGF does not affect the chondrogenic and osteogenic potential of TCs and the expression of tendon specific markers, while it was able to downregulate the OCT4 expression. This study showed that clonal selection enhance progenitors content in TCs populations, but the extremely low number of cells produced with this method could represent an insurmountable obstacle to its application in clinical approaches. We observed that the addition of bFGF to the

  5. Defect Structure of High-Temperature-Grown GaMnSb/GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, P.; Bak-Misiuk, J.; Dynowska, E.; Domagala, J.Z.; Wojciechowski, T.; Jakiela, R.; Sadowski, J.; Barcz, A.; Caliebe, W.

    2010-01-01

    GaMnSb/GaSb(100) layers with embedded MnSb inclusions have been grown at 720 K using MBE technique. This paper presents the investigation of the defect structure of Ga1-xMnxSb layers with different content of manganese (up to x = 0.07). X-ray diffraction method using conventional and synchrotron radiation was applied. Dimensions and shapes of inclusions were detected by scanning electron microscopy. Depth profiles of elements were measured using secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique. (authors)

  6. Structural and Electronic Features of Sb-Based Electrode Materials: 121Sb Moessbauer Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionica, C. M.; Aldon, L.; Lippens, P. E.; Morato, F.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Lithium insertion mechanisms in two antimony based compounds: CoSb 3 and CoSb have been studied by means of 121 Sb Moessbauer spectrometry. Structural and electronic modifications induced by insertion of lithium have been characterised for different depths of discharge. In all cases the insertion mechanisms can be described from several steps. In the first step antimony is partially dispersed in the metallic matrix with amorphisation of the electrode material and in a second step we can observe the alloy forming (Li 3 Sb). However this amorphous alloy remains in interaction with the matrix allowing then a good reversibility.

  7. Tetrahedral 1B4Sb nanoclusters in GaP:(B, Sb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elyukhin, V A, E-mail: elyukhin@cinvestav.m [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica-SEES, CINVESTAV-IPN, Avenida IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, C. P. 07360, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    Self-assembling conditions of 1B4Sb tetrahedral nanoclusters in GaP doped with boron and Sb isoelectronic impurities are represented in the ultradilute and dilute limits of the boron and Sb contents, respectively. The fulfilled estimates demonstrated the preferential complete or almost complete allocation of boron atoms in 1B4Sb nanoclusters at temperatures of 500 {sup 0}C and 900 {sup 0}C, respectively. The significant decrease of the sum of the free energies of the constituent compounds is the main origin of self-assembling. The reduction of the strain energy is the additional cause of this phenomenon.

  8. Decay of /sup 125/Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, K; Sahota, H S

    1983-01-01

    The 2.7 yr beta decay of /sup 125/Sb yields /sup 125/Te has been studied using Ge(Li), Si(Li) and Ge detectors and the directional correlation technique New lines at 58, 111, 642, 693 and 729 keV have been detected and fitted in the decay scheme in the already existing levels, besides the one suggested at 729 keV. The intensities of 20, 109, 111, 116, 172, 178 and 198 keV transitions have been measured more precisely than before. The ..gamma..-..gamma.. directional correlation measurements in the 208-463, 204-176 and 321-176 keV cascades have enabled to assign a uniquue spin 7/2/sup -/ to the 525 keV level. The multipole mixing ratios for the 204, 208 and 321 keV transitions have been found as M1 + (14.75 +- 3.55)%E2, M1 + (4.5 +- 2.0)%E2 and E1 + (2.70 +- 0.75)%M2, respectively.

  9. The equilibrium diagram and some properties of alloys Gd5Sb3-Tb5Sb3 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azizov, Yu.S.; Abulkhaev, V.D.; Ganiev, I.N.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of present work is investigation equilibrium diagram of Gd 5 Sb 3 -Tb 5 Sb 3 system in total range of concentrations. Equilibrium diagram of Gd 5 Sb 3 -Tb 5 Sb 3 system investigated by methods of difference-thermal, roentgen-phase and metallographic analyses. For the first time on the base of difference-thermal, roentgen-phase and metallographic analyses was formed the equilibrium diagram of Gd 5 Sb 3 -Tb 5 Sb 3 system. Was determined the cristal-chemical parameters of solid solutions with general formula Gd x Tb 5 - x Sb 3

  10. Si-Sb-Te materials for phase change memory applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Ren Kun; Zhou Xilin; Cheng Yan; Wu Liangcai; Liu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Si-Sb-Te materials including Te-rich Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 and Si x Sb 2 Te 3 with different Si contents have been systemically studied with the aim of finding the most suitable Si-Sb-Te composition for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) use. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 shows better thermal stability than Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 in that Si x Sb 2 Te 3 does not have serious Te separation under high annealing temperature. As Si content increases, the data retention ability of Si x Sb 2 Te 3 improves. The 10 years retention temperature for Si 3 Sb 2 Te 3 film is ∼ 393 K, which meets the long-term data storage requirements of automotive electronics. In addition, Si richer Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films also show improvement on thickness change upon annealing and adhesion on SiO 2 substrate compared to those of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 or Si 2 Sb 2 Te 6 films. However, the electrical performance of PCRAM cells based on Si x Sb 2 Te 3 films with x > 3.5 becomes worse in terms of stable and long-term operations. Si x Sb 2 Te 3 materials with 3 < x < 3.5 are proved to be suitable for PCRAM use to ensure good overall performance.

  11. InSb semiconductors and (In,Mn)Sb diluted magnetic semiconductors. Growth and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Lien

    2011-04-13

    This dissertation describes investigations of the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and the characterization of the semiconductor InSb as well as the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb. The InSb films were grown on GaAs (001) substrate and Si (001) offcut by 4 toward (110) substrate up to a thickness of about 2 {mu}m, in spite of a large lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and substrate (14.6% between InSb and GaAs, and 19.3% between InSb and Si). After optimizing the growth conditions, the best InSb films grown directly on GaAs without any special technique results in a high crystal quality, low noise, and an electron mobility of 41100 cm{sup 2}/V s Vs with associated electron concentration of 2.9.10{sup 6} cm{sup -3} at 300 K. Such structures could be used, for example, for infrared detector structures. The growth of InSb on Si, however, is a challenge. In order to successfully grow InSb on Si, tilted substrates and the insertion of buffer layers were used, which helps to reduce the lattice mismatch as well as the formation of defects, and hence to improve the crystal quality. An electron mobility of 24000 cm{sup 2}/V s measured at 300 K, with an associated carrier concentration of 2.6.10{sup 1}6 cm{sup -3} is found for the best sample that was grown at 340 C with a 0.06 {mu}m-thick GaSb/AlSb superlattice buffer layer. The smaller value of electron mobility (compared to the best GaAsbased sample) is related to a higher density of microtwins and stacking faults as well as threading dislocations in the near-interface region as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Deep level noise spectra indicate the existence of deep levels in both GaAs and Si-based samples. The samples grown on Si exhibit the lowest Hooge factor at 300 K, lower than the samples grown on GaAs. Taking the optimized growth conditions of InSb/GaAs, the diluted magnetic semiconductor In{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}Sb/GaAs (001) is prepared by adding a few percent of Mn into the

  12. Polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe phase-change thin films : The importance of excess Sb in filament formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Oosthoek, Jasper L. M.; van den Dool, Pim; Palasantzas, George; Pauza, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    We show that polarity-dependent resistance switching in GeSbTe thin films depends strongly on Sb composition by comparing current-voltage characteristics in Sb-excess Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) and stoichiometric Ge(2)Sb(2)Te(5) samples. This type of switching in Ge(2)Sb(2+x)Te(5) films is reversible with

  13. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-06-25

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain the Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of processing

  14. DWPF simulant CPC studies for SB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.; Zamecnik, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) accepted a technical task request (TTR) from Waste Solidification Engineering to perform simulant tests to support the qualification of Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) and to develop the flowsheet for SB8 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These efforts pertained to the DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC). Separate studies were conducted for frit development and glass properties (including REDOX). The SRNL CPC effort had two primary phases divided by the decision to drop Tank 12 from the SB8 constituents. This report focuses on the second phase with SB8 compositions that do not contain the Tank 12 piece. A separate report will document the initial phase of SB8 testing that included Tank 12. The second phase of SB8 studies consisted of two sets of CPC studies. The first study involved CPC testing of an SB8 simulant for Tank 51 to support the CPC demonstration of the washed Tank 51 qualification sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells facility. SB8-Tank 51 was a high iron-low aluminum waste with fairly high mercury and moderate noble metal concentrations. Tank 51 was ultimately washed to about 1.5 M sodium which is the highest wash endpoint since SB3-Tank 51. This study included three simulations of the DWPF Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle with the sludge-only flowsheet at nominal DWPF processing conditions and three different acid stoichiometries. These runs produced a set of recommendations that were used to guide the successful SRNL qualification SRAT/SME demonstration with actual Tank 51 washed waste. The second study involved five SRAT/SME runs with SB8-Tank 40 simulant. Four of the runs were designed to define the acid requirements for sludge-only processing in DWPF with respect to nitrite destruction and hydrogen generation. The fifth run was an intermediate acid stoichiometry demonstration of the coupled flowsheet for SB8. These runs produced a set of processing

  15. Reduction in thermal conductivity of BiSbTe lump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Kaleem [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Wan, C. [Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing (China); Al-Eshaikh, M.A.; Kadachi, A.N. [King Saud University, Research Center, College of Engineering, PO Box 800, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-03-15

    In this work, systematic investigations on the thermal conductivities of BiSbTe lump, microstructured pristine BiSbTe bulk and single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/BiSbTe bulk nanocomposites were performed. BiSbTe lumps were crushed to form a coarse powder (200 μm) and effect of particle size reduction on the effective thermal conductivity of BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk were analyzed. For further reduction in the conductivity, a two pronged strategy has been employed. First, additional refinement of BiSbTe (200 μm) were performed through ball milling in an inert environment. Second, SWCNTs in 0.75, and 1.0 vol% were distributed uniformly in the fine BiSbTe ball milled powder. The results showed that the effective thermal conductivities decrease with the reduction in the particle size from lump to BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk as well as with the addition of SWCNTs accompanied by further refinement of BiSbTe particles. The significant reduction in thermal conductivities of the lump was achieved for pure BiSbTe (200 μm) bulk and 0.75 vol% of SWCNTs/BiSbTe composite. This can be ascribed to the enhanced phonon scattering by the grain boundaries between the nanostructured BiSbTe particles as well as the interfaces between BiSbTe and the low dimensional carbon nanotubes. (orig.)

  16. Sb(V reactivity with human blood components: redox effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana López

    Full Text Available We assessed the reactivity of Sb(V in human blood. Sb(V reactivity was determined using an HPLC-HG-AFS hyphenated system. Sb(V was partially reduced to Sb(III in blood incubation experiments; however, Sb(III was a highly unstable species. The addition of 0.1 mol L(-1 EDTA prevented Sb(III oxidation, thus enabling the detection of the reduction of Sb(V to Sb(III. The transformation of Sb(V to Sb(III in human whole blood was assessed because the reduction of Sb(V in human blood may likely generate redox side effects. Our results indicate that glutathione was the reducing agent in this reaction and that Sb(V significantly decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio from 0.32 ± 0.09 to 0.07 ± 0.03. Moreover, the presence of 200 ng mL(-1 of Sb(V increased the activity of superoxide dismutase from 4.4 ± 0.1 to 7.0 ± 0.4 U mL(-1 and decreased the activity of glutathione peroxidase from 62 ± 1 to 34 ± 2 nmol min(-1 mL(-1.

  17. Compositional and structural characterisation of GaSb and GaInSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corregidor, V.; Alves, E.; Alves, L.C.; Barradas, N.P.; Duffar, Th.; Franco, N.; Marques, C.; Mitric, A.

    2005-01-01

    Low band gap III-V semiconductors are researched for applications in thermophotovoltaic technology. GaSb crystal is often used as a substrate. Ga 1-x In x Sb is also a promising substrate material, because its lattice parameters can be adjusted by controlling x. We used a new method to synthesise GaSb and GaInSb, in which a high frequency alternate magnetic field is used to heat, to melt and to mix the elements. We present a compositional and structural characterisation of the materials using a combination of complementary techniques. Rutherford backscattering was used to determine accurately the composition of the GaSb. With proton induced X-ray emission in conjunction with a 3 x 3 μm 2 micro-beam we studied the homogeneity of the samples. Structural analysis and phase identification were done with X-ray diffraction. The results for GaSb show a homogeneous composition while the GaInSb samples were found to be strongly heterogeneous at the end of the ingot. The ingots produced are competitive feed material, when compared to other growth techniques, to be used in a second step for the production of good quality ternary crystals

  18. The Fermi surface of CeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crabtree, G.W.; Aoki, H.; Joss, W.; Hulliger, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper uses accurate Fermi surface measurements as a test of hybridization models in CeSb. Detailed measurements of the Fermi surface geometry and effective masses are presented which show a number of unusual properties associated with the magnetic structure and anisotropy. Measurements are compared with predictions of a band structure in which the f-electron is assumed to be local, interacting with the conduction electrons only through anisotropic Coulomb and exchange interactions. This model reproduces all the unusual features observed in the measurements and suggests that hybridization is not essential to describing the electronic properties of CeSb

  19. Binuclear model of an Sb-galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nezhinskij, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    To explain the causes of origin of the observed peculiarities of SB-galaxies a self-consistent stable model of an Sb-galaxy is constructed. The evolutionary scheme of origin of this model is described. The model consists of an extensive spherical corona, of two point nuclei and of a cloud of particles of infinitely small mass, the latter being bar-shaped and situated in the neighbourhood of the nuclei. The model has the following properties: the nuclei move along the circular orbit, whose centre coincides with that of the corona; the motion of the particles of the bar-shaped cloud is stable in the sense of Hill [ru

  20. Quadrupole interaction studies of Hg in Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, J.C.; Krien, K.; Herzog, P.; Folle, H.R.; Freitag, K.; Reuschenbach, F.; Reuschenbach, M.; Trzcinski, R.

    1978-01-01

    Time differential perturbed angular correlation and nuclear orientation studies of the electric quadrupole interaction for Hg in Sb have been performed. The effective field gradients at room temperature and below 0.05K have been derived. These two values are no indication for an anomalous temperature dependence of the effective field gradient for Hg in Sb. The value of the electric field gradient fits well into the systematics for Hg in other hosts. It is shown that the electronic enhancements of the field gradients are correlated to the valence of the impurities and are rather insensitive to the host properties. (orig./HPOE) [de

  1. 121Sb-NMR study of filled skutterudite CeOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogi, M.; Niki, H.; Mukuda, H.; Kitaoka, Y.; Sugawara, H.; Sato, H.

    2007-01-01

    121 Sb nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of filled skutterudite compound CeOs 4 Sb 12 has been carried out to investigate a spin fluctuation below T∼25K. In spite of a powdered sample, many sharp peaks, similar to a data for single crystal, were observed because of an orientation of the sample from the anisotropy of the magnetization. A numerical calculation well reproduces resonance fields for Sb(1) sites with H parallel V zz . The nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate divided by temperature 1/T 1 T shows continuous decrease with increasing magnetic field, indicating a suppression of the spin fluctuation by the field

  2. InSb semiconductors and (In,Mn)Sb diluted magnetic semiconductors: Growth and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Lien

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation describes investigations of the growth by molecular beam epitaxy and the characterization of the semiconductor InSb as well as the diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) In 1-x Mn x Sb. The InSb films were grown on GaAs (001) substrate and Si (001) offcut by 4 toward (110) substrate up to a thickness of about 2 μm, in spite of a large lattice mismatch between the epi-layer and substrate (14.6% between InSb and GaAs, and 19.3% between InSb and Si). After optimizing the growth conditions, the best InSb films grown directly on GaAs without any special technique results in a high crystal quality, low noise, and an electron mobility of 41100 cm 2 /V s Vs with associated electron concentration of 2.9.10 6 cm -3 at 300 K. Such structures could be used, for example, for infrared detector structures. The growth of InSb on Si, however, is a challenge. In order to successfully grow InSb on Si, tilted substrates and the insertion of buffer layers were used, which helps to reduce the lattice mismatch as well as the formation of defects, and hence to improve the crystal quality. An electron mobility of 24000 cm 2 /V s measured at 300 K, with an associated carrier concentration of 2.6.10 1 6 cm -3 is found for the best sample that was grown at 340 C with a 0.06 μm-thick GaSb/AlSb superlattice buffer layer. The smaller value of electron mobility (compared to the best GaAsbased sample) is related to a higher density of microtwins and stacking faults as well as threading dislocations in the near-interface region as shown by transmission electron microscopy. Deep level noise spectra indicate the existence of deep levels in both GaAs and Si-based samples. The samples grown on Si exhibit the lowest Hooge factor at 300 K, lower than the samples grown on GaAs. Taking the optimized growth conditions of InSb/GaAs, the diluted magnetic semiconductor In 1-x Mn x Sb/GaAs (001) is prepared by adding a few percent of Mn into the host material InSb during growth. I have

  3. Sulfuric Acid Corrosion of Low Sb - Pb Battery Alloys | Ntukogu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The corrosion properties of low Sb - Pb alloys developed for maintenance free motive power industrial batteries was studied by a bare grid constant current method and compared to those of the conventional Pb- 6% Sb alloy. Low Sb-Pb alloys with Se and As grain refiners were found to have higher corrosion rates than the ...

  4. SULFURIC ACID CORROSION OF LOW Sb - Pb BATTERY ALLOYS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... (Manuscript received February,1983). ABSTRACT. The corrosion properties of low Sb - Pb alloys developed for maintenance free motive power industrial batteries was studied by a bare grid constant current method and compared to those of the conventional. Pb- 6% Sb alloy. Low Sb-Pb alloys with Se and ...

  5. Building Planner Commitment : Are California's SB 375 and Oregon's SB 1059 Models for Climate-Change Mitigation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    California's Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act (SB 375) and the Oregon Sustainable Transportation Initiative (SB 1059) have made them the first states in the nation to try and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the transport...

  6. Recovering Parameters of Johnson's SB Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    A new parameter recovery model for Johnson's SB distribution is developed. This latest alternative approach permits recovery of the range and both shape parameters. Previous models recovered only the two shape parameters. Also, a simple procedure for estimating the distribution minimum from sample values is presented. The new methodology...

  7. Electroluminescence in p-InAs/AlSb/InAsSb/AlSb/p(n)-GaSb type II heterostructures with deep quantum wells at the interface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Ivanov, E.V.; Moiseev, K. D.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.; Hulicius, Eduard; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Šimeček, Tomislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2010), 66-71 ISSN 1063-7826 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : electroluninescence * MOVPE * GaSb * InAs * quantum well Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.603, year: 2010

  8. Can iron plaque affect Sb(III) and Sb(V) uptake by plants under hydroponic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, Ying; Lenz, Markus; Lenz, Markus; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2018-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) contamination of soils is of concern due to h uman activities such as recycling of Sb containing Pb acid batteries, shooting and mining. However Sb uptake by plants is poorly documented, especially when plants are growing on waterlogged soils and iron plaques form on their roots. The

  9. Lower lattice thermal conductivity in SbAs than As or Sb monolayers: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, San-Dong; Liu, Jiang-Tao

    2017-12-06

    Phonon transport in group-VA element (As, Sb and Bi) monolayer semiconductors has been widely investigated in theory, and, of them, monolayer Sb (antimonene) has recently been synthesized. In this work, phonon transport in monolayer SbAs is investigated with a combination of first-principles calculations and the linearized phonon Boltzmann equation. It is found that the lattice thermal conductivity of monolayer SbAs is lower than those of both monolayer As and Sb, and the corresponding sheet thermal conductance is 28.8 W K -1 at room temperature. To understand the lower lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer SbAs than those in monolayer As and Sb, the group velocities and phonon lifetimes of monolayer As, SbAs and Sb are calculated. The calculated results show that the group velocities of monolayer SbAs are between those of monolayer As and Sb, but that the phonon lifetimes of SbAs are smaller than those of both monolayer As and Sb. Hence, the low lattice thermal conductivity in monolayer SbAs is attributed to very small phonon lifetimes. Unexpectedly, the ZA branch has very little contribution to the total thermal conductivity, only 2.4%, which is obviously different from those of monolayer As and Sb with very large contributions. This can be explained by very small phonon lifetimes for the ZA branch of monolayer SbAs. The lower lattice thermal conductivity of monolayer SbAs compared to that of monolayer As or Sb can be understood by the alloying of As (Sb) with Sb (As), which should introduce phonon point defect scattering. We also consider the isotope and size effects on the lattice thermal conductivity. It is found that isotope scattering produces a neglectful effect, and the lattice thermal conductivity with a characteristic length smaller than 30 nm can reach a decrease of about 47%. These results may offer perspectives on tuning the lattice thermal conductivity by the mixture of multiple elements for applications of thermal management and

  10. Sorghum phytochrome B inhibits flowering in long days by activating expression of SbPRR37 and SbGHD7, repressors of SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available Light signaling by phytochrome B in long days inhibits flowering in sorghum by increasing expression of the long day floral repressors PSEUDORESPONSE REGULATOR PROTEIN (SbPRR37, Ma1 and GRAIN NUMBER, PLANT HEIGHT AND HEADING DATE 7 (SbGHD7, Ma6. SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 RNA abundance peaks in the morning and in the evening of long days through coordinate regulation by light and output from the circadian clock. 58 M, a phytochrome B deficient (phyB-1, ma3R genotype, flowered ∼60 days earlier than 100 M (PHYB, Ma3 in long days and ∼11 days earlier in short days. Populations derived from 58 M (Ma1, ma3R, Ma5, ma6 and R.07007 (Ma1, Ma3, ma5, Ma6 varied in flowering time due to QTL aligned to PHYB/phyB-1 (Ma3, Ma5, and GHD7/ghd7-1 (Ma6. PHYC was proposed as a candidate gene for Ma5 based on alignment and allelic variation. PHYB and Ma5 (PHYC were epistatic to Ma1 and Ma6 and progeny recessive for either gene flowered early in long days. Light signaling mediated by PhyB was required for high expression of the floral repressors SbPRR37 and SbGHD7 during the evening of long days. In 100 M (PHYB the floral activators SbEHD1, SbCN8 and SbCN12 were repressed in long days and de-repressed in short days. In 58 M (phyB-1 these genes were highly expressed in long and short days. Furthermore, SbCN15, the ortholog of rice Hd3a (FT, is expressed at low levels in 100 M but at high levels in 58 M (phyB-1 regardless of day length, indicating that PhyB regulation of SbCN15 expression may modify flowering time in a photoperiod-insensitive manner.

  11. Liquidus Projection and Isothermal Section of the Sb-Se-Sn System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jui-shen; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2017-12-01

    Sb-Se-Sn ternary alloys are promising chalcogenide materials. The liquidus projection and 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system are determined. Numerous Sb-Se-Sn alloys are prepared, and their primary solidification phases are examined. In addition to the three terminal phases, (Sb), (Se) and (Sn), there are Sb2Sn3, SbSn, SnSe, SnSe2, Sb2Se3, Sn2Sb9Se9, and SnSb2Se4 phases. In addition, there are two miscibility gaps along the Sb-Se and Se-Sn and sides. There are ten invariant reactions in the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system, and seven of them are experimentally determined in this study. The lowest reaction temperature of determined invariant reaction is L + SbSn = (Sn) + SnSe at 515.4 K ± 5 K (242.2 °C ± 5 °C). There are nine tie-triangles, which are Liquid + SbSn + SnSe, SbSn + SnSe + (Sb), SnSe + (Sb) + Sn2Sb9Se9, (Sb) + Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9, SnSe + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, Sb2Se3 + Sn2Sb9Se9 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe + SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4, SnSe2 + SnSb2Se4 + Sb2Se3, and SnSe2 + Sb2Se3 + Liquid in the 673.2 K (400 °C) isothermal section of the Sb-Se-Sn ternary system.

  12. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatasubramanian, R; Watko, E; Colpitts, T

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the thicker ZnSb films offer improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentration levels. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 C. The thicker films, due to the lower doping levels, indicate higher Seebeck coefficients between 25 to 200 C. A short annealing of the ZnSb film at temperatures of {approximately}200 C results in reduced free-carrier level. Thermal conductivity measurements of ZnSb films using the 3-{omega} method are also presented.

  13. In As{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} heteroepitaxial structures on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guseynov, R. R.; Tanriverdiyev, V. A. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan); Kipshidze, G., E-mail: gela.kishidze@stonybrook.ede [Stony Brook, Stony Brook University (United States); Aliyeva, Ye. N.; Aliguliyeva, Kh. V.; Abdullayev, N. A., E-mail: abnadir@mail.ru; Mamedov, N. T. [National Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2017-04-15

    Unrelaxed InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} (x = 0.43 and 0.38) alloy layers are produced by molecular-beam epitaxy on compositionally graded GaInSb and AlGaInSb buffer layers. The high quality of the thin films produced is confirmed by the results of high-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis and micro-Raman studies. The twomode type of transformation of the phonon spectra of InAs{sub 1–x}Sb{sub x} alloys is established.

  14. Effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb superlattice buffer layer on the structural and electronic properties of InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Yang; Guan, Min; Cui, Lijie; Wang, Baoqiang; Zhu, Zhanping; Zeng, Yiping

    2017-07-01

    The effect of InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb buffer layers on InSb thin films grown on GaAs (0 0 1) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated. The crystal quality and the surface morphology of InSb are characterized by XRD and AFM. The carrier transport property is researched through variable temperature hall test. The sharp interface between InSb/In0.9Al0.1Sb is demonstrated important for the high quality InSb thin film. We try different superlattice buffer layers by changing ratios, 2-0.5, thickness, 300-450 nm, and periods, 20-50. According to the function of the dislocation density to the absolute temperature below 150 K with different periods of SL buffers, we can find that the number of periods of superlattice is a major factor to decrease the density of threading dislocations. With the 50 periods SL buffer layer, the electron mobility of InSb at the room temperature and liquid nitrogen cooling temperature is ∼63,000 and ∼4600 cm2/V s, respectively. We deduce that the interface in the SL structure works as a filter layer to prevent the dislocation propagating to the upper InSb thin films.

  15. Antimony Redox Biotransformation in the Subsurface: Effect of Indigenous Sb(V) Respiring Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liying; Ye, Li; Yu, Yaqin; Jing, Chuanyong

    2018-02-06

    Anaerobic microbiological antimonate [Sb(V)] respiration is a newly discovered process regulating the Sb redox transformation in soils. However, little is known about the role microbiological Sb(V) respiration plays in the fate of Sb in the subsurface, especially in the presence of sulfate and electron shuttles. Herein, we successfully enriched a Sb(V) reducing microbiota (SbRM) from the subsurface near an active Sb mine. SbRM was dominated by genus Alkaliphilus (18-36%), Clostridiaceae (17-18%), Tissierella (24-27%), and Lysinibacillus (16-37%). The incubation results showed that SbRM reduced 88% of dissolved Sb(V) to Sb(III), but the total Sb mobility remained the same as in the abiotic control, indicating that SbRM alone did not increase the total Sb release but regulated the Sb speciation in the subsurface. Micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) analysis suggested the association of Sb and Fe, and electron shuttles such as anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonic disodium salt (AQDS) markedly enhanced the Sb release due to its ability to facilitate Fe mineral dissolution. Sb L-edge and S K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) results demonstrated that indigenous SbRM immobilized Sb via Sb 2 S 3 formation, especially in a sulfur-rich environment. The insights gained from this study shed new light on Sb mobilization and its risk assessment in the subsurface environment.

  16. Evaporation of tetramers in Sb4n clusters and conditions for the formation of Sb2n+1 clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayane, D.; Tribollet, B.; Broyer, M.; Melinon, P.; Cabaud, B.; Hoareau, A.

    1989-01-01

    Antimony clusters are produced by the inert gas condensation technique. They are found to be built from Sb 4 units. The fragmentation by evaporation of Sb 4 units is studied as a function of the excess energy in the cluster. By this way the binding energy of the Sb 4 units in the cluster is found to be about 1.5 eV, well below the binding energy of a Sb atom in the bulk and in Sb 4 (≅3 eV). The evolution of ionization potentials of Sb 4n clusters confirms that their structure is probably non metallic. Finally the possible metastable character of this Sb 4n structure is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U., E-mail: usha.philipose@unt.edu [University of North Texas, Department of Physics (United States)

    2016-12-15

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} and In and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40–60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} and 1000 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  18. Synthesis and thermoelectric properties of Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} skutterudite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueirêdo, C.A., E-mail: camila_fig@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gallas, M.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Institute for Multiscale Simulations, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Nägelsbachstrasse 49b, 91052 Erlangen (Germany); Zorzi, J.E. [Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Instituto de Materiais Cerâmicos, 95765-000 Bom Princípio, RS (Brazil); Perottoni, C.A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, PGCIMAT, Instituto de Física, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Instituto de Materiais Cerâmicos, 95765-000 Bom Princípio, RS (Brazil)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • A HP-HT Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} phase was prepared by processing cobalt antimonide at 7.7 GPa and 550 °C, for (at least) 5 min. • The mechanism of formation of this phase involves (i) decomposition of cobalt antimonide into CoSb{sub 2} and Sb, and (ii) insertion of Sb into the remaining cobalt antimonide. • The mechanism of formation is qualitatively different from that responsible for the formation of the high pressure (greater than 20 GPa) phase. - Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of cobalt antimonide (CoSb{sub 2.79}) were submitted to different conditions of pressure, temperature and processing time, in a high-pressure toroidal-type chamber, aiming to maximize the production of the high pressure phase previously observed in experiments with a diamond anvil cell. Rietveld refinements of X-ray powder diffraction data were performed to determine the phase composition and structural parameters. The maximum yield, 89(2) wt.% of Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} phase, was obtained at 7.7 GPa, 550 °C and (at least) 5 min of processing time. The mechanism behind the formation of Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} at high pressure and high temperature is actually not the same as that previously inferred from experiments at higher pressures (20 GPa) and room temperature with the diamond anvil cell. Indeed, evidences suggest that, at high pressure and high temperature, Sb{sub x}CoSb{sub 3−x} is formed by insertion of Sb resulting from decomposition of cobalt antimonide. Thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity were estimated for CoSb{sub 2.79} and Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80}. The thermoelectric figure of merit at room temperature for Sb{sub 0.20}CoSb{sub 2.80} resulted 33% greater than that for CoSb{sub 2.79}.

  19. Microbiological reduction of Sb(V) in anoxic freshwater sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oremland, Ronald S.; Kulp, Thomas R.; Miller, Laurence G.; Braiotta, Franco; Webb, Samuel M.; Kocar, Benjamin D; Blum, Jodi S.

    2014-01-01

    Microbiological reduction of millimolar concentrations of Sb(V) to Sb(III) was observed in anoxic sediments from two freshwater settings: (1) a Sb- and As-contaminated mine site (Stibnite Mine) in central Idaho and 2) an uncontaminated suburban lake (Searsville Lake) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Rates of Sb(V) reduction in anoxic sediment microcosms and enrichment cultures were enhanced by amendment with lactate or acetate as electron donors but not by H2, and no reduction occurred in sterilized controls. Addition of 2-14C-acetate to Stibnite Mine microcosms resulted in the production of 14CO2 coupled to Sb(V) reduction, suggesting that this process proceeds by a dissimilatory respiratory pathway in those sediments. Antimony(V) reduction in Searsville Lake sediments was not coupled to acetate mineralization and may be associated with Sb-resistance. The microcosms and enrichment cultures also reduced sulfate, and the precipitation of insoluble Sb(III)-sulfide complexes was a major sink for reduced Sb. The reduction of Sb(V) by Stibnite Mine sediments was inhibited by As(V), suggesting that As(V) is a preferred electron acceptor for the indigenous community. These findings indicate a novel pathway for anaerobic microbiological respiration and suggest that communities capable of reducing high concentrations of Sb(V) commonly occur naturally in the environment.

  20. A highly detailed FEM volume conductor model based on the ICBM152 average head template for EEG source imaging and TCS targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haufe, Stefan; Huang, Yu; Parra, Lucas C

    2015-08-01

    In electroencephalographic (EEG) source imaging as well as in transcranial current stimulation (TCS), it is common to model the head using either three-shell boundary element (BEM) or more accurate finite element (FEM) volume conductor models. Since building FEMs is computationally demanding and labor intensive, they are often extensively reused as templates even for subjects with mismatching anatomies. BEMs can in principle be used to efficiently build individual volume conductor models; however, the limiting factor for such individualization are the high acquisition costs of structural magnetic resonance images. Here, we build a highly detailed (0.5mm(3) resolution, 6 tissue type segmentation, 231 electrodes) FEM based on the ICBM152 template, a nonlinear average of 152 adult human heads, which we call ICBM-NY. We show that, through more realistic electrical modeling, our model is similarly accurate as individual BEMs. Moreover, through using an unbiased population average, our model is also more accurate than FEMs built from mismatching individual anatomies. Our model is made available in Matlab format.

  1. DWPF Simulant CPC Studies For SB8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, J. D.

    2013-09-25

    Prior to processing a Sludge Batch (SB) in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), flowsheet studies using simulants are performed. Typically, the flowsheet studies are conducted based on projected composition(s). The results from the flowsheet testing are used to 1) guide decisions during sludge batch preparation, 2) serve as a preliminary evaluation of potential processing issues, and 3) provide a basis to support the Shielded Cells qualification runs performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). SB8 was initially projected to be a combination of the Tank 40 heel (Sludge Batch 7b), Tank 13, Tank 12, and the Tank 51 heel. In order to accelerate preparation of SB8, the decision was made to delay the oxalate-rich material from Tank 12 to a future sludge batch. SB8 simulant studies without Tank 12 were reported in a separate report.1 The data presented in this report will be useful when processing future sludge batches containing Tank 12. The wash endpoint target for SB8 was set at a significantly higher sodium concentration to allow acceptable glass compositions at the targeted waste loading. Four non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 40 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry (146% acid) SRAT testing up to 31% of the DWPF hydrogen limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 48% of of the DWPF limit for the high acid run. Two non-coupled tests were conducted using simulant representing Tank 51 at 110-146% of the Koopman Minimum Acid requirement. Hydrogen was generated during high acid stoichiometry SRAT testing up to 16% of the DWPF limit. SME hydrogen generation reached 49% of the DWPF limit for hydrogen in the SME for the high acid run. Simulant processing was successful using previously established antifoam addition strategy. Foaming during formic acid addition was not observed in any of the runs. Nitrite was destroyed in all runs and no N2O was detected

  2. Sb{sup III} - Sb{sup V} Exchange Reaction in Hydrochloric: Acid Solutions; Echange Sb{sup III}-Sb{sup V} dans des Solutions d'Acide Chlorhydrique; Reaktsiya obmena Sb(III) - Sb(V) v rastvorakh khloristovodorodnoj kisloty; Intercambio Sb{sup III}-Sb{sup V} en Soluciones de HCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kambara, T.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yasuba, S. [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka City (Japan)

    1965-10-15

    The exchange reaction of Sb{sup III} - Sb{sup V} in solutions of low HCl concentrations was studied using {sup 124}Sb as a tracer. The effects of HCl concentrations and chemical forms of antimony on the exchange rate were investigated. The HCl concentrations of the antimony solutions ((Sb{sup III}) =(Sb{sup V}) = 6.8 x 10{sup -4}M) were changed from 0.8 to 4.0M and the half-time for the exchange was measured by plotting log (1 - F) versus time t to calculate the exchange rate assuming the second-ordet reaction. It was found that the exchange rate was sharply increased with the increase of HCl concentrations (at 25 Degree-Sign C, from 0.8 to 2.0M) and at 2.0M HCl concentration the rate reached the maximum, from which the rate was decreased with the increase of HCl concentrations (at 25 Degree-Sign C, from 2.0 to 4.0M). Two sorts of Sb{sup V} species were used for our investigations, i.e. one was used directly after the dilution of 10M HCl Sb{sup V} solution with water and the other was used after 24 hours standing at room temperature from the dilution. (The Sb{sup III} species were also kept standing after preparation from 10M HCl Sb{sup III} solution.) In both cases the maximum rates were found to exist at 2.0M HCl concentration. The rate R{sub 1} for the former (directly after dilution) was 4.5 x 10{sup -6} mole litre{sup -1} min{sup -1} and the rate R{sub 2} for the latter (24 hours standing) was 1.2 x 10{sup -}{sub 6} mole litre. Also the activation energy for these cases was found to be 12.2 kcal/mole and 19.1 kcal/mole. By spectrophotometric studies, the Sb{sup V} species of the former type were found to be mainly consisting of SbCl{sup -}{sub 6} and the species of the latter type to be of SbCl{sub 4}(OH){sup -}{sub 2}, etc. Besides these facts the form of Sb{sup III} species was found to have no influence on the exchange rate. A much sharper increase of the exchange rate was observed when the HCl concentration of the antimony solution was fixed at 0.8M and

  3. Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, Viera, E-mail: viera.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (approx2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.

  4. Electronic structure and high pressure phase transition in LaSb and CeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathi Jaya, S.; Sanyal, S.P.

    1992-09-01

    The electronic structure and high pressure structural phase transition in cerium and lanthanum antimonides have been investigated using the tight binding LMTO method. The calculation of total energy reveals that the simple tetragonal structure is found to be stable at high pressures for both the compounds. In the case of LaSb, the calculated value of the equilibrium cell volume and the cell volume at which phase transition occurs are found to have a fairly good agreement with the experimental results. However, in the case of CeSb, the agreement is not as good as in LaSb. We also predicted the most favoured c/a value in the high pressure phase (simple tetragonal) for these compounds. Further we present the calculated results on the electronic structure of these systems at the equilibrium as well as at the reduced cell volumes. (author). 8 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  5. (In)GaSb/AlGaSb quantum wells grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    We have successfully grown GaSb and InGaSb quantum wells (QW) on a Si(001) substrate, and evaluated their optical properties using photoluminescence (PL). The PL emissions from the QWs at room temperature were observed at around 1.55 μm, which is suitable for fiber optic communications systems. The measured ground state energy of each QW matched well with the theoretical value calculated by solving the Schroedinger equation for a finite potential QW. The temperature dependence of the PL intensity showed large activation energy (∼ 77.6 meV) from QW. The results indicated that the fabricated QW structure had a high crystalline quality, and the GaSb QW on Si for optical devices operating at temperatures higher than room temperature will be expected

  6. Optical and structural properties of MOVPE-grown GaInSb/GaSb quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, Viera; Olivier, E.J.; Botha, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the optical and structural properties of strained type-I Ga 1-x In x Sb quantum wells embedded in GaSb from a metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth perspective. Photoluminescence measurements and transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of the growth temperature on the quality of Ga 1-x In x Sb strained layers with varied alloy compositions and thicknesses. Although the various factors contributing to the overall quality of the strained layers are difficult to separate, the quantum well characteristics are significantly altered by the growth temperature. Despite the high growth rates (∼2 nm/s), quantum wells grown at 607 deg. C display photoluminescence emissions with full-width at half-maximum of 3.5-5.0 meV for an indium solid content (x) up to 0.15.

  7. Electrodeposition and electrochemical characterisation of thick and thin coatings of Sb and Sb/Sb2O3 particles for Li-ion battery anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryngelsson, Hanna; Eskhult, Jonas; Edstroem, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2007-01-01

    The possibilities to electrodeposit thick coatings composed of nanoparticles of Sb and Sb 2 O 3 for use as high-capacity anode materials in Li-ion batteries have been investigated. It is demonstrated that the stability of the coatings depends on their Sb 2 O 3 concentrations as well as microstructure. The electrodeposition reactions in electrolytes with different pH and buffer capacities were studied using chronopotentiometry and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance measurements. The obtained deposits, which were characterised with XRD and SEM, were also tested as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The influence of the pH and buffer capacity of the deposition solution on the composition and particle size of the deposits were studied and it is concluded that depositions from a poorly buffered solution of antimony-tartrate give rise to good anode materials due to the inclusion of precipitated Sb 2 O 3 nanoparticles in the Sb coatings. Depositions under conditions yielding pure Sb coatings give rise to deposits composed of large crystalline particles with poor anode stabilities. The presence of a plateau at about 0.8 V versus Li + /Li due to SEI forming reactions and the origin of another plateau at about 0.4 V versus Li + /Li seen during the lithiation of thin Sb coatings are also discussed. It is demonstrated that the 0.4 V plateau is present for Sb coatings for which the (0 1 2) peak is the main peak in the XRD diffractogram

  8. Phase diagram of the Sb-Se-I system and thermodynamic properties of SbSeI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Z.S.; Musaeva, S.S.; Babanly, D.M.; Shevelkov, A.V.; Babanly, M.B.

    2010-01-01

    The Sb-Se-I system was investigated by using the DTA and XRD analyses and EMF measurements with an antimony electrode. The T-x diagram of the binary Sb-I system was accurately redefined. A number of polythermal sections and the projection of the liquidus surface were constructed. The fields of the primary crystallization, as well as the types and coordinates of non- and monovariant equilibria were determined. It is shown that the quasi-binary sections Sb 2 Se 3 -SbI 3 , Sb-SbSeI, SbI 3 -Se, and SbSeI-Se triangulate the Sb-Se-I system, leading to five independent subsystems. A broad area of immiscibility, that overlaps a certain part of the antimony primary crystallization field, was found. From the EMF measurements, the partial molar functions of antimony (ΔG-bar, ΔH-bar, ΔS-bar) as well as standard integral thermodynamic functions of SbSeI were calculated. The latter were found to have the following values: ΔG f,298 0 =-80.12±1.81kJ/mol; ΔH f,298 0 =-77.3±1.8kJ/mol; S 298 0 =155.2±9.5J/(molK).

  9. Phase diagram of the Sb-Se-I system and thermodynamic properties of SbSeI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Z S; Musaeva, S S; Babanly, D M [Baku State University, General and Inorganic Chemistry Department (Azerbaijan); Shevelkov, A.V., E-mail: shev@inorg.chem.msu.r [Moscow Lomonosov State University, Chemistry Department (Russian Federation); Babanly, M.B., E-mail: Babanly_mb@rambler.r [Baku State University, General and Inorganic Chemistry Department (Azerbaijan)

    2010-09-03

    The Sb-Se-I system was investigated by using the DTA and XRD analyses and EMF measurements with an antimony electrode. The T-x diagram of the binary Sb-I system was accurately redefined. A number of polythermal sections and the projection of the liquidus surface were constructed. The fields of the primary crystallization, as well as the types and coordinates of non- and monovariant equilibria were determined. It is shown that the quasi-binary sections Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3}-SbI{sub 3}, Sb-SbSeI, SbI{sub 3}-Se, and SbSeI-Se triangulate the Sb-Se-I system, leading to five independent subsystems. A broad area of immiscibility, that overlaps a certain part of the antimony primary crystallization field, was found. From the EMF measurements, the partial molar functions of antimony ({Delta}G-bar, {Delta}H-bar, {Delta}S-bar) as well as standard integral thermodynamic functions of SbSeI were calculated. The latter were found to have the following values: {Delta}G{sub f,298}{sup 0}=-80.12{+-}1.81kJ/mol; {Delta}H{sub f,298}{sup 0}=-77.3{+-}1.8kJ/mol; S{sub 298}{sup 0}=155.2{+-}9.5J/(molK).

  10. Removal of Sb(III and Sb(V by Ferric Chloride Coagulation: Implications of Fe Solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Inam

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation and precipitation appear to be the most efficient and economical methods for the removal of antimony from aqueous solution. In this study, antimony removal from synthetic water and Fe solubility with ferric chloride (FC coagulation has been investigated. The effects of pH, FC dosage, initial antimony loading and mixed Sb(III, Sb(V proportions on Fe solubility and antimony removal were studied. The results showed that the Sb(III removal efficiency increased with the increase of solution pH particularly due to an increase in Fe precipitation. The Sb(V removal was influenced by the solution pH due to a change in Fe solubility. However, the Fe solubility was only impaired by the Sb(III species at optimum pH 7. The removal efficiencies of both Sb species were enhanced with an increase in FC dose. The quantitative analysis of the isotherm study revealed the strong adsorption potential of Sb(III on Fe precipitates as compared to Sb(V. Furthermore, the removal behavior of antimony was inhibited in mixed proportion with high Sb(V fraction. In conclusion, this study contributes to better understanding the fate of Sb species, their mobilities, and comparative removal behavior, with implications for Fe solubility using ferric chloride in different aqueous environments.

  11. Hole-dominated transport in InSb nanowires grown on high-quality InSb films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, Zaina; George, David; Singh, Abhay; Lin, Yuankun; Philipose, U.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed an effective strategy for synthesizing p-type indium antimonide (InSb) nanowires on a thin film of InSb grown on glass substrate. The InSb films were grown by a chemical reaction between S b 2 S 3 and I n and were characterized by structural, compositional, and optical studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies reveal that the surface of the substrate is covered with a polycrystalline InSb film comprised of sub-micron sized InSb islands. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) results show that the film is stoichiometric InSb. The optical constants of the InSb film, characterized using a variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometer (VASE) shows a maximum value for refractive index at 3.7 near 1.8 eV, and the extinction coefficient (k) shows a maximum value 3.3 near 4.1 eV. InSb nanowires were subsequently grown on the InSb film with 20 nm sized Au nanoparticles functioning as the metal catalyst initiating nanowire growth. The InSb nanowires with diameters in the range of 40-60 nm exhibit good crystallinity and were found to be rich in Sb. High concentrations of anions in binary semiconductors are known to introduce acceptor levels within the band gap. This un-intentional doping of the InSb nanowire resulting in hole-dominated transport in the nanowires is demonstrated by the fabrication of a p-channel nanowire field effect transistor. The hole concentration and field effect mobility are estimated to be ≈1.3 × 1017 cm-3 and 1000 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, at room temperature, values that are particularly attractive for the technological implications of utilizing p-InSb nanowires in CMOS electronics.

  12. The system Sb2Te3-InS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarov, M.G.; Gamidov, R.S.; Poladov, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    The system Sb 2 Te 3 -InS was investigated by the methods of physicochemical analysis. Its state diagram was constructed. It represents the stable diagonal of the mutual ternary system InTe-Sb 2 Te 3 -Sb 2 S 3 -InS. It was established that limited regions of α- and β-solid solutions on the basis of Sb 2 Te 3 and InS, achieving 15.5 and 8 mol.% respectively, formed in the system. Lattice periods of α- and β-solid solutions, their lattice volumes, number of atoms in them and densities were calculated

  13. Optical response of confined excitons in GaInAsSb/GaSb Quantum Dots heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Cano, R [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Occidente, A.A. 2790, Cali (Colombia); Tirado-Mejia, L; Fonthal, G; Ariza-Calderon, H [Laboratorio de Optoelectronica, Universidad del Quindio, A.A. 4603 Armenia (Colombia); Porras-Montenegro, N, E-mail: rsanchez40@gmail.co [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    The narrow-gap Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y} compounds are suitable materials for heterostructure devices operating in the infrared wavelength range. In these compounds grown by liquid phase epitaxy over GaSb single crystals, for x and y values in the range of 0.10 to 0.14 for both variables, the photoluminescence optical response at 12K is blue-shifted by 20 meV related to the photoreflectance response. We believe this behavior is due to possible higher electronic confinement in some places of the heterostructure, possibly formed in the interface during the growth process. In order to explain this behavior, in this work we study the exciton recombination energy in spherical Quantum Dots (QDs) on Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}As{sub y}Sb{sub 1-y}/GaSb, using the variational procedure within the effective-mass approximation and considering an electron in a Type I band alignment formed by two semiconductors with similar parabolic conduction bands. Our results are in good agreement with recent experimental results.

  14. Crystallization and memory programming characteristics of Ge-doped SbTe materials of varying Sb : Te ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jeung-hyun; Lee, Hyun Seok; Lee, Suyoun; Lee, Taek Sung; Kim, Won Mok; Wu Zhe; Cheong, Byung-ki; Kim, Seul Cham; Oh, Kyu Hwan

    2009-01-01

    A phase change memory (PCM) utilizes resistivity changes accompanying fast transitions from an amorphous to a crystalline phase (SET) and vice versa (RESET). An investigation was made on the SET characteristics of PCM cells with Ge-doped SbTe (Ge-ST) materials of two different Sb : Te ratios (4.53 and 2.08). For the material of higher Sb : Te (4.53), a SET operation was completed within several tens of nanoseconds via nucleation-free crystallization whereas the material of lower Sb : Te (2.08) rendered a slower SET operation requiring several hundred nanoseconds for a nucleation-mediated crystallization. From measurements of nucleation and growth kinetics via laser-induced crystallization, the observed SET characteristics of the former case were found to derive from a growth time about 10 3 times shorter than the nucleation time and those of the latter from a much shorter nucleation time as well as a longer growth time than in the former case. The measured nucleation kinetics of the lower Sb : Te (2.08) material is unexpected from the existing data, which has led us to advance an interesting finding that there occurs a trend-reversing change in the nucleation kinetics of the Ge-ST materials around the eutectic composition (Sb : Te ∼2.6); nucleation is accelerated with the increase in the Sb : Te ratio above Sb : Te of 2.6, but with a decrease in the Sb : Te ratio below it.

  15. Limiting scattering processes in high-mobility InSb quantum wells grown on GaSb buffer systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Ch. A.; Tschirky, T.; Ihn, T.; Dietsche, W.; Keller, J.; Fält, S.; Wegscheider, W.

    2018-05-01

    We present molecular beam epitaxial grown single- and double-side δ -doped InAlSb/InSb quantum wells with varying distances down to 50 nm to the surface on GaSb metamorphic buffers. We analyze the surface morphology as well as the impact of the crystalline quality on the electron transport. Comparing growth on GaSb and GaAs substrates indicates that the structural integrity of our InSb quantum wells is solely determined by the growth conditions at the GaSb/InAlSb transition and the InAlSb barrier growth. The two-dimensional electron gas samples show high mobilities of up to 349 000 cm2/Vs at cryogenic temperatures and 58 000 cm2/Vs at room temperature. With the calculated Dingle ratio and a transport lifetime model, ionized impurities predominantly remote from the quantum well are identified as the dominant source of scattering events. The analysis of the well-pronounced Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations reveals a high spin-orbit coupling with an effective g -factor of -38.4 in our samples. Along with the smooth surfaces and long mean free paths demonstrated, our InSb quantum wells are increasingly competitive for nanoscale implementations of Majorana mode devices.

  16. Sb-related defects in Sb-doped ZnO thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Caiqin; Ho, Lok-Ping; Azad, Fahad; Anwand, Wolfgang; Butterling, Maik; Wagner, Andreas; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Zhu, Hai; Su, Shichen; Ling, Francis Chi-Chung

    2018-04-01

    Sb-doped ZnO films were fabricated on c-plane sapphire using the pulsed laser deposition method and characterized by Hall effect measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and positron annihilation spectroscopy. Systematic studies on the growth conditions with different Sb composition, oxygen pressure, and post-growth annealing were conducted. If the Sb doping concentration is lower than the threshold ˜8 × 1020 cm-3, the as-grown films grown with an appropriate oxygen pressure could be n˜4 × 1020 cm-3. The shallow donor was attributed to the SbZn related defect. Annealing these samples led to the formation of the SbZn-2VZn shallow acceptor which subsequently compensated for the free carrier. For samples with Sb concentration exceeding the threshold, the yielded as-grown samples were highly resistive. X-ray diffraction results showed that the Sb dopant occupied the O site rather than the Zn site as the Sb doping exceeded the threshold, whereas the SbO related deep acceptor was responsible for the high resistivity of the samples.

  17. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Stefano; Zallo, Eugenio; Momand, Jamo; Wang, Ruining; Kooi, Bart J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Calarco, Raffaella

    Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers.

  18. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, S.; Zallo, E.; Momand, J.; Wang, R.; Kooi, B.J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Calarco, R.

    Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here

  19. Preparation and crystal structure of Ca4Sb2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmann, B.; Limartha, H.; Schaefer, H.

    1980-01-01

    The formerly described compound Ca 2 Sb is to be corrected to Ca 4 Sb 2 O as shown by X-ray diffractometer data of single crystals and neutron diffraction diagrams of powders. The compound crystallizes in the K 2 NiF 4 structure type. (orig.)

