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Sample records for vannamei meats electronic

  1. Autolysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) meat: characterization and the effects of protein additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eakpetch, P; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-03-01

    Autolytic activity of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mince in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl was investigated. Pacific white shrimp mince exhibited the maximum autolytic activity at 35 and 40 degrees C in the absence and in the presence of 2.5%NaCl, respectively, as evidenced by the highest TCA-soluble peptide content and the greatest disappearance of myosin heavy chain (MHC). The autolysis was more pronounced in the acidic pH values, followed by alkaline pH ranges. Pepstatin A showed the highest inhibition toward autolysis in the acidic condition, revealing that aspartic proteinase was dominant in shrimp muscle. Nevertheless, soybean trypsin inhibitor effectively inhibited the autolysis at neutral and alkaline pH values, suggesting that serine proteinase was present in shrimp mince but contributed to autolysis at a lower extent in shrimp meat. Autolysis in shrimp meat could be inhibited partially by all protein additives, including bovine plasma protein (BPP), egg white (EW), and whey protein concentrate (WPC). The inhibition of autolysis increased when the level of protein additives increased with the concomitant increase in band intensity of MHC retained. WPC and BPP in the range of 2% to 3% exhibited the highest inhibition toward autolysis of shrimp mince.

  2. Litopenaeus vannamei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... rate, healthy shrimp, better feed conversion ratio (FCR), and also reducing ... hancing the best growth, also they could benefit to their invertebrate host by ..... culture on L. vannamei in outdoor tanks with no water exchanging.

  3. Applications of electronic noses in meat analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta GÓRSKA-HORCZYCZAK

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Electronic noses are devices able to characterize and differentiate the aroma profiles of various food, especially meat and meat products. During recent years e-noses have been widely used in food analysis and proved to provide a fast, simple, non-expensive and non-destructive method of food assessment and quality control. The aim of this study is to summarize the most important features of this analytic tool and to present basic fields and typical areas of e-nose use as well as most commonly used sensor types and patterns for e-nose design. Prospects for the future development of this technique are presented. Methods and research results presented in this manuscript may be a guideline for practical e-nose use.

  4. The use of electron beams for pasteurization of meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Kaye, R.J.; Turman, B.N.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electron beam accelerators can be used for electronic pasteurization of meat products by: (1) using the electrons directly impacting the products, or (2) optimizing the conversion of electron energy to x-rays and treating the product with these x-rays. The choice of process depends on the configuration of the product when it is treated. For electron treatment, ten million electron volt (MeV) kinetic energy is the maximum allowed by international agreement. The depth of penetration of electrons with that energy into a product with density of meat is about five centimeters (cm). Two-sided treatment can be done on products up to 10 cm thick with a two-to-one ratio between minimum and maximum dose. Ground beef patties are about 1.25 cm (0.5 inch thick). Beams with 2.5 MeV electron energy could be used to treat these products. Our calculations show that maximum to minimum dose ratios less than 1.2 can be achieved with this energy if the transverse beam energy is small. If the product thickness is greater than 10 cm, x-rays can provide the needed dose uniformity. Uniform doses can be supplied for pallets with dimensions greater than 1.2 m on each side using x-rays from a 5 MeV electron beam. The efficiency of converting the electron beam to x-rays and configurations to achieve dose uniformity are discussed

  5. Meat Quality Assessment by Electronic Nose (Machine Olfaction Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Balasubramanian

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called “electronic noses” have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  6. Meat quality assessment by electronic nose (machine olfaction technology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, Mahdi; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Siadat, Maryam; Balasubramanian, Sundar

    2009-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, newly developed chemical sensor systems (so called "electronic noses") have made odor analyses possible. These systems involve various types of electronic chemical gas sensors with partial specificity, as well as suitable statistical methods enabling the recognition of complex odors. As commercial instruments have become available, a substantial increase in research into the application of electronic noses in the evaluation of volatile compounds in food, cosmetic and other items of everyday life is observed. At present, the commercial gas sensor technologies comprise metal oxide semiconductors, metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors, organic conducting polymers, and piezoelectric crystal sensors. Further sensors based on fibreoptic, electrochemical and bi-metal principles are still in the developmental stage. Statistical analysis techniques range from simple graphical evaluation to multivariate analysis such as artificial neural network and radial basis function. The introduction of electronic noses into the area of food is envisaged for quality control, process monitoring, freshness evaluation, shelf-life investigation and authenticity assessment. Considerable work has already been carried out on meat, grains, coffee, mushrooms, cheese, sugar, fish, beer and other beverages, as well as on the odor quality evaluation of food packaging material. This paper describes the applications of these systems for meat quality assessment, where fast detection methods are essential for appropriate product management. The results suggest the possibility of using this new technology in meat handling.

  7. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the quality of mackerel (Pneumatophorus japonicus) Meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Dongxiao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Zhou Xingyu; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2012-01-01

    The effect of 3, 5, 7 kGy electron beam irradiation on the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and peroxide value (POV), the contents of histamine and unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) in Pneumatophorus japonicus meat with vacuum or ordinary package were measured during refrigeration. The results showed that electron beam treatment could effectively control the contents of histamine and VBN, postpone the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid in P. japonicus meat. The shelf life of P. japonicus meat could be extended with electron beam irradiation. Before cold storage, it is appropriate that the P. japonicus meat were ordinary packaged and irradiated at the dose of 5 kGy. (authors)

  8. Identification of irradiated chicken meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Thomas, Paul

    2004-01-01

    Studies were carried out on detection of irradiation treatment in chicken using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The effect of gamma- irradiation treatment on radiation induced signal in different types of chicken namely, broiler, deshi and layers was studied. Irradiation treatment induced a characteristic ESR signal that was not detected in non-irradiated samples. The shape of the signal was not affected by type of the bone. The intensity of radiation induced ESR signal was affected by factors such as absorbed radiation dose, bone type irradiation temperature, post-irradiation storage, post-irradiation cooking and age of the bird. Deep-frying resulted in the formation of a symmetric signal that had a different shape and was weaker than the radiation induced signal. This technique can be effectively used to detect irradiation treatment in bone-in chicken meat even if stored and/or subjected to various traditional cooking procedures. (author)

  9. meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    These nutrient values determined in meat from red hartebeest could ... percentage of a-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3) (Wiklund et al., 2001). .... system (1525 HPLC with a binary gradient delivery, 717 auto-sampler and Injector, 1500 ..... polyunsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid in lamb, beef and pork: A review.

  10. Effect of electron beam irradiation on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunfang; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of electron beam irradiation and package pattern (vacuum or ordinary) on the nutritional ingredient of Sciaenops ocellatus meat were investigated. The results were summarized as follows: (1) Electron-beam irradiation dose had notable effect on the moisture content, but no significant impact on the content of ash, protein, lipid and total carbohydrate. Teh package pattern had no significant effect on the common nutrional composition of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. (2) Either package pattern or irradiation dose showed little influence on the total amino acids, delicious amino acid, EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA of Sciaenops ocellatus meat. The first limiting amino acid of Sciaenops ocellatus meat changed from Met plus Cys to Val in virtue of electron beam irradiation. (3) Both irradiation dose and package pattern showed no difference to the total fatty acid content. But the irradiation dose had notable effect on the relative content of unsaturated fatty acid, polyunsaturated fatty acid and DHA. The vacuum-packaged group had less DHA loss than the ordinary-packaged group with the same absorbed dose, and low dose groups had less DHA loss than the high groups. As conclusion, combining with the bactericidal effect of electron beam irradiation to Sciaenops ocellatus meat, the recommended dose has been proposed to be 3-5 kGy. (authors)

  11. Experimental research on fresh mussel meat irradiated by high-dose electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Lin; Lu Ruifeng; Hu Huachao; Wang Chaoqi; Liu Yanna

    2011-01-01

    The sterilization storage of fresh mussel irradiated high-dose electron beam was studied. From the subjective assessment by the weighted average of the test and other determined parameters, it can be concluded that the flavor of fresh mussel meat sealed canned food irradiated by high-dose electron beam has not been significant affected, and various micro-organisms can be killed effectively, which means that the irradiated fresh mussel meat can be preserved for long-term at room temperature. Therefore the method might resolve the problems induced by traditional frozen preservation methods. (authors)

  12. 78 FR 19182 - Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ...] Electronic Filing of Import Inspection Applications for Meat, Poultry, and Egg Products: Availability of..., and egg products through the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). ACE is the Web- based portal for... products (21 U.S.C. 620, 466). The Egg Products Inspection Act (EPIA) (21 U.S.C. 1031 et seq.) prohibits...

  13. DNA comet assay as a rapid detection method of irradiated bovine meat by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The presence in food of pathogenic microorganisms, such as Salmonella species, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, Listeria Monocytogenes or Yersinia enterolitica, is a problem of growing concern to public health authorities all over the world. Thus, irradiation of certain prepackaged meat products such as ground beef, minced meat, and hamburgers may help in controlling meatborne pathogens and parasites. Pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in meat products, which are commonly consumed raw, are of particular importance, Up to now, only electron-beam accelerators and gamma-ray cells have been used for commercial applications. At the international conference on 'The Acceptance, Control of, and Trade in Irradiated Food', it was recommended that governments should encourage research into detection methods (Anon, 1989), Already five international standards are available to food control agencies. A number of physical, chemical, and biological techniques of detection of irradiated foods have been discussed in the literature. A rapid and inexpensive screening test employing DNA Comet Assay to identify radiation treatment of food has been described by Cerda et al. (1997). This method is restricted to foods that have not been subjected to heat or other treatments, which also induce DNA fragmentation. Advantages are its simplicity, low cost and speed of measurement. This method was proposed to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) as a screening protocol (presumptive) and not as a proof (definitive). The DNA comet assay have been yielded good results with chicken, pork, fish meat, exotic meat, hamburgers, fruits and cereals. In this work we studied a DNA fragmentation of bovine meat irradiated by electron beam. Experimental: Bovine meat was purchased in local shops in Sao Paulo. Irradiation was performed with electron beam of accelerator facility of Radiation Dynamics Inc., USA (E=1,5 MeV, l=25 mA). The irradiation doses were 3,5; 4,5, 5,5, and 7

  14. Residual Nitrite in Some Egyptian Meat Products and the Reduction Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dalia A. Zahran; Gehan M.A. Kassem

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite, a curing agent of meat products, is a precursor of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines during processing of meat products or under human stomach conditions, as well as having its own toxicity. To investigate the residual nitrite level in meat products marketed in Egyptian markets, 160 samples of cured cooked (luncheon and frankfurter) and cured raw (oriental sausages and pastirma) meat products (40 sample each) were analyzed for residual nitrite by a spectrophotometric method. Samples were s...

  15. Effect of electron beam irradiation on nutritional ingredient of Tegillarca granosa meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chao; Yang Wenge; Xu Dalun; Ou Changrong; Shi Huidong

    2011-01-01

    The influences of 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 kGy electron beam irradiation on the contents of protein and amino acid and the composition of amino acids and fatty acids in Tegillarca granosa meat were investigated. The results showed that the electron beam had no significant effect on contents of moisture, ash and protein. Fat was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, which decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose. The composition of amino acids remained stable with different doses. The values of EAA/TAA and EAA/NEAA were kept in accordance with FAO/WHO protein model. Besides, electron beam irradiation made no effect on the limiting amino acid (the first and second limiting amino acids were Met + Cys and Val, respectively). The relative content of PUFA increased significantly 1 ∼ 7 kGy irradiation. Electron beam irradiation produced a notable impact on the essential fatty acid, induced the increase of linoleic acid, linolenic acid and arachidonic acid at the doses of 5 ∼ 9 kGy. After the irradiation of 9 kGy, the increments of relative contents of the three essential fatty acids reached 94.61%, 41.37% and 89.91%, respectively. Electron beam irradiation had positive effect on EPA with the doses of 3, 5 and 9 kGy. However, DHA was sensitive to electron beam irradiation, whose relative content decreased with the increasing of irradiation dose and undetected at the dose of 9 kGy. According to the research of decontamination effect, the recommended dose of electron beam irradiation on Tegillarca granosa ws fixed at 3 ∼ 5 kGy. (authors)

  16. Detection of irradiated deboned turkey meat using electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, Richard; Stevenson, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    Bone fragments were extracted from two blocks of frozen deboned turkey meat (irradiated and non-irradiated) using alcoholic KOH digestion. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy was used to differentiate between the samples. Comparison of an alcoholic KOH digestion procedure with a freeze drying and grinding method showed that the former method gave a signal which was 78% of that obtained using the freeze drying procedure. Regression analysis of the results obtained after subjection of the original non-irradiated sample to irradiation doses of 3.0, 5.0 and 7.0 kGy gave a linear relationship between irradiation dose and ESR signal strength over this range. Using this relationship the estimated mean dose received by the irradiated block was 4.72 kGy. (author)

  17. Factors Affecting Detection Of Irradiated Bone Meat By Using Electron Spine Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, S.A.; ATIA, A.I.; HASSAN, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Different types of bone meats were purchased locally such as camel, cow and sheep. The bones were removed, cleaned and irradiated with gamma rays at different doses (5, 10 and 20 kGy). The bone samples were stored in a refrigerator for five months for studying their stability of radiation-induced free radicals using electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The effect of thermal treatment at 50 o C at intervals was studied besides effect of storage period and re-irradiation process on ESR signal intensity. The ESR spectrum for radical species in irradiated samples was characterized by signal with spectroscopic splitting factor (g factor) of g1=2.0025 and g2=1.9973 for camel, cow and sheep bones, respectively. The signal at g = 2.0025 was ascribed to free radical rotation CO -2 that was derived from radiation-induced hydroxyapatite. Generally, the results proved that all above mentioned factors under investigation can affect ESR signal intensity but not prevent the recognize of irradiated bones, therefore, it must be taken in mind when calculating the absorbed dose.

  18. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  19. Rapid detection of E. coli on goat meat by electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much attention has been paid on the foodborne illness of food, which is easily contaminated with bacterial or pathogens. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of these bacterial that commonly live in the contaminated animal meat. There is a growing need in the food industry for pathogen detection syst...

  20. Microbiological and other characteristics of chicken breast meat following electron-beam and sous-vide treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.; Lucht, L.; McDougall, T.; Borsa, J.

    1992-01-01

    The combined effects of radiation and sous-vide treatment of chicken breast meat were investigated with respect to survival and growth of Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, thiamine content, and sensory qualities. Chicken breasts were inoculated with L. monocytogenes 81-861 (10(5) CFU/G), vacuum-packed, irradiated with electron beam (EB) up to 2.9 kGy, and cooked to an internal temperature of 65.6 degrees C. Sous-vide treatment alone had marginal lethal effect on the L. monocytogenes; the residual inoculum reached 10(7) CFU/g after 8 weeks at 2 degrees C. However, after the combined treatments of sous-vide and EB at 2.9 kGy, the organism remained undetectable during the 8-week storage period. Parallel studies on uninoculated breast meat revealed that sous-vide samples had a shelf life of less than 6 weeks without EB treatment, whereas samples that were irradiated and then received sous-vide treatment had a shelf life of at least 8 weeks. There was a slight reduction in thiamine levels as a result of the EB treatment, but there was essentially no additional loss of thiamine due to the subsequent sous-vide treatment and storage at 2 degrees C. Electron-beam treatment had very little effect on the odor and flavor of the reheated samples. It was concluded that EB treatment combined with, sous-vide treatment can greatly enhance the microbial safety and shelf life of chicken breast meat

  1. ASSESSMENT OF RADIATION SAFETY OF CHILLED MEAT USING THE METHOD OF ELECTRON PARAMAGNETIC RESONANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Timakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the world practice, the radiation technologies for food product processing are extensively used; with that, free radicals are found in products. Scientists have not made a final conclusion about the complete safety of the method of radiation sterilization, so it is very important to control irradiated food products to determinea fact of irradiation and residual effects. The experimental data obtained on the domestic spectrometer EPR series Labrador Expert X, which was developed by Spektr LLC with the assistance of the research team of the authors from the Institute of Natural Sciences of UrFU named after Yeltsin B. N., indicate the presence of free radicals in the samples of boneless beef, which is probably associated with °Ccurrence of ante-mortem technological and slaughter stress in animals. Irradiation of the chicken meat samples carried out in laboratory conditions allows a comparison of the spectra before and after irradiation. The dose of irradiation of poultry was 12 kGy. This dose was selected based on the practice of recognizing the radiation doses of 10-12 kGy as safe, which was established in many countries. It was found that in the range of the magnetic fields from 3272 to 3280 Gs, there was a weak EPR signal with an amplitude of 7.28 e-05 and D less than 1. Such a background signal can be explained by stress in the birds, peculiarities of feeding and other factors. After irradiation at a dose of 12 kGy, the ESR signal increased in the range of the magnetic fields from 3273 to 3286 Gs and D was higher than 1. This technology or, in other words, radappertization, is an industrialsterilization of food products for long storage at positive temperatures, which precludes re-contamination by microorganisms. After irradiation, the fivefold increase in the amplitude of the ESR signal was observed and two additional signals with small amplitude appeared. The fact of irradiation/absence of irradiation of the samples was also confirmed by

  2. Meat Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  3. Analysis of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on Vannamei Shrimp using binary logit model approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktaviana, P. P.; Fithriasari, K.

    2018-04-01

    Mostly Indonesian citizen consume vannamei shrimp as their food. Vannamei shrimp also is one of Indonesian exports comodities mainstay. Vannamei shrimp in the ponds and markets could be contaminated by Salmonella sp bacteria. This bacteria will endanger human health. Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp could be affected by many factors. This study is intended to identify what factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp. The researchers used the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp as response variable. This response variable has two categories: 0 = if testing result indicate that there is no Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp; 1 = if testing result indicate that there is Salmonella sp on vannamei shrimp. There are four factors that supposedly influence the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp, which are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab; the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds; the fish processing unit supplied by; and the pond are in hectare. This four factors used as predictor variables. The analysis used is Binary Logit Model Approach according to the response variable that has two categories. The analysis result indicates that the factors or predictor variables which is significantly affect the Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on vannamei shrimp are the testing result of Salmonella sp bacterial contamination on farmer hand swab and the subdistrict of vannamei shrimp ponds.

  4. The freezing and thawing of water in poultry meat and vegetables irradiated by electrons at doses of 0.1-4 kGy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubini, B.; Montecchia, F.; Ponzi-Bossi, M.G.; Messina, G.

    1993-01-01

    Poultry meat and some vegetables, irradiated by 5 MeV electrons (0.1-4 kGy), were analysed by differential scanning calorimetry, from 24 h after irradiation. The temperature and enthalpy transitions of the water contained in the irradiated samples were measured and compared with those of unirradiated samples. The authors analysed 18 meat and 10 vegetable samples for each irradiation dose together with a similar number of unirradiated controls. The mean supercooling temperatures of water in the irradiated poultry meat samples and in some vegetables are significantly lower than those of controls. Moreover, the freezing enthalpies of the irradiated poultry breast are significantly lower than those of controls, while they are unchanged in the other cases. The mean ice melting temperatures and enthalpies are similar for all samples. The amount of the lowering of the water-ice transition depends on the nature of the sample and is highest in poultry breast and lowest in vegetables. (author)

  5. Effects of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on Salmonella and aerobic plate count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Four experiments were used to determine the effects of high-energy irradiation on the number of aerobic microorganisms and Salmonella on broiler breasts and thighs. Irradiation ranging from 100 to 700 kilorads (krads) was provided by a commercial-scale, electron-beam accelerator. Irradiation of broiler breast and thigh pieces with electron beams at levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 krads showed that levels as low as 100 krads would eliminate Salmonella. When 33 thighs were tested after irradiation at 200 krads, only one thigh tested presumptive positive. The total number of aerobic organisms was reduced by 2 to 3 log10 cycles at irradiation levels of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, and 700 krads. Increasing the dose above 100 krads gave little if any additional benefit

  6. POTENTIAL USE OF ORGANIC MINERAL AS MINERAL SOURCE FOR DIET OF JUVENILE VANNAMEI SHRIMP, Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic mineral (OM has been recently introduced in aquaculture both as feed supplement and water quality improvement. A feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate a response dose of OM on growth, survival, and mineral content in whole the body and carapace of vannamei shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. Three diets were supplemented with different levels of organic mineral at 1 (OM1, 2 (OM2 and 4 (OM4 g/100 g diet. Positive control was a diet without OM inclusion but supplemented with commercial mineral mixture at level of 4 g/100 g diet. Juvenile vannamei shrimp with average initial body weight of 3.5±0.1 g were stocked into 12 tanks with a capacity of 200 L. After 75 days feeding trial, highly significant weight gains was observed in shrimp fed OM at all levels compared to the positive control. However, no significant differences were found among dietary OM groups. The growth response was clearly shown by the same values of SGRs in the three OM supplemented groups (1.1%/d and only differed significantly from positive control. Increasing of dietary OM significantly improved survival rate of shrimp where the highest was observed in group fed OM1 and the lowest was in control diet. Effect of dietary OM on whole body Ca and P were quite similar while whole body Ca and P content of OM1 group was slightly high and tended to decrease in two groups with higher level dietary OM. However, no significant differences among the treatment groups. A clear response of supplementing OM in diet was detected on whole body Zn content. Increase of dietary OM resulted in an increase of Zn content in whole body. The effect was clearly shown when diet contained 2% and 4% OM. Carapace Ca content was highly significant when diet contained 2% OM. Similar to whole body Zn content, there was also a linear trend of response dose of dietary OM on carapace Zn content which the highest was found in dietary OM4. Based on growth, survival rate, and Zn

  7. PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI KITIN DARI KULIT UDANG PUTIH (Litophenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiyah Kurniasih

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitin is one of the most abundant natural polysaccharides produced by many living organisms; it is usually found as a component of crustacean shells. In this paper, Chitin have been isolated from white shrimp (Litophenaeus vannamei. The preparation of chitin using chemical products to deproteinize and demineralize the source material. Characterization included determination of water, ash, fat and protein degree; moreover chitin powder characterize with FTIR and XRD spectroscopy. The result showed that process efficiency of chitin from white shrimp (Litophenaeus vannamei was 20.95%, with degree of water, ash, fat and protein were 5.39, 2.66, 1.54 and 36.16%, respectively.

  8. Effects of combined electron-beam irradiation and sous-vide treatments on microbiological and other qualities of chicken breast meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsuzzaman, K.; Lucht, L.; Chuaqui-Offermanns, N.

    1994-01-01

    The microbiological safety, refrigeration shelf-life, and nutritional quality of chicken breast meat were investigated following combined electron-beam irradiation and cooking under vacuum (sous-vide). Chicken breast meat inoculated with 10 6 CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes was irradiated with an electron beam at doses up to 3.1 kGy under vacuum in barrier bags, cooked in a boiling water bath for 3 min 45 s (previously determined to achieve an internal temperature of 71.1 o C), and stored at 8 o C for up to 5 weeks. Listeria was undetectable in samples treated with combined sous-vide and irradiation at 3.1 kGy, but the organism survived the sous-vide treatment without irradiation and multiplied during storage. A similar study, conducted with uninoculated chicken breast meat, revealed that the product which received both irradiation (3 kGy) and sous-vide treatment had a shelf-life of at least 8 weeks at 8 o C, whereas the unirradiated samples treated sous-vide spoiled in 16 days. Listeria was undetectable in combination treated samples, but some of the unirradiated sous-vide samples tested after long storage showed high levels of Listeria. Some loss of thiamine occurred with the combined treatments. (author)

  9. Meet meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, Gerben A.; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R.H.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  10. Detection of irradiated food: Electron spin resonance measurement of irradiated meat, fish and nuts. Elektronen-Spin-Resonanz-Messungen an bestrahltem Fleisch, Fisch und bestrahlten Nuessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, B [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Helle, N [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Mager, M [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Schreiber, G A [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany); Boegl, K W [Fachgebiet Lebensmittelbestrahlung, Bundesgesundheitsamt, Berlin (Germany)

    1993-09-01

    In an intercomparison study organized by the German Federal Health Office (BGA) the use of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy as a routine method according to paragraph 35 of the German Food Legislation (LMBG) was tested for bone containing meat, fish and nuts (shells). Each participating laboratory examined six chicken, six rainbow trout and four pistachio samples. The examinations were successful, only three samples were not identified correctly and moreover these mistakes were caused by misinterpretation of the ESR spectra. 13 out of 18 participating laboratories used a new routine ESR spectrometer and all samples were identified correctly with this instrument. (orig.)

  11. Meat flavour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosset, R.; Liger, P.; Roussel-Ciquard, N.

    1978-01-01

    For the consumer, meat is characterized by a certain number of organoleptic qualities; among them, flavour -that is to say the association of both odour and taste- plays a leading part. This property is based upon a great number of chemical components: some volatile components are responsible for the aroma and some non-volatile ones for the taste. These substances are either made or released during the heating of the meat on account of components called precursors which are produced during the aging of the meat. The two main reactions which preside over the elaboration of flavour are: the Maillard's reaction and the autooxidation reactions. Meat flavour is associated with the animal characteristics; it is influenced by the ante- and post mortem treatments as well as by the technological treatments for storing it. The use of synthetical flavours is to be considered as possible in the future [fr

  12. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Hailong; Li, Yuhu; Wei, Lin; Zhang, Zhihuai; Huang, Hao; Diao, Xiaoping; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50) values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P

  13. Identification of irradiated meat using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy and estimation of applied dose using re-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Thomas, Paul; Bongirwar, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    An in-house blind trail on bone-in meat chunks was carried out in which 35 coded samples were correctly identified. The samples were either left unirradiated or had been irradiated to dose of 1, 2.5 or 4 kGy. Using re-irradiation, the dose received by the samples were determined with either linear, quadratic or exponential equation. The quadratic or exponential equation gave more successful estimates of irradiation dose whereas linear fit equations tend to over estimate the dose. (author)

  14. Effect of different ionizing radiation doses and dose rates, using Cobalt-60 and electrons beam sources, on the staphylococcal enterotoxin inoculated in mechanically deboned chicken meat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarico Neto, Walter; Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: hazevedo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: htfukuma@cnen.gov.br [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Kodama, Yasko, E-mail: ykodama@ipen.br [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Miya, Norma Terugo Nago; Pereira, Jose Luiz, E-mail: miya@fea.unicamp.br, E-mail: pereira@fea.unicamp.br [Campinas State University (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Dept. of Food Sciences

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of food irradiation is the destruction of present pathogenic microorganisms and the increase of shelf life of foods. To achieve this process, the source of cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator can be used. The mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used for the production of traditional meat products, and it may come to present pathogenic microorganisms such as staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces enterotoxin, which causes food poisoning. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ionizing irradiation with different doses and dose rates, deriving from different radiation sources, on staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB) in the MDCM. 50 g samples of MDCM were prepared in a batch of 6 kg of MDCM. The samples were contaminated, with the exception of the control, with SEB in amounts of about 100 ng. Then they were conditioned in a transparent bag made of low density polyethylene, frozen at -18{+-}1 deg C overnight and irradiated in these conditions with doses of 0.0 kGy (control), 1.5 kGy and 3.0 kGy, and with three different dose rates, both in the Cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator. The experiments were conducted in quintuplicate. The SEB extraction from the MDCM was performed according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer of the kit VIDAS Staph Enterotoxin II (bioMerrieux). The principle of mass balance was used to determine the actual amount of SEB removed by irradiation. The treatment that presented the best results was the one with a dose of 1.5 kGy, high dose rate of the electron accelerator. (author)

  15. Effect of different ionizing radiation doses and dose rates, using Cobalt-60 and electrons beam sources, on the staphylococcal enterotoxin inoculated in mechanically deboned chicken meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomarico Neto, Walter; Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Fukuma, Henrique Takuji; Kodama, Yasko; Miya, Norma Terugo Nago; Pereira, Jose Luiz

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of food irradiation is the destruction of present pathogenic microorganisms and the increase of shelf life of foods. To achieve this process, the source of cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator can be used. The mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) is used for the production of traditional meat products, and it may come to present pathogenic microorganisms such as staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium that produces enterotoxin, which causes food poisoning. The objective of this study is to analyze the effect of ionizing irradiation with different doses and dose rates, deriving from different radiation sources, on staphylococcal enterotoxin type B (SEB) in the MDCM. 50 g samples of MDCM were prepared in a batch of 6 kg of MDCM. The samples were contaminated, with the exception of the control, with SEB in amounts of about 100 ng. Then they were conditioned in a transparent bag made of low density polyethylene, frozen at -18±1 deg C overnight and irradiated in these conditions with doses of 0.0 kGy (control), 1.5 kGy and 3.0 kGy, and with three different dose rates, both in the Cobalt-60 and the electron accelerator. The experiments were conducted in quintuplicate. The SEB extraction from the MDCM was performed according to the protocol recommended by the manufacturer of the kit VIDAS Staph Enterotoxin II (bioMerrieux). The principle of mass balance was used to determine the actual amount of SEB removed by irradiation. The treatment that presented the best results was the one with a dose of 1.5 kGy, high dose rate of the electron accelerator. (author)

  16. Nondestructive measurement of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) in pork meat by integrating near infrared spectroscopy, computer vision and electronic nose techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-02-15

    Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content is an important reference index for evaluating pork freshness. This paper attempted to measure TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), computer vision (CV), and electronic nose (E-nose) techniques. In the experiment, 90 pork samples with different freshness were collected for data acquisition by three different techniques, respectively. Then, the individual characteristic variables were extracted from each sensor. Next, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to achieve data fusion based on these characteristic variables from 3 different sensors data. Back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was used to construct the model for TVB-N content prediction, and the top principal components (PCs) were extracted as the input of model. The result of the model was achieved as follows: the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) = 2.73 mg/100g and the determination coefficient (R(p)(2)) = 0.9527 in the prediction set. Compared with single technique, integrating three techniques, in this paper, has its own superiority. This work demonstrates that it has the potential in nondestructive detection of TVB-N content in pork meat using integrating NIRS, CV and E-nose, and data fusion from multi-technique could significantly improve TVB-N prediction performance. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilis Ari Setyati; Muhammad Zainuddin; Person Pesona Renta

    2017-01-01

    Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36...

  18. Unraveling the chemical identity of meat pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegg, R B; Shahidi, F

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the chemistry of nitrite curing of meat and meat products as it relates to the development of cured meat color and provides a detailed account of how nitrite-free processed meats could be prepared using the preformed cooked cured-meat pigment (CCMP). Thus, a chemical description of meat color, both raw and cooked, and characterization of nitrosylheme pigments follows. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), visible and infrared spectroscopic studies, evidence has been provided to support the hypothesis that the chemical structure of the preformed CCMP is identical to that of the pigment prepared in situ after thermal processing of nitrite-cured meat and is in fact a mononitrosylheme complex. An appendix, which describes the basic principles of EPR spectroscopy used in the context of this review, is attached.

  19. Evaluating the potential of marine Bacteriovorax sp. DA5 as a biocontrol agent against vibriosis in Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chongqing; Xue, Ming; Liang, Huafang; Zhou, Shining

    2014-09-17

    The potential application of Bdellovibrio-and-like organisms (BALOs) for the biocontrol of bacterial diseases has been widely recognized. However, no marine BALOs have been reported for Vibrio-related infections in penaeid shrimp. In the present study, the bacteriolytic ability of the marine Bacteriovorax strain DA5 against Vibrio alginolyticus zouA was examined by cocultivation and electron microscopy, and optimal lysis was observed at 30-35°C and 20-30‰ salinity along with a high multiplicity of infection. Then, we showed that experimentally infected Litopenaeus vannamei larvae exhibited significantly higher survival with incremental DA5 levels. Finally, variation in the bacterial counts and the bacterial community in larval rearing water was investigated after prophylactic application of DA5. The elimination effect of DA5 on vibrios was visible at early time points, whereas only a few non-dominant bacteria, rather than the predominant populations, were affected through analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of the 16S rDNA V3 region. Accordingly, the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacies of DA5 on vibriosis associated with L. vannamei could markedly enhance larval survivability, and these results will facilitate the application of marine Bacteriovorax to control vibriosis in shrimp larviculture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A nonluminescent and highly virulent Vibrio harveyi strain is associated with "bacterial white tail disease" of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Zhou

    Full Text Available Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by "white tail" and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905 was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN, white tail disease (WTD or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD. To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of "white tail" but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as "bacterial white tail disease (BWTD". Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system.

  1. Pathogenic Assay of Probiotic Bacteria Producing Proteolytic Enzymes as Bioremediation Bacteria Against Vannamei Shrimp Larvae (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilis Ari Setyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Application of bacteria in bioremediation of shrimp culture ponds is one of the methods used to clean internal pollutants. This study aimed to evaluate the pathogenicity of extracellular proteolytic enzyme produced by the probiotic bacteria as bioremediation bacteria on vannamei shrimp larvae culture. There were five probiotic bacteria, which were successfully isolated from the sediments served as substrate in mangrove area. The isolated bacteria were coded in number as 13, 19, 30, 33, and 36. Pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi was used as positive control. Pathogenic assay was carried out in two different bacterial concentrations, i.e. 10⁸ and 10⁶ cells.mL-1. The results showed that the lowest survival rate (SR of shrimp larvae in positive control V. harveyi was 53 and 65%. Whereas isolates with the highest SR value (100% were obtained from bacteria coded as 13 and 30. Isolates no. 19, 33 and 36 had SR of more than 90%. Total plate count (TPC data showed that the bacteria increased significantly at the end of the study with an average increase value of 24%. The smallest TPC value was shown by bacterial isolate no. 19, while the largest was obtained from the isolate no. 13. These results suggest that all probiotic bacteria were not pathogenic to the vannamei shrimp larvae.   Keywords: aquaculture, shrimp, bioremediation, pathogenesis, vibrio.

  2. Effect of high-energy electron irradiation of chicken meat on thiobarbituric acid values, shear values, odor, and cooked yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, J.L.; Owens, S.L.; Tesch, S.; Hannah, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine whether electron-beam irradiation would affect shear values, yield, odor, and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of chicken tissues. Broiler breasts (pectoralis superficialis) and whole thighs were irradiated with an electron-beam accelerator at levels to produce adsorbed doses of 100, 200, and 300 krads on the surface of the sample. The thigh samples were stored for 2, 4, and 8 days before testing for TBA values. The depth to which the radiation had penetrated the pectoralis superficialis muscle was also determined. Radiation penetrated 22 mm into slices of pectoralis superficialis muscle when 100 krad was absorbed by the surface of the tissue. The dose absorbed beneath the tissue surface to a depth of 10 mm was larger than the dose absorbed at the surface. The absorbed dose decreased as the depth of penetration increased. For cooked breast tissue, the shear values and moisture content were not affected by the absorbed radiation. Cooking losses of aged breast tissue were not affected by irradiation, but cooking losses were reduced in breast tissue that had not been aged. Irradiating uncooked thigh and uncooked breast samples produced a characteristic odor that remained after the thighs were cooked but was not detectable after the breast samples were cooked. With two exceptions, no significantly different TBA values were found that could be attributed to irradiation

  3. Antibiotic Resistant Salmonella and Vibrio Associated with Farmed Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Banerjee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella and Vibrio species were isolated and identified from Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in shrimp farms. Shrimp samples showed occurrence of 3.3% of Salmonella and 48.3% of Vibrio. The isolates were also screened for antibiotic resistance to oxolinic acid, sulphonamides, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, norfloxacin, ampicillin, doxycycline hydrochloride, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, and nitrofurantoin. Salmonella enterica serovar Corvallis isolated from shrimp showed individual and multiple antibiotic resistance patterns. Five Vibrio species having individual and multiple antibiotic resistance were also identified. They were Vibrio cholerae (18.3%, V. mimicus (16.7%, V. parahaemolyticus (10%, V. vulnificus (6.7%, and V. alginolyticus (1.7%. Farm owners should be concerned about the presence of these pathogenic bacteria which also contributes to human health risk and should adopt best management practices for responsible aquaculture to ensure the quality of shrimp.

  4. Humoral and Haemocytic Responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to Cd Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Bautista-Covarrubias

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, subadults were exposed to four dilutions of the 96 h cadmium LC50 reported for postlarvae (PL12 of this species, and the effects were evaluated after 5, 48, and 96 h of exposure. While treatments did not affect survival and hemolymph clotting time increased with time, but not as a response to Cd exposure, the intensity of other responses was related to concentration, to time of exposure, and to their interaction. Hemocyanin decreased with time in all metal concentrations but increased in the control treatment, and an almost similar trend was observed with hemocyte numbers. As an initial response, phenoloxidase activity decreased with all metal concentrations, but it increased later to values similar or higher than the control treatment.

  5. PENDUGAAN NUTRIENT BUDGET TAMBAK INTENSIF UDANG, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachmansyah Rachmansyah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan nutrient budget tambak intensif udang Litopenaeus vannamei sebagai acuan alokasi input produksi pada tingkat kapasitas asimilasi lingkungan perairan. Pendugaan nutrient budget tambak udang intensif menggunakan pendekatan mass balance, dihitung berdasarkan input nutrien nitrogen - N dan fosfor – P yang berasal dari pakan, benih, pupuk, media probiotik, inflow, dan output nutrien yang ada pada produksi udang, outflow, dan endapan lumpur di dasar tambak. Sampel air, tanah, sedimen, plankton diambil sebelum penebaran dan setiap dua minggu selama pemeliharaan dari tiga petak tambak, masing-masing 5 titik sampel per petak tambak contoh. Analisis nitrogen dan fosfor dilakukan untuk sampel pakan, karkas udang awal dan akhir. Data managemen budi daya meliputi padat penebaran benur 50 ekor m-2, produksi 1.188—1.489 kg/0,25 ha, dan FCR 1,69—2,14; maka total input nutrien tambak udang Litopenaeus vannamei antara 171,9155—179,3778 (176 ± 3,9586 kgN dan 95,2533—99,4180(97,8340 ± 2,3348 kg P. Pakan mendominasi input N sebesar 61,96% ± 0,66%; disusul inflow 30,93% ± 0,70%; pupuk 6,52% ± 0,15%, serta media probiotik dan benur masing-masing <1%. Pola yang sama terjadi pada input phosphorous dengan komposisi 87,75% ± 0,24% dari pakan; 7,73% ± 0,19% pupuk; 4,05% ± 0,25% inflow dan media probiotik < 1%. Total output nitrogen tambak udang vannamei antara 107,1279-110,1438 (108,4957 ± 1,5274 kg N dan 51,6362—63,6576 (56,1292 ± 6,5604 kg P. Komposisi output nitrogen adalah outflow sebanyak 29,82% ± 3,20%; kemudian udang yang dipanen 21,32% ± 1,33%, lumpur atau sludge 10,40% ± 0,81%. Sedangkan komposisi output phosphorous didominasi oleh lumpur 39,03% ± 6,59%; kemudian udang yang dipanen 15,22% ± 0,85% dan outflow 3,09% ± 0,26%. Efisiensi pakan dan air melalui managemen budi daya yang benar menjadi peubah dominan penentu beban limbah tambak udang. This research was aimed to find out nutrient budget

  6. Dataset on the importation of the exotic shrimp Penaeus vannamei broodstock (Boone, 1931 to India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Remany

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penaeus vannamei is an exotic shrimp species that has gained high culture momentum, since its introduction to India [1]. Currently, the culture of the species in the Country is being done by the shrimp farmers by importation of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF vannamei broodstock from approved suppliers, which are located overseas. The value of one brooder normally ranges from 50 to 61 US $, excluding the custom duty, processing fee and other charges for the transboundary shipment of the stock to India. The P. vannamei stock are permitted to be imported to the Country by the hatchery operators only through the single declared port of entry, i.e. Chennai in Tamil Nadu in the Country. The imported parent shrimps are then to be quarantined at the Aquatic Quarantine Facility before being transported to the vannamei hatcheries [2]. This article reports the data available on import of vannamei broodstock to India since its importation to India in 2009. The dataset presented here contains information on transit and quarantine mortality of the brooders following the shipment of the stock by the various broodstock suppliers from the overseas.

  7. Identification and functional characterization of a solute carrier family 15, member 4 gene in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-Gui; Yuan, Kai; Zhang, Ze-Zhi; Yuan, Feng-Hua; Weng, Shao-Ping; Yue, Hai-Tao; He, Jian-Guo; Chen, Yi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Innate immunity in shrimp is important in resisting bacterial infection. The NF-κB pathway is pivotal in such an immune response. This study cloned and functionally characterized the solute carrier family (SLC) 15 member A 4 (LvSLC15A4) gene in Litopenaeus vannamei. The open reading frame of LvSLC15A4 is 1, 902 bp long and encodes a putative 633-amino acid protein, which is localized in the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicular compartments. Results of the reporter gene assay showed that LvSLC15A4 upregulated NF-κB target genes, including the immediate-early gene 1 of white spot syndrome virus, as well as several antimicrobial peptide genes, such as pen4, CecA, AttA, and Mtk in S2 cells. Moreover, knocked-down expression of LvSLC15A4 reduced pen4 expression in L. vannamei. LvSLC15A4 down-regulation also increased the cumulative mortality of Vibrio parahemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. Furthermore, LvSLC15A4 expression was induced by unfolded protein response (UPR) in L. vannamei hematocytes. These results suggest that LvSLC15A4 participates in L. vannamei innate immunity via the NF-κB pathway and thus may be related to UPR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microbiological Investigation of Persistent Mortalities in Litopenaeus vannamei Grown in Low Saline Waters in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanathkumar, Hirekudel; Ravi, Charan; Padinhatupurayil, Suresh Babu; Mol, Mini; Prasad, Jilagam Krishna; Nayak, Binaya Bhusan

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Microbial diseases are a serious hindrance to successful shrimp aquaculture. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is an exotic species recently introduced in India to supplement the failing aquaculture of the Asian tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon due to viral diseases. However, after a brief initial success, the aquaculture of L. vannamei is also experiencing serious problems due to microbial diseases. In this study, we conducted a microbiological investigation into the problem of persistent mortalities in selected L. vannamei farms on the southeastern coast of India. The infected shrimps were positive for the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by a nested PCR, though no visible white spots were present on the animals. The shrimps were heavily colonized by Vibrio parahemolyticus, which were isolated from the hepatopancreas, gills, and the body surface. The pond water, despite being low saline groundwater, harbored large numbers of V. parahemolyticus and other Vibrio species, and V. parahemolyticus isolated from L. vannamei were resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and cephalosporins. Our results strongly suggest that the persistent mortalities of L. vannamei were due to a co-infection by V. parahemolyticus and WSSV. Received December 16, 2013; accepted February 14, 2014.

  9. Analysis of Litopenaeus vannamei transcriptome using the next-generation DNA sequencing technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, the major species of farmed shrimps in the world, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. The now available transcriptome data of L. vannamei are insufficient for research requirements, and have not been adequately assembled and annotated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This is the first study that used a next-generation high-throughput DNA sequencing technique, the Solexa/Illumina GA II method, to analyze the transcriptome from whole bodies of L. vannamei larvae. More than 2.4 Gb of raw data were generated, and 109,169 unigenes with a mean length of 396 bp were assembled using the SOAP denovo software. 73,505 unigenes (>200 bp with good quality sequences were selected and subjected to annotation analysis, among which 37.80% can be matched in NCBI Nr database, 37.3% matched in Swissprot, and 44.1% matched in TrEMBL. Using BLAST and BLAST2Go softwares, 11,153 unigenes were classified into 25 Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG categories, 8171 unigenes were assigned into 51 Gene ontology (GO functional groups, and 18,154 unigenes were divided into 220 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. To primarily verify part of the results of assembly and annotations, 12 assembled unigenes that are homologous to many embryo development-related genes were chosen and subjected to RT-PCR for electrophoresis and Sanger sequencing analyses, and to real-time PCR for expression profile analyses during embryo development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The L. vannamei transcriptome analyzed using the next-generation sequencing technique enriches the information of L. vannamei genes, which will facilitate our understanding of the genome background of crustaceans, and promote the studies on L. vannamei.

  10. Lipid stability in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, P A; Sheehy, P J; Galvin, K; Kerry, J P; Buckley, D J

    1998-01-01

    Lipid oxidation is one of the main factors limiting the quality and acceptability of meats and meat products. Oxidative damage to lipids occurs in the living animal because of an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and the animal's defence mechanisms. This may be brought about by a high intake of oxidized lipids or poly-unsaturated fatty acids, or a low intake of nutrients involved in the antioxidant defence system. Damage to lipids may be accentuated in the immediate post-slaughter period and, in particular, during handling, processing, storage and cooking. In recent years, pressure to reduce artificial additive use in foods has led to attempts to increase meat stability by dietary strategies. These include supplementation of animal diets with vitamin E, ascorbic acid, or carotenoids, or withdrawal of trace mineral supplements. Dietary vitamin E supplementation reduces lipid and myoglobin oxidation, and, in certain situations, drip losses in meats. However, vitamin C supplementation appears to have little, if any, beneficial effects on meat stability. The effect of feeding higher levels of carotenoids on meat stability requires further study. Some studies have demonstrated that reducing the iron and copper content of feeds improves meat stability. Post-slaughter carnosine addition may be an effective means of improving lipid stability in processed meats, perhaps in combination with dietary vitamin E supplementation.

  11. Genetic parameter estimation of reproductive traits of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jian; Kong, Jie; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun; Liu, Ning; Meng, Xianhong; Xu, Shengyu; Guo, Zhaojia; Chen, Guoliang; Luan, Sheng

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the heritability, repeatability, phenotypic correlation, and genetic correlation of the reproductive and growth traits of L. vannamei were investigated and estimated. Eight traits of 385 shrimps from forty-two families, including the number of eggs (EN), number of nauplii (NN), egg diameter (ED), spawning frequency (SF), spawning success (SS), female body weight (BW) and body length (BL) at insemination, and condition factor (K), were measured,. A total of 519 spawning records including multiple spawning and 91 no spawning records were collected. The genetic parameters were estimated using an animal model, a multinomial logit model (for SF), and a sire-dam and probit model (for SS). Because there were repeated records, permanent environmental effects were included in the models. The heritability estimates for BW, BL, EN, NN, ED, SF, SS, and K were 0.49 ± 0.14, 0.51 ± 0.14, 0.12 ± 0.08, 0, 0.01 ± 0.04, 0.06 ± 0.06, 0.18 ± 0.07, and 0.10 ± 0.06, respectively. The genetic correlation was 0.99 ± 0.01 between BW and BL, 0.90 ± 0.19 between BW and EN, 0.22 ± 0.97 between BW and ED, -0.77 ± 1.14 between EN and ED, and -0.27 ± 0.36 between BW and K. The heritability of EN estimated without a covariate was 0.12 ± 0.08, and the genetic correlation was 0.90 ± 0.19 between BW and EN, indicating that improving BW may be used in selection programs to genetically improve the reproductive output of L. vannamei during the breeding. For EN, the data were also analyzed using body weight as a covariate (EN-2). The heritability of EN-2 was 0.03 ± 0.05, indicating that it is difficult to improve the reproductive output by genetic improvement. Furthermore, excessive pursuit of this selection is often at the expense of growth speed. Therefore, the selection of high-performance spawners using BW and SS may be an important strategy to improve nauplii production.

  12. Maintenance of raw and cooked ready-to-eat product quality of infused poultry meats with selected plant extracts during electron beam irradiation and after storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rababah, Taha

    The purpose of this study included: preparing plant extracts and evaluating these extracts for total phenolics and antioxidant activities (AA); infusing extract/combination that demonstrates superior AA into chicken breast and irradiating at 3.0 kGy; evaluating the physicochemical properties of irradiated and non-irradiated raw and cooked chicken breast at 5°C for 12 days and -20°C for 9 months; and selecting the extracts that demonstrated desirable AA, infusing these extracts into chicken breast and evaluating head-space volatiles, and conducting sensory evaluation. The total phenolic content and AA of the plant extracts ranged from 24.8 to 92.5 mg/g dry material (conjugated diene of methyl linoleate) and 3.4 to 86.3%, respectively. The AA of plant extracts using oxidative stability instrument were 4.6 to 10.2 h (Induction time). Green tea and grape seed extracts had the highest AA within several plant extracts, and were selected to retard lipid oxidation in further studies. Fresh boneless and skinless chicken breast meats were vacuum infused with varying concentrations of antioxidants: Green tea and grape seed extracts alone/in combination and tert-butylhydroquinone. The results showed that irradiation had no significant effect on pH, water holding capacity, but increased the redness and carbonyls in raw meats (p extracts into meats increased lightness and decreased redness as well as hardness and shear force. Irradiation increased TBARS, hexanal, and pentanal values in raw and cooked meats. Addition of plant extracts decreased the amount of TBARS, hexanal, pentanal, and carbonyl values. Similar results were observed when the samples were stored at -20°C for 9 months. Descriptive sensory flavor results showed that irradiation did not affect the flavor attributes. Consumer, descriptive, and instrumental results showed that irradiation increased toughness, green tea improved the meat color, and the panel indicated that irradiation decreased the tenderness of the

  13. Repetitively pulsed power for meat pasteurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, E.L.; Kaye, R.J.; Neau, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Electronic pasteurization of meat offers the potential for drastically reducing the incidence of food poisoning caused by biological pathogens accidentally introduced into meat products. Previous work has shown that γ-rays are an effective method of destroying E. coli 0157:H7, Salmonella, C. jejuni, L. monocytogenes, Listeria, and S. aureus bacteria types. The concern with the use of γ-rays is that radioactive material must be used in the pasteurization process that can lead to some market resistance and activist pressure on the meat industry. The use of accelerator generated high average power electron beams, at energies less than 10 MeV, or X-rays, with energies below 5 MeV, have been approved by the FDA for use in pasteurizing foods. Accelerator produced electronic pasteurization has the advantage that no radioactive material inventory is required. Electronic pasteurization has the additional benefit that it removes bacterial pathogens on the meat surface as well as within the volume of the meat product. High average power, repetitively-pulsed, broad-area electron beam sources being developed in the RHEPP program are suitable for large scale meat treatment in packing plant environments. RHEPP-II, which operates at 2.5 MeV and 25 kA at pulse repetition frequencies up to 120 Hz has adequate electron energy to penetrate hamburger patties which comprise about half of the beef consumption in the United States. Ground beef also has the highest potential for contamination since considerable processing is required in its production. A meat pasteurization facility using this size of accelerator source should be capable of treating 10 6 pounds of hamburger patties per hour to a dose of up to 3 kGy (300 kilorads). The RHEPP modular accelerator technology can easily be modified for other production rates and types of products

  14. Vibrio harveyi effect under survival of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The culture of aquatic organisms show a high relevance in the human feeding and the culture activities can create artificial conditions that increase the growth and selection of specific bacteria. Vibrio species are normal bacteria’s from microflora of penaeid shrimp, those are opportunistic pathogens that can take advantage of the ecological changes generated for the culture of aquatic organisms and which may cause diseases, low survival and economic losses in the shrimp production. The aim of this research was to determine the variation in the survival of different larval substages (nauplius, zoea I-III, mysis I-III and postlarvae 1, of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed at three doses [103 , 105 , and 107 colony-forming unit (CFU ml-1 [ of V. harveyi, by immersion (30 min as infection method. This species generated a significant low survival in larvae (p < 0.05 only in high doses (105 and 107 CFU ml-1 , where higher doses show the lowest values of survival. Larval substages and postlarvae 1 of shrimp showed sensitivity associate to the increase of Vibrio doses and this sensitivity decreased with the growth of larval substages and postlarvae 1. This information has high significance for the fisheries and aquaculture industry, which help to generate strategies to reduce the effects of V. harveyi with positive effect in growth and survival of the shrimp larvae and postlarvae 1.

  15. Alternative mitochondrial respiratory chains from two crustaceans: Artemia franciscana nauplii and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Armenta, Chrystian; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Rosas-Lemus, Monica; Chiquete-Felix, Natalia; Huerta-Ocampo, Jose Angel; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria. Specific inhibitors were used to identify alternative redox enzymes in mitochondria isolated from Artemia franciscana nauplii, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. We report the presence of two alternative redox enzymes in the respiratory chain of A. franciscana nauplii, whose isolated mitochondria used glycerol-3-phosphate as a substrate, suggesting the existence of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, cyanide and octyl-gallate were necessary to fully inhibit this species' mitochondrial oxygen consumption, suggesting an alternative oxidase is present. The in-gel activity analysis confirmed that additional mitochondrial redox proteins exist in A. franciscana. A mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase oxidase was identified by protein sequencing as part of a branched respiratory chain, and an alternative oxidase was also identified in this species by western blot. These results indicate different adaptive mechanisms from artemia to face environmental challenges related to the changing levels of oxygen concentration in seawater through their life cycles. No alternative redox enzymes were found in shrimp mitochondria, further efforts will determine the existence of an uncoupling mechanism such as uncoupling proteins.

  16. Meat analog: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  17. Relation on phitoplankton community with Litopenaeus vannamei productivity in biocrete pond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Budiardi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTManagement of phytoplankton is generally conducted by controlling the concentration of organic matter, fertilization and water exchange.  Organic materials are from uneaten feed and excretion of shrimp.  By using post facto method it was found four class of phytoplankton in biocrete pond at one cycle rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Population at early rearing period was dominated by Bacillariophyceae (50.4%; 13 species and Cyanophyceae (42.41%; 1 species, followed by Dynophyceae (6.2%; 5 species and Chlorophyceae (1.3%; 1 species.  Increment in phytoplankton density was followed by increment in chlorophyll-a and oxygen from photosynthesis, and productivity was 2132 kg/pond.Keywords: phytoplankton, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, biocrete pond ABSTRAKPengelolaan fitoplankton umumnya dilakukan dengan mengoptimalkan bahan organik serta pemupukan dan pergantian air. Bahan organik berasal dari pakan buatan yang tidak terkonsumsi (sisa pakan dan ekskresi dari udang. Dengan menggunakan metode post facto selama satu siklus pemeliharaan udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei pada tambak biocrete diperoleh empat kelas fitoplankton. Dominasi Bacillariophyceae (50,4%; 13 jenis, Cyanophyceae (42,41%; 1 jenis terjadi pada awal pemeliharaan yang diiukuti oleh Dynophyceae (6,2%; 5 jenis dan Chlorophyceae (1,3%; 1 jenis. Peningkatan kelimpahan fitoplankton secara keseluruhan diikuti oleh peningkatan kandungan klorofil-a dan oksigen hasil fotosintesis total sehingga produktifitasnya mencapai 2132 kg/petakKata kunci: fitoplankton, udang vaname, Litopenaeus vannamei, tambak biocrete

  18. Elimination of Chloramphenicol by Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon and White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Suseno

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloramphenicol (CAP has been illegally used in many shrimp farms in South East Asia, including Indonesia. We performed an experiment of elimination simulation of CAP in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon and white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei. After 5 days of depuration process, the concentration of CAP in P. monodon decreased to 94.85% (muscle, 97.98% (cephalothoraxes, and 90.30% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in P monodon was 0.596 day in the muscle, 0.716 day in cephalothorax, and 0.437 day in exoskeleton. On the other hand, concentrations of CAP in L. vannamei decreased to 97.74% (muscle, 90.30% (cephalothoraxes, and 97.63% (exoskeleton. The elimination half-life of CAP in L. vannamei was 0.6624 day (muscle, 0.859 day (cephalothorax, and 0.796 day (exoskeleton. CAP was retained better by P. monodon compared to L. vannamei.

  19. MONITOREO DE RESIDUOS DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS EN CAMARÓN (Penaeus vannamei DEL ÁREA COSTERA DE LA BAHÍA CARTAGENA (COLOMBIA MONITORAMENTO RESÍDUOS DE PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS EM CAMARÃO (Penaeus vannamei A ÁREA DA BAÍA COSTEIRA DE CARTAGENA (COLÔMBIA MONITORING OF ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES RESIDUES IN SHRIMP (Penaeus vannamei FROM THE COASTAL AREA OF CARTAGENA BAY COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ E JARAMILLO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de pesticidas organoclorados para el control químico de plagas ha traído como consecuencia la contaminación de los organismos biológicos que hacen parte del medio ambiente. Muestras de camarón (Penaeus vannamei fueron analizadas como bioindicador de la calidad del agua en las costas de la bahía de Cartagena. Veintisiete muestras fueron recolectadas en tres estaciones de muestreo durante los meses de enero, junio y noviembre del 2008. Los tiempos de retención de los extractos obtenidos de los camarones se compararon con los de una mezcla patrón de 20 pesticidas organoclorados. La técnica utilizada fue cromatografía de gases con microdetector de captura de electrones. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la contaminación residual por pesticidas organoclorados en músculo del camarón (Penaeus vannamei obtenidos en las playas de la ciudad de Cartagena. El límite de detección de todos los pesticidas organoclorados estuvo entre un rango de 0.1-13 ngg-1. La concentración de los residuos de pesticidas organoclorados en camarón fue más baja que la del límite máximo permitido en animales acuáticos recomendado por la FAO.O uso de pesticidas organoclorados por controle químico de pragas, resultou na contaminação de organismos biológicos que fazem parte do ambiente. As amostras de camarão (Penaeus vannamei foram analisados como bioindicador da qualidade da água nas margens da baía de Cartagena. Vinte e sete amostras foram coletadas em três estações de amostragem durante os meses de Janeiro, junho e novembro de 2008. Os tempos de retenção dos extratos dos camarões foram comparados com os de uma mistura padrão de 20 pesticidas organoclorados. A técnica utilizada foia cromatografía gasosa com microdetector captura de elétrons. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a contaminação residual de pesticidas organoclorados no músculo do camarão (Penaeus vannamei obtidos nas praias da cidade de Cartagena. O

  20. Technological characteristics of meat - viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    DIBĎÁK, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is focused on the technological characteristics of meat, mainly viscosity of meat. At the beginning I dealt with construction of meat and various types of meat: beef, veal, pork, mutton, rabbit, poultry and venison. Then I described basic chemical composition of meat and it?s characteristic. In detail I dealt with viscosity of meat. Viscosity is the ability of meat to bind water both own and added. I mentioned influences, which effects viscosity and I presented the possib...

  1. Impact of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) co-infection on survival of penaeid shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Song, Xiaoling; Huang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is an important viral pathogen that infects farmed penaeid shrimp, and the threat of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection to shrimp farming has become increasingly severe. Viral and bacterial cross or superimposed infections may induce higher shrimp mortality. We used a feeding method to infect Litopenaeus vannamei with WSSV and then injected a low dose of V. parahaemolyticus (WSSV+Vp), or we first infected L. vannamei with a low-dose injection of V. parahaemolyticus and then fed the shrimp WSSV to achieve viral infection (Vp+WSSV). The eff ect of V. parahaemolyticus and WSSV co-infection on survival of L. vannamei was evaluated by comparing cumulative mortality rates between experimental and control groups. We also spread L. vannamei hemolymph on thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar plates to determine the number of Vibrio, and the WSSV copy number in L. vannamei gills was determined using an absolute quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. LvMyD88 and Lvakt gene expression levels were detected in gills of L. vannamei by real-time PCR to determine the cause of the diff erent mortality rates. Our results show that (1) the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the WSSV+Vp group reached 100% on day 10 after WSSV infection, whereas the cumulative mortality rate of L. vannamei in the Vp+WSSV group and the WSSV-alone control group approached 100% on days 11 and 13 of infection; (2) the number of Vibrio in the L. vannamei group infected with V. parahaemolyticus alone declined gradually, whereas the other groups showed significant increases in the numbers of Vibrio ( P<0.05); (3) the WSSV copy numbers in the gills of the WSSV+Vp, Vp+WSSV, and the WSSV-alone groups increased from 105 to 107 /mg tissue 72, 96, and 144 h after infection, respectively. These results suggest that V. parahaemolyticus infection accelerated proliferation of WSSV in L. vannamei and vice versa. The combined accelerated proliferation of both V

  2. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  3. SNP discovery in the transcriptome of white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei by next generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yu

    Full Text Available The application of next generation sequencing technology has greatly facilitated high throughput single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP discovery and genotyping in genetic research. In the present study, SNPs were discovered based on two transcriptomes of Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei generated from Illumina sequencing platform HiSeq 2000. One transcriptome of L. vannamei was obtained through sequencing on the RNA from larvae at mysis stage and its reference sequence was de novo assembled. The data from another transcriptome were downloaded from NCBI and the reads of the two transcriptomes were mapped separately to the assembled reference by BWA. SNP calling was performed using SAMtools. A total of 58,717 and 36,277 SNPs with high quality were predicted from the two transcriptomes, respectively. SNP calling was also performed using the reads of two transcriptomes together, and a total of 96,040 SNPs with high quality were predicted. Among these 96,040 SNPs, 5,242 and 29,129 were predicted as non-synonymous and synonymous SNPs respectively. Characterization analysis of the predicted SNPs in L. vannamei showed that the estimated SNP frequency was 0.21% (one SNP per 476 bp and the estimated ratio for transition to transversion was 2.0. Fifty SNPs were randomly selected for validation by Sanger sequencing after PCR amplification and 76% of SNPs were confirmed, which indicated that the SNPs predicted in this study were reliable. These SNPs will be very useful for genetic study in L. vannamei, especially for the high density linkage map construction and genome-wide association studies.