  20. Neutron scattering study of Ce3Au3Sb4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasaya, Mitsuo; Katoh, Kenichi; Kohgi, Masahumi; Osakabe, Toyotaka

    1993-01-01

    Rare-earth compounds with an Y 3 Au 3 Sb 4 -type crystal structure are semiconductors or semi-metals. Among them, Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 is a semiconductor with an activation energy of about 640 K and shows no magnetic order down to 1.5 K. The magnetic part of the specific heat for Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 obtained by subtracting the value for La 3 Au 3 Sb 4 from the total specific heat of Ce 3 Au 3 Sb 4 shows a broad peak at around 10 K, the origin of which is well explained by the crystalline-field splitting determined by neutron scattering. (author)

  1. Are Sb4n (n>1) clusters weakly interacting tetrahedra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1993-03-01

    The electronic and atomic structure of Sb 4 and Sb 8 clusters is studied using the ab-initio molecular dynamics method in the local density approximation. While for Sb 4 we obtain a regular tetrahedron to be about 2.0 eV lower in energy than a bent rhombus, for Sb 8 two structures, (1) two weakly interaction tetrahedra and (2) a bent rhombus interacting with a stretched tetrahedron, obtained from the simulated annealing lie only within about 0.1 eV indicating the importance of the bent rhombus structure for larger clusters. As compared to two isolated tetrahedra, the binding energy of Sb 8 is about 0.5 eV. Our results are thus in excellent agreement with the experimental data which show predominantly the abundance of tetramers above room temperature. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Thermoelectric properties and microstructure of Mg3Sb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condron, Cathie L.; Kauzlarich, Susan M.; Gascoin, Franck; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Mg 3 Sb 2 has been prepared by direct reaction of the elements. Powder X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric, differential scanning calorimetery, and microprobe data were obtained on hot pressed samples. Single phase samples of Mg 3 Sb 2 were prepared and found to contain oxygen at the grain boundaries and to lose Mg and oxidize at temperatures above 900 K. Thermoelectric properties were characterized by Seebeck, electrical resistivity, and thermal conductivity measurements from 300 to 1023 K, and the maximum zT was found to be 0.21 at ∼875 K. - Graphical abstract: Dimensionless figure of merit for Mg 3 Sb 2 hot pressed and sintered at 873 K. The inset illustrates the crystal structure of Mg 3 Sb 2 along the [100] direction (white=Mg, black=Sb)

  3. A Summary of Rheology Data For SB3 and SB2/3 Blend Simulant Savannah River Site Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOOPMAN, DAVIDC.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to document the rheological measurements made for Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and the blend of SB3 with Sludge Batch 2 (SB2). These measurements were primarily made on Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products, i.e. melter feeds. Some measurements were made on SB2/3 blend Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) products. Measurements on radioactive SB3 and SB2/3 samples have been limited to sludge characterization. SB2/3 measurements studied the impact of changing the SRAT acid addition strategy on the SRAT and SME product rheology. SB2/3 measurements also studied the impact of changing the waste loading target (sludge oxides content in glass) of the SME product. SB3 measurements studied the impact of changes in the wash end point and acid addition strategy on the SME product (melter feed) rheology. A summary of the significant findings is given below: SB3 radioactive sludge and blended SB2/3 radioactive sludge were less viscous than SB2 radioactive sludge. SB2/3 b lend sludge is more viscous than SB3 sludge. SB3 simulant SME product rheology was strongly impacted by changing the noble metal concentrations to more closely match those of the qualification sample. This reduction in noble metals produced a lower pH product that was also considerably less viscous. Increased acid addition in the SB2/3 SRAT generally led to less viscous simulant SRAT products. This trend did not persist in the SME products. SME products became more viscous when increased acid was used in the SRAT cycle from 135 per cent up to 170 per cent of stoichiometry, then became less viscous as total acid was increased further to 185 per cent. A significant increase in hydrogen generation occurred between 170 per cent and 185 per cent. The impact of acid addition on SB3 SME products was also variable. The impact of waste loading changes from 31 to 35 to 40 per cent on SB2/3 simulant SME products led to more viscous melter feeds as waste loading increased at constant wt. per cent

  4. Adducts of UF5 with SbF5 and structure of UF5 . 2SbF5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawodny, W.; Rediess, K.

    1980-01-01

    Both α-UF 5 and β-UF 5 form only a 1:2 compound UF 5 . 2SbF 5 reacting directly with SbF 5 , from which UF 5 . SbF 5 can be obtained by thermal decomposition. UF 5 . 2SbF 5 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2 1 /c with the following lattice constants a = 8.110(4), b = 14.129(6), c = 10.032(6) A and β = 96.97(5) 0 ; Z = 4. An X-ray study shows centrosymmetric four-membered rings of alternating UF 8 and SbF 6 polyhedra connected by other SbF 6 entities. This structure is similar to that of UOF 5 . 2SbF 5 , but the distorted pentagonal-bipyramidal coordination of the U atom found there is increased to a dodecahedral coordination by an additional U-F-Sb bridge, though with a somewaht larger UF distance. (author)

  5. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah Mohammed Abdullah; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling

  6. Photoemission study of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and RhSb sub 3

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, H; Fujimori, A; Nagamoto, Y; Koyanagi, T; Sofo, J O

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of the skutterudite compounds CoSb sub 3 and Co(Sb sub 0 sub . sub 9 sub 6 Te sub 0 sub . sub 0 sub 4) sub 3 by photoemission spectroscopy. Valence-band spectra revealed that a significant amount Sb 5p states are present near the Fermi level and are hybridized with Co 3d states just below it. The spectra are well reproduced by the band-structure calculation, suggesting that the effect of electron correlations is not important. When Te is substituted for Sb and n-type carriers are doped into CoSb sub 3 , the spectra are shifted to higher binding energies as described by the rigid-band model. From this shift and the free-electron model for the conduction and valence bands, we have estimated the band gap of CoSb sub 3 to be 0.03-0.04 eV, consistent with transport measurements. Photoemission spectra of RhSb sub 3 have also been measured and revealed expected similarities to and differences from those of CoSb sub 3. Unusual temperature dependence has been observed for the s...

  7. New Insights into the Origins of Sb-Induced Effects on Self-Catalyzed GaAsSb Nanowire Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Dingding; Dheeraj, Dasa L.; Jin, Chengjun

    2016-01-01

    and thermodynamically by the introduction of Sb. An anomalous decrease of the axial growth rate with increased Sb2 flux is found to be due to both the indirect kinetic influence via the Ga adatom diffusion induced catalyst geometry evolution and the direct composition modulation. From the fundamental growth analyses...

  8. Initial Design of the 60 Megawatt Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF) Oscillator System for the University of Washington ''TCS'' Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reass, W.A.; Miera, D.A.; Wurden, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial electrical and mechanical design of two phase-locked 30 Megawatt RMS, 150 kHz oscillator systems used for current drive and plasma sustainment of the ''Translation, Confinement, and Sustainment'' (TCS) field reversed configuration (FRC) plasma. By the application of orthogonally-placed saddle coils on the surface of the glass vacuum vessel, the phase-controlled rotating magnetic field perturbation will induce an electric field in the plasma which should counter the intrinsic ohmic decay of the plasma, and maintain the FRC. Each system utilizes a bank of 6 parallel magnetically beamed ML8618 triodes. These devices are rated at 250 Amperes cathode current and a 45 kV plate voltage. An advantage of the magnetically beamed triode is their extreme efficiency, requiring only 2.5 kW of filament and a few amps and a few kV of grid drive. Each 3.5 uH saddle coil is configured with an adjustable tank circuit (for tuning). Assuming no losses and a nominal 18 kV plate voltage, the tubes can circulate about 30 kV and 9 kA (pk to pk) in the saddle coil antenna, a circulating power of over 33 megawatts RMS. On each cycle the tubes can kick in up to 1500 Amperes, providing a robust phase control. DC high-voltage from the tubes is isolated from the saddle coil antennas and tank circuits by a 1:1 coaxial air-core balun transformer. To control the ML8618's phase and amplitude, fast 150 Ampere ''totem-pole'' grid drivers, an ''on'' hot-deck and an ''off'' hot-deck are utilized. The hot-decks use up to 6 each 3CPX1500A7 slotted radial beam triodes. By adjusting the conduction angle, amplitude may be regulated, with inter-pulse timing, phase angle can be controlled. A central feedback timing chassis monitors each systems' saddle coil antenna and appropriately derives each systems timing signals. Fiber-optic cables are used to isolate between the control room timing chassis and the remote power oscillator system. Complete system design detail will be

  9. Effect of antimony nano-scale surface-structures on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.; Shima, D.; Ahirwar, P.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dang, T.; Bedford, R. G.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of antimony crystallization on the surface of GaSb during low temperature molecular beam epitaxy growth are investigated. The geometry of these structures is studied via transmission electron and atomic force microscopies, which show the surface metal forms triangular-shaped, elongated nano-wires with a structured orientation composed entirely of crystalline antimony. By depositing antimony on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector, the field is localized within the antimony layer. Polarization dependent transmission measurements are carried out on these nano-structures deposited on a GaSb/AlAsSb distributed Bragg reflector. It is shown that the antimony-based structures at the surface favor transmission of light polarized perpendicular to the wires.

  10. Near-surface depletion of antimony during the growth of GaAsSb and GaAs/GaAsSb nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauko, H.; Helvoort, A. T. J. van, E-mail: a.helvoort@ntnu.no [Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim (Norway); Fimland, B. O.; Munshi, A. M. [Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, NTNU, Trondheim (Norway); Grieb, T.; Müller, K.; Rosenauer, A. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-10-14

    The near-surface reduction of the Sb mole fraction during the growth of GaAsSb nanowires (NWs) and GaAs NWs with GaAsSb inserts has been studied using quantitative high-angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A model for diffusion of Sb in the hexagonal NWs was developed and employed in combination with the quantitative STEM analysis. GaAsSb NWs grown by Ga-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and GaAs/GaAsSb NWs grown by Ga- and Au-assisted MBE were investigated. At the high temperatures employed in the NW growth, As-Sb exchange at and outward diffusion of Sb towards the surface take place, resulting in reduction of the Sb concentration at and near the surface in the GaAsSb NWs and the GaAsSb inserts. In GaAsSb NWs, an increasing near-surface depletion of Sb was observed towards the bottom of the NW due to longer exposure to the As beam flux. In GaAsSb inserts, an increasing change in the Sb concentration profile was observed with increasing post-insert axial GaAs growth time, resulting from a combined effect of radial GaAs overgrowth and diffusion of Sb. The effect of growth temperature on the diffusion of Sb in the GaAsSb inserts was identified. The consequences of these findings for growth optimization and the optoelectronic properties of GaAsSb are discussed.

  11. Study for material analogs of FeSb2: Material design for thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang-Jong; Kotliar, Gabriel

    2018-03-01

    Using the ab initio evolutionary algorithm (implemented in uspex) and electronic structure calculations we investigate the properties of a new thermoelectric material FeSbAs, which is a material analog of the enigmatic thermoelectric FeSb2. We utilize the density functional theory and the Gutzwiller method to check the energetics. We find that FeSbAs can be made thermodynamically stable above ˜30 GPa. We investigate the electronic structure and thermoelectric properties of FeSbAs based on the density functional theory and compare with those of FeSb2. Above 50 K, FeSbAs has higher Seebeck coefficients than FeSb2. Upon doping, the figure of merit becomes larger for FeSbAs than for FeSb2. Another material analog FeSbP, was also investigated, and found thermodynamically unstable even at very high pressure. Regarding FeSb2 as a member of a family of compounds (FeSb2, FeSbAs, and FeSbP) we elucidate what are the chemical handles that control the gaps in this series. We also investigate solubility (As or P for Sb in FeSb2) we found As to be more soluble. Finally, we study a two-band model for thermoelectric properties and find that the temperature dependent chemical potential and the presence of the ionized impurities are important to explain the extremum in the Seebeck coefficient exhibited in experiments for FeSb2.

  12. Unusual crystallization behavior in Ga-Sb phase change alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Putero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Combined in situ X-ray scattering techniques using synchrotron radiation were applied to investigate the crystallization behavior of Sb-rich Ga-Sb alloys. Measurements of the sheet resistance during heating indicated a reduced crystallization temperature with increased Sb content, which was confirmed by in situ X-ray diffraction. The electrical contrast increased with increasing Sb content and the resistivities in both the amorphous and crystalline phases decreased. It was found that by tuning the composition between Ga:Sb = 9:91 (in at.% and Ga:Sb = 45:55, the change in mass density upon crystallization changes from an increase in mass density which is typical for most phase change materials to a decrease in mass density. At the composition of Ga:Sb = 30:70, no mass density change is observed which should be very beneficial for phase change random access memory (PCRAM applications where a change in mass density during cycling is assumed to cause void formation and PCRAM device failure.

  13. Positron annihilation studies of high dose Sb implanted silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schut, H.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Beling, C.D.; Ho, K.; Takamura, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The formation and evolution of vacancies and precipitates created by implantation of 60 keV, 2 x 10 16 cm -2 Sb + in pre-amorphized (0 0 1) Cz-Si is studied using the Doppler broadening (DB) and two-dimensional angular correlation of annihilation radiation (2D-ACAR) positron beam techniques. After implantation, samples were laser annealed (LTA) and subsequently thermal annealed at temperatures ranging from 400 to 1000 deg. C. Implantation-induced vacancy-type defects were detected up to a depth of 280 nm. After LTA, positron annihilation related to both Sb and remaining defects is observed in the first 100 nm below the surface. The deeper region only shows positron trapping at vacancy-type defects with strong reduced concentration. Complete removal is obtained after 600 deg. C anneal. At this temperature, the positron data for the upper region reveals trapping at Sb and Si sites only. With increasing annealing time (at 600 deg. C) or increasing temperature (up to 1000 deg. C) positron annihilation at Sb-sites associated with neighboring vacancies becomes apparent. Results are correlated with the observed Sb electrical deactivation above 600 deg. C, the shift from small Sb aggregates to precipitates and out-diffusion of Sb from the implantation region at higher temperatures

  14. Point defect balance in epitaxial GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segercrantz, N.; Slotte, J.; Makkonen, I.; Kujala, J.; Tuomisto, F.; Song, Y.; Wang, S.

    2014-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy in both conventional and coincidence Doppler broadening mode is used for studying the effect of growth conditions on the point defect balance in GaSb:Bi epitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Positron annihilation characteristics in GaSb are also calculated using density functional theory and compared to experimental results. We conclude that while the main positron trapping defect in bulk samples is the Ga antisite, the Ga vacancy is the most prominent trap in the samples grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results suggest that the p–type conductivity is caused by different defects in GaSb grown with different methods.

  15. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Dashiell; J Beausang; H Ehsani; G Nichols; D DePoy; L Danielson; P Talamo; K Rahner; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; P Baldasaro; C Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryl

    2005-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from InGaAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaSb substrates are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes utilizing front-surface spectral control filters have been tested in a vacuum cavity and a TPV thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency (η TPV ) and a power density (PD) of η TPV = 19% and PD=0.58 W/cm 2 were measured for T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Recombination coefficients deduced from minority carrier measurements and the theory reviewed in this article predict a practical limit to the maximum achievable conversion efficiency and power density for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV. The limits for the above operating temperatures are projected to be η TPV = 26% and PD = 0.75 W/cm 2 . These limits are extended to η TPV = 30% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 if the diode active region is bounded by a reflective back surface to enable photon recycling and a two-pass optical path length. The internal quantum efficiency of the InGaAsSb TPV diode is close to the theoretically predicted limits, with the exception of short wavelength absorption in GaSb contact layers. Experiments show that the open circuit voltage of the 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes is not strongly dependent on the device architectures studied in this work where both N/P and P/N double heterostructure diodes have been grown with various acceptor and donor doping levels, having GaSb and AlGaAsSb confinement, and also partial back surface reflectors. Lattice matched InGaAsSb TPV diodes were fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.6 to 0.5eV without significant degradation of the open circuit voltage factor, quantum efficiency, or fill factor as the composition approached the miscibility gap. The key diode performance parameter which is limiting efficiency and power density below the theoretical limits in InGaAsSb TPV devices is the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltages of state-of-the-art 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diode are ∼10

  16. First principles simulation of amorphous InSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Gabardi, Silvia; Bernasconi, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory have been performed to generate a model of amorphous InSb by quenching from the melt. The resulting network is mostly tetrahedral with a minor fraction (10%) of atoms in a fivefold coordination. The structural properties are in good agreement with available x-ray diffraction and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure data and confirm the proposed presence of a sizable fraction of homopolar In-In and Sb-Sb bonds whose concentration in our model amounts to about 20% of the total number of bonds.

  17. Formation Mechanism of Self Assembled Horizontal ErSb Nanowires Embedded in a GaSb(001) Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathaniel; Kraemer, Stephan; PalmstrøM, Chris

    The ErxGa1-xSb exhibits a variety of self-assembling nanostructures. In order to harness these nanostructures for use in devices and other material systems it is important to understand their formation. We have characterized the growth mechanism of self-assembled horizontal ErSb nanowires in a GaSb(001) matrix through the use of in-situ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) as well as ex-situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). We observe large GaSb macrosteps on the growth surface of Er.3Ga.7Sb samples. The areas near the ledge and base of the macrosteps show significant differences in size and distribution of ErSb nanowires. Results suggest that the formation of macrosteps drives the transition from vertical to horizontal nanowires in the ErxGa1-xSb system. We also observe a low temperature growth mode, which results in horizontal nanowire formation under a wide range of flux conditions. This new growth mode does not exhibit the embedded growth observed in the formation of nanowires at higher temperatures and may allow for horizontal nanowire formation without the presence of macrosteps, as well as the formation of smaller nanoparticles which may be useful for achieving smaller nanoparticle dimensions and electron confinement effects. This work was supported by NSF-DMR under 1507875.

  18. Reactive ion etching of GaSb, (Al,Ga)Sb, and InAs for novel device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaTulipe, D.C.; Frank, D.J.; Munekata, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although a variety of novel device proposals for GaSb/(Al,Ga)Sb/InAs heterostructures have been made, relatively little is known about processing these materials. The authors of this paper have studied the reactive ion etching characteristics of GaSb, (Al,Ga)Sb, and InAs in both methane/hydrogen and chlorine gas chemistries. At conditions similar to those reported elsewhere for RIE of InP and GaAs in CH 4 /H 2 , the etch rate of (Al,Ga)Sb was found to be near zero, while GaSb and InAs etched at 200 Angstrom/minute. Under conditions where the etch mechanism is primarily physical sputtering, the three compounds etch at similar rates. Etching in Cl 2 was found to yield anistropic profiles, with the etch rate of (Al,Ga)Sb increasing with Al mole fraction, while InAs remains unetched. Damage to the InAs stop layer was investigated by sheet resistance and mobility measurements. These etching techniques were used to fabricate a novel InAs- channel FET composed of these materials. Several scanning electron micrographs of etching results are shown along with preliminary electrical characteristics

  19. Chemical consequences of the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti, J F [Asuncion Nacional Univ. (Paraguay). Inst. de Ciencias

    1970-01-01

    The chemical consequences fo the neutron irradiation of ionic antimony oxides and Fe Sb2O4 are studied. The nature of the Sb-O2 bond effects the yield of SbV the higher the yield the more covalent the bond. In addition, the Fe Sb2O4 obeys the Maddock's rule.

  20. Oxidation of 1-butene over uranium oxide (UO3)-antimony oxide (Sb2O3) catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, T.; Houtman, P.N.; Schuit, G.C.A.

    1971-01-01

    The oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene over U-Sb catalysts was investigated. The presence of two compds., (UO2)Sb3O7 and Sb3U3O14, reported by Grasselli and Callahan (1969), was confirmed with (UO2)Sb3O7 being the actual catalyst. The reaction is first order in butene and zero order in

  1. Increasing the thermoelectric power factor of Ge17Sb2Te20 by adjusting the Ge/Sb ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jared B.; Mather, Spencer P.; Page, Alexander; Uher, Ctirad; Morelli, Donald T.

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of Ge17Sb2Te20. This compound is a known phase change material with electronic properties that depend strongly on temperature. The thermoelectric properties of this compound can be tuned by altering the stoichiometry of Ge and Sb without the use of additional foreign elements during synthesis. This tuning results in a 26% increase in the thermoelectric power factor at 723 K. Based on a single parabolic band model we show that the pristine material is optimally doped, and thus, a reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of pure Ge17Sb2Te20 should result in an enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit.

  2. Study of conformational changes and protein aggregation of bovine serum albumin in presence of Sb(III) and Sb(V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Marcelo; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge; Costa-Fernández, José Manuel; Menendez-Miranda, Mario; Bouzas-Ramos, Diego; Bravo, Manuel; Quiroz, Waldo

    2017-01-01

    Antimony is a metalloid that affects biological functions in humans due to a mechanism still not understood. There is no doubt that the toxicity and physicochemical properties of Sb are strongly related with its chemical state. In this paper, the interaction between Sb(III) and Sb(V) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated in vitro by fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) under simulated physiological conditions. Moreover, the coupling of the separation technique, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation, with elemental mass spectrometry to understand the interaction of Sb(V) and Sb(III) with the BSA was also used. Our results showed a different behaviour of Sb(III) vs. Sb(V) regarding their effects on the interaction with the BSA. The effects in terms of protein aggregates and conformational changes were higher in the presence of Sb(III) compared to Sb(V) which may explain the differences in toxicity between both Sb species in vivo. Obtained results demonstrated the protective effect of GSH that modifies the degree of interaction between the Sb species with BSA. Interestingly, in our experiments it was possible to detect an interaction between BSA and Sb species, which may be related with the presence of labile complex between the Sb and a protein for the first time.

  3. Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer thin films for high thermal stability and long data retention phase-change memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shiyu; Wu, Weihua [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Zhai, Jiwei, E-mail: apzhai@tongji.edu.cn [Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 201804 (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3} (ST) provides a fast crystallization speed, low melting temperature. • The Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb films exhibits faster crystallization speed, high thermal stability. • The calculated temperature for 10-year data retention is about 127 {sup o}C. • The Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer configuration with low power consumption. - Abstract: Phase-change memory is regard as one of the most promising candidates for the next-generation non-volatile memory. In this work, we proposed a Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb multilayer thin films to improve the thermal stability of Sb-rich Sb{sub 3}Te{sub 7}. The sheet resistance ratio between amorphous and crystalline states reached up to 4 orders of magnitude. With regard to the thermal stability, the calculated temperature for 10-year data retention is about 127 °C. The threshold current and threshold voltage of a cell based on Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb are 6.9 μA and 1.9 V, respectively. The lower RESET power is presented in the PCM cells of Sb{sub 7}Te{sub 3}/ZnSb films, benefiting from its high resistivity.

  4. Phase transformation in Mg—Sb3Te thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jun-Jian; Chen Yi-Min; Nie Qiu-Hua; Lü Ye-Gang; Wang Guo-Xiang; Shen Xiang; Dai Shi-Xun; Xu Tie-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Mg-doped Sb 3 Te films are proposed to improve the performance of phase-change memory (PCM). We prepare Mg-doped Sb 3 Te films and investigate their crystallization behaviors, structural, optical and electrical properties. We find that Mg-doping can increase the crystallization temperature, enhance the activation energy, and improve the 10-year data retention of Sb 3 Te. Especially Mg 25.19 (Sb 3 Te)74.81 shows higher T c (∼ 190 °C) and larger E a (∼ 3.49 eV), which results in a better data retention maintaining for 10 yr at ∼ 112 °C. Moreover R a /R c value is also improved. These excellent properties make Mg—Sb—Te material a promising candidate for the phase-change memory (PCM). (special topic — international conference on nanoscience and technology, china 2013)

  5. The crystal structure of ferdowsiite Ag8Sb4(As,Sb)4S16 and its relations to other ABX2 (A=Ag; B=As,Sb,Bi; X=S,Se) structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makovicky, Emil; Topa, Dan

    2014-01-01

    arsenic. The crystal structure of ferdowsiite is a superstructure of a PbS like motif. The {100} planes of the PbS-like substructure are the (105̅), (301) and (010) planes in terms of the ferdowsiite lattice. The structure contains zig-zag chains of Sb1 connected via short Sb-S bonds and flanked by (Sb...

  6. Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

  7. Fermi surface study of CeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Crabtree, G.W.; Joss, W.; Hulliger, F.

    1984-09-01

    A Fermi surface study of the ferromagnetic phase of CeSb is presented. The γ frequency branches arising from the electron surfaces at the X points, three separate frequency branches from the hole surfaces at the GAMMA point and the low frequency branch α have been observed. The effective mass ratios are low and range from approx. 0.2 for the α branch to approx. 1.0 for the high frequency branch of γ. The low effective mass ratios suggest that the admixture of the conduction states with the f state is small. We have observed a drastic change in the appearance of the dHvA signal at the phase transition between the ferromagnetic and lower field antiferromagnetic phases: The low frequency α oscillation suddenly disappears as the crystal enters the antiferromagnetic phase. By utilizing the change in the signal appearance, the transition field strength has been measured as a function of the field direction. The present experimental results, particularly the origin of the α oscillation, are discussed in the light of the p-f mixing theory and recent band structure calculations based on localized f orbitals

  8. Fermi surface study of CeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, H.; Crabtree, G.; Joss, W.; Hulliger, F.

    1985-01-01

    A Fermi surface study of the ferromagnetic phase of CeSb is presented. The γ frequency branches arising from the electron surfaces at the X points, three separate frequency branches from the hole surfaces at the GAMMA point, and the low-frequency branch α have been observed. The effective mass ratios are low and range from approx.0.2 for the α branch to approx.1.0 for the high-frequency branch of γ. The low effective mass ratios suggest that the admixture of the conduction states with the f state is small. We have observed a drastic change in the appearance of the de Haas--van Alpen signal at the phase transition between the ferromagnetic and lower field antiferromagnetic phases: the low-frequency α oscillation suddenly disappears as the crystal enters the antiferromagnetic phase. By utilizing the change in the signal appearance, the transition field strength has been measured as a function of the field direction. The present experimental results particularly the origin of the α oscillation, are discussed in the light of the p-f mixing theory and recent band-structure calculations based on localized f orbitals

  9. GaSb and GaSb/AlSb Superlattice Buffer Layers for High-Quality Photodiodes Grown on Commercial GaAs and Si Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, M.; Lloret, F.; Jurczak, P.; Wu, J.; Liu, H. Y.; Araújo, D.

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this work is the integration of InGaAs/GaSb/GaAs heterostructures, with high indium content, on GaAs and Si commercial wafers. The design of an interfacial misfit dislocation array, either on GaAs or Si substrates, allowed growth of strain-free devices. The growth of purposely designed superlattices with their active region free of extended defects on both GaAs and Si substrates is demonstrated. Transmission electron microscopy technique is used for the structural characterization and plastic relaxation study. In the first case, on GaAs substrates, the presence of dopants was demonstrated to reduce several times the threading dislocation density through a strain-hardening mechanism avoiding dislocation interactions, while in the second case, on Si substrates, similar reduction of dislocation interactions is obtained using an AlSb/GaSb superlattice. The latter is shown to redistribute spatially the interfacial misfit dislocation array to reduce dislocation interactions.

  10. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Watko, E.; Colpitts, T.

    1997-04-01

    The thermoelectric properties of metallorganic chemical vapor deposited (MOCVD) ZnSb films are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the growth of thicker ZnSb films lead to improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentrations. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 to 170 C, with peak Seebeck coefficients as high as 470 microV/K at 220 C. The various growth conditions, including the use of intentional dopants, to improve the Seebeck coefficients at room temperature and above, are discussed. A short annealing of the ZnSb films at temperatures of ∼ 200 C resulted in reduced free-carrier levels and higher Seebeck coefficients at 300 K. Finally, ZT values based on preliminary thermal conductivity measurements using the 3-ω method are reported

  11. The system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb2Ln composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badalova, M.A.; Chamanova, M.; Dodkhoev, E.S.; Badalov, A.; Abdusalyamova, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Present article is devoted to system analysis of temperature and melting enthalpy of intermetallic compounds of antimony-lanthanoids system of Sb Ln, Sb 2 Ln composition. The melting enthalpy was estimated. The temperature value was determined.

  12. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah Mohammed Abdullah; Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

  13. Ferro electrical properties of GeSbTe thin films; Propiedades ferroelectricas de peliculas delgadas de GeSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gervacio A, J. J.; Prokhorov, E.; Espinoza B, F. J., E-mail: jgervacio@qro.cinvestav.m [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente No. 2000, Juriquilla, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate and compare ferro electrical properties of thin GeSbTe films with composition Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} (with well defined ferro electrical properties) and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} using impedance, optical reflection, XRD, DSc and Piezo response Force Microscopy techniques. The temperature dependence of the capacitance in both materials shows an abrupt change at the temperature corresponding to ferroelectric-paraelectric transition and the Curie-Weiss dependence. In Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} films this transition corresponds to the end from a NaCl-type to a hexagonal transformation. Piezo response Force Microscopy measurements found ferroelectric domains with dimension approximately equal to the dimension of grains. (Author)

  14. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah Mohammed Abdullah

    2017-01-08

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

  15. Role of interlayer coupling for the power factor of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2

    KAUST Repository

    Alsaleh, Najebah M.

    2016-09-26

    The electronic and transport properties of bulk and monolayer CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2 are determined by using density functional theory and semiclassical Boltzmann transport theory, in order to investigate the role of interlayer coupling for the thermoelectric properties. The calculated band gaps of the bulk compounds are in agreement with experiments and significantly higher than those of the monolayers, which thus show lower Seebeck coefficients. Since also the electrical conductivity is lower, the monolayers are characterized by lower power factors. Therefore, interlayer coupling is found to be essential for the excellent thermoelectric response of CuSbS2 and CuSbSe2, even though it is weak.

  16. Crystal structure, magnetism, {sup 89}Y solid state NMR, and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectroscopic investigations of YIrSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Christopher [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Heletta, Lukas; Block, Theresa; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institute of Physics in Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    The ternary antimonide YIrSb was synthesized from the binary precursor YIr and elemental antimony by a diffusion controlled solid-state reaction. Single crystals were obtained by a flux technique with elemental bismuth as an inert solvent. The YIrSb structure (TiNiSi type, space group Pnma) was refined from single-crystal X-ray diffractometer data: a = 711.06(9), b = 447.74(5), c = 784.20(8) pm, wR{sub 2} = 0.0455, 535 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables. {sup 89}Y solid state MAS NMR and {sup 121}Sb Moessbauer spectra show single resonance lines in agreement with single-crystal X-ray data. YIrSb is a Pauli paramagnet. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. AgSbSe2 and AgSb(S,Se)2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, J.G.; Shaji, S.; Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe 2 ) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ), silver selenide (Ag 2 Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb 2 S 3 thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 , Ag 2 Se from a solution containing AgNO 3 and Na 2 SeSO 3 and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na 2 SeSO 3 , at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10 -3 Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe 2 or AgSb(S,Se) 2 depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe 2 /Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V oc = 435 mV and J sc = 0.08 mA/cm 2 under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe 2 as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  18. InAs/GaSb/AlSb composite quantum well structure preparation with help of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hospodková, Alice; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Dominec, Filip; Mikhailova, M. P.; Veinger, A.I.; Kochman, I.V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 464, Apr (2017), s. 206-210 ISSN 0022-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : low dimensional structures * MOVPE * InAs/GaSb composite quantum wells * AlSb Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.751, year: 2016

  19. AgSbSe{sub 2} and AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} thin films for photovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, J.G. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Rodriguez, A.C.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, CIIDIT - Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2011-10-01

    Silver antimony selenide (AgSbSe{sub 2}) thin films were prepared by heating sequentially deposited multilayers of antimony sulphide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}), silver selenide (Ag{sub 2}Se), selenium (Se) and silver (Ag). Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin film was prepared from a chemical bath containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Ag{sub 2}Se from a solution containing AgNO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3} and Se thin films from an acidified solution of Na{sub 2}SeSO{sub 3}, at room temperature on glass substrates. Ag thin film was deposited by thermal evaporation. The annealing temperature was 350 deg. C in vacuum (10{sup -3} Torr) for 1 h. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the thin films formed were polycrystalline AgSbSe{sub 2} or AgSb(S,Se){sub 2} depending on selenium content in the precursor films. Morphology and elemental analysis of these films were done using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Optical band gap was evaluated from the UV-visible absorption spectra of these films. Electrical characterizations were done using Hall effect and photocurrent measurements. A photovoltaic structure: glass/ITO/CdS/AgSbSe{sub 2}/Al was formed, in which CdS was deposited by chemical bath deposition. J-V characteristics of this structure showed V{sub oc} = 435 mV and J{sub sc} = 0.08 mA/cm{sup 2} under illumination using a tungsten halogen lamp. Preparation of a photovoltaic structure using AgSbSe{sub 2} as an absorber material by a non-toxic selenization process is achieved.

  20. Optimization of growth parameters for MOVPE-grown GaSb and Ga1−xInxSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miya, S.S.; Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    The triethylgallium/trimethylantimony (TEGa/TMSb) precursor combination was used for the metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth of GaSb at a growth temperature of 520 °C at atmospheric pressure. Trimethylindium was added in the case of Ga 1−x In x Sb growth. The effects of group V flux to group III flux ratio (V/III ratio) on the crystallinity and optical properties of GaSb layers are reported. It has been observed from the crystalline quality and optical properties that nominal V/III ratios of values greater than unity are required for GaSb epitaxial layers grown at this temperature. It has also been shown that Ga 1−x In x Sb can be grown using TEGa as a source of gallium species at atmospheric pressure. The relationship between Ga 1−x In x Sb vapour composition and solid composition has been studied at a V/III ratio of 0.78.

  1. Photoluminescence and structural properties of unintentional single and double InGaSb/GaSb quantum wells grown by MOVPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahia, Chinedu Christian; Tile, Ngcali; Botha, Johannes R.; Olivier, E. J.

    2018-04-01

    The structural and photoluminescence (PL) characterization of InGaSb quantum well (QW) structures grown on GaSb substrate (100) using atmospheric pressure Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) is presented. Both structures (single and double-InGaSb QWs) were inadvertently formed during an attempt to grow capped InSb/GaSb quantum dots (QDs). In this work, 10 K PL peak energies at 735 meV and 740 meV are suggested to be emissions from the single and double QWs, respectively. These lines exhibit red shifts, accompanied by a reduction in their full-widths at half-maximum (FWHM) as the excitation power decreases. The presence of a GaSb spacer in the double QW was found to increase the strength of the PL emission, which consequently gives rise to a reduced blue-shift and broadening of the PL emission line observed for the double QW with an increase in laser power, while the low thermal activation energy for the quenching of the PL from the double QW is attributed to the existence of threading dislocations, as seen in the bright field TEM image for this sample.

  2. New Insights into the Origins of Sb-Induced Effects on Self-Catalyzed GaAsSb Nanowire Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dingding; Dheeraj, Dasa L; Jin, Chengjun; Nilsen, Julie S; Huh, Junghwan; Reinertsen, Johannes F; Munshi, A Mazid; Gustafsson, Anders; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Weman, Helge; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    2016-02-10

    Ternary semiconductor nanowire arrays enable scalable fabrication of nano-optoelectronic devices with tunable bandgap. However, the lack of insight into the effects of the incorporation of Vy element results in lack of control on the growth of ternary III-V(1-y)Vy nanowires and hinders the development of high-performance nanowire devices based on such ternaries. Here, we report on the origins of Sb-induced effects affecting the morphology and crystal structure of self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays. The nanowire growth by molecular beam epitaxy is changed both kinetically and thermodynamically by the introduction of Sb. An anomalous decrease of the axial growth rate with increased Sb2 flux is found to be due to both the indirect kinetic influence via the Ga adatom diffusion induced catalyst geometry evolution and the direct composition modulation. From the fundamental growth analyses and the crystal phase evolution mechanism proposed in this Letter, the phase transition/stability in catalyst-assisted ternary III-V-V nanowire growth can be well explained. Wavelength tunability with good homogeneity of the optical emission from the self-catalyzed GaAsSb nanowire arrays with high crystal phase purity is demonstrated by only adjusting the Sb2 flux.

  3. Gel-combustion synthesis of CoSb2O6 and its reduction to powdery Sb2Co alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA JOVIC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb2Co alloy in powdery form was synthesized via reduction with gaseous hydrogen of the oxide CoSb2O6, obtained by the citrate gel-combustion technique. The precursor was an aqueous solution of antimony nitrate, cobalt nitrate and citric acid. The precursor solution with mole ratio Co(II/Sb(V of 1:2 was gelatinized by evaporation of water. The gel was heated in air up to the temperature of self-ignition. The product of gel combustion was a mixture of oxides and it had to be additionally thermally treated in order to be converted to pure CoSb2O6. The reduction of CoSb2O6 by gaseous hydrogen yielded powdery Sb2Co as the sole phase. The process of oxide reduction to alloy was controlled by thermogravimetry, while X-ray diffractometry was used to control the phase compositions of both the oxides and alloys.

  4. Epitaxial Growth and Electronic Structure of Half Heuslers Co1-xNixTiSb (001), Ni1-xCoxTiSn, and PtLuSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-09

    lineup of CoTiSb with conventional III/V’s, the valence-band discontinuities in abrupt CoTiSb/InGaAs(001) and CoTiSb/InAlAs(001) heterojunctions were...confirm identification of a topological surface state: first, the state must be confined and show no out-of-plane dispersion; second, the state

  5. Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Studies of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) Alloy Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bingyi; Xu, Baoqiang; Yang, Bin; Jiang, Wenlong; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Na; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2017-10-01

    Structure, stability, and dynamics of Pb m Sb n ( m + n ≤ 9) clusters were investigated using ab initio molecular dynamics. Size dependence of binding energies, the second-order energy difference of clusters, dissociation energy, HOMO-LUMO gaps, Mayer bond order, and the diffusion coefficient of Pb m Sb n clusters were discussed. Results suggest that Pb3Sb2, Pb4Sb2, and Pb5Sb4 ( n = 2 or 4) clusters have higher stability than other clusters, which is consistent with previous findings. In case of Pb-Sb alloy, the dynamics results show that Pb4Sb2 (Pb-22.71 wt pct Sb) can exist in gas phase at 1073 K (800 °C), which reasonably explains the azeotropic phenomenon, and the calculated values are in agreement with the experimental results (Pb-22 wt pct Sb).

  6. First-principles study of amorphous Ga4Sb6Te3 phase-change alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Assil; Gabardi, Silvia; Massobrio, Carlo; Boero, Mauro; Bernasconi, Marco

    2015-05-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations within the density functional theory framework were performed to generate amorphous models of the Ga4Sb6Te3 phase change alloy by quenching from the melt. We find that Ga-Sb and Ga-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor amount of Sb-Te bonds participating to the alloy network. Ga and four-coordinated Sb atoms present a tetrahedral-like geometry, whereas three-coordinated Sb atoms are in a pyramidal configuration. The tetrahedral-like geometries are similar to those of the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb. A sizable fraction of Sb-Sb bonds is also present, indicating a partial nanoscale segregation of Sb. Despite the fact that the composition Ga4Sb6Te3 lies on the pseudobinary Ga Sb -Sb2Te3 tie line, the amorphous network can be seen as a mixture of the two binary compounds GaTe and GaSb with intertwined elemental Sb.

  7. Sb interactions with TaC precipitates and Cu in ion-implanted α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Myers, S.M.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions of Sb with the other species implanted into Fe to form Fe-Ta-C-Sb and Fe-Cu-Sb alloys have been examined with transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering following annealing at 873 0 K. Trapping of Sb at TaC precipitates is observed in the former alloy just as was previously observed in Fe-Ti-C-Sb. In Fe-Cu-Sb, Sb interactions are governed by the atomic ratio of Sb to Cu. For ratios between 0.2 to 0.4, the compound β-Cu 3 Sb was observed to form. For Sb to Cu ratios approx.< 0.1, fcc Cu precipitates were observed. In addition to the expected Sb dissolution in Cu, Sb trapping by Cu precipitates is also observed. The binding enthalpy of Sb at both TaC and Cu precipitates with respect to a solution site in the bcc Fe is the same as observed for TiC, approx. 0.4 eV. The constancy of the binding enthalpy at such chemically dissimilar precipitates supports the hypothesis that the trapping is due to the structural discontinuity of the precipitate-host interface. The observed Sb trapping at precipitates is of potential significance for the control of temper embrittlement in bcc steels

  8. Crystal structure and bonding characteristics of In-doped β-Zn4Sb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Dingguo; Zhao, Wenyu; Cheng, Sudan; Wei, Ping; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Qingjie

    2012-01-01

    The effects of indium impurity on the crystal structure and bonding characteristics of In-doped β-Zn 4 Sb 3 were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XRD Rietveld refinement indicates that the indium impurity preferentially substitutes one of Sb atoms in Sb–Sb dimer at the 12c Sb(2) site and simultaneously leads to the increase of Zn occupancy. The observations of binding energy shift and a new valence state in Sb 3d core-level XPS spectra can be attributed to the charge transfer from In and Zn to Sb. As a result, more electropositive Zn atoms are needed to maintain the charge balance. The reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity is ascribed to the formation of the asymmetric Sb–In bond, resulting in much low lattice thermal conductivity of 0.49 W −1 K −1 of Zn 4 Sb 2.96 In 0.04 . - Graphical abstract: The indium impurity substitutes one of Sb atoms in Sb–Sb dimer, resulting the charge transfer from In to Sb, which leads to the binding energy of Sb 3d core level XPS spectra shift to low value. Highlights: ► The indium impurity preferentially substitutes one of Sb atoms in Sb–Sb dimer at the 12c Sb(2) site. ► The occupancy of Zn increases by the In substitution for Sb, whereas that of Sb keeps constant. ► The binding energy of Sb 3d shifts to low value. ► The charge transfer occurs from In and Zn to Sb.

  9. Phase equilibria melt-solid in the systems Pb-InSb-CaSb and Pb-InCs-GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebenyuk, A.M.; Charykov, N.A.; Puchkov, L.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results of experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of fusibility curves of Pb-InSb-GaSb and Pb-InAs-GaAs thernary systems, which haven't been investigated earlier, are presented. Fusibility curves of Pb-InSb-GaSb and Pb-InAs-GaAs systems contain two crystallization fields: solid solutions of In x Ga 1-x Sb and Pb, In x Ga 1-x As and Pb. The latter fields are retained against Pb figurative point and conform to 582 K < T < 593 K crystallization temperatures

  10. Electronic and magnetic properties of SmCrSb3 and GdCrSb3: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandeep; Ghimire, M.P.; Thapa, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    The density of states (DOS) and the magnetic moments of SmCrSb 3 and GdCrSb 3 have been studied by first principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). For the exchange-correlation potential, the local-spin density approximations with correlation energy (LSDA+U) method have been used. Total and partial DOS have been computed using the WIEN2k code. DOS result shows the exchange-splittings of Cr-3d and rare-earth (R) 4f states electrons, which are responsible for the ground state ferromagnetic (FM) behavior of the systems. The FM behavior of these systems is strongly influenced by the average number of Cr-3d and Sm (Gd) 4f-electrons. The effective moment of SmCrSb 3 is found to be 7.07 μ B while for GdCrSb 3 it is 8.27 μ B . The Cr atom plays a significant role on the magnetic properties due to the hybridization between Cr-3d and Sb-5p states. - Highlights: → DOS and the magnetic moments of SmCrSb 3 and GdCrSb 3 are studied by full-FP-LAPW method. → Exchange splitting of eg and t2g of Cr-3d states and the rare-earth 4f state electrons are responsible for ground state ferromagnetism. → Rare-earth magnetic moments are greater than Cr moment indicating presence of 4f states.

  11. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; H Ehsani; GJ Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; P Talamo; KD Rahner; EJ Brown; SR Burger; PM Foruspring; WF Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; J Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2006-01-01

    In x Ga 1-x As y Sb 1-y thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) in the bandgap range of E G = 0.5 to 0.6eV. InGaAsSb TPV diodes, utilizing front-surface spectral control filters, are measured with thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency and power density of η TPV = 19.7% and PD =0.58 W/cm 2 respectively for a radiator temperature of T radiator = 950 C, diode temperature of T diode = 27 C, and diode bandgap of E G = 0.53eV. Practical limits to TPV energy conversion efficiency are established using measured recombination coefficients and optical properties of front surface spectral control filters, which for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV energy conversion is η TPV = 28% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 at the above operating temperatures. The most severe performance limits are imposed by (1) diode open-circuit voltage (VOC) limits due to intrinsic Auger recombination and (2) parasitic photon absorption in the inactive regions of the module. Experimentally, the diode V OC is 15% below the practical limit imposed by intrinsic Auger recombination processes. Analysis of InGaAsSb diode electrical performance vs. diode architecture indicate that the V OC and thus efficiency is limited by extrinsic recombination processes such as through bulk defects

  12. Characterization of midwave infrared InSb avalanche photodiode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abautret, J., E-mail: johan.abautret@ies.univ-montp2.fr; Evirgen, A. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France); Perez, J. P.; Christol, P. [Université Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Rothman, J. [CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Cordat, A. [SOFRADIR, BP 21, 38113 Veurey-Voroize (France)

    2015-06-28

    This paper focuses on the InSb material potential for the elaboration of Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) for high performance infrared imaging applications, both in passive or active mode. The first InSb electron-APD structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy, processed and electrically characterized. The device performances are at the state of the art for the InSb epi-diode technology, with a dark current density J(−50 mV) = 32 nA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K. Then, a pure electron injection was performed, and an avalanche gain, increasing exponentially, was observed with a gain value near 3 at −4 V at 77 K. The Okuto–Crowell model was used to determine the electron ionization coefficient α(E) in InSb, and the InSb gain behavior is compared with the one of InAs and MCT APDs.

  13. (Ga,Fe)Sb: A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Anh, Le Duc; Tanaka, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Hai, Pham Nam [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-0033 (Japan)

    2014-09-29

    A p-type ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga{sub 1−x},Fe{sub x})Sb (x = 3.9%–13.7%) has been grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs(001) substrates. Reflection high energy electron diffraction patterns during the MBE growth and X-ray diffraction spectra indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb layers have the zinc-blende crystal structure without any other crystallographic phase of precipitates. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy characterizations indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb has the zinc-blende band structure with spin-splitting induced by s,p-d exchange interactions. The magnetic field dependence of the MCD intensity and anomalous Hall resistance of (Ga,Fe)Sb show clear hysteresis, demonstrating the presence of ferromagnetic order. The Curie temperature (T{sub C}) increases with increasing x and reaches 140 K at x = 13.7%. The crystal structure analyses, magneto-transport, and magneto-optical properties indicate that (Ga,Fe)Sb is an intrinsic ferromagnetic semiconductor.

  14. Investigation of InAs/GaSb-based superlattices by diffraction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashuach, Y.; Kauffmann, Y.; Lakin, E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zolotoyabko, E., E-mail: zloto@tx.technion.ac.i [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Grossman, S.; Klin, O.; Weiss, E. [SCD, SemiConductor Devices, P. O. Box 2250, Haifa 31021 (Israel)

    2010-02-15

    We use high-resolution X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy in order to study the strain state, atomic intermixing and layer thicknesses in the MBE-grown GaSb/InSb/InAs/InSb superlattices. Simple and fast metrology procedure is developed, which allows us to obtain the most important technological parameters, such as the thicknesses of the GaSb, InAs and ultra-thin InSb sub-layers, the superlattice period and the fraction of atomic substitutions in the InSb sub-layers.

  15. Syntheses, and crystal and electronic structures of the new Zintl phases Na2ACdSb2 and K2ACdSb2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb): Structural relationship with Yb2CdSb2 and the solid solutions Sr2-xAxCdSb2, Ba2-xAxCdSb2 and Eu2-xYbxCdSb2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saparov, Bayrammurad; Saito, Maia; Bobev, Svilen

    2011-01-01

    Presented are the details of the syntheses, crystal and electronic structures of a new family of Zintl phases Na 2 ACdSb 2 and K 2 ACdSb 2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb), as well as the solid solutions Sr 2-x A x CdSb 2 , Ba 2-x A x CdSb 2 and Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 . The structures of Na 2 ACdSb 2 and K 2 ACdSb 2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) were determined to be of a new type with the non-centrosymmetric space group Pmc2 1 (no. 26), Pearson symbol oP12, with lattice parameters a=4.684(1)-4.788(1) A; b=9.099(3)-9.117(2) A; c=7.837(1)-8.057(2) A for the Na 2 ACdSb 2 series, and a=4.6637(9)-5.0368(8) A; b=9.100(2)-9.8183(15) A; and c=7.7954(15)-8.4924(13) A for K 2 ACdSb 2 , respectively. The solid solutions Sr 2-x A x CdSb 2 , Ba 2-x A x CdSb 2 and Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 (x∼1) are isostructural and isoelectronic to the recently reported Yb 2 CdSb 2 (space group Cmc2 1 (no. 36), Pearson symbol cP20). All discussed structures are based upon CdSb 2 4- polyanionic layers, similar to the ones observed in Yb 2 CdSb 2 , with various alkali- and/or alkaline-earth cations coordinated to them. Magnetic susceptibility and Seebeck coefficient measurements on selected Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 samples, taken at low temperatures up to 300 K, are also reported. -- Graphical abstract: The quaternary Zintl phases Na 2 ACdSb 2 and K 2 ACdSb 2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) with novel layered structures have been synthesized for the first time and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Reported as well are the results from crystallographic and property studies of the closely related solid solutions Sr 2-x A x CdSb 2 , Ba 2-x A x CdSb 2 (x∼1), and Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 (1 2 ACdSb 2 and K 2 ACdSb 2 (A=Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu, Yb) are new quaternary Zintl phases. → Sr 2-x A x CdSb 2 , Ba 2-x A x CdSb 2 (x∼1), and Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 (1 4 tetrahedra. → Eu 2-x Yb x CdSb 2 (1< x<2) exhibit high Seebeck coefficient (217 μV/K at RT).

  16. Super VHS video cassette recorder, A-SB88; Super VHS video A-SB88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A super VHS video cassette recorder, A-SB88, was commercialized having no compromised aspects at all in picture quality, sound quality, operability, energy conservation, design, etc. In the picture quality, the VCR is mounted with the S-ET system capable of realizing a quality comparable to SVHS with a three-dimensional Y/C detached circuit for dynamic moving image detection, three-dimensional DNR(digital noise reduction) and TBC(time base corrector), FE(flying erase) circuit, and a normal tape. In the operability, it is provided with a remote control transfer in large LCD, 400x high speed rewind, reservation system capable of simply reserving a serial drama for example, and a function for searching the end of picture recording; also, in the environmental aspect, the stand-by power consumption was reduced to 1/10 of conventional models (ratio with Toshiba A-BS6 at display power off). (translated by NEDO)

  17. Improved structural and electrical properties in native Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices due to intermixing mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Cecchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Superlattices made of Sb2Te3/GeTe phase change materials have demonstrated outstanding performance with respect to GeSbTe alloys in memory applications. Recently, epitaxial Sb2Te3/GeTe superlattices were found to feature GexSb2Te3+x blocks as a result of intermixing between constituting layers. Here we present the epitaxy and characterization of Sb2Te3/GexSb2Te3+x van der Waals superlattices, where GexSb2Te3+x was intentionally fabricated. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and lateral electrical transport data are reported. The intrinsic 2D nature of both sublayers is found to mitigate the intermixing in the structures, significantly improving the interface sharpness and ultimately the superlattice structural and electrical properties.

  18. [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}: A designer all-metal aromatic sandwich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wen-Juan; You, Xue-Rui [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Guo, Jin-Chang [Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Da-Zhi, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou 256603 (China); Wang, Ying-Jin [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Sun, Zhong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhai, Hua-Jin, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2016-07-28

    We report on the computational design of an all-metal aromatic sandwich, [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. The triple-layered, square-prismatic sandwich complex is the global minimum of the system from Coalescence Kick and Minima Hopping structural searches. Following a standard, qualitative chemical bonding analysis via canonical molecular orbitals, the sandwich complex can be formally described as [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}[Au{sub 4}]{sup 4−}[Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}, showing ionic bonding characters with electron transfers in between the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers. For an in-depth understanding of the system, one needs to go beyond the above picture. Significant Sb → Au donation and Sb ← Au back-donation occur, redistributing electrons from the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers to the interlayer Sb–Au–Sb edges, which effectively lead to four Sb–Au–Sb three-center two-electron bonds. The complex is a system with 30 valence electrons, excluding the Sb 5s and Au 5d lone-pairs. The two [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +} ligands constitute an unusual three-fold (π and σ) aromatic system with all 22 electrons being delocalized. An energy gap of ∼1.6 eV is predicted for this all-metal sandwich. The complex is a rare example for rational design of cluster compounds and invites forth-coming synthetic efforts.

  19. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III and As(III/Sb(III-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Li

    Full Text Available Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III]/antimonite [Sb(III]-oxidizing strain. The As(III oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III, ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  20. Long-range order in InAsSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, H. R.; Ma, K. Y.; Stringfellow, G. B.

    1989-03-01

    Results are presented of transmission electron diffraction (TED) observations, demonstrating, for the first time, a CuPt-type ordering in InAs(1-x)Sb(x) alloys, over a wide range of x values (from x = 0.22 to 0.88). The InAsSb alloys were prepared by OMVPE on (001) oriented undoped InSb or InAs substrates. The ordering-induced spots on the TED patterns show the highest intensity for x of about 0.5 and the lowest intensity toward each binary end compound. Only two of the four variants are formed during growth. In some areas, the degree of order for these two variants, 1/2(-1 1 1) and 1/2(1 -1 1), is equal, and in other areas, one variant dominates.

  1. Old friends in a new light: 'SnSb' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noren, Lasse; Withers, Ray L.; Schmid, Siegbert; Brink, Frank J.; Ting, Valeska

    2006-01-01

    The binary pnictide 'SnSb' has been re-investigated using a combination of X-ray, synchrotron and electron diffraction as well as electron microprobe analysis. Its structure was found to be incommensurately modulated with an underlying rhombohedral parent structure of space group symmetry R3-bar m (No. 166), unit cell parameters a h =b h =4.3251(4)A, c h =5.3376(6)A in the hexagonal setting. The incommensurate primary modulation wave vector q h =1.3109(9)c h * and the superspace group symmetry is R3-bar m (0, 0, ∼1.311) (No. 166.1). The refinement of the incommensurate structure indicates that the satellite reflections arise from displacive shifts of presumably essentially pure Sn and Sb layers along the hexagonal c-axis, with increasing distance between the Sn-layers and decreasing distance between the Sb layers

  2. Extremely large magnetoresistance and electronic structure of TmSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Yan; Zhang, Hongyun; Lu, Xiao-Qin; Sun, Lin-Lin; Xu, Sheng; Lu, Zhong-Yi; Liu, Kai; Zhou, Shuyun; Xia, Tian-Long

    2018-02-01

    We report the magnetotransport properties and the electronic structure of TmSb. TmSb exhibits extremely large transverse magnetoresistance and Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillation at low temperature and high magnetic field. Interestingly, the split of Fermi surfaces induced by the nonsymmetric spin-orbit interaction has been observed from SdH oscillation. The analysis of the angle-dependent SdH oscillation illustrates the contribution of each Fermi surface to the conductivity. The electronic structure revealed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and first-principles calculations demonstrates a gap at the X point and the absence of band inversion. Combined with the trivial Berry phase extracted from SdH oscillation and the nearly equal concentrations of electron and hole from Hall measurements, it is suggested that TmSb is a topologically trivial semimetal and the observed XMR originates from the electron-hole compensation and high mobility.

  3. Radiation-modified structure of Ge25Sb15S60 and Ge35Sb5S60 glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavetskyy, T.; Shpotyuk, O.; Kaban, I.; Hoyer, W.