  4. Meat : a natural symbol.

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddes, Nick

    1989-01-01

    In Britain, and in cultures around the world, meat's significance extends beyond what might be anticipated from its nutritional utility. By looking at the academic and popular literature, and through a series of looselystructured interviews, this study investigates the range of ideas that people hold about meat in modern Britain for evidence as to what it is that makes animal flesh such an esteemed foodstuff. The principle conclusion is that meat's pre-eminence derives from ...

  5. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  6. Meat science research tendencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arturo García Macías

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high quality food due its higher protein content, besides to provide energy, vitamins particularly B complex, water and minerals, resulting in an appreciated food for humans. Even in same country, consumers search for different stuffs, since north consumers looks for meat cuts with fat and bone, whereas center-south consumers prefers fatless debones meat cuts. Modern consumers demand excellent appearance, color, taste and flavor in foods, microbiologically safe, minimal processed and curing salts, very nutritive and cheap. All these together in one single product are a hard challenge in the meat products area.

  7. CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HALL, H E; ANGELOTTI, R

    1965-05-01

    A total of 262 specimens of meat and meat dishes were examined for the presence of Clostridium perfringens. Of this total, 161 were raw, unprocessed beef, veal, lamb, pork, or chicken; 101 were processed meats and meat dishes. C. perfringens was isolated from 113 (43.1%) of these specimens. The highest percentage of contamination (82%) was found in veal cuts, and the lowest (4.7%) in sliced sandwich meats and spreads. Only 2 of the 113 isolates were shown to produce heat-resistant spores, which indicates a very low incidence (0.8%) of contamination. These findings indicate that outbreaks of C. perfringens food-borne disease in the Cincinnati area are caused principally by the contamination of the food with vegetative cells or spores of the organism after cooking. Studies of the effects of various holding temperatures on the growth of C. perfringens indicated that, in the range of 5 to 15 C, no multiplication would occur, but that viable cells would still be present at the end of a 5-day holding period. Extremely rapid growth occurred at temperatures around 45 C, and complete inhibition of growth was accomplished between 49 and 52 C.

  8. Heterocyclic amines in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliye BULGAN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterocyclic amines (HA are the mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds which generate as a result of cooking of red meat, poultry meat and fish fillets at high temperatures. Up to 20 different HAs were detected and classified in the researches that conducted on these types of meats cooked at high temperatures. HAs are the products of Maillard reactions and the Strecker degredation of main precursors such as creatine/creatinine, aminoacid and the polysaccharides. Many physical and chemical factors effect the formation of HAs. Thus, it was reported by many researchers that utilizing coating and marination processes in addition to using natural and synthetic antioxidants and seasonings-plant extracts were effective on inhibiting/decreasing the formation of HAs. Additionally, boiling/steaming and microwave cooking methodologies were recommended instead of barbecuing, grilling or frying to inhibit/decrease the formation of HAs. The HAs formed in meat and meat products and the factors which have effects on the formation of HAs are presented in this review.

  9. Volatile compounds in meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika KOSOWSKA

    Full Text Available Abstract Meaty flavor is composed of a few hundreds of volatile compounds, only minor part of which are responsible for the characteristic odor. It is developed as a result of multi-directional reactions proceeding between non-volatile precursors contained in raw meat under the influence of temperature. The volatile compounds are generated upon: Maillard reactions, lipid oxidation, interactions between Maillard reaction products and lipid oxidation products as well as upon thiamine degradation. The developed flavor is determined by many factors associated with: raw material (breed, sex, diet and age of animal, conditions and process of slaughter, duration and conditions of meat storage, type of muscle, additives applied and the course of the technological process. The objective of this review article is to draw attention to the issue of volatile compounds characteristic for meat products and factors that affect their synthesis.

  10. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING Lactobacillus ON GROWTH, SURVIVAL RATE AND PROTEASE ACTIVITY OF Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunak Nafiqoh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two Lactobacillus bacteria on protease activity and growth rate of Litopenaeus vannamei. An experiment was conducted to examine protease activity and growth rate. The experiment consisted of two treatment tanks, the first tank was provided with artemia immersed in 2.6 x 1016 cfu/mL of bacteria solution, the second tank served as the control tank. After 20 days, the L. vannamei in the tank that received Lactobacillus have significantly different in growth, survival rate and protease activity (P<0.05 compared to the control, but no significant difference between Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus plantarum treatments. Within the digestive organ, protease activity of hepatopancreas and stomach demonstrated significant higher activity (P<0.05 compared to the intestine.

  11. Forecast of the direction changes of meat products odor in the development of new recipes according to the results of “electronic nose” data treatment with chemometric methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of using new parameters of quartz crystal microbalance and methods of principal component analysis and discriminant analysis using regression to latent structures for processing the output data of piezosensors array for the detection of individual odor-forming compounds, quantitative assessment of odor properties in routine analysis, in the development of new recipes of food systems with the introduction of functional additives in the factory laboratories are discussed. Sorption of volatile organic compounds that make up the odor of meat products, on thin films of sorbents - modifiers of piezoelectric resonators electrodes, forming an array of sensors of gases analyzer "electronic nose" is studied. The resulting sensor array is trained on the main marker substances (distilled water, ethane, butyric acids, aliphatic alcohols (C2-C5 of normal and isomeric structure, dimethyl ketone, methyl ethyl ketone, alkyl acetates (C2-C5 methylpropionate. The effect of of water vapors as interfering factor in sorption of organic compounds was assessed. The parameters of the efficiency of volatile compounds sorption, allowing the identification of individual organic compounds or a class of similar to them in nature in gas mixtures were calculated. The use of discriminant analysis with regression to latent structures allowed the identification of individual organic compounds in the equilibrium gas phases over the real models for forecasting of change of direction of meat products odor with partial replacement of meat raw materials with functional preparations of plant origin (buckwheat and millet cereals, pickles of soybean and rapeseed protein and products of microbial synthesis (preparation of yeast and wheat bran. For a detailed study of the changes in odor direction _ during the introduction of different amounts of cereals in the product the principal components method was applied. As the input parameters for the chemometric methods

  12. Meat and meat product preservation by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egginger, R.

    A brief summary is given of experience with the preservation of meat and meat products by ionizing radiation, or by combined methods. The results of the research have proved that hygienically significant microorganisms (mainly salmonellas) are reliably destroyed and that the consumption of thus irradiated meat and meat products presents no danger to human health. (B.S.)

  13. Quality of antimicrobial products used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Kim Chi; Tran, Minh Phu; Phan, Thi Van

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobials are important to treat diseases in aquaculture and the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of antimicrobial products commonly used in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) aquaculture in Northern Vietnam. A total of 25 antimicrobial products were obtained from 20...... to strengthen diagnostic services, legislation and control of antimicrobial products in shrimp aquaculture and educate farmers on prudent antimicrobial use practices....

  14. Osmoregulatory capacity of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei at different temperatures and salinities, and optimal culture environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Fernando Bückle

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Osmoregulation in Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in a factorial experiment at four temperatures (20, 24, 28 and 32 °C and six salinities (10, 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 ‰. The isosmotic related points for 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C were 754, 711, 822, and 763 mmol/kg, respectively. This species hyperregulates between at salinities of 10 and 20 ‰ and hyporegulates between 20 and 40 ‰. The isosmotic point in L. vannamei exposed to constant salinities changed in relation to temperature from 717 to 823 mmol/kg. For these experimental conditions, the T-S combination of 32 °C and 28 ‰ produced the best growth. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 745-753. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.La respuesta osmorreguladora de Litopenaeus vannamei se estudió en un experimento factorial con cuatro temperaturas (20, 24, 28 y 32 ºC y seis salinidades (10, 16, 22, 28, 34 y 40 ‰. Los puntos isosmóticos relacionados para 20, 24, 28, y 32 ºC fueron 754, 711, 822, y 763 mmol/kg, respectivamente. Esta especie hiperregula dentro del intervalo de 10 y 20 ‰ e hiporegula entre 20 y 40 ‰. El punto isosmótico de L. vannamei expuesto a salinidades constantes cambia en relación a la temperatura desde 717 a 823 mmol/kg. Para estas condiciones experimentales, la combinación T-S de 32 ºC y 28 ‰ produjo el mejor crecimiento.

  15. Energy metabolism and metabolomics response of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to sulfide toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Suo, Yantong; Xu, Zhixin; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Gu, Zhimin

    2017-02-01

    The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC 50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index. The glycogen content in the hepatopancreas and muscle and the activity of hepatopancreas cytochrome C oxidase of the shrimp exposed to all sulfide concentrations were significantly lower, and the serum glucose and lactic acid levels and lactic acid dehydrogenase activity were significantly lower than those in the control. Metabolomics assays showed that shrimp exposed to sulfide had lower amounts of serum pyruvic acid, succinic acid, glycine, alanine, and proline in the 425.5μg/L group and phosphate, succinic acid, beta-alanine, serine, and l-histidine in the 851μg/L group than in the control. Chronic sulfide exposure could disturb protein synthesis in shrimp but enhance gluconeogenesis and substrate absorption for ATP synthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycles to provide extra energy to cope with sulfide stress. Chronic sulfide exposure could adversely affect the health status of L. vannamei, as indicated by the high amounts of serum n-ethylmaleamic acid, pyroglutamic acid, aspartic acid and phenylalanine relative to the control. This study indicates that chronic exposure of shrimp to sulfide can decrease health and lower survival through functional changes in gluconeogenesis, protein synthesis and energy metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  17. Biochemical changes of Litopenaeus vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus in the different stages of WSSV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Shalini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out the difference in the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of both the species of shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei and Fenneropenaeus indicus (F. indicus infected with different stages of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Methods: Standard methods were followed by estimating the proximate composition and fatty acid analysis. Each fish specimens were beheaded, eviscerated and filleted manually. The tissue samples were oven dried at 67 °C for 24 h. Then the samples were grounded finely with pestle and mortar. The saponified samples were cooled at room temperature for 25 min. They were acidified and methylated by adding 2 mL 54% 6 mol/L HCL in 46% aqueous methanol and incubated at 80 °C for 10 min in water bath. Following the base wash step, the fatty acid methyl esters were cleaned in anhydrous sodium sulphate and then transferred into gas chromatograph sample vial for analysis. Fatty acid methyl esters were separated by gas chromatograph. Results: The proximate composition was higher in the both control tissue than the three (low, moderate, severe infected ones. For L. vannamei and F. indicus, the carbohydrates are 5.07% and 6.18%, and the proteins are 25.01% and 22.17%, respectively. Lipid level recorded was little higher in the shrimps maintained and showed severe sign of WSSV infection than the control and the fatty acid profile result revealed that saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acid was in higher [48.72% (Severe & 16.87% (low] L. vannamei. In the polyunsaturated fatty acid, F. indicus was 40.47% (low. Conclusions: Our study showed that the healthy shrimps are nutritionally rich than the WSSV affected shrimps.

  18. BUDIDAYA UDANG VANAME (Litopenaeus vannamei TEKNOLOGI INTENSIF MENGGUNAKAN BENIH TOKOLAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Mangampa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu jenis udang yang cukup potensial untuk dikembangkan adalah udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Budidaya ini berkembang dengan teknologi intensif, namun terbatas pada golongan masyarakat menengah ke atas (padat modal. Riset ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan data dan informasi pengaruh penggunaan tokolan terhadap produksi, Rasio Konversi Pakan (RKP pada pembesaran udang vaname teknologi intensif. Riset ini dilaksanakan di tambak Punaga, Takalar, Instalasi Balai Riset Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BRPBAP, menggunakan empat petak masing masing berukuran 4.000 m2/petak. Hewan uji adalah udang vaname dengan perlakuan: (A pembesaran dengan tebar benur (PL-12, dan (B pembesaran dengan tebar tokolan (PL-27. Setiap perlakuan dengan 2 ulangan, kepadatan benur dan tokolan adalah 50 ekor/m2, dan pemeliharaan berlangsung 80 hari di tambak. Hasil yang diperoleh pada perlakuan B memperlihatkan pertumbuhan mutlak (11,114±0,258 g/ekor, sintasan (92,55±0,23%, produksi (2.087,5±88,2 kg/petak lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan A yaitu: pertumbuhan mutlak (10,085±0,120 g/ekor, sintasan (90,83±8,51%, produksi (1.831,0±149,9 kg/petak, namun ketiga peubah ini berbeda tidak nyata antara kedua perlakuan. RKP lebih rendah pada perlakuan B (1,096±0,034 berbeda nyata dengan perlakuan A (1,257±0,048. Peubah kualitas air memperlihatkan sebaran kisaran yang merata untuk kedua perlakuan, kecuali nitrit (NO2 memperlihatkan kisaran yang tinggi pada perlakuan B (0,18235 mg/L dibandingkan dengan perlakuan A (0,0328 mg/L pada akhir penelitian. Hal ini disebabkan waktu panen yang berbeda sesuai dengan kondisi musim yaitu kualitas air sumber semakin menurun. Kualitas air sumber yang menurun ini diikuti oleh meningkatnya total vibrio di air laut mencapai; 4,33104 cfu/mL dibandingkan dalam air tambak 829.102 cfu/mL. Kesimpulan memperlihatkan bahwa penggunaan tokolan (PL-27 menghasilkan produksi yang tinggi dan rasio konversi pakan yang rendah. One species of shrimps that

  19. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  20. Screening of probiotic bacteria and its role on artificial infection of Vibrio harvey in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukenda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic was screened from 28 strains of normal bacterial flora isolated from rearing water in a Litopenaeus vannamei farm based on its inhibitory activity against the growth of Vibrio harveyi.  Antibacterial activity was also tested in vivo to V. harveyi in L. vannamei.  The result showed that  the probiotic has a antibacterial effect on V. harveyi.  The in vivo test showed that shrimps injected with probiotic previously before challenged with V. harveyi has survival higher than control.  Probiotic isolate was suspected as Vibrio furnissi. Keywords:  biocontrol, inhibitory activity, Vibrio furnissi, Vibrio harveyi, Litopenaeus vannamei   AbstraK Bakteri probiotik ditapis dari 28 strain bacteria flora yang diisolasi dari air pemeliharaan udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei berdasarkan aktivitas penghambatannya terhadap pertumbuhan Vibrio harveyi.  Aktivitas bakteri probiotik juga diuji secara in vivo terhadap V. harveyi pada udang putih.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa bakteri probiotik isolat memiliki kemampuan antibakteria terhadap V. harveyi.  Uji in vivo menunjukkan bahwa udang yang diinjeksi probiotik sebelum diuji tantang dengan V. harveyi memiliki kelangsungan hidup lebih tinggi daripada kontrol.  Isolat probiotik tersebut diduga adalah Vibrio furnissi. Kata kunci:  biokontrol, aktivitas penghambatan, Vibrio furnissi, Vibrio harveyi, Litopenaeus vannamei

  1. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Silvius STANCIU; Nicoleta STANCIUC; Loredana DUMITRASCU; Roxana ION; Costel NISTOR

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appea...

  3. A Nonluminescent and Highly Virulent Vibrio harveyi Strain Is Associated with “Bacterial White Tail Disease” of Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junfang; Fang, Wenhong; Yang, Xianle; Zhou, Shuai; Hu, Linlin; Li, Xincang; Qi, Xinyong; Su, Hang; Xie, Layue

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent outbreaks of a disease in pond-cultured juvenile and subadult Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp in several districts in China remain an important problem in recent years. The disease was characterized by “white tail” and generally accompanied by mass mortalities. Based on data from the microscopical analyses, PCR detection and 16S rRNA sequencing, a new Vibrio harveyi strain (designated as strain HLB0905) was identified as the etiologic pathogen. The bacterial isolation and challenge tests demonstrated that the HLB0905 strain was nonluminescent but highly virulent. It could cause mass mortality in affected shrimp during a short time period with a low dose of infection. Meanwhile, the histopathological and electron microscopical analysis both showed that the HLB0905 strain could cause severe fiber cell damages and striated muscle necrosis by accumulating in the tail muscle of L. vannamei shrimp, which led the affected shrimp to exhibit white or opaque lesions in the tail. The typical sign was closely similar to that caused by infectious myonecrosis (IMN), white tail disease (WTD) or penaeid white tail disease (PWTD). To differentiate from such diseases as with a sign of “white tail” but of non-bacterial origin, the present disease was named as “bacterial white tail disease (BWTD)”. Present study revealed that, just like IMN and WTD, BWTD could also cause mass mortalities in pond-cultured shrimp. These results suggested that some bacterial strains are changing themselves from secondary to primary pathogens by enhancing their virulence in current shrimp aquaculture system. PMID:22383954

  4. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Najam ul; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective...

  5. The Meat City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the emergence of the Copenhagen slaughterhouse, called the Meat City, during the late nineteenth century. This slaughterhouse was a product of a number of heterogeneous components: industrialization and new infrastructures were important, but hygiene and the significance...... of Danish bacon exports also played a key role. In the Meat City, this created a distinction between rising production and consumption on the one hand, and the isolation and closure of the slaughtering facility on the other. This friction mirrored an ambivalent attitude towards meat in the urban space: one...... where consumers demanded more meat than ever before, while animals were being removed from the public eye. These contradictions, it is argued, illustrate and underline the change of the city towards a ‘post-domestic’ culture. The article employs a variety of sources, but primarily the Copenhagen...

  6. Meat for keeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of gamma irradiation as a food preservation technique for meat are such that the author envisages its wide acceptance and application during this decade both locally and internationally

  7. Meat spoilage during distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

    2008-01-01

    Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

  8. Advancements in meat packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of white spot syndrome virus infection resistance between Exopalaemon carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei under different salinity stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Qianqian; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ming; Li, Jitao; Li, Jian

    2017-12-01

    Exopalaemon carinicauda is one of the important economic shrimp species in China, and can tolerate a wide range of salinities. However, its disease resistance remains to be unclear in comparison with other shrimp species under salinity stress. In this study, the resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) of E. carinicauda and Litopenaeus vannamei was determined by comparing their hemocyanin (Hc) and phenoloxidase (PO) activities under different salinity stresses. In E. carinicauda, the PO activity and Hc gene transcript abundance showed a coherent pattern of increase and decrease while Hc content showed a slightly decrease with Vibrio anguillarum and WSSV infections. For both E. carinicauda and L. vannamei under salinity stress, the PO activity showed a positive correlation with the salinity while the Hc content and expression level of its gene increased significantly in salinities of 5, 15 and 25 g L-1. The survival rate of E. carinicauda with WSSV infection was higher than that of L. vannamei in the first 24 h under different salinity stresses. Drastic mortality of E.carinicauda and L. vannamei appeared at 48 h and 3 h post-injection, respectively. Furthermore, compared with L. vannamei, E. carinicauda displayed higher PO activity, Hc content and abundance of Hc gene mRNA. The results collectively indicated that Hc and PO have obviously functional connection in resisting pathogens and tolerating salinity stress, and PO activity and Hc gene mRNA abundance may reflect the resistance of shrimp to disease. E. carinicauda has higher level of immune potential than L. vannamei, suggesting its greater capacity in resisting pathogens under salinity stresses.

  10. Molecular characterization of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV isolated from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farmed in Ceará State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Verônyca Coelho-Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei, one of the most important species in world aquaculture, has seriously affected by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV that causes up to 70% mortalities. With the aim of improving the development of new strategies for rapid and reliable diagnosis, we isolated IMNV, from L. vannamei farmed in Brazil, through a discontinuous sucrose gradient, and sequenced cDNA fragment encoding the major capsid protein from this virus. Nucleotides sequences corresponding to the viral capsid protein was obtained by RT-PCR and confirmed by automatic sequencing. Comparison with sequences which encode the capsid protein obtained from Indonesia isolates showed a high identity.

  11. Screening of probiotic bacteria and its role on artificial infection of Vibrio harvey in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    OpenAIRE

    . Sukenda; A.J. Sihombing; Fitria Novianti; . Widanarni

    2007-01-01

    Probiotic was screened from 28 strains of normal bacterial flora isolated from rearing water in a Litopenaeus vannamei farm based on its inhibitory activity against the growth of Vibrio harveyi.  Antibacterial activity was also tested in vivo to V. harveyi in L. vannamei.  The result showed that  the probiotic has a antibacterial effect on V. harveyi.  The in vivo test showed that shrimps injected with probiotic previously before challenged with V. harveyi has survival higher than control.  P...

  12. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (ppork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  13. Meat and meat products as a source of bioactive peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Totosaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat is a high protein content food, with great nutritional and biological value. Meat protein hydrolysis begins with the muscle to meat conversion, during meat ageing. After slaughter, endogen enzymes are responsible of meat softening since myofibrillar anchorage proteins are degraded. Protein hydrolysis continues during food preparation. When meat reaches the stomach, pepsin is the first enzyme to interact. As the food travel trough out gastrointestinal tract, pancreatic enzymes degraded the remained protein and the peptidases made the final proteolysis process. The small proteins or peptides are the absorbed to the circulatory system and distributed to the rest of the body. Bioactive peptides activity of meat and meat products is anti-hypertensive mainly, where histidine, carnosine and anserine are the main peptides identified. Another peptide with anti-oxidant activity is glutathione. The content depends on animal species.

  14. Czech Foreign Trade with Meat and Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Pohlová

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The meat production and meat processing industry are the most important parts of the agribusiness in the Czech Republic. The problem of the industry is its low competitiveness towards foreign producers and processors which results in negative balance of foreign trade. The aim of the article is to evaluate long-term development of value and structure of Czech foreign trade flows of meat and meat products. The analysis covers the period of 2001–2014. The problems of the negative trade balance are revealed through description of the trade flows of meat and meat products, the RCA index and relations between import and export prices. The analysis points out the problems of low competitiveness of the intermediate and finalized meat. Alternatively, Czech Republic has comparative advantage in live animals, sausages and homogenized meat products.

  15. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p0...

  17. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  18. Meat and Appetite Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Ursula Nana

    effects of new formulations of pork products. Different strategies can be applied to potentially enhance the satiating properties of pork. Processed meat products such as meatballs can serve as a matrix for the addition of fiber ingredients. Based on their high protein and fiber contents, high......-fibre meatballs could provide a dual mechanistic action that would lead to greater satiety. For whole muscles, cooking is known to induce structural, physical and chemical changes of the meat proteins, which in turn may affect protein digestibility and potentially affect satiety. The overall aim of this Ph......D thesis was to investigate the effects of fiber addition to meatballs and the effects of cooking methods of pork on appetite regulation. The PhD thesis is based on three human meal test studies and one analytical study related to the characteristics of fiber meat products. In paper I, the objective...

  19. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  20. Ecological safety of meat products

    OpenAIRE

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  1. Identification and function of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88 is a universal and essential signaling protein in Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappa B. In this study, two MyD88 protein variants (LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LvMyD88 cDNA is 1,848 bp in length and contains an open reading frame (ORF of 1,428 bp, whereas the LvMyD88-1 cDNA is 1,719 bp in length and has an ORF of 1,299 bp. Both variants encode proteins with death and Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains and share 91% sequence identity. In healthy L. vannamei, the LvMyD88 genes were highly expressed in hemocytes but at a low level in the hepatopancreas. The LvMyD88s expression was induced in hemocytes after challenge with lipopolysaccharide, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphyloccocus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus, but not by poly I∶C. Overexpression of LvMyD88 and LvMyD88-1 in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to activation of antimicrobial peptide genes and wsv069 (ie1, wsv303, and wsv371. These results suggested that LvMyD88 may play a role in antibacterial and antiviral response in L. vannamei. To our knowledge, this is the first report on MyD88 in shrimp and a variant of MyD88 gene in invertebrates.

  2. Identification and functional characterization of the TAB2 gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; Qian, Zhe; Song, Xuan; Zhang, Zijian; Zuo, Hongliang; Xu, Xiaopeng; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2015-10-01

    In Drosophila, TAB2, an important intermediate in the IMD signaling pathway, plays critical roles in the innate immune response in response to bacterial and viral infection. However, the role of TAB-related proteins in the immune response of shrimp has not yet been established. Here, we reported the identification of a TAB2-like gene in Litopenaeus vannamei designated as LvTAB2. The full-length cDNA of LvTAB2 was 2160 bp with an open reading frame of 1827 bp, which encoded a putative protein of 608 amino acids including a ubiquitin binding domain (CUE) at the N-terminal and a Zinc Finger domain (ZnF) at the C-terminus. Real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that LvTAB2 was expressed in all tested tissues and the expression levels of LvTAB2 in gills and hemocytes were positively induced in response to LPS, Vibrio parahemolyticus and White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) challenges. Dual luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that LvTAB2 was able to induce the expression of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes, including Drosophila Attacin A and shrimp Penaeidins. Interestingly, over-expression of LvTAB2 could up-regulate the promoter activities of L. vannamei Vago1, Vago3 and Vago4 genes in S2 cells. To our knowledge, it was the first report that TAB2 participated in innate immune signaling to regulate the expression of Vago genes in invertebrates. Moreover, RNAi-mediated knockdown of LvTAB2 enhanced sensitivity of L. vannamei to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection and caused elevated virus loads after WSSV infection. We suggested that the LvTAB2 may play important roles in the shrimp innate immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustainability and meat consumption: is reduction realistic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dagevos, H.; Voordouw, J.

    2013-01-01

    Meat is critical with respect to sustainability because meat products are among the most energy-intensive and ecologically burdensome foods. Empirical studies of the meat-consumption frequency of Dutch consumers show that, apart from meat-avoiders and meat-eaters, many people are meat-reducers that

  4. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( Pshrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( Pshrimp than in the control.

  6. Direct Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Aquacultured Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Ines M; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk; Stief, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is widely used in aquaculture, where it is reared at high stocking densities, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations. Here we report that adult L. vannamei shrimp emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at an average rate of 4.3 nmol N2O/individual × h, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously measured N2O emission rates for free-living aquatic invertebrates. Dissection, incubation, and inhibitor experiments with specimens from a shrimp farm in Germany indicated that N2O is mainly produced in the animal's gut by microbial denitrification. Microsensor measurements demonstrated that the gut interior is anoxic and nearly neutral and thus is favorable for denitrification by ingested bacteria. Dinitrogen (N2) and N2O accounted for 64% and 36%, respectively, of the nitrogen gas flux from the gut, suggesting that the gut passage is too fast for complete denitrification to be fully established. Indeed, shifting the rearing water bacterial community, a diet component of shrimp, from oxic to anoxic conditions induced N2O accumulation that outlasted the gut passage time. Shrimp-associated N2O production was estimated to account for 6.5% of total N2O production in the shrimp farm studied here and to contribute to the very high N2O supersaturation measured in the rearing tanks (2,099%). Microbial N2O production directly associated with aquacultured animals should be implemented into life cycle assessments of seafood production. The most widely used shrimp species in global aquaculture, Litopenaeus vannamei, is shown to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at a particularly high rate. Detailed experiments reveal that N2O is produced in the oxygen-depleted gut of the animal by bacteria that are part of the shrimp diet. Upon ingestion, these bacteria experience a shift from oxic to anoxic conditions and therefore switch their metabolism to the anaerobic denitrification process, which produces N

  7. Administration of Phyllanthus niruri to control IMNV (myonecrosis infectious virus infection white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukenda .

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInfectious myonecrosis (IMN disease is a major disease in Indonesia shrimp farming. The disease is caused by infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Currently, treatment and drug has not been obtained to control the virus. This research was conducted to determine the effect of Phyllanthus niruri extract in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei against IMNV infection. Healthy shrimp was given P. niruri extract 20 mg/kg of feed for seven days and after that the shrimp was challenged by orally with IMNV infected shrimp tissue. The positive control was given feed without P. niruri extract and challenged with IMNV infected shrimp tissue, while negative control was not challenged with IMNV infected shrimp tissue. IMNV infection gave a significantly different effect on survival rate. In the shrimp P. niruri previously (86.7% gave higher survival rate compared to shrimp without P. niruri (66.67%. Survival rate of negative control was 93.33%. IMNV clinical signs in general was white necrotic areas in striated muscles. Histological examination showed that cell necrosis appeared on the mussel tissues. In conclusion the addition of P. niruri to the commercial feed can give the survival rate of shrimp better when challenged with IMNV.Keywords: IMNV, Phyllanthus niruri, Litopenaeus vannameiABSTRAKPenyakit infectious myonecrosis (IMN merupakan penyakit utama pada budidaya udang di Indonesia. Penyakit ini disebabkan oleh infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV. Saat ini, belum diperoleh cara dan obat untuk mengendalikan virus IMNV. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh immunostimulan tepung meniran (Phyllanthus niruri yang diberikan melalui pakan pada udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei yang diinfeksi IMNV. Udang vaname yang sehat diberi pakan yang mengandung meniran dengan dosis 20 mg/kg pakan selama tujuh hari dan kemudian diuji tantang secara oral dengan memberikan jaringan udang yang telah terinfeksi IMNV. Udang kontrol positif dilakukan dengan

  8. Ultrastructural and pathogenesis of Monodon baculovirus in SPF shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei imported to Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bahari-Meimandi, S.A.; Afsharnasab, M.; Motallebi Moghanjoghi, A.A.; Azaritakami, G.; Sharifrohani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Viral pathogens are major causes of outbreaks in shrimp farms throughout the world. Monodon baculovirus has been known to be invasive in 85-100% of the shrimp hatcheries, in early or late stages of shrimp. Three-hundred and sixty juvenile of Litopenaeus vannamei with average (±SD) size of 7.99±0.54 g and 3600 post larvae 10-15 were prepared from Shrimp Research Station located in Helleh and 3 hatcheries from Bushehr Province, southern part of Iran, respectively. They were allocated to 9 glass...

  9. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    OpenAIRE

    E. Supriyono; E. Purwanto; N.B.P. Utomo

    2007-01-01

    Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere...

  10. Polina Fedorova, About Camel Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Gedeeva, Darina; Babaev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the Kalmyks ate beef and horse meat. The poor ate camel meat. People who ate camel meat had pimples on their faces. The camel’s pelt and humps were used to make vessels. The intestines were cleaned, stretched and dried. It was used to make strings for dombra instruments. Arcadia

  11. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Mourao, Gerson Barreto; Orlando, Eduardo Adilson; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.sp.gov.br, E-mail: eduardo.orlando@ital.sp.gov.br [Instituto de Tecnologia dos Alimentos (ITAL), Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  12. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, psychrotrophic bacteria and functional properties of mechanically deboned chicken meat irradiated with Cobalto-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Pomarico Neto, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 (Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Ascorbate and Antioxidant 2 (Rosemary Extract and α-Tocopherol. The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (C), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (Co), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). The samples was conditioned in a transparent, low density frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 ± 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy/h) and electron beam (7.86 kGy/s). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 ± 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychrotrophic bacteria count and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the analysis of functional properties were performed after the irradiation process. The use of the combination of rosemary antioxidant and α-tocopherol were able to significantly decrease TBARS values caused by the irradiation of samples in MDCM cobalt-60 sources and electron beam, and show a synergetic effect to processing with ionizing radiation to reduce of psychrotrophic bacteria count. The use of irradiation processing of MDCM did not negatively affect the functional properties studied. (author)

  13. Effects of artificial infection of Litopenaeus vannamei by Micrococcus lysodeikticus and WSSV on the activity of immunity related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cheng-Bo; Wang, Gang; Chan, Siuming F

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the activities of 5 immunity related enzymes namely acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), phenoloxidase (PO), peroxidase (POD) and lysozyme phosphatase (LZM)) of Litopenaeus vannamei after they have been injected with different concentrations of Micrococcus lysodeikticus and the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) were examined. The cumulative mortality at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h was obtained. Copy numbers of WSSV in L. vannamei after a single infection, secondary infection and concurrent infection were measured. Hemolymph samples of M. lysodeikticus and WSSV injected shrimp were collected at 0, 6, 12 24, 48, 72, 78, 84, 96 and 120 h. The results were: (i) The cumulative mortality of L. vannamei increased as the shrimp were infected with higher concentration of the bacteria; (ii) The most sensitive changes of ACP, AKP and LZM were in the 6.2 × 10(5), 6.2 × 10(6), 6.2 × 10(7) cfu/mL M. lysodeikticus group; (iii) ACP but LZM were more sensitive to M. lysodeikticus than WSSV, and AKP, PO and POD is more sensitive to WSSV; (iv) The copies of WSSV in the co-injected group were higher than WSSV-single infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection group at 48 h. The amount of WSSV in L. vannamei of concurrent infection and WSSV-bacteria-secondary infection groups were higher than that of the WSSV-single infection group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF HORSE MEAT SCANDAL ON ROMANIAN MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvius STANCIU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable business in the domestic production of meat must meet both the usual Requirements regarding quality, safety for customer and New Challenges in the European meat market. The Romanian food industry must meet the challenge of recent suspicions regarding the substitution of beef meat with horse meat. The modern applicable to meat traceability systems and authentication procedures can be considered as new ways to support fair trade and transparency, THUS, removing suspicions that appeared lately. Lack of safety measures in the field can affect business continuity critically, creating significant losses.

  15. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz; Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana

    2011-01-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and α-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h -1 ) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s -1 ). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and α-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  16. Effect of antioxidants on thiobarbituric acid reactive substances of mechanically de boned chicken meat irradiated with ionizing radiation: cobalt-60 and electron beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, Poliana de Paula; Azevedo, Heliana de; Pomarico Neto, Walter; Roque, Claudio Vitor; Brusqui, Armando Luiz, E-mail: hgomes@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: pbrito@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: cvroque@cnen.gov.b, E-mail: abrusqui@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Haguiwara, Marcia Mayumi Harada; Miyagusku, Luciana, E-mail: marciamh@ital.gov.b, E-mail: lucianam@ital.gov.b [Food Technology Institute (ITAL), SP (Brazil). Meat Technology Center

    2011-07-01

    Samples of MDCM with skin were divided into three groups: control (without antioxidants), Antioxidant 1 - A1 (0.3% Sodium Polyphosphate and Sodium Erythorbate 0.05%) and Antioxidant 2 - A2 (Rosemary Extract 0.02% and {alpha}-Tocopherol 0.01%). The three batches of samples were divided into nine groups: no antioxidant and non-irradiated (Cn/I), with antioxidant A1 and non-irradiated (A1n/I), with antioxidant A2 and non-irradiated (A2n/I) without antioxidant and irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (CCo), with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Cobalt 60 source (A1Co) with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Cobalt-60 source (A2Co) with antioxidant A1 irradiated in Electron beam (A1Eb) and with antioxidant A2 irradiated in Electron beam (A2Eb). Each 100 g sample was conditioned in a transparent, low density polyethylene oxygen permeable bag, frozen overnight at a temperature of -18 +- 1 deg C in a chamber, and irradiated in this state, maintaining the temperature low with dry ice. The samples were irradiated with a dose of 3.0 kGy, used two sources of radiation: Cobalt-60 (3.1 kGy.h{sup -1}) and electron beam (2.9 kGy.s{sup -1}). After this process, the samples were evaluated during the refrigeration period (2 +- 1 deg C) for 11 days for the following analysis: total psychotropic bacteria count, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The addition of antioxidants was able to reduce lipid oxidation caused by the irradiation. There were no differences between the radiation sources used in the same parameters. The better antioxidants mixture in the TBARS reducing it was rosemary extract and {alpha}-tocopherol (A2). (author)

  17. an intermediate moisture meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bunmi

    A total of 50 sticks of Suya weighing from 38.10 - 59.30 grams of sliced meat per stick were prepared for .... prolong shelflife and provide a natural alternative (or supplement) to chemical preservatives. Its antimicrobial ... Although O. gratissimum appears safe to use in both food and as medicine, its level of inclusion in food.

  18. Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdenas, Ricardo; Molina, César

    2004-01-01

    Evaluación del amaranto y la quinua como Fuentes reemplazantes a la harina de pescado en dietas para juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei Se realizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio para conocer el efecto de reemplazar la proteína de la harina de pescado por la del amaranto y la quinua sobre el crecimiento de camarones juveniles Litopenaeus vannamei.

  19. Effects of ammonia-N stress on metabolic and immune function via the neuroendocrine system in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanting; Ren, Xianyun; Li, Jian; Zhai, Qianqian; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Yang; Ma, Li

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immunological responses, such as phenoloxidase (PO), antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, and metabolic variables, such as oxyhemocyanin, lactate, and glucose levels, of Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/L for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and determine the effects of the eyestalk hormone on the metabolic and immune functions of unilateral eyestalk-ablated L. vannamei exposed to ambient ammonia-N at 10 mg/L. The actual concentrations of the control and test solutions were 0.04, 2.77, 6.01, 8.30, and 11.36 mg/L for ammonia-N and 0.01, 0.15, 0.32, 0.44, and 0.60 mg/L for NH 3 -N (unionized ammonia). The results showed a significant decrease in the PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities in the plasma as well as a significant increase in the glucose and lactate levels and decreased oxyhemocyanin levels in the hemolymph of L. vannamei exposed to elevated ammonia-N levels. These findings indicated that L. vannamei exposed to ammonia-N might demonstrate weakened metabolic and immunological responses. Moreover, eyestalk removal caused a dramatic decrease in PO, antibacterial, and bacteriolytic activities, which indicated that the eyestalk hormone in L. vannamei exhibited a higher immune response due to the induction of protective mechanisms against ammonia-N stress. Eyestalk removal also caused a dramatic decrease in glucose and lactate levels, suggesting that the eyestalk hormone is involved in glucose metabolism to meet the energy requirements under ammonia-N stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of non-specific immune response, resistance and growth of (Litopenaeus vannamei by oral administration of nucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of Litopenaeus vannamei fed nucleotide diet. Shrimp juveniles (mean weight 5.39±0.56 g were reared in two groups of glass aquaria, each with three replications. Shrimps in group one and group two were fed nucleotide diet and basal diet each for four weeks. Total haemocyte count (THC and PO activity were evaluated at the end of feeding while growth was measured at two weeks interval. At the end of feeding trial, the shrimps were intramuscularly injected with Vibrio harveyi 0.1x106 cfu.shrimp-1. THC of shrimp fed nucleotide diet significantly increased (P-1 diet showed positive effect on the enhancement of nonspecific immune responsse, resistance, and growth of L. vannamei.  Key words: Litopenaeus vannamei, nucleotide, THC, PO activity, resistance   ABSTRAK Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi respons imun non-spesifik dan resistensi udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei yang diberi pakan nukleotida.  Juvenil (5,39±0,56 g dipelihara dalam dua kelompok akuarium kaca masing-masing dengan 3 ulangan.  Udang dalam dalam kelompok pertama diberi pakan nukleotida sedangkan udang dalam kelompok kedua diberi pakan standar selama 4 minggu. Total haemocyte count (THC dan aktivitas phenoloxidase (PO diukur pada akhir pemberian pakan sedangkan pertumbuhan udang diukur setiap dua minggu. Pada akhir periode pemberian pakan perlakuan, udang diuji tantang secara injeksi intramuskular dengan bakteri Vibrio harveyi 0,1x106 cfu.udang-1. THC udang yang diberi pakan nukleotida meningkat secara signifikan (P-1 pakan selama 4 minggu memberi pengaruh positif terhadap peningkatan respons imun non-spesifik, resistensi dan pertumbuhan udang vaname. Kata kunci: Litopenaeus vannamei, nukleotida, THC, aktivitas PO, resistensi

  1. Detection of Salmonella in Meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hansen, Flemming; Mansdal, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Cost-effective and rapid monitoring of Salmonella in the meat production chain can contribute to food safety. The objective of this study was to validate an easy-to-use pre-PCR sample preparation method based on a simple boiling protocol for screening of Salmonella in meat and carcass swab samples...... obtained (SP, SE, and AC were 100, 95, and 97%, respectively). This test is under implementation by the Danish meat industry, and can be useful for screening of large number of samples in the meat production, especially for fast release of minced meat with a short shelf life....

  2. Consumer attitudes to meat eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, N J; Macfie, H J; Shepherd, R

    1994-01-01

    This study reports on current meat consumption in the UK and the factors that are percieved by the subjects to be influential in their choice of diet. A random sample of individuals from the population (n-1018) were questioned on their consumption and attitudes towards meat by a postal survey. The study revealed that 28·3% of the population considered themselves to be reducing meat consumption; attitudes found to be determinant in changes in the consumption of meat were healthiness, taste and concerns over additives. Hypothetical future events were found to affect people's estimated meat-eating. Knowledge of meat-related information was investigated with specific reference to the respondents' trust in the various sources used; food package labels were found to be an influential source of meat-related information. Copyright © 1993. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Effects of Copper on Hemocyte Apoptosis, ROS Production, and Gene Expression in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Li, Kexu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Chenggui; Shen, Yuchun

    2017-10-01

    Copper, a common chemical contaminant in aquatic environment, is known to be toxic to aquatic life at high concentrations. In the present study, we evaluated the apoptotic cell ratio and ROS production in hemocytes of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to 1 or 5 mg L -1 Cu for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h. The expression changes of antioxidant biomarker genes, i.e., copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) and catalase (CAT), apoptosis-related genes, i.e., caspase-3 and inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP), and a specific biomarker gene of heavy metal pollution, i.e., metallothionein (MT), were also determined in hemocytes. Significant increases in ROS production were observed in both treatment groups at each time points. The apoptotic cell ratios were significantly increased at 6-48 h among shrimp exposed to 1 mg L -1 Cu and at each time points in 5 mg L -1 Cu group. These results indicated that Cu would induce oxidative stress and apoptosis in the hemocyte of L. vannamei. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the relative expression levels of Cu-Zn SOD, CAT, caspase-3, IAP, and MT were upregulated in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of these genes in stress response against Cu exposure.

  4. Sensitivity of Larvae and Adult and the Immunologic Characteristics of Litopenaeus vannamei under the Acute Hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailong Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Litopenaeus vannamei is one of the most commercially important species of shrimp in the world. In this study, we performed acute hypoxia tests with Litopenaeus vannamei to estimate 12 h median lethal concentration (LC50 values at different life stages. The results indicated that the 12 h LC50 values were significantly different in different life stages of shrimp (P<0.05. The maximum value of 12 h LC50 was 2.113 mg L−1 for mysis III, and the minimum value was 0.535 mg L−1 for adult shrimp with an average total length of 6 cm. The study also determined the hemocyanin concentration (HC and the total hemocyte counts (THC in the conditions of hypoxia and reoxygenation. These results showed that the THC decreased and the HC increased under hypoxia, and the THC increased and the HC decreased in the condition of reoxygenation. These results can provide fundamental information for shrimp farming and seedling and also can guide the breeding selection, as well as being very helpful to better understand the hypoxia stress mechanism of shrimp.

  5. Rab from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: characterization and its regulation upon environmental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiao-Rong; Liu, Jin; Chen, Chu-Xian; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    With the destruction of the ecological environment, shrimp cultivation in China has been seriously affected by outbreaks of infectious diseases. Rab, which belong to small GTPase Ras superfamily, can regulate multiple steps in eukaryotic vesicle trafficking including vesicle budding, vesicle tethering, and membrane fusion. Knowledge of Rab in shrimp is essential to understanding regulation and detoxification mechanisms of environmental stress. In this study, we analyzed the functions of Rab from the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Full-length cDNA of Rab was obtained, which was 751 bp long, with open reading frame encoding 206 amino acids. In this study, for the first time, the gene expression of Rab of L. vannamei was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR after exposure to five kinds of environmental stresses (bacteria, pH, Cd, salinity and low temperature). The results demonstrate that Rab is sensitive and involved in bacteria, pH, and Cd stress responses and Rab is more sensitive to bacteria than other stresses. Therefore we infer that Rab may have relationship with the anti-stress mechanism induced by environment stress in shrimp and Rab could be used as critical biomarkers for environmental quality assessment.

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei using microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Wang, Weiji; Li, Weiya; Zhang, Quanqi; Kong, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Seven microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation of seven stocks of Litopenaeus vannamei, which were introduced from Central and South America to China. All seven microsatellite loci were polymorphic, with polymorphism information content ( PIC) values ranging from 0.593 to 0.952. Totally 92 alleles were identified, and the number of alleles ( Na) and effective alleles ( Ne) varied between 4 and 21 and 2.7 and 14.6, respectively. Observed heterozygosity ( H o) values were lower than the expected heterozygosity ( H e) values (0.526-0.754), which indicated that the seven stocks possessed a rich genetic diversity. Thirty-seven tests were detected for reasonable significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. F is values were positive at five loci, suggesting that there was a relatively high degree of inbreeding within stocks. Pairwise F st values ranged from 0.0225 to 0.151, and most of the stock pairs were moderately differentiated. Genetic distance and cluster analysis using UPGMA revealed a close genetic relationship of L. vannamei between Pop2 and Pop3. AMOVA indicated that the genetic variation among stocks (11.3%) was much lower than that within stocks (88.7%). Although the seven stocks had a certain degree of genetic differentiation and a rich genetic diversity, there is an increasing risk of decreased performance due to inbreeding in subsequent generations.

  7. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption on serum lipoproteins of healthy normolipidemic men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yousefi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been suggested that moderate shrimp consumption in normolipidemic subjects will not adversely affect the overall lipoprotein profile. Hence, shrimp consumption can be included in “healthy heart" nutritional guidelines. However, the effects of cultured shrimp on serum lipoproteins of normal subjects have not yet investigated. Material and Methods: Twenty-five healthy normolipidemic men who were workers of a shrimp farm in Bushehr province participated in a quasi-experimental study. In a crossover six weeks trial, the effect of three days per week diet (containing 300 g cultured shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei /day on serum lipid profile was compared with a zero-marine baseline diet. Results: After six weeks trial, serum triglyceride and HDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly changed from the baseline levels (p>0.05. However, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels, total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol ratios were significantly increased (p<0.0001. Conclusion: Moderate cultured shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei consumption can increase total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in normolipidemic men. Although a diet containing native shrimp has many benefits for healthy persons, but we do not recommend cultured shrimp in a healthy heart diet for persons with dyslipidemia or cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Actin genes and their expression in pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Du, Jiangli; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2018-04-01

    Actin is a multi-functional gene family that can be divided into muscle-type actins and non-muscle-type actins. In this study, 37 unigenes encoding actins were identified from RNA-Seq data of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. According to phylogenetic analysis, four and three cDNAs belong to cytoplasmic- and heart-type actins and were named LvActinCT and LvActinHT, respectively. 10 cDNAs belong to the slow-type skeletal muscle actins, and 18 belong to the fast-type skeletal muscle actins; they were designated LvActinSSK and LvActinFSK, respectively. Some muscle actin genes formed gene clusters in the genome. Multiple alternative transcription starts sites (ATSSs) were found for LvActinCT1. Based on the early developmental expression profile, almost all LvActins were highly expressed between the early limb bud and post-larval stages. Using LvActinSSK5 as probes, slow-type muscle was localized in pleopod muscle and superficial ventral muscle. We also found three actin genes that were down-regulated in the hemocytes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)- and Vibrio parahaemolyticus-infected L. vannamei. This study provides valuable information on the actin gene structure of shrimp, furthers our understanding of the shrimp muscle system and helps us develop strategies for disease control and sustainable shrimp farming.

  10. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  11. Heritability of body weight and resistance to ammonia in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjia; Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Luo, Kun; Sui, Juan; Kong, Jie

    2016-09-01

    Ammonia, toxic to aquaculture organisms, represents a potential problem in aquaculture systems, and the situation is exacerbated in closed and intensive shrimp farming operations, expecially for Litopenaeus vannamei. Assessing the potential for the genetic improvement of resistance to ammonia in L. vannamei requires knowledge of the genetic parameters of this trait. The heritability of resistance to ammonia was estimated using two descriptors in the present study: the survival time (ST) and the survival status at half lethal time (SS50) for each individual under high ammonia challenge. The heritability of ST and SS50 were low (0.154 4±0.044 6 and 0.147 5±0.040 0, respectively), but they were both significantly different from zero ( P0.05), suggesting that ST and SS50 could be used as suitable indicators for resistance to ammonia. There were also positive phenotypic and genetic correlation between resistance to ammonia and body weight, which means that resistance to ammonia can be enhanced by the improvement of husbandry practices that increase the body weight. The results from the present study suggest that the selection for higher body weight does not have any negative consequences for resistance to ammonia. In addition to quantitative genetics, tools from molecular genetics can be applied to selective breeding programs to improve the efficiency of selection for traits with low heritability.

  12. Molecular markers for identifying a new selected variety of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Huang, Hao; Li, Yijun; Liu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Selective breeding of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei during the last decade has produced new varieties exhibiting high growth rates and disease resistance. However, the identification of new varieties of shrimps from their phenotypic characters is difficult. This study introduces a new approach for identifying varieties of shrimps using molecular markers of microsatellites and mitochondrial control region sequences. The method was employed to identify a new selected variety, Kehai No. 1 (KH-1), from three representative stocks (control group): Zhengda; Tongwei; and a stock collected from Fujian Province, which is now cultured in mainland China. By pooled genotyping of KH-1 and the control group, five microsatellites showing differences between KH-1 and the control group were screened out. Individual genotyping data confirmed the results from pooled genotyping. The genotyping data for the five microsatellites were applied to the assignment analysis of the KH-1 group and the control group using the partial Bayesian assignment method in GENECLASS2. By sequencing the mitochondrial control regions of individuals from the KH-1 and control group, four haplotypes were observed in the KH-1 group, whereas 14 haplotypes were obtained in the control group. By combining the microsatellite assignment analysis with mitochondrial control region analysis, the average accuracy of identification of individuals in the KH-1 group and control group reached 89%. The five selected microsatellite loci and mitochondrial control region sequences were highly polymorphic and could be used to distinguish new selected varieties of L. vannamei from other populations cultured in China.

  13. Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANTONIUS SUWANTO

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities associated with white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at early developmental stages. Biodiversitas 11 (2: 65-68.Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP was used to monitor the dynamics of the bacterial communities associated with early developmental stages of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Samples for analysis were egg, hatching nauplii, 24 hours old nauplii, and 48 hours old nauplii which were collected from one cycle of production at commercial hatchery. T-RFLP results indicated that the bacterial community associated with early stages of shrimp development might be transferred vertically from broodstock via egg. There was no significant difference between bacterial communities investigated, except the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii. Diversity analyses showed that the bacterial community of egg had the highest diversity and evenness, meanwhile the bacterial community of 48 hours old nauplii had the lowest diversity. Nine phylotypes were found at all stages with high abundance. Those TRFs were identified as γ- proteobacteria, α-proteobacteria, and bacteroidetes group.

  14. Production of ”Tokolan” White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the Cage with Different Rearing Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Supriyono

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Larva rearing is one of the efforts to increase white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei seed quality.  This study was conducted to determine effect of  rearing density on the quality and productivity of white shrimp larvae in cage system. The tested rearing densities were 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 ind/m2 and cultured for 28 days.  The result showed that rearing density did not affect survival rate and coefficient of variation of shrimp length. The treatmentonly affected the shrimp larvae growthwhere 500 ind/m2 rearing density gave the best growth. Keywords: white shrimp, larva, rearing density, net cage   ABSTRAK Penokolan merupakan salah satu usaha untuk meningkatkan kualitas benih udang vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh padat tebar terhadap kualitas dan produktivitas pemeliharaan larva udang vaname di hapa. Padat tebar yang diuji meliputi 500  ,1000, 1500   dan 2000 ekor/m2 selama 28 hari pemeliharaan.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa padat tebar tidak mempengaruhi kelangsungan hidup dan koefisien keragaman panjang udang, dan hanya mempengaruhi pertumbuhan. Kepadatan 500 ekor/m2 menghasilkan pertumbuhan terbaik. Kata kunci: vaname, larva, kepadatan, hapa

  15. Acute toxicity of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and permethrin to juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei =Toxicidade aguda de pirazossulfurom-etílico e permethrin em juvenis de camarão branco Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lemos de Mello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the LC50 (96h of two pesticides: SiriusR 250 SC herbicide of the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl group, and TalcordR insecticide of the permethrin group, on juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp total hemocyte count (THC was also determined as an indication of physiological alterations caused by the pesticides. Juvenile shrimp (5.0 } 0.5 g were exposed to the following concentrations: 0, 0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 1000 ƒÊg L-1 SiriusR 250 SC; and 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 and 10 ƒÊg L-1 TalcordR. The TalcordR LC50 (96h was of 0.00933 ƒÊg L-1 or 9.33 ng L-1. There were no significant changes in the THC between control and test groups. No SiriusR 250 SC concentrations tested killed more than 50%of the shrimp; therefore, the herbicide was considered not toxic to the juveniles. However, the THC showed significant differences between the control and test groups, suggesting sublethal effects to L. vannamei juveniles. According to the results, the insecticide TalcordR is highly lethal for L. vannamei and the herbicide SiriusR 250 SC was not lethal in the concentrations tested but showed sublethal effects as lower THC. The results demonstrate the risks involved in farming L. vannamei shrimp near rice cultures where these pesticides are routinely used.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a CL50 (96h dos agroquimicos SiriusR 250 SC, herbicida a base de pirazossulfurom-etilico, e TalcordR, inseticida a base de permethrin, em juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei, bem como avaliar possiveis alteracoes fisiologicas por meio da contagem total de hemocitos (CTH dos camaroes. Juvenis de L. vannamei (5,0 } 0,5 g foram expostos as seguintes concentracoes dos agroquimicos: SiriusR 250 SC, 0; 0,1; 1; 10; 100 e 1.000 ƒÊg L-1, e TalcordR, 0; 0,001; 0,01; 0,1; 1 e 10 ƒÊg L-1. A CL50 (96h do inseticida TalcordR foi de 0,00933 ƒÊg L-1 ou 9,33 ng L-1. Nao houve alteracoes significativas da CTH entre as medias dos grupos

  16. Religiosity Aspect in Consumer Behaviour: Determinants of Halal Meat Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusmaliani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies indicate that religion may influence consumer attitude and behavior in general, especially in food purchasing decisions and eating habits. There are limited studies that examined the role of religiosity in consumer behaviour; especially in relations to halal meat consumption. Due to gaps found in the literature, this study investigates the determinants of intention to eat halal meat. It also examines the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta and Melbourne. Respondents were personally and electronically contacted. In total, 160 questionnaires were completed for this initial study. The results indicate that behavioural control and availability of halal meat have significant impact on intention to eat halal meat. The results further suggest that in general there are no significant differences in the levels of determinants of halal meat consumption between Indonesian Muslim living in Jakarta compared to those of in Melbourne, except for availability of halal meat. This study contributes to the marketing literature focuses on the impacts of religion on consumer behaviour which is still under researched.

  17. Physicochemical properties of meat of ducks of mulberries in modern technologies of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Galin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studying the chemical composition of mullards duck meat in comparison with the ducks of the Beijingg white breed and musk ducks. The chemical analysis results allow us to note the high moisture content for mullard duck meat. The low fat content for white and red mullard duck meat opens up wide opportunities for the development of an assortment of meat products with a functional orientation. The limited amino acids are determined. The total number of essential amino acids in the mullard duck meat is higher than in musk (by 1.02 g / 100 g protein and Beijingg (by 0.86 g / 100 g protein, which indicates a higher biological value. The limiting amino acid is methionine and cysteine. The article presents the results of the raw material aroma assessment using the "MAG 8" - "electronic nose" analyzer. The content of easily volatile compounds in the equilibrium gas phase for samples of muscle and fat tissue from ducks of different breeding was compared and evaluated. The most informative in the matrix are sensors with films of polydiethylene glycol succinate, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polyethylene glycol PEG-2000, 18-crown-6, trioctylphosphine oxidase, which show maximum sensitivity to polar and nitrogen-containing compounds, aromatic hydrocarbons. This is explained by the fact that the easily volatile fraction of both meat and fat of the samples under study is represented by a variety of organic compounds of different concentrations. Such a variety of substances can be perceived by tasters as "a noticeable smell, difficult". In accordance with the results obtained, we concluded that the aroma of muscle and fat tissue of mulard ducks is more intense, more saturated than the Beijingg duck. The obtained data on the chemical composition indicate possible dietary properties of meat of ducks of mullards. The rich, pronounced aroma of muscle and fatty tissue causes high organoleptic parameters of the finished product, which is

  18. Radurization of fowl meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gel'fand, S.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of pre-slaughter adrenalization and of treatment with additives of semifinished poultry products were studied with a view to improving the storage quality of irradiated poultry. It was found that pre-slaughter adrenalization, pre-irradiation treatment with phosphates and, particularly, a combination of these two methods considerably delayed the formation of carbonyl compounds, the delay being somewhat greater in white meat. (E.T.)