    2008-01-01

    Atomic structures of Ge 25 Sb 15 S 60 and Ge 35 Sb 5 S 60 glasses are investigated in the γ-irradiated and annealed after γ-irradiation states by means of high-energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction technique. The first sharp diffraction peak (FSDP) is detected at around 1.1 A -1 in the structure factors of both alloys studied. The FSDP position is found to be stable for radiation/annealing treatment of the samples, while the FSDP intensity shows some changes between γ-irradiated and annealed states. The peaks in the pair distribution functions observed between 2 and 4 A are related to the Ge-S, Ge-Sb, and Sb-Sb first neighbor correlations and Ge-Ge second neighbor correlations in the edge-shared GeS 4/2 tetrahedra, and S-S and/or Ge-Ge second neighbor correlations in the corner-shared GeS 4/2 tetrahedra. Three mechanisms of the radiation-/annealing-induced changes are discussed in the framework of coordination topological defect formation and bond-free solid angle concepts

  4. Investigation on the structural stability and electronic properties of InSb nanostructures – A DFT approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nagarajan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The realistic InSb nanostructures namely InSb nanoring, InSb nanocube, InSb nanocube-18, InSb nanosheet, InSb nanocage and InSb nanocube-27 are simulated and optimized successfully using B3LYP/LanL2DZ basis set. The stability of InSb nanostructures is studied in terms of binding energy, vibrational studies and calculated energy. The electronic properties of InSb nanostructures are discussed using ionization potential, electron affinity and HOMO–LUMO gap. Point symmetry and dipole moment of InSb nanostructures are reported. Incorporation of impurity atom in InSb nanostructures is studied using embedding energy. The present study provides the information regarding the enhanced electronic properties of InSb nanostructure which finds its potential importance in microelectronics and optoelectronic devices.

  5. Experimental determination of the energy levels of the antimony atom (Sb II), ions of the antimony (Sb II, Sb III), mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcimowicz, B.

    1993-01-01

    The thesis concerns establishing the energy scheme of the electronic levels, obtained from the analysis of the investigated spectra of antimony atom and ions (Sb I, Sb II, Sb III) and higher ionized mercury (Hg IV) and cesium (Cs X) atoms. The experimental studies were performed with optical spectroscopy methods. The spectra of the elements under study obtained in the spectral range from visible (680 nm) to vacuum UV (40 nm) were analysed. The classification and spectroscopic designation of the experimentally established 169 energy levels were obtained on the basis of the performed calculations and the fine structure analysis. The following configurations were considered: 5s 2 5p 2 ns, 5s 2 5p 2 n'd, 5s5p 4 of the antimony atom, 5s 2 5pns, 5s 2 5pn'd, 5s5p 3 of the ion Sb II, 5s 2 ns, 5s 2 n'd, 5s5p 2 of the on Sb III, 5d 8 6p of the ion Hg IV 4d 9 5s and 4d 9 5p Cs X. A reclassification was performed and some changes were introduced to the existing energy level scheme of the antimony atom, with the use of the information obtained from the absorption spectrum taken in the VUV region by the ''flash pyrolysis'' technique. The measurements of the hyperfine splittings in 19 spectral lines belonging to the antimony atom and ions additionally confirmed the assumed classification of the levels involved in these lines. The energy level scheme, obtained for Sb III, was compared to the other ones in the isoelectronic sequence starting with In I. On the basis of the analysis of the Hg IV spectrum it was proved that ground configuration of the three times ionized mercury atom is 5d 9 not 5d 8 6s as assumed until now. The fine structure, established from the analysis of the spectra of the elements under study was examined in multiconfiguration approximation. As a result of the performed calculations the fine structure parameters and wavefunctions were determined for the levels whose energy values were experimentally established in the thesis. (author). 140 refs, 22 figs, 17

  6. Development in Zn4Sb-based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hao

    or thermopower,  the electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity and T the absolute temperature. The best thermoelectrics are heavily doped semiconductors with high thermoelectric power factors and low thermal conductivities, known as “Phonon Glasses Electrical Crystals”. Zn4Sb3 is one such material......-section. The following part reports the effect of nano-particles on the thermoelectric properties and thermal stability of Zn4Sb3. Though TiO2 nano particles have remarkably enhanced the stability, the thermoelectric performance of all the nano-composites deteriorates. Optimization of the content of the nano...

  7. Cathodoluminescence study of ytterbium doped GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, P.; Mendez, B.; Ruiz, C.; Bermudez, V.; Piqueras, J.; Dieguez, E.

    2005-01-01

    Yb-doped GaSb ingots have been grown by the Bridgman method. The defect structure and compositional homogeneity of the crystals have been investigated by cathodoluminescence and X-ray microanalysis in the scanning electron microscope. The nature of the point defects has been found to depend on the position along the growth axis. Doping with Yb has been found to reduce the luminescence intensity of GaSb and no infrared emission related to intra-ionic transitions of the Yb 3+ ions has been detected

  8. Magnetic Phase Transitions of CeSb. I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Pernille Hertz; Lebech, Bente; Meier, G.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic ordering of the anomalous antiferromagnet CeSb, which has a NaCl crystal structure, was determined in zero applied magnetic field by means of neutron diffraction investigations of single crystals and powder. Below the Neel temperature TN of (16.1+or-0.1)K, there exist six partially...... a first-order phase transition at TN. At approximately TN/2 there is a first-order phase transition to a FCC type IA low-temperature configuration. The unusual magnetic properties of CeSb, which result from anisotropic exchange and crystalline electric field effects, resemble those of certain actinide Na...

  9. Decays of 116Sb isomers to levels in 116Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacsi, Z.; Raman, S.

    1994-01-01

    The excited states of 116 Sn were studied by means of the decays of the 15.8-min, 3 + 116 Sb ground state, and the 60.3-min, 8 - 116 Sb isomer. Over 50 γ rays were observed; these were incorporated into a level scheme consisting of 32 excited states. Except for one new level proposed at 3.986 MeV, the current study fully supports an exhaustive study of levels in 116 Sn reported earlier. The previous study was an attempt to develop a nearly ''complete'' level scheme of 116 Sn up to an excitation energy of 4.3 MeV

  10. Lead activity in Pb-Sb-Bi alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kholkina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work is devoted to the study of lead thermodynamic activity in the Pb-Sb-Bi alloys. The method for EMF measurements of the concentration cell: (–Pb|KCl-PbCl2¦¦KCl-PbCl2|Pb-(Sb-Bi(+ was used. The obtained concentration dependences of the galvanic cell EMF are described by linear equations. The lead activity in the ternary liquid-metal alloy demonstrates insignificant negative deviations from the behavior of ideal solutions.

  11. Exposure of a 23F Serotype Strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Cigarette Smoke Condensate Is Associated with Selective Upregulation of Genes Encoding the Two-Component Regulatory System 11 (TCS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Cockeran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alterations in whole genome expression profiles following exposure of the pneumococcus (strain 172, serotype 23F to cigarette smoke condensate (160 μg/mL for 15 and 60 min have been determined using the TIGR4 DNA microarray chip. Exposure to CSC resulted in the significant (P<0.014–0.0006 upregulation of the genes encoding the two-component regulatory system 11 (TCS11, consisting of the sensor kinase, hk11, and its cognate response regulator, rr11, in the setting of increased biofilm formation. These effects of cigarette smoke on the pneumococcus may contribute to colonization of the airways by this microbial pathogen.

  12. Optical and structural characterization of GaSb and Te-doped GaSb single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado-Mejia, L.; Villada, J.A.; Rios, M. de los; Penafiel, J.A.; Fonthal, G.; Espinosa-Arbelaez, D.G.; Ariza-Calderon, H.; Rodriguez-Garcia, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    Optical and structural properties of GaSb and Te-doped GaSb single crystals are reported herein. Utilizing the photoreflectance technique, the band gap energy for doped samples was obtained at 0.814 eV. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra showed a peak at 0.748 eV that according to this research, belongs to electronic states of pure GaSb and not to the longitudinal optical (LO) phonon replica as has been reported by other authors. Analysis of the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values of X-ray diffraction, as well as micro-Raman peaks showed that the inclusion of Te decreases the crystalline quality

  13. Uncooled High-Performance InAsSb Focal Plane Arrays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SVT Associates proposes an innovative digital alloy technique to extend the cutoff wavelength of InAsSb beyond 5 um, a wider band gap InAlAsSb layer inserted into...

  14. AEMnSb2 (AE=Sr, Ba): a new class of Dirac materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhan, M Arshad; Lee, Geunsik; Shim, Ji Hoon

    2014-01-01

    The Dirac fermions of Sb square net in AEMnSb 2 (AE=Sr, Ba) are investigated by using first-principles calculation. BaMnSb 2 contains Sb square net layers with a coincident stacking of Ba atoms, exhibiting Dirac fermion behavior. On the other hand, SrMnSb 2 has a staggered stacking of Sr atoms with distorted zig-zag chains of Sb atoms. Application of hydrostatic pressure on the latter induces a structural change from a staggered to a coincident arrangement of AE ions accompanying a transition from insulator to a metal containing Dirac fermions. The structural investigations show that the stacking type of cation and orthorhombic distortion of Sb layers are the main factors to decide the crystal symmetry of the material. We propose that the Dirac fermions can be obtained by controlling the size of cation and the volume of AEMnSb 2 compounds. (fast track communication)

  15. Raman spectra of the system TeCl4-SbCl5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockner, W.; Demiray, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Raman spectra of the solid and molten TeCl 4 . SbCl 5 addition compound and of some TeCl 4 -SbCl 5 mixtures have been recorded. Two modifications of the crystalline TeCl 4 -SbCl 5 compound have been found. The structure of the melt can be described by the equilibrium TeCl 3 + + SbCl 6 - reversible TeCl 4 + SbCl 5 lying on the left side. Mixtures with other stoichiometry contain the 1:1 adduct only and excess TeCl 4 or SbCl 5 , respectively. Such melts are built up by the ionic species TeCl 3 + and SbCl 6 - also and TeCl 4 or SbCl 5 according to stoichiometry. (author)

  16. Fate and chemical speciation of antimony (Sb) during uptake, translocation and storage by rye grass using XANES spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ying; Sarret, Géraldine; Schulin, Rainer; Tandy, Susan

    2017-12-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a contaminant of increased prevalence in the environment, but there is little knowledge about the mechanisms of its uptake and translocation within plants. Here, we applied for the synchrotron based X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to analyze the speciation of Sb in roots and shoots of rye grass (Lolium perenne L. Calibra). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions to which either antimonite (Sb(III)), antimonate (Sb(V)) or trimethyl-Sb(V) (TMSb) were added. While exposure to Sb(III) led to around 100 times higher Sb accumulation in the roots than the other two treatments, there was no difference in total Sb in the shoots. Antimony taken up in the Sb(III) treatment was mainly found as Sb-thiol complexes (roots: >76% and shoots: 60%), suggesting detoxification reactions with compounds such as glutathione and phytochelatins. No reduction of accumulated Sb(V) was found in the roots, but half of the translocated Sb was reduced to Sb(III) in the Sb(V) treatment. Antimony accumulated in the TMSb treatment remained in the methylated form in the roots. By synchrotron based XANES spectroscopy, we were able to distinguish the major Sb compounds in plant tissue under different Sb treatments. The results help to understand the translocation and transformation of different Sb species in plants after uptake and provide information for risk assessment of plant growth in Sb contaminated soils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the electronic structure of LaFe4Sb12

    KAUST Repository

    Pulikkotil, Jiji Thomas Joseph

    2011-09-01

    First-principles density functional based electronic structure calculations are performed in order to clarify the influence of FeSb6 octahedral deformations on the structural and electronic structure properties of LaFe 4Sb12. Our results show that octahedral tiltings correlate with the band dispersions and, consequently, the band masses. While total energy variation points at an enhanced role of lattice anharmonicity, flat bands emerge from a redistribution of the electronic states. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Single step hydrothermal based synthesis of M(II)Sb2O6 (M = Cd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive .... SEM images and EDAX analysis of (a) and (b) CdSb2O6 and (c) and (d) ZnSb2O6. ... The parent compound, ilmenite (NaSbO3) could degrade MB.

  19. Stress-Induced Crystallization of Ge-Doped Sb Phase-Change Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eising, Gert; Pauza, Andrew; Kooi, Bart J.

    The large effects of moderate stresses on the crystal growth rate in Ge-doped Sb phase-change thin films are demonstrated using direct optical imaging. For Ge6Sb94 and Ge7Sb93 phase-change films, a large increase in crystallization temperature is found when using a polycarbonate substrate instead of

  20. Assessing Intellectual Functioning in Young Adolescents: How Do the WISC-IV and SB5 Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kimberley; Gilmore, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children--Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and the Stanford-Binet--Fifth Edition (SB5) are two of the most commonly used intelligence tests for children and adolescents. No comparative studies of the WISC-IV and SB5 have yet been published. In the current study the WISC-IV and SB5 were administered in counterbalanced…

  1. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam; Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul; Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C.; Ganguli, Ashok K.

    2016-01-01

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  2. High spin polarization and the origin of unique ferromagnetic ground state in CuFeSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirohi, Anshu; Saha, Preetha; Gayen, Sirshendu; Gaurav, Abhishek; Jyotsna, Shubhra; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali, Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli PO 140306 (India); Singh, Chandan K.; Kabir, Mukul [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune 411008 (India); Thakur, Gohil S.; Haque, Zeba; Gupta, L. C. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ganguli, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Institute of Nano Science & Technology, Mohali 160064 (India)

    2016-06-13

    CuFeSb is isostructural to the ferro-pnictide and chalcogenide superconductors and it is one of the few materials in the family that are known to stabilize in a ferromagnetic ground state. Majority of the members of this family are either superconductors or antiferromagnets. Therefore, CuFeSb may be used as an ideal source of spin polarized current in spin-transport devices involving pnictide and the chalcogenide superconductors. However, for that the Fermi surface of CuFeSb needs to be sufficiently spin polarized. In this paper we report direct measurement of transport spin polarization in CuFeSb by spin-resolved Andreev reflection spectroscopy. From a number of measurements using multiple superconducting tips we found that the intrinsic transport spin polarization in CuFeSb is high (∼47%). In order to understand the unique ground state of CuFeSb and the origin of large spin polarization at the Fermi level, we have evaluated the spin-polarized band structure of CuFeSb through first principles calculations. Apart from supporting the observed 47% transport spin polarization, such calculations also indicate that the Sb-Fe-Sb angles and the height of Sb from the Fe plane are strikingly different for CuFeSb than the equivalent parameters in other members of the same family thereby explaining the origin of the unique ground state of CuFeSb.

  3. Optical characteristics of crystalline antimony sulphide (Sb 2 S 3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the important optical characteristics of crystalline Sb2S3 film deposited on glass substrate using solution growth technique at 300k. These characteristics were analyzed using PYEUNICAM SP8-100 spectrophotometer in the range of UV-VIS-NIR while the morphology and the structural composition were ...

  4. Experimental Study of the Sb-Sn-Zn Alloy System

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zobač, O.; Sopoušek, J.; Buršík, Jiří; Zemanová, Adéla; Roupcová, Pavla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2014), s. 1181-1188 ISSN 1073-5623 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Sb-Sn-Zn system * thermal analysis * CALPHAD method Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2014

  5. Resonant photoemission study of CeRu4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Hiroyoshi; Miyahara, Tsuneaki; Takayama, Yasuhiro; Shiozawa, Hidetsugu; Obu, Kenji; Matsuda, Tatsuma D.; Aoki, Yuji; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Sato, Hideyuki

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the Ce 4d-4f and Ce 3d-4f resonant photoemission spectra of CeRu 4 Sb 12 . The Ce 4f spectra show the spectral features corresponding to a weakly hybridized system. The number of 4f electrons is estimated to be ∼1.0

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, Isolated from Kefir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Sonja; Kim, Yongkyu; Patil, Kiran R

    2017-09-14

    The genus Corynebacterium includes Gram-positive species with a high G+C content. We report here a novel species, Corynebacterium kefirresidentii SB, isolated from kefir grains collected in Germany. Its draft genome sequence was remarkably dissimilar (average nucleotide identity, 76.54%) to those of other Corynebacterium spp., confirming that this is a unique novel species. Copyright © 2017 Blasche et al.

  7. Two-band superlinear electroluminescence in GaSb based nanoheterostructures with AlSb/InAs.sub.1-x./sub.Sb.sub.x./sub./AlSb deep quantum well

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Ivanov, E.V.; Danilov, L.V.; Petukhov, A.A.; Kalinina, K.V.; Slobozhanyuk, S.I.; Zegrya, G.G.; Stoyanov, N. D.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Oswald, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta; Hulicius, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 22 (2014), "223102-1"-"223102-5" ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MOVPE * GaSb * InAs * electroluminescence * quantum well Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2014

  8. Commensurate-commensurate magnetic phase transitions in CeSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, Bente; Broholm, C.; Clausen, K.

    1986-01-01

    The q=2/3 to q=4/7 commensurate-commensurate phase transition in CeSb has been studied by neutron diffraction. On cooling the commensurate wave vector q changes abruptly from 2/3 to a higher-order commensurate value (≈14/23) at T1

  9. Triplet superconductivity in PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, K.; Won, H.; Parker, David; Haas, Stephan; Izawa, K.; Matsuda, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Here we propose spin triplet superconductors for the A- and B-phase in PrOs 4 Sb 12 . The present model describes consistently the thermal conductivity κ zz data obtained by Izawa et al. for T>=150mK

  10. Programming biological models in Python using PySB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Carlos F; Muhlich, Jeremy L; Bachman, John A; Sorger, Peter K

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical equations are fundamental to modeling biological networks, but as networks get large and revisions frequent, it becomes difficult to manage equations directly or to combine previously developed models. Multiple simultaneous efforts to create graphical standards, rule-based languages, and integrated software workbenches aim to simplify biological modeling but none fully meets the need for transparent, extensible, and reusable models. In this paper we describe PySB, an approach in which models are not only created using programs, they are programs. PySB draws on programmatic modeling concepts from little b and ProMot, the rule-based languages BioNetGen and Kappa and the growing library of Python numerical tools. Central to PySB is a library of macros encoding familiar biochemical actions such as binding, catalysis, and polymerization, making it possible to use a high-level, action-oriented vocabulary to construct detailed models. As Python programs, PySB models leverage tools and practices from the open-source software community, substantially advancing our ability to distribute and manage the work of testing biochemical hypotheses. We illustrate these ideas using new and previously published models of apoptosis.

  11. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb{sub 3} thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Aziz, E-mail: aziz_ahmed@ust.ac.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seungwoo, E-mail: swhan@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb{sub 3} phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb{sub 2} phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb{sub 3} thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb{sub 2} and CoSb{sub 3} components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. The CoSb{sub 2} phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb{sub 3} thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K{sup 2} for the CoSb{sub 2}-containing mixed phase thin film and 1

  12. Effect of Sb content on the thermoelectric properties of annealed CoSb_3 thin films deposited via RF co-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Aziz; Han, Seungwoo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The X-ray diffraction patterns and temperature dependence of the Seebeck coefficient of the annealed Co–Sb thin films. - Highlights: • CoSb_3 phase thin films were prepared using RF co sputtering method. • Thin film thermoelectric properties were hugely dependent on Sb content. • All thin films shows n-type conduction behavior at high temperatures. • The thin films with excess Sb possess the largest Seebeck coefficient. • The thin films with CoSb_2 phase possess the largest power factor. - Abstract: A series of CoSb_3 thin films with Sb contents in the range 70–79 at.% were deposited at room temperature via RF co-sputtering. The thin films were amorphous in the as-deposited state and annealed at 300 °C for 3 h to obtain crystalline samples. The annealed thin films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and these data indicate that the films exhibited good crystallinity. The XRD patterns indicate single-phase CoSb_3 thin films in the Sb-rich samples. For the Sb-deficient samples, however, mixed-phase thin films consisting of CoSb_2 and CoSb_3 components were obtained. The electrical and thermoelectric properties were measured at temperatures up to 760 K and found to be highly sensitive to the phases that were present. We observed a change in the thermoelectric properties of the films from p-type at low temperatures to n-type at high temperatures, which indicates potential applications as n-type thermoelectric thin films. A large Seebeck coefficient and power factor was obtained for the single-phase CoSb_3 thin films. The CoSb_2 phase thin films were also found to possess a significant Seebeck coefficient, which coupled with the much smaller electrical resistivity, provided a larger power factor than the single-phase CoSb_3 thin films. We report maximum power factor of 7.92 mW/m K"2 for the CoSb_2-containing mixed phase thin film and 1.26 mW/m K"2 for the stoichiometric CoSb_3 thin film.

  13. Thermoelectric and mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered Cu3SbSe3 and Cu3SbSe4: Promising thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Gahtori, Bhasker; Bathula, Sivaiah; Toutam, Vijaykumar; Sharma, Sakshi; Singh, Niraj Kumar; Dhar, Ajay

    2014-12-01

    We report the synthesis of thermoelectric compounds, Cu3SbSe3 and Cu3SbSe4, employing the conventional fusion method followed by spark plasma sintering. Their thermoelectric properties indicated that despite its higher thermal conductivity, Cu3SbSe4 exhibited a much larger value of thermoelectric figure-of-merit as compared to Cu3SbSe3, which is primarily due to its higher electrical conductivity. The thermoelectric compatibility factor of Cu3SbSe4 was found to be ˜1.2 as compared to 0.2 V-1 for Cu3SbSe3 at 550 K. The results of the mechanical properties of these two compounds indicated that their microhardness and fracture toughness values were far superior to the other competing state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials.

  14. Sb(III)-Imprinted Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Sorbent Prepared by Hydrothermal-Assisted Surface Imprinting Technique for Selective Adsorption of Sb(III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Zhao, Yue; Xu, Hong-Bo

    2018-03-01

    Sb(III)-imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid sorbent was prepared by hydrothermal-assisted surface imprinting technique and was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy coupled to an energy dispersive spectrometer and N2 adsorption/desorption isotherms. Hydrothermal-assisted process can improve the selectivity of the Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent for Sb(III) due to stable control of temperature and pressure. The Sb(III)-imprinted hybrid sorbent IIS indicated higher selectivity for Sb(III), had high static adsorption capacity of 37.3 mg g-1 for Sb(III), displayed stable adsorption capacity in pH range from 4 to 8, reached an rapid adsorption equilibrium within 30 min. According to the correlation coefficient ( r 2 > 0.99), the experimental data fitted better the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and Langmuir equilibrium isotherm.

  15. A 121Sb Moessbauer Study of the Chemical State of Antimony in V-Sb-O Mixed-Oxide Catalysts for the Ammoxidation of Propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stievano, L.; Wagner, F. E.; Zanthoff, H. W.; Calogero, S.

    2002-01-01

    The structural changes of two representative samples of a group of V-Sb-oxide catalysts, a vanadium-rich and an antimony-rich specimen, are investigated by 121 Sb Moessbauer spectroscopy after treatment under propene or hydrogen at 673 K. The as-prepared catalysts contain both Sb(V) and Sb(III) as crystalline and microcrystalline α-Sb 2 O 4 and VSbO 4 , as well as an additional amorphous V 5+ oxide phase. The oxidation state of antimony does not change upon exposure to propene, whereas a partial reduction can be obtained by a more intense reduction under hydrogen. The Moessbauer results indicate that the antimony in VSbO 4 can be reduced more easily than that in α-Sb 2 O 4 , which appears to be more stable. These results are discussed in view of the observed depletion of vanadium at the surface of the catalyst particles under reaction conditions.

  16. Interface between Sn-Sb-Cu solder and copper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebo, P., E-mail: Pavel.Sebo@savba.sk [Institute of Materials and Machine Mechanics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Racianska 75, 831 02 Bratislava 3 (Slovakia); Svec, P. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Faculty of Materials Science and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, J. Bottu 25, 917 24 Trnava (Slovakia); Janickovic, D.; Illekova, E. [Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 845 11 Bratislava 45 (Slovakia); Plevachuk, Yu. [Ivan Franko National University, Department of Metal Physics, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} New lead-free solder materials based on Sn-Sb-Cu were designed and prepared. {yields} Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders have been determined. {yields} Cu-substrate/solder interaction has been analyzed and quantified. {yields} Phases formed at the solder-substrate interface have been identified. {yields} Composition and soldering atmospheres were correlated with joint strength. - Abstract: Influence of antimony and copper in Sn-Sb-Cu solder on the melting and solidification temperatures and on the microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrate after wetting the substrate at 623 K for 1800 s were studied. Microstructure of the interface between the solder and copper substrates in Cu-solder-Cu joints prepared at the same temperature for 1800 s was observed and shear strength of the joints was measured. Influence of the atmosphere - air with the flux and deoxidising N{sub 2} + 10H{sub 2} gas - was taken into account. Thermal stability and microstructure were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Melting and solidification temperatures of the solders were determined. An interfacial transition zone was formed by diffusion reaction between solid copper and liquid solder. At the interface Cu{sub 3}Sn and Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phases arise. Cu{sub 3}Sn is adjacent to the Cu substrate and its thickness decreases with increasing the amount of copper in solder. Scallop Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} phase is formed also inside the solder drop. The solid solution Sn(Sb) and SbSn phase compose the interior of the solder drop. Shear strength of the joints measured by push-off method decreases with increasing Sb concentration. Copper in the solder shows even bigger negative effect on the strength.

  17. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Wenjuan; Zhang, Daoyong; Pan, Xiangliang; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2013-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K a (×10 5 /M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K b (×10 4 /M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb

  18. Complexation of HSA with different forms of antimony (Sb): An application of fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Wenjuan [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Zhang, Daoyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Geochemistry, Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guiyang 550002 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Pan, Xiangliang, E-mail: xlpan@ms.xjb.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Lee, Duu-Jong [State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2013-04-15

    Antimony (Sb) pollution has been of a great environmental concern in some areas in China. Sb enters human body via drinking water, inhalation and food chain, unavoidably interacts with human serum albumin (HSA) in blood plasma, and consequently does harm to human health. The harmful effects of Sb on human health depend on the Sb species and their binding ability to HSA. In the present study, binding of three forms of Sb with HSA was investigated by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy. All of antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate quenched fluorescence of HSA. Values of conditional stability constant K{sub a} (×10{sup 5}/M) for Sb and HSA systems were 8.13–9.12 for antimony potassium tartrate, 2.51–4.27 for antimony trichloride and 3.63–9.77 for potassium pyroantimonate. The binding constant K{sub b} (×10{sup 4}/M) values of HSA with antimony potassium tartrate, antimony trichloride and potassium pyroantimonate were 0.02–0.07, 3.55–5.01, and 0.07–1.08, respectively. There was one independent class of binding site for antimony trichloride towards HSA. There was more than one Sb binding site and negative cooperativity between multiple binding sites for potassium pyroantimonate and antimony potassium tartrate towards HSA. The binding ability of HSA to complex Sb followed the order: antimony trichloride>potassium pyroantimonate>antimony potassium tartrate. -- Highlights: ► The first study reporting interaction of Sb with HSA. ► Sb can effectively quench the fluorescence of HSA. ► The binding ability of HSA to Sb was dependent on the form of Sb. ► Binding differences indicate differences in toxicity of various forms Sb to human. ► HAS-Sb binding parameters are important for understanding toxicity of Sb.

  19. Oral administration of the 5-HT6 receptor antagonists SB-357134 and SB-399885 improves memory formation in an autoshaping learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, Georgina; Meneses, Alfredo

    2005-07-01

    In this work we aimed to re-examine the 5-HT6 receptor role, by testing the selective antagonists SB-357134 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) and SB-399885 (1-30 mg/kg p.o.) during memory consolidation of conditioned responses (CR%), in an autoshaping Pavlovian/instrumental learning task. Bioavailability, half-life and minimum effective dose to induce inappetence for SB-357134 were 65%, 3.4 h, and 30 mg/kg p.o., and for SB-399885 were 52%, 2.2 h, and 50 mg/kg p.o., respectively. Oral acute and chronic administration of either SB-357134 or SB-399885 improved memory consolidation compared to control groups. Acute administration of SB-357134, at 1, 3, 10 and 30 mg/kg, produced a CR% inverted-U curve, eliciting the latter dose a 7-fold increase relative to saline group. Acute injection of SB-399885 produced significant CR% increments, being 1 mg/kg the most effective dose. Repeated administration (7 days) of either SB-357134 (10 mg/kg) or SB-399885 (1 mg/kg) elicited the most significant CR% increments. Moreover, modeling the potential therapeutic benefits of 5-HT6 receptor blockade, acute or repeated administration of SB-399885, at 10 mg/kg reversed memory deficits produced by scopolamine or dizocilpine, and SB-357134 (3 and 10 mg/kg) prevented amnesia and even improved performance. These data support the notion that endogenously 5-HT acting, via 5-HT6 receptor, improves memory consolidation.

  20. Effect of Sb Segregation on Conductance and Catalytic Activity at Pt/Sb-Doped SnO2 Interface: A Synergetic Computational and Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qiang; Colmenares Rausseo, Luis César; Martinez, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    a combined computational and experimental study. It was found that Sb-dopant atoms prefer to segregate toward the ATO/Pt interface. The deposited Pt catalysts, interestingly, not only promote Sb segregation, but also suppress the occurrence of Sb3+ species, a charge carrier neutralizer at the interface...... to support future applications of ATO/Pt-based materials as possible cathodes for PEMFC applications with enhanced durability under practical applications....

  1. Single-Longitudinal-Mode In-GaAsSb/AlGaAsSb Lasers for Gas Sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, P.; Gupta, J.; Lapointe, J.; Aers, G.; Storey, C.

    2009-01-01

    Regrowth-free gain-coupled Ga Sb-based Dfb lasers suitable for gas sensing were fabricated. Threshold currents for 2.4μm emission of 400μm-long Dfb devices were 45mA with a total output power of nearly 11mW in C W operation at 20 o C. (Author)

  2. Laser irradiation and thermal treatment inducing selective crystallization in Sb2O3-Sb2S3 glassy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, L. F.; Pradel, A.; Ribeiro, S. J. L.; Messaddeq, Y.; Nalin, M.

    2015-02-01

    The influence of both thermal treatment and laser irradiation on the structural and optical properties of films in the Sb2O3-Sb2S3 system was investigated. The films were prepared by RF-sputtering using glass compositions as raw materials. Irreversible photodarkening effect was observed after exposure the films to a 458 nm solid state laser. It is shown, for the first time, the use of holographic technique to measure "in situ", simultaneously and independently, the phase and amplitude modulations in glassy films. The films were also photo-crystallized and analysed "in situ" using a laser coupled to a micro-Raman equipment. Results showed that Sb2S3 crystalline phase was obtained after irradiation. The effect of thermal annealing on the structure of the films was carried out. Different from the result obtained by irradiation, thermal annealing induces the crystallization of the Sb2O3 phase. Photo and thermal induced effects on films were studied using UV-Vis and Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), thermal analysis (DSC), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (MEV) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).

  3. Synthesis and crystal structure of Cd2SbBr2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reshetova, L.N.; Shevel'kov, A.V.; Popovkin, B.A.

    1999-01-01

    A new cadmium antimonidobromide, i.e. Cd 2 SbBr 2 , has been synthesized by the standard ampoule method. The compound is crystallized in monoclinic system of sp. gr. P2 1 :a=8.244 (1), b=9.920(1), c=8.492(1) A, Β=116.80(1) deg. Binuclear anions of Sb 2 4- (Sb-Sb 2.78 A), octahedrically surrounded by six cadmium atoms, are a basic specific feature of the structure. Octahedrons of Sb 2 Cd 6 , by collectivizing the equatorial vertices. form layers, the alternation mode of which is similar to the one described for cadmium and mercury arsenidochlorides

  4. In situ study of the formation kinetics of InSb quantum dots grown in an InAs(Sb) matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, A. N.; Lyublinskaya, O. G.; Solov’ev, V. A.; Mel’tser, B. Ya.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2008-01-01

    Formation of InSb quantum dots grown in an InAs matrix by molecular-beam epitaxy that does not involve forced deposition of InSb is studied. Detection of intensity oscillations in the reflection of high-energy electron diffraction patterns was used to study in situ the kinetics of the formation of InSb quantum dots and an InAsSb wetting layer. The effects of the substrate temperature, the shutter operation sequence, and the introduction of growth interruptions on the properties of the array of InSb quantum dots are examined. Introduction of a growth interruption immediately after completing the exposure of the InAs surface to the antimony flux leads to a reduction in the nominal thickness of InSb and to an enhancement in the uniformity of the quantum-dot array. It is shown that, in the case of deposition of submonolayer-thickness InSb/InAs quantum dots, the segregation layer of InAsSb plays the role of the wetting layer. The Sb segregation length and segregation ratio, as well as their temperature dependences, are determined.

  5. Local structural environments of Ge doped in eutectic Sb-Te film before and after crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang Yeol; Cheong, Byung-ki; Choi, Yong Gyu

    2018-06-01

    Electrical phase change device using the Ge-doped eutectic Sb-Te (e.g., Ge1Sb8Te2) film is known to exhibit improved energy efficiency thanks to lowered threshold voltage as well as decreased power consumption for the reset operation, as compared with Ge2Sb2Te5 film. Ge K-edge EXAFS analysis is employed in this study in an effort to elucidate such merits of Ge1Sb8Te2 film in connection with its local atomic arrangements. It is then verified that a Ge atom is four-fold coordinated in its nearest-neighboring shell both in the as-deposited and in the annealed films. It needs to be highlighted that approximately two Sb atoms constitute the Ge tetrahedral units in its amorphous state; however, after being crystallized, heteropolar Ge-Sb bonds hardly exist in this Ge1Sb8Te2 film. It has been known that crystallization temperature and activation energy for crystallization of this Ge1Sb8Te2 composition are greater than those of Ge2Sb2Te5 composition. In addition, these two phase change materials exhibit distinctly different crystallization mechanisms, i.e., nucleation-dominant for Ge2Sb2Te5 film but growth-dominant for Ge1Sb8Te2 film. These discrepancies in the crystallization-related properties are delineated in terms of the local structural changes verified from the present EXAFS analysis.

  6. The formation mechanisms and optical characteristics of GaSb quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wei-Hsun; Pao, Chun-Wei; Wang, Kai-Wei; Liao, Yu-An; Lin, Shih-Yen

    2013-01-01

    The growth mechanisms and optical characteristics of GaSb quantum rings (QRs) are investigated. Although As-for-Sb exchange is the mechanism responsible for the dot-to-ring transition, significant height difference between GaSb quantum dots (QDs) and QRs in a dot/ring mixture sample suggests that the dot-to-ring transition is not a spontaneous procedure. Instead, it is a rapid transition procedure as long as it initiates. A model is established to explain this phenomenon. Larger ring inner diameters and heights of the sample with longer post Sb soaking time suggest that As-for-Sb exchange takes places in both vertical and lateral directions. The decreasing ring densities, enlarged ring inner/outer diameters and eventually flat GaSb surfaces observed with increasing growth temperatures are resulted from enhanced adatom migration and As-for-Sb exchange with increasing growth temperatures

  7. Structural transition of (InSb)n clusters at n = 6-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi Liang; Luo, Qi Quan; Huang, Shou Guo; Li, Yi De

    2016-10-01

    An optimization strategy combining global semi-empirical quantum mechanical search with all-electron density functional theory was adopted to determine the lowest energy structure of (InSb)n clusters with n = 6-10. A new structural growth pattern of the clusters was observed. The lowest energy structures of (InSb)6 and (InSb)8 were different from that of previously reported results. Competition existed between core-shell and cage-like structures of (InSb)8. The structural transition of (InSb)n clusters occurred at size n = 8-9. For (InSb)9 and (InSb)10 clusters, core-shell structure were more energetically favorable than the cage. The corresponding electronic properties were investigated.

  8. Simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and Sb(V) by Fe–Mn binary oxide: Positive effects of Cd(II) on Sb(V) adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ruiping [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Liu, Feng [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Hu, Chengzhi, E-mail: czhu@rcees.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); He, Zan [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui [Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Fe–Mn binary oxide achieves the simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and Sb(V). • Cd(II) at above 0.25 mmol/L improves Sb(V) adsorption onto FMBO. • Cd(II) improves more significant Sb(V) adsorption than Ca{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}. • Sb(V) adsorption decreases whereas Cd(II) adsorption increases with elevated pH. • The increased ζ-potential and Cd(II)–Sb(V) precipitation favors Sb(V) adsorption. - Abstract: The coexistence of cadmium ion (Cd(II)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) creates the need for their simultaneous removal. This study aims to investigate the effects of positively-charged Cd(II) on the removal of negative Sb(V) ions by Fe–Mn binary oxide (FMBO) and associated mechanisms. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption density (Q{sub max,Sb(V)}) increased from 1.02 to 1.32 and 2.01 mmol/g in the presence of Cd(II) at 0.25 and 0.50 mmol/L. Cd{sup 2+} exhibited a more significant positive effect than both calcium ion (Ca{sup 2+}) and manganese ion (Mn{sup 2+}). Cd{sup 2+} showed higher affinity towards FMBO and increased its ζ-potential more significantly compared to Ca{sup 2+} and Mn{sup 2+}. The simultaneous adsorption of Sb(V) and Cd(II) onto FMBO can be achieved over a wide initial pH (pH{sub i}) range from 2 to 9, and Q{sub Sb(V)} decreases whereas Q{sub Cd(II)} increases with elevated pH{sub i}. Their combined values, as expressed by Q{sub Sb(V)+Cd(II)}, amount to about 2 mmol/g and vary slightly in the pH{sub i} range 4–9. FTIR and XPS spectra indicate the significant synergistic effect of Cd(II) on Sb(V) adsorption onto FMBO, and that little chemical valence transformation occurs. These results may be valuable for the treatment of wastewater with coexisting heavy metals such as Cd(II) and Sb(V).

  9. GaSb solar cells grown on GaAs via interfacial misfit arrays for use in the III-Sb multi-junction cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, George T.; Juang, Bor-Chau; Slocum, Michael A.; Bittner, Zachary S.; Laghumavarapu, Ramesh B.; Huffaker, Diana L.; Hubbard, Seth M.

    2017-12-01

    Growth of GaSb with low threading dislocation density directly on GaAs may be possible with the strategic strain relaxation of interfacial misfit arrays. This creates an opportunity for a multi-junction solar cell with access to a wide range of well-developed direct bandgap materials. Multi-junction cells with a single layer of GaSb/GaAs interfacial misfit arrays could achieve higher efficiency than state-of-the-art inverted metamorphic multi-junction cells while forgoing the need for costly compositionally graded buffer layers. To develop this technology, GaSb single junction cells were grown via molecular beam epitaxy on both GaSb and GaAs substrates to compare homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial GaSb device results. The GaSb-on-GaSb cell had an AM1.5g efficiency of 5.5% and a 44-sun AM1.5d efficiency of 8.9%. The GaSb-on-GaAs cell was 1.0% efficient under AM1.5g and 4.5% at 44 suns. The lower performance of the heteroepitaxial cell was due to low minority carrier Shockley-Read-Hall lifetimes and bulk shunting caused by defects related to the mismatched growth. A physics-based device simulator was used to create an inverted triple-junction GaInP/GaAs/GaSb model. The model predicted that, with current GaSb-on-GaAs material quality, the not-current-matched, proof-of-concept cell would provide 0.5% absolute efficiency gain over a tandem GaInP/GaAs cell at 1 sun and 2.5% gain at 44 suns, indicating that the effectiveness of the GaSb junction was a function of concentration.

  10. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Coupled with Mn3O4 for Highly Efficient Removal of Sb(III) and Sb(V) from Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jian-Ping; Liu, Hui-Long; Luo, Jinming; Xing, Qiu-Ju; Du, Hong-Mei; Jiang, Xun-Heng; Luo, Xu-Biao; Luo, Sheng-Lian; Suib, Steven L

    2016-07-20

    Highly porous, three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured composite adsorbents of reduced graphene oxides/Mn3O4 (RGO/Mn3O4) were fabricated by a facile method of a combination of reflux condensation and solvothermal reactions and systemically characterized. The as-prepared RGO/Mn3O4 possesses a mesoporous 3D structure, in which Mn3O4 nanoparticles are uniformly deposited on the surface of the reduced graphene oxide. The adsorption properties of RGO/Mn3O4 to antimonite (Sb(III)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) were investigated using batch experiments of adsorption isotherms and kinetics. Experimental results show that the RGO/Mn3O4 composite has fast liquid transport and superior adsorption capacity toward antimony (Sb) species in comparison to six recent adsorbents reported in the literature and summarized in a table in this paper. Theoretical maximum adsorption capacities of RGO/Mn3O4 toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) are 151.84 and 105.50 mg/g, respectively, modeled by Langmuir isotherms. The application of RGO/Mn3O4 was demonstrated by using drinking water spiked with Sb (320 μg/L). Fixed-bed column adsorption experiments indicate that the effective breakthrough volumes were 859 and 633 mL bed volumes (BVs) for the Sb(III) and Sb(V), respectively, until the maximum contaminant level of 5 ppb was reached, which is below the maximum limits allowed in drinking water according to the most stringent regulations. The advantages of being nontoxic, highly stable, and resistant to acid and alkali and having high adsorption capacity toward Sb(III) and Sb(V) confirm the great potential application of RGO/Mn3O4 in Sb-spiked water treatment.

  11. New uranium chalcoantimonates, RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8} and KU{sub 2}SbSe{sub 8}, with a polar noncentrosymmetric structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K S; Kanatzidis, M G

    1999-09-01

    The new compounds, RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8} and KU{sub 2}SbSe{sub 8}, were prepared as golden-black, blocklike crystals by the polychalcogenide molten flux method. RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8} has a two-dimensional character with layers running perpendicular to the c-axis. The coordination geometry around the U{sup 4+} atoms is best described as a bicapped trigonal prism. The trigonal prisms share triangular faces with neighboring prisms, forming one-dimensional columns along the a-axis. The columns are then joined to construct sheets by sharing capping S atoms. Sb{sup 3+} ions are sitting at the center of a slightly distorted seesaw coordination environment (CN = 4). Rb{sup +} ions are stabilized in 8-coordinate bicapped trigonal prismatic sites. KU{sub 2}SbSe{sub 8} has essentially the same structure as RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8}. However, Sb{sup 3+} and K{sup +} ions appear disordered in every other layer resulting in a different unit cell. RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8} is a semiconductor with a band gap of 1.38 eV. The band gap of KU{sub 2}SbSe{sub 8} could not be determined precisely due to the presence of overlapping intense f-f transitions in the region (0.5--1.1 eV). The Raman spectra show the disulfide stretching vibration in RbU{sub 2}SbS{sub 8} at 479 cm{sup {minus}1} and the diselenide stretching vibration in KU{sub 2}SbSe{sub 8} at 252 cm{sup {minus}1}. Magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate the presence of U{sup 4+} centers in the compounds. The compounds do not melt below 1,000 C under vacuum.

  12. Investigation of environmental friendly Te-free SiSb material for applications of phase-change memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ting; Song Zhitang; Liu Bo; Feng Songlin

    2008-01-01

    Te-free environmental friendly Si x Sb 100−x phase-change materials are investigated. The binary material, which is compatible with the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor manufacturing process, is outstanding in various properties. Si x Sb 100−x shows a much better data retention as compared with Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The density change for Si 10 Sb 90 and Si 16 Sb 84 is only about 3% and 3.8%, respectively. The failure times for Si 10 Sb 90 and Si 16 Sb 84 are about 10 3 and 10 6 times longer than that of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 at 110 °C. The crystallization temperature of Si x Sb 100−x increases with silicon content within the material. Si x Sb 100−x materials are good candidates for the phase-change memory applications

  13. Properties of the low-lying levels of 122Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunsteren, W.F. van; Rabenstein, D.

    1977-01-01

    Nanosecond lifetimes of low-lying levels in the doubly odd nucleus 122 Sb have been measured. On the basis of these results and of already published experimental material, spins and parities for most of the low-lying states are proposed. A simple theoretical description of this nucleus is presented. The model used is that of a proton coupled to a number projected neutron quasiparticle wave function, assuming a Z=N=50 core. The spectrum and transition rates were calculated in a shell model space consisting of eight subshells and using a renormalized Schiffer interaction. The shell model parameters were derived from adjadent nuclei. Good agreement with the experimental level scheme is found. Also the gamma decay properties can be accounted for rather well. Spectroscopic factors for the one-neutron transfer reactions leading to 122 Sb are predicted. Their measurement with high resolution techniques would be a helpful test for the interpretations given. (orig.) [de

  14. Optical nonlinear absorption characteristics of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Molli; Kiran, Aditha Sai; Ravikanth, B.; Sowmendran, P.; Muthukumar, V. Sai; Venkataramaniah, Kamisetti

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we report for the first time, the nonlinear optical absorption properties of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) nanoparticles synthesized through solvothermal route. X-ray diffraction results revealed the crystalline nature of the nanoparticles. Electron microscopy studies revealed that the nanoparticles are in the range of 10 - 40 nm. Elemental analysis was performed using EDAX. By employing open aperture z-scan technique, we have evaluated the effective two-photon absorption coefficient of Sb2Se3 nanoparticles to be 5e-10 m/W at 532 nm. These nanoparticles exhibit strong intensity dependent nonlinear optical absorption and hence could be considered to have optical power limiting applications in the visible range.

  15. GeSbTe deposition for the PRAM application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghyun [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sangjoon [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Changsoo [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Yoonho [Nano Fabrication Center, SAIT, Suwon, P.O. Box 111 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daeil [School of Materials Science and Engineering. University of Ulsan, San 29, Mugeo-Dong, Nam-Gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dkim84@mail.ulsan.ac.kr

    2007-02-15

    GeSbTe (GST) chalcogenide thin films for the phase-change random access memory (PRAM) were deposited by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process. New precursors for GST thin films made with an ALD process were synthesized. Among the synthesized precursors, Ge(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, Sb(N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 4}, and Te(i-Pr){sub 2} (i-Pr = iso-propyl) were selected. Using the above precursors, GST thin films were deposited using an H{sub 2} plasma-assisted ALD process. Film resistivity abruptly changed after an N{sub 2} annealing process above a temperature of 350 deg. C. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs of the GST films on the patterned substrate with aspect ratio of 7 shows that the step coverage is about 90%.

  16. Microalloying with Cd of Antifriction Sn-Sb-Cu Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinca Ionel Lupinca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the case of bimetallic sliding linings with superior technological characteristics, the use of an antifriction ally is imposed an alloy of the type Sn-Sb-Cu, which possesses a high adherence to the steel stand and a high durability in exploitation. For this reason we use the microalloying of the antifriction alloy with cadmium. The microalloying with Cd of antifriction alloys Sn-Sb-Cu determines an increase of the adhesion property of the antifriction alloy on the steel stand. The steel stand is previously subjected to a process of degreasing with ZnCl2 and washing so that is can later be subjected to a thermal-chemical treatment of tinning.

  17. Defect-induced magnetic structure of CuMnSb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Máca, František; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav; Turek, I.; Stelmakhovych, O.; Beran, Přemysl; Llobet, A.; Martí, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 9 (2016), 1-9, č. článku 094407. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37427G Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : CuMnSb * electronic structure * defects * magnetic order * ab initio calculations * neutron diffraction analysis Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  18. Magneto-optical effect in Mn-Sb thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaran, E.; Sadabadi, M.

    2003-01-01

    The magneto-optic Kerr and Faraday effect of Mn-Sb thin films have been studied. The single and multilayer of this film have grown on glass substrate by evaporation. The optical rotation of linear polarized light has been measured by an optical hysteresis plotter in a I/O converter amplifier circuit. Our results indicate a polar Kerr rotation up to 0.5 degree and in a double Mn S b this rotation research to maximum

  19. Temperature Variation of the Magnetic Structure of HoSb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Kjems, Jørgen; Vogt, O.

    1980-01-01

    Neutron diffraction has been used to show that the magnetic moment vector in the antiferromagnet HoSb changes direction as a function of temperature below TN=5.7K. The experimental results are in qualitative agreement with a recent theoretical prediction by Jensen et al. (1980) which ascribe the ...... the changing directions to a competition between the crystal fields and the dipolar interactions....

  20. Approaching the Hole Mobility Limit of GaSb Nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zai-xing; Yip, SenPo; Li, Dapan; Han, Ning; Dong, Guofa; Liang, Xiaoguang; Shu, Lei; Hung, Tak Fu; Mo, Xiaoliang; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-22

    In recent years, high-mobility GaSb nanowires have received tremendous attention for high-performance p-type transistors; however, due to the difficulty in achieving thin and uniform nanowires (NWs), there is limited report until now addressing their diameter-dependent properties and their hole mobility limit in this important one-dimensional material system, where all these are essential information for the deployment of GaSb NWs in various applications. Here, by employing the newly developed surfactant-assisted chemical vapor deposition, high-quality and uniform GaSb NWs with controllable diameters, spanning from 16 to 70 nm, are successfully prepared, enabling the direct assessment of their growth orientation and hole mobility as a function of diameter while elucidating the role of sulfur surfactant and the interplay between surface and interface energies of NWs on their electrical properties. The sulfur passivation is found to efficiently stabilize the high-energy NW sidewalls of (111) and (311) in order to yield the thin NWs (i.e., 40 nm in diameters) would grow along the most energy-favorable close-packed planes with the orientation of ⟨111⟩, supported by the approximate atomic models. Importantly, through the reliable control of sulfur passivation, growth orientation and surface roughness, GaSb NWs with the peak hole mobility of ∼400 cm(2)V s(-1) for the diameter of 48 nm, approaching the theoretical limit under the hole concentration of ∼2.2 × 10(18) cm(-3), can be achieved for the first time. All these indicate their promising potency for utilizations in different technological domains.

  1. Thermoelectric nanocrystalline YbCoSb laser prepared layers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zeipl, Radek; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Navrátil, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 122, č. 3 (2016), s. 1-5, č. článku 155. ISSN 0947-8396 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33056S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanocrystalline YbCoSb * thermoelectric layers * pulsed laser deposition Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 1.455, year: 2016

  2. Thermoelectric properties of RuSb2Te ternary skutterudites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Navrátil, Jiří; Plecháček, T.; Drašar, Č.; Laufek, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2013), s. 1864-1869 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/1315 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : RuSb2Te * ternary skutterudite * doping Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.675, year: 2013 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11664-012-2451-5

  3. High-spin, multiparticle isomers in 121,123Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G. A.; Walker, P. M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Cullen, I. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Liu, Z.; Thompson, N. J.; Williams, S. J.; Zhu, S.; Carpenter, M. P.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Khoo, T. L.; Seweryniak, D.; Carroll, J. J.; Chakrawarthy, R. S.; Hackman, G.; Chowdhury, P.; Dracoulis, G. D.; Lane, G. J.; Kondev, F. G.

    2008-01-01

    Isomers in near-spherical Z=51, antimony isotopes are reported here for the first time using fusion-fission reactions between 27 Al and a pulsed 178 Hf beam of energy, 1150 MeV. γ rays were observed from the decay of isomeric states with half-lives, T 1/2 =200(30) and 52(3)μs, and angular momenta I=((25/2)) and I π =(23/2) + , in 121,123 Sb, respectively. These states are proposed to correspond to ν(h (11/2) ) 2 configurations, coupled to an odd d (5/2) or g (7/2) proton. Nanosecond isomers were also identified at I π =(19/2) - [T 1/2 =8.5(5) ns] in 121 Sb and I π =((15/2) - ) [T 1/2 =37(4) ns] in 123 Sb. Information on spins and parities of states in these nuclei was obtained using a combination of angular correlation and intensity-balance measurements. The configurations of states in these nuclei are discussed using a combination of spin/energy systematics and shell-model calculations for neighboring tin isotones and antimony isotopes

  4. Grain boundary engineering with nano-scale InSb producing high performance InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudite thermoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric semiconductors based on CoSb3 hold the best promise for recovering industrial or automotive waste heat because of their high efficiency and relatively abundant, lead-free constituent elements. However, higher efficiency is needed before thermoelectrics reach economic viability for widespread use. In this study, n-type InxCeyCo4Sb12+z skutterudites with high thermoelectric performance are produced by combining several phonon scattering mechanisms in a panoscopic synthesis. Using melt spinning followed by spark plasma sintering (MS-SPS, bulk InxCeyCo4Sb12+z alloys are formed with grain boundaries decorated with nano-phase of InSb. The skutterudite matrix has grains on a scale of 100–200 nm and the InSb nano-phase with a typical size of 5–15 nm is evenly dispersed at the grain boundaries of the skutterudite matrix. Coupled with the presence of defects on the Sb sublattice, this multi-scale nanometer structure is exceptionally effective in scattering phonons and, therefore, InxCeyCo4Sb12/InSb nano-composites have very low lattice thermal conductivity and high zT values reaching in excess of 1.5 at 800 K.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horoz Sabit

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of Mn-doped Sb2S3 thin films (TFs prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD at room temperature have been documented and their structural, optical, morphological, magnetic and photovoltaic properties have been examined for the first time. Their structural properties reveal that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF has an orthorhombic phase structure of Sb2S3, and that the grain size of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF (72.9 nm becomes larger than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF (69.3 nm. It has been observed that Mn content causes the Sb2S3 TF band gap to decrease. This situation clearly correlates with band tailing due to the impurities that are involved. The morphological properties have revealed that the shape of the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is more uniform than the shape of its undoped counterpart. The study on its magnetic properties has demonstrated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF exhibits paramagnetic behavior. Its paramagnetic Curie-Weiss temperature was found to be -4.1 K. This result suggests that there is an anti-ferromagnetic interaction between Mn moments in the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF. Incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE and J-V measurements were also carried out for the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF for the first time. The results have indicated that the Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF can be utilized as a sensitizer to improve the performance of solar cells. Another important observation on the photovoltaic properties of Mn-doped Sb2S3 TF is that the spectral response range is wider than that of undoped Sb2S3 TF. Our study suggests that the introduction of dopant could serve as an effective means of improving the device performance of solar cells.

  6. Structure and Chemical Bond of Thermoelectric Ce-Co-Sb Skutterudites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The correlations among composition,structure,chemical bond and thermoelectric property of skutterudites CoSb3 and CeCo5Fe3Sb12 have been studied by using density function and discrete variation (DFT-DVM) method.Three models for this study were proposed and calculated by which the "rattling" pattern was described.Model 1 is with Ce in the center,model 2 is with Ce away the center and near to Sb,and model 3 is also with Ce away the center but near to Fe.The calculated results show that in model 3,the ionic bond is the strongest,but the covalent bond is the weakest.Due to the different changes between ionic and covalent bond,there is less difference in the stability among the models 1,2 and 3.Therefore,these different models can exist at the same time,or can translate from one to another more easily.In other words,the "rattling" pattern has taken place.Unfilled model of CoSb3,without Ce and Fe,is called model 4.The covalent bond of Co-Sb or Fe-Sb in models 1,2 and 3 is weaker than that of Co-Sb in model 4,as some electrical cloud of Sb takes part in the covalent bond of Ce-Sb in the filled models.The result is consistent with the experimental result that the thermal conductivity of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is lower than that of CoSb3,and the thermoelectric property of CeCo5Fe3Sb12 is superior to that of CoSb3.

  7. Formation of the InAs-, InSb-, GaAs-, and GaSb-polished surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Iryna; Tomashyk, Vasyl; Stratiychuk, Iryna; Malanych, Galyna; Korchovyi, Andrii; Kryvyi, Serhii; Kolomys, Oleksandr

    2018-04-01

    The features of the InAs, InSb, GaAs, and GaSb ultra-smooth surface have been investigated using chemical-mechanical polishing with the (NH4)2Cr2O7-HBr-CH2(OH)CH2(OH)-etching solutions. The etching rate of the semiconductors has been measured as a function of the solution saturation by organic solvent (ethylene glycol). It was found that mechanical effect significantly increases the etching rate from 1.5 to 57 µm/min, and the increase of the organic solvent concentration promotes the decrease of the damaged layer-removing rate. According to AFM, RS, HRXRD results, the treatment with the (NH4)2Cr2O7-HBr-ethylene glycol solutions produces the clean surface of the nanosize level (R a < 0.5 nm).

  8. Short-wave infrared barriode detectors using InGaAsSb absorption material lattice matched to GaSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, A. P.; Percy, B.; Marshall, A. R. J. [Physics Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom); Jain, M. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Wicks, G.; Hossain, K. [Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); Golding, T. [Amethyst Research Ltd., Kelvin Campus, West of Scotland Science Park, Glasgow G20 0SP (United Kingdom); Amethyst Research, Inc., 123 Case Circle, Ardmore, Oklahoma 73401 (United States); McEwan, K.; Howle, C. [Defence Science and Technology Laboratory, Porton Down, Salisbury, Wiltshire SP4 0JQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-18

    Short-wave infrared barriode detectors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. An absorption layer composition of In{sub 0.28}Ga{sub 0.72}As{sub 0.25}Sb{sub 0.75} allowed for lattice matching to GaSb and cut-off wavelengths of 2.9 μm at 250 K and 3.0 μm at room temperature. Arrhenius plots of the dark current density showed diffusion limited dark currents approaching those expected for optimized HgCdTe-based detectors. Specific detectivity figures of around 7×10{sup 10} Jones and 1×10{sup 10} Jones were calculated, for 240 K and room temperature, respectively. Significantly, these devices could support focal plane arrays working at higher operating temperatures.

  9. Measurement of the Auger lifetime in GaInAsSb/GaSb heterostructures using the photoacoustic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riech, I.; Gomez-Herrera, M. L.; Diaz, P.; Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.; Herrera-Perez, J. L.; Marin, E.

    2001-01-01

    We have studied Ga x In 1-x As y Sb 1-y /GaSb heterostructures for x=0.84 and y=0.14 using the photoacoustic technique with the heat transmission configuration. A theoretical model, which includes all the possible nonradiative recombination mechanisms that contribute to heat generation, was developed to calculate the photoacoustic signal for this type of heterostructure. The Auger recombination lifetime τ Auger was determined by fitting our experimental results to the calculated frequency dependence of the theoretical photoacoustic signal. The obtained value for τ Auger is compatible with those reported in the literature for semiconductors with band-gap energies below and above 0.5 eV, the energy region where there is a lack of experimental τ Auger values. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  10. Effects of Sb-doping on the formation of (K, Na)(Nb, Sb)O3 solid solution under hydrothermal conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Likui; Zhu Kongjun; Bai Lin; Qiu Jinhao; Ji Hongli

    2010-01-01

    (K, Na)(Nb, Sb)O 3 (KNNS) lead-free peizoceramic powders were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 240 o C for 8 h using the KOH, NaOH, Nb 2 O 5 and Sb 2 O 3 as raw materials. Effects of Sb-doping on the crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared powders were investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectra (Raman), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED). The Sb element was successfully doped into the alkaline niobate perovskite structure to form crystalline (K 0.7 Na 0.3 )(Nb 0.95 Sb 0.05 )O 3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramic powder, which has a hexagonal morphology due to the aggregation growth of small grains. Phase and morphology evolutions with the reaction time were also studied, and a possible formation mechanism was proposed.

  11. CRYSTAL-QUASICHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF DEFECT SUBSYSTEM OF DOPED PbTe: Sb CRYSTALS AND Pb-Sb-Te SOLID SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Freik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Within crystalquasichemical formalism models of point defects of crystals in the Pb-Sb-Te system were specified. Based on proposed crystalquasichemical formulae of antimony doped crystals PbTe:Sb amphoteric dopant effect was explained. Mechanisms of solid solution formation for РbТе-Sb2Те3: replacement of antimony ions lead sites  with the formation of cation vacancies  (I or neutral interstitial tellurium atoms  (II were examined. Dominant point defects in doped crystals PbTe:Sb and РbТе-Sb2Те3 solid solutions based on p-PbTe were defined. Dependences of concentration of dominant point defects, current carriers and Hall concentration on content of dopant compound and the initial deviation from stoichiometry in the basic matrix were calculated.

  12. Physics of bandgap formation in Cu-Sb-Se based novel thermoelectrics: the role of Sb valency and Cu d levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Dat; Ozolins, Vidvuds; Mahanti, S D; Lee, Mal-Soon; Zhang, Yongsheng; Wolverton, C

    2012-10-17

    In this paper we discuss the results of ab initio electronic structure calculations for Cu(3)SbSe(4) (Se4) and Cu(3)SbSe(3) (Se3), two narrow bandgap semiconductors of thermoelectric interest. We find that Sb is trivalent in both the compounds, in contrast to a simple nominal valence (ionic) picture which suggests that Sb should be 5 + in Se4. The gap formation in Se4 is quite subtle, with hybridization between Sb 5s and the neighboring Se 4s, 4p orbitals, position of Cu d states, and non-local exchange interaction, each playing significant roles. Thermopower calculations show that Se4 is a better p-type system. Our theoretical results for Se4 agree very well with recent experimental results obtained by Skoug et al (2011 Sci. Adv. Mater. 3 602).

  13. High-Temperature Characteristics of an InAsSb/AlAsSb n+Bn Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, David Z.; Soibel, Alexander; Höglund, Linda; Hill, Cory J.; Keo, Sam A.; Fisher, Anita; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2016-09-01

    The high-temperature characteristics of a mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) detector based on the Maimon-Wicks InAsSb/AlAsSb nBn architecture was analyzed. The dark current characteristics are examined in reference to recent minority carrier lifetime results. The difference between the responsivity and absorption quantum efficiency (QE) at shorter wavelengths is clarified in terms of preferential absorption of higher-energy photons in the top contact layer, which cannot provide reverse-bias photo-response due to the AlAsSb electron blocking layer and strong recombination. Although the QE does not degrade when the operating temperature increases to 325 K, the turn-on bias becomes larger at higher temperatures. This behavior was originally attributed to the change in the valence band alignment between the absorber and top contact layers caused by the shift in Fermi level with temperature. In this work, we demonstrated the inadequacy of the original description, and offer a more likely explanation based on temperature-dependent band-bending effects.

  14. TANK 40 FINAL SB4 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Best, J.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for elemental and chemical composition including noble metals. These analyses along with the WAPS analyses will help define the composition of the sludge currently in Tank 40 which is currently being fed to DWPF and will become part of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5). At SRNL the 3-L Tank 40 SB4 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 280 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO 3 /HCl in sealed Teflon(reg s ign) vessels and four in Na 2 O 2 using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Three glass standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, and cold vapor atomic absorption (CV-AA) analysis. Equivalent dilutions of the peroxide fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB4 supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for ion chromatography (IC), total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC), and total base analyses. A sample of Tank 40 SB4 decant was collected by carefully removing the supernate phase

  15. Thermodynamics of (Ga, In)-Sb-O-Si and impact on dewetting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylla, L. [Cyberstar, Echirolles (France); Duffar, T. [SIMaP-EPM, Saint Martin d' Heres (France)

    2011-11-15

    A thermodynamic study is performed for the systems (Ga or In)-Sb-O-Si in order to better understand the difference observed during dewetting experiments of GaSb and InSb in silica ampoules. Results show that the melts can be considered as non reactive toward silica. When the atmosphere is clean ({<=}1 ppm O{sub 2}), no oxide is formed, while, under oxidising atmosphere, oxides exist above the melting point of the antimonide and are known to increase the wetting angle of the melt on the crucible. However the temperature range for oxide stability is smaller in the case of InSb and this may explain why dewetting is easy for GaSb in presence of oxygen, while it is difficult for InSb. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Three dimensional atom probe imaging of GaAsSb quantum rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltran, A.M.; Marquis, E.A.; Taboada, A.G.; Ripalda, J.M.; Garcia, J.M.; Molina, S.I.

    2011-01-01

    Unambiguous evidence of ring-shaped self-assembled GaSb nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented on the basis of atom-probe tomography reconstructions and dark field transmission electron microscopy imaging. The GaAs capping process causes a strong segregation of Sb out of the center of GaSb quantum dots, leading to the self-assembled GaAs x Sb 1-x quantum rings of 20-30 nm in diameter with x∼0.33. -- Highlights: → Atom-probe tomography resolves QR morphology of GaSb self-assembled GaSb buried nanostructures. → From atom-probe tomography compositional distribution has been obtained. → Strong segregation and morphological changes are observed with respect to uncapped QR.

  17. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells through surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing; Xu, Yafeng; Chen, Wenyong; Yang, Shangfeng; Zhu, Jun; Weng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    Efficient antimony sulfide (Sb2S3)-sensitized solar cells were obtained by a sequential treatment with thioacetamide (TA) and 1-decylphosphonic acid (DPA). Compared with the untreated Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells, the power conversion efficiency of the treated Sb2S3 solar cells was improved by 1.80% to 3.23%. The TA treatment improved the Sb2S3 films by reducing impurities and decreasing the film's surface defects, which inhibited the emergence of recombination centers. The DPA treatment reduced the recombination between hole transport materials (HTMs) and the Sb2S3. Therefore, we have presented an efficient strategy to improve the performance of Sb2S3-sensitized solar cells.

  18. Averaged currents induced by alpha particles in an InSb compound semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Hishiki, Shigeomi; Kogetsu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Very fast pulses due to alpha particle incidence were observed by an undoped-type InSb Schottky detector. This InSb detector was operated without applying bias voltage and its depletion layer thickness was less than the range of alpha particles. The averaged current induced by alpha particles was analyzed as a function of operating temperature and was shown to be proportional to the Hall mobility of InSb. (author)

  19. Ultra-high carrier mobility InSb film by rapid thermal annealing on glass substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charith Jayanada Koswaththage

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available InSb films were deposited on both mica and glass substrates using thermal evaporation and subjected to FA or RTA. Crystallinity, composition and electrical properties were investigated. High Hall electron mobility as high as 25,000 cm2/(Vs was obtained with the capped InSb film by keeping the In:Sb ratio after RTA at 520°C for 30 sec or more without adopting epitaxial growth on glass.

  20. Electronic structure of FeTiSb using relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahariya, Jagrati [Department of Physics, Manipal University Jaipur, Jaipur-303007, Rajasthan (India); Mund, H. S., E-mail: hmoond@gmail.com [Department of Physics, M. L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur-313001, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    Electronic and magnetic properties of FeTiSb have been reported. The calculations are performed using spin polarized relativistic Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker scheme based on Green’s function method. Within SPR-KKR a fully relativistic and scalar-relativistic approaches have been used to investigate electronic structure of FeTiSb. Energy bands, total and partial density of states, atom specific magnetic moment along with total moment of FeTiSb alloys are presented.

  1. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  2. Synthesis and cathodoluminescence of Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zaien; Liu, Baodan; Yuan, Fang; Hu, Tao; Zhang, Guifeng; Dierre, Benjamin; Hirosaki, Naoto; Sekiguchi, Takashi; Jiang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Sb/P co-doped Gallium Nitride (GaN) nanowires were synthesized via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process by heating Ga 2 O 3 and Sb powders in NH 3 atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) measurements confirmed the as-synthesized products were Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires with rough morphology and hexagonal wurtzite structure. Room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) demonstrated that an obvious band shift of GaN nanowires can be observed due to Sb/P co-doping. Possible explanation for the growth and luminescence mechanism of Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires was discussed. Highlight: • Sb/P co-doped GaN nanowires were synthesized through a well-designed multi-channel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. • Sb/P co-doping leads to the crystallinity deterioration of GaN nanowires. • Sb/P co-doping caused the red-shift of GaN nanowires band-gap in UV range. • Compared with Sb doping, P atoms are more easy to incorporate into the GaN lattice

  3. Self-organized formation of GaSb/GaAs quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, R; Eisele, H; Lenz, A; Ivanova, L; Balakrishnan, G; Huffaker, D L; Dähne, M

    2008-12-19

    Ring-shaped GaSb/GaAs quantum dots, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, were studied using cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. These quantum rings have an outer shape of a truncated pyramid with baselengths around 15 nm and heights of about 2 nm but are characterized by a clear central opening extending over about 40% of the outer baselength. They form spontaneously during the growth and subsequent continuous capping of GaSb/GaAs quantum dots due to the large strain and substantial As-for-Sb exchange reactions leading to strong Sb segregation.

  4. Three dimensional atom probe imaging of GaAsSb quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, A M; Marquis, E A; Taboada, A G; Ripalda, J M; García, J M; Molina, S I

    2011-07-01

    Unambiguous evidence of ring-shaped self-assembled GaSb nanostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy is presented on the basis of atom-probe tomography reconstructions and dark field transmission electron microscopy imaging. The GaAs capping process causes a strong segregation of Sb out of the center of GaSb quantum dots, leading to the self-assembled GaAs(x)Sb(1-x) quantum rings of 20-30 nm in diameter with x ∼ 0.33. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. N-doped Sb2Te phase change materials for higher data retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Min; Wu Liangcai; Rao Feng; Song Zhitang; Li Xuelai; Peng Cheng; Zhou Xilin; Ren Kun; Yao Dongning; Feng Songlin

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Crystallization temperatures of the N-doped Sb 2 Te films increase remarkably. → The E a of N-doped Sb 2 Te films increase first, and then decrease. → The best 10-years lifetime at temperature up to 141 deg. C is found in Sb 2 TeN1 films. → The power consumption of PCRAM test cell based on Sb 2 TeN1 film is low. - Abstract: Crystallization temperatures of the Sb 2 Te films increase remarkably from 139.4 deg. C to 223.0 deg. C as the N 2 flow rates increasing from 0 sccm to 1.5 sccm. Electrical conduction activation energies for amorphous and crystalline states increase by doping nitrogen. A small amount of nitrogen atoms can locate at interstitial sites in the hexagonal structure, generating a strain field, and improving the thermal stability of amorphous state. The best 10-years lifetime at temperature up to 141 deg. C is found in Sb 2 TeN 1 films. Doping excessively high nitrogen in Sb 2 Te film will form nitride and make Te separate out. As a result, the activation energy for crystallization decreases instead, accompanying with the deterioration of thermal stability. The power consumption of PCRAM test cell based on Sb 2 TeN 1 film is ten times lower than that of PCRAM device using Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 films.

  6. Electrochemical performance of Sn-Sb-Cu film anodes prepared by layer-by-layer electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Qianlei; Xue Ruisheng; Jia Mengqiu

    2012-01-01

    A novel layer-by-layer electrodeposition and heat-treatment approach was attempted to obtain Sn-Sb-Cu film anode for lithium ion batteries. The preparation of Sn-Sb-Cu anodes started with galvanostatic electrochemically depositing antimony and tin sequentially on the substrate of copper foil collector. Sn-Sb and Cu-Sb alloys were formed when heated. The SEM analysis showed that the crystalline grains become bigger and the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu anode becomes more denser after annealing. The energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed the antimony, tin and copper were alloyed to form SnSb and Cu 2 Sb after heat treatment. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed the surface of the Sn-Sb-Cu electrode was covered by a thin oxide layer. Electrochemical measurements showed that the annealed Sn-Sb-Cu anode has high reversible capacity and good capacity retention. It exhibited a reversible capacity of about 962 mAh/g in the initial cycle, which still remained 715 mAh/g after 30 cycles.

  7. The Quantum Chemistry Calculation and Thermoelectrics of Bi-Sb-Te Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The density function theory and discrete variation method(DFT-DVM) was used to study correlation between composition, structure, chemical bond,and property of thermoelectrics of Bi-Sb-Te series.8 models of Bi20-xSbxTe32(x=0,2,6,8,12,14,18 and 20) were calculated.The results show that there is less difference in the ionic bonds between Te(Ⅰ)-Bi(Sb) and Te(Ⅱ)-Bi(Sb), but the covalent bond of Te(Ⅰ)-Bi(Sb) is stronger than that of Te(Ⅱ)-Bi(Sb).The interaction between Te(Ⅰ) and Te(Ⅰ) in different layers is the weakest and the interaction should be Van Der Waals power.The charge of Sb is lower than that of Bi,and the ionic bond of Te-Sb is weaker than that of Te-Bi.The covalent bond of Te-Sb is also weaker than that of Te-Bi.Therefore,the thermoelectric property may be improved by adjusting the electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity through changing the composition in the compounds of Bi-Sb-Te. The calculated results are consistent with the experiments.

  8. 0+ analogue state in 118Sb from 117Sn(p,nγ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, J.; Dey, C.C.; Bose, S.; Sinha, B.K.; Chatterjee, M.B.; Mahapatra, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    The analogue of the 0 + ground state in 118 Sn has been observed in the compound nucleus 118 Sb through 117 Sn(p,nγ) 117 Sb reaction. The neutron decays of this analogue resonance have been studied from the deexciting γ-rays of the residual nucleus 117 Sb. From off resonance excitation functions, spin assignments have been made to states in 117 Sb, on the basis of Hauser-Feshbach formalism. The resonance parameters of the isobaric analogue resonance have been determined, including the total, proton and neutron decay widths. (orig.)

  9. Atomistic explanation of brittle failure of thermoelectric skutterudite CoSb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; An, Qi; Goddard, William A.; Hanus, Riley; Zhai, Pengcheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    CoSb 3 based skutterudite thermoelectric material has superior thermoelectric properties, but the low fracture toughness prevents its widespread commercial application. To determine the origin of its brittle failure, we examined the response of shear deformation in CoSb 3 along the most plausible slip system (010)/<100>, using large-scale molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the brittle failure of CoSb 3 arises from the formation of shear bands due to the destruction of Sb4-rings and the slippage of Co-octahedraes. This leads to the breakage of Co-octahedraes and cavitation, resulting in the crack opening and mechanical failure.

  10. Multilayer SnSb4-SbSe Thin Films for Phase Change Materials Possessing Ultrafast Phase Change Speed and Enhanced Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruirui; Zhou, Xiao; Zhai, Jiwei; Song, Jun; Wu, Pengzhi; Lai, Tianshu; Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang

    2017-08-16

    A multilayer thin film, comprising two different phase change material (PCM) components alternatively deposited, provides an effective means to tune and leverage good properties of its components, promising a new route toward high-performance PCMs. The present study systematically investigated the SnSb 4 -SbSe multilayer thin film as a potential PCM, combining experiments and first-principles calculations, and demonstrated that these multilayer thin films exhibit good electrical resistivity, robust thermal stability, and superior phase change speed. In particular, the potential operating temperature for 10 years is shown to be 122.0 °C and the phase change speed reaches 5 ns in the device test. The good thermal stability of the multilayer thin film is shown to come from the formation of the Sb 2 Se 3 phase, whereas the fast phase change speed can be attributed to the formation of vacancies and a SbSe metastable phase. It is also demonstrated that the SbSe metastable phase contributes to further enhancing the electrical resistivity of the crystalline state and the thermal stability of the amorphous state, being vital to determining the properties of the multilayer SnSb 4 -SbSe thin film.

  11. Sb-Te Phase-change Materials under Nanoscale Confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihalawela, Chandrasiri A.

    Size, speed and efficiency are the major challenges of next generation nonvolatile memory (NVM), and phase-change memory (PCM) has captured a great attention due to its promising features. The key for PCM is rapid and reversible switching between amorphous and crystalline phases with optical or electrical excitation. The structural transition is associated with significant contrast in material properties which can be utilized in optical (CD, DVD, BD) and electronic (PCRAM) memory applications. Importantly, both the functionality and the success of PCM technology significantly depend on the core material and its properties. So investigating PC materials is crucial for the development of PCM technology to realized enhanced solutions. In regards to PC materials, Sb-Te binary plays a significant role as a basis to the well-known Ge-Sb-Te system. Unlike the conventional deposition methods (sputtering, evaporation), electrochemical deposition method is used due to its multiple advantages, such as conformality, via filling capability, etc. First, the controllable synthesis of Sb-Te thin films was studied for a wide range of compositions using this novel deposition method. Secondly, the solid electrolytic nature of stoichiometric Sb2Te3 was studied with respect to precious metals. With the understanding of 2D thin film synthesis, Sb-Te 1D nanowires (18 - 220 nm) were synthesized using templated electrodeposition, where nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) was used as a template for the growth of nanowires. In order to gain the controllability over the deposition in high aspect ratio structures, growth mechanisms of both the thin films and nanowires were investigated. Systematic understanding gained thorough previous studies helped to formulate the ultimate goal of this dissertation. In this dissertation, the main objective is to understand the size effect of PC materials on their phase transition properties. The reduction of effective memory cell size in conjunction with

  12. A new experimental phase diagram investigation of Cu-Sb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürtauer, Siegfried; Flandorfer, Hans

    The binary system Cu-Sb is a constituent system that is studied in investigations of technically important ternary and quaternary alloy systems (e.g., casting alloys and lead-free solders). Although this binary system has been thoroughly investigated over the last century, there are still some uncertainties regarding its high-temperature phases. Thus, parts of its phase diagram have been drawn with dashed lines in reviews published in the literature. The aim of this work was to resolve these uncertainties in the current phase diagram of Cu-Sb by performing XRD, SEM-EDX, EPMA, and DTA. The results from thermal analysis agreed well with those given in the literature, although some modifications due to the invariant reaction temperatures were necessary. In particular, reactions located on the Cu-rich side of the nonquenchable high-temperature β phase (BiF 3 -type) left considerable scope for interpretation. Generally, the structural descriptions of the various binary phases given in the literature were verified. The range of homogeneity of the ε phase (Cu 3 Ti type) was found to be higher on the Sb-rich side. Most of the reaction temperatures were verified, but a few had to be revised, such as the eutectoid reaction [Formula: see text] at 440 °C (found to occur at 427 °C in this work) and the eutectoid reaction [Formula: see text] at 400 °C (found to occur at 440 °C in this work). Further phase transformations that had previously only been estimated were confirmed, and their characteristic temperatures were determined.

  13. Radiation-induced defects in As-Sb-S glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, Ya; Filipecki, J; Shpotyuk, O

    2010-01-01

    Defect-related instability was studied in γ-irradiated (As 2 S 3 ) 1-x (Sb 2 S 3 ) x glasses (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy treated within high-measurement statistics. The observed decrease in average positron lifetime in the studied glasses is explained as a renovation of destroyed covalent chemical bonds after irradiation. This process is governed by monomolecular relaxation kinetics, being described in the framework of universal configuration-coordinate model.

  14. Radiation-induced defects in As-Sb-S glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balitska, V; Shpotyuk, Ya; Filipecki, J; Shpotyuk, O, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua

    2010-11-15

    Defect-related instability was studied in {gamma}-irradiated (As{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-x}(Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub x} glasses (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy treated within high-measurement statistics. The observed decrease in average positron lifetime in the studied glasses is explained as a renovation of destroyed covalent chemical bonds after irradiation. This process is governed by monomolecular relaxation kinetics, being described in the framework of universal configuration-coordinate model.

  15. Recombination coefficients in extrinsic n-InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, W.; Groh, H.; Huebner, K.

    1976-01-01

    The bulk recombination coefficients for linear recombination via recombination centers as well as for direct recombination have been determined measuring the conductivity decay after two-photon absorption with a CO 2 laser. The Suhl effect was applied to measure the surface recombination velocity. The corresponding literature is discussed and compared with our results. We conclude that two different kinds of recombination centers are possible in n-InSb, with energy levels (0.1-0.12)eV above the valence band, or (0.14-0.2)eV respectively. (orig.) [de

  16. Defect analysis of NiMnSb epitaxial layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, L. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland)]. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Turos, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland); Stonert, A. [Andrzej SoItan Institute for Nuclear Studies, ul. Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Garrido, F. [Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et Spectrometrie de Masse, CNRS-IN2P3-Universite Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Molenkamp, L.W. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Bach, P. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schmidt, G. [Department of Physics, University Wuerzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Wuerzburg (Germany); Karczewski, G. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Muecklich, A. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, POB 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2005-10-15

    NiMnSb layers grown on InP substrates with InGaAs buffer were studied by the backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) with He beams. The nature of predominant defects observed in the layers was studied by determination of incident-energy dependence of the relative channeling yield. The defects are described as a combination of large amount of interstitial atoms and of stacking faults or grain boundaries. The presence of grains was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Transmutation doping and lattice defects in degenerate InSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstenberg, H.; Glaeser, W.

    1990-01-01

    n-type InSb single crystals were irradiated with thermal neutrons below T = 6 K. The Shubnikov-de Haas effect and the resistivity ρ(T = 4.6 K) were measured as a function of the neutron dose and the holding temperature of a subsequent annealing program. The results are discussed in terms of the transport scattering rate and the lifetime of the Landau-levels. They have to be interpreted by means of n-doping due to nuclear reactions and irradiation induced negatively charged defects. Almost complete annealing of the transport parameters can be achieved by heating the samples to T A = 400 K. (author)

  18. Simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and Sb(V) by Fe–Mn binary oxide: Positive effects of Cd(II) on Sb(V) adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ruiping; Liu, Feng; Hu, Chengzhi; He, Zan; Liu, Huijuan; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe–Mn binary oxide achieves the simultaneous removal of Cd(II) and Sb(V). • Cd(II) at above 0.25 mmol/L improves Sb(V) adsorption onto FMBO. • Cd(II) improves more significant Sb(V) adsorption than Ca"2"+ and Mn"2"+. • Sb(V) adsorption decreases whereas Cd(II) adsorption increases with elevated pH. • The increased ζ-potential and Cd(II)–Sb(V) precipitation favors Sb(V) adsorption. - Abstract: The coexistence of cadmium ion (Cd(II)) and antimonate (Sb(V)) creates the need for their simultaneous removal. This study aims to investigate the effects of positively-charged Cd(II) on the removal of negative Sb(V) ions by Fe–Mn binary oxide (FMBO) and associated mechanisms. The maximum Sb(V) adsorption density (Q_m_a_x_,_S_b_(_V_)) increased from 1.02 to 1.32 and 2.01 mmol/g in the presence of Cd(II) at 0.25 and 0.50 mmol/L. Cd"2"+ exhibited a more significant positive effect than both calcium ion (Ca"2"+) and manganese ion (Mn"2"+). Cd"2"+ showed higher affinity towards FMBO and increased its ζ-potential more significantly compared to Ca"2"+ and Mn"2"+. The simultaneous adsorption of Sb(V) and Cd(II) onto FMBO can be achieved over a wide initial pH (pH_i) range from 2 to 9, and Q_S_b_(_V_) decreases whereas Q_C_d_(_I_I_) increases with elevated pH_i. Their combined values, as expressed by Q_S_b_(_V_)_+_C_d_(_I_I_), amount to about 2 mmol/g and vary slightly in the pH_i range 4–9. FTIR and XPS spectra indicate the significant synergistic effect of Cd(II) on Sb(V) adsorption onto FMBO, and that little chemical valence transformation occurs. These results may be valuable for the treatment of wastewater with coexisting heavy metals such as Cd(II) and Sb(V).

  19. Characterization of Cu3SbS3 thin films grown by thermally diffusing Cu2S and Sb2S3 layers

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Arshad; Ahmed, Rashid; Ali, N.; Shaari, A.; Luo, Jing-Ting; Fu, Yong Qing

    2017-01-01

    Copper antimony sulphide (Cu3SbS3) with a p-type conductivity and optical band gaps in the range of 1.38 to 1.84 eV is considered to be a promising solar harvesting material with non-toxic and economical elements. In this study, we reported the fabrication of Cu3SbS3 thin films using successive thermal evaporation of Cu2S and Sb2S3 layers followed by annealing in an argon atmosphere at a temperature range of 300-375°C. The structural and optical properties of the as-deposited and annealed fil...

  20. First-principles study of electronic structure of CuSbS{sub 2} and CuSbSe{sub 2} photovoltaic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, T., E-mail: tmaeda@ad.ryukoku.ac.jp; Wada, T.

    2015-05-01

    We studied the features of CuSbS{sub 2} (CAS) and CuSbSe{sub 2} (CASe), two proposed photovoltaic compounds, and clarified their electronic structures by first-principles calculations and compared them to the chalcopyrite-type CuInSe{sub 2} results. For both CAS and CASe, the calculated enthalpies of formation of the chalcostibite phases were considerably lower than those of the chalcopyrite phases. Therefore, we considered that the chalcostibite phase is more stable for CAS and CASe. In their band structure calculated with the HSE06 hybrid functional, the valence band maxima of CAS and CASe were located at the Γ-point, and the conduction band minima were located at the R-point. Their second lowest conduction band was located at the Γ-point, whose energy level nearly equaled the R-point. For CAS (CASe), the partial density of the states shows the character of the Cu 3d and S 3p (Se 4p) orbitals at the top of the valence bands and the Sb 5p and S 3p (Se 4p) orbitals at the bottom of the conduction bands. The conduction bands of CAS and CASe have a p-orbital character (Sb 5p) that differs from the s-orbital character (In 5s) of CuInSe{sub 2}. It is for the reason that CAS and CASe do not have a chalcopyrite structure but a chalcostibite-type structure. The calculated absorption coefficient of CuSbS{sub 2} (10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} cm{sup −1}) is comparable to that of CuInSe{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We studied the features of CuSbS{sub 2} and CuSbSe{sub 2}, newly proposed photovoltaic compounds. • Chalcostibite phase is more stable in CuSbS{sub 2} and CuSbSe{sub 2}. • Band structures of CuSbS{sub 2} and CuSbS{sub 2} were calculated with HSE06 hybrid functional. • Absorption coefficient of chalcostibite-type CuSbS{sub 2} is comparable to that of CuInSe{sub 2}.

  1. The Influence of Growth Temperature on Sb Incorporation in InAsSb, and the Temperature-dependent Impact of Bi Surfactants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    temperature was set to give a beam equivalent pressure ( BEP ) of 4.8x10-7 Torr, as measured in this configuration. 10 4 We have shown in prior...to the value needed to grow lattice matched InAsSb on GaSb without using Bi surfactant at 415 C. The In growth rate was 1 m/hr. The Sb BEP was...1.2x10-7 Torr and the As BEP was 5.71x10-7 Torr. The absolute flux of all the constituents and the V/III ratios were kept constant for both layers of

  2. Optical and electrical properties of Te doped AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb Bragg mirrors on InP

    OpenAIRE

    Toginho Filho, D. O.; Dias, I. F. L.; Duarte, J. L.; Laureto, E.

    2006-01-01

    We present a comparative study carried out on the optical and electrical characteristics of undoped and Te doped AlGaAsSb/AlAsSb Bragg mirrors with 6.5 pairs of layers and bulk undoped and Te doped AlGaAsSb epilayers alloys lattice matched on InP, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, using SIMS, photoluminescence, reflectivity and IxV techniques. The temperature dependence of PL transitions observed in the Bragg mirrors are similar to that observed in bulk samples and associated with the donor an...

  3. Microstructure evolution in pulsed laser deposited epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te chalcogenide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ulrich; Lotnyk, Andriy, E-mail: andriy.lotnyk@iom-leipzig.de; Thelander, Erik; Rauschenbach, Bernd

    2016-08-15

    The thin film deposition and structure of highly oriented telluride compounds is of particular interest for phase-change applications in next-generation non-volatile memory such as heterostructure designs, as well as for the investigation of novel optical, thermoelectric and ferroelectric properties in layered telluride compounds. In this work, epitaxial Ge-Sb-Te thin films were successfully produced by pulsed laser deposition on silicon with and without amorphous SiO{sub x} interlayer at elevated process temperatures from a Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} target. Aberration-corrected high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging reveals a distinct interface configuration of the trigonal phase connected by a quasi van der Waals gap (vacancy) to the Sb/Te-passivated single crystalline Si substrate, yet also an intermediate textured growth regime in which the substrate symmetry is only weakly coupled to the thin film orientation, as well as strong deviation of composition at high deposition temperatures. Textured growth of Ge-Sb-Te thin film was also observed on SiO{sub x}/Si substrate with no evidence of an intermediate Sb/Te surface layer on top of an SiO{sub x} layer. In addition, particular defect structures formed by local reorganization of the stacking sequence across the vacancy gap are observed and appear to be intrinsic to these van der Waals-layered compounds. Theoretical image simulations of preferred stacking sequences can be matched to individual building blocks in the Ge-Sb-Te grain. - Highlights: • Atomic-resolution Cs-corrected STEM imaging of PLD deposited Ge-Sb-Te thin films. • Changing of overall composition with increasing deposition temperature. • Direct imaging of surface passivation Sb/Te layer at the Ge-Sb-Te/Si(111) interface. • The Sb/Te passivation layer is not a prerequisite for highly oriented growth of Ge-Sb-Te thin films.

  4. Peculiarities of thermoelectric half-Heusler phase formation in Zr–Co–Sb ternary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romaka, V.V., E-mail: romakav@lp.edu.ua [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Romaka, L. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogl, P. [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Wien, Währingerstr. 42, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Stadnyk, Yu. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Melnychenko, N. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine); Army Academy named after Hetman Petro Sahaydachnyi, Gvardijska Str. 32, 79012 Lviv (Ukraine); Korzh, R.; Duriagina, Z. [Department of Applied Material Science and Materials Engineering, Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ustyyanovycha Str. 5, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Horyn, A. [Inorganic Chemistry Department, Ivan Franko Lviv National University, Kyryla and Mefodiya Str. 6, 79005 Lviv (Ukraine)

    2014-02-05

    Highlights: • Phase relations for the Zr–Co–Sb system at 500 °C. • Homogeneity region for half-Heusler phase. • The distribution of DOS for Zr{sub 1+x}Co{sub 1−x}Sb predicts transition from semiconductor (x = 0) to metallic (x = 0.13) like behavior. • The existence of the solid solution Zr{sub 5}Co{sub x}Sb{sub 3+y} (x = 0.0–1.0, y = 0.0–1.0). -- Abstract: The phase equilibria in the Zr–Co–Sb ternary system were studied at 873 K by means of X-ray and metallographic analyses in the whole concentration range. The interaction between the elements results the formation of four ternary compounds at investigated temperature: ZrCoSb (MgAgAs-type), Zr{sub 6}CoSb{sub 2} (K{sub 2}UF{sub 6}-type), Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) and Zr{sub 5}Co{sub 0.5}Sb{sub 2.5} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type). The limited composition Zr{sub 5}CoSb{sub 3} of the solid solution based on the Zr{sub 5}Sb{sub 3−4} binaries is considered as compound with Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3} structure type. The influence of the disordering and defects in the crystal structure of ZrCoSb on the physical properties was analyzed. The performed electronic structure calculations are in good agreement with electrical and magnetic studies.

  5. Point defect states in Sb-doped germanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Neil S., E-mail: neilp@mit.edu; Monmeyran, Corentin, E-mail: comonmey@mit.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Agarwal, Anuradha [Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Kimerling, Lionel C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Microphotonics Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-10-21

    Defect states in n-type Sb-doped germanium were investigated by deep-level transient spectroscopy. Cobalt-60 gamma rays were used to generate isolated vacancies and interstitials which diffuse and react with impurities in the material to form four defect states (E{sub 37}, E{sub 30}, E{sub 22}, and E{sub 21}) in the upper half of the bandgap. Irradiations at 77 K and 300 K as well as isothermal anneals were performed to characterize the relationships between the four observable defects. E{sub 37} is assigned to the Sb donor-vacancy associate (E-center) and is the only vacancy containing defect giving an estimate of 2 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −3} Mrad{sup −1} for the uncorrelated vacancy-interstitial pair introduction rate. The remaining three defect states are interstitial associates and transform among one another. Conversion ratios between E{sub 22}, E{sub 21}, and E{sub 30} indicate that E{sub 22} likely contains two interstitials.

  6. SB LOCA analyses for Krsko Full Scope Simulator verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prosek, A.; Parzer, I.; Mavko, B.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power plant simulators are intended to be used for training and maintaining competence to ensure safe, reliable operation of nuclear power plants throughout the world. The simulator shall be specified to a reference unit and its performance validation testing shall be provided. In this study a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SB LOCA) response of Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP) was calculated for full scope simulator verification. The investigation included five cases with varying the break size in the cold leg of reactor coolant system. The plant specific and verified RELAP5/MOD2 model of Krsko nuclear power plant (NPP), developed in the past for 1882 MWt power, was adapted for 2000 MWt power (cycle 17) including the model for replacement steam generators. The results showed that the plant system response to breaks with small break area was slower compared to breaks with larger break area. The core heatup occurred in most of the cases analyzed. The acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling system were also met. The predicted results of the SB LOCA analysis for Krsko NPP suggest that they may be used for verification of the Krsko Full Scope Simulator performance. (author)

  7. Production of 122Sb for the study of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi Sadeghi; Mohammadreza Aboudzadeh; Parvin Sarabadani; Milad Enferadi

    2011-01-01

    This article presents, 122 Sb (T 1/2 = 2.723 days, I β- 97.59%) was produced via the nat Sn(p,xn) nuclear process at the AMIRS (Cyclone-30, IBA, Belgium). The electrodeposition experiments were carried out by potassium stannate trihydrate (K 2 Sn(OH) 6 ) and potassium hydroxide. The optimum conditions of the electrodeposition of tin were as follows: 40 g/L nat Sn, 20 g/L KOH, 115 g/L K 2 Sn(OH) 6 , DC current density of 5 A/dm 2 with a bath temperature of 75 deg C. The electroplated Tin-target was irradiated with 26.5 MeV protons at current of 180 μA for 20 min. Solvent extraction of no-carrier-added 122 Sb from irradiated Tin-natural target hydrochloric solution was investigated using di-n-butyl ether (C 8 H 18 O). Yields of about 3.61 MBq/μAh were experimentally obtained. (author)

  8. Synthesis and characterisation of YbPdSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haines, Charles R.S.; Brown, Philip A.C.; Grosche, Friedrich M. [Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The intermetallic compound YbPdSb can form in two structures: the low temperature (LT) half-Heusler phase, in which the Yb atoms form a frustrated fcc structure, and the high temperature (HT) Pnma modification. We have prepared phase pure samples of both structures and report resistivity, magnetisation and heat capacity measurements on both. The LT phase is a Kondo lattice system showing large-moment Curie-Weiss paramagnet behaviour without any phase transition anomalies down to the lowest temperatures measured. The resistivity is rather insensitive to temperature from room temperature down to ∝50 K where it decreases steeply with further cooling. By contrast, in the HT phase the magnetic susceptibility displays weak temperature dependence and the resistivity falls with decreasing temperature in the way expected of a weakly correlated metal. These findings suggest that in contrast to the electronic state in the LT structure, the 4f-shell of Yb is completely filled in the HT structure of YbPdSb, presenting an interesting opportunity to study the interplay between lattice and electronic structure within the same compound.

  9. Pseudopotential calculations of AlSb under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algarni, H.; Al-Hagan, O. A.; Bouarissa, N.; Khan, M. A.; Alhuwaymel, T. F.

    2018-02-01

    The dependence on hydrostatic pressure of the electronic and optical properties of zinc-blende AlSb semiconducting material in the pressure range of 0-20 kbar has been reported using a pseudopotential approach. At zero pressure, our findings showed that the electron and heavy hole effective masses are 0.11 and 0.38 m0, respectively. Moreover, our results yielded values of 3.3289 and 11.08 for refractive index and high frequency dielectric constant, respectively. These results are found to be in good accord with experiment. Upon compression, all physical parameters of interest showed a monotonic behavior. The pressure-induced energy shifts for the optical transition related to band-gaps indicated that AlSb remains an indirect (D-X) band-gap semiconductor at pressures from 0 to 20 kbar. The trend in all features of interest versus pressure has been presented and discussed. It is found that the lattice parameter is reduced from 0.61355 to 0.60705 nm when pressure is raised from 0 to 20 kbar. The present investigation may be useful for mid-infrared lasers applications, detectors and communication devices.

  10. Comparisons of TRAC-PF-1 calculations with semiscale Mod-3 small-break tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahota, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Semiscale Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 conducted in the Semiscale Mod-3 facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are analyzed using the latest released version of the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). The results are used to assess TRAC-PF1 predictions of thermal-hydraulic phenomena and the effects of break size and pump operation on system response during slow transients. Tests S-SB-P1 and S-SB-P7 simulated an equivalent pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) 2.5% communicative cold-leg break for early and late pump trips, respectively, with only high-pressure injection (HPI) into the cold legs. The parameters examined include break flow, primary-system pressure response, primary-system mass distribution, and core characteristics

  11. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors with Sb2TeOx gate insulators fabricated by reactive sputtering using a metallic Sb2Te target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Woo-Seok

    2011-01-01

    Using reactive sputtering, we made transparent amorphous Sb 2 TeO x thin films from a metallic Sb 2 Te target in an oxidizing atmosphere. In-Ga-Zn-oxide thin-film transistors (IGZO TFTs) with Sb 2 TeO x gate insulators deposited at room temperature showed a large hysteresis with a counter clockwise direction, which was caused by mobile charges in the gate insulators. The problems of the mobile charges was solved by using Sb 2 TeO x films formed at 250 .deg. C. After the IGZO TFT had been annealed at 200 .deg. C for 1 hour in an O 2 ambient, the mobility of the IGZO TFT was 22.41 cm 2 /Vs, and the drain current on-off ratio was ∼10 8 .

  12. 77 FR 34073 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; S&B Pharma, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application; S&B Pharma, Inc. Pursuant to Sec. 1301.33(a), Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), this is notice that on April 4, 2012, S&B Pharma Inc., 405 South Motor Avenue, Azusa...

  13. Atomic structure of the SbCu surface alloy: A surface X-ray diffraction study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meunier, I.; Gay, J.M.; Lapena, L.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution at 400 degrees C of an antimony layer deposited at room temperature on a Cu(111) substrate leads to a surface alloy with a p(root 3x root 3)R 30 degrees x 30 degrees superstructure and a Sb composition of 1/3.We present here a structural study of this Sb-Cu compound by surface X...

  14. The Cu-Sb-Se phase system at temperatures between 350 and 700 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven

    1999-01-01

    Phase relations were determined in the Cu-Sb-Se phase system at 300o, 400o, 450o, 500o, 600o and 700oC. Five three-component phases are present at 300oC: permingeatite (Cu3SbSe4), phase A (Cu3SbSe3, the Se-equivalent to skinnerite Cu3SbS3), phase B (CuSbSe2, the Se-equivalent to chalcostibite Cu......SbS2), phase C (Cu5.04Sb35.9Se59.1) and phase D (Cu38.8Sb6.10Se55.1). An X-ray crystallographic study is currently in progress on phase C. Phase D is present in insufficient amounts for such a study. At 400oC phase C and D does not exist and at 500oC all solid ternary phase are absent. At 450oC two...

  15. Preparation and crystal structure of Ca/sub 4/Sb/sub 2/O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmann, B; Limartha, H; Schaefer, H; Graf, H A

    1980-12-01

    The formerly described compound Ca/sub 2/Sb is to be corrected to Ca/sub 4/Sb/sub 2/O as shown by X-ray diffractometer data of single crystals and neutron diffraction diagrams of powders. The compound crystallizes in the K/sub 2/NiF/sub 4/ type structure.

  16. Ionothermal Synthesis, Structure, and Bonding of the Catena -Heteropolycation 1 ∞ [Sb 2 Se 2 ] +

    KAUST Repository

    Groh, Matthias F.

    2015-01-26

    The reaction of antimony and selenium in the Lewis-acidic ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tetrachloridoaluminate, [BMIm]Cl•4.7AlCl3, yielded dark-red crystals of [Sb2Se2]AlCl4. The formation starts above 160 ° C; at about 190 ° C, irreversible decomposition takes place. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic space group P 1¯ with a = 919.39(2) pm, b = 1137.92(3) pm, c = 1152.30(3) pm, α = 68.047(1)° , β = 78.115(1)° , γ = 72.530(1)° , and Z = 4. The structure is similar to that of [Sb2Te2]AlCl4 but has only half the number of crystallographically independent atoms. Polycationic chains 1∞ [Sb2Se2]+ form a pseudo-hexagonal arrangement along [011¯] ], which is interlaced by tetrahedral AlCl4 - groups. The catena-heteropolycation 1∞ [Sb2Se2]+ is a sequence of three different four-membered [Sb2Se2 ] rings. The chemical bonding scheme, established from the topological analysis of the real-space bonding indicator ELI-D, includes significantly polar covalent bonding in four-member rings withinthepolycation.Theringsareconnectedintoaninfinitechainbyhomonuclear non-polar Sb-Sb bonds and highly polar Sb-Se bonds. Half of the selenium atoms are three-bonded.

  17. Biocompatibility of GaSb thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Naoki; Fujihara, Junko; Yoshino, Katsumi

    2017-07-01

    GaSb may be suitable for biological applications, such as cellular sensors and bio-medical instrumentation because of its low toxicity compared with As (III) compounds and its band gap energy. Therefore, the biocompatibility and the film properties under physiological conditions were investigated for GaSb thin films with or without a surface coating. GaSb thin films were grown on quartz substrates by RF magnetron sputtering, and then coated with (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPT). The electrical properties, surface morphology, and crystal structure of the GaSb thin film were unaffected by the MPT coating. The cell viability assay suggested that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible. Bare GaSb was particularly unstable in pH9 buffer. Ga elution was prevented by the MPT coating, although the Ga concentration in the pH 9 buffer was higher than that in the other solutions. The surface morphology and crystal structure were not changed by exposure to the solutions, except for the pH 9 buffer, and the thin film properties of MPT-coated GaSb exposed to distilled water and H2O2 in saline were maintained. These results indicate that MPT-coated GaSb thin films are biocompatible and could be used for temporary biomedical devices.

  18. Effect of laser irradiation on Ag4In12Sb56Te28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnusamy, Rangasami

    2018-04-01

    Ag4In12Sb56Te28 has been synthesized by melt-quench method. Phase homogeneity, crystal structure and effect of laser irradiation have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Rietveld refinement of crystal structure revealed that Ag4In12Sb56Te28 is a multiphase system with AgIn3Te5, Sb8Te3 and Sb phases. Combined optical microscopy and Raman spectroscopy have been used to understand the distribution of different phases on the surface of the samples, which substantiated the results of Rietveld analysis. Interaction of 20 mW laser beam with samples has been investigated using Raman measurements. The results have shown that regions with large phase fraction of AgIn3Te5 become amorphous during laser-sample interaction, but the starting phase remains nearly same after the interaction. Regions with AgIn3Te5 and nearly equal or larger amount of Sb8Te3 have shown significant growth of α-Sb2O3 during and after laser-sample interaction. Regions rich in Sb have shown formation of AgIn3Te5 and growth of α-Sb2O3 during and after interaction. These observations have been explained based on the maximum temperature rise at different regions during laser-sample interaction.

  19. Fluorometric and molecular docking investigation on the binding characteristics of SB202190 to human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasruddin, Ahmad N.; Feroz, Shevin R.; Mukarram, Abdul K.; Mohamad, Saharuddin B.; Tayyab, Saad

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of SB202190, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor with the main drug transporter in human circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and in silico docking methods. The association constant, K a of the binding reaction was determined to be 3.24±0.07×10 4 M −1 at 25 °C based on fluorescence quenching titration results. The values of enthalpy change and entropy change for the interaction were found as −8.54 kJ mol −1 and 58.01 J mol −1 K −1 , respectively. Both thermodynamic data and docking results suggested the involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces in the complex formation. Three-dimensional fluorescence data of SB202190–HSA complex demonstrated significant changes in the microenvironment around the protein fluorophores upon drug binding. Comparison of HSA thermograms obtained in the absence and the presence of SB202190 suggested improved protein thermal stability upon complexation with the drug. Competitive drug displacement results as well as modeling data concluded the preferred binding site of SB202190 on HSA as Sudlow's site I. - Highlights: • SB202190 interacts with HSA with moderate affinity. • Involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces in SB202190 binding. • SB202190 binding results in microenvironmental changes around fluorophores. • Sudlow's site I is the preferred binding site of SB202190.

  20. Investigation of broken symmetry of Sb/Cu(111) surface alloys by VT-STM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlovu, GF

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This work present an in situ Variable Temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (VT-STM) study of the Sb/Cu(111) system studied at various temperatures. The experimental data support a structural model in which Sb atoms displace up to 1...

  1. Bismuth-induced restructuring of the GaSb(110) surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gemmeren, T. van; Lottermoser, L.; Falkenberg, G.

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the GaSb(110)(1 x 2)-Bi reconstruction has been solved using surface x-ray diffraction, scanning tunneling microscopy, and photoelectron spectroscopy. The ideal GaSb(110) surface is terminated with zigzag chains of anions and cations running in the [1 (1) over bar 0] direction...

  2. Room temperature synthesis of crystalline Sb2S3 for SnO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attention of researchers owing to their low cost, simple fabrication technique and .... The typical SEM images of as-deposited Sb2S3 in figure 3a show the .... reduce back the excited Sb2S3 to its ground state and to set the system for next ...

  3. SB431542 treatment promotes the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle fibers but decreases specific force

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watt, K.I.; Jaspers, R.T.; Atherton, P.; Smith, K.; Rennie, M.J.; Ratkevicius, A.; Wackerhage, H.

    2010-01-01

    The small molecule inhibitor SB431542 inhibits activin type I receptors. The muscle growth-inhibitor myostatin binds to and signals via these receptors. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that SB431542 can inhibit myostatinrelated Smad signaling and induce muscle growth in cultured

  4. Orientation control and thermoelectric properties of FeSb2 films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Ye; Zhang, Eryun; Johnsen, Simon

    2010-01-01

    FeSb2 has a high potential for technological applications due to its colossal thermoelectric power, giant carrier mobility and large magnetoresistance. Earlier, growth of lang1 0 1rang-textured FeSb2 films on quartz (0 0 0 1) substrates has been reported. Here magnetron sputtering is used to obtain...

  5. Tunable surface wettability and water adhesion of Sb2S3 micro-/nanorod films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Xin; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao; Liu, Yunling; Yan, Guoping; Chen, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Antimony sulfide (Sb 2 S 3 ) films were successfully prepared by spin coating Sb 2 S 3 micro-/nanorods with different sizes on glass slides, which was synthesized via a facile and rapid microwave irradiation method. The prepared Sb 2 S 3 micro-/nanorods and films were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water contact angle (CA). The as-prepared Sb 2 S 3 films exhibited different surface wettabilities ranging from superhydrophilicity to superhydrophobicity, which was strongly dependent on the diameter of Sb 2 S 3 micro-/nanorod. Sb 2 S 3 film made by nanorods possessed superhydrophobic surface and high water adhesive property. After surface modification with stearic acid, the superhydrophobic surface exhibited an excellent self-cleaning property owing to its low adhesive force. The clarification of three possible states including Wenzel's state, “Gecko” state and Cassie's state for Sb 2 S 3 film surfaces was also proposed to provide a better understanding of interesting surface phenomena on Sb 2 S 3 films.

  6. Two-mode Diode-laser Spectroscopy with a InAsSb/InAsSbP Laser near 3.6 ćm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Danilova, A. P.; Imenkov, A. N.; Kolchanova, N. M.; Sherstnev, V. V.; Yakovlev, Yu. P.

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 12 (1999), s. 1322-1327 ISSN 1063-7826 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4040708 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A54/98:Z4-040-9-ii Keywords : output frequency of InAsSb/InAsSbP * current dependence Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.565, year: 1999

  7. Microwave radiation absorption and Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in semimetal InAs/GaSb/AlSb composite quantum wells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikhailova, M. P.; Veinger, A.I.; Kochman, I.V.; Semenikhin, P.V.; Kalinina, K.V.; Parfeniev, R.V.; Berezovets, V.A.; Safonchik, M.O.; Hospodková, Alice; Pangrác, Jiří; Zíková, Markéta; Hulicius, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), 1-8, č. článku 046013. ISSN 1934-2608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15286S; GA MŠk LO1603 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations * microwave absorption * electron-paramagnetic resonance * composite quantum wells * InAs/GaSb/AlSb * MOVPE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.325, year: 2016

  8. The Enzyme Activity and Substrate Specificity of Two Major Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), SbCAD2 and SbCAD4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Se-Young; Walker, Alexander M; Kim, Hoon; Ralph, John; Vermerris, Wilfred; Sattler, Scott E; Kang, ChulHee

    2017-08-01

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in monolignol biosynthesis, reducing sinapaldehyde, coniferaldehyde, and p -coumaraldehyde to their corresponding alcohols in an NADPH-dependent manner. Because of its terminal location in monolignol biosynthesis, the variation in substrate specificity and activity of CAD can result in significant changes in overall composition and amount of lignin. Our in-depth characterization of two major CAD isoforms, SbCAD2 (Brown midrib 6 [bmr6]) and SbCAD4, in lignifying tissues of sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor ), a strategic plant for generating renewable chemicals and fuels, indicates their similarity in both structure and activity to Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) CAD5 and Populus tremuloides sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase, respectively. This first crystal structure of a monocot CAD combined with enzyme kinetic data and a catalytic model supported by site-directed mutagenesis allows full comparison with dicot CADs and elucidates the potential signature sequence for their substrate specificity and activity. The L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 double mutant displayed its substrate preference in the order coniferaldehyde > p -coumaraldehyde > sinapaldehyde, with higher catalytic efficiency than that of both wild-type SbCAD4 and SbCAD2. As SbCAD4 is the only major CAD isoform in bmr6 mutants, replacing SbCAD4 with L119W/G301F-SbCAD4 in bmr6 plants could produce a phenotype that is more amenable to biomass processing. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  9. 纳米 Sb2O3/MMA原位乳液聚合研究%Nano-sized Sb2O3/MMA in-situ emulsion polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭菁; 吴红兵; 胡红春; 张经武; 解孝林

    2002-01-01

    研究了纳米 Sb2O3/MMA体系的原位乳液聚合反应.结果表明,纳米 Sb2O3对 MMA的聚合无阻聚作用,表面包覆的聚甲基丙烯酸甲酯能有效地解决纳米粒子的团聚问题 .