  19. Gamma irradiation of meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitburn, K.D.; Hoffman, M.Z.; Taub, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    In ''A Re-Evaluation of the Products of Gamma Irradiation of Beef Ferrimyoglobin'', J. Food Sci. 46:1814 (1981), authors Whitburn, Hoffman and Taub state that color pigment myoglobin (Mb) undergoes chemical changes during irradiation that cause color changes in meat. They also state that they are in disagreement with Giddings and Markakis, J. Food Sci. 47:361 (1972) in regard to generation of MbO 2 in deaerated solutions, claiming their analysis demonstrates only Mb and Mb(IV) production. Giddings, in a letter, suggests that Whitburn, et al may have used differing systems and approaches which critically changed the radiation chemistry. He also states that radiation sterilization of aerobically packaged meats affects color only slightly. Whitburn, in a reply, shares Dr. Giddings concern for caution in interpretation of results for this system. The compositional changes are dependent on identity of free radicals, dose, O 2 and the time of analysis after irradiation. The quantification of these parameters in pure systems, sarcoplasma extracts and in meat samples should lead to a better understanding of color change mechanisms and how to minimize them

  20. Dietary exposure to short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in meat and meat products from 20 provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiting; Gao, Lirong; Zheng, Minghui; Li, Jingguang; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Yongning; Wang, Runhua; Xia, Dan; Qiao, Lin; Cui, Lili; Su, Guijin; Liu, Wenbin; Liu, Guorui

    2018-02-01

    Food intake is one of the main pathways of human exposure to chlorinated paraffins (CPs). This study assessed the dietary exposure for the general Chinese population to short-chain chlorinated paraffin (SCCPs) and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) through meat and meat products. Twenty samples of meat and meat products from 20 Chinese provinces were collected in 2011. As the sampling sites covered about two-thirds of the Chinese population, the meat samples were considered to be representative of the true characteristics of CPs contamination in Chinese meat products. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs in the meat samples were measured using the comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography electron capture negative ionization high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry method. Forty-eight SCCP and MCCP homolog groups were detected in the meat samples. The mean SCCP and MCCP concentrations in all meat samples were 129 ± 4.1 ng g -1 wet weight and 5.7 ± 0.59 ng g -1 wet weight, respectively. The concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs varied in samples from different provinces. The geographical distribution of CP concentrations was similar to the distribution of CPs manufacturing plants in China. The most abundant groups of SCCPs in all samples were C 10-11 Cl 6-7 , and the most abundant groups of MCCPs in most samples were C 14 Cl 7-8 . The possible sources of SCCPs and MCCPs in meat and meat products might be CP-42 and CP-52. The 50th percentile estimated daily intakes of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption for a "standard" Chinese adult male were 0.13 and 0.0047 μg kg -1 bw d -1 , respectively, both much lower than the tolerable daily intakes (TDIs) for SCCPs and MCCPs. This preliminary risk assessment has indicated that the indirect exposure of SCCPs and MCCPs through meat consumption does not pose significant risk to human health in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. THE IMPORTANCE OF BACTERIOCINS IN MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meltem SERDAROĞLU

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing consumer demand for food products which are free of chemical additives, reduced in salt and processed as little as possible. These minimally processed foods require special application to assure their microbiological safety. The use of microorganisms and enzymes for food preservatives is called biopreservation. The most important group of microorganisms with antimicrobial effect used in the production of foods is the lactic acid bacteria. In meats although lactic acid bacteria constitue apart of the initial microflora, they become dominant during the processing of meats. In this research bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria and their usage in meat and meat products for biopreservation are discussed.

  2. International red meat trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  3. Identification of new food alternatives: how do consumers categorize meat and meat substitutes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Voordouw, J.; Luning, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    New meat substitutes need to be recognized as alternatives to meat. We therefore investigated which category representations consumers have of meat and meat substitutes. Thirty-four non-vegetarian participants performed a free sorting task with 17 meat products and 19 commercially available meat

  4. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei);Efeito sinergistico da radiacao gama e de refrigeracao na conservacao do camarao-branco-do-pacifico (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-07-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g{sup -1} for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found

  5. A synbiotic improves the immunity of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: Metabolomic analysis reveal compelling evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chi, Chia-Chun; Chiu, Kuo-Hsun; Liu, Chun-Hung

    2018-05-18

    In this study, we examined the synergistic effects of a diet-administered synbiotic comprising galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum 7-40 on immune responses, immune-related gene expressions, and disease resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. To unravel the regulatory role of the synbiotic in activating the immune system of shrimp, 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis were used to investigate hepatopancreas metabolites, then significantly altered metabolites were confirmed in both the hepatopancreas and plasma by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and spectrophotometric analysis. Shrimp were fed four experimental diets for 60 days, including a basal diet with no GOS or probiotic (control), 0.4% GOS (PRE), probiotic (PRO), and 0.4% GOS in combination with the probiotic (SYN). Results showed that the SYN diet significantly increased survival of L. vannamei 24 h after a V. alginolyticus injection. Immune parameters such as phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts, phagocytic activity and gene expressions, including prophenoloxidase I, serine proteinase, and peroxinectin, of shrimp fed the SYN diet significantly increased, compared to the other treatments and control. In addition, results from the 1 H NMR analysis revealed that 22 hepatopancreas metabolites were matched and identified between the SYN and control groups, among which three metabolites, i.e., inosine monophosphate (IMP), valine, and betaine, significantly increased in the SYN group. Confirmation using RP-HPLC and spectrophotometric methods showed that IMP presented high amounts in the hepatopancreas, but not in the plasma of shrimp; in contrast, valine and betaine metabolites were in high concentrations in both the hepatopancreas and plasma. Our results suggested that GOS and the probiotic had a synergistic effect on enhancing immunity and disease resistance of L. vannamei against

  6. Transcriptome and Molecular Pathway Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under Chronic Low-Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a euryhaline penaeid species that shows ontogenetic adaptations to salinity, with its larvae inhabiting oceanic environments and postlarvae and juveniles inhabiting estuaries and lagoons. Ontogenetic adaptations to salinity manifest in L. vannamei through strong hyper-osmoregulatory and hypo-osmoregulatory patterns and an ability to tolerate extremely low salinity levels. To understand this adaptive mechanism to salinity stress, RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to changes in salinity from 30 (control to 3 practical salinity units (psu for 8 weeks. In total, 26,034 genes were obtained from the hepatopancreas tissue of L. vannamei using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system, and 855 genes showed significant changes in expression under salinity stress. Eighteen top Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways were significantly involved in physiological responses, particularly in lipid metabolism, including fatty-acid biosynthesis, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycosphingolipid and glycosaminoglycan metabolism. Lipids or fatty acids can reduce osmotic stress in L. vannamei by providing additional energy or changing the membrane structure to allow osmoregulation in relevant organs, such as the gills. Steroid hormone biosynthesis and the phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism pathways were also involved in the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the differential expression patterns of 20 randomly selected genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR. This study is the first report on the long-term adaptive transcriptomic response of L. vannamei to low salinity, and the results will further our understanding of the mechanisms underlying osmoregulation in euryhaline crustaceans.

  7. Effect synergistic of the radiation and of the refrigeration in the conservation of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes-Lopes, Tatiana Giselle

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account shrimp susceptibility to autolise and bacterial decomposition, this study aimed to evaluate the different gamma irradiation doses influence over meat quality related to microbiological, physical-chemical, nutritional and sensorial aspects, during cold storage of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Samples were taken from fresh shrimps without cephalothoraxes, settled into polystyrene trays, packed with flexible plastic film and submitted to different doses of gamma irradiation (1.0 and 3.5 kGy). Samples were kept under refrigeration (5 deg C) and analyzed at the 1st, 7th, 14th and 21st day of storage. Microbiological analyzes were realized (Coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, Salmonella ssp, coliforms, psychotropic and mesophilic population), and physical-chemical and tests (Total volatile bases (TVNB), pH, non proteic nitrogen (NNP), TBARS analysis - reactive substances to thiobarbituric acid (TBA), trimetil amine (TMA) cholesterol tenor and proximate composition). Instrumental color test were realized and hedonic test was taken to determine cooked products sensorial quality during storing period. It was noticed that the irradiation process reduced bacterial population and during storage all the irradiated samples were under the patterns established by the Brazilian legislation (Brazil, 2005a). Non-irradiated samples were inappropriate for consumption after one week of storage, since they were over Staphylococcus established limits. The pH values ranged from 6.05 to 6.39; 19.47 to 80.84 mg.100g-1 for TVNB; 2.61 to 12.85 mg.100g-1 for TMA-N; 0.22 a 1.20 mg of malonaldeide.1000g -1 for TBA and 53.09 to 134.81 mg.100g-1 for cholesterol concentrations. Irradiated samples kept more stability during storage period when compared to non-irradiated samples, regarding to pH, TVNB and TMA levels. Samples irradiation resulted into cholesterol and TBA values reduction at different evaluated moments. No significant differences (p <= 0.05) were found in

  8. Bacterial spoilage of meat and cured meat products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borch, E.; Kant-Muermans, M.L.T.; Blixt, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of environmental factors (product composition and storage conditions) on the selection, growth rate and metabolic activity of the bacterial flora is presented for meat (pork and beef) and cooked, cured meat products. The predominant bacteria associated with spoilage of refrigerated

  9. Meat and Meat Product Consumption among Infants in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Širina Inga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat consumption during the first year of life is especially important to provide necessary iron requirements. The aim of the study was to assess meat and meat product consumption of Latvian infants during their first year of life, in relation to different factors. Data were collected by interview method using two types of questionnaires: food frequency questionnaires and food diary. The study included a representative sample of infants and toddlers from all regions of Latvia with a target sample of 560 participants. The study included 266 infants: 127 girls, 139 boys, aged from 0 to 12 month. Data were summarised using the Excel software and analysed using the SPSS software. For data analysis two age groups were created: 0–5.9 months and 6–12 months. Consumption was analysed by two parameters: frequency and amount per feeding. Meat products were defined as offal products, sausages, and meat in baby food. Meat was mainly consumed after 6 months of age and by 73% of infants (n = 107. Meat from baby food was consumed only after 6 months and by 23% (n = 34. Sausages and offal products were consumed after 6 months of age. Sausages were consumed by 18% (n = 28 and offal products by 11% (n = 16 of infants. Meat consumption for the majority of infants was introduced after 6 months and was in accordance with recommendations.

  10. Breast meat yield, muscle linear measurements and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breast meat yield, chemical composition, mineral profile and linear measurement of the resultant breast meat Supracoracoides and Pectoralis thoracicus of one hundred and eighty (28 days old BUT) male turkeys fed diet containing wheat or sorghum as sole cereal source were studied. One hundred and eighty 28-days old ...

  11. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Moreno-Félix

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9 and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma, respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line.

  12. Effects of Astaxanthin from Litopenaeus Vannamei on Carrageenan-Induced Edema and Pain Behavior in Mice

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    Zulkiflee Kuedo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Carrageenan produces both inflammation and pain when injected in mouse paws via enhancement of reactive oxygen species formation. We have investigated an effect of astaxanthin extracted from Litopenaeus vannamei in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema and pain. The current study demonstrates interesting effects from astaxanthin treatment in mice: an inhibition of paw edema induced in hind paw, an increase in mechanical paw withdrawal threshold and thermal paw withdrawal latency, and a reduction in the amount of myeloperoxidase enzyme and lipid peroxidation products in the paw. Furthermore the effect was comparable to indomethacin, a standard treatment for inflammation symptoms. Due to adverse effects of indomethacin on cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems, our study suggests promising prospect of astaxanthin extract as an anti-inflammatory alternative against carrageenan-induced paw edema and pain behavior.

  13. Effect of Estradiol-17β Injection on Gonad Development of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

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    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The methods for hormonal control of shrimp reproduction are very limited, and only eyestalk ablation is used to induce ovarian development and spawning in shrimp farming. The occurrence of vertebrate-type steroid hormones in crustaceans have been reported, however, their physiological role are not sufficiently understood. The present study analyzed the effect of estradiol-17β injection on gonad development of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. The estradiol-17β dose 0.10 μg/g body weight were used. The treatments consisted of control, single injection (day 0 and double injection (day 0 and 6. The females broodstock were cultured for 12 days. The result showed that estradiol-17β had positive effect on gonad development. The gonado somatic index (GSI and oocytes diameter in treatment larger than the control. Double injection had highest effect with ∆GSI and oocytes diameter was 0.453  and 23.97 µm, respectively. The only oocytes previtelogenesis was found in gonad. It indicated that estradiol-17β important to induce endogenous vitellogenesis. Gonad development probably affected by gonad inhibiting hormone in the eyestalk. It was inhibited oocyte maturation. The polypeptide sub unit was observed in vitellin of ovari by SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights of approximately 95, 98, 109 and two units higher than 118 kDa of protein marker. Keywords: Gonad, estradiol-17β, oocyte, Litopenaeus vannamei   ABSTRAK Teknologi reproduksi dalam pembenihan udang belum mengalami perkembangan yang signifikan.  Pada umumnya untuk mempercepat kematangan gonad induk udang digunakan teknik ablasi. Mekanisme dan peranan hormon pada proses reproduksi udang belum banyak diketahui. Keberadaan hormon steroid pada krustase telah dikemukaan oleh beberapa peneliti, tetapi peranannya belum banyak diketahui.  Pada penelitian ini dikaji pengaruh penyuntikan hormon estradiol-17β pada perkembangan gonad induk udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei.  Penelitian ini

  14. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei: perspectives for genomic selection

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    Héctor eCastillo-Juárez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus (Litopenaeus vannamei based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection.

  15. Response of gut health and microbiota to sulfide exposure in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Yantong; Li, Erchao; Li, Tongyu; Jia, Yongyi; Qin, Jian G; Gu, Zhimin; Chen, Liqiao

    2017-04-01

    Sulfide is a natural and widely distributed toxicant. It can be commonly found on the interface between water and sediment in the aquatic environment. The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei starts life in the benthic zone soon after the mysis stage, an early stage of post larvae. Therefore, L. vannamei is inevitably affected by exposure to sulfide released from pond sediment. This study explored the toxicant effect of different concentrations of sulfide on the intestinal health and microbiota of Pacific white shrimp by monitoring the change of expression of inflammatory, immune related cytokines, and the structure of the intestinal microbiota. The gut histology, expressions of inflammatory and immune related cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-type lectin 3, myostatin and heat shock transcription factor 1), and the microbiota were determined in L. vannamei after exposure to 0 (control), 425.5 (1/10 LC 50-96 h), and 851 μg/L (1/5 LC 50-96 h) of sulfide for 21 days. With the increase of sulfide concentration, intestinal injury was aggravated and the inflammatory and immune related cytokines generated a range of reactions. The expression of myostatin (MSTN) was significantly down-regulated by the concentration of sulfide exposure. No difference in the expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) was found between the control and shrimp exposed to 425.5 μg/L, but significantly higher HSF1 expression was found in shrimp exposed to 851 μg/L of sulfide. Significantly higher values of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and C-type lectin 3 (CTL3) were found in the shrimp exposed to 425.5 μg/L of sulfide compared to the control, but a lower value was found in the shrimp exposed to 851 μg/L (P < 0.05). Sulfide also changed the intestinal microbial communities. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria, such as Cyanobacteria, Vibrio and Photobacterium, increased significantly with exposure to the increasing concentration of sulfide. The

  16. Role of ecdysteroids in the molting and reproductive cycles of the white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The molt cycle was characterized in the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei based upon changes in the morphology of pleopod setae. These characters were used subsequently to determine changes in ecdysteroids and related biosynthetic events during the stages of the molting cycle and in relation to reproduction. Ecdysteroid titers were measured during the molting cycle. They increased during the premolt, decreased at ecdysis and remained minimal through the intermolt. 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-OHE) was the major ecdysteroid present during the premolt. Injection of [ 3 H]ecdysone resulted in label accumulation in the epidermis and hepatopancreas in the form of 20-OHE which was subsequently hydroxylated further to a polar metabolite. [ 3 H]ecdysone was not metabolized by the Y-organ, hemolymph, muscle or intestine. Eyestalk ablation elevated hemolymph ecdysteroid titers and reduced the duration of all molt stages. However, 20-OHE injection into intact animals caused a disproportionate reduction in the durations of only the intermolt and early premolt stages

  17. Microbiota of Vibrio sp. in the hepatopancreas of cultured white pacific shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Albuquerque C.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of vibrios in the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp. Materials and methods. Vibrios from the hepatopancreas of fifteen samples of five specimens each, of apparently healthy Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei were isolated, identified and quantified. Results. The vibrio density ranged from 430 to 2,400 MPN g-1 (rs MPN cm-1=-0.114; rs MPN g-1 = 0.211. Thirty isolations were obtained, most of which belonged to the species V. cholerae (n=11 and V. parahaemolyticus (n=7. Conclusions. The outcomes of the present study suggest that, even in the absence of symptoms of vibriosis, the microbiota of the hepatopancreas of cultured shrimp may include sucrose positive and negative vibrios.

  18. Hemocyanin-derived phenoloxidase activity is dependent on dodecameric structure in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Wang Ke-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemocyanin (Hc is a multifunctional protein in both mollusks and arthropods. Phenoloxidase (PO activities are the most important physiological functions for Hcs after conversion. In shrimp, Hc occurs as two oligomer forms, dodecamers and hexamers. Differences in the transport oxygen capacity and agglutination activity between the two oligomers of shrimp Hc have been found. In the present study, we investigated the differences in the Hc-derived PO activity between the dodecameric and hexameric Hc forms of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. The two oligomers were separated by non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, converted by trypsin cleavage and their PO activities were determined by oxidation of L-DOPA. The dodecamers exhibited PO activity after enzymatic conversion while the hexamers did not exhibit PO activity. This result provides new insight into the structural/functional relationships of Hcs.

  19. Effect of high hydrostatic pressure on the microbiological, biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Xia; Tian, Xin; Li, Jian-Rong

    2016-06-01

    Using thermal processing (TP) treatment (100 ℃, 1-8 min) as a control, the effects of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP, 200-500 MPa, 2.5-20 min) on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. The results showed that the efficiency of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) inactivation and log reduction of total plate count (TPC) by HHP treatment were all significantly lower than by TP treatment (p pressure and holding time (p pressure of 300-500 MPa was higher than TP-treated samples, while the yield loss of HHP treatment was significantly lower than with TP treatment (p pressure of HHP treatment turned the appearance of shrimps slightly pink. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Tolušić; T. Florijančić; I. Kralik; M. Sesar; M. Tolušić

    2006-01-01

    In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume g...

  1. Identification, characterization, and function analysis of the Cactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozheng Li

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB pathways play important roles in innate immune responses. IκB is the main cytoplasmic inhibitor of NF-κB. In this study, we identified the LvCactus gene from Litopenaeus vannamei, which is the first cloned IκB homologue in subphylum Crustacea. LvCactus contains six predicted ankyrin repeats, which show similarities to those of Cactus proteins from insects. LvCactus localizes in cytoplasm and interacts with LvDorsal, an L. vannamei homologue to Drosophila melanogaster Dorsal belonging to class II NF-κB family, to prevent its nuclear translocation. Contrary to that of LvDorsal, over-expression of LvCactus down-regulates the activities of shrimp antimicrobial peptides promoters, suggesting LvCactus is an inhibitor of LvDorsal. The promoter of LvCactus was predicted to contain five putative NF-κB binding motifs, among which four were proved to be bound by LvDorsal by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Dual-luciferase reporter assays also showed that transcription of LvCactus was promoted by LvDorsal but inhibited by LvCactus itself, indicating a feedback regulatory pathway between LvCactus and LvDorsal. Expression of LvCactus was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus injections, suggesting an activation response of LvCactus to bacterial and immune stimulant challenges. Differently, the LvCactus expression levels obviously decreased during white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection, indicating the feedback regulatory pathway of LvCactus/LvDorsal could be modified by WSSV.

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of the Hepatopancreas in the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under Acute Ammonia Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Kong, Jie; Luan, Sheng; Dai, Ping; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Luo, Kun

    2016-01-01

    In the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the intensive culture system and environmental pollution usually results in a high concentration of ammonia, which usually brings large detrimental effects to shrimp, such as increasing the susceptibility to pathogens, reducing growth, decreasing osmoregulatory capacity, increasing the molting frequency, and even causing high mortality. However, little information is available on the molecular mechanisms of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis between ammonia-challenged and control groups from the same family of L. vannamei to identify the key genes and pathways response to ammonia stress. The comparative transcriptome analysis identified 136 significantly differentially expressed genes that have high homologies with the known proteins in aquatic species, among which 94 genes are reported potentially related to immune function, and the rest of the genes are involved in apoptosis, growth, molting, and osmoregulation. Fourteen GO terms and 6 KEGG pathways were identified to be significantly changed by ammonia stress. In these GO terms, 13 genes have been studied in aquatic species, and 11 of them were reported potentially involved in immune defense and two genes were related to molting. In the significantly changed KEGG pathways, all the 7 significantly changed genes have been reported in shrimp, and four of them were potentially involved in immune defense and the other three were related to molting, defending toxicity, and osmoregulation, respectively. In addition, majority of the significantly changed genes involved in nitrogen metabolisms that play an important role in reducing ammonia toxicity failed to perform the protection function. The present results have supplied molecular level support for the previous founding of the detrimental effects of ammonia stress in shrimp, which is a prerequisite for better understanding the molecular

  3. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd 2+ induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd 2+ . • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd 2+ stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd 2+ stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd 2+ . They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses

  4. Essential roles of Cdc42 and MAPK in cadmium-induced apoptosis in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Ting; Wang, Wei-Na, E-mail: weina63@aliyun.com; Gu, Mei-Mei; Xie, Chen-Ying; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Lei

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Cd{sup 2+} induces Cdc42 and MAPKs pathway related gene of Litopenaeus vannamei up-regulation. • Reduction of THC, increase of ROS production and apoptotic cell rate were observed when the shrimps exposure to Cd{sup 2+}. • DsRNA-suppression of LvCdc42 and MAPKs during Cd{sup 2+} stress reduces the ROS production and apoptosis. • We conclude that LvCdc42 and MAPKs play key roles in Cd{sup 2+} stress responses of shrimps. - Abstract: Cadmium, one of the most toxic heavy metals in aquatic environments, has severe effects on marine invertebrates and fishes. The MAPK signaling pathway plays a vital role in stress responses of animals. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway plays a vital role in animals’ stress responses, including mediation of apoptosis induced by the Rho GTPase Cdc42. However, there is limited knowledge about its function in shrimps, although disorders exacerbated by environmental stresses (including heavy metal pollution) have caused serious mortality in commercially cultured shrimps. Thus, we probed roles of Cdc42 in Litopenaeus vannamei shrimps (LvCdc42) during cadmium exposure by inhibiting its expression using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference. The treatment successfully reduced expression levels of MAPKs (including p38, JNK, and ERK). Cadmium exposure induced significant increases in expression levels of LvCdc42 and MAPKs, accompanied by reductions in total hemocyte counts (THC) and increases in apoptotic hemocyte ratios and ROS production. However, all of these responses were much weaker in LvCdc42-suppressed shrimps, in which mortality rates were higher than in controls. Our results suggest that the MAPK pathway plays a vital role in shrimps’ responses to Cd{sup 2+}. They also indicate that LvCdc42 in shrimps participates in its regulation, and thus plays key roles in ROS production, regulation of apoptosis and associated stress responses.

  5. Selection for growth performance of tank-reared Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-05-01

    Seven growth-related traits were measured to assess the selection response and genetic parameters of the growth of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which had been domesticated in tanks for more than four generations. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were evaluated and fitted to an animal model. Realized response was measured from the difference between the mean growth rates of selected and control families. Realized heritability was determined from the ratio of the selection responses and selection differentials. The animal model heritability estimate over generations was 0.44±0.09 for body weight (BW), and ranged from 0.21±0.08 to 0.37±0.06 for size traits. Genetic correlations of phenotypic traits were more variable (0.51-0.97), although correlations among various traits were high (>0.83). Across generations, BW and size traits increased, while selection response and heritability gradually decreased. Selection responses were 12.28%-23.35% for harvest weight and 3.58%-13.53% for size traits. Heritability estimates ranged from 0.34±0.09 to 0.48±0.15 for harvest weight and 0.17±0.01-0.38±0.11 for size traits. All phenotypic and genetic parameters differed between various treatments. To conclude, the results demonstrated a potential for mass selection of growth traits in L. vannamei. A breeding scheme could use this information to integrate the effectiveness constituent traits into an index to achieve genetic progress.

  6. Effect of bioactive peptides (BPs) on the development of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangjun; Yu, Ermeng; Li, Zhifei; Yu, Deguang; Wang, Haiying; Gong, Wangbao

    2016-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of replacing fish meal (FM) with bioactive peptides (BPs) in diet of white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). The changes in growth performance, body composition, non-specific immunity, and water quality were examined after the shrimp were fed four diets, in which 0% (control), 33.3%, 66.7% and 100% of FM was replaced by BPs, respectively. The groups were designated as Con, 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs. A total of 720 shrimp with an initial body weight of 1.46 ± 0.78 g were fed the experimental diets for 56 days. The results revealed that: 1) the weight gain rate (WGR) in 1/3BPs, 2/3BPs, and 3/3BPs was significantly higher than that in Con ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was found on survival rate and feed conversion ratio (FCR); 2) the whole-body crude protein (CP) and crude lipids (CL) were significantly different among groups, while there was no significant difference between crude ash and phosphorus contents; 3) the levels of acid phosphatase (ACP), lysozyme (LZM), superoxide dismutase (SOD), phenol oxidase (PO) and bactericidal activity increased significantly with the inclusion of BPs; 4) in terms of water quality, no significant difference was found in pH and dissolved oxygen among diets during the whole experimental period. Moreover, even though nitrite and ammonium levels tended to increase with time, there was no significant difference among groups. The results indicated that BPs is an applicable alternative of protein source, which can substitute FM in the diets of L. vannamei; it is able to effectively promote growth performance and improve immunity. Moreover, BPs in the diets had no negative impact on water quality.

  7. Intestinal Microbiota of White Shrimp Penaeus vannamei Under Intensive Cultivation Conditions in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainza, Oreste; Ramírez, Carolina; Ramos, Alfredo Salinas; Romero, Jaime

    2018-04-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize the intestinal tract bacterial microbiota composition of Penaeus vannamei in intensive commercial ponds in Ecuador, comparing two shrimp-farming phases: nursery and harvest. Bacterial microbiota was examined by sequencing amplicons V2-V3 of the 16S rRNA using Ion Torrent technology. Archaea sequences were detected in both phases. Sequence analyses revealed quantitative and qualitative differences between the nursery phase and the harvest phase in shrimp intestinal microbiota composition. The main differences were observed at the phylum level during the nursery phase, and the prevailing phyla were CKC4 (37.3%), Proteobacteria (29.8%), Actinobacteria (11.6%), and Firmicutes (10.1%). In the harvest phase, the prevailing phyla were Proteobacteria (28.4%), Chloroflexi (19.9%), and Actinobacteria (15.1%). At the genus level, microbiota from the nursery phase showed greater relative abundances of CKC4 uncultured bacterium (37%) and Escherichia-Shigella (18%). On the contrary, in the microbiota of harvested shrimp, the prevailing genera were uncultured Caldilinea (19%) and Alphaproteobacteria with no other assigned rate (10%). The analysis of similarity ANOSIM test (beta diversity) indicated significant differences between the shrimp microbiota for these two farming phases. Similarly, alfa-diversity analysis (Chao1) indicated that the microbiota at harvest was far more diverse than the microbiota during the nursery phase, which showed a homogeneous composition. These results suggest that shrimp microbiota diversify their composition during intensive farming. The present work offers the most detailed description of the microbiota of P. vannamei under commercial production conditions to date.

  8. Evaluation of coexposure to inorganic arsenic and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in the marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Lucas; Müller, Larissa; Gelesky, Marcos A; Wasielesky, Wilson; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco; Monserrat, José Marìa; Ventura-Lima, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    The acute toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) that occur concomitantly in the aquatic environment with other contaminants such as arsenic (As) is little known in crustaceans. The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether coexposure to nTiO2 can influence the accumulation, metabolism, and oxidative stress parameters induced by arsenic exposure in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Organisms were exposed by dissolving chemicals in seawater (salinity = 30) at nominal concentrations of 10 μg/L nTiO2 or As(III), dosed alone and in combination. Results showed that there was not a significant accumulation of As in either tissue type, but the coexposure altered the pattern of the metabolism. In the hepatopancreas, no changes were observed in the biochemical response, while in the gills, an increase in the glutamate-cysteine-ligase (GCL) activity was observed upon exposure to As or nTiO2 alone, an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) levels was observed upon exposure to As alone, and an increase in the total antioxidant capacity was observed upon exposure to nTiO2 or nTiO2 + As. However, these modulations were not sufficient enough to prevent the lipid damage induced by nTiO2 exposure. Our results suggest that coexposure to nTiO2 and As does not alter the toxicity of this metalloid in the gills and hepatopancreas of L. vannamei but does alter its metabolism, favoring its accumulation of organic As species considered moderately toxic.

  9. Growth and immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei fed on β-(1, 3 glucan and poly-β hydroxybutyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sarmin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was aimed to examine the growth performance and non-specific immune response of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed on the diet supplemented with β-(1,3 glucan (BG and poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB as feed additives. Shrimp juvenile at an initial body weight of 2.06±0.03 g was randomly distributed into 12 units of aquaria at a density of 20 shrimps/tank and reared for 42 days. The treatments applied in this study were control (without feed additives, 1.5 g/kg BG, 10 g/kg PHB and 1,5 g/kg BG+10 g/kg PHB. Results showed that shrimp fed on 1.5 /kg BG-supplemented feed had significantly higher growth performance and non-specific immune response. Keywords: growth, shrimp, non-specific immune response, Litopenaeus vannamei  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun nonspesifik udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei yang diberi pakan dengan penambahan feed additive berupa β-(1,3 glukan (BG dan poli-β-hidroksibutirat (PHB. Juvenil udang 2,06±0,03 g dipelihara pada 12 unit akuarium dengan empat perlakuan dan tiga ulangan, serta padat tebar 20 ekor/tank selama 42 hari pemeliharaan. Perlakuan yang diberikan dalam penelitian ini yaitu penambahan BG (1,5 g/kg, PHB (10 g/kg, dan BG (1,5 g/kg+PHB (10 g/kg, serta kontrol (tanpa penambahan feed additive. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa udang yang diberi 1,5 g/kg BG memiliki kinerja pertumbuhan dan respons imun nonspesifik yang terbaik. Kata kunci: pertumbuhan, udang, respons imun nonspesifik, Litopenaeus vannamei

  10. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Yi Gao; Jiankai Wei; Jianbo Yuan; Xiaojun Zhang; Fuhua Li; Jianhai Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology...

  11. Nitric oxide as an antimicrobial molecule against Vibrio harveyi infection in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Wong, Nai-Kei; Jiang, Xiao; Luo, Xing; Zhang, Lvping; Yang, Dan; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a key effector molecule produced in the innate immune systems of many species for antimicrobial defense. However, how NO production is regulated during bacterial infection in invertebrates, especially crustaceans, remains poorly understood. Vibrio harveyi, a Gram-negative marine pathogen, is among the most prevalent and serious threats to the world's shrimp culture industry. Its virulence typically manifests itself through shrimp hepatopancreas destruction. In the current study, we found that NO generated by an in vitro donor system (NOC-18) could rapidly and effectively kill V. harveyi. In addition, injection of heat-killed V. harveyi increased the concentration of NO/nitrite and the mRNA expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), the commercially most significant shrimp species. Live V. harveyi challenge also induced NO/nitrite production and NOS gene expression in primary L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Co-incubation of l-NAME, an inhibitor selective for mammalian constitutive NOSs, dose-dependently blocked V. harveyi-induced NO/nitrite production, without affecting V. harveyi-induced NOS mRNA expression. Furthermore, l-NAME treatment significantly increased the survival rate of infecting V. harveyi in cultured primary hepatopancreatic cells of L. vannamei. As a whole, we have demonstrated that endogenous NO produced by L. vannamei hepatopancreatic cells occurs in enzymatically regulated manners and is sufficient to act as a bactericidal molecule for V. harveyi clearance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another “organ” for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S r...