  10. Growth of InTlSB and InTlP for Long Wavelength Infrared Detector Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Razeghi, M

    1998-01-01

    .... Other novel alloys such as InAsSb and InSbBi are also investigated. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of these novel materials have been investigated in detail with various ex-situ characterization techniques...

  11. Characteristics of phase transition and separation in a In-Ge-Sb-Te system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Jin [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Moon Hyung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Park, Seung-Jong [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Mann-Ho, E-mail: mh.cho@yonsei.ac.kr [Institute of Physics and Applied Physics, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Dae-Hong [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer InGeSbTe films were fabricated via co-deposition stoichiometric GST and IST targets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As the amount of IST was increased in InGeSbTe, the value for V{sub th} and the phase transition temperature were increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phase separation in InGeSbTe is caused by differences in the enthalpy change for formation and different atomic concentrations. - Abstract: In-doped GeSbTe films were deposited by ion beam sputtering deposition (IBSD) using Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} (GST) and In{sub 3}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 2} (IST) as targets. The phase change characteristics of the resulting films were then investigated by electrical measurements, including static testing, in situ 4-point R{sub s} measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The threshold voltage of the films increased, with increasing levels of IST. This phenomenon is consistent with the increased crystallization temperature in X-ray data and in situ 4-point R{sub s} data. In addition, in In{sub 28}Ge{sub 12}Sb{sub 26}Te{sub 34}, multiple V{sub th} values with a stepwise change are observed. The minimum time for the crystallization of InGeSbTe films was shorter than that for GST. X-ray data and Raman data for the crystalline structure show that phase separation to In{sub 2}Te{sub 3} occurred in all of the InGeSbTe samples after annealing at 350 Degree-Sign C. Moreover, in the case of InGeSbTe films with high concentrations of In (28 at.%), Sb phase separation was also observed. The observed phases indicate that the origin of the phase separation of InGeSbTe films is from the enthalpy change of formation and differences in Ge-Te, In-Te, Sb-Te, In-Sb and In-In bond energies.

  12. Optimization of growth parameters for MOVPE-grown GaSb and Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miya, S.S.; Wagener, V. [Department of Physics, Private Bag X 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6001 (South Africa); Botha, J.R., E-mail: reinhardt.botha@nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, Private Bag X 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6001 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The triethylgallium/trimethylantimony (TEGa/TMSb) precursor combination was used for the metal-organic vapour phase epitaxial growth of GaSb at a growth temperature of 520 Degree-Sign C at atmospheric pressure. Trimethylindium was added in the case of Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb growth. The effects of group V flux to group III flux ratio (V/III ratio) on the crystallinity and optical properties of GaSb layers are reported. It has been observed from the crystalline quality and optical properties that nominal V/III ratios of values greater than unity are required for GaSb epitaxial layers grown at this temperature. It has also been shown that Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb can be grown using TEGa as a source of gallium species at atmospheric pressure. The relationship between Ga{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Sb vapour composition and solid composition has been studied at a V/III ratio of 0.78.

  13. Effects of Radiative Recombination and Photon Recycling on Minority Carrier Lifetime in Epitaxial GaINAsSb Lattice-matched to GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S Anikeev; D Donetsky; G Belenky; S Luryl; CA Wang; DA Shiau; M Dashiell; J Beausang; G Nichols

    2004-01-01

    Radiative coefficient (B) is a fundamental recombination parameter which is of importance for a variety of optoelectronic minority carrier devices. Radiative recombination was comprehensively studied for wide-bandgap III-V compounds, while for 0.5-0.6 eV materials experimental data are quite limited and demonstrate significant spreading. Here we report excess carrier lifetime in isotype double heterostructures (DHs) of 0.54-eV p-GaInAsSb capped with p-AlGaAsSb, and grown lattice-matched to GaSb. Lifetime was measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (dynamic lifetime) as well as by optical response to sinusoidal excitation (static lifetime). Wide range of GaInAsSb layer thickness was used to separate contributions from interface and radiative recombination processes. Radiative coefficient and recombination velocity at GaInAsSb/AlGaAsSb heterointerface were determined. Temperature dependence of lifetime demonstrated significant contribution of radiative effects to the total recombination

  14. The electronic band structures of InNxAs1-x, InNxSb1-x and InAsxSb1-x alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Rezek; Katircioglu, Senay

    2009-01-01

    The band gap bowings of InN x As 1-x , InN x Sb 1-x , and InAs x Sb 1-x alloys defined by the optimized lattice constants are investigated using empirical tight binding (ETB) method. The present ETB energy parameters which take the nearest neighbor interactions into account with sp 3 d 2 basis are determined to be sufficient to provide a typical feature for the band gap bowings of the alloys. The band gap bowing parameter is found to be relatively large in both InN x As 1-x and InN x Sb 1-x compared to InAs x Sb 1-x alloys. Moreover, the variation of the fundamental band gaps of InN x Sb 1-x alloys is sharper than that of InN x As 1-x alloys for small concentrations of N. Besides, a small amount of nitrogen is determined to be more effective in InN x Sb 1-x than in InN x As 1-x alloys to decrease the corresponding effective masses of the electrons around Γ points

  15. Nanoscale nuclei in phase change materials: Origin of different crystallization mechanisms of Ge2Sb2Te5 and AgInSbTe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bong-Sub; Bogle, Stephanie N.; Darmawikarta, Kristof; Abelson, John R.; Shelby, Robert M.; Retter, Charles T.; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Raoux, Simone; Bishop, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Phase change memory devices are based on the rapid and reversible amorphous-to-crystalline transformations of phase change materials, such as Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 and AgInSbTe. Since the maximum switching speed of these devices is typically limited by crystallization speed, understanding the crystallization process is of crucial importance. While Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 and AgInSbTe show very different crystallization mechanisms from their melt-quenched states, the nanostructural origin of this difference has not been clearly demonstrated. Here, we show that an amorphous state includes different sizes and number of nanoscale nuclei, after thermal treatment such as melt-quenching or furnace annealing is performed. We employ fluctuation transmission electron microscopy to detect nanoscale nuclei embedded in amorphous materials, and use a pump-probe laser technique and atomic force microscopy to study the kinetics of nucleation and growth. We confirm that melt-quenched amorphous Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 includes considerably larger and more quenched-in nuclei than its as-deposited state, while melt-quenched AgInSbTe does not, and explain this contrast by the different ratio between quenching time and nucleation time in these materials. In addition to providing insights to the crystallization process in these technologically important devices, this study presents experimental illustrations of temperature-dependence of nucleation rate and growth speed, which was predicted by theory of phase transformation but rarely demonstrated

  16. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jia-Ning; Gong, Shui-Li; Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B 4 C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB 2 , TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB 2 (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB 2 /TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB 2 /TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles

  17. Structural instability and photoacoustic study of AlSb prepared by mechanical alloying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triches, D.M.; Souza, S.M.; Poffo, C.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fsc.ufsc.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Biasi, R.S. de [Secao de Engenharia Mecanica e de Materiais, Instituto Militar de Engenharia, 22290-270 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-09-03

    High-purity elemental Al and Sb powders were blended with equiatomic composition and submitted to mechanical alloying. For all milling times, the milled powders showed a mixture of AlSb and elemental Sb. The largest amount of AlSb was reached for milling times between 7 and 10 h. For milling times larger than 10 h, decomposition of AlSb was observed. The volume fractions of the crystalline and interfacial components were estimated using the X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample milled for 10 h. Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS) was used to determine the thermal diffusivity and other heat transport parameters in the same sample. A combination of XRD and PAS data was used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the interfacial component, which has a significant contribution to the thermal diffusivity of the sample.

  18. Structural instability and photoacoustic study of AlSb prepared by mechanical alloying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triches, D.M.; Souza, S.M.; Poffo, C.M.; Lima, J.C. de; Grandi, T.A.; Biasi, R.S. de

    2010-01-01

    High-purity elemental Al and Sb powders were blended with equiatomic composition and submitted to mechanical alloying. For all milling times, the milled powders showed a mixture of AlSb and elemental Sb. The largest amount of AlSb was reached for milling times between 7 and 10 h. For milling times larger than 10 h, decomposition of AlSb was observed. The volume fractions of the crystalline and interfacial components were estimated using the X-ray diffraction pattern of a sample milled for 10 h. Photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy (PAS) was used to determine the thermal diffusivity and other heat transport parameters in the same sample. A combination of XRD and PAS data was used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the interfacial component, which has a significant contribution to the thermal diffusivity of the sample.

  19. Magnetic and structural properties of Bi(2223doped by pb and Sb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Salamati

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   In a systematic approach, we have investigated the effect of the presence of Pb and Sb in the Bi site in a BSCCO (2223 phase superconductor. There are some contradictory reports in substitution of Sb in the Bi site. Some researchers report an increase in the Tc of these materials. So, we have made an accurate stoichiometry of these superconductors and selected extra pure starting materials with appropriate ratios of Pb+Sb.   The susceptility of these samples have been measured and the structures of the systems have been studied by SEM and XRD. The results of this investigation show that, Although the presence of Pb is essential for formation of (2223 phase, but addition of small amount of Sb helps to stabilize and enhance the ratio of higher phase. Our results show that, presence of Sb would raise the critical current density, but would not affect the Tc of these superconductors.

  20. Stability enhancement and electronic tunability of two-dimensional SbIV compounds via surface functionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenhan; Guo, Shiying; Liu, Xuhai; Cai, Bo; Song, Xiufeng; Zhu, Zhen; Zhang, Shengli

    2018-01-01

    We propose a family of hydrogenated- and halogenated-SbIV (SbIVX-2) materials that simultaneously have two-dimensional (2D) structures, high stability and appealing electronic properties. Based on first-principles total-energy and vibrational-spectra calculations, SbIVX-2 monolayers are found both thermally and dynamically stable. Varying IV and X elements can rationally tune the electronic properties of SbIVX-2 monolayers, effectively modulating the band gap from 0 to 3.42 eV. Regarding such superior stability and broad band-gap range, SbIVX-2 monolayers are expected to be synthesized in experiments and taken as promising candidates for low-dimensional electronic and optoelectronic devices, such as blue-to-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LED) and photodetectors.

  1. Heteroepitaxial Growth of Ferromagnetic MnSb(0001) Films on Ge/Si(111) Virtual Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Christopher W; Dobbie, Andrew; Myronov, Maksym; Hase, Thomas P A; Wilkins, Stuart B; Walker, Marc; Mudd, James J; Maskery, Ian; Lees, Martin R; McConville, Christopher F; Leadley, David R; Bell, Gavin R

    2013-11-06

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth of ferromagnetic MnSb(0001) has been achieved on high quality, fully relaxed Ge(111)/Si(111) virtual substrates grown by reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. The epilayers were characterized using reflection high energy electron diffraction, synchrotron hard X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and magnetometry. The surface reconstructions, magnetic properties, crystalline quality, and strain relaxation behavior of the MnSb films are similar to those of MnSb grown on GaAs(111). In contrast to GaAs substrates, segregation of substrate atoms through the MnSb film does not occur, and alternative polymorphs of MnSb are absent.

  2. Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, ShiQuan; Cheng, XinLu; Zhao, JianLing; Zhang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from T e = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect

  3. Ab initio calculation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, ShiQuan; Zhao, JianLing; Cheng, XinLu; Zhang, Hong

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, phonon spectra of InSb at different electronic temperatures are presented. Based on the phonon dispersion relationship, we further perform a theoretical investigation of the thermodynamic properties of InSb under intense laser irradiation. The phonon entropy, phonon heat capacity, and phonon contribution to Helmholtz free energy and internal energy of InSb are calculated as functions of temperature at different electronic temperatures. The abrupt change in the phonon entropy- temperature curve from Te = 0.75 to 1.0 eV provides an indication of InSb undergoing a phase transition from solid to liquid. It can be considered as a collateral evidence of non-thermal melting for InSb under intense electronic excitation effect.

  4. Phase transitions in thin films of Sn-Sb-Se system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsudi Sakrani; Abdalla Belal Adam; Yussof Wahab

    1998-01-01

    The preparation and formation of covalent ternary Sn-Sb-Se system were investigated. A solid state reaction technique was employed whereby the evaporated multilayers of Sn/Se/Sb/Sn reacted chemically at a fixed temperature of 240 o C and were allowed to a room temperature slow-cooling. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that phase changes occurred in the system, with indication of amorphization for the predicted Sn 9 .3Sb 8 .1Se 4 4.9 and Sn 1 3.2Sb 4 3.4Se 4 3.4 compositions. These enabled the preliminary topological phase transitions of Sn-Sb-Se system according to the Gibb's triangle in which the areas of crystalline-amorphous were located. (Author)

  5. Low temperature Zn diffusion for GaSb solar cell structures fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulima, Oleg V.; Faleev, Nikolai N.; Kazantsev, Andrej B.; Mintairov, Alexander M.; Namazov, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Low temperature Zn diffusion in GaSb, where the minimum temperature was 450 C, was studied. The pseudo-closed box (PCB) method was used for Zn diffusion into GaAs, AlGaAs, InP, InGaAs and InGaAsP. The PCB method avoids the inconvenience of sealed ampoules and proved to be simple and reproducible. The special design of the boat for Zn diffusion ensured the uniformality of Zn vapor pressure across the wafer surface, and thus the uniformity of the p-GaSb layer depth. The p-GaSb layers were studied using Raman scattering spectroscopy and the x-ray rocking curve method. As for the postdiffusion processing, an anodic oxidation was used for a precise thinning of the diffused GaSb layers. The results show the applicability of the PCB method for the large-scale production of the GaSb structures for solar cells.

  6. NMR studies in the half-Heusler type compound YbPtSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T; Abe, M; Mito, T; Ueda, K; Kohara, T [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Suzuki, H S, E-mail: t-koyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.jp [National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2011-01-01

    {sup 121}Sb and {sup 19B}Pt nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been studied in the half-Heusler type compound YbPtSb to obtain information on local magnetic behavior. The characteristics of the localized 4f spins are observed in the Cuire-Weiss type behavior of the Knight shifts K for both {sup 121}Sb and {sup 19B}Pt. From the slope of K-{sub {chi}} plots we estimated hyperfine coupling constants of -3.8 and -4.6 kOe/{mu}{sub B} at Sb and Pt sites, respectively. It was found that the spin-echo decay rate 1/T{sub 2} of {sup 121}Sb shows a clear peaks at 10 K. Similar tendency was also observed in case of {sup 19B}Pt. However, static properties do not show any anomalies near 10 K.

  7. Minority-carrier transport in InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charache, G.; Martinelli, R.U.; Garbuzov, D.Z.; Lee, H.; Morris, N.; Odubanjo, T.; Connolly, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Uncoated InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes with 0.56 eV (2.2 microm) bandgaps exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 59% at 2 microm. The devices have electron diffusion lengths as long as 29 microm in 8-microm-wide p-InGaAsSb layers and hole diffusion lengths of 3 microm in 6-microm-wide n-InGaAsSb layers. The electron and hole diffusion lengths appear to increase with increasing p- and n-layer widths. At 632.8 nm the internal quantum efficiencies of diodes with 1- to 8-microm-wide p-layers are above 89% and are independent of the p-layer width, indicating long electron diffusion lengths. InGaAsSb has, therefore, excellent minority carrier transport properties that are well suited to efficient TPV diode operation. The structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

  8. Effect of Sb on physical properties and microstructures of laser nano/amorphous-composite film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jia-Ning, E-mail: jn2369@163.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Gong, Shui-Li, E-mail: gongshuili@sina.com [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Sun, Mei; Shan, Fei-Hu; Wang, Xi-Chang [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Jiang, Shuai [Science and Technology on Power Beam Processes Laboratory, Beijing (China); Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580 (China)

    2013-11-01

    A nano/amorphous-composite film was fabricated by laser cladding (LC) of the Co–Ti–B{sub 4}C–Sb mixed powders on a TA15 alloy. Such film mainly consisted of Ti–Al, Co–Ti, Co–Sb intermetallics, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, TiB, and the amorphous phases. Experimental results indicated that the crystal systems of TiB{sub 2} (hexagonal)/TiC (cubic) and Sb (rhombohedral) played important role on the formation of such film. Due to the mismatch of these crystals systems and mutual immiscibility of the metallic components, Sb was not incorporated in TiB{sub 2}/TiC, but formed separate nuclei during the film growth. Thus, the growth of TiB{sub 2}/TiC was stopped by the Sb nucleus in such LC molten pool, so as to form the nanoscale particles.

  9. Phase change behaviors of Zn-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guoxiang; Nie Qiuhua; Shen Xiang; Fu Jing; Xu Tiefeng; Dai Shixun; Wang, R. P.; Wu Liangcai

    2012-01-01

    Zn-doped Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase-change materials have been investigated for phase change memory applications. Zn 15.16 (Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 ) 84.84 phase change film exhibits a higher crystallization temperature (∼258 °C), wider band gap (∼0.78 eV), better data retention of 10 years at 167.5 °C, higher crystalline resistance, and faster crystallization speed compared with the conventional Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 . The proper Zn atom added into Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 serves as a center for suppression of the face-centered-cubic (fcc) phase to hexagonal close-packed (hcp) phase transition, and fcc phase has high thermal stability partially due to the bond recombination among Zn, Sb, and Te atoms.

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Sb2Te3 Thin Films by Coevaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of Sb2Te3 thin films on soda-lime glass substrates by coevaporation of Sb and Te is described in this paper. Sb2Te3 thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, atomic force microscopy (AFM, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, electrical conductivity measurements, and Hall measurements. The abnormal electrical transport behavior occurred from in situ electrical conductivity measurements. The results indicate that as-grown Sb2Te3 thin films are amorphous and undergo an amorphous-crystalline transition after annealing, and the posttreatment can effectively promote the formation of Sb-Te bond and prevent oxidation of thin film surface.

  11. Sb2S3:C/CdS p-n junction by laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arato, A.; Cardenas, E.; Shaji, S.; O'Brien, J.J.; Liu, J.; Castillo, G. Alan; Das Roy, T.K.; Krishnan, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report laser irradiated carbon doping of Sb 2 S 3 thin films and formation of a p-n junction photovoltaic structure using these films. A very thin carbon layer was evaporated on to chemical bath deposited Sb 2 S 3 thin films of approximately 0.5 μm in thickness. Sb 2 S 3 thin films were prepared from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 deg. C for 5 h and the films obtained were highly resistive. These C/Sb 2 S 3 thin films were irradiated by an expanded laser beam of diameter approximately 0.5 cm (5 W power, 532 nm Verdi laser), for 2 min at ambient atmosphere. Morphology and composition of these films were analyzed. These films showed p-type conductivity due to carbon diffusion (Sb 2 S 3 :C) by the thermal energy generated by the absorption of laser radiation. In addition, these thin films were incorporated in a photovoltaic structure Ag/Sb 2 S 3 :C/CdS/ITO/Glass. For this, CdS thin film of 50 nm in thickness was deposited on a commercially available ITO coated glass substrate from a chemical bath containing CdCl 2 , sodium citrate, NH 4 OH and thiourea at 70 deg. C . On the CdS film, Sb 2 S 3 /C layers were deposited. This multilayer structure was subjected to the laser irradiation, C/Sb 2 S 3 side facing the beam. The p-n junction formed by p-Sb 2 S 3 :C and n-type CdS showed V oc = 500 mV and J sc = 0.5 mA/cm 2 under illumination by a tungsten halogen lamp. This work opens up a new method to produce solar cell structures by laser assisted material processing

  12. GaAsSb-capped InAs quantum dots: From enlarged quantum dot height to alloy fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ulloa Herrero, J.M.; Gargallo-Caballero, R.; Bozkurt, M.; Moral, del M.; Guzman, A.; Koenraad, P.M.; Hierro, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Sb-induced changes in the optical properties of GaAsSb-capped InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) are shown to be strongly correlated with structural changes. The observed redshift of the photoluminescence emission is shown to follow two different regimes. In the first regime, with Sb concentrations up

  13. Study on Exploration of Azeotropic Point of Pb-Sb Alloys by Vacuum Distillation and Ab Initio Molecular Dynamic Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bingyi; Jiang, Wenlong; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiumin; Xu, Baoqiang; Kong, Lingxin; Liu, Dachun; Dai, Yongnian

    2016-10-01

    The possibility of the separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was investigated theoretically. The results show that Pb and Sb can be separated by vacuum distillation. However, the experimental results show that vacuum distillation technique does not provide clear separation. According to the literature, Pb-Sb alloys belong to azeotropic compounds under some certain temperature; the experiment and computer simulation were carried out based on the exceptional condition so as to analyze the reason from the experiment and microstructure of Pb-Sb alloys perspective. The separation of Pb-Sb alloys by vacuum distillation was experimentally carried out to probe the azeotropic point. Also, the functions, such as partial radial distributions functions, the structure factor, mean square displacement, and the density of state, were calculated by ab-initio molecular dynamics for the representation of the structure and properties of Pb-Sb alloys with different composition of Sb. The experimental results indicate that there exists common volatilization for Pb-Sb alloys when Sb content is 16.5 wt pct. On the other hand, the calculation results show that there is an intense interaction between Pb and Sb when Sb content is 22 wt pct, which supports the experimental results although Sb content is slightly deviation.

  14. Interface characterization of InSb MOS structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapira, Y.; Bregman, J.; Calahorra, Z.; Goshen, R.

    1982-03-26

    The electrical properties of MOS devices are critically dependent on the oxide-semiconductor interface. The preparation of suitable insulating layers of oxide or other material is essential for the performance of such devices and it is particularly difficult in the case of III-V compound semiconductors. We report a method of preparing an insulating layer on InSb by a plasma oxidation process. The oxidation method will be described as well as results of the analysis of the oxide-semiconductor interface by electrical and compositional techniques. Capacitance-voltage characteristics reveal the existence of interface states which are distributed near the conduction and the valence bands with a higher density near the former. Depth profiling of the oxide by Ar/sup +/ sputtering and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) shows that the oxide is composed of a mixture of indium oxide with antimony oxide.

  15. Measurements of light absorption efficiency in InSb nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jurgilaitis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements of the light absorption efficiency of InSb nanowires. The absorbed 70 fs light pulse generates carriers, which equilibrate with the lattice via electron-phonon coupling. The increase in lattice temperature is manifested as a strain that can be measured with X-ray diffraction. The diffracted X-ray signal from the excited sample was measured using a streak camera. The amount of absorbed light was deduced by comparing X-ray diffraction measurements with simulations. It was found that 3.0(6% of the radiation incident on the sample was absorbed by the nanowires, which cover 2.5% of the sample.

  16. 124Sb - Activity measurement and determination of photon emission intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Be, M.M.; Chauvenet, B.

    2009-07-01

    The international traceability of antimony 124, in term of activity, is very limited. The results of 124 Sb activity measurements sent to the SIR (BIPM - International System of Reference, BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sb-124.) are scarce. Up to now, only three laboratories have contributed. Two of them carried out measurements using the 4πβ-γ coincidence counting technique and the third one using the 4πγ method with a well-type crystal detector. The first two results are in agreement but the last one differs significantly from them, by 2 %. The decay scheme consistency cannot be excluded when trying to explain those discrepancies. In other respects, this nuclide emits high-energy gamma rays, and then could be selected as a valuable standard radionuclide for the calibration of gamma-ray detectors in that energy range, given well known photon intensities. Those considerations led to the proposal of an international exercise and to the realisation of this Euromet project, registered as project no. 907, coordinated by CEA-List-LNE/LNHB. The first part of this exercise was dedicated to activity measurements and to their comparison. For this purpose, participants were asked to make use of all the direct measurement techniques available in their laboratory in order to confirm or not the existence of possible biases specific to some measuring methods. In addition, this exercise offered the opportunity of improving the uncertainties of the gamma-ray intensities. Then, participants were asked, in the second part of the exercise, to carry out X-ray and gamma-ray intensity measurements. These results have been compared to previous published values and new decay scheme data are proposed. Eight international laboratories participated in this exercise. (authors)

  17. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.

    2017-08-01

    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  18. Field-induced transitions in DySb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, T.O.; Lander, G.H.; Korty, F.W.; Kouvel, J.S.

    1974-01-01

    The NaCl-structured compound DySb, which in zero field transforms abruptly at T/sub N/ approximately 9.5 0 K to a Type-II antiferromagnetic (A) state with a nearly tetragonal lattice distortion, was previously found to exhibit rapid field-induced changes in magnetization at 1.5 0 K. The field-induced transitions in a DySb crystal have been studied by neutron diffraction and magnetization measurements in fields up to approximately 60 kOe applied parallel to each of the principal axes. In the broken bracket 100 broken bracket case, the transition from the A to an intermediate ferrimagnetic (Q) state is first-order at 4.2 0 K (critical field H/sub c/ approximately 21 kOe) but is continuous from approximately 6 0 K up to T/sub N/: as H/sub c/ → 0. The Q-to-paramagnetic (P) transition is rapid but continuous at 4.2 0 K (H/sub c/ approximately 40 kOe) and becomes broad as T/sub N/ is approached. In the broken bracket 110 broken bracket case the A-to-Q transition remains essentially first-order from 4.2 0 K (H/sub c/ approximately 15 kOe) up to T/sub N/; above T/sub N/ rapid P-to-Q transitions occur at very high fields. The magnetic structure of the Q state is found to be that of HoP. (U.S.)

  19. Ba{sub 4}In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16}: Thermoelectric properties of a new layered Zintl phase with infinite zigzag Sb chains and pentagonal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S J; Hu, S; Uher, C; Kanatzidis, M G

    1999-11-01

    A new Zintl phase Ba{sub 4}In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16} was obtained from a direct element combination reaction of the elements in a sealed graphite tube at 700 C, and its structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction methods. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma (No. 62) with a = 10.166(3) {angstrom}, b = 4.5239(14) {angstrom}, c = 19.495(6) {angstrom}, and Z = 1. Ba{sub 4}In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16} has a two-dimensional structure with thick corrugated (In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16}){sup 8{minus}} layers separated by Ba{sup 2+} ions. In the layer, InSb{sub 4} tetrahedra are connected by sharing three corners and by bridging the fourth corner in such a manner that infinite pentagonal tubes are formed. The compound is a narrow band gap ({approximately} 0.10 eV) semiconductor and satisfies the classical Zintl rule. Band structure calculations confirm that the material is a semiconductor and indicate that it has optimized In-Sb bonding interactions. Polycrystalline ingots of Ba{sub 4}In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16} show room-temperature electrical conductivity of 135 S/cm and a Seebeck coefficient of 70 {micro}V/K. The thermal conductivity of Ba{sub 4}In{sub 8}Sb{sub 16} is about 1.7 W/m{sm{underscore}bullet}K in the temperature range 150--300 K.

  20. Structural and physical properties of Mg3-xZnxSb2 (x=0-1.34)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadpour, Faraz; Kolodiazhnyi, Taras; Mozharivskyj, Yurij

    2007-01-01

    The Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 phases with x=0-1.34 were prepared by direct reactions of the elements in tantalum tubes. According to the X-ray single crystal and powder diffraction, the Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 phases crystallize in the same P3-bar m1 space group as the parent Mg 3 Sb 2 phase. The Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 structure is different from the other substituted structures of Mg 3 Sb 2 , such as (Ca, Sr, Ba) Mg 2 Sb 2 or Mg 5.23 Sm 0.77 Sb 4 , in a way that in Mg 3-x Zn x Sb 2 the Mg atoms on the tetrahedral sites are replaced, while in the other structures Mg on the octahedral sites is replaced. Thermoelectric performance for the two members of the series, Mg 3 Sb 2 and Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 , was evaluated from low to room temperatures through resistivity, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity measurements. In contrast to Mg 3 Sb 2 which is a semiconductor, Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 is metallic and exhibits an 18-times larger dimensionless figure-of-merit, ZT, at room temperature. However, thermoelectric performance of Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 is still poor and it is mostly due to its large electrical resistivity. - Graphical abstract: The Mg atoms in Mg 3 Sb 2 were successfully substituted with Zn, with Zn going exclusively into the tetrahedral sites. Zn substitution increases the electrical conductivity in Mg 2.36 Zn 0.64 Sb 2 by closing the band gap. This change combined with a decrease in the thermal conductivity improves the ZT value

  1. Electrochemical studies of CNT/Si–SnSb nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nithyadharseni, P. [Department of Physics, Bannari Amman Institute of Technology, Sathyamangalam 638402 (India); Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Reddy, M.V., E-mail: phymvvr@nus.edu.sg [Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore); Nalini, B., E-mail: lalin99@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam University for Women, Coimbatore 641043 (India); Ravindran, T.R. [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology, Karunya University, Coimbatore 641114 (India); Pillai, B.C.; Kalpana, M. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chowdari, B.V.R. [Department of Physics, Advanced Batteries Lab, National University of Singapore, 117542 (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Si added SnSb and CNT exhibits very low particle size of below 30 nm • A strong PL quenching due to the addition of Si to SnSb. • Electrochemical studies show CNT added SnSb shows good capacity retention. - Abstract: Nano-structured SnSb, SnSb–CNT, Si–SnSb and Si–SnSb–CNT alloys were synthesized from metal chlorides of Sn, Sb and Si via reductive co-precipitation technique using NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The as prepared compounds were characterized by various techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of the compounds were characterized by galvanostatic cycling (GC) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The Si–SnSb–CNT compound shows a high reversible capacity of 1200 mAh g{sup −1}. However, the rapid capacity fading was observed during cycling. In contrast, SnSb–CNT compound showed a high reversible capacity of 568 mAh g{sup −1} at 30th cycles with good cycling stability. The improved reversible capacity and cyclic performance of the SnSb–CNT compound could be attributed to the nanosacle dimension of SnSb particles and the structural advantage of CNTs.

  2. Leaching of Antimony (Sb)from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Inga

    2004-07-01

    The mobility of antimony (Sb) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) residues often exceeds the limit values stipulated by the European Union. As an ash treatment by washing is conceivable, this work investigated the Sb release from Swedish bottom ash and fly ash when mixed with water. The leaching experiments revealed the factors significantly (a = 0.05) affecting Sb release from the ashes. The following factors were investigated: Liquid to solid ratio (L/S), time, pH, carbonation (treatment with CO{sub 2}), ultrasonics and temperature. The data were evaluated using multiple linear regression (MLR). The impact of the factors could be quantified. The maximum Sb release calculated was 13 mg/kg DM for bottom ash and 51 mg/kg DM for fly ash. The derived models explained the observed data well. Nevertheless, the calculated values were subject to a high uncertainty. For bottom ash, a lowering of the Sb total content of approximately 22% could be achieved. If this also involves a sufficient lowering of the Sb mobility to meet EU limit values could not yet be assessed. Chemical equilibrium calculations were performed to explain the empirical results. However, no solid phases controlling Sb release from the ashes could be identified.

  3. Aluminum-centered tetrahedron-octahedron transition in advancing Al-Sb-Te phase change properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Mengjiao; Ding, Keyuan; Rao, Feng; Li, Xianbin; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang

    2015-02-24

    Group IIIA elements, Al, Ga, or In, etc., doped Sb-Te materials have proven good phase change properties, especially the superior data retention ability over popular Ge2Sb2Te5, while their phase transition mechanisms are rarely investigated. In this paper, aiming at the phase transition of Al-Sb-Te materials, we reveal a dominant rule of local structure changes around the Al atoms based on ab initio simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance evidences. By comparing the local chemical environments around Al atoms in respective amorphous and crystalline Al-Sb-Te phases, we believe that Al-centered motifs undergo reversible tetrahedron-octahedron reconfigurations in phase transition process. Such Al-centered local structure rearrangements significantly enhance thermal stability of amorphous phase compared to that of undoped Sb-Te materials, and facilitate a low-energy amorphization due to the weak links among Al-centered and Sb-centered octahedrons. Our studies may provide a useful reference to further understand the underlying physics and optimize performances of all IIIA metal doped Sb-Te phase change materials, prompting the development of NOR/NAND Flash-like phase change memory technology.

  4. Electronic structure and STM imaging of the KBr-InSb interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciochoń, Piotr, E-mail: ciochon.piotr@gmail.com; Olszowska, Natalia; Kołodziej, Jacek J.

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • The structure of the InSb (001) surface covered with thin KBr layers is reported. • KBr growth does not perturb strongly the structure of a clean InSb surface. • A model of the system with KBr treated as a thin dielectric layer is proposed. • The atomic structure of the KBr-InSb interface is directly imaged using STM. - Abstract: We study the properties of the InSb (001) surface covered with ultrathin KBr films, with a thickness of 1–4 ML. KBr deposition does not strongly perturb the crystallographic structure of the InSb surface and the electronic structure of the substrate also remains unaffected by the overlayer. A simple model of the studied system is proposed, in which a thin KBr layer is treated as a dielectric film, modifying potential barrier for the electrons tunneling to/from the InSb substrate. Apparent step heights on the KBr film, measured using scanning tunneling microscope (STM), agree well with the predictions of the model and the atomically-resolved STM images show the structure of the InSb-KBr interface. Our results demonstrate that STM may be used as a tool for investigations of the semiconductor–insulator interfaces.

  5. Study of interatomic potential and thermal structural properties of β-Zn4Sb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guodong; Li, Yao; Liu, Lisheng; Zhang, Qingjie; Zhai, Pengcheng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multi-body interatomic potentials of various models of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 have been developed to describe atomic interactions. ► The radial distribution function shows that the 10% vacancy of Zn site leads to the disorder of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 . ► The 10% vacancy of Zn site is the main cause of the exceptional low thermal conductivity. -- Abstract: Previous experimental research shows that the disordered Zn atoms in β-Zn 4 Sb 3 may have an important influence on its exceptionally low thermal conductivity and easily occurred phase transition. So the present work aims to study the influence of disordered Zn atoms on thermodynamics properties of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 by using molecular dynamics (MD) method. Firstly, based on first principles calculation and experimental results, the interatomic potentials of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 and MD analysis method are established, and the feasibility is verified. Then, the influence of disordered Zn atoms on thermal conductivity of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 is studied in detail. The simulation results indicate that the 10% vacant Zn atoms is the main reason for the exceptionally low thermal conductivity of β-Zn 4 Sb 3 , and it seems that the interstitial Zn atoms have little effect on its thermal conductivity.

  6. First-principles study of Sb adsorption on Ag(1 1 0)(2 x 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, J.L.; Xiao, H.Y.; Zu, X.T.; Gao Fei

    2006-01-01

    The adsorption of antimony atom on the Ag(1 1 0) surface has been studied within the density functional theory framework. It was turned out that Sb-Ag surface alloy was formed in which Sb atoms substitute Ag atom in the outermost layer and subsurface site absorption was not preferred, suggesting that Sb is well segregated to the surface. Geometric analysis showed that rumpling between substitutional Sb and Ag in the alloy surface is negligible. These results are found to agree well with the experimental finding of Nascimento et al. [Surf. Sci. 572 (2004) 337]. In addition, investigation of the diffusion of Ag atom on bare and Sb-covered Ag(1 1 0) surface showed that Ag adatoms will jump along the so call in-channel direction and Sb substitution has little effect on the diffusion of Ag adatoms on Ag(1 1 0) surface. Such diffusion behavior was found to be different from that of Ag adatoms on Ag(1 1 1) surface, where the diffusion energy barrier was reported to be significantly increased upon Sb substitution [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73 (1993) 2437

  7. Subsolidus phase relations of the SrO–SbOx–CuO system at 1140K in air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grivel, J.-C.; Norby, Poul; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2014-01-01

    The subsolidus phase relations of the SrO–SbOx–CuO system were investigated in air. The samples were equilibrated at 1140K. Under these conditions, 7 binary oxide phases are stable: Sr2CuO3, SrCuO2, Sr14Cu24O41−δ, CuSb2O6, SrSb2O6, Sr2Sb2O7 and Sr7Sb2O12. The ternary section contains 10 three...

  8. MBE growth and characterization of GaAs1-x Sb x epitaxial layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, T.; Nishino, F.; Kato, A.; Kambayashi, T.; Jinbo, Y.; Uchitomi, N.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the growth of GaAs 1- x Sb x (x=1.0, 0.82, 0.69, 0.44, 0.0) layers on Si (0 0 1) substrates using AlSb as a buffer layer. Epilayers were grown as a function of As beam equivalent pressure (BEP) under a constant Sb BEP, and they were then characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman scattering analysis. We confirmed that GaAs 1- x Sb x layers have been successfully grown on Si substrates by introducing AlSb layers

  9. Solution-Processed hybrid Sb2 S3 planar heterojunction solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenxiao; Borazan, Ismail; Carroll, David

    Thin-film solar cells based on inorganic absorbers permit a high efficiency and stability. Among or those absorber candidates, recently Sb2S3 has attracted extensive attention because of its suitable band gap (1.5eV ~1.7 eV) , strong optical absorption, low-cost and earth-abundant constituents. Currently high-efficiency Sb2S3 solar cells have absorber layer deposited on nanostructured TiO2 electrodes in combination with organic hole transport material (HTM) on top. However it's challenging to fill the nanostructured TiO2 layer with Sb2S3 and subsequently by HTM, this leads to uncovered surface permits charge recombination. And the existing of Sb2S3/TiO2/HTM triple interface will enhance the recombination due to the surface trap state. Therefore, a planar junction cell would not only have simpler structure with less steps to fabricate but also ideally also have a higher open circuit voltage because of less interface carrier recombination. By far there is limited research focusing on planar Sb2S3 solar cell, so the feasibility is still unclear. Here, we developed a low-toxic solution method to fabricate Sb2S3 thin film solar cell, then we studied the morphology of the Sb2S3 layer and its impact to the device performance. The best device with a structure of FTO/TiO2/Sb2S3/P3HT/Ag has PCE over 5% which is similar or higher than yet the best nanostructure devices with the same HTM. Furthermore, based on solution engineering and surface modification, we improved the Sb2S3 film quality and achieved a record PCE. .

  10. Variation of the refractive index for the active layer of the double heterostructure GaAlAsSb/GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb in injected mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohou, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work reports on the influence of the injected current on the refractive index in the active layer of GaInAsSb/GaAlAsSb laser diodes. These diodes present at threshold a full beam width at half power θ perpendicular of about 52 deg. C. The fluctuation of the refractive index caused by the injection of free carriers was studied on the basis of the evolution of θ perpendicular as a function of the injected current. It was shown that the inversion of the population which follows the rising of the gain, causes a slight decrease of the refractive index. 12 refs, 5 figs

  11. Data and analyses of phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Daiman; Xu, Chengliang; Li, Changrong; Guo, Cuiping; Zheng, Raowen; Du, Zhenmin; Li, Junqin

    2018-02-01

    These data and analyses support the research article "Experimental study on phase relations in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system" Zhu et al. (2017) [1]. The data and analyses presented here include the experimental results of XRD, SEM and EPMA for the determination of the whole liquidus projection and the isothermal section at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb system. All the results enable the understanding of the constituent phases and the solidification processes of the as-cast alloys as well as the phase relations and the equilibrium regions at 823 K in the Ce-Fe-Sb ternary system over the entire composition.

  12. Effect of N incorporation on the characteristics of InSbN P–N diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, K.P.; Pham, H.T.; Yoon, S.F.; Tan, K.H.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the effect of N incorporation in the characteristics of the 2 μm thick InSbN photoabsorption layer of a p–n diode grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a radio-frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source. As compared to N free InSb layer, the absorption wavelength extends to near 9 μm. On the other hand, high reverse dark current and series resistances are observed in the electrical characteristics of the InSbN diode which are contributed with the presence of planar growth defects. These results will be useful to those working on midinfrared photodetectors.

  13. Standardization of 125 Sb in equilibrium non-equilibrium situations with 125m Te

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Barquero, L.; Jimenez de Mingo, A.; Grau Carles, A.

    1997-10-01

    We study the stability of ''125 Sb in the following scintillators: HiSafeIII''TM, Insta- Gel reg s ign Plus and '' Ultima-Gold'' TM. Since ''125 m Te requires more than one year to reach the secular equilibrium with ''125 Sb, we cannot be sure, for a given sample, whether equilibrium is reached or not. In this report we present a new procedure that permits one calibrate mixtures of ''125 Sb+''125 m Te out of the equilibrium. The steps required for the radiochemical separation of the components are indicated. Finally, we study the evolution of counting rate when column yields are less than 100%. (Author)

  14. Phase-Change Memory Properties of Electrodeposited Ge-Sb-Te Thin Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruomeng; Kissling, Gabriela P.; Jolleys, Andrew; Bartlett, Philip N.; Hector, Andrew L.; Levason, William; Reid, Gillian; De Groot, C. H. `Kees'

    2015-11-01

    We report the properties of a series of electrodeposited Ge-Sb-Te alloys with various compositions. It is shown that the Sb/Ge ratio can be varied in a controlled way by changing the electrodeposition potential. This method opens up the prospect of depositing Ge-Sb-Te super-lattice structures by electrodeposition. Material and electrical characteristics of various compositions have been investigated in detail, showing up to three orders of magnitude resistance ratio between the amorphous and crystalline states and endurance up to 1000 cycles.

  15. Mineralogical and geochemical study of contaminated soils on abandoned Sb deposits Dubrava and Poproc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimko, T.; Jurkovic, L.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present initial results of mineralogical and geochemical study of secondary mineral phases, often with a high content of Sb and As, resulting from oxidation of sulphide minerals in the soil environment on two, now abandoned Sb deposits. Dubrava deposit is situated on the northern slopes of the Dumbier Low Tatras and Poproc deposit is located in the eastern part of Spis-Gemer Rudohorie. Both studied sites were in the past (second half of 20 th century) significant producers of antimony ore and Dubrava deposit belonged to medium-sized Sb deposits in the world.

  16. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  17. Examination of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in low and medium temperatures waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at low and medium temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The low and medium temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  18. Sb-SnO2-Nanosized-Based Resistive Sensors for NO2 Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krishnakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A study over Sb-promoted tin oxide nanopowders for sensing applications is reported. SnO2 nanopowders pure and promoted with 5 wt% of antimony were prepared by wet chemical methods and widely characterized by TEM, XRD, and XPS techniques. Thick film resistive sensors were fabricated by depositing the synthesized nanopowders by drop-coating on interdigited alumina substrates. The sensing characteristics of the pure SnO2 and Sb-promoted sensors for the monitoring of trace level of NO2 were studied. The response of the sensors to water vapor was also investigated, revealing that Sb acts favorably eliminating the interference of humidity.

  19. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2})/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhen-Long [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Ma, Wen-Hai [School of Physical Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Mao, Yan-Li, E-mail: ylmao1@163.com [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Institute for Computational Materials Science, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-09-07

    In this paper, antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were synthesized with varied Sb doping concentration, and the Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} heterojunction semiconductors were prepared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. The separation efficiency of photoinduced charges was characterized with surface photovoltage (SPV) technique. Compared with Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}, Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} presents an enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges, and the SPV enhancements were estimated to be 1.40, 1.43, and 1.99 for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. To understand the enhancement, the band structure of Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} in the heterojunction semiconductor was determined, and the conduction band offsets (CBO) between Sb-SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} were estimated to be 0.56, 0.64, and 0.98 eV for Sb-SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} composed of Sb-SnO{sub 2} with the Sb doping concentration of 5%, 10%, and 15%, respectively. These results indicate that the separation efficiency enhancement is resulting from the energy level matching, and the increase of enhancement is due to the rising of CBO.

  20. Superlattice-like SnSb{sub 4}/Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} thin films for ultrafast switching phase-change memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yifeng [Tongji University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai (China); Jiangsu University of Technology, School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou (China); He, Zifang; Zhai, Jiwei [Tongji University, Key Laboratory of Advanced Civil Engineering Materials of Ministry of Education, Functional Materials Research Laboratory, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai (China); Wu, Pengzhi; Lai, Tianshu [Sun Yat-Sen University, State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technology, Department of Physics, Guangzhou (China); Song, Sannian; Song, Zhitang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Micro-system and Information Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2015-11-15

    The carrier concentration of Sb-rich phase SnSb{sub 4}, Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7} and superlattice-like [SnSb{sub 4}(3.5 nm)/Ga{sub 3}Sb{sub 7}(4 nm)]{sub 7} (SLL-7) thin films as a function of annealing temperature was investigated to explain the reason of resistance change. The activation energy for crystallization was calculated with a Kissinger equation to estimate the thermal stability. In order to illuminate the transition mechanisms, the crystallization kinetics of SLL-7 were explored by using Johnson-Mehl-Avrami theory. The obtained values of Avrami indexes indicate that a one-dimensional growth-dominated mechanism is responsible for the set transition of SLL-7 thin film. X-ray diffractometer and Raman scattering spectra were recorded to investigate the change of crystalline structure. The measurement of atomic force microscopy indicated that SLL-7 thin film has a good smooth surface. A picosecond laser pump-probe system was used to test and verify phase-change speed of the SLL-7 thin film. (orig.)

  1. Influence of the nucleobase on the physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Claudio S.; Demicheli, Cynthia, E-mail: demichel@netuno.lcc.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Rocha, Iara C.M. da; Melo, Maria N. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Parasitologia; Monte Neto, Rubens L.; Frezard, Frederic [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    The influence of the nucleobase (uracyl, U; cytosine, C; adenine, A; guanine, G) on the physicochemical characteristics and in vitro biological activities of Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes has been investigated. The 1:1 Sb-U and Sb-C complexes were characterized by NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopies and elemental analysis. The stability constant and the apparent association and dissociation rate constants of 1:1 Sb{sup V}-U, Sb{sup V}-C and Sb{sup V}-A complexes were determined. Although Sb{sup V} most probably binds via oxygen atoms to the same 2' and 3' positions in the different nucleosides, the ribose conformational changes and the physicochemical characteristics of the complex depend on the nucleobase. The nucleobase had a strong influence on the cytotoxicity against macrophages and the antileishmanial activity of the Sb{sup V}-ribonucleoside complexes. The Sb{sup V}-purine complexes were more cytotoxic and more effective against Leishmania chagasi than the Sb{sup V}-pyrimidine complexes, supporting the model that the interaction of Sb{sup V} with purine nucleosides may mediate the antileishmanial activity of pentavalent antimonial drugs. (author)

  2. Molecular beam epitaxial growth and characterization of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanbo; Zhang Yang; Zhang Yuwei; Wang Baoqiang; Zhu Zhanping; Zeng Yiping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the growth of GaSb layers on GaAs (0 0 1) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We investigate the influence of the GaAs substrate surface treatment, growth temperature, and V/III flux ratios on the crystal quality and the surface morphology of GaSb epilayers. Comparing to Ga-rich GaAs surface preparation, the Sb-rich GaAs surface preparation can promote the growth of higher-quality GaSb material. It is found that the crystal quality, electrical properties, and surface morphology of the GaSb epilayers are highly dependent on the growth temperature, and Sb/Ga flux ratios. Under the optimized growth conditions, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of high quality GaSb layers on GaAs substrates. The p-type nature of the unintentionally doped GaSb is studied and from the growth conditions dependence of the hole concentrations of the GaSb, we deduce that the main native acceptor in the GaSb is the Ga antisite (Ga Sb ) defect.

  3. Influence of weak magnetic field and tartrate on the oxidation and sequestration of Sb(III) by zerovalent iron: Batch and semi-continuous flow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peng; Sun, Yuankui; Qiao, Junlian; Lo, Irene M C; Guan, Xiaohong

    2018-02-05

    The influence of weak magnetic field (WMF) and tartrate on the oxidation and sequestration of Sb(III) by zerovalent iron (ZVI) was investigated with batch and semi-continuous reactors. The species analysis of antinomy in aqueous solution and solid precipitates implied that both Sb(III) adsorption preceding its conversion to Sb(V) in solid phase and Sb(III) oxidation to Sb(V) preceding its adsorption in aqueous phase occurred in the process of Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The application of WMF greatly increased the rate constants of Sb tot (total Sb) and Sb(III) disappearance during Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) sequestration by ZVI. The enhancing effect of WMF was primarily due to the accelerated ZVI corrosion in the presence of WMF, as evidenced by the influence of WMF on the change of solution and solid properties with reaction. However, tartrate greatly retarded Sb removal by ZVI. It was because tartrate inhibited ZVI corrosion, competed with Sb(III) and Sb(V) for the active surface sites, increased the negative surface charge of the generated iron (hydr)oxides due to its adsorption, and formed soluble complexes with Fe(III). The positive effect of WMF on Sb(III)-tartrate and uncomplexed-Sb(III) removal by ZVI was also verified with a magnetic semi-continuous reactor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of the exchange and correlation functional on the structure of amorphous InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabardi, Silvia; Caravati, Sebastiano; Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Bernasconi, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We have investigated the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of the amorphous phase of InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. Models of the amorphous phase have been generated by quenching from the melt by molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. In particular, we have studied the dependence of the structural properties on the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. It turns out that the use of the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional provides models with a much larger fraction of In atoms in a tetrahedral bonding geometry with respect to previous results obtained with the most commonly used Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof functional. This outcome is at odd with the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change compound for which the two exchange-correlation functionals yield very similar results on the structure of the amorphous phase.

  5. Influence of the exchange and correlation functional on the structure of amorphous InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabardi, Silvia; Caravati, Sebastiano; Bernasconi, Marco; Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of the amorphous phase of InSb and In 3 SbTe 2 compounds of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. Models of the amorphous phase have been generated by quenching from the melt by molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. In particular, we have studied the dependence of the structural properties on the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. It turns out that the use of the Becke-Lee-Yang-Parr functional provides models with a much larger fraction of In atoms in a tetrahedral bonding geometry with respect to previous results obtained with the most commonly used Perdew-Becke-Ernzerhof functional. This outcome is at odd with the properties of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase change compound for which the two exchange-correlation functionals yield very similar results on the structure of the amorphous phase.

  6. Behavior of GaSb (100) and InSb (100) surfaces in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in acidic and basic cleaning solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Dongwan; Na, Jihoon; Lee, Seunghyo; Lim, Sangwoo, E-mail: swlim@yonsei.ac.kr

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Surface behavior of GaSb and InSb was investigated in acidic and basic solutions. • H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a key role in the surface oxidation of GaSb and InSb in acidic hydrochloric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (HPM) solution. • GaSb and InSb surfaces were hardly oxidized in basic ammonium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM) solution in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The effect of dilution of APM solution on the oxidation of the InSb surface was minimal. • Surface characteristics of GaSb and InSb in HPM and APM solutions are mainly determined by the behaviors of the group III elements rather than the group V element. - Abstract: Gallium antimonide (GaSb) and indium antimonide (InSb) have attracted strong attention as new channel materials for transistors due to their excellent electrical properties and lattice matches with various group III–V compound semiconductors. In this study, the surface behavior of GaSb (100) and InSb (100) was investigated and compared in hydrochloric acid/hydrogen peroxide mixture (HPM) and ammonium hydroxide/hydrogen peroxide mixture (APM) solutions. In the acidic HPM solution, surface oxidation was greater and the etching rates of the GaSb and InSb surfaces increased when the solution is concentrated, which indicates that H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plays a key role in the surface oxidation of GaSb and InSb in acidic HPM solution. However, the GaSb and InSb surfaces were hardly oxidized in basic APM solution in the presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} because gallium and indium are in the thermodynamically stable forms of H{sub 2}GaO{sub 3}{sup −} and InO{sub 2}{sup −}, respectively. When the APM solution was diluted, however, the Ga on the GaSb surface was oxidized by H{sub 2}O, increasing the etching rate. However, the effect of dilution of the APM solution on the oxidation of the InSb surface was minimal; thus, the InSb surface was less oxidized than the GaSb surface and the change in the etching rate of InSb

  7. The new Zintl phases Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi; Darone, Gregory M.; Bobev, Svilen, E-mail: bobev@udel.edu

    2016-06-15

    Crystals of two new Zintl compounds, Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} have been synthesized using the molten metal flux method, and their structures have been established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Both compounds are isotypic and crystallize in the monoclinic space group C2/m (No. 12, Z=4). The structures are based on edge- and corner-shared MnSb{sub 4} or CdSb{sub 4} tetrahedra, which make octameric [Mn{sub 8}Sb{sub 22}] or [Cd{sub 8}Sb{sub 22}] polyanions. Homoatomic Sb–Sb bonds are present in both structures. The Eu atoms take the role of Eu{sup 2+}cations with seven unpaired 4f electrons, as suggested by the temperature-dependent magnetization measurements. The magnetic susceptibilities of Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} indicate that both phases order anti-ferromagnetically with Néel temperatures of ca. 7 K and ca. 10 K, respectively. The unpaired 3d electrons of the Mn atoms in Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} do contribute to the magnetic response, however, the bulk magnetization measurements do not provide evidence for long-range ordering of the Mn spins down to 5 K. Electrical resistivity measurements suggest that both compounds are narrow band gap semiconductors. - Graphical abstract: Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} have complex monoclinic structures, based on MnSb{sub 4} and CdSb{sub 4} tetrahedra, both edge- and corner-shared. A perspective of the crystal structure is shown, as viewed along the b axis. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} are novel compounds in the respective ternary phase diagrams. • For both structures, the Zintl-Klemm rules are followed, and both are small gap semiconductors. • Eu{sub 21}Mn{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} and Eu{sub 21}Cd{sub 4}Sb{sub 18} are air-stable Zintl phases and could be new thermoelectric materials.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of PVP/ Sb2S3 composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salema, A.M.; Marzouka, S.; Khafagib, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    Polyvinyl pyrrolidone has been successfully used as a matrix to embedded Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles. PVP thin films containing 5-25 wt % Sb 2 S 3 were deposited onto glass substrates by dip coating. X-ray diffraction spectra revealed that Sb 2 S 3 crystals depressed as nanometer-sized in the PVP matrix and the result was confirmed via scanning electron microscopy. The transmission and reflection spectra of the prepared samples were recorded in the wavelength optical range 250-2500 nm. The transmission spectra of the films show that transmission valley shifts toward higher wavelengths with increasing Sb 2 S 3 wt %. The optical constants of the deposited films, such as refractive index, extinction coefficient were obtained using the transmission and reflection data. The spectral behaviour of the loss factor, as well as the real and imaginary parts of the optical conductivity were also presented

  9. X-ray diffraction, Raman and photoacoustic studies of InSb nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersching, K., E-mail: kleb85@hotmail.com [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Campos, C.E.M.; Lima, J.C. de; Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Souza, S.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Pizani, P.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13 565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-01

    Zinc blend InSb nanocrystals were generated by mechanical alloying and X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy techniques were used to study its structural, optical and thermal properties. Annealed nanocrystals were also studied. Residual amorphous and minority crystalline (Sb and In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) phases were also observed for mechanical alloyed and thermal annealed samples, respectively. The structural parameters, phase fractions, average crystallite sizes and microstrains of all crystalline phases found in the samples were obtained from Rietveld analyses of their X-ray diffraction patterns. Raman results for both as-milled and annealed samples show the Raman active LO and TO modes of the zinc blend InSb phase and Sb-rich regions. The photoacoustic results of both samples were satisfactorily explained by thermal bending heat transfer mechanism and an increase on effective thermal diffusivity coefficient was observed after annealing.

  10. MOCVD growth and structural characterization of In-Sb-Te nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selmo, S.; Fanciulli, M.; Cecchi, S.; Cecchini, R.; Wiemer, C.; Longo, M.; Rotunno, E.; Lazzarini, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the self-assembly of In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and In-doped Sb 4 Te 1 nanowires (NWs) for phase change memories application was achieved by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, coupled with vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism, catalyzed by Au nanoparticles. Single crystal In 3 Sb 1 Te 2 and In-doped Sb 4 Te 1 NWs were obtained for different reactor pressures at 325 C. The parameters influencing the NW self-assembly were studied and the compositional, morphological, and structural analysis of the grown structures was performed, also comparing the effect of the used substrate (crystalline Si and SiO 2 ). In both cases, NWs of several micrometer in length and with diameters as small as 15 nm were obtained. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Low temperature grown GaNAsSb: A promising material for photoconductive switch application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, K. H.; Yoon, S. F.; Wicaksono, S.; Loke, W. K.; Li, D. S. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Saadsaoud, N.; Tripon-Canseliet, C. [Laboratoire d' Electronique et Electromagnétisme, Pierre and Marie Curie University, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Lampin, J. F.; Decoster, D. [Institute of Electronics, Microelectronics and Nanotechnology (IEMN), UMR CNRS 8520, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Chazelas, J. [Thales Airborne Systems, 2 Avenue Gay Lussac, 78852 Elancourt (France)

    2013-09-09

    We report a photoconductive switch using low temperature grown GaNAsSb as the active material. The GaNAsSb layer was grown at 200 °C by molecular beam epitaxy in conjunction with a radio frequency plasma-assisted nitrogen source and a valved antimony cracker source. The low temperature growth of the GaNAsSb layer increased the dark resistivity of the switch and shortened the carrier lifetime. The switch exhibited a dark resistivity of 10{sup 7} Ω cm, a photo-absorption of up to 2.1 μm, and a carrier lifetime of ∼1.3 ps. These results strongly support the suitability of low temperature grown GaNAsSb in the photoconductive switch application.

  12. Monte Carlo study of the magnetic properties of GdSb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrour, R., E-mail: rachidmasrour@hotmail.com [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Sidi Bouzid, Safi, BP, 46000 63 (Morocco); LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS et Université Joseph Fourier, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Hamedoun, M. [Institute of Layers and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [LMPHE (URAC 12), Faculté des Sciences, Université Mohammed V-Agdal, Av. Ibn Batouta, B.P. 1014, Rabat (Morocco); Institute of Layers and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2014-03-15

    The magnetic properties of antiferromagnetic GdSb layers have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations within the Ising model framework. The considered Hamiltonian includes first nearest-neighbor, an external magnetic field and a crystal field. The thermal magnetizations and magnetic susceptibilities are computed for a fixed size. In addition, the Néel temperature is deduced. The magnetization versus the exchange interactions and crystal field are studied for a fixed system size, N=5, 7 and 9 sites. The magnetic hysteresis cycle versus temperature is also established. - Highlights: • Determination of the Néel temperature of GdSb by MC simulations. • Magnetic hysteresis cycle of GdSb. • Determination of saturation magnetization and field coercive in GdSb.

  13. Characterization of basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 and its relevance for photovoltaics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao CHEN; Matthew C.BEARD; Jiang TANG; David C.BOBELA; Ye YANG; Shuaicheng LU; Kai ZENG; Cong GE; Bo YANG; Liang GAO; Yang ZHAO

    2017-01-01

    Antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) is a promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaics because of its attractive material,optical and electrical properties.In recent years,the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Sb2Se3 thin film solar cells has gradually enhanced to 5.6%.In this article,we systematically studied the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 such as dielectric constant,anisotropic mobility,carrier lifetime,diffusion length,defect depth,defect density and optical band tail states.We believe such a comprehensive characterization of the basic physical properties of Sb2Se3 lays a solid foundation for further optimization of solar device performance.

  14. Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses for potential applications in photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chaofeng [Key Laboratory of Processing and Testing Technology of Glass & Functional Ceramics of Shandong Province, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan 250353 (China); Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Zhang, Xianghua, E-mail: xiang-hua.zhang@univ-rennes1.fr [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France); Ma, Hongli [Laboratoire des Verres et Céramiques, UMR-CNRS 6226, Université de Rennes 1, Rennes 35042 (France)

    2016-03-15

    A series of Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses were prepared via the melt-quenching method to explore red luminescent materials for potential applications in photosynthesis of green plants, and these glasses are investigated by means of luminescence decay curves, absorption, emission, and excitation spectra. We find that the as-prepared glasses are transparent in the visible region and can emit strong red light under ultraviolet, purple, and green light excitations. Furthermore, energy transfer from Sb{sup 3+} to Mn{sup 2+} ions occurs in Sb/Mn co-doped glasses. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared Sb/Mn co-doped oxyfluoride silicate glasses may serve as a potential candidate for developing glass greenhouse, which can enhance the utilization of solar energy for the photosynthesis of the green plants.

  15. Morphological Instability in InAs/GaSb Superlattices due to Interfacial Bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.H.; Moss, S.C.; Stokes, D.W.; Caha, O.; Bassler, K.E.; Ammu, S.L.; Bai, J.

    2005-01-01

    Synchrotron x-ray diffraction is used to compare the misfit strain and composition in a self-organized nanowire array in an InAs/GaSb superlattice with InSb interfacial bonds to a planar InAs/GaSb superlattice with GaAs interfacial bonds. It is found that the morphological instability that occurs in the nanowire array results from the large misfit strain that the InSb interfacial bonds have in the nanowire array. Based on this result, we propose that tailoring the type of interfacial bonds during the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor films provides a novel approach for producing the technologically important morphological instability in anomalously thin layers

  16. Structural characterization of half-metallic Heusler compound NiMnSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowicki, L. E-mail: lech.nowicki@fuw.edu.pl; Abdul-Kader, A.M.; Bach, P.; Schmidt, G.; Molenkamp, L.W.; Turos, A.; Karczewski, G

    2004-06-01

    High resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and Rutherford backscattering/channeling (RBS/c) techniques were used to characterize layers of NiMnSb grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on InP with a In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As buffer. Angular scans in the channeling mode reveal that the crystal structure of NiMnSb is tetragonally deformed with c/a=1.010{+-}0.002, in agreement with HRXRD data. Although HRXRD demonstrates the good quality of the pseudomorphic NiMnSb layers the channeling studies show that about 20% of atoms in the layers do not occupy lattice sites in the [0 0 1] rows of NiMnSb. The possible mechanisms responsible for the observed disorder are discussed.

  17. Thermoelectric properties of quaternary (Bi,Sb){sub 2}(Te,Se){sub 3} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Li, Yiluan; Wu, Chengjie; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cao, Huawei; Zhang, Xianlong; Cai, Ningning; Zhong, Xuxia [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, P.O. Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-01-25

    Highlights: • Sb and Se spin–orbit coupling play a key role in the band structure. • Substituted Bi/Sb and Te/Se have a limited impact on the transport coefficients. • n-Type doping will be preferred for quaternary (Bi,Sb){sub 2}(Te,Se){sub 3} compound. -- Abstract: The quaternary (Bi,Sb){sub 2}(Te,Se){sub 3} compounds are investigated using first-principles study and Boltzmann transport theory. The energy band structure and density of states are studied in detail. The electronic transport coefficients are then calculated as a function of chemical potential. The figure of merit ZT is obtained assuming a constant relaxation time and an averaged thermal conductivity. Our theoretical result agrees well with previous experimental data.

  18. Thermoelectric properties of quaternary (Bi,Sb)2(Te,Se)3 compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Pengfei; Li, Yiluan; Wu, Chengjie; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cao, Huawei; Zhang, Xianlong; Cai, Ningning; Zhong, Xuxia; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sb and Se spin–orbit coupling play a key role in the band structure. • Substituted Bi/Sb and Te/Se have a limited impact on the transport coefficients. • n-Type doping will be preferred for quaternary (Bi,Sb) 2 (Te,Se) 3 compound. -- Abstract: The quaternary (Bi,Sb) 2 (Te,Se) 3 compounds are investigated using first-principles study and Boltzmann transport theory. The energy band structure and density of states are studied in detail. The electronic transport coefficients are then calculated as a function of chemical potential. The figure of merit ZT is obtained assuming a constant relaxation time and an averaged thermal conductivity. Our theoretical result agrees well with previous experimental data

  19. Structural and Magnetic Properties of Co-Mn-Sb Thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, M.; Schmalhorst, J.-M.; Ebke, D.; Liu, N. N.; Thomas, A.; Reiss, G.; Kanak, J.; Stobiecki, T.; Arenholz, E.

    2009-12-17

    Thin Co-Mn-Sb films of different compositions were investigated and utilized as electrodes in alumina based magnetic tunnel junctions with CoFe counterelectrode. The preparation conditions were optimized with respect to magnetic and structural properties. The Co-Mn-Sb/Al-O interface was analyzed by x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circular dichroism with particular focus on the element-specific magnetic moments. Co-Mn-Sb crystallizes in different complex cubic structures depending on its composition. The magnetic moments of Co and Mn are ferromagnetically coupled in all cases. A tunnel magnetoresistance ratio of up to 24% at 13 K was found and indicates that Co-Mn-Sb is not a ferromagnetic half-metal. These results are compared to recent works on the structure and predictions of the electronic properties.

  20. Emergence of Dirac and quantum spin Hall states in fluorinated monolayer As and AsSb

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer As and AsSb. While the pristine monolayers are semiconductors (direct band gap at the Γ point), fluorination results in Dirac cones at the K

  1. Dislocation motion in InSb crystals under a magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Darinskaya, E V; Erofeeva, S A

    2002-01-01

    Dislocation displacements under the action of a permanent magnetic field without mechanical loading in differently doped InSb crystals are investigated. The dependences of the mean dislocation path length and the relative number of divergence and tightening half-loops on the magnetic induction and preliminary load are obtained. Experiments on n-InSb crystals with Te impurities and on p-InSb crystals with Ge impurities have shown a sensitivity of the magnetoplasticity to the conductivity type and the dopant content. Study of the magnetoplastic effect in the initial deformed InSb crystals shows that internal stresses decrease the lengths of divergence dislocation paths and simultaneously increase the threshold magnetic field above which the magnetoplastic effect exists. Possible reasons for the observed phenomena are discussed.

  2. Effect of Sb thickness on the performance of bialkali-antimonide photocathodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamun, Md Abdullah A., E-mail: mmamu001@odu.edu; Elmustafa, Abdelmageed A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 and The Applied Research Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States); Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Mammei, Russell; Poelker, Matthew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The alkali species Cs and K were codeposited using an effusion source, onto relatively thick layers of Sb (50 nm to ∼7 μm) grown on GaAs and Ta substrates inside a vacuum chamber that was baked and not-vented, and also baked and vented with clean dry nitrogen but not rebaked. The characteristics of the Sb films, including sticking probability, surface roughness, grain size, and crystal properties were very different for these conditions, yet comparable values of photocathode yield [or quantum efficiency (QE)] at 284 V were obtained following codeposition of the alkali materials. Photocathodes manufactured with comparatively thick Sb layers exhibited the highest QE and the best 1/e lifetime. The authors speculate that the alkali codeposition enabled optimized stoichiometry for photocathodes manufactured using thick Sb layers, which could serve as a reservoir for the alkali materials.

  3. High thermoelectric properties of (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire arrays by tilt-structure engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ming; Hao, Yanming; Deng, Yuan; Chen, Jingyi

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we present an innovative tilt-structure design concept for (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire array assembled by high-quality nanowires with well oriented growth, utilizing a simple vacuum thermal evaporation technique. The unusual tilt-structure (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire array with a tilted angle of 45° exhibits a high thermoelectric dimensionless figure-of-merit ZT = 1.72 at room temperature. The relatively high ZT value in contrast to that of previously reported (Sb, Bi)2Te3 materials and the vertical (Sb, Bi)2Te3 nanowire arrays evidently reveals the crucial role of the unique tilt-structure in favorably influencing carrier and phonon transport properties, resulting in a significantly improved ZT value. The transport mechanism of such tilt-structure is proposed and investigated. This method opens a new approach to optimize nano-structure in thin films for next-generation thermoelectric materials and devices.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of high pressure synthesized lithium and calcium double-filled CoSb3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium and calcium are inefficient filling elements of CoSb3 at ambient pressure, but show nice filling behavior under high pressure. In this work, we synthesized Li/Ca double-filled CoSb3 with high pressure synthesis method. The products show the skutterudite structure of Im3¯ symmetry. Thermoelectric properties were effectively enhanced through Li and Ca co-filling. For the optimal Li0.08Ca0.18Co4Sb12 sample, the power factor maintains a relatively high value over the whole measurement temperature range and peaks at 4700μWm−1K−2, meanwhile the lattice thermal conductivity is greatly suppressed, leading to a maximal ZT of 1.18 at 700 K. Current work demonstrates high pressure synthesis as an effective method to produce multiple elemental filled CoSb3 skutterudites.

  5. Evaluation of the grass mixture (Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp.) as Sb phyto-stabilizer in tailings and Sb-rich soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora Armienta, M.; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Ruiz-Villalobos, Carlos E.; Labastida, Israel; Ceniceros, Nora; Cruz, Olivia; Aguayo, Alejandra

    2017-04-01

    Green house experiments were carried out to evaluate the growth and Sb assimilation of a grass assemblage: Faestuca Rubra, Cynodon Dactylon, Lolium Multiflorum and Pennisetum sp, in tailings and Sb-rich soils. Tailings and soil samples were obtained at the Mexican historical mining zone of Zimapán, Central México. More than 6 tailings impoundments are located at the town outskirts and constitute a contamination source from windblown and waterborne deposit on soils, besides acid mine drainage. Four substrates were used in the experiments: 100% tailings, 20% tailings + 80% soil, 50% tailings + 50% soil , and a soil sample far from tailings as a background. Concentrations of Sb ranged from 310 mg/kg to 413 mg/kg in tailings. A pH of 7.43, 1.27% organic matter, and high concentrations of N, K and P indicated adequate conditions for plant growth. The grass assemblage was raised during 21 days as indicated by OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) Guideline 208 Terrestrial Plant Test: Seedling Emergence and Seedling Growth Test. The highest Sb concentrations were measured in plants grown on tailings with 139 mg/kg in the aerial part and 883 mg/kg in roots. Concentrations of Sb decreased as the proportion of tailings diminished with 22.1 mg/kg in the aerial part and 10 mg/kg in roots corresponding to the plants grown in the 20 % tailings + 80% soil . Bioaccumulation (BAC) and bioconcentration factors (BF) of plants grown on tailings (BAC= 0.42, BCF=3.93) indicated their suitability as a phyto-stabilization option. The grass mixture may be thus applied to control windblown particulate tailings taking advantage to their tolerance to high Sb levels.

  6. A review of Pb-Sb(As-S, Cu(Ag-Fe(Zn-Sb(As-S, Ag(Pb-Bi(Sb-S and Pb-Bi-S(Te sulfosalt systems from the Boranja orefield, West Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Slobodan A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent mineralogical, chemical, physical, and crystallographic investigations of the Boranja orefield showed very complex mineral associations and assemblages where sulfosalts have significant role. The sulfosalts of the Boranja orefield can be divided in four main groups: (i Pb-Sb(As-S system with ±Fe and ±Cu; (ii Cu(Ag-Fe(Zn-Sb(As-S system; (iii Ag(Pb-Bi(Sb-S; (iv and Pb-Bi-S(Te system. Spatially, these sulfosalts are widely spread, however, they are the most abundant in the following polymetallic deposits and ore zones: Cu(Bi-FeS Kram-Mlakva; Pb(Ag-Zn-FeS2 Veliki Majdan (Kolarica-Centralni revir-Kojići; Sb-Zn-Pb-As Rujevac; and Pb-Zn-FeS2-BaSO4 Bobija. The multi stage formation of minerals, from skarnhydrothermal to complex hydrothermal with various stages and sub-stages has been determined. All hydrothermal stages and sub-stages of various polymetallic deposits and ore zones within the Boranja orefield are followed by a variety of sulfosalts. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI-176016: Magmatism and geodynamics of the Balkan Peninsula from Mesozoic to present day: Significance for the formation of metallic and non-metallic mineral deposits

  7. Development of GaInNAsSb alloys: Growth, band structure, optical properties and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, James S. Jr.; Kudrawiec, R.; Yuen, H.B.; Bank, S.R.; Bae, H.P.; Wistey, M.A.; Jackrel, D.; Pickett, E.R.; Sarmiento, T.; Goddard, L.L.; Lordi, V.; Gugov, T.

    2007-01-01

    In the past few years, GaInNAsSb has been found to be a potentially superior material to both GaInNAs and InGaAsP for communications wavelength laser applications. It has been observed that due to the surfactant role of antimony during epitaxy, higher quality material can be grown over the entire 1.2-1.6 μm range on GaAs substrates. In addition, it has been discovered that antimony in GaInNAsSb also works as a constituent that significantly modifies the valence band. These findings motivated a systematic study of GaInNAsSb alloys with widely varying compositions. Our recent progress in growth and materials development of GaInNAsSb alloys and our fabrication of 1.5-1.6 μm lasers are discussed in this paper. We review our recent studies of the conduction band offset in (Ga,In) (N,As,Sb)/GaAs quantum wells and discuss the growth challenges of GaInNAsSb alloys. Finally, we report record setting long wavelength edge emitting lasers and the first monolithic VCSELs operating at 1.5 μm based on GaInNAsSb QWs grown on GaAs. Successful development of GaInNAsSb alloys for lasers has led to a much broader range of potential applications for this material including: solar cells, electroabsorption modulators, saturable absorbers and far infrared optoelectronic devices and these are also briefly discussed in this paper. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Planar Nernst effect and Mott relation in (In,Fe)Sb ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Cong Tinh; Garcia, Christina A. C.; Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2018-05-01

    Transverse magneto-thermoelectric effects were studied in an (In,Fe)Sb ferromagnetic semiconductor thin film under an in-plane magnetic field. We find that the thermal voltage is governed by the planar Nernst effect. We show that the magnetic field intensity dependence, magnetic field direction dependence, and temperature dependence of the transverse Seebeck coefficient can be explained by assuming a Mott relation between the in-plane magneto-transport and magneto-thermoelectric phenomena in (In,Fe)Sb.

  9. The Cu-Te-Sb phase system at temperatures between 300 and 1000 degree C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven

    1997-01-01

    Phase relations were determined in the Cu-Te-Sb phase system at 300, 350, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 degree C. At temperatures between 400 and 900 degree C a cubic primitive ternary phase A exists. It has the empirical formula Cu(10.32-0.97x)Te(x)Sb(4-x) (Z=2, a=7.682 Å). A small liquid...

  10. Influence of the additive Ag for crystallization of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki-Ho; Kim, Sung-Won; Seo, Jae-Hee [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun-Yong, E-mail: hyleee@chonnam.ac.k [Faculty of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, 300 Yongbong-dong, Kwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-29

    We have investigated the optical and amorphous-to-crystalline transition properties in four-types of chalcogenide thin films; Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}, Ag-Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} and Ag-Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11}. Crystallization was caused by nano-pulse illumination ({lambda} = 658 nm) with power (P) of 1-17 mW and pulse duration (t) of 10-460 ns, and the morphologies of crystallized spots were observed by SEM and microscope. It was found that the crystallized spot nearby linearly increases in size with increasing the illuminating energy (E = P {center_dot} t) and eventually ablated out by over illumination. Changes in the optical transmittance of as-deposited and annealed films were measured using a UV-vis-IR spectrophotometer. In addition, a speed of amorphous-to-crystalline transition was evaluated by detecting the reflection response signals for the nano-pulse scanning. Conclusively, the Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film has a faster crystallization speed than the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film despite its higher crystallization temperature. The crystallization speed was largely improved by adding Ag in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film but not in Ge{sub 8}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 11} film. To explain these results, we considered a heat confinement by electron hopping.

  11. Fluorometric and molecular docking investigation on the binding characteristics of SB202190 to human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasruddin, Ahmad N.; Feroz, Shevin R. [Biomolecular Research Group, Biochemistry Programme, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mukarram, Abdul K. [Bioinformatics Programme, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Mohamad, Saharuddin B. [Bioinformatics Programme, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre of Research for Computational Sciences and Informatics for Biology, Bioindustry, Environment, Agriculture and Healthcare, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Tayyab, Saad, E-mail: saadtayyab2004@yahoo.com [Biomolecular Research Group, Biochemistry Programme, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Centre of Research for Computational Sciences and Informatics for Biology, Bioindustry, Environment, Agriculture and Healthcare, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-06-15

    The interaction of SB202190, a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor with the main drug transporter in human circulation, human serum albumin (HSA) was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy and in silico docking methods. The association constant, K{sub a} of the binding reaction was determined to be 3.24±0.07×10{sup 4} M{sup −1} at 25 °C based on fluorescence quenching titration results. The values of enthalpy change and entropy change for the interaction were found as −8.54 kJ mol{sup −1} and 58.01 J mol{sup −1} K{sup −1}, respectively. Both thermodynamic data and docking results suggested the involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces in the complex formation. Three-dimensional fluorescence data of SB202190–HSA complex demonstrated significant changes in the microenvironment around the protein fluorophores upon drug binding. Comparison of HSA thermograms obtained in the absence and the presence of SB202190 suggested improved protein thermal stability upon complexation with the drug. Competitive drug displacement results as well as modeling data concluded the preferred binding site of SB202190 on HSA as Sudlow's site I. - Highlights: • SB202190 interacts with HSA with moderate affinity. • Involvement of hydrophobic and van der Waals forces in SB202190 binding. • SB202190 binding results in microenvironmental changes around fluorophores. • Sudlow's site I is the preferred binding site of SB202190.

  12. Thermoelectric Properties of SnO2 Ceramics Doped with Sb and Zn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yanagiya, S.; Van Nong, Ngo; Xu, Jianxiao Jackie

    2011-01-01

    Polycrystalline SnO2-based samples (Sn0.97−x Sb0.03Zn x O2, x = 0, 0.01, 0.03) were prepared by solid-state reactions. The thermoelectric properties of SnO2 doped with Sb and Zn were investigated from 300 K to 1100 K. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed all XRD peaks of all the samples...

  13. SB265610 is an allosteric, inverse agonist at the human CXCR2 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, ME; Bond, ME; Manini, J; Brown, Z; Charlton, SJ

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: In several previous studies, the C-X-C chemokine receptor (CXCR)2 antagonist 1-(2-bromo-phenyl)-3-(7-cyano-3H-benzotriazol-4-yl)-urea (SB265610) has been described as binding competitively with the endogenous agonist. This is in contrast to many other chemokine receptor antagonists, where the mechanism of antagonism has been described as allosteric. Experimental approach: To determine whether it displays a unique mechanism among the chemokine receptor antagonists, the mode of action of SB265610 was investigated at the CXCR2 receptor using radioligand and [35S]-GTPγS binding approaches in addition to chemotaxis of human neutrophils. Key results: In equilibrium saturation binding studies, SB265610 depressed the maximal binding of [125I]-interleukin-8 ([125I]-IL-8) without affecting the Kd. In contrast, IL-8 was unable to prevent binding of [3H]-SB265610. Kinetic binding experiments demonstrated that this was not an artefact of irreversible or slowly reversible binding. In functional experiments, SB265610 caused a rightward shift of the concentration-response curves to IL-8 and growth-related oncogene α, but also a reduction in maximal response elicited by each agonist. Fitting these data to an operational allosteric ternary complex model suggested that, once bound, SB265610 completely blocks receptor activation. SB265610 also inhibited basal [35S]-GTPγS binding in this preparation. Conclusions and implications: Taken together, these data suggest that SB265610 behaves as an allosteric inverse agonist at the CXCR2 receptor, binding at a region distinct from the agonist binding site to prevent receptor activation, possibly by interfering with G protein coupling. PMID:19422399

  14. Synthesis and vibrational spectrum of antimony phosphate, SbPO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockner, Wolfgang; Hoyer, Lars P

    2002-07-01

    SbPO4 was synthesized via a new route by reacting antimony metal with meta-phosphoric acid, (HPO3)n at high temperatures. The Raman and IR spectra of the title compound were recorded and the vibrational modes assigned on the basis of a factor group analysis. The internal vibrations are derived from tetrahedral PO4 units (approaching Sb[PO4]) by the correlation method, although the structure is polymeric and not ionic.

  15. Cu2Sb thin film electrodes prepared by pulsed laser deposition f or lithium batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Seung-Wan; Reade, Ronald P.; Cairns, Elton J.; Vaughey, Jack T.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Striebel, Kathryn A.

    2003-08-01

    Thin films of Cu2Sb, prepared on stainless steel and copper substrates with a pulsed laser deposition technique at room temperature, have been evaluated as electrodes in lithium cells. The electrodes operate by a lithium insertion/copper extrusion reaction mechanism, the reversibility of which is superior when copper substrates are used, particularly when electrochemical cycling is restricted to the voltage range 0.65-1.4 V vs. Li/Li+. The superior performance of Cu2Sb films on copper is attributed to the more active participation of the extruded copper in the functioning of the electrode. The continual and extensive extrusion of copper on cycling the cells leads to the isolation of Li3Sb particles and a consequent formation of Sb. Improved cycling stability of both types of electrodes was obtained when cells were cycled between 0.65 and 1.4 V. A low-capacity lithium-ion cell with Cu2Sb and LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 electrodes, laminated from powders, shows excellent cycling stability over the voltage range 3.15 - 2.2 V, the potential difference corresponding to approximately 0.65-1.4 V for the Cu2Sb electrode vs. Li/Li+. Chemical self-discharge of lithiated Cu2Sb electrodes by reaction with the electrolyte was severe when cells were allowed to relax on open circuit after reaching a lower voltage limit of 0.1 V. The solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer formed on Cu2Sb electrodes after cells had been cycled between 1.4 and 0.65 V vs. Li/Li+ was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy; the SEI layer contributes to the large irreversible capacity loss on the initial cycle of these cells. The data contribute to a better understanding of the electrochemical behavior of intermetallic electrodes in rechargeable lithium batteries.

  16. Development of GaInNAsSb alloys: Growth, band structure, optical properties and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, James S. Jr.; Kudrawiec, R.; Yuen, H.B.; Bank, S.R.; Bae, H.P.; Wistey, M.A.; Jackrel, D.; Pickett, E.R.; Sarmiento, T.; Goddard, L.L.; Lordi, V.; Gugov, T. [Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University, CIS-X 328, Via Ortega, Stanford, California 94305-4075 (United States)

    2007-08-15

    In the past few years, GaInNAsSb has been found to be a potentially superior material to both GaInNAs and InGaAsP for communications wavelength laser applications. It has been observed that due to the surfactant role of antimony during epitaxy, higher quality material can be grown over the entire 1.2-1.6 {mu}m range on GaAs substrates. In addition, it has been discovered that antimony in GaInNAsSb also works as a constituent that significantly modifies the valence band. These findings motivated a systematic study of GaInNAsSb alloys with widely varying compositions. Our recent progress in growth and materials development of GaInNAsSb alloys and our fabrication of 1.5-1.6 {mu}m lasers are discussed in this paper. We review our recent studies of the conduction band offset in (Ga,In) (N,As,Sb)/GaAs quantum wells and discuss the growth challenges of GaInNAsSb alloys. Finally, we report record setting long wavelength edge emitting lasers and the first monolithic VCSELs operating at 1.5 {mu}m based on GaInNAsSb QWs grown on GaAs. Successful development of GaInNAsSb alloys for lasers has led to a much broader range of potential applications for this material including: solar cells, electroabsorption modulators, saturable absorbers and far infrared optoelectronic devices and these are also briefly discussed in this paper. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Coherence Kondo gap in CeNiSn and CeRhSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, T.; Nakamoto, G.; Tanaka, H.; Bando, Y.; Fujii, H.; Nishigori, S.; Goshima, H.; Suzuki, T.; Fujita, T.; Oguro, I.; Hiraoka, T.; Malik, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    CeNiSn and CeRhSb are Kondo-lattice compounds showing the behavior of a small-gap semiconductor at temperatures below 7 K. We review and discuss the magnetic, transport and specific-heat measurements performed on single crystals of CeNiSn and polycrystals of CeRhSb. Prerequisites for gap formation are deduced from the effects of substitution and application of a magnetic field and pressure on the gapped state. ((orig.))

  18. Synthesis, characterization and electrochemical behavior of Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qian [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Cheng, Kui, E-mail: chengkui@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Du, Piyi; Han, Gaorong [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310027 (China)

    2013-10-01

    Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film was fabricated by a carboxylate ion assisted hydrothermal route coupled with a post-calcination process. The structure, chemical composition and optical band gap of the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, inductively couple plasma optical emission spectroscopy and UV–visible spectrophotometry, and compared with the un-doped ZnO microsphere film. The results suggest that the formation of zinc–antimony tartrate complex species during hydrothermal growth is the key to realize Sb-doped ZnO microstructures, and the present hydrothermal method with post-calcination is an effective way to dope Sb into ZnO. Furthermore, the Sb-doped ZnO microsphere film based electrochemical biosensor exhibits a good sensing performance for the detection of hydrogen peroxide, with a sensitivity of 271 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2} which is more than three times higher than that of the un-doped ZnO biosensor. - Highlights: • Sb-doped ZnO microsphere (SZM) films were grown by hydrothermal deposition. • Carboxylate ions were used to form complex during hydrothermal growth. • The formation of Zn–Sb tartrate complex is the key to realize SZM. • The biosensors based on SZM film are feasible and sensitive to detect H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The Sb doping could improve the electrochemical property of ZnO.

  19. Epitaxial growth of Ge-Sb-Te based phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumal, Karthick

    2013-07-30

    Ge-Sb-Te based phase change materials are considered as a prime candidate for optical and electrical data storage applications. With the application of an optical or electrical pulse, they can be reversibly switched between amorphous and crystalline state, thereby exhibiting large optical and electrical contrast between the two phases, which are then stored as information in the form of binary digits. Single crystalline growth is interesting from both the academic and industrial perspective, as ordered Ge-Sb-Te based metamaterials are known to exhibit switching at reduced energies. The present study deals with the epitaxial growth and analysis of Ge-Sb-Te based thin films. The first part of the thesis deals with the epitaxial growth of GeTe. Thin films of GeTe were grown on highly mismatched Si(111) and (001) substrates. On both the substrate orientations the film grows along [111] direction with an amorphous-to-crystalline transition observed during the initial stages of growth. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied in-vivo using azimuthal reflection high-energy electron diffraction scans and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. In the second part of the thesis epitaxy and characterization of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films are presented. The third part of the thesis deals with the epitaxy of ternary Ge-Sb-Te alloys. The composition of the films are shown to be highly dependent on growth temperatures and vary along the pseudobinary line from Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} to GeTe with increase in growth temperatures. A line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to reliably control the GeSbTe growth temperature. Growth was performed at different Ge, Sb, Te fluxes to study the compositional variation of the films. Incommensurate peaks are observed along the [111] direction by X-ray diffraction. The possibility of superstructural vacancy ordering along the [111] direction is discussed.

  20. Experimental and theoretical investigation of topological and energetic characteristics of Sb complexes reversibly binding molecular oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukin, Georgy K; Baranov, Evgenii V; Jelsch, Christian; Guillot, Benoît; Poddel'sky, Andrey I; Cherkasov, Vladimir K; Abakumov, Gleb A

    2011-07-28

    The experimental distribution of electron density in Ph(3)(4,5-OMe-3,6-Bu(t)-Cat)Sb·MeCN (1*) and Ph(3)(4,5-N(2)C(4)H(6)-3,6-Bu(t)-Cat)Sb·MeOH (2*) complexes was studied. According to atoms in molecules theory, the Sb-C(Ph), Sb-O(catecholate), and Sb···N(O) bonds are intermediate, whereas the O-C and C-C bonds are covalent, respectively. The energy of the Sb···N(MeCN) and Sb···O(MeOH) bonds are 7.0 and 11.3 kcal/mol according to the Espinosa equation. Density functional theory and Hartree-Fock calculations were carried out for a series of catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of antimony(V). It was shown that such calculations reliably reproduce geometrical and topological parameters and therefore can be used for a criterion search of dioxygen reversible binding by the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of antimony(V). It was found that the "critical" value of the HOMO energy vary in the range from -5.197 to -5.061 eV for reversible binding of dioxygen complexes. This can serve as a thermodynamic criterion to predict the possibility of the dioxygen reversible binding by the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes of Sb(V). The HOMO energies correlate with the conversion of the catecholate and amidophenolate complexes in corresponding spiroendoperoxide derivatives as well. The contribution of the atom orbitals of the carbon atoms in the five-membered metallocycle to HOMO in complexes with different substitutes in the 4- and 5-positions of the catecholate ligand allows predicting the place of dioxygen addition. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  1. First observation of 109Te β+ and electron capture decay to levels of 109Sb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressler, J.J.; Walters, W.B.; Shergur, J.; Davids, C.N.; Heinz, A.; Seweryniak, D.; Dean, D.J.; Hjorth-Jensen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Low-spin levels in 109 Sb populated by 109 Te beta decay are reported for the first time. Seven new levels are proposed, two below 1 MeV excitation energy. Spins and parities of (1/2 + ) and (3/2 + ,5/2 + ) are suggested for the low energy levels by comparison to beta feeding intensities and systematics. These results are compared with new calculated levels for 109 Sb

  2. Epitaxial growth of Ge-Sb-Te based phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perumal, Karthick

    2013-01-01

    Ge-Sb-Te based phase change materials are considered as a prime candidate for optical and electrical data storage applications. With the application of an optical or electrical pulse, they can be reversibly switched between amorphous and crystalline state, thereby exhibiting large optical and electrical contrast between the two phases, which are then stored as information in the form of binary digits. Single crystalline growth is interesting from both the academic and industrial perspective, as ordered Ge-Sb-Te based metamaterials are known to exhibit switching at reduced energies. The present study deals with the epitaxial growth and analysis of Ge-Sb-Te based thin films. The first part of the thesis deals with the epitaxial growth of GeTe. Thin films of GeTe were grown on highly mismatched Si(111) and (001) substrates. On both the substrate orientations the film grows along [111] direction with an amorphous-to-crystalline transition observed during the initial stages of growth. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition was studied in-vivo using azimuthal reflection high-energy electron diffraction scans and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. In the second part of the thesis epitaxy and characterization of Sb 2 Te 3 thin films are presented. The third part of the thesis deals with the epitaxy of ternary Ge-Sb-Te alloys. The composition of the films are shown to be highly dependent on growth temperatures and vary along the pseudobinary line from Sb 2 Te 3 to GeTe with increase in growth temperatures. A line-of-sight quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to reliably control the GeSbTe growth temperature. Growth was performed at different Ge, Sb, Te fluxes to study the compositional variation of the films. Incommensurate peaks are observed along the [111] direction by X-ray diffraction. The possibility of superstructural vacancy ordering along the [111] direction is discussed.

  3. Large linear magnetoresistance and magnetothermopower in layered SrZnSb$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kefeng; Petrovic, C.

    2016-01-01

    We report the large linear magnetoresistance ($\\sim 300\\%$ in 9 T field at 2 K) and magnetothermopower in layered SrZnSb$_2$ crystal with quasi-two-dimensional Sb layers. A crossover from the semiclassical parabolic field dependent magnetoresistance to linear field dependent magnetoresistance with increasing magnetic field is observed. The magnetoresistance behavior can be described very well by combining the semiclassical cyclotron contribution and the quantum limit magnetoresistance. Magnet...

  4. Spin 1/2 Delafossite Honeycomb Compound Cu5SbO6

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climent-Pascual, E.; Norby, Poul; Andersen, Niels Hessel

    2012-01-01

    Cu5SbO6 is found to have a monoclinic, Delafossite-derived structure consisting of alternating layers of O–Cu(I)–O sticks and magnetic layers of Jahn–Teller distorted Cu(II)O6 octahedra in an edge sharing honeycomb arrangement with Sb(V)O6 octahedra. This yields the structural formula Cu(I)3Cu(II...

  5. Smooth interface effects on the confinement properties of GaSb/Al xGa 1- xSb quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Artur B.; de Sousa, Jeanlex S.; Farias, Gil A.; Freire, Valder N.

    2000-10-01

    A theoretical investigation on the confinement properties of GaSb/Al xGa 1- xSb single quantum wells (QWs) with smooth interfaces is performed. Error function ( erf)-like interfacial aluminum molar fraction variations in the QWs, from which it is possible to obtain the carriers effective masses and confinement potential profiles, are assumed. It is shown that the existence of smooth interfaces blue shifts considerably the confined carriers and exciton energies, an effect which is stronger in thin QWs.

  6. Influence of the exchange and correlation functional on the structure of amorphous InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Gabardi, Silvia; Caravati, Sebastiano; Los, Jan H; Kühne, Thomas D; Bernasconi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the structural, vibrational, and electronic properties of the amorphous phase of InSb and In3SbTe2 compounds of interest for applications in phase change non-volatile memories. Models of the amorphous phase have been generated by quenching from the melt by molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. In particular, we have studied the dependence of the structural properties on the choice of the exchange-correlation functional. It turns out that the u...

  7. Photoconduction spectroscopy of p-type GaSb films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shura, M.W., E-mail: Megersa.Shura@live.nmmu.ac.za [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.; Wagener, M.C. [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    Excess carrier lifetimes (77 K) have been measured as function of the absorbed flux density in undoped p-type gallium antimonide films (GaSb/GaAs) using steady state photoconductivity measurements with the illumination wavelength of 1.1 {mu}m. Using the results from Hall effect measurements along with the relations describing the lifetimes of the excess minority carriers in the bulk of the films and at the surface, the theoretical values of the effective excess carrier lifetime in the materials were also calculated. Discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results were described using a two-layer model, by considering the variation in the charge distribution within the layer due to the presence of surface states, as well as the band offset between the layer and the substrate. Theoretical modeling of the experimental result yields values of different parameters such as band bending at the surface, minimum value of Shockley-Read-Hall lifetime and maximum value of the surface recombination velocity.

  8. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut Ia, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s.

  9. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  10. Materials technology for InSb MISFET applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, W.; Chen, C.W.; Lile, D.L.; Junga, F.

    1989-01-01

    The narrow and direct bandgap of indium antimonide is frequently used to good advantage in detection of light in the infra-red region; however, to data little use has been made of the high mobilities associated with this material. Although its high intrinsic carrier concentration generally necessitates operation at cooled temperatures, higher speeds and the advantage of integrating other devices on-chip with the infrared detectors encourages the development of an active device technology on this semiconductor. Considering its small bandgap, the problems associated with good p-n junctions may favor the MISFET in this application. Surprisingly, little has been done toward this goal, though structures such as charge-coupled-devices, focal array detectors, and a few insulated gate FETs have been fabricated. In this paper the authors present the results of recent work toward the development of a fabrication technology for InSb MISFETs. Specifically, they have conducted a study of etchants, metal contacts, and dielectrics for application to mesa-structure, insulated gate field transistors

  11. Anisotropic giant magnetoresistance in NbSb2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kefeng; Graf, D.; Li, Lijun; Wang, Limin; Petrovic, C.

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic field response of the transport properties of novel materials and then the large magnetoresistance effects are of broad importance in both science and application. We report large transverse magnetoreistance (the magnetoresistant ratio ~ 1.3 × 105% in 2 K and 9 T field, and 4.3 × 106% in 0.4 K and 32 T field, without saturation) and field-induced metal-semiconductor-like transition, in NbSb2 single crystal. Magnetoresistance is significantly suppressed but the metal-semiconductor-like transition persists when the current is along the ac-plane. The sign reversal of the Hall resistivity and Seebeck coefficient in the field, plus the electronic structure reveal the coexistence of a small number of holes with very high mobility and a large number of electrons with low mobility. The large MR is attributed to the change of the Fermi surface induced by the magnetic field which is related to the Dirac-like point, in addition to orbital MR expected for high mobility metals. PMID:25476239

  12. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s

  13. Photoconduction spectroscopy of p-type GaSb films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shura, M.W.; Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.; Wagener, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Excess carrier lifetimes (77 K) have been measured as function of the absorbed flux density in undoped p-type gallium antimonide films (GaSb/GaAs) using steady state photoconductivity measurements with the illumination wavelength of 1.1 μm. Using the results from Hall effect measurements along with the relations describing the lifetimes of the excess minority carriers in the bulk of the films and at the surface, the theoretical values of the effective excess carrier lifetime in the materials were also calculated. Discrepancies between the experimental and theoretical results were described using a two-layer model, by considering the variation in the charge distribution within the layer due to the presence of surface states, as well as the band offset between the layer and the substrate. Theoretical modeling of the experimental result yields values of different parameters such as band bending at the surface, minimum value of Shockley–Read–Hall lifetime and maximum value of the surface recombination velocity.

  14. Yolk-shell structured Sb@C anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Junhua; Yan, Pengfei; Luo, Langli; Qi, Xingguo; Rong, Xiaohui; Zheng, Jianming; Xiao, Biwei; Feng, Shuo; Wang, Chongmin; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Lin, Yuehe; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Xiaolin

    2017-10-01

    Despite great advances in sodium-ion battery developments, the search for high energy and stable anode materials remains a challenge. Alloy or conversion-typed anode materials are attractive candidates of high specific capacity and low voltage potential, yet their applications are hampered by the large volume expansion and hence poor electrochemical reversibility and fast capacity fade. Here, we use antimony (Sb) as an example to demonstrate the use of yolk-shell structured anodes for high energy Na-ion batteries. The Sb@C yolk-shell structure prepared by controlled reduction and selective removal of Sb2O3 from carbon coated Sb2O3 nanoparticles can accommodate the Sb swelling upon sodiation and improve the structural/electrical integrity against pulverization. It delivers a high specific capacity of ~554 mAh•g-1, good rate capability (315 mhA•g-1 at 10C rate) and long cyclability (92% capacity retention over 200 cycles). Full-cells of O3-Na0.9[Cu0.22Fe0.30Mn0.48]O2 cathodes and Sb@C-hard carbon composite anodes demonstrate a high specific energy of ~130 Wh•kg-1 (based on the total mass of cathode and anode) in the voltage range of 2.0-4.0 V, ~1.5 times energy of full-cells with similar design using hard carbon anodes.

  15. Topotactic Fluorine Insertion into the Channels of FeSb2O4-Related Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laune, Benjamin P; Rees, Gregory J; Marco, José F; Hah, Hien-Yoong; Johnson, Charles E; Johnson, Jacqueline A; Berry, Frank J; Hanna, John V; Greaves, Colin

    2017-08-21

    This paper discusses the fluorination characteristics of phases related to FeSb 2 O 4 , by reporting the results of a detailed study of Mg 0.50 Fe 0.50 Sb 2 O 4 and Co 0.50 Fe 0.50 Sb 2 O 4 . Reaction with fluorine gas at low temperatures (typically 230 °C) results in topotactic insertion of fluorine into the channels, which are an inherent feature of the structure. Neutron powder diffraction and solid state NMR studies show that the interstitial fluoride ions are bonded to antimony within the channel walls to form Sb-F-Sb bridges. To date, these reactions have been observed only when Fe 2+ ions are present within the chains of edge-linked octahedra (FeO 6 in FeSb 2 O 4 ) that form the structural channels. Oxidation of Fe 2+ to Fe 3+ is primarily responsible for balancing the increased negative charge associated with the presence of the fluoride ions within the channels. For the two phases studied, the creation of Fe 3+ ions within the chains of octahedra modify the magnetic exchange interactions to change the ground-state magnetic symmetry to C-type magnetic order in contrast to the A-type order observed for the unfluorinated oxide parents.

  16. On possibility of superconductivity in SnSb: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabhi, Shweta D. [Department of Physics, M. K. Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364001 (India); Shrivastava, Deepika [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India); Jha, Prafulla K., E-mail: prafullaj@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, The M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390002 (India); Sanyal, Sankar P. [Department of Physics, Barkatullah University, Bhopal 462026 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Superconducting property of SnSb is predicted by ab-initio calculations. • Electronic properties of SnSb in RS phase shows metallic behaviour similar to SnAs. • Phonon dispersion confirms the dynamical stability of SnSb in RS phase. • Superconducting transition temperature is 3.1 K, slightly lower than that of SnAs. • Calculated thermodynamic properties are also reported. - Abstract: The electronic, phonon structure and superconducting properties of tin antimonide (SnSb) in rock-salt (RS) structure are calculated using first-principles density functional theory. The electronic band structure and density of states show metallic behavior. The phonon frequencies are positive throughout the Brillouin zone in rock-salt structure indicating its stability in that phase. Superconductivity of SnSb in RS phase is discussed in detail by calculating phonon linewidths, Eliashberg spectral function, electron-phonon coupling constant and superconducting transition temperature. SnSb is found to have a slightly lower T{sub C} (3.1 K), as compared to SnAs.

  17. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of doped p-type CoSb3 under TGZM effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqiang; Li, Shuangming; Li, Xin; Zhong, Hong

    2017-05-01

    The Co-96.9 wt% Sb hypoeutectic alloy doped by 0.12 wt% YbFe was solidified in a Bridgman-type furnace based on temperature gradient zone melting (TGZM) effect. A mushy zone was observed between the complete liquid zone and the solid zone at different thermal stabilization time ranging from 15 min to 40 h. The mushy-zone solidified microstructures of the alloy only consist of CoSb3 and Sb phase. After 40 h thermal stabilization time, the volume fraction of CoSb3 in the mushy zone increases significantly up to 99.6% close to the solid-liquid interface. The hardness and fracture toughness of doped CoSb3 can reach 7.01 ± 0.69 GPa and 0.78 ± 0.08 MPa·m1/2, respectively. Meanwhile, the thermoelectric properties of the alloy were measured ranging from room temperature (RT) to 850 K. The Seebeck coefficient of the specimen prepared by TGZM effect after 40 h could reach 155 μV/K and the ZT value is 0.47 at 660 K, showing that it is feasible to prepare CoSb3 bulk material via TGZM effect. As a simple and one-step solidification method, the TGZM technique could be applied in the preparation of skutterudite compounds.

  18. Solid Liquid Interdiffusion Bonding of Zn4Sb3 Thermoelectric Material with Cu Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Lee, K. T.; Hwang, J. D.; Chu, H. S.; Hsu, C. C.; Chen, S. C.; Chuang, T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The ZnSb intermetallic compound may have thermoelectric applications because it is low in cost and environmentally friendly. In this study, a Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric element coated with a Ni barrier layer and a Ag reaction layer was bonded with a Ag-coated Cu electrode using a Ag/Sn/Ag solid-liquid interdiffusion bonding process. The results indicated that a Ni5Zn21 intermetallic phase formed easily at the Zn4Sb3/Ni interface, leading to sound adhesion. In addition, Sn film was found to react completely with the Ag layer to form a Ag3Sn intermetallic layer having a melting point of 480°C. The resulting Zn4Sb3 thermoelectric module can be applied at the optimized operation temperature (400°C) of Zn4Sb3 material as a thermoelectric element. The bonding strengths ranged from 14.9 MPa to 25.0 MPa, and shear tests revealed that the Zn4Sb3/Cu-joints fractured through the interior of the thermoelectric elements.

  19. Transportation properties of amorphous state InSb and its metastable middle phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaowen

    1990-09-01

    The variation of the substrate temperature induces the metal-semiconductor transition in the condensation InSb films at low temperatrue. The electron conduction is dominant in the metal-type amorphous InSb and the hole in semiconductor-type one. In the metal-type amorphous InSb the electron-electron is correlated under the field above 0.1T in the temperature region of liquid nitrogen. The structure relaxation leads to not only the increase of the short range order but also the change of electron structure in metal-type amorphous InSb. The first conductance jump originates mainly from the increase of Hall mobility of the carrier, i.e. the increase of the short range order, and the system relaxes from the liquid-like to the lattice-like amorphous state. The three types of the crystallization phase transition for the metal-type amorphous InSb present obviously different transportation behaviours. Both metal-type amorphous state and metastable middle phase of InSb all are one of superconducting system with the lowest carrier concentration (n 0 ∼10 18 cm -3 ). Superconducting T c of the metastable middle phase is related to the state density near Fermi surface, i.e. the higher T c corresponds to the higher state density. The quasi-two-dimensional structure is favourable to superconductivity

  20. Structural and optical studies of FeSb{sub 2} under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poffo, C.M.; Souza, S.M.; Triches, D.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Polian, A.; Gauthier, M. [Physique des Milieux Denses, IMPMC, CNRS-UMR 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, B115, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-12-15

    Nanostructured orthorhombic FeSb{sub 2} was formed along with an amorphous phase, by mechanical alloying from a mixture of Fe and Sb powders. The influence of pressure on the structural and optical properties of the material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) up to 28.2 and 45.2 GPa, respectively. The volume fraction of the amorphous phase increased with increasing pressure. For pressures above 14.3 GPa, a tetragonal FeSb{sub 2} phase was also observed. For the orthorhombic FeSb{sub 2} phase, the pressure dependence of the volume fitted to a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state gave a bulk modulus B{sub 0}=75.5{+-}3.2 GPa, and its derivative B{sub 0}{sup Prime }=7.2{+-}0.7. For the orthorhombic FeSb{sub 2} phase, the Raman active A{sub g}{sup 2} mode was observed up to 28.3 GPa, while the B{sub 1g}{sup 2} mode was not for pressures larger than 14 GPa. For pressures above 21 GPa, the Raman active A{sub 1g} mode of a tetragonal FeSb{sub 2} phase was observed.

  1. Liquid epitaxy of Gasub(1-x)Alsub(x)Sb varizone structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedegkaev, T.T.; Kryukov, I.I.; Lidejkis, T.P.; Tsarenkov, B.V.; Yakovlev, Yu.P.

    1980-01-01

    To produce Gasub (1-x)Alsub(x)Sb varizon structures with preset limits for the change of the width of Eg forbidden zone and preset Eg gradient value and sign, epitaxy growth from the liquid phase of solid solutions of GaSb-AlSb system was investigated. The epitaxy was realized in two ways: by cooling the saturated solution of Ga-Al-Sb melt and using the isometric contineous mixing of two solution-melts with different Al content. As a result it was ascertained that: 1 the epitaxy by cooling a solution-melt permitted to produce Gasub(1-x)Alsub(x)Sb varizon structures only with small Eg gradients (<=30eV/cm); 2 the epitaxy by contineously mixing the solution-melts permitted to produce Gasub(1-x)Alsub(x)Sb varizon structures with increasing and decreasing Eg in the direction of layer growth in the whole interval of compositions. Eg gradient can be as great as thousands of eV/cm

  2. Effects of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on sliding friction of automotive brake friction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wan Kyu; Rhee, Tae Hee; Kim, Hyun Seong; Jang, Ho

    2013-09-01

    The effect of antimony trisulfide (Sb2S3) on the tribological properties of automotive brake friction materials was investigated using a Krauss type tribometer and a 1/5 scale dynamometer with a rigid caliper. Results showed that Sb2S3 improved fade resistance by developing transfer films on the disc surface at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, the rubbing surfaces of the friction material exhibited contact plateaus with a broader height distribution when it contained Sb2S3, indicating fewer contact junctions compared to the friction material with graphite. The friction material with Sb2S3 also exhibited a lower stick-slip propensity than the friction material with graphite. The improved fade resistance with Sb2S3 is attributed to its lubricating capability sustained at high temperatures, while the lower stick-slip propensity of the friction material with Sb2S3 is associated with the slight difference between its static and kinetic coefficients of friction and high normal stiffness.

  3. Microstructures and thermoelectric properties of GeSbTe based layered compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, F.; Zhu, T.J.; Zhao, X.B. [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China); Dong, S.R. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information and Electronics Engineering, Hangzhou (China)

    2007-08-15

    Microstructures and thermoelectric properties of Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} chalcogenide semiconductors have been investigated to explore the possibility of their thermoelectric applications. The phase transformation from the face-centered cubic to hexagonal structure was observed in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} compounds prepared by the melt spinning technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of the alloys were increased due to the enhanced scattering of charge carriers at grain boundaries. The maximum power factors of the rapidly solidified Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} attained 0.975 x 10{sup -3} Wm{sup -1}K{sup -2} at 750 K and 0.767 x 10{sup -3} Wm{sup -1}K{sup -2} at 643 K respectively, higher than those of water quenched counterparts, implying that thermoelectric properties of GeSbTe based layered compounds can be improved by grain refinement. The present results show this class of chalcogenide semiconductors is promising for thermoelectric applications. (orig.)