  13. Growth Response of White Shrimp (Litopenaeus Vannamei) Reared in Low Salinity Medium, Fed Different Protein and Calcium Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kaligis, Erly

    2015-01-01

    The white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) has been an important commercial shrimp species in Indonesia. This species is tolerance to low salinity therefore, it is important to develop its aquaculture. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of protein and calcium levels in diet on growth performance of the white shrimp post larvae. A factorial experiment at three levels of dietary protein (25, 35, 45%) and three levels of calcium (0, 2, 4%) with three replicates were used in this expe...

  14. Cytotoxicity of actinomycetes associated with the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei (Millar, 1977, endemic of northeastern coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C Jimenez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrated that the crude extract of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei, endemic from northeasttern Brazil, strongly hinders growth of tumor cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis due to tryptophan derivatives, which are commonly found in bacteria. This study presents a bioactivity-guided screening among actinomycetes, associated with E. vannamei, aiming at recognizing active principles with biological relevance. Twenty strains of actinomycetes, designated as EVA 0101 through 0120, were isolated from colonies of E. vannamei among which 11 were selected for cytotoxicity evaluation. The extracts from EVA 0102, 0103, 0106, 0109 and 0113 were the most active, and were further studied for IC50 determination and chemical analysis by ¹H NMR. IC50 values obtained ranged from 3.62 µg mL-1 (for EVA 0109 in leukemia cells to 84.65 µg/mL (for EVA 0106 in melanoma cells. All active extracts exhibited the same TLC and spectroscopic profiles, suggesting the presence of quinones and other related secondary metabolites. Furthermore, these strains were identified and compared based on their respective 16S rRNA sequences. The results herein identified the five strains as Micromonospora spp. while phylogenetic analysis suggests that they are possibly two different Micromonospora species producing the cytotoxic compounds.

  15. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis in the Hepatopancreas Tissue of Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Lipid Sources at Low Salinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Chen

    Full Text Available RNA-seq was used to compare the transcriptomic response of hepatopancreas in juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei fed three diets with different lipid sources, including beef tallow (BT, fish oil (FO, and an equal combination of soybean oil + BT + linseed oil (SBL for 8 weeks at 3 practical salinity unit (psu. A total of 9622 isogenes were annotated in 316 KEGG pathways and 39, 42 and 32 pathways significantly changed in the paired comparisons of FO vs SBL, BT vs SBL, or FO vs BT, respectively. The pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, fatty acid elongation, fatty acid degradation, and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acid were significantly changed in all paired comparisons between dietary lipid sources, and the pathways of glycerolipid metabolism, linoleic acid metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism significantly changed in the FO vs SBL and BT vs SBL comparisons. These pathways are associated with energy metabolism and cell membrane structure. The results indicate that lipids sources affect the adaptation of L. vannamei to low salinity by providing extra energy or specific fatty acids to change gill membrane structure and control iron balance. The results of this study lay a foundation for further understanding lipid or fatty acid metabolism in L. vannamei at low salinity.

  16. Transcriptome analysis on the exoskeleton formation in early developmetal stages and reconstruction scenario in growth-moulting in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Wei, Jiankai; Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-04-24

    Exoskeleton construction is an important issue in shrimp. To better understand the molecular mechanism of exoskeleton formation, development and reconstruction, the transcriptome of the entire developmental process in Litopenaeus vannamei, including nine early developmental stages and eight adult-moulting stages, was sequenced and analysed using Illumina RNA-seq technology. A total of 117,539 unigenes were obtained, with 41.2% unigenes predicting the full-length coding sequence. Gene Ontology, Clusters of Orthologous Group (COG), the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and functional annotation of all unigenes gave a better understanding of the exoskeleton developmental process in L. vannamei. As a result, more than six hundred unigenes related to exoskeleton development were identified both in the early developmental stages and adult-moulting. A cascade of sequential expression events of exoskeleton-related genes were summarized, including exoskeleton formation, regulation, synthesis, degradation, mineral absorption/reabsorption, calcification and hardening. This new insight on major transcriptional events provide a deep understanding for exoskeleton formation and reconstruction in L. vannamei. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles cover the entire exoskeleton development from zygote to adult-moulting in a crustacean, and these findings will serve as significant references for exoskeleton developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  17. Identification and function of leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang

    Full Text Available Leucine-rich repeat flightless-I-interacting protein 2 (LRRFIP2 is a myeloid differentiation factor 88-interacting protein with a positive regulatory function in toll-like receptor signaling. In this study, seven LRRFIP2 protein variants (LvLRRFIP2A-G were identified in Litopenaeus vannamei. All the seven LvLRRFIP2 protein variants encode proteins with a DUF2051 domain. LvLRRFIP2s were upregulated in hemocytes after challenged with lipopolysaccharide, poly I:C, CpG-ODN2006, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphylococcus aureus, and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV. Dual-luciferase reporter assays in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells revealed that LvLRRFIP2 activates the promoters of Drosophila and shrimp AMP genes. The knockdown of LvLRRFIP2 by RNA interference resulted in higher cumulative mortality of L. vannamei upon V. parahaemolyticus but not S. aureus and WSSV infections. The expression of L. vannamei AMP genes were reduced by dsLvLRRFIP2 interference. These results indicate that LvLRRFIP2 has an important function in antibacterials via the regulation of AMP gene expression.

  18. Identification of Sex-determining Loci in Pacific White Shrimp Litopeneaus vannamei Using Linkage and Association Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yuan, Jianbo; Wang, Quanchao; Li, Shihao; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-06-01

    The Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is a predominant aquaculture shrimp species in the world. Like other animals, the L. vannamei exhibited sexual dimorphism in growth trait. Mapping of the sex-determining locus will be very helpful to clarify the sex determination system and further benefit the shrimp aquaculture industry towards the production of mono-sex stocks. Based on the data used for high-density linkage map construction, linkage-mapping analysis was conducted. The sex determination region was mapped in linkage group (LG) 18. A large region from 0 to 21.205 cM in LG18 showed significant association with sex. However, none of the markers in this region showed complete association with sex in the other populations. So an association analysis was designed using the female parent, pool of female progenies, male parent, and pool of male progenies. Markers were de novo developed and those showing significant differences between female and male pools were identified. Among them, three sex-associated markers including one fully associated marker were identified. Integration of linkage and association analysis showed that the sex determination region was fine-mapped in a small region along LG18. The identified sex-associated marker can be used for the sex detection of this species at genetic level. The fine-mapped sex-determining region will contribute to the mapping of sex-determining gene and help to clarify sex determination system for L. vannamei.

  19. Investigating the biometric and physicochemical characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei): a comparative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Bono, Gioacchino

    2016-03-15

    The practicality of biometrics of seafood cannot be overemphasized, particularly for competent authorities of the shrimp industry. However, there is a paucity of relevant literature on the relationship between biometric and physicochemical indices of freshly harvested shrimp. This work therefore investigated the relationship between biometric (standard length (SL), total weight (TW) and condition factor (CF)) and physicochemical (moisture content, pH, titratable acidity, water activity, water retention index, colour values and fracturability) characteristics of freshly harvested Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) obtained from three different farms. The relationships between these parameters were determined using correlation and regression analyses. No significant correlation (P > 0.05) was found between the biometric and physicochemical indices of the sampled L. vannamei specimens. Possibly the lack of post-mortem and physical change(s) at day of harvest together with the absence of temporal variable may have collectively limited the degree of any significant correlation between biometric and physicochemical data points measured in this study. Although the TWs of freshly harvested L. vannamei shrimp resembled (P > 0.05), SL and CF differed significantly (P shrimp. Across the farms studied, however, the biometric data were comparable. To best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the biometric and physicochemical properties of freshly harvested shrimp using a comparative approach, which is also applicable to other economically important aquaculture species. Overall, this work provides useful information for competent authorities/stakeholders of the fishery industry and serves as a baseline for preservative treatments. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Predictive ability of genomic selection models for breeding value estimation on growth traits of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanchao; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-09-01

    Genomic selection (GS) can be used to accelerate genetic improvement by shortening the selection interval. The successful application of GS depends largely on the accuracy of the prediction of genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV). This study is a first attempt to understand the practicality of GS in Litopenaeus vannamei and aims to evaluate models for GS on growth traits. The performance of GS models in L. vannamei was evaluated in a population consisting of 205 individuals, which were genotyped for 6 359 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers by specific length amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) and phenotyped for body length and body weight. Three GS models (RR-BLUP, BayesA, and Bayesian LASSO) were used to obtain the GEBV, and their predictive ability was assessed by the reliability of the GEBV and the bias of the predicted phenotypes. The mean reliability of the GEBVs for body length and body weight predicted by the different models was 0.296 and 0.411, respectively. For each trait, the performances of the three models were very similar to each other with respect to predictability. The regression coefficients estimated by the three models were close to one, suggesting near to zero bias for the predictions. Therefore, when GS was applied in a L. vannamei population for the studied scenarios, all three models appeared practicable. Further analyses suggested that improved estimation of the genomic prediction could be realized by increasing the size of the training population as well as the density of SNPs.

  1. Transcriptomic analyses on muscle tissues of Litopenaeus vannamei provide the first profile insight into the response to low temperature stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Huang

    Full Text Available The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei is an important cultured crustacean species worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this species involved in the response to cold stress. In this study, four separate RNA-Seq libraries of L. vannamei were generated from 13°C stress and control temperature. Total 29,662 of Unigenes and overall of 19,619 annotated genes were obtained. Three comparisons were carried out among the four libraries, in which 72 of the top 20% of differentially-expressed genes were obtained, 15 GO and 5 KEGG temperature-sensitive pathways were fished out. Catalytic activity (GO: 0003824 and Metabolic pathways (ko01100 were the most annotated GO and KEGG pathways in response to cold stress, respectively. In addition, Calcium, MAPK cascade, Transcription factor and Serine/threonine-protein kinase signal pathway were picked out and clustered. Serine/threonine-protein kinase signal pathway might play more important roles in cold adaptation, while other three signal pathway were not widely transcribed. Our results had summarized the differentially-expressed genes and suggested the major important signaling pathways and related genes. These findings provide the first profile insight into the molecular basis of L. vannamei response to cold stress.

  2. Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively) were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8 mg) for 27 days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR), while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp. PMID:22958647

  3. Excess dietary cholesterol may have an adverse effect on growth performance of early post-larval Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Jin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract One experiment was conducted to determine the nutritive value of cholesterol for post-larval shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Four isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets supplemented with four levels of cholesterol (D1, D2, D3 and D4 with 0, 0.5%, 1% and 2% cholesterol, respectively were fed to triplicate groups of L. vannamei shrimp (mean initial wet weight 0.8 mg for 27 days. After the trial, shrimp fed the D1 diet had the best growth performance (final body weights: FBW; weight gain: WG; specific growth rate: SGR, while there was no significant difference between diet treatments with respect to survival. The whole body crude protein level in the shrimp decreased with the increase in dietary cholesterol levels, while the whole body crude lipid level in shrimps in the D4 diet treatment was significantly higher (P L. vannamei; excess dietary cholesterol may thus lead to adverse effects on the growth performance of post-larval shrimp.

  4. Color of Meat and Poultry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color. It can also occur when vegetables containing nitrites are cooked along with the meat. Because doneness and safety cannot be judged by ... or greenish cast when exposed to heat and processing. Wrapping the meat in airtight packages and storing it away from ...

  5. Ecological safety of meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Mikhailenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of toxicants was studied, and the biological value of sheep meat in the area of anthropogenic influence was checked up. The level of toxicants in meat depends straight on the age of animals.

  6. The In vitro meat cookbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensvoort, van K.M.; Grievink, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    With the world's population expected to reach nine billion people by 2050, it becomes impossible to produce and consume meat like we do today. In vitro meat, grown from cells in a laboratory, could provide a sustainable and animal-friendly alternative. Yet, before we can decide if we are willing to

  7. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  8. RNA-Seq reveals the dynamic and diverse features of digestive enzymes during early development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-09-01

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), with high commercial value, has a typical metamorphosis pattern by going through embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae during early development. Its diets change continually in this period, and a high mortality of larvae also occurs in this period. Since there is a close relationship between diets and digestive enzymes, a comprehensive investigation about the types and expression patterns of all digestive enzyme genes during early development of L. vannamei is of considerable significance for shrimp diets and larvae culture. Using RNA-Seq data, the types and expression characteristics of the digestive enzyme genes were analyzed during five different development stages (embryo, nauplius, zoea, mysis and postlarvae) in L. vannamei. Among the obtained 66,815 unigenes, 296 were annotated as 16 different digestive enzymes including five types of carbohydrase, seven types of peptidase and four types of lipase. Such a diverse suite of enzymes illustrated the capacity of L. vannamei to exploit varied diets to fit their nutritional requirements. The analysis of their dynamic expression patterns during development also indicated the importance of transcriptional regulation to adapt to the diet transition. Our study revealed the diverse and dynamic features of digestive enzymes during early development of L. vannamei. These results would provide support to better understand the physiological changes during diet transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occurrence of white spot syndrome virus in shrimp culturing waters and its brunt in specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei with particular allusion to molecular verdicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Badhul Haq

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the water samples and shrimp samples in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV affecting and non-affecting zone. Methods: A total of 12 samples specific pathogen free Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei; adult shrimp and larvae were randomly collected. Their genomic DNA was isolated and subjected to PCR. Histopathological identifications were carried out, and the hematopoietic tissues with basophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristic were observed in moderate WSSV infected L. vannamei. Results: The PCR analysis showed the appearance of a prominent band from the PCR amplified product of WSSV-DNA at internal control band 848 bp at non-infected areas. Although low infection positive bands (20 copies were shown at 296 bp continued from initial stage of the infection region. On a moderate and ascetic level were observed as 650 bp and 910 bp (200 and 2 000 copies, during the severe out break periods. The gill epithelial cells were edematous and nuclei were hypertrophied with basophilic inclusions, but no pathological changes or hypertrophied nuclei were observed in any of L.vannamei tissues in WSSV uninfected region. The Intranuclear inclusion bodies characteristics of high level of WSSV infection presented in the gill region. Conclusions: The present study is significant, which investigated the level of WSSV transmission from the infected tiger prawn P.monodon to SPFL. vannamei in the WSSV impact region of Tamil Nadu coastal waters.

  10. Food safety and organic meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  11. Iodine in meat in Macedonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, Bogdan; Gonev, Mihajlo; Tadzher, Isak

    2000-01-01

    Iodine deficiency in Macedonia still persists in a mild form. In 1999 the iodination of salt rose to 20 m gr iodine in Kg salt. The consumption of salt diminished after the last war from 20-30 gr salt per day to 10-20 gr salt daily. This shows that the problem of the elimination of iodine deficiency is being vigorously tackled. Since 1956 the iodine in salt in Macedonia rose to 10 m gr KI/Kg salt. The content of iodine in the Macedonian diet seems to be important. The amount of iodine in milk, eggs and bread is low as found by the investigation of MANU. The content of iodine in meat is low, compared to British meat is 10 times lower. The average iodine content in Macedonian meat is 95.15 micro gr per Kg, whereas in British meat it is 850-1510 micro gr iodine per k gr meat. (Original)

  12. Managing meat tenderness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  13. Behavioral, Ecological, and Evolutionary Aspects of Meat-Eating by Sumatran Orangutans (Pongo abelii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardus, Madeleine E; Lameira, Adriano R; Zulfa, Astri; Atmoko, S Suci Utami; de Vries, Han; Wich, Serge A

    2012-04-01

    Meat-eating is an important aspect of human evolution, but how meat became a substantial component of the human diet is still poorly understood. Meat-eating in our closest relatives, the great apes, may provide insight into the emergence of this trait, but most existing data are for chimpanzees. We report 3 rare cases of meat-eating of slow lorises, Nycticebus coucang, by 1 Sumatran orangutan mother-infant dyad in Ketambe, Indonesia, to examine how orangutans find slow lorises and share meat. We combine these 3 cases with 2 previous ones to test the hypothesis that slow loris captures by orangutans are seasonal and dependent on fruit availability. We also provide the first (to our knowledge) quantitative data and high-definition video recordings of meat chewing rates by great apes, which we use to estimate the minimum time necessary for a female Australopithecus africanus to reach its daily energy requirements when feeding partially on raw meat. Captures seemed to be opportunistic but orangutans may have used olfactory cues to detect the prey. The mother often rejected meat sharing requests and only the infant initiated meat sharing. Slow loris captures occurred only during low ripe fruit availability, suggesting that meat may represent a filler fallback food for orangutans. Orangutans ate meat more than twice as slowly as chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggesting that group living may function as a meat intake accelerator in hominoids. Using orangutan data as a model, time spent chewing per day would not require an excessive amount of time for our social ancestors (australopithecines and hominids), as long as meat represented no more than a quarter of their diet. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10764-011-9574-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  14. Ionizing energy treatment of meat and meat products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macfarlane, J.J.; Eustace, I.J.; Grau, F.H.

    1983-01-01

    The radiation treatments that have received most attention with respect to red meats are radappertization, i.e. radiation sterilization (25-70 kGy), to enable the long term storage of meat without refrigeration, and radurization (0.5-10 kGy) in which a sufficient proportion of spoilage organisms are inactivated to enable the storage life of chilled meat to be extended. Shelf-stable radappertized meats cannot be produced in the fresh-like condition; they need to be heated to about 70 deg. C to inactivate endogenous enzymes that would otherwise cause flavour and texture defects. The products should be vacuum sealed in oxgyen-impermeable packages and irradiated in the frozen state, otherwise pronounced off-flavours and off-odours are formed. The radiation dose required to give a useful degree of microbial inactivation and permit an increase of storage life depends upon treatment and storage conditions. The dose required is likely to be in the range 0.25 to 1.0 kGy if aerobic conditions apply, and 1 to 4 kGy if anaerobic conditions apply. An acceleration in the rate of development of rancidity in meat as a result of irradiation may be of concern when meat is treated under aerobic conditions. At the highest dose indicated above for meat irradiated under anaerobic conditions (4 kGy), effects on the organoleptic attributes of mutton have been detected

  15. Transcriptome analysis of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus reveals unique immune-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhendong; Babu, V Sarath; Wan, Quanyuan; Zhou, Meng; Liang, Risheng; Muhammad, Asim; Zhao, Lijuan; Li, Jun; Lan, Jiangfeng; Lin, Li

    2018-06-01

    Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important cultural species worldwide. However, Vibrio spp. infections have caused a great economic loss in Pacific white shrimp culture industry. The immune responses of Pacific white shrimp to the Vibrio spp. is not fully characterized. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of L. vannamei hemocytes were explored by injecting with or without Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Totally, 42,632 high-quality unigenes were obtained from RNAseq data. Comparative genome analysis showed 2258 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following the Vibrio challenge, including 1017 up-regulated and 1241 down-regulated genes. Eight DEGs were randomly selected for further validation by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and the results showed that are consistent with the RNA-seq data. Due to the lack of predictable adaptive immunity, shrimps rely on an innate immune system to defend themselves against invading microbes by recognizing and clearing them through humoral and cellular immune responses. Here we focused our studies on the humoral immunity, five genes (SR, MNK, CTL3, GILT, and ALFP) were selected from the transcriptomic data, which were significantly up-regulated by V. parahaemolyticus infection. These genes were widely expressed in six different tissues and were up-regulated by both Gram negative bacteria (V. parahaemolyticus) and Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). To further extend our studies, we knock-down those five genes by dsRNA in L. vannamei and analyzed the functions of specific genes against V. parahaemolyticus and S. aureus by bacterial clearance analysis. We found that the ability of L. vannamei was significantly reduced in bacterial clearance when treated with those specific dsRNA. These results indicate that those five genes play essential roles in antibacterial immunity and have its specific functions against different types of pathogens. The obtained data will shed a new light on the immunity

  16. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  17. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats. Barbecued meats, such as product labeled “Beef Barbecue” or “Barbecued Pork,” shall be cooked by the direct... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Barbecued meats. 319.80 Section 319.80...

  18. GAME MEAT MARKET IN EASTERN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Tolušić

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Republic of Croatia, game meat is consumed far less than meat of domestic animals. Yearly game meat consumption amounts to only 0.55 kg per household member. Consumers prefer meat of domestic animals, because it is cheaper, not paying attention to specific nutritive advantages of game meat. A research on the game meat market and consumers’ preferences was carried out on 101 examinees, chosen among inhabitants of Slavonia and Baranja. The majority of questioned inhabitants did consume game meat (92%, of whom 66% consider game meat to be of better quality than meat of domestic animals. Significant number of examinees considers game meat as healthy food, being also convinced that game was healthier to consume if hunted in their natural environment, than if reared on specialized farms (90%. Irrespective of quality, only 22% of examinees buy game meat, and 51% think such meat is too expensive. This is the main reason why consumers have game meat only once a month (51%. Taking into consideration monthly income of their respective household, 58% of examinees can afford game meat only once a month, and, if having an opportunity, they would opt for meat of roe deer (55% and rabbit (25%. When asked what would stimulate the game meat market in Croatia, 56% of examinees believe this could be achieved by lowering of prices, 27% think the issue could be addressed by opening of specialty stores, and only 17% opted for more aggressive marketing activities.

  19. Irradiation of meats and poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    A number of beneficial effects can be achieved by irradiating meats and poultry under different conditions. It is possible, for example, to extend the market life of both fresh and processed meats by applying radiation doses sufficient to reduce the microbial population, thereby delaying onset of spoilage; higher doses aimed at destroying both spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms can also be applied to meats, packaged to prevent recontamination, resulting in a shelf-stable product; the objective may also be to inactivate pathogenic bacteria, parasites and viruses in order to obtain a product which is acceptable from the point of view of public health. (orig.) [de

  20. Improving functional value of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Xiao, Shan; Samaraweera, Himali; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong U

    2010-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to develop meat and meat products with physiological functions to promote health conditions and prevent the risk of diseases. This review focuses on strategies to improve the functional value of meat and meat products. Value improvement can be realized by adding functional compounds including conjugated linoneleic acid, vitamin E, n3 fatty acids and selenium in animal diets to improve animal production, carcass composition and fresh meat quality. In addition, functional ingredients such as vegetable proteins, dietary fibers, herbs and spices, and lactic acid bacteria can be directly incorporated into meat products during processing to improve their functional value for consumers. Functional compounds, especially peptides, can also be generated from meat and meat products during processing such as fermentation, curing and aging, and enzymatic hydrolysis. This review further discusses the current status, consumer acceptance, and market for functional foods from the global viewpoints. Future prospects for functional meat and meat products are also discussed.

  1. Meat and fish freshness inspection system based on odor sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najam ul Hasan; Ejaz, Naveed; Ejaz, Waleed; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2012-11-09

    We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish) stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor), and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  2. Meat and Fish Freshness Inspection System Based on Odor Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Seok Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We propose a method for building a simple electronic nose based on commercially available sensors used to sniff in the market and identify spoiled/contaminated meat stocked for sale in butcher shops. Using a metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic nose, we measured the smell signature from two of the most common meat foods (beef and fish stored at room temperature. Food samples were divided into two groups: fresh beef with decayed fish and fresh fish with decayed beef. The prime objective was to identify the decayed item using the developed electronic nose. Additionally, we tested the electronic nose using three pattern classification algorithms (artificial neural network, support vector machine and k-nearest neighbor, and compared them based on accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The results demonstrate that the k-nearest neighbor algorithm has the highest accuracy.

  3. Evaluación de dietas artificiales con artemia adulta en la maduración y reproducción de penaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Zambrano Carranza, Byron R.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluación de dietas artificiales con Artemia adulta en la maduración y reproducción de Penaeus vannamei Un experimento de maduración y reproducción de P. vannamei fue llevado a cabo en tanques de 18 toneladas para (a) comprobar los efectos de la Artemia adulta como ingrediente principal en dietas artificiales, (b) investigar si existen diferencias entre la implementación de liofilizado de Artemia adulta y Artemia adulta congelada, y finalmente (c), comparar estos efectos y resultados con ...

  4. Observaciones histopatologicas de juveniles penaeus vannamei sometidos a dietas artificiales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de ácido ascórbico (vitamina c)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Muñoz, L.

    1995-01-01

    Observaciones histopatologicas de juveniles Penaeus Vannamei sometidos a dietas artificiales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de ácido ascórbico (vitamina C) Se realizaron análisis histológicos y comprobación mediante métodos histoquímicos de la presencia de melanina, a juveniles Penaeus vannamei sometidos a cinco dietas experimentales con diferentes concentraciones de una sal de L-Ascorbato-2-Fosfato de Mg (APM) usada como fuente de ácido ascórbico (AA).

  5. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-01-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, e...

  6. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Ewelina Pogorzelska-Nowicka; Atanas G. Atanasov; Jarosław Horbańczuk; Agnieszka Wierzbicka

    2018-01-01

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional cons...

  7. Meat production perspective in Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Toledo-Lopez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of meat production in Mexico during the last decade is the result of the complex interaction between different areas of livestock production and consumers’ preferences, being the former widely influenced by new tendencies and purchasing capacity. In Yucatan, there are two meat product processing plants. Yucatan’s research projects are basically focused to production, handling and genetics. This research is developed in Research Centers like Universidad Autonoma Yucatan’s Ciencias Biologicas Agropecuarias Campus, INIFAP Mococha, Instituto Tecnologico Conkal and Instituto Tecnologoco Merida. Many projects are inter-institutional and others by Cuerpos Academicos inside the institutions. Grants are provided by state, national or international dependencies. In the Instituto Tecnologico Merida research projects are on different animals’ meat quality and novel meat products.

  8. Environmental costs of meat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, T Lan T; Hermansen, John Erik; Mogensen, Lisbeth

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to address two questions: First, what is the real cost of meat to society if taking into account the environmental costs arising throughout the product life cycle; and second, whether and how the environmental costs related to meat production can be reduced. In addressing the issues...... to be the main contributor to the costs (55%), followed by global warming (21%) and respiratory inorganics (18%). A viable option combining improvement measures in three aspects: feed use, manure management, and manure utilization, reduces the environmental costs by a factor of 1.4. This results in an equal size......, we use pig meat production in the EU as a case study. The environmental costs of meat are displayed first as characterized results at different midpoint categories e.g. global warming, nature occupation, acidification, eutrophication, ecotoxicity, etc., and then aggregated into a single score using...

  9. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN KALIUM PADA MASA ADAPTASI PENURUNAN SALINITAS TERHADAP PERFORMA PASCALARVA UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinand Hukama Taqwa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh penambahan kalium selama masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas terhadap performa pascalarva udang vanamei. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan untuk mendapatkan kadar kalium optimal yang dapat menurunkan tingkat stres dan meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas. Hewan uji yang digunakan adalah PL20 udang vanamei. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan yang diterapkan adalah penambahan kalium ke air tawar pengencer masing-masing sebanyak 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, dan 75 mg/L (D. Penurunan salinitas dilakukan secara gradual selama 4 hari dari salinitas 25 ppt hingga mencapai 2 ppt. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan kalium sebanyak 25 mg/L hingga kadar kalium media menjadi 51 mg/L dapat mengurangi pembelanjaan energi untuk osmoregulasi, tingkat stres, dan laju metabolisme standar sehingga meningkatkan sintasan pascalarva udang vanamei setelah melalui masa adaptasi penurunan salinitas selama 96 jam (4 hari. The objective of this research was to study the effect of potassium addition during salinity acclimatization from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt on the performance of Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae. This experiment was done to determine optimal dosage of potassium which can reduce stress level and increase survival rate of L. vannamei postlarvae after salinity acclimatization. Specimen test used was PL20 of white shrimp (0.001 g. Experimental design used completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications of different potassium addition levels to freshwater: 0 mg/L (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L (C, and 75 mg/L (D. Dilution of salinity was done gradually using freshwater during 4 days from 25 ppt down to 2 ppt. The result of this experiment indicated that the addition of 25 mg/L potassium (potassium level in media was 51 mg/L reduced the energy cost for osmoregulation, level of stress and

  10. Does zero-water discharged technology enhance culture performance of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone.)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suantika, Gede; Anggraeni, Jayanty; Hasby, Fahri Azhari; Yanuwiarti, Ni Putu Indah

    2014-03-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei or white leg shrimp is an introduced shrimp which has successfully cultured in Indonesia. In Indonesia, L. vannamei is commonly cultured on outdoor/earthen pond that requires renewal of water, less control in term of water quality and disease and attributed to unpredictable yield production. Based on the existing culture condition, a system that enable to minimize water consumption, improve the hygiene of the culture and at the same time maintain a more stable yield production is urgent to be developed by using a zero water discharge system. The system consists of: (a) culture tank - to retain and culture the shrimp; (b) CaCO3 grained - buffering agent and substrate of nitrifying bacteria; (c) aeration line - to provide O2 and homogenize the culture; (d) ancho (feeding) - to control an appropriate feed; (e) nitrifying bacteria adding - to consume ammonium and nitrite then convert it to nitrate, and also control pathogen Vibrio sp.; (f) diatom microalgae (Chaetoceros gracilis) - to uptake nitrate, bacteriostatic agent, feed source, provide O2 and shading. In this study, there were 2 treatments: the static culture (batch) system was set as control (K) (in 70 PL/m2), and culture system with zero-water discharge system which was inoculated by 0.02% v/v 106 CFU/ml of mixed culture nitrifying bacteria and diatom microalgae in 70 PL/m2 (P1). The white leg shrimp used in this experiment was at post larvae (PL) 10 and cultured in a batch system (1 × 1 × 0.5 m3 pond) during 2 months. Several parameters including survival rate, mean body weight, and water quality (salinity, temperature, pH, DO, ammonium, nitrite, and nitrate) were measured. Based on the results, biomass of P1 (237.12 ± 31.11) gram is significantly higher than control (K) (180.80 ± 12.26) gram (Pshrimp post larvae, except ammonium concentration in control (K) (2.612 ± 0.56) mg/L which is significantly different from P1 (1.287 ± 0.49) mg/L. Based on this research, zero-water discharge

  11. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  12. 9 CFR 355.42 - Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... mule meat by-product. 355.42 Section 355.42 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Meat and Animal Food, Mule Meat By-Product § 355.42 Marking of mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product. All mule meat and animal food mule meat by-product inspected under this part shall be marked and...