  4. Structural, electric and kinetic parameters of ternary alloys of GeSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales-Sanchez, E. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Ap. Postal 13, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C. P. 76230, (Mexico)]. E-mail: m6007@ciateq.net.mx; Prokhorov, E.F. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Ap. Postal 13, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C. P. 76230, (Mexico); Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Ap. Postal 13, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C. P. 76230, (Mexico); Mendoza-Galvan, A. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Unidad Queretaro, Libramiento Norponiente 2000, Ap. Postal 13, Juriquilla, Queretaro, C. P. 76230, (Mexico)

    2005-01-03

    Thin amorphous films of GeSbTe have been widely employed in the technology used for phase change optical memory or compact disks. In this article, we report on measurements of resistance, transmittance, and X-ray diffraction in thin films with stoichiometric compositions of Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 4}Te{sub 7}, Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4}, Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5}, and Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5.} The resistivity, lattice constant, and the temperature at which transformation from the amorphous phase to the cubic crystalline structure occurs were calculated for each stoichiometric composition, and the energy activation was determined, applying Kissinger's model. It was found that the Ge{sub 4}Sb{sub 1}Te{sub 5} composition has the highest crystallization temperature (425 K), the highest resistivity (0.178 {omega} cm), the greatest E{sub a} (3.09 eV), and the lowest lattice constant (a=5.975 A) in the cubic phase at 170 deg C.

  5. Crystallization behavior of Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 films in optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khulbe, Pramod K.; Hurst, Terril; Mansuripur, Masud; Horie, Michikazu

    2002-01-01

    We report laser-induced crystallization behavior of binary Sb-Te and ternary Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin film samples in a typical quadrilayer stack as used in phase-change optical disk data storage. Several experiments have been conducted on a two-laser static tester in which one laser operating in pulse mode writes crystalline marks on amorphous film or amorphous marks on crystalline film, while the second laser operating at low-power cw mode simultaneously monitors the progress of the crystalline or amorphous mark formation in real time in terms of the reflectivity variation. The results of this study show that the crystallization kinetics of this class of film is strongly growth dominant, which is significantly different from the crystallization kinetics of stochiometric Ge-Sb-Te compositions. In Sb-Te and Ge-doped eutectic Sb70Te30 thin-film samples, the crystallization behavior of the two forms of amorphous states, namely, as-deposited amorphous state and melt-quenched amorphous state, remains approximately same. We have also presented experiments showing the effect of the variation of the Sb/Te ratio and Ge doping on the crystallization behavior of these films

  6. Influence of Ce in magnetic behaviour of CeCrSb3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamdar, Manjusha; Thamizhavel, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Das, Amitabh; Prokes, Karel

    2009-01-01

    RCrSb 3 (R = rare earth ion) presents us a system to study magnetic interplay of d moments of Cr and f moments of rare earth ions. These compounds crystallize in orthorhombic structure, space group Pbcm. The crystal structure is highly anisotropic, with a axes being twice as long as band c. It has quasi two dimensional structure with layers of RSb and CrSb 2 stacked along a axis. Cr is surrounded by Sb ions forming face(edge) sharing octahedra along c(b) axes. The dual magnetic transitions exhibited by Cr in LaCrSb 3 , arouses interest in RCrSb 3 series. LaCrSb 3 undergoes FM transition below 123 K and on further lowering of temperature exhibits an AFM transition below 100 K with moments oriented along c axes. The AFM phase vanishes with application of small field of 1kOe. The coexistence of FM exchange along b and a axes with AFM exchange along c axis below 100 K is interesting. However, the magnetization along a axis is very small

  7. Unraveling the electrolyte properties of Na3SbS4 through computation and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Larry E.; Hood, Zachary D.; Holzwarth, N. A. W.

    2017-12-01

    Solid-state sodium electrolytes are expected to improve next-generation batteries on the basis of favorable energy density and reduced cost. Na3SbS4 represents a new solid-state ion conductor with high ionic conductivities in the mS/cm range. Here, we explore the tetragonal phase of Na3SbS4 and its interface with metallic sodium anode using a combination of experiments and first-principles calculations. The computed Na-ion vacancy migration energies of 0.1 eV are smaller than the value inferred from experiment, suggesting that grain boundaries or other factors dominate the experimental systems. Analysis of symmetric cells of the electrolyte—Na/Na 3SbS4/Na —show that a conductive solid electrolyte interphase forms. Computer simulations infer that the interface is likely to be related to Na3SbS3 , involving the conversion of the tetrahedral SbS43 - ions of the bulk electrolyte into trigonal pyramidal SbS33 - ions at the interface.

  8. Growth of GaSb1-xBix by molecular beam epitaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Yuxin; Wang, Shumin; Roy, Ivy Saha

    2012-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxy for GaSb1-xBix is investigated in this article. The growth window for incorporation of Bi in GaSb was found. Strategies of avoiding formation of Bi droplets and enhancing Bi incorporation were studied. The Bi incorporation was confirmed by SIMS and RBS measurements. The Bi ......As substrates were compared and no apparent difference for Bi incorporation was found.......Molecular beam epitaxy for GaSb1-xBix is investigated in this article. The growth window for incorporation of Bi in GaSb was found. Strategies of avoiding formation of Bi droplets and enhancing Bi incorporation were studied. The Bi incorporation was confirmed by SIMS and RBS measurements. The Bi...... concentration in the samples was found to increase with increasing growth temperature and Bi flux. The position of GaSb1-xBix layer peak in XRD rocking curves is found to be correlated to Bi composition. Surface and structural properties of the samples were also investigated. Samples grown on GaSb and Ga...

  9. Picosecond laser pulse-driven crystallization behavior of SiSb phase change memory thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huan; Li Simian; Zhai Fengxiao; Wang Yang; Lai Tianshu; Wu Yiqun; Gan Fuxi

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We reported crystallization dynamics of a novel SiSb phase change material. → We measured optical constants of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb areas. → Optical properties of as-deposited and irradiated SiSb thin film were compared. → Crystallization of irradiated SiSb was confirmed by using AFM and micro-Raman spectra. → The heat conduction effect of lower metal layer of multi-layer films was studied. - Abstract: Transient phase change crystallization process of SiSb phase change thin films under the irradiation of picosecond (ps) laser pulse was studied using time-resolved reflectivity measurements. The ps laser pulse-crystallized domains were characterized by atomic force microscope, Raman spectra and ellipsometrical spectra measurements. A reflectivity contrast of about 15% can be achieved by ps laser pulse-induced crystallization. A minimum crystallization time of 11 ns was achieved by a low-fluence single ps laser pulse after pre-irradiation. SiSb was shown to be very promising for fast phase change memory applications.

  10. Residual carrier density in GaSb grown on Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Gozu, Shin-ichiro; Ueta, Akio; Ohtani, Naoki

    2006-01-01

    The relationships between the densities of residual carriers and those of dislocation in GaSb films grown on Si substrates were investigated. Dislocation density was evaluated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The TEM images indicated that the dislocation density after a 5-μm-thick GaSb film was grown was below 1 x 10 8 /cm 2 although the density near the interface between the Si substrate and the GaSb film was about 3 x 10 9 /cm 2 . Forming a dislocation loop by growing a thick GaSb layer may decrease the dislocation density. The density and mobility of the residual carrier were investigated by Hall measurement using the van der Pauw method. The residual carriers in GaSb grown on Si substrates were holes, and their densities decreased significantly from 4.2 x 10 18 to 1.4 x 10 17 /cm 3 as GaSb thickness was increased from 500 to 5500 nm

  11. Probing Photocatalytic Characteristics of Sb-Doped TiO2 under Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjing Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticle with varied dopant concentrations was synthesized using titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 and antimony chloride (SbCl3 as the precursors. The properties of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, fluorescence spectrophotometer, and Uv-vis spectrophotometer. The absorption edge of TiO2 nanoparticles could be extended to visible region after doping with antimony, in contrast to the UV absorption of pure TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles was much more active than pure TiO2. The 0.1% Sb-doped TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the best photocatalytic activity which was better than that of the Degussa P25 under visible light irradiation using terephthalic acid as fluorescent probe. The effects of Sb dopant on the photocatalytic activity and the involved mechanism were extensively investigated in this work as well.

  12. Phytoremediation of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn from contaminated water by the aquatic macrophyte eleocharis acicularis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Masayuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Sano, Sakae [Faculty of Education, Ehime University, Ehime (Japan); Ha, Nguyen Thi Hoang

    2009-09-15

    Sb, As, Cu, and Zn toxicity and contamination have become a growing concern in recent years. Phytoremediation, a plant based and cost effective technology, may be an effective approach in the cleanup of water contaminated by these metals. In this study, the aquatic macrophyte Eleocharis acicularis was used in laboratory and field experiments to assess its capability to accumulate Sb, As, Cu, and Zn, and thereby investigate its potential application in phytoremediation. The results showed that E. acicularis adapted well to water contaminated by these metals. The removal rates of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn in the laboratory experiment were 3.04, 2.75, 0.417, and 1.49 {mu}g/L/day, respectively. The highest concentrations of these metals accumulated in E. acicularis after 10 days of the laboratory experiment were 6.29, 6.44, 20.5, and 73.5 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. Only 8% of As, 12% of Sb, 87% of Cu and 93% of Zn removed from the water were used by E. acicularis. The highest concentrations of Sb, As, Cu, and Zn accumulated in E. acicularis after 10 wk of the field experiment were 76.0, 22.4, 33.9, and 266 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The results indicate that E. acicularis has the ability to accumulate Sb, As, Cu, and Zn from contaminated water. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Treatment of air pollution control residues with iron rich waste sulfuric acid: does it work for antimony (Sb)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breedveld, Gijs D; Kirkeng, Terje; Lægreid, Marit; Mæhlum, Trond; Mulder, Jan

    2013-03-15

    Antimony (Sb) in air pollution control (APC) residues from municipal solid waste incineration has gained increased focus due to strict Sb leaching limits set by the EU landfill directive. Here we study the chemical speciation and solubility of Sb at the APC treatment facility NOAH Langøya (Norway), where iron (Fe)-rich sulfuric acid (∼3.6M, 2.3% Fe(II)), a waste product from the industrial extraction of ilmenite, is used for neutralization. Antimony in water extracts of untreated APC residues occurred exclusively as pentavalent antimonate, even at low pH and Eh values. The Sb solubility increased substantially at pH<10, possibly due to the dissolution of ettringite (at alkaline pH) or calcium (Ca)-antimonate. Treated APC residues, stored anoxically in the laboratory, simulating the conditions at the NOAH Langøya landfill, gave rise to decreasing concentrations of Sb in porewater, occurring exclusively as Sb(V). Concentrations of Sb decreased from 87-918μgL(-1) (day 3) to 18-69μgL(-1) (day 600). We hypothesize that an initial sorption of Sb to Fe(II)-Fe(III) hydroxides (green rust) and eventually precipitation of Ca- and Fe-antimonates (tripuhyite; FeSbO4) occurred. We conclude that Fe-rich, sulfuric acid waste is efficient to immobilize Sb in APC residues from waste incineration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Study of Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    In the present work, bi-layer thin films of Sb/SnO{sub 2} were produced on unheated glass substrates using ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique without post annealing treatment. The thickness of Sb layers was varied from 2 to 10 nm and the Sb layers were deposited on SnO{sub 2} layers having thicknesses of 40 nm to 115 nm. The effect of thickness was studied on the morphological, electrical and optical properties. The Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer resulted in lowering the electrical resistivity as well as reducing the optical transmittance. However, the optical and electrical properties of the bi-layer films were mainly influenced by the thickness of Sb layers due to progressive transfer in structures from aggregate to continuous films. The bi-layer films show the electrical resistivity of 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and an optical transmittance of 26% for Sb film having 10 nm thickness. - Highlights: • Bi-layer Sb/SnO{sub 2} structures were synthesized by ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. • The 6 nm-thick Sb film is a transition region in this study. • The conductivity of the bi-layer films is increased as Sb thickness increases. • The transmittance of the bi-layer films is decreased as Sb thickness increases.

  15. Effects of Ge- and Sb-doping and annealing on the tunable bandgaps of SnS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hsuan-Tai; Chiang, Ming-Hung; Huang, Chen-Hao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Lin, Wen-Tai, E-mail: wtlin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yaw-Shyan [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700, Taiwan (China); Guo, Tzung-Fang [Department of Photonics, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2015-06-01

    SnS, Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films with single orthorhombic SnS phase were fabricated via solvothermal routes and subsequent spin-coating, respectively. The substitution solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. The bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films can be tuned in the ranges of 1.25–1.35 and 1.30–1.39 eV, respectively. The possible mechanisms for the tunable bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films are discussed. For the Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films subjected to annealing at 200–350 °C in N{sub 2}, the bandgaps of 200 °C-annealed films remain unchanged, while those of 300 °C- and 350 °C-annealed films decrease with the annealing temperature because of the evaporation of Ge and Sb respectively. - Highlights: • Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films were fabricated via spin-coating. • The solubilities of Ge and Sb in SnS are about 6 and 5 at.%, respectively. • The bandgaps of SnS films can be tuned by Ge and Sb doping respectively. • Annealing above 300 °C reduces the bandgaps of Ge- and Sb-doped SnS films.

  16. Alu Sb2 subfamily is present in all higher primates but was most succesfully amplified in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richer, C.; Zietkiewicz, E.; Labuda, D. [Universite de Montreal, Que (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Alu repeats can be classified into subfamilies which amplified in primate genomes at different evolutionary time periods. A young Alu subfamily, Sb2, with a characteristic 7-nucleotide duplication at position 256, has been described in seven human loci. An Sb2 insertion found near the HD gene was unique to two HD families, indicating that Sb2 was still retropositionally active. Here, we have shown that the Sb2 insertion in the CHOL locus was similarly rare, being absent in 120 individuals of Caucasian, Oriental and Black origin. In contrast, Sb2 inserts in five other loci were found fixed (non-polymorphic), based on measurements in the same population sample, but absent from orthologous positions in higher apes. This suggest that Sb2 repeats spread relatively early in the human lineage following divergence from other primates and that these elements may be human-specific. By quantitative PCR, we investigated the presence of Sb2 sequences in different primate DNA, using one PCR primer anchored at the 5{prime} Alu-end and the other complementary to the duplicated Sb2-specific segment. With an Sb2-containing plasmid as a standard, we estimated the number of Sb2 repeats at 1500-1800 copies per human haploid equivalent; corresponding numbers in chimpanzee and gorilla were almost two orders of magnitude lower, while the signal observed in orangutan and gibbon DNAs was consistent with the presence of a single copy. The analysis of 22 human, 11 chimpanzee and 10 gorilla sequences indicates that the Alu Sb2 dispersed independently in these three primate lineages; gorilla consensus differs from the human Sb2 sequence by one position, while all chimpanzee repeats have their linker expanded by up to eight A-residues. Should they be thus considered as separate subfamilies? It is possible that sequence modifications with respect to the human consensus are responsible for poor retroposition of Sb2 in apes.

  17. Effect of lanthanide contraction on the mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien): Syntheses and characterizations of lanthanide complexes with a tetraelenidoantimonate ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Liang Jingjing; Pan Yingli; Zhang Yong; Jia Dingxian

    2011-01-01

    Mixed polyamine systems Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) (Ln=lanthanide, en=ethylenediamine, dien=diethylenetriamine, trien=triethylenetetramine) were investigated under solvothermal conditions, and novel mixed-coordinated lanthanide(III) complexes [Ln(en) 2 (dien)(η 2 -SbSe 4 )] (Ln=Ce(1a), Nd(1b)), [Ln(en) 2 (dien)(SbSe 4 )] (Ln=Sm(2a), Gd(2b), Dy(2c)), [Ln(en)(trien)(μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 )] ∞ (Ln=Ce(3a), Nd(3b)) and [Sm(en)(trien)(η 2 -SbSe 4 )] (4a) were prepared. Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates were obtained across the lanthanide series in both en+dien and en+trien systems. The tetrahedral anion [SbSe 4 ] 3- acts as a monodentate ligand mono-SbSe 4 , a bidentate chelating ligand η 2 -SbSe 4 or a tridentate bridging ligand μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 to the lanthanide(III) center depending on the Ln 3+ ions and the mixed ethylene polyamines, indicating the effect of lanthanide contraction on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. The lanthanide selenidoantimonates exhibit semiconducting properties with E g between 2.08 and 2.51 eV. - Graphical Abstract: Two structural types of lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates are formed in both en-dien and en-trien mixed polyamines across lanthanide series, indicating the lanthanide contraction effect on the structures of the lanthanide(III) selenidoantimonates. Highlights: → Two structural types of lanthanide selenidoantimonates are prepared across the lanthanide series in both Ln/Sb/Se/(en+dien) and Ln/Sb/Se/(en+trien) systems. → The [SbSe 4 ] 3- anion acts as a mono-SbSe 4 , a η 2 -SbSe 4 or a μ-η 1 ,η 2 -SbSe 4 ligand to the Ln 3+ ions. → The soft base ligand [SbSe 4 ] 3- can be controlled to coordinate to the Ln 3+ ions with en+dien and en+trien as co-ligands.

  18. Structural and electrical properties of high-quality 0.41 μm-thick InSb films grown on GaAs (1 0 0) substrate with InxAl1−xSb continuously graded buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Hoon; Song, Jin Dong; Lim, Ju Young; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Tae Geun

    2012-01-01

    High-quality InSb was grown on a GaAs (1 0 0) substrate with an InAlSb continuously graded buffer (CGB). The temperatures of In, Al K-cells and substrate were modified during the growth of InAlSb CGB. The cross-section TEM image reveals that the defects due to lattice-mismatch disappear near lateral structures in CGB. The measured electron mobility of 0.41 μm-thick InSb was 46,300 cm 2 /Vs at 300 K. These data surpass the electron mobility of state-of-the-art InSb grown by other methods with similar thickness of InSb.

  19. Nonpeptidic urotensin-II receptor antagonists I: in vitro pharmacological characterization of SB-706375

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Stephen A; Behm, David J; Aiyar, Nambi V; Naselsky, Diane; Disa, Jyoti; Brooks, David P; Ohlstein, Eliot H; Gleason, John G; Sarau, Henry M; Foley, James J; Buckley, Peter T; Schmidt, Dulcie B; Wixted, William E; Widdowson, Katherine; Riley, Graham; Jin, Jian; Gallagher, Timothy F; Schmidt, Stanley J; Ridgers, Lance; Christmann, Lisa T; Keenan, Richard M; Knight, Steven D; Dhanak, Dashyant

    2005-01-01

    SB-706375 potently inhibited [125I]hU-II binding to both mammalian recombinant and ‘native' UT receptors (Ki 4.7±1.5 to 20.7±3.6 nM at rodent, feline and primate recombinant UT receptors and Ki 5.4±0.4 nM at the endogenous UT receptor in SJRH30 cells). Prior exposure to SB-706375 (1 μM, 30 min) did not alter [125I]hU-II binding affinity or density in recombinant cells (KD 3.1±0.4 vs 5.8±0.9 nM and Bmax 3.1±1.0 vs 2.8±0.8 pmol mg−1) consistent with a reversible mode of action. The novel, nonpeptidic radioligand [3H]SB-657510, a close analogue of SB-706375, bound to the monkey UT receptor (KD 2.6±0.4 nM, Bmax 0.86±0.12 pmol mg−1) in a manner that was inhibited by both U-II isopeptides and SB-706375 (Ki 4.6±1.4 to 17.6±5.4 nM) consistent with the sulphonamides and native U-II ligands sharing a common UT receptor binding domain. SB-706375 was a potent, competitive hU-II antagonist across species with pKb 7.29–8.00 in HEK293-UT receptor cells (inhibition of [Ca2+]i-mobilization) and pKb 7.47 in rat isolated aorta (inhibition of contraction). SB-706375 also reversed tone established in the rat aorta by prior exposure to hU-II (Kapp∼20 nM). SB-706375 was a selective U-II antagonist with ⩾100-fold selectivity for the human UT receptor compared to 86 distinct receptors, ion channels, enzymes, transporters and nuclear hormones (Ki/IC50>1 μM). Accordingly, the contractile responses induced in isolated aortae by KCl, phenylephrine, angiotensin II and endothelin-1 were unaltered by SB-706375 (1 μM). In summary, SB-706375 is a high-affinity, surmountable, reversible and selective nonpeptide UT receptor antagonist with cross-species activity that will assist in delineating the pathophysiological actions of U-II in mammals. PMID:15852036

  20. Low-level simultaneous determination of As and Sb in standard reference materials using radiochemical neutron activation analysis with isotopic 77As and 125Sb tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop an older method used in our laboratory based on selective solvent extraction of As and Sb as their iodides with toluene, and by the use of the radioisotopic tracers 77 As and 125 Sb, to improve the accuracy by better control of the radiochemical yields. 77 As was produced for each sample run by concurrent irradiation of a few mg of GeO 2 followed by a rapid separation of 77 As from 77 Ge. The radiochemically purified sample fraction containing 76+77 As and 122+125 Sb was counted on a Ge detector in good geometry. The γ-lines of the four nuclides do not mutually interfere so that a combined measurement of As and Sb may be made. The method was applied to IAEA Milk Powder A-11, Animal Muscle H-4, Bowen's Kale and some other SRMs. The results obtained are discussed in the light of literature measurements. From present and previous results, together with data by Heydorn, the presently accepted value for As in Bowen's Kale of 140 ngxg -1 may be 20% too high. (orig.)

  1. Effect of gradual ordering of Ge/Sb atoms on chemical bonding: A proposed mechanism for the formation of crystalline Ge2Sb2Te5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Janpreet; Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Tripathi, S. K.

    2018-04-01

    Using first principle calculations, we study the atomic arrangement and bonding mechanism in the crystalline phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST). It is found that the stability of GST depends on the gradual ordering of Ge/Sb atoms. The configurations with different concentration of Ge/Sb in layers have been analyzed by the partial density of state, electron localization function and Bader charge distribution. The s and p-states of Ge atom alter with different stacking configurations but there is no change in Sb and Te atom states. Our findings show that the bonding between Ge-Te is not only responsible for the stability of GST alloy but can also predict which composition can show generic features of phase change material. As the number of Ge atoms near to vacancy layer decreases, Ge donates more charge. A growth model has been proposed for the formation of crystalline phase which justifies the structure models proposed in the literature.

  2. Analysis of the Structures and Properties of (GaSb)n (n = 4-9) Clusters through Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi Liang; Luo, Qi Quan; Huang, Shou Guo; Li, Yi De; Wan, Jian Guo

    2016-07-07

    An optimization strategy combining global semiempirical quantum mechanical search with all-electron density functional theory was adopted to determine the lowest energy structure of (GaSb)n clusters up to n = 9. The growth pattern of the clusters differed from those of previously reported group III-V binary clusters. A cagelike configuration was found for cluster sizes n ≤ 7. The structure of (GaSb)6 deviated from that of other III-V clusters. Competition existed between core-shell and hollow cage structures of (GaSb)7. Novel noncagelike structures were energetically preferred over the cages for the (GaSb)8 and (GaSb)9 clusters. Electronic properties, such as vertical ionization potential, adiabatic electron affinities, HOMO-LUMO gaps, and average on-site charges on Ga or Sb atoms, as well as binding energies, were computed.

  3. The crystal structure of Cu9.1(1)TeSb3, a stuffed derivative of Cr3Si

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søtofte, Inger; Makovicky, E.; Karup-Møller, Sven

    1998-01-01

    The intermetallic compound Cu9.1(1)TeSb3 prepared at 973 K is an ordered member of the solid solution Cu64Te31Sb5-Cu70Te8Sb22 which also exists, for more limited composition ranges, between 673 K and 1173 K. It is a stuffed derivative of the structure type A15 (Cr3Si). Te is surrounded by twelve 3....../4-occupied Cu-positions in the vertices of a cubically-deformed icosahedron (Cu-Te = 2.614 Å) which itself is nested in an Sb-icosahedron (Cu-Sb = 2.777 Å (x2) and 2.603 Å). The Sb array corresponds to the Cr array in Cr3Si....

  4. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600deg. C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature

  5. Role of hydrogen in Sb film deposition and characterization of Sb and GexSby films deposited by cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using metal-organic precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Keun; Jung, Jin Hwan; Choi, Doo Jin

    2012-01-01

    To meet increasing demands for chemical vapor deposition methods for high performance phase-change memory, cyclic plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of Sb and Ge x Sb y phase-change films and characterization of their properties were performed. Two cycle sequences were designed to investigate the role of hydrogen gas as a reduction gas during Sb film deposition. Hydrogen gas was not introduced into the reaction chamber during the purge step in cycle sequence A and was introduced during the purge step for cycle sequence B. The role of hydrogen gas was investigated by comparing the results obtained from these two cycle sequences and was concluded to exert an effect by a combination of precursor decomposition, surface maintenance as a hydrogen termination agent, and surface etching. These roles of hydrogen gas are discussed through consideration of changes in deposition rates, the oxygen concentration on the surface of the Sb film, and observations of film surface morphology. Based on these results, Ge x Sb y phase-change films were deposited with an adequate flow rate of hydrogen gas. The Ge and Sb composition of the film was controlled with the designed cycle sequences. A strong oxygen affinity for Ge was observed during the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of Sb 3d, Sb 4d, and Ge 3d orbitals. Based on the XPS results, the ratios of Ge to Sb were calculated to be Ge 0.32 Sb 0.68 , Ge 0.38 Sb 0.62 , Ge 0.44 Sb 0.56 , Ge 0.51 Sb 0.49 and Ge 0.67 Sb 0.33 for the G1S7, G1S3, G1S2, G1S1, and G2S1 cycles, respectively. Crystal structures of Sb, Ge, and the GeSb metastable phase were observed with various Ge x Sb y film compositions. Sb crystallinity decreased with respect to Ge crystallinity by increasing the Ge fraction. A current–voltage curve was introduced, and an electro-switching phenomenon was clearly generated at a typical voltage, V th . V th values increased in conjunction with an increased proportion of Ge. The Sb crystallinity decrease and V

  6. Tav4SB: integrating tools for analysis of kinetic models of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybiński, Mikołaj; Lula, Michał; Banasik, Paweł; Lasota, Sławomir; Gambin, Anna

    2012-04-05

    Progress in the modeling of biological systems strongly relies on the availability of specialized computer-aided tools. To that end, the Taverna Workbench eases integration of software tools for life science research and provides a common workflow-based framework for computational experiments in Biology. The Taverna services for Systems Biology (Tav4SB) project provides a set of new Web service operations, which extend the functionality of the Taverna Workbench in a domain of systems biology. Tav4SB operations allow you to perform numerical simulations or model checking of, respectively, deterministic or stochastic semantics of biological models. On top of this functionality, Tav4SB enables the construction of high-level experiments. As an illustration of possibilities offered by our project we apply the multi-parameter sensitivity analysis. To visualize the results of model analysis a flexible plotting operation is provided as well. Tav4SB operations are executed in a simple grid environment, integrating heterogeneous software such as Mathematica, PRISM and SBML ODE Solver. The user guide, contact information, full documentation of available Web service operations, workflows and other additional resources can be found at the Tav4SB project's Web page: http://bioputer.mimuw.edu.pl/tav4sb/. The Tav4SB Web service provides a set of integrated tools in the domain for which Web-based applications are still not as widely available as for other areas of computational biology. Moreover, we extend the dedicated hardware base for computationally expensive task of simulating cellular models. Finally, we promote the standardization of models and experiments as well as accessibility and usability of remote services.

  7. Crystal growth and characterization of bulk Sb2Te3 topological insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Rabia; Gurjar, Ganesh; Patnaik, S.; Awana, V. P. S.

    2018-04-01

    The Sb2Te3 crystals are grown using the conventional self flux method via solid state reaction route, by melting constituent elements (Sb and Te) at high temperature (850 °C), followed by slow cooling (2 °C/h). As grown Sb2Te3 crystals are analysed for various physical properties by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX) and electrical measurements under magnetic field (6 Tesla) down to low temperature (2.5 K). The XRD pattern revealed the growth of synthesized Sb2Te3 sample along (00l) plane, whereas the SEM along with EDAX measurements displayed the layered structure with near stoichiometric composition, without foreign contamination. The Raman scattering studies displayed known ({{{{A}}}1{{g}}}1, {{{{E}}}{{g}}}2 and {{{{A}}}1{{g}}}2) vibrational modes for the studied Sb2Te3. The temperature dependent electrical resistivity measurements illustrated the metallic nature of the as grown Sb2Te3 single crystal. Further, the magneto—transport studies represented linear positive magneto-resistance (MR) reaching up to 80% at 2.5 K under an applied field of 6 Tesla. The weak anti localization (WAL) related low field (±2 Tesla) magneto-conductance at low temperatures (2.5 K and 20 K) has been analysed and discussed using the Hikami—Larkin—Nagaoka (HLN) model. Summarily, the short letter reports an easy and versatile method for crystal growth of bulk Sb2Te3 topological insulator (TI) and its brief physical property characterization.

  8. InAsSb for IR detection at 12 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of InAsSb alloys and superlattices on InSb substrates with intervening buffer layers designed to provide a lattice match to the SLS. Efficient incorporation of As is achieved by using an As 2 (thermally cracked) source in conjunction with an Sb 2 source at growth temperature of 425-450 0 C. At these temperatures desorption of excess Sb from the surface is limited and careful control of the Sb:In ratio is required. Even though the growth temperature is quite near the melting point of the alloys involved (525-550 0 C), TEM reveals abrupt, planar interfaces in superlattices with layer thicknesses less than 150 A. Undoped InSb layers are very pure, with n(77K) -- 1 x 10 14 cm -3 and μ(77K) --280,000 cm 2 V -1 sec -1 . Doping is easily controlled up to -- 10 18 using Be and PbSe. The entire structure (buffer plus SLS) is in tension with respect to the parent substrate, leading to extensive cracking for conventional buffer layers. More complex buffers, designed to more effectively relax the material to its equilibrium lattice constant, are used to solve this cracking problem. InAsSb SLSs grown on such buffer layers are crack-free and show marked reduction in dislocation density relative to that of the buffer layer. FTIR measurements made on SLSs with different compositions and differing amounts of strain in the active regions show optical absorption that is strain-shifted to wavelengths beyond λ c for bulk alloys, with substantial absorption beyond 12 μm

  9. Uptake and retention of 124Sb in the common mussel, shrimp and shore crab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weers, A.W. van

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of radioactive antimony from water and food by mussels, shrimps and shore crabs and the subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water were studied with 124 Sb. The concentration factors of about 0.6 for mussels and 2.5 for shrimps, reached by direct uptake from sea water, remained considerably below stable-antimony concentration factors reported for these organisms. The loss of 124 Sb after uptake of the radionuclide by mussels during 19 and 32 days respectively, could be described by a loss from two compartments with different rates. The distribution of the radionuclide in the animals did not change during the retention period. Antimony-124 taken up from sea water by shrimps was largely accounted for by adsorption to the exoskeleton, as was shown by the effect of moulting on the time course of subsequent loss in non-radioactive sea water. Antimony-124 applied to freeze-dried mussel flesh that was fed to shrimps was lost according to a single exponential function. The mean biological half-life of 124 Sb elimination was about 10 days. Two components were shown to be present in the retention of 124 Sb in two groups of shore crabs, one of which was fed freeze-dried shrimps spiked with 124 Sb, while the second group received shrimps labelled by uptake of 124 Sb with food. The only significant difference between the two groups was a longer mean biological half-life of the short-lived component in the second group. In shrimps and crabs only a small fraction of 124 Sb taken up with food ends up in the exoskeleton. About 45% of retained activity in crabs was found in the digestive gland. (author)

  10. Sn-Sb-Se based binary and ternary alloys for phase change memory applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyung-Min

    2008-10-28

    In this work, the effect of replacing Ge by Sn and Te by Se was studied for a systematic understanding and prediction of new potential candidates for phase change random access memories applications. The temperature dependence of the electrical/structural properties and crystallization kinetics of the Sn-Se based binary and Sn-Sb-Se based ternary alloys were determined and compared with those of the GeTe and Ge-Sb-Te system. The temperature dependence of electrical and structural properties were investigated by van der Pauw measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectometry. By varying the heating rate, the Kissinger analysis has been used to determine the combined activation barrier for crystallization. To screen the kinetics of crystallization, a static laser tester was employed. In case of binary alloys of the type Sn{sub x}Se{sub 1-x}, the most interesting candidate is SnSe{sub 2} since it crystallizes into a single crystalline phase and has high electrical contrast and reasonably high activation energy for crystallization. In addition, the SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloy system also might be sufficient for data retention due to their higher transition temperature and activation energy for crystallization in comparison to GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} system. Furthermore, SnSe{sub 2}-Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 3} pseudobinary alloys have a higher crystalline resistivity. The desired rapid crystallization speed can be obtained for Sn{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 5} and Sn{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Se{sub 7} alloys. (orig.)

  11. High pressure monoclinic phases of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, S.M.; Poffo, C.M.; Triches, D.M. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Lima, J.C. de, E-mail: fsc1jcd@fisica.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grandi, T.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Campus Universitario Trindade, S/N, C.P. 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Polian, A.; Gauthier, M. [Physique des Milieux Denses, IMPMC, CNRS-UMR 7590, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2012-09-15

    The effect of pressure on nanostructured rhombohedral {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} (phase I) was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy (RS) up to 19.2 and 25.5 GPa, respectively. XRD patterns showed two new high pressure phases (named phases II and III). From a Rietveld refinement of XRD patterns of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, the unit cell volume as a function of pressure was obtained and the values were fitted to a Birch-Murnaghan equation of state (BM-EOS). The best fit was obtained for bulk modulus B{sub 0}=36.1{+-}0.9 GPa and its derivative B{sub 0}{sup Prime }=6.2{+-}0.4 (not fixed). Using the refined structural data for {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, for pressures up to 9.8 GPa, changes in the angle of succession [Te-Sb-Te-Sb-Te], in the interaromic distances of Sb and Te atoms belonging to this angle of succession and in the interatomic distances of atoms located on the c axis were examined. This analysis revealed an electronic topological transition (ETT) along the a and c axes at close to 3.7 GPa. From the RS spectra, the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of the Raman active modes of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were plotted as functions of pressure and showed an ETT along the a and c axes at close to 3.2 GPa. The XRD patterns of phases II and III were well reproduced assuming {beta}-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and {gamma}-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} structures similar to those reported in the literature for {alpha}-Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

  12. Probing the magnetic ground state of single crystalline Ce3TiSb5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matin, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2017-04-01

    Motivated by the report of superconductivity in R3TiSb5 (R  =  La and Ce) and possibly Nd3TiSb5 at  ∼4 K, we grew single crystals of La3TiSb5 and Ce3TiSb5 by the high-temperature solution method using Sn as a flux. While in both compounds we observed a superconducting transition at 3.7 K for resistivity and low-field magnetization, our data conclusively show that it arose from residual Sn flux present in the single crystals. In particular, the heat capacity data do not present any of the anomalies expected from a bulk superconducting transition. The anisotropic magnetic properties of Ce3TiSb5, crystallizing in a hexagonal P63/mcm structure, were studied in detail. We find that the Ce ions in Ce3TiSb5 form a Kondo lattice and exhibited antiferromagnetic ordering at 5.5 K with a reduced moment and a moderately normalized Sommerfeld coefficient of 598 mJ/mol K2. The characteristic single-ion Kondo energy scale was found to be  ∼8 K. The magnetization data were subjected to a crystal electric field (CEF) analysis. The experimentally observed Schottky peak in the 4f-electron heat capacity of Ce3TiSb5 was reproduced fairly well by the energy levels derived from the CEF analysis.

  13. Alternative synthetic route for the heterometallic CO-releasing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− icosahedral carbonyl cluster and synthesis of its new unsaturated [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− and dimeric [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Femoni

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The hetero-metallic [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− cluster has been known as for over three decades thanks to Vidal and co-workers, and represents the first example of an E-centered (E=heteroatom icosahedral rhodium carbonyl cluster. However, its synthesis required high temperature (140–160 °C and elevated CO pressure (400 atm. Applying the redox condensation method for cluster preparation, we herein report a new synthetic, high-yield route for preparing [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− under much milder conditions of temperature and pressure. Notably, when the same synthesis was carried out under N2 instead of CO atmosphere, the new isostructural but unsaturated derivative [Sb@Rh12(CO24]4− was obtained, for which we report the full X-ray structural characterization. This species represents one of the few examples of an icosahedral cluster disobeying the electron-counting Wade-Mingos rules, possessing less than the expected 170 cluster valence electrons (CVEs. Judging from IR monitoring, the two species can be obtained one from the other by switching between N2 and CO atmosphere, making [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− a spontaneous CO-releasing molecule. Finally, the study of the chemical reactivity of [Sb@Rh12(CO27]3− with PPh3 allowed us to obtain the new [{Sb@Rh12Sb(CO25}2Rh(CO2PPh3]7− dimeric compound, for which we herein report the full X-ray structural and 31P NMR analyses.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 and indium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Mukul, Monika; Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S. K.

    2014-06-01

    We have carried out comprehensive computational and experimental study on the face-centered cubic Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and indium (In)-doped GST phase change materials. Structural calculations, total density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population have been calculated using first-principle calculation. 5 at.% doping of In weakens the Ge-Te, Sb-Te and Te-Te bond lengths. In element substitutes Sb to form In-Te-like structure in the GST system. In-Te has a weaker bond strength compared with the Sb-Te bond. However, both GST and doped alloy remain in rock salt structure. It is more favorable to replace Sb with In than with any other atomic position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has been carried out on thin film of In-doped GST phase change materials. XRD graph reveals that In-doped phase change materials have rock salt structure with the formation of In2Te3 crystallites in the material. Temperature dependence of impedance spectra has been calculated for thin films of GST and doped material. Thickness of the as-deposited films is calculated from Swanepoel method. Absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated for amorphous and crystalline thin films of the alloys. The optical gap (indirect band gap) energy of the amorphous and crystalline thin films has also been calculated by the equation α hν = β (hν - E_{{g }} )2 . Optical contrast (C) of pure and doped phase change materials have also been calculated. Sufficient optical contrast has been found for pure and doped phase change materials.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of the properties of Ge2Sb2Te5 and indium-doped Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Gurinder; Kaura, Aman; Mukul, Monika; Singh, Janpreet; Tripathi, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out comprehensive computational and experimental study on the face-centered cubic Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 (GST) and indium (In)-doped GST phase change materials. Structural calculations, total density of states and crystal orbital Hamilton population have been calculated using first-principle calculation. 5 at.% doping of In weakens the Ge-Te, Sb-Te and Te-Te bond lengths. In element substitutes Sb to form In-Te-like structure in the GST system. In-Te has a weaker bond strength compared with the Sb-Te bond. However, both GST and doped alloy remain in rock salt structure. It is more favorable to replace Sb with In than with any other atomic position. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis has been carried out on thin film of In-doped GST phase change materials. XRD graph reveals that In-doped phase change materials have rock salt structure with the formation of In 2 Te 3 crystallites in the material. Temperature dependence of impedance spectra has been calculated for thin films of GST and doped material. Thickness of the as-deposited films is calculated from Swanepoel method. Absorption coefficient (α) has been calculated for amorphous and crystalline thin films of the alloys. The optical gap (indirect band gap) energy of the amorphous and crystalline thin films has also been calculated by the equation αhν = β(hν - E g ) 2 . Optical contrast (C) of pure and doped phase change materials have also been calculated. Sufficient optical contrast has been found for pure and doped phase change materials. (orig.)

  16. SB225002 Induces Cell Death and Cell Cycle Arrest in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells through the Activation of GLIPR1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Paulo C.; Bhasin, Manoj K.; Zenatti, Priscila Pini; Nunes, Ricardo J.; Yunes, Rosendo A.; Nowill, Alexandre E.; Libermann, Towia A.; Zerbini, Luiz Fernando; Yunes, José Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) is the most frequent childhood malignancy. In the effort to find new anti-leukemic agents, we evaluated the small drug SB225002 (N-(2-hydroxy-4-nitrophenyl)-N’-(2-bromophenyl)urea). Although initially described as a selective antagonist of CXCR2, later studies have identified other cellular targets for SB225002, with potential medicinal use in cancer. We found that SB225002 has a significant pro-apoptotic effect against both B- and T-ALL cell lines. Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that treatment with SB225002 induces G2-M cell cycle arrest. Transcriptional profiling revealed that SB225002-mediated apoptosis triggered a transcriptional program typical of tubulin binding agents. Network analysis revealed the activation of genes linked to the JUN and p53 pathways and inhibition of genes linked to the TNF pathway. Early cellular effects activated by SB225002 included the up-regulation of GLIPR1, a p53-target gene shown to have pro-apoptotic activities in prostate and bladder cancer. Silencing of GLIPR1 in B- and T-ALL cell lines resulted in increased resistance to SB225002. Although SB225002 promoted ROS increase in ALL cells, antioxidant N-Acetyl Cysteine pre-treatment only modestly attenuated cell death, implying that the pro-apoptotic effects of SB225002 are not exclusively mediated by ROS. Moreover, GLIPR1 silencing resulted in increased ROS levels both in untreated and SB225002-treated cells. In conclusion, SB225002 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in different B- and T-ALL cell lines. Inhibition of tubulin function with concurrent activation of the p53 pathway, in particular, its downstream target GLIPR1, seems to underlie the anti-leukemic effect of SB225002. PMID:26302043

  17. Solvothermal synthesis of graphene-Sb2S3 composite and the degradation activity under visible light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Wenguang; Chang, Jiuli; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Duan, Xiaoli; Xu, Fang; Jiang, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Graphene-Sb 2 S 3 composites were synthesized through a facile solvothermal method. ► Hydroxyl radicals are the main species responsible for the photodegradation activity. ► Graphene-Sb 2 S 3 demonstrated dramatically improved visible light degradation activity. -- Abstract: Novel graphene-Sb 2 S 3 (G-Sb 2 S 3 ) composites were synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with graphene oxide (GO), SbCl 3 and thiourea as the reactants. GO played an important role in controlling the size and the distribution of the formed Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles on the graphene sheets with different density. Due to the negative surface charge, smaller Sb 2 S 3 particles size and efficient electrons transfer from Sb 2 S 3 to graphene, the composites demonstrated improved photodegradation activity on rhodamine B (RhB). Among these composites, the product G-Sb 2 S 3 0.1, which was synthesized with the GO concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, exhibited the highest photodegradation activity owing to the considerable density of Sb 2 S 3 nanoparticles onto graphene sheet free of aggregation. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) derived from conduction band (CB) electrons of Sb 2 S 3 is suggested to be responsible for the photodegradation of RhB. The high visible light degradation activity and the satisfactory cycling stability made the as-prepared G-Sb 2 S 3 0.1 an applicable photocatalyst.

  18. Interconnection of thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties in directionally solidified Sn–Sb lead-free solder alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Marcelino; Costa, Thiago [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rocha, Otávio [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Pará — IFPA, 66093-020 Belém, PA (Brazil); Spinelli, José E. [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of São Carlos — UFSCar, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Cheung, Noé, E-mail: cheung@fem.unicamp.br [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Garcia, Amauri [Department of Manufacturing and Materials Engineering, University of Campinas — UNICAMP, 13083-860 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Considerable effort is being made to develop lead-free solders for assembling in environmental-conscious electronics, due to the inherent toxicity of Pb. The search for substitute alloys of Pb–Sn solders has increased in order to comply with different soldering purposes. The solder must not only meet the expected levels of electrical performance but may also have appropriate mechanical strength, with the absence of cracks in the solder joints. The Sn–Sb alloy system has a range of compositions that can be potentially included in the class of high temperature solders. This study aims to establish interrelations of solidification thermal parameters, microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn–Sb alloys (2 wt.%Sb and 5.5 wt.%Sb) samples, which were directionally solidified under cooling rates similar to those of reflow procedures in industrial practice. A complete high-cooling rate cellular growth is shown to be associated with the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy and a reverse dendrite-to-cell transition is observed for the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy. Strength and ductility of the Sn–2.0 wt.%Sb alloy are shown not to be affected by the cellular spacing. On the other hand, a considerable variation in these properties is associated with the cellular region of the Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy casting. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The microstructure of the Sn–2 wt.%Sb alloy is characterized by high-cooling rates cells. • Reverse dendrite > cell transition occurs for Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: cells prevail for cooling rates > 1.2 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: the dendritic region occurs for cooling rates < 0.9 K/s. • Sn–5.5 wt.%Sb alloy: tensile properties are improved with decreasing cellular spacing.

  19. Phase stability and lattice thermal conductivity reduction in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with chalcogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battabyal, M., E-mail: manjusha.battabyal@project.arci.res.in; Priyadarshini, B.; Gopalan, R. [International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy and New Materials (ARCI), IIT M Research Park, Taramani, Chennai-600113 (India); Pradipkanti, L.; Satapathy, Dillip K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We report a significant reduction in the lattice thermal conductivity of the CoSb{sub 3} skuttertudites, doped with chalcogen atoms. Te/Se chalcogen atoms doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite samples (Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Se{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}, Te{sub 0.05}Se{sub 0.05}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12}) are processed by ball milling and spark plasma sintering. X-ray diffraction data combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectra indicate the doping of Te/Se chalcogen atoms in the skutterudite. The temperature dependent X-ray diffraction confirms the stability of the Te/Se doped CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite phase and absence of any secondary phase in the temperature range starting from 300 K to 773 K. The Raman spectroscopy reveals that different chalcogen dopant atoms cause different resonant optical vibrational modes between the dopant atom and the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice. These optical vibrational modes do scatter heat carrying acoustic phonons in a different spectral range. It was found that among the Te/Se chalcogen atoms, Te atoms alter the host CoSb{sub 3} skutterudite lattice vibrations to a larger extent than Se atoms, and can potentially scatter more Sb related acoustic phonons. The Debye model of lattice thermal conductivity confirms that the resonant phonon scattering has important contributions to the reduction of lattice thermal conductivity in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites doped with Te/Se chalcogen atoms. Lattice thermal conductivity ∼ 0.9 W/mK at 773 K is achieved in Te{sub 0.1}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} skutterudites, which is the lowest value reported so far in CoSb{sub 3} skutterudites, doped with single Te chalcogen atom.

  20. Systematic features of the structure of the heavy odd-mass Sb nuclides near the N = 82 closed shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, C.A.; Robertson, J.D.; Faller, S.H.; Mantica, P.F.; Zimmerman, B.E.; Chung Chien; Walters, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    New data for the decay of 4.1 min 3/2 + 127 Sn to levels of 127 Sb, decay of 2.2 min 3/2 + 129 Sn to levels of 12 Sb and decay of ∼60 s 3/2 + 131 Sn to levels of 131 Sb are presented. The shift in level positions arising from the monopole interaction and core phonon structure as well as changes in beta decay patterns are discussed. (orig.)

  1. Improved electrochemical performance of natural honeycomb templated LiSbO3 as an anode in lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, M.; Mahanty, S.; Basu, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → LiSbO 3 powders are synthesized by using honeycomb from natural beehive as template. → Agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped 40-80 nm particles. → Electrochemically active anode in lithium-ion coin cells. → Improved capacity retention and rate performance in templated LiSbO 3 . - Abstract: LiSbO 3 has been synthesized by wet-chemical route using natural honeycomb as template, followed by thermal treatment at 850 deg. C. X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) confirms a single phase material having an orthorhombic crystal structure with lattice parameters of a = 4.912 A, b = 8.679 A and c = 5.089 A. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) revealed that while conventional LiSbO 3 synthesized without using any template (C-LiSbO 3 ) consists of softly agglomerated clusters of bar-shaped multifaceted micrometer-sized grains (0.5-4.0 μm long and 0.5-1.0 μm wide), templated LiSbO 3 (T-LiSbO 3 ) consists of an agglomeration-free morphology with discrete cubic shaped particles of sizes 40-80 nm. Electrochemical investigation in 2032 type coin cells vs Li/Li + shows that Li insertion in LiSbO 3 takes place at 0.78 V while Li extraction occurs in two stages at 1.1 and 1.4 V with initial capacities of 178 and 196 mAh g -1 for C-LiSbO 3 and T-LiSbO 3 respectively. While C-LiSbO 3 shows a drastic capacity fading retaining only 28% of initial capacity after 100 cycles, T-LiSbO 3 retains ∼48% of the initial capacity due to the faceted morphology of the nanoparticles.

  2. A Novel Framework Antimony (III) Phosphate: Synthesis and Structure of NaSb 3O 2(PO 4) 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Brian A.; de Delgado, Graciela Díaz; Miguel Delgado, J.; Cheetham, Anthony K.

    2000-04-01

    The antimony (III) phosphate, NaSb3O2(PO4)2, is a framework structure built from SbIII and PV centers; orthorhombic, space group Pca21 (No. 29), a=13.944(3), b=6.6822(13), c=20.886(4) Å, V=1946.1(7) Å3, Z=8. Stereochemically active lone pairs of electrons associated with SbIIIO5 and SbIIIO4 polyhedra point into eight-ring channels, approximately 5×7 Å2, which dominate the architecture of the title compound. Charge-compensating sodium cations occupy the remaining space in the channels.

  3. Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)-based Ohmic contact formation on n-type gallium antimony (GaSb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jeong-Hun; Jung, Hyun-Wook [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Woo-Shik [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Park, Jin-Hong, E-mail: jhpark9@skku.edu [Samsung-SKKU Graphene Center and School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-14

    In this paper, Ohmic-like contact on n-type GaSb with on/off-current ratio of 1.64 is presented, which is formed at 500 °C by inserting IGZO between metal (Ni) and GaSb. The resulting Ohmic contact is systematically investigated by TOF-SIMS, HSC chemistry simulation, XPS, TEM, AFM, and J–V measurements. Two main factors contributing to the Ohmic contact formation are (1) InSb (or InGaSb) with narrow energy bandgap (providing low electron and hole barrier heights) formed by In diffusion from IGZO and Sb released by Ga oxidation, and (2) free Sb working as traps that induces tunneling current. - Highlights: • We demonstrate Ohmic-like contact on n-type GaSb with on/off-current ratio of 1.64. • The reverse current is increased by low electron barrier height and high TAT current. • The low electron barrier height is achieved by the formation of InGaSb. • Free Sb atoms also work as traps inducing high TAT current.

  4. Digitally grown AlInAsSb for high gain separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication avalanche photodiodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yuexi; Han, Xi; Sun, Yaoyao; Jiang, Zhi; Guo, Chunyan; Xiang, Wei; Dong, Yinan; Cui, Jie; Yao, Yuan; Jiang, Dongwei; Wang, Guowei; Xu, Yingqiang; Niu, Zhichuan

    2018-01-01

    We report on the growth of high quality GaSb-based AlInAsSb quaternary alloy by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) to fabricate avalanche photodiodes (APDs). By means of high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), phase separation phenomenon of AlInAsSb random alloy with naturally occurring vertical superlattice configuration was demonstrated. To overcome the tendency for phase segregation while maintaining a highly crystalline film, a digital alloy technique with migration-enhanced epitaxy growth method was employed, using a shutter sequence of AlSb, AlAs, AlSb, Sb, In, InAs, In, Sb. AlInAsSb digital alloy has proved to be reproducible and consistent with single phase, showing sharp satellite peaks on HRXRD rocking curve and smooth surface morphology under atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using optimized digital alloy, AlInAsSb separate absorption, grading, charge, and multiplication (SAGCM) APD was grown and fabricated. At room temperature, the device showed high performance with low dark current density of ∼14.1 mA/cm2 at 95% breakdown and maximum stable gain before breakdown as high as ∼200, showing the potential for further applications in optoelectronic devices.

  5. Structural, electronic, elastic and thermal properties of Li{sub 2}AgSb. First-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ji-Hong [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Longdong Univ., Qingyang (China). College of Physics and Electronic Engineering; Zhu, Xu-Hui [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Cheng, Yan [Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Inst. of Atomic and Molecular Physics; Sichuan Univ., Chengdu (China). Key Laboratory of High Energy Density Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education; Ji, Guang-Fu [Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang (China). National Key Laboratory of Shock Wave and Detonation Physics

    2015-07-01

    Based on the first-principles density functional theory calculations combined with the quasi-harmonic Debye model, the pressure dependencies of the structural, elastic, electronic and thermal properties of Li{sub 2}AgSb were systematically investigated. The calculated lattice parameters and unit cell volume of Li{sub 2}AgSb at the ground state were in good agreement with the available experimental data. The obtained elastic constants, the bulk modulus and the shear modulus revealed that Li{sub 2}AgSb is mechanically stable and behaves in a ductile manner under the applied pressure. The elasticity-relevant properties, the Young's modulus and the Poisson's ratio showed that pressure can enhance the stiffness of Li{sub 2}AgSb and that Li{sub 2}AgSb is mechanically stable up to 20 GPa. The characteristics of the band structure and the partial density of states of Li{sub 2}AgSb were analysed, showing that Li{sub 2}AgSb is a semiconductor with a direct band gap of 217 meV at 0 GPa and that the increasing pressure can make the band structure of Li{sub 2}AgSb become an indirect one. Studies have shown that, unlike temperature, pressure has little effect on the heat capacity and the thermal expansion coefficient of Li{sub 2}AgSb.

  6. Formation, atomic structure, and electronic properties of GaSb quantum dots in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timm, R.

    2007-12-14

    In this work, cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy are used for the first time to study the shape, size, strain, chemical composition, and electronic properties of capped GaSb/GaAs QDs at the atomic scale. By evaluating such structural results on a variety of nanostructures built using different epitaxy methods and growth conditions, details on the underlying QD formation processes can be revealed. A cross-over from flat quantum wells (QWs) to optically active QDs can be observed in samples grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with increasing amount of GaSb, including self-assembled Sb accumulations within a still two-dimensional layer and tiny three-dimensional GaSb islands probably acting as precursor structures. The QWs consist of significantly intermixed material with stoichiometries of maximally 50% GaSb, additionally exhibiting small gaps filled with GaAs. A higher GaSb content up to nearly pure material is found in the QDs, being characterized by small sizes of up to 8 nm baselength and about 2 nm height. In spite of the intermixing, all nanostructures have rather abrupt interfaces, and no significant Sb segregation in growth direction is observed. This changes completely when molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is used as growth method, in which case individual Sb atoms are found to be distributed over several nm above the nanostructures. Massive group-V atomic exchange processes are causing this strong inter-mixing and Sb segregation during GaAs overgrowth. In combination with the large strain inherent to GaSb/GaAs QDs, this segregation upon overgrowth is assumed to be the reason for a unique structural phenomenon: All MBE-grown QDs, independent of the amount of deposited GaSb, exhibit a ring structure, consisting of a ring body of high GaSb content and a more or less extended central gap filled with GaAs. These rings have formed in a self-assembled way even when the initial GaSb layer was overgrown considerably fast

  7. Polarity-sensitive nanocarrier for oral delivery of Sb(V and treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanza JS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Juliane S Lanza,1 Flaviana R Fernandes,1 José D Corrêa-Júnior,2 José MC Vilela,3 Rogério Magalhães-Paniago,4 Lucas AM Ferreira,5 Margareth S Andrade,3 Cynthia Demicheli,6 Maria N Melo,7 Frédéric Frézard1 1Department of Physiology and Biophysics, 2Department of Morphology, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, 3Innovation and Technology Center SENAI FIEMG – Campus CETEC, 4Department of Physics, Instituto de Ciências Exatas (ICEX, 5Department of Pharmaceutical Products, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, 6Department of Chemistry, Instituto de Ciências Exatas (ICEX, 7Department of Parasitology, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas (ICB, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Abstract: There is a great need for orally active drugs for the treatment of the neglected tropical disease leishmaniasis. Amphiphilic Sb(V complexes, such as 1:3 Sb–N-octanoyl-N-methylglucamide complex (SbL8, are promising drug candidates. It has been previously reported that SbL8 forms kinetically stabilized nanoassemblies in water and that this simple dispersion exhibits antileishmanial activity when given by oral route to a murine model of visceral leishmaniasis. The main objective of the present work was to interfere in the structural organization of these nanoassemblies so as to investigate their influence on the oral bioavailability of Sb, and ultimately, optimize an oral formulation of SbL8 for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The structural organization of SbL8 nanoassemblies was manipulated through addition of propylene glycol (PG to the aqueous dispersion of SbL8. The presence of 50% (v/v PG resulted in the loss of hydrophobic microenvironment, as evidenced by fluorescence probing. However, nanostructures were still present, as demonstrated by dynamic light scattering, small-angle X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy (AFM. A

  8. Chemical and structural arrangement of the trigonal phase in GeSbTe thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mio, Antonio M; Privitera, Stefania M S; Bragaglia, Valeria; Arciprete, Fabrizio; Bongiorno, Corrado; Calarco, Raffaella; Rimini, Emanuele

    2017-02-10

    The thermal and electrical properties of phase change materials, mainly GeSbTe alloys, in the crystalline state strongly depend on their phase and on the associated degree of order. The switching of Ge atoms in superlattice structures with trigonal phase has been recently proposed to develop memories with reduced switching energy, in which two differently ordered crystalline phases are the logic states. A detailed knowledge of the stacking plane sequence, of the local composition and of the vacancy distribution is therefore crucial in order to understand the underlying mechanism of phase transformations in the crystalline state and to evaluate the retention properties. This information is provided, as reported in this paper, by scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis of polycrystalline and epitaxial Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 thin samples, using the Z-contrast high-angle annular dark field method. Electron diffraction clearly confirms the presence of compositional mixing with stacking blocks of 11, 9 or 7 planes corresponding to Ge 3 Sb 2 Te 6 , Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , and GeSb 2 Te 4 , alloys respectively in the same trigonal phase. By increasing the degree of order (according to the annealing temperature, the growth condition, etc) the spread in the statistical distribution of the blocks reduces and the distribution of the atoms in the cation planes also changes from a homogenous Ge/Sb mixing towards a Sb-enrichment in the planes closest to the van der Waals gaps. Therefore we show that the trigonal phase of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 , the most studied chalcogenide for phase-change memories, is actually obtained in different configurations depending on the distribution of the stacking blocks (7-9-11 planes) and on the atomic occupation (Ge/Sb) at the cation planes. These results give an insight in the factors determining the stability of the trigonal phase and suggest a dynamic path evolution that could have a key role in the switching mechanism of interfacial phase change memories

  9. Magnetic structure of the YbMn2SbBi compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozkin, A.V.; Manfrinetti, P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → A neutron diffraction investigation in zero applied field of La 2 O 2 S-type YbMn 2 SbBi shows antiferromagnetic ordering below 138(3) K and ferrimagnetic ordering below 112(3) K. → Between 138 and 112 K, the magnetic structure of YbMn 2 SbBi consists of antiferromagnetically coupled ab-plane magnetic moments of the manganese atoms (D 1d magnetic point group). → Below 112(3) K, the magnetic structure of YbMn 2 SbBi becames the sum antiferromagnetic component with D 1d magnetic point group and ferromagnetic one with C 2 magnetic point group. → The magnitude of Yb and Mn magnetic moments in YbMn 2 SbBi at 2 K (M Yb = 3.6(2) μ B , M Mn = 3.5(2) μ B ) correspond to the trivalent state of the Yb ions and tetravalent state of the Mn ions. - Abstract: A neutron diffraction investigation has been carried out on the trigonal La 2 O 2 S-type (hP5, space group P3-bar ml, No. 164; also CaAl 2 Si 2 -type) YbMn 2 SbBi intermetallic compound. The YbMn 2 SbBi presents antiferromagnetic ordering below 138(3) K and ferrimagnetic ordering below 112(3) K. Between 138 and 112 K, the magnetic structure of YbMn 2 SbBi consists of antiferromagnetically coupled ab-plane magnetic moments of the manganese atoms (D 1d magnetic point group). Below 112(3) K, the ferromagnetic components of Yb and Mn begin to develop, and the magnetic structure of YbMn 2 SbBi becames the sum antiferromagnetic component with D 1d magnetic point group and ferromagnetic one with C 2 magnetic point group. The magnitude of Yb and Mn magnetic moments in YbMn 2 SbBi at 2 K (M Yb = 3.6(2) μ B , M Mn = 3.5(2) μ B ) correspond to the trivalent state of the Yb ions and tetravalent state of the Mn ions.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Sb2S3 Nanorods via Complex Decomposition Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolali Alemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the complex decomposition approach, a simple hydrothermal method has been developed for the synthesizing of Sb2S3 nanorods with high yield in 24 h at 150∘C. The powder X-ray diffraction pattern shows the Sb2S3 crystals belong to the orthorhombic phase with calculated lattice parameters a=1.120 nm, b=1.128 nm, and c=0.383 nm. The quantification of energy dispersive X-ray spectrometric analysis peaks give an atomic ratio of 2 : 3 for Sb : S. TEM and SEM studies reveal that the appearance of the as-prepared Sb2S3 is rod-like which is composed of nanorods with the typical width of 30–160 nm and length of up to 6 μm. High-resolution transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM studies reveal that the Sb2S3 is oriented in the [10-1] growth direction. The band gap calculated from the absorption spectra is found to be 3.29 ev, indicating a considerable blue shift relative to the bulk. The formation mechanism of Sb2S3 nanostructures is proposed.

  11. Heavy fermion behaviour in the high pressure structure of CeSb{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedoseev, Vitaly; Feng, Zhuo; Zou, Yang; Grosche, F. Malte [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Giles, Terence; Niklowitz, Philipp [Department of Physics, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham TW20 0EX (United Kingdom); Wilhelm, Heribert [Beamline I15, Diamond Light Source, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Lampronti, Giulio [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EQ (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The Kondo lattice system CeSb{sub 2} crystallises in the orthorhombic SmSb{sub 2} structure and exhibits a series of magnetic phase transitions at low temperature. It has been reported to become ferromagnetic below 15 K, with the ordered moment oriented within the basal plane, and to undergo two further transitions at 9K and 12K. These transition are suppressed above a hydrostatic pressure p{sub c} ≅ 16 kbar. We present high pressure transport and x-ray diffraction results, which examine the high pressure state of CeSb{sub 2}. Our findings suggest that CeSb{sub 2} undergoes a drastic structural change at p{sub c} into a new and now fully resolved crystal structure. Whereas in the low pressure structure, CeSb{sub 2} is a local moment magnet, in the high pressure structure it exhibits transport properties characteristic of a heavy fermion material with a low Kondo temperature scale of the order of 10 K.

  12. Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Sb-doped GeSe2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-Ying; Chen, Fen; Lu, Shun-Bin; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shen, Xiang; Dai, Shi-Xun; Nie, Qiu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Sb-doped GeSe2 chalcogenide thin films are prepared by the magnetron co-sputtering method. The linear optical properties of as-deposited films are derived by analyzing transmission spectra. The refractive index rises and the optical band gap decreases from 2.08 eV to 1.41 eV with increasing the Sb content. X-ray photoelectron spectra further confirm the formation of a covalent Sb-Se bond. The third-order nonlinear optical properties of thin films are investigated under femtosecond laser excitation at 800 nm. The results show that the third-order nonlinear optical properties are enhanced with increasing the concentration of Sb. The nonlinear refraction indices of these thin films are measured to be on the order of 10-18 m2/W with a positive sign and the nonlinear absorption coefficients are obtained to be on the order of 10-10 m/W. These excellent properties indicate that Sb-doped Ge-Se films have a good prospect in the applications of nonlinear optical devices. Project supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2012CB722703), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61377061), the Young Leaders of Academic Climbing Project of the Education Department of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. pd2013092), the Program for Innovative Research Team of Ningbo City, China (Grant No. 2009B217), and the K. C. Wong Magna Fund in Ningbo University, China.

  13. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  14. Thermal conductivities and conduction mechanisms of Sb-Te Alloys at high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro; Kuwahara, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Sb-Te alloys have drawn much attention due to its application in phase change memory as well as the unique properties as chalcogenide. In this work, the thermal conductivities of Sb-x mol%Te alloys (x = 14, 25, 44, 60, 70, and 90) have been measured by the hot strip method from room temperature up to temperature just below the respective melting points. For the intermetallic compound Sb 2 Te 3 (x = 60), the thermal conductivity decreases up to approximately 600 K and then increases. For other Sb-x mol%Te alloys where x > 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys decrease with increasing temperature. In contrast, for x < 60, the thermal conductivities of the alloys keep roughly constant up to approximately 600 K and then increase with increasing temperature. It is proposed that free electron dominates the heat transport below 600 K, and ambipolar diffusion also contributes to the increase in the thermal conductivity at higher temperatures. The prediction equation from temperature and chemical composition has been proposed for thermal conductivities of Sb-Te alloys.

  15. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity and Conduction Mechanism of Ge2Sb2Te5 Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Rui; Endo, Rie; Kuwahara, Masashi; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Susa, Masahiro

    2018-06-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has drawn much attention due to its application in phase-change random-access memory and potential as a thermoelectric material. Electrical and thermal conductivity are important material properties in both applications. The aim of this work is to investigate the temperature dependence of the electrical and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy and discuss the thermal conduction mechanism. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy were measured from room temperature to 823 K by four-terminal and hot-strip method, respectively. With increasing temperature, the electrical resistivity increased while the thermal conductivity first decreased up to about 600 K then increased. The electronic component of the thermal conductivity was calculated from the Wiedemann-Franz law using the resistivity results. At room temperature, Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy has large electronic thermal conductivity and low lattice thermal conductivity. Bipolar diffusion contributes more to the thermal conductivity with increasing temperature. The special crystallographic structure of Ge2Sb2Te5 alloy accounts for the thermal conduction mechanism.

  16. Dependence on the growth direction of the strain in AlGaSb alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R; Gayou, V L; Orduna-Diaz, A [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Momox-Beristain, E [FC-BUAP, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Salazar-Hernandez, B [CIICAp-UAEM, Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Rodriguez, A G, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.m [IICO-UASLP, San Luis Potosi, S.L.P. (Mexico)

    2009-05-01

    High resolution x-ray diffraction profiles were obtained from Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers grown on (001) and (111) GaSb substrates. The out of plane lattice parameter, was estimated directly from the symmetrical diffractions for (001) and (111) alloys. These results show that all the layers are strained, and those grown on (001) GaSb are slightly more strained than the corresponding layers grown on (111) GaSb. This difference is explained by the dependence of the strain ratio on growth direction. The out of plane lattice parameter as a function of Al content is higher than the corresponding bulk lattice parameter of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Sb layers obtained with Vegard's law. Also, the perpendicular and the in-plane lattice parameter expected for pseudomorphic alloys, was estimated from the strain ratios, assuming an elastic deformation and using the EDX alloy composition to interpolate the elastic constants C{sub ij}. This estimation also shows that almost all the layers are fully strained.

  17. The {sup 124}Sb activity standardization by gamma spectrometry for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: marcandida@yahoo.com.b [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil); Iwahara, A.; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (SEMRA/LNMRI/IRD/CNEN), Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, CEP 22780-160 (Brazil)

    2010-07-21

    This work describes a metrological activity determination of {sup 124}Sb, which can be used as radiotracer, applying gamma spectrometry methods with hyper pure germanium detector and efficiency curves. This isotope with good activity and high radionuclidic purity is employed in the form of meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime) or sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) to treat leishmaniasis. {sup 124}Sb is also applied in animal organ distribution studies to solve some questions in pharmacology. {sup 124}Sb decays by {beta}-emission and it produces several photons (X and gamma rays) with energy varying from 27 to 2700 keV. Efficiency curves to measure point {sup 124}Sb solid sources were obtained from a {sup 166m}Ho standard that is a multi-gamma reference source. These curves depend on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation, dead time and sample-detector position. Results for activity determination of {sup 124}Sb samples using efficiency curves and a high purity coaxial germanium detector were consistent in different counting geometries. Also uncertainties of about 2% (k=2) were obtained.

  18. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO2:Sb nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M.; Sillanpää, Mika; Bora, Tanujjal; Dutta, Joydeep

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO 2 :Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO 2 . In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO 2 :Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO 2 nanoparticles with 10 mg L −1 phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  19. Magnetic properties of CeyFe4-xNixSb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viennois, R.; Ravot, D.; Tedenac, J.C.; Charar, S.; Mauger, Alain

    2005-01-01

    The structural and magnetic properties of the metallic skutterudite CeFe 4 Sb 12 have been investigated, with those of Ce y Fe 4-x Ni x Sb z with compositions approaching the relations y=(4-2x)/3, z=12 for which the materials are semiconductors. The large and temperature-dependent contribution of Fe to the magnetic susceptibility of CeFe 4 Sb 12 has been isolated from the Ce contribution, which makes possible a quantitative analysis of the Kondo lattice behavior. In CeFe 4 Sb 12 the Wilson-Sommerfeld ratio is modified by a factor two with respect to former analyses where the magnetic contribution of Fe had been neglected. The main effect of the reduction of the free carrier (hole) concentration in Ce y Fe 4 Sb 12 is to suppress the Kondo effect and the Fe contribution to the magnetic susceptibility. The samples with theoretical hole concentration per unit cell p*=z-8-3y-2x smaller than 0.5 behave like semiconductors in which the exchange between localized Ce 3+ spins is negligible, and are most promising for a potential use as thermoelements

  20. Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Ni-Doped ZrCoSb Half-Heusler Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-doped ZrCo1−xNixSb half-Heusler compounds were prepared by arc-melting and spark plasma sintering technology. X-ray diffraction analysis results showed that all samples were crystallized in a half-Heusler phase. Thermoelectric properties of ZrCo1−xNixSb compounds were measured from room temperature to 850 K. The electrical conductivity and the absolute value of Seebeck coefficient increased with the Ni-doping content increasing due to the Ni substitution at Co. sites. The lattice thermal conductivity of ZrCo1−xNixSb samples was depressed dramatically because of the acoustic phonon scattering and point defect scattering. The figure of merit of ZrCo1−xNixSb compounds was improved due to the decreased thermal conductivity and improved power factor. The maximum ZT value of 0.24 was achieved for ZrCo0.92Ni0.08Sb sample at 850 K.

  1. Dopant-free twinning superlattice formation in InSb and InP nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiaoming; Guo, Yanan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati; He, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Periodic arrangement of twin planes creates a controllable polytype that can affect both the electronic and optical properties of nanowires. The approach that is most used for inducing twinning superlattice (TSL) formation in III-V nanowires is introducing impurity dopants during growth. Here, we demonstrate that controlling the growth parameters is sufficient to produce regular twinning planes in Au-catalysed InSb and InP nanowires. Our results show that TSL formation in InSb nanowires only exists in a very narrow growth window. We suggest that growth conditions induce a high concentration of In (or Sb) in the Au droplet, which plays a similar role to that of surfactant impurities such as Zn, and increases the droplet wetting angle to yield a geometry that is favorable for TSL formation. The demonstration of TSL structure in InSb and InP nanowires by controlling the input of In (or Sb) further enhances fundamental understanding of TSL formation in III-V nanowires and allows us to tune the properties of these nanowires by crystal phase engineering. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. GPU-powered model analysis with PySB/cupSODA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Leonard A; Nobile, Marco S; Pino, James C; Lubbock, Alexander L R; Besozzi, Daniela; Mauri, Giancarlo; Cazzaniga, Paolo; Lopez, Carlos F

    2017-11-01

    A major barrier to the practical utilization of large, complex models of biochemical systems is the lack of open-source computational tools to evaluate model behaviors over high-dimensional parameter spaces. This is due to the high computational expense of performing thousands to millions of model simulations required for statistical analysis. To address this need, we have implemented a user-friendly interface between cupSODA, a GPU-powered kinetic simulator, and PySB, a Python-based modeling and simulation framework. For three example models of varying size, we show that for large numbers of simulations PySB/cupSODA achieves order-of-magnitude speedups relative to a CPU-based ordinary differential equation integrator. The PySB/cupSODA interface has been integrated into the PySB modeling framework (version 1.4.0), which can be installed from the Python Package Index (PyPI) using a Python package manager such as pip. cupSODA source code and precompiled binaries (Linux, Mac OS/X, Windows) are available at github.com/aresio/cupSODA (requires an Nvidia GPU; developer.nvidia.com/cuda-gpus). Additional information about PySB is available at pysb.org. paolo.cazzaniga@unibg.it or c.lopez@vanderbilt.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  3. Origin, secret, and application of the ideal phase-change material GeSbTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Noboru [Advanced Technology Research Laboratories, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, 619-0237 Kyoto (Japan); Nanoelectronics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Central 4, 1-1-1, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Discovery of the GeSbTe phase-change alloy in particular along the GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tie-line took place in the mid-1980s. The amorphous alloys showed ideal properties, for example, high thermal stability at r.t. and laser-induced rapid crystallization with large optical changes. Thereafter, GeSbTe was successively applied to various optical disks such as DVDs and BDs. Through DSC and XRD analyses, the appearance of the metastable phase having a NaCl-type structure was observed over a wide compositional region. This was the ''key'' to realizing the ideal phase-change properties. During this year, the role of the constituent elements of Ge and Sb became clear by RMC modeling using AXS data at SPring-8, where the ''nucleation dominant crystallization process'' was well explained. The aspect of the latest Blu-ray Disc (BD) product of Panasonic: GeSbTe phase-change films are utilized in every recording layer. It is seen that the front-side recording layers, L1 and L2, are highly transparent. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution by SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamdi, Abdullah M., E-mail: Abdullah.Al.Hamdi@lut.fi [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Chemistry Department, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Sillanpää, Mika [Laboratory of Green Chemistry, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Sammonkatu 12, 50130 Mikkeli (Finland); Bora, Tanujjal [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Dutta, Joydeep [Chair in Nanotechnology, Water Research Center, Sultan Qaboos University, P.O. Box 17, 123 Al-Khoudh (Oman); Functional Materials Division, ICT, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Isafjordsgatan 22, SE-164 40 KistaStockholm (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    Highlights: • Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles were synthesized using sol–gel process. • Photocatalytic degradation of phenol were studies using SnO{sub 2}:Sb nanoparticles. • Under solar light phenol was degraded within 2 h. • Phenol mineralization and intermediates were investigated by using HPLC. - Abstract: Photodegradation of phenol in the presence of tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation is known to be an effective photocatalytic process. However, phenol degradation under solar light is less effective due to the large band gap of SnO{sub 2}. In this study antimony (Sb) doped tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles were prepared at a low temperature (80 °C) by a sol–gel method and studied for its photocatalytic activity with phenol as a test contaminant. The catalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous media was studied using high performance liquid chromatography and total organic carbon measurements. The change in the concentration of phenol affects the pH of the solution due to the by-products formed during the photo-oxidation of phenol. The photoactivity of SnO{sub 2}:Sb was found to be a maximum for 0.6 wt.% Sb doped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles with 10 mg L{sup −1} phenol in water. Within 2 h of photodegradation, more than 95% of phenol could be removed under solar light irradiation.

  5. Study of the Local Environment of Mn Ions Implanted in GaSb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolska, A.; Lawniczak-Jablonska, K.; Klepka, M.T.; Barcz, A.; Hallen, A.; Arvanitis, D.

    2010-01-01

    The first attempts to establish an implantation process leading to formation of ferromagnetic inclusions inside the GaSb matrix are presented. Gallium antimonide containing ferromagnetic MnSb precipitations is considered as a promising material for novel spintronic applications. It is possible to obtain such inclusions during the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. However, for commercial application it would be also important to find an optimal way of producing this kind of inclusions by Mn ions implantation. In order to achieve this goal, several parameters of implantation and post annealing procedures were tested. The ion energy was kept at 10 keV or 150 keV and four different ion doses were applied, as well as various annealing conditions. The analysis of X-ray absorption spectra allowed to estimate the local atomic order around Mn atoms. Depending on the implantation energy and annealing processes, the manganese oxides or manganese atoms located in a heavily defected GaSb matrix were observed. The performed analysis helped in indicating the main obstacles in formation of MnSb inclusions inside the GaSb matrix by Mn ion implantation. (author)

  6. First-principles study of the amorphous In3SbTe2 phase change compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los, Jan H.; Kühne, Thomas D.; Gabardi, Silvia; Bernasconi, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory were performed to generate amorphous models of the phase change compound In3SbTe2 by quenching from the melt. In-Sb and In-Te are the most abundant bonds with only a minor fraction of Sb-Te bonds. The bonding geometry in the amorphous phase is, however, strongly dependent on the density in the range 6.448-5.75 g/cm3 that we investigated. While at high density the bonding geometry of In atoms is mostly octahedral-like as in the cubic crystalline phase of the ternary compound In3SbTe2, at low density we observed a sizable fraction of tetrahedral-like geometries similar to those present in the crystalline phase of the two binary compounds InTe and InSb that the ternary system can be thought to be made of. We show that the different ratio between octahedral-like and tetrahedral-like bonding geometries has fingerprints in the optical and vibrational spectra.

  7. Bi-induced band gap reduction in epitaxial InSbBi alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpalke, M. K.; Linhart, W. M.; Birkett, M.; Alaria, J.; Veal, T. D., E-mail: T.Veal@liverpool.ac.uk [Stephenson Institute for Renewable Energy and Department of Physics, School of Physical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZF (United Kingdom); Yu, K. M. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bomphrey, J. J.; Jones, T. S.; Ashwin, M. J., E-mail: M.J.Ashwin@warwick.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Sallis, S.; Piper, L. F. J. [Materials Science and Engineering, Binghamton University, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States)

    2014-11-24

    The properties of molecular beam epitaxy-grown InSb{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} alloys are investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows that the Bi content increases from 0.6% for growth at 350 °C to 2.4% at 200 °C. X-ray diffraction indicates Bi-induced lattice dilation and suggests a zinc-blende InBi lattice parameter of 6.626 Å. Scanning electron microscopy reveals surface InSbBi nanostructures on the InSbBi films for the lowest growth temperatures, Bi droplets at intermediate temperatures, and smooth surfaces for the highest temperature. The room temperature optical absorption edge was found to change from 172 meV (7.2 μm) for InSb to ∼88 meV (14.1 μm) for InSb{sub 0.976}Bi{sub 0.024}, a reduction of ∼35 meV/%Bi.

  8. Drastic effect of the Mn-substitution in the strongly correlated semiconductor FeSb2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A.; Tabata, Yoshikazu; Waki, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2017-06-01

    We report the effects of Mn substitution, corresponding to hole doping, on the electronic properties of the narrow gap semiconductor, FeSb2, using single crystals of Fe1- x Mn x Sb2 grown by the Sb flux method. The orthorhombic Pnnm structure was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) for the pure and Mn-substituted samples. Their crystal structure parameters were refined using the Rietveld method. The chemical composition was investigated by wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDX). The solubility limit of Mn in FeSb2 is x max ˜ 0.05 and the lattice constants change monotonically with increasing the actual Mn concentration. A drastic change from semiconducting to metallic electronic transports was found at very low Mn concentration at x ˜ 0.01. Our experimental results and analysis indicate that the substitution of a small amount of Mn changes drastically the electronic state in FeSb2 as well as the Co-substitution does: closing of the narrow gap and emergence of the density of states (DOS) at the Fermi level.

  9. Lead-free Perovskite Materials (NH4 )3 Sb2 Ix Br9-x.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Chuantian; Ding, Liming

    2017-06-01

    A family of perovskite light absorbers (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x (0≤x≤9) was prepared. These materials show good solubility in ethanol, a low-cost, hypotoxic, and environmentally friendly solvent. The light absorption of (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x films can be tuned by adjusting I and Br content. The absorption onset for (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I x Br 9-x films changes from 558 nm to 453 nm as x changes from 9 to 0. (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I 9 single crystals were prepared, exhibiting a hole mobility of 4.8 cm 2  V -1  s -1 and an electron mobility of 12.3 cm 2  V -1  s -1 . (NH 4 ) 3 Sb 2 I 9 solar cells gave an open-circuit voltage of 1.03 V and a power conversion efficiency of 0.51 %. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Photoconductivity in the chalcohalide semiconductor, SbSeI: a new candidate for hard radiation detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Arief C; Malliakas, Christos D; Liu, Zhifu; Peters, John A; Sebastian, Maria; Chung, Duck Young; Wessels, Bruce W; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2013-06-17

    We investigated an antimony chalcohalide compound, SbSeI, as a potential semiconductor material for X-ray and γ-ray detection. SbSeI has a wide band gap of 1.70 eV with a density of 5.80 g/cm(3), and it crystallizes in the orthorhombic Pnma space group with a one-dimensional chain structure comprised of infinite zigzag chains of dimers [Sb2Se4I8]n running along the crystallographic b axis. In this study, we investigate conditions for vertical Bridgman crystal growth using combinations of the peak temperature and temperature gradients as well as translation rate set in a three-zone furnace. SbSeI samples grown at 495 °C peak temperature and 19 °C/cm temperature gradient with 2.5 mm/h translation rate produced a single phase of columnar needlelike crystals aligned along the translational direction of the growth. The ingot sample exhibited an n-type semiconductor with resistivity of ∼10(8) Ω·cm. Photoconductivity measurements on these specimens allowed us to determine mobility-lifetime (μτ) products for electron and hole carriers that were found to be of similar order of magnitude (∼10(-4) cm(2)/V). Further, the SbSeI ingot with well-aligned, one-dimensional columnar needlelike crystals shows an appreciable response of Ag Kα X-ray.

  11. Dopant-free twinning superlattice formation in InSb and InP nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Xiaoming [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Key Laboratory for Supermicrostructure and Ultrafast Process, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China); Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Guo, Yanan; Caroff, Philippe; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); He, Jun [School of Physics and Electronics, Hunan Key Laboratory for Supermicrostructure and Ultrafast Process, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan (China)

    2017-11-15

    Periodic arrangement of twin planes creates a controllable polytype that can affect both the electronic and optical properties of nanowires. The approach that is most used for inducing twinning superlattice (TSL) formation in III-V nanowires is introducing impurity dopants during growth. Here, we demonstrate that controlling the growth parameters is sufficient to produce regular twinning planes in Au-catalysed InSb and InP nanowires. Our results show that TSL formation in InSb nanowires only exists in a very narrow growth window. We suggest that growth conditions induce a high concentration of In (or Sb) in the Au droplet, which plays a similar role to that of surfactant impurities such as Zn, and increases the droplet wetting angle to yield a geometry that is favorable for TSL formation. The demonstration of TSL structure in InSb and InP nanowires by controlling the input of In (or Sb) further enhances fundamental understanding of TSL formation in III-V nanowires and allows us to tune the properties of these nanowires by crystal phase engineering. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Peculiarities of magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers at cryogenic temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druzhinin, A., E-mail: druzh@polynet.lviv.ua [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland); Ostrovskii, I.; Khoverko, Yu. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland); Liakh-Kaguy, N.; Khytruk, I. [Lviv Polytechnic National University, Bandera Str., 12, 79013 Lviv (Ukraine); Rogacki, K. [International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, Gajowicka 95, Wroclaw (Poland)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers with impurity concentration near MIT is studied. • SdH oscillations of transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance are examined. • Mechanisms of electron scattering are determined • Main crystal parameters of InSb whiskers are determined. - Abstract: The study of the magnetoresistance in InSb whiskers with an impurity concentration in the vicinity to the metal-insulator phase transition, at low temperature range 4.2–77 K, and in fields, with induction up to 14 T, was conducted. The presence of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations in both transverse and longitudinal magnetoresistance was observed. The following parameters of InSb whiskers were defined: period of oscillations 0.1 T{sup −1}, cyclotron effective mass of electrons m{sub c} ≈ 0.14m{sub o,} concentration of charge carriers 2.3 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, g-factor g{sup *} ≈ 30 and Dingle temperature T{sub D} = 14.5 K. To determine the nature of crystal defects, the electron scattering processes on the short-range potential, caused by interaction with polar and nonpolar optical phonons, piezoelectric and acoustic phonons, static strain centers and ionized impurities in n-InSb whiskers, with defect concentration 2.9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}, are considered. The temperature dependences of electron mobility in the range 4.2–500 K were calculated.

  13. Electronic structure modeling of InAs/GaSb superlattices with hybrid density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garwood, Tristan [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Modine, Normand A. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Krishna, S. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials

    2016-12-18

    The application of first-principles calculations holds promise for greatly improving our understanding of semiconductor superlattices. By developing a procedure to accurately predict band gaps using hybrid density functional theory, it lays the groundwork for future studies investigating more nuanced properties of these structures. Our approach allows a priori prediction of the properties of SLS structures using only the band gaps of the constituent materials. Furthermore, it should enable direct investigation of the effects of interface structure, e.g., intermixing or ordering at the interface, on SLS properties. In this paper, we present band gap data for various InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice structures calculated using the generalized Kohn-Sham formulation of density functional theory. A PBE0-type hybrid functional was used, and the portion of the exact exchange was tuned to fit the band gaps of the binary compounds InAs and GaSb with the best agreement to bulk experimental values obtained with 18% of the exact exchange. The heterostructures considered in this study are 6 monolayer (ML) InAs/6 ML GaSb, 8 ML InAs/8 ML GaSb and 10 ML InAs/10 ML GaSb with deviations from the experimental band gaps ranging from 3% to 11%.

  14. Preparation and electrochemical behaviour of Sb sub 2 O sub 5 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, W.A. (Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Univ. of Cairo, Giza (Egypt))

    1990-04-01

    Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films of various thicknesses were prepared on glass or glassy carbon using a chemical vapour deposition-spraying technique. A 0.5 M SbCl{sub 5}-ethyl acetate solution was used as a spray. This evaporated in front of the heated substrate and the hydrolysis reaction 2SbCl{sub 5} + 5 H{sub 2}O{yields}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10HCl took place, leaving a homogeneous antimony oxide film adherent to the substrate surface. The effect of the thickness of the prepared film on its physical properties was studied. The electrochemical behaviour of electrodes of the oxide film in three different redox couples was investigated. The results reveal that the charge transfer reaction occurring at the electrode-electrode interface takes place via tunnelling of the electrons through the barrier formed by the space charge layer into the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} conduction band. (orig.).

  15. Studies on antimony absorption on Carbon steel (CS) and magnetite coated CS at high temperature to investigate the problem of out of core Sb activity in PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Gokhale, B.K.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Bera, Santanu; Velmurugan, S.

    2014-01-01

    Sb from PHT (primary heat transfer) pump bearings of PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors) goes to the reactor core and gets activated to 121 Sb and 123 Sb. Subsequently, it deposits on out of core surface resulting in radiation exposure to station personnel's apparent high decontamination factors. Sb, thus deposited can't be impassivated by normal decontamination process. Earlier studies indicates lattice substitution of Sb +3 for Fe +2 in magnetite at low doping levels (≤5%). This process, at reactor conditions is yet to be well understood. To formulate an adequate decontamination formulation and methodology and for having insight at Sb deposition mechanism under rector conditions studies are performed

  16. Antimony (Sb) sorption studies on zircaloy, carbon steel (CS) and magnetite coated CS (MCS) surfaces in aqueous medium at pH 10.2 and 280℃

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Achary, S.N.; Basu, Saibal

    2014-01-01

    Antimony sorption studies on zircaloy, CS and magnetite coated carbon steel (MCS) at primary heat transport temperature (290℃) of pressurised heavy water reactor (PHWR) are of direct relevance in investigating Sb activity problem faced in Indian PHWRs. Sb impregnated PHT pump carbon bearing releases Sb to reactor core. This Sb activates, and redeposit on out-of-core surfaces and results in exposure and apparent high decontamination factors. This Sb is not amenable to normal decantation. The form and state of deposited Sb is not yet fully known. This works attempts for this

  17. Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts and nanosheets: Hydrothermal synthesis, morphology evolution and thermoelectric properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guo-Hui [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhu, Ying-Jie, E-mail: y.j.zhu@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Cheng, Guo-Feng; Ruan, Yin-Jie [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and the morphology evolution from Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts to nanosheets with the prolonging hydrothermal time was observed. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesis of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts and nanosheets is demonstrated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} can be adjusted by varying hydrothermal time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The morphology evolution of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} from nanobelts to nanosheets is observed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High Seebeck coefficients (S) of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts and nanosheets are attained. - Abstract: Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts and nanosheets were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using SbCl{sub 3} and TeO{sub 2} as the antimony and tellurium source, hydrazine hydrate as a reducing reagent, polyvinyl alcohol as a surfactant and water as the solvent. The effects of experimental parameters on the product were investigated. The experiments indicated that the elemental Te formed during the reaction, acting as a reactive and self-sacrificial template for the formation of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts. The morphology evolution from Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanobelts to nanosheets with the prolonging hydrothermal time was observed. The products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The thermoelectric properties of the tablet samples of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanostructured powders with different morphologies prepared by a room-temperature pressurized method were investigated.

  18. Flake structured SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite as high performance anodes for lithium ion battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: rq7702@yeah.net [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Zhao, Doudou; Mo, Yudi; Hu, Shejun [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Engineering Technology Research Center of Low Carbon and Advanced Energy Materials, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2015-10-15

    SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite with flake structure were prepared by stepwise synthesis method. Firstly, SnSbCo nanoparticles were fabricated by co-precipitation, and then nanosized SnSbCo alloy were embedded in mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) by ball-milling to synthesize primitive SnSbCo/MCMB hybrids, followed by carbonization of phenolic resin to produce an outer layer of carbon coating. The crystal structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and galvanostatical cycling tests. Compared with bare SnSbCo alloy and SnSbCo/MCMB hybrids, the efficiently enhanced electrochemical performance of SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite were mainly ascribed to the improved electron conductivity and volume buffering effect provided by the amorphous carbon coating. The resultant SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 848 mAh g{sup −1} under 100 mA g{sup −1}, with a good capacity retention of 85.6% after 70 cycles. The composite also exhibited excellent rate capability of 603 mAh g{sup −1} and 405 mAh g{sup −1} at the current density of 200 mA g{sup −1} and 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. - Highlights: • Flake structured SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite have been prepared by stepwise synthesis method. • SnSbCo/MCMB/C composite show good cycle performance and rate capability. • Using both MCMB and phenolic resin as dual carbon sources.

  19. Effect of AlSb quantum dots on efficiency of GaAs solar cell (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, Ahmad; Addamane, Sadhvikas J.; Renteria, Emma J.; Shima, Darryl M.; Hains, Christopher P.; Balakrishnan, Ganesh

    2016-09-01

    Quantum Dots (QDs) have a broad applications in science and specifically in solar cell. Many research groups show that by adding QDs with lower bandgap respect to host material, the overall absorption of sun spectrum coverage will increase. Here, we propose using QDs with higher band gap respect to host material to improve efficiency of solar cell by improving quantum efficiency. GaAs solar cells have the highest efficiency in single junction solar cells. However, the absorption of GaAs is not good enough in wavelength lower than 550nm. AlSb can absorb shorter wavelength with higher absorption coefficient and also recombination rate should be lower because of higher bandgap of AlSb respect to GaAs. We embed AlSb QDs in GaAs solar cells and results show slight improvement in quantum efficiency and also in overall efficiency. Coverage of AlSb QDs has a direct impact on quality of AlSb QDs and efficiency of cell. In the higher coverage, intermixing between GaAs and AlSb causes to shift bandgap to lower value (having AlGaSb QDs instead of pure AlSb QDs). This intermixing decrease the Voc and overall efficiency of cell. In lower coverage, AlSb can survive from intermixing and overall performance of cell improves. Optimizing growth condition of AlSb QDs is a key point for this work. By using AlSb QDs, we can decrease the thickness of active layer of GaAs solar cells and have a thinner solar cell.

  20. Processing and characterization of new oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses in the Ge-Sb-Te-S-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, C.; Jackson, J.; Petit, L.; Rivero-Baleine, C.; Richardson, K.

    2010-01-01

    New oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses have been prepared in the Ge-Sb-Te-S-O system employing a two-step melting process which involves the processing of a chalcogenide glass (ChG) and subsequent melting with TeO 2 or Sb 2 O 3 . The progressive incorporation of O at the expense of S was found to increase the density and the glass transition temperature and to decrease the molar volume of the investigated oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses. We also observed a shift of the vis-NIR cut-off wavelength to longer wavelength probably due to changes in Sb coordination within the glass matrix and overall matrix polarizability. Using Raman spectroscopy, correlations have been shown between the formation of Ge- and Sb-based oxysulfide structural units and the S/O ratio. Lastly, two glasses with similar composition (Ge 20 Sb 6 S 64 Te 3 O 7 ) processed by melting the Ge 23 Sb 7 S 70 glass with TeO 2 or the Ge 23 Sb 2 S 72 Te 4 glass with Sb 2 O 3 were found to have slightly different physical, thermal, optical and structural properties. These changes are thought to result mainly from the higher moisture content and sensitivity of the TeO 2 starting materials as compared to that of the Sb 2 O 3 . - Graphical abstract: In this paper, we discuss our most recent findings on the processing and characterization of new ChG glasses prepared with small levels of Te, melted either with TeO 2 or Sb 2 O 3 powders. We explain how these new oxy-sulfo-telluride glasses are prepared and we correlate the physical, thermal and optical properties of the investigated glasses to the structure changes induced by the addition of oxygen in the Ge-Sb-S-Te glass network.

  1. Distortion of Local Atomic Structures in Amorphous Ge-Sb-Te Phase Change Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, A.; Ichitsubo, T.; Guan, P. F.; Fujita, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2018-05-01

    The local atomic structures of amorphous Ge-Sb-Te phase-change materials have yet to be clarified and the rapid crystal-amorphous phase change resulting in distinct optical contrast is not well understood. We report the direct observation of local atomic structures in amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using "local" reverse Monte Carlo modeling dedicated to an angstrom-beam electron diffraction analysis. The results corroborated the existence of local structures with rocksalt crystal-like topology that were greatly distorted compared to the crystal symmetry. This distortion resulted in the breaking of ideal octahedral atomic environments, thereby forming local disordered structures that basically satisfied the overall amorphous structure factor. The crystal-like distorted octahedral structures could be the main building blocks in the formation of the overall amorphous structure of Ge-Sb-Te.

  2. Mass transport in Ti0.5Sb2Te3 phase-change nanobridge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Xinglong; Wu, Liangcai; Lv, Shilong; Rao, Feng; Zhu, Min; Song, Zhitang; Zhou, Xilin; Feng, Songlin

    2014-01-01

    Investigation of atomic migration behavior in nanoscale phase-change material is very valuable for phase-change memory applications. In this work, Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 -based phase-change nanobridges were fabricated and mass transport by atomic migration was studied. A 3-D finite-element simulation on the electrothermal field was introduced to describe the electrothermal environment in the phase-change region. During the nanosecond operation, an obvious compositional distribution resulting from atomic migration was observed in the Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 phase-change nanobridge. Based on the mass continuity equation, a physical model for mass transport is proposed to illustrate that the density variation during the amorphous-to-crystalline structural transformation is the main reason for the atomic migration in nanoscale Ti 0.5 Sb 2 Te 3 phase-change material

  3. On the processing of InAs and InSb photodiode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odendaal, V.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Auret, F.D. [Department of Physics, University of Pretoria, Lynnwood road, Hillcrest, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, potential methods for the surface passivation of InSb and InAs material, covering both compositional extremes of the promising narrow band gap semiconductor InAsSb, are evaluated. Surface states, mostly due to dangling bonds and exposure to the atmosphere, create generation-recombination centres that negatively influence the dark current, stability, efficiency and related noise characteristics of photosensitive devices fabricated from these materials. The effect of various surface treatments, including sulphuric acid based etching, lactic acid based etching, KOH anodising and Na{sub 2}S anodising, on the relative number of surface states is deduced by evaluating the capacitance versus voltage characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures fabricated on InAs and InSb. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Investigation of the vibration spectrum of SbSI crystals in harmonic and in anharmonic approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audzijonis, A.; Zigas, L.; Vinokurova, I.V.; Farberovic, O.V.; Zaltauskas, R.; Cijauskas, E.; Pauliukas, A.; Kvedaravicius, A.

    2006-01-01

    The force constants of SbSI crystal have been calculated by the pseudo-potential method. The frequencies and normal coordinates of SbSI vibration modes along the c (z) direction have been determined in harmonic approximation. The potential energies of SbSI normal modes dependence on normal coordinates along the c (z) direction V(z) have been determined in anharmonic approximation, taking into account the interaction between the phonons. It has been found, that in the range of 30-120 cm -1 , the vibrational spectrum is determined by a V(z) double-well normal mode, but in the range of 120-350 cm -1 , it is determined by a V(z) single-well normal mode

  5. Natural nanostructure and superlattice nanodomains in AgSbTe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlton, Christopher E.; De Armas, Ricardo; Shao-Horn, Yang, E-mail: delaireoa@ornl.gov, E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ma, Jie [Quantum Condensed Matter Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); May, Andrew F.; Delaire, Olivier, E-mail: delaireoa@ornl.gov, E-mail: shaohorn@mit.edu [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-04-14

    AgSbTe{sub 2} has long been of interest for thermoelectric applications because of its favorable electronic properties and its low lattice thermal conductivity of ∼0.7 W/mK. In this work, we report new findings from a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study revealing two nanostructures in single crystal Ag{sub 1−x}Sb{sub 1+x}Sb{sub 2+x} (with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2); (i) a rippled natural nanostructure with a period of ∼2.5–5 nm and (ii) superlattice ordered nanodomains consistent with cation ordering predicted in previous density functional theory studies. These nanostructures, combined with point-defects, probably serve as sources of scattering for phonons, thereby yielding a low lattice thermal conductivity over a wide temperature range.

  6. Surface passivation of GaInAsSb photodiodes with thioacetamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesse, A.; Joullie, A.; Chevrier, F.; Cuminal, Y.; Ferblantier, G.; Christol, P. [Institut d' Electronique du Sud (IES-CEM2), UMR CNRS 5507, Case 067, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Calas, P. [UMR CNRS 5073 CHIMIE, Case 017, Universite Montpellier 2, 34 095 Montpellier Cedex 05 (France); Nieto, J. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica (IICO), Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    AlGaAsSb/GaInAsSb heterojunction mesa photodiodes having 2.2 {mu}m cutoff wavelength, grown by MBE on (p) GaSb substrates, have been passivated using thioacetamide CH{sub 4}CSNH{sub 2} and ammonium sulphide (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S. Superior characteristics were obtained from devices processed with thioacetamide in acid medium (pH=2.4). At room temperature the surface leakage currents were suppressed, and the photodiodes showed R{sub 0}A product as high as 16 {omega}cm{sup 2} and detectivity D{sup *}(2 {mu}m,0 V){proportional_to}10{sup 10} cmHz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}. A model explaining sulfuration mechanisms with thioacetamide and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S is proposed. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. Constructing anisotropic single-Dirac-cones in Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shuang; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-11

    The electronic band structures of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin films can be varied as a function of temperature, pressure, stoichiometry, film thickness, and growth orientation. We here show how different anisotropic single-Dirac-cones can be constructed in a Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film for different applications or research purposes. For predicting anisotropic single-Dirac-cones, we have developed an iterative-two-dimensional-two-band model to get a consistent inverse-effective-mass-tensor and band gap, which can be used in a general two-dimensional system that has a nonparabolic dispersion relation as in the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) thin film system. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  8. Surface states on a topologically nontrivial semimetal: The case of Sb(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchi, Marco; Guan, Dandan; Strózecka, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The electronic structure of Sb(110) is studied by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, revealing several electronic surface states in the projected bulk band gaps around the Fermi energy. The dispersion of the states can be interpreted in terms of a strong...... spin-orbit splitting. The bulk band structure of Sb has the characteristics of a strong topological insulator with a Z2 invariant ν0 = 1. This puts constraints on the existence of metallic surface states and the expected topology of the surface Fermi contour. However, bulk Sb is a semimetal......, not an insulator, and these constraints are therefore partly relaxed. This relation of bulk topology and expected surface-state dispersion for semimetals is discussed....

  9. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  10. AC plasma induced modifications in Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto-Rodriguez, M; Martinez, H [Instituto de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 48-3, 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Castillo, F [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510, Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Pena, Y [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Pedro de Alba s/n, Cd. Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, N.L (Mexico); Sanchez-Juarez, A, E-mail: ciro@nucleares.unam.m [Centro de Investigacion en EnergIa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Privada Xochicalco s/n Col. Centro, Temixco, Morelos, C.P. 62580 (Mexico)

    2010-01-01

    Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films, deposited by the chemical bath deposition method, were treated with N{sub 2} plasma at 3.0 Torr during several minutes. The as-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films and films treated with N{sub 2} plasma have been characterized using several techniques. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that plasma treatment induced recrystallization on the as-prepared Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}thin films. The band gap values decreased from 2.37 to 1.82 eV after plasma treatment, and the electrical conductivity increased from 10{sup 9} to 10{sup 7} ({Omega}cm){sup -1} due to the annealing effect.

  11. Chemically deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optical recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B [Facultad de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P- 66450 (Mexico); O' Brien, J J; Liu, J, E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.m [Center for Nanoscience and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One Univ. Blvd., St. Louis, MO - 63121 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 {sup 0}C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  12. Gate-tunable Andreev bound states in InSb nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Ning; Li, Sen; Fan, Dingxun; Xu, Hongqi [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Caroff, Philippe [Division of Solid State Physics, Lund University, P. O. Box 118, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid InSb nanowire-superconductor devices are promising candidates for investigating Majorana modes in solid-state devices and future technologies of topological quantum manipulation. Here, we report low-temperature transport measurements on an individual InSb nanowire quantum dot coupled to superconducting contacts that exhibit an interplay between the Kondo effects and superconductivity. We observed two types of subgap resonance states within the superconducting gap, which can be attributed to gate-tunable Andreev bound states in Coulomb valleys with different Kondo temperatures. The presence of the gate-tunable 0 and pi junction allow us to investigate the fundamental 0- pi transition. Detailed magnetic field and temperature evolution of level spectroscopy demonstrate different behavior of two types of the Andreev bound states. Our results exhibit that the InSb nanowires can provide a promising platform for exploring phase coherence transport and the effect of spin-orbit coupling in semiconductor nanowire-superconductor hybrid device.

  13. On the processing of InAs and InSb photodiode applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odendaal, V.; Botha, J.R.; Auret, F.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, potential methods for the surface passivation of InSb and InAs material, covering both compositional extremes of the promising narrow band gap semiconductor InAsSb, are evaluated. Surface states, mostly due to dangling bonds and exposure to the atmosphere, create generation-recombination centres that negatively influence the dark current, stability, efficiency and related noise characteristics of photosensitive devices fabricated from these materials. The effect of various surface treatments, including sulphuric acid based etching, lactic acid based etching, KOH anodising and Na 2 S anodising, on the relative number of surface states is deduced by evaluating the capacitance versus voltage characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures fabricated on InAs and InSb. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Temperature dependent lattice constant of InSb above room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breivik, Magnus; Nilsen, Tron Arne; Fimland, Bjørn-Ove

    2013-10-01

    Using temperature dependent X-ray diffraction on two InSb single crystalline substrates, the bulk lattice constant of InSb was determined between 32 and 325 °C. A polynomial function was fitted to the data: a(T)=6.4791+3.28×10-5×T+1.02×10-8×T2 Å (T in °C), which gives slightly higher values than previously published (which go up to 62 °C). From the fit, the thermal expansion of InSb was calculated to be α(T)=5.062×10-6+3.15×10-9×T K-1 (T in °C). We found that the thermal expansion coefficient is higher than previously published values above 100 °C (more than 10% higher at 325 °C).

  15. Whole genome sequencing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis SB24 isolated from Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraini Philip

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB that causes millions of death every year. We have sequenced the genome of M. tuberculosis isolated from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of a patient diagnosed with tuberculous meningitis (TBM. The isolated strain was referred as M. tuberculosis SB24. Genomic DNA of the M. tuberculosis SB24 was extracted and subjected to whole genome sequencing using PacBio platform. The draft genome size of M. tuberculosis SB24 was determined to be 4,452,489 bp with a G + C content of 65.6%. The whole genome shotgun project has been deposited in NCBI SRA under the accession number SRP076503.

  16. Advantages and disadvantages of sulfur passivation of InAs/GaSb superlattice waveguide photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, J; Lehnert, T; Hoffmann, D; Fouckhardt, H

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the influence of ammonium sulfide (NH 4 ) 2 S passivation on waveguide based mid-infrared InAs/GaSb superlattice photodetectors (2–5 µm wavelength) has been studied. The current–voltage characteristics for reverse as well as for forward bias of passivated samples have been examined. The advantages of this have been the reduction of the reverse leakage current and the increase of zero bias resistance. As a disadvantage the decrease of the photoresponsivity after sulfur passivation has been found. Furthermore, it has been observed that the passivation solution does not only passivate the surface of GaSb, but it also reacts with entire GaSb layers and can destroy the devices

  17. Study on the nitrogen-doped W-Sb-Te material for phase change memory application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Kun; Xia, Mengjiao; Ding, Keyuan; Ji, Xinglong [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Rao, Feng, E-mail: fengrao@mail.com.ac.cn; Song, Zhitang; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Feng, Songlin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Shanghai Institute of Micro-System and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-04-28

    N doping is proposed to enlarge sensing margin of W{sub 0.08}(Sb{sub 2}Te){sub 0.92} based high-temperature phase-change memories (PCMs). The sensing margin is increased from 30 to 5 × 10{sup 3}, with an increase from 145 °C to 158 °C in data retention. The grain size is reduced to 10 nm. The PCM based on N-W{sub 0.08}(Sb{sub 2}Te){sub 0.92} shows the fast operation speed of 30 ns and good cycling ability of >10{sup 3}. By X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculation, the W atoms are suggested to locate in the Sb positions and interstices of the lattice. The W atoms in interstice will bond to N atoms during N doping.

  18. Spin-polarized ballistic conduction through correlated Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Morari, C.

    2017-11-20

    We examine the ballistic conduction through Au-NiMnSb-Au heterostructures consisting of up to four units of the half-metallic NiMnSb in the scattering region, using density functional theory (DFT) methods. For a single NiMnSb unit the transmission function displays a spin polarization of around 50% in a window of 1eV centered around the Fermi level. By increasing the number of layers, an almost complete spin polarization of the transmission is obtained in this energy range. Supplementing the DFT calculations with local electronic interactions, of Hubbard-type on the Mn sites, leads to a hybridization between the interface and many-body states. The significant reduction of the spin polarization seen in the density of states is not apparent in the spin polarization of the conduction electron transmission, which suggests that the hybridized interface and many-body induced states are localized.

  19. Study of Sb2S3 thin films deposited by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, M. P.; Chauhan, Krishna; Patel, Kiran N.; Rajput, Piyush; Bhoi, Hiteshkumar R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2018-05-01

    In the present work, we deposited Sb2S3 thin films on glass slide by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique with different time cycles. From EDAX, we could observe that the films were non-stoichiometric and contained few elements from glass slide. X-ray diffraction has shown that these films are orthorhombic in structure from where we have calculated the lattice parameter and crystallize size. SEM images shows that SILAR synthesized Sb2S3 thin films are homogenous and well distributed indicating the formation of uniform thin films at lower concentration. The room temperature Raman spectra of Sb2S3 thin films showed sharp peaks at 250 cm‑1 and 300 cm‑1 for all cases. Room temperature photoluminescence emission spectrum shows broad bands over 430–480 nm range with strong blue emission peak centered at same wavelength of 460 nm (2.70 eV) for all cases.

  20. Emergence of Dirac and quantum spin Hall states in fluorinated monolayer As and AsSb

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Qingyun

    2016-01-21

    Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer As and AsSb. While the pristine monolayers are semiconductors (direct band gap at the Γ point), fluorination results in Dirac cones at the K points. Fluorinated monolayer As shows a band gap of 0.16 eV due to spin-orbit coupling, and fluorinated monolayer AsSb a larger band gap of 0.37 eV due to inversion symmetry breaking. Spin-orbit coupling induces spin splitting similar to monolayer MoS2. Phonon calculations confirm that both materials are dynamically stable. Calculations of the edge states of nanoribbons by the tight-binding method demonstrate that fluorinated monolayer As is topologically nontrivial in contrast to fluorinated monolayer AsSb.