  13. Bacillus NP5 Improves Growth Performance and Resistance Against Infectious Myonecrosis Virus in White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei (Bacillus NP5 Meningkatkan Pertumbuhan dan Ketahanan Terhadap Infeksi Virus Myonecrosis pada Udang Putih (L. vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widanarni Widanarni

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN merupakan salah satu penyakit yang sering menyerang udang vaname. Probiotik banyak digunakan pada budidaya udang karena terbukti mampu mengurangi serangan penyakit pada udang. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh pemberian probiotik Bacillus NP5 melalui pakan terhadap kinerja pertumbuhan, respons imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV. Udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g ekor-1 diberi pakan yang disuplementasi probiotik Bacillus NP5 dengan dosis yang berbeda, 102 CFU.g-1 (A, 104 CFU.g-1 (B, 106 CFU.g-1 (C, dan kontrol tanpa suplementasi probiotik (kontrol negatif, KN; kontrol positif, KP selama 30 hari dan dengan tiga ulangan untuk masing-masing dosis, kemudian KP, perlakuan A, B, dan C diuji tantang secara intramuskular dengan IMNV (100 µl.ekor-1. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa udang vaname yang diberi pakan dengan suplementasi probiotik mempunyai laju pertumbuhan harian (LPH, rasio konversi pakan (RKP, dan respons imun yang lebih tinggi. Udang tersebut juga mempunyai total hemocyte count (THC dan resistensi terhadap IMNV yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan kontrol positif. Konsentrasi probiotik 106 CFU.g-1 memberikan hasil terbaik dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan, respon imun, dan resistensi udang vaname terhadap infeksi IMNV. Kata kunci: probiotik, Bacillus NP5, Litopenaeus vannamei, pertumbuhan, IMNV Infectious Myonecrosis (IMN is one of the most prevalent white shrimp diseases. Probiotics are widely used in shrimp cultivation because they have been proven to reduce shrimp disease outbreak. This study aimed to observe the effect of oraly administered probiotic Bacillus NP5 on the white shrimp's growth performance, immune response, and resistance to Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV infection. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2.41±0.07 g individual-1 were fed with a feed supplemented with different doses of the probiotic Bacillus NP5, i

  14. QUALITY OF THE WATER IN SHRIMP FARM Litopenaeus vannamei WITH SYSTEM OF PARTIAL RECIRCULATION SYSTEM. QUALIDADE DA ÁGUA EM FAZENDA DE CAMARÃO MARINHO Litopenaeus vannamei COM SISTEMA DE RECIRCULAÇÃO PARCIAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Otávio Brito

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aim to characterize the quality of the water affluent and effluent of a shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farm , which operates with system of partial recirculation system. The samples were accomplished during the low water and high tide periods of the day. The analyzed variables were: dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, salinity, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate. They samples were seven points, distributed strategically in way to characterize the water from the entrance going by the inside of the to your exit farm. ANOVA and Tukey test (P<0,05 were used in statistical analysis. Was observed the pH and dissolved oxygen stayed presenting averages of 7.72 and 6.58mg.L-1, respectively. The final averages went from 1.40 mg.L-1 to ammonia, 0.76 mg.L-1 for nitrate, 0.08 mg.L-1 for nitrite and 1.63 mg.L-1 for the phosphate.

    KEY WORDS: Quality of the water, recirculation, shrimp, vannamei.
    O presente trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a qualidade da água afluente e efluente de uma fazenda de camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei, que opera com sistema de recirculação parcial de água. As coletas foram realizadas durante os períodos de baixamar e preamar, diurnas, nos dias de lua. Analisaram-se as seguintes variáveis: oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura, pH, salinidade, amônia, nitrato, nitrito e fosfato. Escolheram-se sete pontos de coleta, distribuídos estrategicamente, de modo a caracterizar a água desde a entrada, passando pelo interior da fazenda até sua saída. Para análise estatística, utilizaram-se análise de variância (ANOVA e teste de Tukey (P<0,05. Observou-se que o pH e o oxigênio dissolvido apresentaram uma média de 7,72 e 6,58mg.L-1, respectivamente. As médias finais foram de 1,40mg.L-1 para amônia, 0,76mg.L-1 para nitrato, 0,08mg.L-1 para nitrito e 1,63mg.L-1 para o fosfato.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Camarão, vannamei, qualidade da água, recirculação

  15. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour. - Highlights: • Effect of radiation processing on tenderness of three meat systems was evaluated. • Dose dependant reduction in shear force seen in buffalo meat. • Collagen solubility increased with irradiation

  16. Radiation preservation of meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, J F

    1985-01-01

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1980 clarified the position regarding the medical acceptability of irradiated foods when it said'…no health hazard results from consuming any food irradiated up to a dose of one megarad (1 Mrad)'. This resulted in renewed interest in irradiation as a cost-effective alternative to traditional preservation methods such as canning and freezing. Thus, radurisation (the application of ionising radiation at a dose level which substantially reduces the microbial population) increases the shelf life of poultry, comminuted meat and meat dishes significantly. Low dose irradiation, or radicidation, eliminates parasites such as Trichinae and cysticerci in pork and, very importantly, salmonella organisms in poultry and red meat. Therefore, irradiation has an important rôle to play in public health protection. High dose irradiation, or radappertisation ('cold sterilisation'), uses doses in excess of 1 Mrad and is analogous to retorting as understood in the canning industry. However, it can adversely affect quality in producing 'free radicals' in high protein foods such as meat. To prevent this, special precautions are necessary, e.g. irradiation is conducted at very low temperatures and the product is usually vacuum packed. A further potential use of irradiation is its ability to reduce the quantity of nitrite necessary in cured meats. This may become of practical significance if legislation further reduces the amount of nitrite permitted in these products. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Significance of authenticity in meat and meat products in Iran

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    Tahereh Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Authenticity of meat products is very important for religious and health reasons in Iran. According to legislation in Iran, the consumption and importation of pork, horse, donkey and cat products should be banned. Therefore, the identification of meat products cannot be judged solely by its appearance. This issue led to the authenticity of bovine, sheep, pig, horse, donkey, chicken and soya (Glycine max in raw and processed meat products.In this study, specific primers were designed for the identification of pig ( base pair, donkey (325 base pair, chicken (391 base pair, sheep (499 base pair, horse (607 base pair, soya (707 base pair and bovine (853 base pair by Polymerase chain reaction. Following PCR, expected,, , 499,,  and  base pair fragments were detectable in pig, donkey, chicken, sheep, horse, soya and bovine, respectively. This protocol can be used for identification of raw and processed meat products in various animal species for replication to regulatory obligations for meat species safety in Iran.

  18. Dietary Immunogen® modulated digestive enzyme activity and immune gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandare, Hamed Kolangi; Mirghaed, Ali Taheri; Hosseini, Marjan; Mazloumi, Nastaran; Zargar, Ashkan; Nazari, Sajad

    2017-11-01

    Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) is an important economical shrimp species worldwide, especially in the Middle East region, and farming activities of this species have been largely affected by diseases, mostly viral and bacterial diseases. Scientists have started to use prebiotics for bolstering the immune status of the animal. This study aimed to investigate the influence of Immunogen ® on growth, digestive enzyme activity and immune related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae. All post-larvae were acclimated to the laboratory condition for 14 days. Upon acclimation, shrimps were fed on different levels of Immunogen ® (0, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g kg -1 ) for 60 days. No significant differences were detected in weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio (FCR) in shrimp post-larvae in which fed with different levels of Immunogen ® and control diet. The results showed that digestive enzymes activity including protease and lipase increased with different amounts of Immunogen ® in the shrimp diet. Protease activity increased with 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® after 60 days and lipase activity increased with 1 and 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® after 30 and 60 days of the trial respectively (P  0.05). The expression of immune related genes including, prophenoloxidase, crustin and g-type lysozyme increased with diet 1.5 g kg -1 Immunogen ® (P < 0.05) while expression of penaeidin gene increased only with experimental diet 1 g kg -1 of Immunogen ® . These results indicated that increase in digestive enzymes activity and expression of immune related genes could modulate the Immunogen ® in the innate immune system in L. vannamei in this study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Análisis histopatológico en Litopenaeus vannamei infectado con Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

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    Nelson Peña-Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir los principales resultados histopatológicos obtenidos de las diversas respuestas inmunológicas y efectos citopáticos en L. vannamei, después de una infección inducida con V. parahaemolyticus. La inoculación bacterial se realizó en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica, entre junio y agosto del 2011. Para la investigación se utilizaron 40 camarones extraídos de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya; a cada uno se le inyectó en promedio 2,0x106 UFC de V. parahaemolyticus. Al finalizar el periodo de infección, se realizaron los análisis histopatológicos en branquias, epitelio subcuticular, hepatopáncreas, intestino, órgano linfoide, tejido hematopoyético, músculo estriado, tejido nervioso, corazón, entre otras. Los principales hallazgos a nivel histológico fueron hemocitos melanizados, infiltración hemocítica, melanosis, esferoides tipo A, B y C, mionecrosis coagulativa, fagocitosis, picnosis, entre otras, útiles para determinar el estado sanitario de los camarones y en particular, el efecto citopático de V. parahaemolyticus en infecciones sistémicas.

  20. Patógenos introducidos al Perú en post larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas

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    Mervin Guevara

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available El comercio internacional de animales acuáticos es uno de los factores más importantes en la introducción involuntaria de patógenos a una región libre de estos. Los patógenos introducidos han sido causa de enormes pérdidas económicas en organismos bajo cultivo y daños ecológicos en poblaciones silvestres. En este trabajo, utilizando la técnica de la PCR se analizaron postlarvas de Litopenaeus vannamei importadas desde Ecuador para ser utilizada en los cultivos de langostinos en Tumbes. La finalidad fue detectar patógenos como el virus de la mancha blanca (WSV, virus de la cabeza amarilla (YHV, virus de la necrosis hipodérmica y hematopoyética infecciosa (IHHNV, Baculovirus penaei (BP, virus del síndrome de Taura (TSV y la bacteria de la hepatopancreatitis necrotizante (NHPB. Se analizaron 177 muestras de postlarvas en el año 2009 y 274 en el 2010. En el año 2009 se encontraron cuatro patógenos infecciosos en las postlarvas analizadas, siendo más frecuente el IHHNV (9,60%. En el año 2010 la frecuencia de aparición de postlarvas infectadas con IHHNV fue mayor (16,79%. Tanto en el 2009 como en el 2010 se encontraron postlarvas positivas a NHPB, BP y TSV

  1. Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov., isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Wang, Yanan; Liu, Yan; Li, Wentao; Yu, Mingchao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-01-01

    One novel Gram-stain-negative, long rod-shaped, non-spore-forming, non-motile, non-flagellated and strictly aerobic strain, designated M124T, was isolated from diseased Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae. Growth occurred at 16-37 °C (optimum 28 °C), in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 3 %) and at pH 7-8 (optimum pH 7). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain M124T belonged to the genus Aquimarina and showed highest sequence similarity to Aquimarina penaei P3-1T (96.4 %). The dominant fatty acids of the isolate were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH. The major polar lipids comprised phosphatidylethanolamine, one unknown aminolipid, three unknown phospholipids, two unknown glycolipids and one unknown polar lipid. The major respiratory quinone was menaquinone 6 (MK-6). The DNA G+C content of strain M124T was 33.7 mol%. Based on the polyphasic analyses in this study, strain M124T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Aquimarina, for which the name Aquimarina hainanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M124T ( = KCTC 42423T = MCCC 1K00498T).

  2. Nauplii production of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae, on-board of commercial trawlers

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    Carlos E Medina-Reyna

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Los laboratorios no han logrado producir suficientes nauplios de buena calidad por lo que sigue siendo necesario recolectar hembras maduras en alta mar. Sin embargo, no siempre se recolectan hembras en la condición inseminada. En este estudio, se evaluó la recolecta de hembras y producción de nauplios abordo de un barco camaronero durante un viaje comercial como una alternativa para el larvicultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei en el Golfo de Tehuantepec. Se efectuaron arrastres en la tarde hasta el anochecer. El mejor tiempo de arrastre fue de 20 min y produjo una captura media de 37 + 8 camarones adultos con una sobrevivencia de 72 + 3 %. Se observaron desoves desde las 11:00 PM hasta las 02:00 AM, con un máximo a las 12:00 PM. Se siguieron 14 desoves en cinco días, durante los cuales se produjeron 2.2 x 106 nauplios con una tasa media de fertilidad y de eclosión de 83 y 75 %, respectivamente. Este trabajo presenta una técnica que puede proveer de simientes para el larvicultivo a partir de los productos reproductivos de camarones capturados por la flota camaronera comercial.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from pond-reared Litopenaeus vannamei marketed in Natal, Brazil

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    Ligia Maria Rodrigues de Melo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ten out of fifty fresh and refrigerated samples of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei collected from retailers in Natal (Rio Grande do Norte, Northeastern Brazil tested positive for Vibrio parahaemolyticus. The Kanagawa test and multiplex PCR assays were used to detect TDH and TRH hemolysins and the tdh, trh and tlh genes, respectively. All strains were Kanagawa-negative and tlh-positive. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done for seven antibiotics by the agar diffusion technique. Five strains (50% presented multiple antibiotic resistance to ampicillin (90% and amikacin (60%, while two strains (20% displayed intermediate-level resistance to amikacin. All strains were sensitive to chloramphenicol. Intermediate-level susceptibility and/or resistance to other antibiotics ranged from 10 to 90%, with emphasis on the observed growing intermediate-level resistance to ciprofloxacin. Half our isolates yielded a multiple antibiotic resistance index above 0.2 (range: 0.14-0.29, indicating a considerable risk of propagation of antibiotic resistance throughout the food chain.

  4. The Use of Synbiotics to Prevent IMNV and Vibrio harveyi Co-Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

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    ADNI OKTAVIANA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects on viral immune responses and bacterial co-infection, of different feeding frequencies of a synbiotic supplemented diet given to Pacific white shrimp (L. vannamei. A synbiotic-supplemented diet was formulated from probiotic Vibrio alginolitycus SKT-bR and prebiotics from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. oligosaccharide. Pacific white shrimp were fed with synbiotic diet at different frequencies, i.e. daily (P1, twice a week (P2, and once a week (P3 for a 30 day pre-challenge test. After the 30 day feeding period, the shrimps were challenged by intramuscular injection of Infectious Myonecrosis Virus (IMNV and Vibrio harveyi. The results showed that shrimp treated with a synbiotic-supplemented diet showed significantly higher growth performance than control groups (P<0.05. Shrimp treated under regime P1 showed the highest values for phenoloxidase (PO and respiratory burst (RB parameters compared to shrimp given with other treatments. Following the challenge test, higher survival rate were seen in the P1 treatment group, in comparison to the positive control, and the P1 treatment group showed the highest values in total haemocyte count (THC, PO, and RB.

  5. Identification of a novel alternative splicing variant of hemocyanin from shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shan; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yueling; Zhao, Xianliang; Zhong, Mingqi; Li, Shengkang; Lun, Jingsheng

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidences suggest that invertebrates express families of immune molecules with high levels of sequence diversity. Hemocyanin is an important non-specific immune molecule present in the hemolymph of both mollusks and arthropods. In the present study, we characterized a novel alternative splicing variant of hemocyanin (cHE1) from Litopenaeus vannamei that produced mRNA transcript of 2579 bp in length. The isoform contained two additional sequences of 296 and 267 bp in the 5'- and 3'-terminus respectively, in comparison to that of wild type hemocyanin (cHE). Sequence of cHE1 shows 100% identity to that of hemocyanin genomic DNA (HE, which does not form an open reading frame), suggesting that cHE1 might be an alternative splicing variant due to intron retention. Moreover, cHE1 could be detected by RT-PCR from five tissues (heart, gill, stomach, intestine and brain), and from shrimps at stages from nauplius to mysis larva. Further, cHE1 mRNA transcripts were significantly increased in hearts after 12h of infection with Vibrio parahemolyticus or poly I: C, while no significant difference in the transcript levels of hepatopancreas cHE was detected in the pathogen-treated shrimps during the period. In summary, these studies suggested a novel splicing variant of hemocyanin in shrimp, which might be involved in shrimp resistance to pathogenic infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of hypoxia on dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fawen; Pan, Luqing; Jing, Futao

    2009-03-01

    Effects of hypoxia on the dopamine concentration and the immune response of White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were studied. The results showed that hypoxia had significant effects on the concentration of dopamine (DA) in the haemolymph, haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, phagocytic activity of haemocytes and bacteriolytic and antibacterial activity in the haemolymph ( P<0.05). The concentration of the dopamine in haemolymph reached its maximum in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups at 12 h and 6 h, and then returned to normal after 24 h and 12 h, respectively. All immune parameters decreased with the reduction of dissolved oxygen. Total haemocyte count (THC), the hyaline cells and semi-granular cells in the 3.0 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 12 h, while granular cells did so after 24 h. The THC and different haemocyte count (DHC) in the 1.5 mg L-1 DO group became stable after 24 h. Phenoloxidase activity and bacteriolytic activity in the 3.0 and 1.5 mg L-1 DO groups reached their stable levels after 24 h and 12 h respectively, while phagocytic activity and antibacterial activity became stable after 24 and 12, and 36 and 24 h, respectively. It was also indicated that the changes of dopamine concentrations in haemolymph, haemocyte count and phenoloxidase activity were obviously related to the exposure time under hypoxic conditions.

  7. A chitinase from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei involved in immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Shengwen; Yang, Linwei; Zuo, Hongliang; Zheng, Jiefu; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2018-08-01

    Chitinases are a group of hydrolytic enzymes that hydrolyze chitin and widely exist in organisms. Studies in mammals have demonstrated that chitinases play important roles in regulation of humoral and cellular immune responses. In arthropods, although it is well known that chitinases are involved in growth, molting and development, the current knowledge on the role of chitinases in immunity, especially in immune regulation, remains largely unknown. In this study, a chitinase (LvChi5) from Litopenaeus vannamei was representatively selected for studying its immune function. The start codon of LvChi5 was corrected by 5'RACE analysis and its protein sequence was reanalyzed. LvChi5 contains a catalytic domain and a chitin binding domain and shows no inhibitory effect on growth of bacteria in vitro. However, in vivo experiments demonstrated that silencing of LvChi5 increased the mortality of shrimp infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibro parahaemolyticus and significantly upregulated the load of pathogens in tissues. The expression of various immune related genes, including transcription factors, antimicrobial peptides and other functional proteins with antibacterial and antiviral activities, was widely changed in LvChi5 silencing shrimp. Moreover, the recombinant LvChi5 protein could enhance the phagocytic activity of hemocytes against bacteria. These suggested that shrimp chitinase could play a role in regulation of both humoral and cellular immune responses in shrimp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional and antioxidant properties of protein hydrolysates obtained from white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorres, J M; Rios, D G; Saggiomo, G; Wasielesky, W; Prentice-Hernandez, C

    2018-02-01

    Protein hydrolysates from white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) with different degrees of hydrolysis (DH-10 and 20%) were prepared using the enzymes Alcalase 2.4 L and Protamex. The hydrolysates were evaluated for amino acid composition, solubility, foaming properties, emulsifying and antioxidant activity. All the hydrolysates showed high concentrations of Glutamic Acid, Aspartic acid, Arginine, Glycine, Lysine, Proline. It was found that the increase in the production of negatively charged amino acids was related to increase in DH. The hydrophobic amino acids were higher for hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase (10% DH) and Protamex (20% DH). The results indicated that higher degree of hydrolysis showed positive relation with the protein solubility of the hydrolysates, while negatively influenced foam and emulsification properties. The antioxidant properties presented by the white shrimp protein hydrolysates were influenced by the composition and peptides size. Hydrolysates with higher peptide chain showed the highest antioxidant power for the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and reducing power, while hydrolysates with lower peptide chain showed higher antioxidant power for 2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline sulfonic acid) radical scavenging. All hydrolysates showed dose-dependent antioxidant activities. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that white shrimp is a potential source of protein hydrolysates as bioactive ingredients for the use in the formulation of functional foods as well as natural antioxidants in lipid food systems.

  9. EFEKTIVITAS PENGGUNAAN BAKTERI UNTUK PERBAIKAN KUALITAS AIR MEDIA BUDI DAYA UDANG VANAME (LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI SUPER INTENSIF

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    Lufisari Herdianti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture activities in coastal area potentially produced wastes which leads water pollution. In order to reduce pollution, the use of several bacteria is very promising. This study was aimed to determine the effectivity of commercial bacterial inocculants to reduce pollution in cultured water. Bacterial inocculant tested in this study was SN®, SB®, and the combination of both inocculants for water quality improvements in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei super intensive culture media. This study was conducting in two steps, namely (i preliminary study and (ii primary study. The preliminary study was aimed to determine the time required to add bacteria based on the total number of bacterial colonies. The result showed that total colonies number of media treated with addition of SN® and SB® were reached maximum within 2 days. The result of primary study showed that the combination of SN® and SB® showed best effect in maintaining water quality of the culture media. This combination are proven reduces ammonia by 96%, nitrite-N by 83%, and COD by 42%.

  10. Encapsulated Synbiotic Dietary Supplementation at Different Dosages to Prevent Vibriosis in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

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    Anis Zubaidah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated synbiotic (Bacillus sp. NP5 and oligosaccharide dietary at different dosages on growth performance, survival rate, feed conversion ratio, and immune responses of Litopenaeus vannamei against Vibrio infection. The shrimps of the main treatments were fed by the diet that contained three different dosages of encapsulated synbiotic [0.5% (A, 1% (B, and 2% (C (w/w] with feeding rate of 5% of shrimp biomass (4 times a day. The shrimps of two control treatments (negative control and positive control were fed only by commercial feed without supplementation of encapsulated synbiotic. The growth, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate were observed after 30 days of encapsulated synbiotic dietary. The shrimps were then challenged by injection of Vibrio harveyi (6 log colony forming units/mL 0.1 mL/shrimp, excluded the negative control treatment. Afterward, the survival and immune responses were observed for 9 days after experimental infection. The shrimps treated with 2% encapsulated synbiotic (treatment C in the diet showed the highest growth performance (2.98 ± 0.42%, feed conversion ratio (1.26 ± 0.19, and better immune responses i.e. total hemocyte counts, differential hemocyte count, phenoloxidase, and intestine bacteria observation compared to those of positive control treatment.

  11. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater.

  12. Beneficial effects of Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii WF on larval cultivation of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C Q; Xue, M; Liang, H F; Wu, Y; Li, X

    2015-01-01

    To develop high quality probiotics for shrimp larviculture, the effects of a photosynthetic purple sulphur bacterium WF identified as Ectothiorhodospira shaposhnikovii on survival and development of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae were evaluated in vivo. The larvae exhibited a better survival rate after administration of strain WF compared to the probiotic Rhodopseudomonas palustris. To investigate the effect of dose and dosing frequency, strain WF was added to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to zoea 3, at three different doses and dosing frequencies. Larval treatment with strain WF twice at 10(6) cfu/ml exhibited significantly higher survival compared to the other doses and dosing frequencies as well as the control. The effect on water quality was assessed by applying strain WF to larvae, stages nauplius 6 to postlarvae 1, under conditions of zero water exchange and one-third water exchange. The larvae exhibited higher survival and faster growth when treated under conditions of zero water exchange. No significant difference was detected in the levels of three water quality parameters and in vibrio counts between these two conditions. Therefore, E. shaposhnikovii WF acts both as a bioremediation agent and nutrient source and can benefit shrimp larvae if given at an appropriate dose and dosing frequency. Strain WF, a moderate halophile, shows great promise as a water additive in improving water quality and providing nutrition for shrimp larviculture.

  13. Structural insights from a novel invertebrate triosephosphate isomerase from Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Ramirez-Aguirre, Claudia D.; López-Hidalgo, Marisol; Benitez-Cardoza, Claudia G.; Ochoa-Leyva, Adrian; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Diaz-Quezada, Corina; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2016-01-01

    Triosephosphate isomerase (TIM; EC 5.3.1.1) is a key enzyme involved in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Glycolysis is one of the most regulated metabolic pathways, however little is known about the structural mechanisms for its regulation in non-model organisms, like crustaceans. To understand the structure and function of this enzyme in invertebrates, we obtained the crystal structure of triosephosphate isomerase from the marine Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei, LvTIM) in complex with its inhibitor 2-phosphogyceric acid (2-PG) at 1.7 Å resolution. LvTIM assembles as a homodimer with residues 166-176 covering the active site and residue Glu166 interacting with the inhibitor. We found that LvTIM is the least stable TIM characterized to date, with the lowest range of melting temperatures, and with the lowest activation enthalpy associated with the thermal unfolding process reported. In TIMs dimer stabilization is maintained by an interaction of loop 3 by a set of hydrophobic contacts between subunits. Within these contacts, the side chain of a hydrophobic residue of one subunit fits into a cavity created by a set of hydrophobic residues in the neighboring subunit, via a "ball and socket" interaction. LvTIM presents a Cys47 at the "ball" inter-subunit contact indicating that the character of this residue is responsible for the decrease in dimer stability. Mutational studies show that this residue plays a role in dimer stability but is not a solely determinant for dimer formation. PMID:27614148

  14. Bacterial Population in Intestines of Litopenaeus vannamei Fed Different Probiotics or Probiotic Supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Yujie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Baojie; Jiang, Keyong; Qi, Cancan; Wang, Lei

    2016-10-28

    The interactions of microbiota in the gut play an important role in promoting or maintaining the health of hosts. In this study, in order to investigate and compare the effects of dietary supplementation with Lactobacillus pentosus HC-2 (HC-2), Enterococcus faecium NRW-2, or the bacteria-free supernatant of a HC-2 culture on the bacterial composition of Litopenaeus vannamei , Illumina sequencing of the V1-V2 region of the 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that unique species exclusively existed in specific dietary groups, and the abundance of Actinobacteria was significantly increased in the intestinal bacterial community of shrimp fed with the bacteria-free supernatant of an HC-2 culture compared with the control. In addition, the histology of intestines of the shrimp from the four dietary groups was also described, but no obvious improvements in the intestinal histology were observed. The findings in this work will help to promote the understanding of the roles of intestinal bacteria in shrimps when fed with probiotics or probiotic supernatant.

  15. Streptococcus penaeicida sp. nov., isolated from a diseased farmed Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Covarrubias, Maria Soledad; Del Carmen Bolan-Mejía, María; Vela Alonso, Ana Isabel; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F; Gomez-Gil, Bruno

    2018-05-01

    Strain CAIM 1838 T , isolated from the hepatopancreas of a cultured diseased Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), was subjected to characterization by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CAIM 1838 T was most closely related to Streptococcus bovimastitidis 99.3 % and to other species of the Pyogenes clade of Streptococcus with lower similarity values. Average nucleotide identity values and the genome-to-genome distance of strain CAIM 1838 T , as compared with the type strains, confirmed the separate species status with closely related species of the genus Streptococcus and were all below the thresholds to delimit a species, 93.1 and 49.4 %, respectively. The DNA G+C content was 38.1 mol%. Differential phylogenetic distinctiveness together with phenotypic properties obtained in this study revealed that strain CAIM 1838 T could be differentiated from the closely related species. Based on these results it is proposed that strain CAIM 1838 T represents a novel species in the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus penaeicida sp. nov is proposed (type strain, CAIM 1838 T =CECT 8596 T ,=DSM26545 T ), is proposed.

  16. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  17. Snail meat: Significance and consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragićević Olgica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of snail meat goes back to prehistoric times. Different ancient nations had snails on their menu, but Helices culture as a productive activity was born as a Roman culture. Some of the most economically important edible species are: Helix aspersa (Mtiller Helixpomatia (Linne, Helix iucorum (Linne, Helix aperta (Born, Eobania vermiculata (Miiller. Together with its tasie, snail meat has several advantages over others: quite low lipid rate and calorie values versus rich mineral, essential amino acid and fatty acid content. The composition of snail meat is presented. In addition, the composition of different snail species and the part analyzed (pedal mass and visceral mass is presented. Also, the differences in composition according to the species (snail meat horse/chicken meat, beef, swine meat, fish meat are presented. The French are the world's leading consumers of snails. !n France snails come to market in a variety of ways. Estimated consumption of snails in France is around 40 000 tones/year. Total French imports account for 25% of world imports. France is also the leading exporter of prepared snails, mainly sold as preserved snails and prepared dishes. Snail imports have been much higher than exports (65 tones exported in 2002. vs. 2.700 tones imported. Despite the large consumption, only 3% of snails in France come from production (farming. Italy is in second place in the world consumption of snails, and Spain and Germany are in the third and fourth place. The development of snails consumption in Italy is followed with the same amount of production of snails in the whole biological circle. In 2001, from 24,700 tons, 9,350 tons (37.8% came from production, 6 00 tons (2.4% came from nature, and 14,750 tons (59.70% came from imports (frozen, fresh and prepared snails. In Serbia, at the beginning of 2005, we had over 400 registered farms for snail production.

  18. Fuentes de Carbohidratos no tradicionales y su efecto en la digestibilidad de dietas para camarones litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Mauricio; Molina, César

    2001-01-01

    Fuentes de carbohidratos no tradicionales y su efecto en la digestibilidad de dietas para camarones Litopenaeus vannamei Hasta la fecha los alimentos para organismos acuáticos han sido generalmente evaluados en términos de crecimiento y de composición corporal de los animales, confiriendo poca atención a la digestibilidad de los ingredientes o de las dietas compuestas y mucho menos a las posibles interacciones que pueden darse entre niveles de nutrientes presentes en la dieta.

  19. ACUICULTURA EPICONTINENTAL DEL CAMARÓN BLANCO DEL PACÍFICO, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Enrique Godínez Siordia

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo una revisión sobre el estatus del cultivo de camarón Litopenaeus vannamei en agua de baja salinidad, presentando características, ventajas, desventajas y medidas de mitigación sobre el impacto ambiental de este sistema de cultivo. Este trabajo aborda aspectos relevantes con la finalidad de trazar un camino hacia la sustentabilidad de esta alternativa de cultivo que se expande rápidamente en México.

  20. Metallothionein-Like Proteins and Energy Reserve Levels after Ni and Pb Exposure in the Pacific White Prawn Penaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nunez-Nogueira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the changes in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLPs and Energy Reserves (ERs in hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle of the white prawn Penaeus vannamei. Realistic metal concentration exposure for 10 days to Ni and Pb in solution revealed that juvenile prawns partially induce MTLP in hepatopancreas after Pb exposure. Ni was distributed equally between soluble and insoluble fractions, while Pb was present only in the insoluble fraction, suggesting different detoxification strategy. No changes in lipids and glycogen concentration were detected under these experimental conditions in both tissues analyzed. MTLP could not be considered as a suitable indicator for lead exposure in hepatopancreas.

  1. White shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme has antibacterial activity against Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-la-Re-Vega, Enrique; García-Galaz, Alfonso; Díaz-Cinco, Martha E; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2006-03-01

    C-type lysozyme has been described as an antibacterial component of the shrimp innate defence system. We determined quantitatively the antibacterial activity of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) recombinant lysozyme against three Gram negative bacteria: Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, using a turbidimetric assay with live bacteria and differential bacterial viable count after interaction with the protein. In conclusion, the antibacterial activity of recombinant shrimp lysozyme against Vibrio sp. is at least equal to the values against the Gram positive M. luteus and more active against the shrimp pathogens V. alginolyticus and V. parahemolyticus.

  2. Feasibility study of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, culture in earthen ponds using brackish water of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Farabi, S.M.V.; Salehi, A.A.; Pourgholam, R.; Ghanei Tehrani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) post-larvae 12 were obtained from Bushehr province and reared at the Caspian Sea Ecological Research Institute (Mazandaran, Iran) in summer 2012 using brackish water of the Caspian Sea. Prior to start of the experiment, post-larvae were gradually adapted to brackish water. The shrimp was stocked in a 1000 m2 earthen pond with a stocking density of 31 individual/m2. The earthen pond was in quarantine without discharge valve. During the rearing period, there w...

  3. Lactic-acid bacteria increase the survival of marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection with Vibrio harveyi

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Pedrotti, Fabiola Santiago; Buglione Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño, José Luiz Pedreira; Beltrame, Elpídio; Martins, Maurício Laterça; Ramirez, Cristina; Arana, Luis Alejandro Vinatea

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the survival, post-larvae quality, and the population of bacteria in Litopenaeus vannamei after the addition of two strains of lactic-acid bacteria (2 and B6) experimentally infected by Vibrio harveyi. Fifteen hundred nauplii were distributed in 20 L capacity tanks with four replicates. The survival of control animals was lower (21%) than that of animals fed with the strains B6 (50%) and 2 (44%). Total bacterial population in the water and larvae, as well as of the Vibrio...

  4. Nutritional and other implications of irradiating meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, M.H.

    1994-01-01

    Different methods have been developed to extend the shelf-life of meat and its products ranging from the traditional use of salt to canning, freezing and modified-atmosphere packaging. As well as these more conventional approaches to meat preservation, the use of ionizing radiation has also been extensively studied over many years. The irradiation sources which are permitted for use with food are gamma photons from 6o Co or 137 Cs, high-energy electrons generated by machines, maximum energy 10 MeV and X-rays with a maximum energy of 5 MeV (Codex Alimentarius Commission, 1984). At doses of about 25-50 kGy, irradiation can be used to achieve sterilization and in the 1960s shelf-stable radiation-sterilized meat products were developed to substitute for canned or frozen military rations. Currently, sterile meals are produced for immunocompromized patients using irradiation. With doses below 10 kGy, the process is effective in enhancing food safety through the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter and extending shelf-life by eliminating the micro-organisms responsible for normal spoilage. Following the report of the Food and Agriculture Organization/International Atomic Energy Agency/World Health Organization Joint Expert Committee on the Wholesomeness of Irradiated Food (1981) which concluded that 'irradiation of food up to an overall average dose of 10 kGy produced no toxicological hazard and introduced no special nutritional or microbiological problems', there has been renewed interest in the use of lower doses of irradiation for the preservation of food. In 1991, the UK government introduced new regulations permitting the irradiation of seven categories of food, including chicken, under strictly controlled conditions (UK Government Regulations, 1990) .Currently, thirty-seven countries have approval for the irradiation treatment of a range of foods or food items and of these countries, twenty-six are using the process on a

  5. Identification of highly expressed host microRNAs that respond to white spot syndrome virus infection in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Penaeidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, D G; Chen, X L; Xie, D X; Zhao, Y Z; Yang, Q; Wang, H; Li, Y M; Chen, X H

    2015-05-11

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to play an important role in regulating both adaptive and innate immunity. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is the most widely farmed crustacean species in the world. However, little is known about the role miRNAs play in shrimp immunity. To understand the impact of viral infection on miRNA expression in shrimp, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to sequence two small RNA libraries prepared from L. vannamei under normal and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenged conditions. Approximately 19,312,189 and 39,763,551 raw reads corresponding to 17,414,787 and 28,633,379 high-quality mappable reads were obtained from the two libraries, respectively. Twelve conserved miRNAs and one novel miRNA that were highly expressed (>100 RPM) in L. vannamei were identified. Of the identified miRNAs, 8 were differentially expressed in response to the virus infection, of which 1 was upregulated and 7 were downregulated. The prediction of miRNA targets showed that the target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were related to immunity, apoptosis, and development functions. Our study provides the first characterization of L. vannamei miRNAs in response to WSSV infection, which will help to reveal the roles of miRNAs in the antiviral mechanisms of shrimp.

  6. Characterization and experimental infection of Flexibacter maritimus (Wakabayashi et al. 1986 in hatcheries of post-larvae of Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP. Mouriño

    Full Text Available A preliminary study to characterize filamentous bacteria, whose presence is related to high mortality of Litopenaeus vannamei larvae cultured in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, is reported. The extract of infected larvae was diluted in different concentrations, cultured in marine agar (DifcoTM, Marine Agar 2216 and incubated at 30 °C for 48 hours. The biochemical characterization included hydrolytic reactions of starch, gelatin and tyrosine, growth in TCBS agar, growth in 0 and 37‰ salinity, pigment production in tyrosine agar, production of H2S, nitrate reduction, congo red reaction, oxidase and catalase. The isolated bacteria belong to the species Flexibacter maritimus, Gram-negative bacilli of 0.4-0.5 µm width and 15 µm length. Experiments were carried out on pathogenicity of F. maritimus in post-larvae of L. vannamei. Survival and symptoms in L. vannamei post-larvae 24 hours after inoculation with F. maritimus and its growth in marine agar were evaluated. Mortality was detected around 92,5% as well as symptoms like melanized lesions in several parts of body, discolouration of gills, bad formation of appendages and of the last abdominal segment, low motility and feeding reduction. The experimental infection results suggested that isolated bacteria of the genus Flexibacter are pathogenic to the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae.

  7. Thawing of Frozen Tuna Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takeo; Nishiwaki, Kôji; Kakuda, Kitonari; Tomimatsu, Takao

    Frozen southern bluefin tuna meat discolors easily and sometimes contracts when thawed caused by thaw rigor. These phenomenon often become problematic in the transaction or handling of this kind of frozen tuna. Frozen meat blocks of southern Bluefin tuna were thawed separately by air thawing, running water thawing and microwave thawing. Changes occurring during thawing were checked for meat color by met-myoglobin ratio determination and for contract by microscopic observation. Results are as follows : (1) Discoloration scarcely occurred in the process of running water thawing (at 10°C for 50 min, or at 0°C for 6 hr). (2) No contraction was observed during thawing with running water described above and air thawing (at 18-20°C for 6 hr). (3) Discoloration and contraction seemed to be minimized, as to latently contractile blocks, when meat temperature passed through rapidly between -10°C and -5°C, and slowly (for 5-6 hr) between -5°C and -1°C. When the block was originally not contractile, discloration was minimized by rising meat temperature rapidly from -10°C to -l°C.

  8. Effects of high pressure processing on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Geunho; Cho, Soohyun; Seong, Pilnam; Park, Beomyoung; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Donghun; Kim, Youngjun; Kang, Sunmun; Park, Kyoungmi

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure processing (HPP) on fatty acid composition and volatile compounds in Korean native black goat (KNBG) meat. Fatty acid content in KNBG meat was not significantly (p > 0.05) different among the control goats and those subjected HPP. The 9,12-octadecadienoic acid and octadecanoic acid, well-known causes of off-flavors, were detected from meat of some KNBG. A difference between the control and HPP treatment was observed in the discriminated function analysis using an electronic nose. The results suggest that the volatile compounds in KNBG meat were affected by HPP.

  9. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arihara, Keizo

    2006-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to physiological functions of foods due to increasing concerns for health. Although there has been limited information of physiological functions of meat until recently, several attractive meat-based bioactive compounds, such as carnosine, anserine, l-carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid, have been studied. Emphasizing these activities is one possible approach for improving the health image of meat and developing functional meat products. This article provides potential benefits of representative meat-based bioactive compounds on human health and an overview of meat-based functional products. Strategies for designing novel functional meat products utilizing bioactive peptides and/or probiotic bacteria, is also discussed. This article focuses particularly on the possibility of meat protein-derived bioactive peptides, such as antihypertensive peptides. There are still some hurdles in developing and marketing novel functional meat products since such products are unconventional and consumers in many countries recognize meat and meat products to be bad for health. Along with accumulation of scientific data, there is an urgent need to inform consumers of the exact functional value of meat and meat products including novel functional foods.

  10. Enhancement of Nonspecific Immune Response and Growth Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei by Oral Administration of Nucleotides (PENINGKATAN RESPONS IMUN NONSPESIFIK DAN PERFORMA PERTUMBUHAN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI MELALUI PEMBERIAN NUKLEOTIDA SECARA ORAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henky Manoppo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the nonspecific immune responseand growth of Litopenaeus vannamei fednucleotide diet.  In Laboratory, juveniles were reared in two groups of glass aquaria, each with threereplications.  Shrimps in group one were fed nucleotide diet and in group two were fedpellet four consecutiveweeks. Total Haemocyte Count and Phenoleoxydase activity were evaluated at the end of feeding whilegrowth was measured at two weeks interval. At the end of feeding, shrimps were intramuscularlyinjectedwith Vibrio harveyi  0.1x106 cfu.shrimp-1.  In tambak, juveniles were raised in two groups of net cages(hapa, each with three replications. One group was fed nucleotide diet while the other wasfed pellet forfour weeks. Total Haemocyte Count of shrimp fed nucleotide diet significantly increased up to 87% higherthan shrimps fed pellet.  Phenoleoxydase activity of shrimp fed nucleotides diet also increased isignificantlyas compared to shrimp fed pellet (p=0.02. Higher resistance and growth were observed in shrimp fednucleotide diet. In tambak, weight gain of shrimp fed nucleotide was 35.75% greater than shrimp fedpellet. Survival rate (83.24% was higher than shrimp fed pellet (81.71%.  As conclusion, oral administrationof nucleotide at 400 mg.kg-1 diet could enhancethe nonspecific immune response, resistance, and growth ofL. vannamei.

  11. Power ultrasound in meat processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Rojo, A D; Janacua, H; Rodriguez, J C; Paniwnyk, L; Mason, T J

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound has a wide range of applications in various agricultural sectors. In food processing, it is considered to be an emerging technology with the potential to speed up processes without damaging the quality of foodstuffs. Here we review the reports on the applications of ultrasound specifically with a view to its use in meat processing. Emphasis is placed on the effects on quality and technological properties such as texture, water retention, colour, curing, marinating, cooking yield, freezing, thawing and microbial inhibition. After the literature review it is concluded that ultrasound is a useful tool for the meat industry as it helps in tenderisation, accelerates maturation and mass transfer, reduces cooking energy, increases shelf life of meat without affecting other quality properties, improves functional properties of emulsified products, eases mould cleaning and improves the sterilisation of equipment surfaces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. 317.308 Section 317.308 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of...

  13. 9 CFR 317.300 - Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Labeling § 317.300 Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. (a) Nutrition labeling shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition labeling of meat or meat food products. 317.300 Section 317.300 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  14. Will novel protein foods beat meat? : consumer acceptance of meat substitutes - a multidisciplinary research approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Meat production places a heavy burden on the environment and therefore options are sought to reduce meat consumption. One option is to let new meat substitutes take the place of meat on the plate. This can only succeed when these products are acceptable to consumers. The thesis investigated which

  15. The Efficacy of the clay meat ball as a method of traditional meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: meat ball, protein, mineral content. This work was carried out to determine the effectiveness of the use of clay meat balls (an African traditional method of preserving meat) in extending the shelf life of meat over a period of months against microbial (bacterial and fungal) spoilage and contamination without ...

  16. CRESCIMENTO E SOBREVIVÊNCIA DO CAMARÃO BRANCO DO PACIFÍCO Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 EM DIFERENTES SALINIDADES GROWTH AND SURVIVAL OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP Litopenaeus vannamei (BOONE, 1931 IN DIFFERENT SALINITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique dos Anjos dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei cultivadas em diferentes salinidades. Realizou-se o experimento no Centro de Tecnologia em Aquicultura da Universidade Federal do Ceará, durante o período de 1.o de setembro de 2006 a 31 de outubro de 2006. Em vinte aquários com volume útil de 30L foram distribuídos, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, cinco tratamentos (controle – 35%, 30‰, 20‰, 10‰ e 0‰ com quatro repetições cada. Foi utilizada a densidade de trinta indivíduos/aquário. As pós-larvas, em fase de PL 10, apresentavam peso e comprimento médio total inicial de 0,008 ± 0,001g e 11,00 ± 0,05mm, respectivamente. Os animais foram, gradativamente, aclimatados nas salinidades experimentais. Para as análises estatísticas, aplicou-se a análise de variância (ANOVA e, posteriormente, caso se verificassem diferenças significativas entre os tratamentos, o teste Tukey de separação de médias (? = 0,001. Os parâmetros de qualidade de água analisados mantiveram-se dentro dos padrões aceitáveis para o cultivo da espécie. As pós-larvas cultivadas em 0‰ apresentaram os melhores valores de peso final, incremento em peso, incremento relativo diário de biomassa e taxa de sobrevivência (P<0,001. Todavia, os animais cultivados em 10% mostraram os melhores valores de comprimento total e incremento em comprimento (P<0,001. Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que pós-larvas de L. vannamei apresentam taxas similares de crescimento e sobrevivência quando cultivadas em diferentes salinidades.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Gradiente salino, laboratório Litopenaeus vannamei, osmorregulação.
    The aim of this work was to evaluate the development of Litopenaeus vannameiat post-larvae (PL at different salinities. This experiment was carried out at the “Centro de Tecnologia em Aqüicultura/UFC” at the period from 01/09/2006 to 31/10/2006. Twenty

  17. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    OpenAIRE

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.; Leonova B. I.

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of spe...

  18. Detection of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone in radiation- sterilized chicken meat stored for several years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victoria, A.; Crone, J.; Hamilton, J.T.G.; Stevenson, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented indicating a linear relationship between irradiation dose (10–60 kGy) and the quantity of 2-dodecylcyclobutanone produced in irradiated frozen (-46°C) chicken meat. 2-Dodecylcyclobutanone was found in chicken meat sterilized (at -40°C) by gamma and electron beam irradiation 12 years previously and used for toxicity clearance. After freeze-drying the irradiated chicken samples still contained 2-dodecylcyclobutanone indicating that it was present in the diets tested. The compound was not detected in chicken meat sterilized by thermal processing 13 years ago. In addition, there was evidence that 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone was also present in the irradiation sterilized samples

  19. Goat Meat Consumer Preferences: Implications for Goat Meat Marketing in Metropolitan Nashville, Tennessee Area

    OpenAIRE

    Ekanem, Enefiok; Mafuyai-Ekanem, Mary; Tagegne, Fisseha; Singh, Surendra; Favors, Delicia

    2013-01-01

    Goat meat has become an increasingly good source of protein for meat eaters in the global marketplace. Goat meat constitutes about 63% of all red meat consumed worldwide. It is the main source of animal protein in many North African, Middle Eastern nations, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, and other tropical regions. This notwithstanding, goat meat is yet to take such prominence in the U.S. diet. Despite the acknowledgement of the meat as lean, tasty and less fatty than other meats (USDA 2001),...

  20. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-11-01

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly. Objective: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects. Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically 15 N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1- 13 C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of 15 N enrichment of amino acids. Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids ( P meat leucine in the plasma ( P meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen ( P meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Effects of periodical salinity fluctuation on the growth, molting, energy homeostasis and molting-related gene expression of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Guo, Xiantao; Wang, Fang; Dong, Shuanglin

    2016-10-01

    To determine the response of Litopenaeus vannamei to periodical salinity fluctuation, a 30-day experiment was conducted in laboratory. In this experiment, two salinity fluctuation amplitudes of 4 (group S4) and 10 (group S10) were designed. The constant salinity of 30 (group S0) was used as the control. Levels of shrimp growth, molting frequency (MF), cellular energy status (ATP, ADP and AMP), as well as the expression of genes encoding molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), ecdysteroid-regulated protein (ERP), and energy-related AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were determined. The results showed that periodical salinity fluctuation significantly influenced all indicators except MF which ranged from 13.3% in group S10 to15.4% in group S4. In comparison with shrimps cultured at the constant salinity of 30, those in group S4 showed a significant elevation in growth rate, food conversion efficiency, cellular energy status, ERP and MIH gene transcript abundance, and a significant reduction in CHH and AMPK transcript abundance ( P MIH and CHH gene expression when compared to the control ( P < 0.05). According to our findings, L. vannamei may be highly capable of tolerating salinity fluctuation. When ambient salinity fluctuated at approx. 4, the increased MF and energy stores in organisms may aid to promoting shrimp growth.

  2. Dextrose as carbon source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 in a zero exchange system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M Suita

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work compared the use of dextrose and molasses as carbon sources for biofloc development, water quality maintenance, microorganism composition and growth performance of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in biofloc technology (BFT. Two treatments, dextrose and molasses, were tested with four replicates each. Carbon was added to achieve a C:N-AT (N-(NH3+NH4+ ratio of 6:1. Physical and chemical water quality variables were monitored daily, and shrimp growth was estimated through periodic biometry. After 30 days, survival, final biomass, and feeding conversion rate (FCR were determined. Dissolved organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, floc volume, total ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate concentrations, and microorganisms (qualified by groups, were measured every three days. Water quality variables remained within acceptable levels throughout the experimental period, except for nitrite, which reached higher levels than recommended for this species. The use of dextrose resulted in higher water transparency, which influenced the remaining centric diatoms. A superior shrimp performance was observed at this treatment, presumably because of variations on the microbial community. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of dextrose results in a superior growth performance of L. vannamei when cultured in BFT systems.

  3. Effects of dietary replacement of fishmeal by mealworm meal on muscle quality of farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roseane L; Pinto, Stephanie S; Nóbrega, Renata O; Vieira, Felipe N; Fracalossi, Débora M; Samuels, Richard I; Prudêncio, Elane S; Silva, Carlos P; Amboni, Renata D M C

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the muscle quality of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed on a diet containing different proportions of mealworm meal (MW) (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) as a substitute for fishmeal, which is the normal diet used in shrimp commercial production. The proximate composition, fatty acid profile, colour and texture of the shrimps were evaluated. Moisture, protein, and ash content of shrimp muscle were not significantly altered when fishmeal was replaced by MW (p>0.05). However, the replacement resulted in a linear increase in lipid content (p<0.05). The fatty acid composition of the experimental diets directly mirrored the fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle. The absence of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in MW composition resulted in a linear decrease in eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic fatty acids in shrimp muscle with increasing levels of MW in the diet. The n-3/n-6 ratio ranged from 0.50 to 0.67. Colour and firmness were unchanged between the treatments. Although the use of MW as a fishmeal substitute in L. vannamei diets has affected the lipid and fatty acid composition of shrimp muscle, from a human nutritional perspective, the lipid content of the shrimps is considered low and the n-3/n-6 ratio remained within the human dietary requirements. Therefore the use of a mealworm diet for shrimp production is a viable alternative to increasingly expensive fishmeal based diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Food emulsion type oil in water prepared with high-protein from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads flour – SHF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Cano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of flour from shrimp (Penaeus vannamei heads with a high content of protein (SHF to stabilize food emulsions type oil in water (o/w is an alternative to take advantage of the by-products of the shrimp industry. The aim of this work was to prepare food emulsion type oil in water (o/w using the SHF due to the high percentage in proteins; for this procedure a physicochemical and bromatological characterization of flour of shrimps (Penaeus vannamei heads has been done, in which a percentage of protein 51 %, moisture of 11,82 %, fat 8,52 % and 22,23 % of ash has been obtained. The base emulsions may be used in food products such as salad dressing, mayonnaise, spreads, dressings and other products. The different emulsions with adequate rheological and microstructural characteristics were prepared using different concentrations of palm oil (20, 30 and 40%w/w and different concentrate of SHF (0,5, 1 and 2 % w/w. Therefore, we have obtained a food emulsion stable type oil in water (O/W with 2 % w/w of SHF, which presented a behavior non-Newtonian fluid type shear-thinning and homogeneous distribution of droplets.

  5. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanfen; Yu, Min; Liu, Jiwen; Qiao, Yanlu; Wang, Long; Li, Zhitao; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Yu, Mingchao

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial communities are called another "organ" for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy) and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods) were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria , mainly family Enterobacteriaceae , was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85%) in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L . vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery.

  6. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (Pshrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (Pshrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Heterosis and heritability estimates for the survival of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) under the commercial scale ponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Xia; LUAN Sheng; CAO Baoxiang; SUI Juan; DAI Ping; MENG Xianhong; LUO Kun; KONG Jie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to detect the potential of the base population from diallel crosses of eight introduced strains of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) for improving the yield. Heterosis and heritability were estimated for pond survival at commercial farm conditions for the base population that included 207 full-sib families from a nested mating design by artificial insemination. Among all the hybrids, the heterosis ranged from–11.37%(UA1×UA2) to 20.53%(UA3×SIN) with an average of 0.953%. The results showed that more than half of the hybrids (51.85%) have negative heterosis for survival rate, but most of the hybrids with positive heterosis have high estimates. The high proportion of negative heterosis for survival rate reminders us that the survival trait also should be considered in the crossbreeding program to avoid yield decrease. However, high positive heterosis manifested in most of the hybrids for survival indicates the usefulness of these hybrids for improving the survival to obtain higher yield by crossbreeding in this breeding program. The heritability estimate for pond survival was 0.092±0.043 when genetic groups were included in the pedigree, and it was significantly different from zero (P<0.05). The results from this study also indicated that significant improvement for survival is possible through selection in L. vannamei.

  8. Proteomic identification of the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei stimulated with vitamin C and Chinese herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jie; Du, Zhiheng; Zhang, Yueling; Du, Hong; Guo, Lingling; Zhong, Mingqi; Cao, Jingsong; Wang, Xiuying

    2011-12-01

    Recently, strong interest has been focused on immunostimulants to reducing the diseases in shrimp aquaculture. However, information regarding to the related immune-enhancing proteins in shrimps is not available yet. In this study, vitamin C (Vc), Chinese herbs (CH), and the mixture of vitamin C and Chinese herbs (Mix) were tested for their enhancement on shrimp's immune activity. Compared with those in the control group, values of phenoloxidase (PO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and antibacterial (Ua) activity in the Mix-treated group were improved significantly 12 or 24 days after the treatment. The cumulative mortality was also lower in the Mix-treated group after infection with Vibrio parahemolyticus. Furthermore, comparative proteomic approach was used to assess the protein expression profile in shrimps. Approximately 220-290 and 300-400 protein spots were observed in the 2-DE gels. Among them, 29 and 28 altered proteins from hemocytes and hepatopancreas, respectively, were subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis. The results revealed that the main altered proteins showed high homologies with Litopenaeus vannamei hemocyanin, hemolymph clottable protein, hemoglobin beta, cytosolic MnSOD, trypsin, cathepsin I(L) and zinc proteinase Mpc1. Together, these studies found Vc and CH were suitable immunostimulants to shrimp L. vannamei, and 7 altered proteins could be involved in the enhanced immune activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. ZResponse to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between body weight and body size in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2012-03-01

    To quantify the response to selection, heritability and genetic correlations between weight and size of Litopenaeus vannamei, the body weight (BW), total length (TL), body length (BL), first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD), first abdominal segment width (FASW), and partial carapace length (PCL) of 5-month-old parents and of offspnng were measured by calculating seven body measunngs of offspnng produced by a nested mating design. Seventeen half-sib families and 42 full-sib families of L. vannamei were produced using artificial fertilization from 2-4 dams by each sire, and measured at around five months post-metamorphosis. The results show that hentabilities among vanous traits were high: 0.515±0.030 for body weight and 0.394±0.030 for total length. After one generation of selection. the selection response was 10.70% for offspring growth. In the 5th month, the realized heritability for weight was 0.296 for the offspnng generation. Genetic correlations between body weight and body size were highly variable. The results indicate that external morphological parameters can be applied dunng breeder selection for enhancing the growth without sacrificing animals for determining the body size and breed ability; and selective breeding can be improved significantly, simultaneously with increased production.

  10. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of arginine kinase from the white Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Isac-Martinez, Felipe; Brieba, Luis G.; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.25 Å resolution of free-ligand arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei are reported. Crystals belong to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , phases were determined by molecular replacement and refinement was performed with Phenix. Crystals of an unligated monomeric arginine kinase from the Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvAK) were successfully obtained using the microbatch method. Crystallization conditions and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis to 1.25 Å resolution are reported. Data were collected at 100 K on NSLS beamline X6A. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 56.5, b = 70.2, c = 81.7 Å. One monomer per asymmetric unit was found, with a Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 2.05 Å 3 Da −1 and 40% solvent content. Initial phases were determined by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvAK as the search model. Refinement was performed with PHENIX, with final R work and R free values of 0.15 and 0.19, respectively. Biological analysis of the structure is currently in progress

  11. Evaluation of medicinal plants and colloidal silver efficiency against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured at low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Covarrubias, María Soledad; García-Aguilar, Noemí; Bolan-Mejía, María Del; Puello-Cruz, Ana Carmela

    2016-11-22

    In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.50 mg ml-1 and inhibitory halos of 12.0 to 19.0 mm. Colloidal silver gave a MIC of 2 mg ml-1, and the inhibitory halos were found to be between 11.8 and 18.8 mm, depending on treatment concentrations. An in vivo challenge test was conducted on white shrimp postlarvae cultured at low salinity (5 practical salinity units, PSU), and a significant increase (p colloidal silver 90%), when compared to the control (0%) in the challenge test. However, no significant differences were observed between treatments, suggesting that they all act as alternative bactericidal source agents against V. parahaemolyticus infections for L. vannamei postlarvae when cultured at 5 PSU.

  12. Bacterial Community Associated with Healthy and Diseased Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Larvae and Rearing Water across Different Growth Stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfen Zheng

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial communities are called another “organ” for aquatic animals and their important influence on the health of host has drawn increasing attention. Thus, it is important to study the relationships between aquatic animals and bacterial communities. Here, bacterial communities associated with Litopenaeus vannamei larvae at different healthy statuses (diseased and healthy and growth stages (i.e., zoea, mysis, and early postlarvae periods were examined using 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Bacterial communities with significant difference were observed between healthy and diseased rearing water, and several bacterial groups, such as genera Nautella and Kordiimonas could also distinguish healthy and diseased shrimp. Rhodobacteraceae was widely distributed in rearing water at all growth stages but there were several stage-specific groups, indicating that bacterial members in rearing water assembled into distinct communities throughout the larval development. However, Gammaproteobacteria, mainly family Enterobacteriaceae, was the most abundant group (accounting for more than 85% in shrimp larvae at all growth stages. This study compared bacterial communities associated with healthy and diseased L. vannamei larvae and rearing water, and identified several health- and growth stage-specific bacterial groups, which might be provided as indicators for monitoring the healthy status of shrimp larvae in hatchery.

  13. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2002-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  14. 9 CFR 319.261 - Meat loaf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat loaf. 319.261 Section 319.261... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  15. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  16. Breeding for meat quality in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovenier, R.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibilities of improving pig meat quality by selection. Therefore, literature is reviewed to determine the meat quality traits to be used and genetic parameters of those meat quality traits are calculated. A method is described to obtain

  17. 9 CFR 319.304 - Meat stews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat stews. 319.304 Section 319.304... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food...

  18. 9 CFR 319.260 - Luncheon meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Luncheon meat. 319.260 Section 319.260... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Luncheon Meat, Loaves and Jellied Products...

  19. Meat consumption, diabetes and its complications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feskens, E.J.M.; Sluik, D.; Woudenbergh, van G.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several prospective studies have reported that risk of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is elevated in meat consumers, especially when processed meats are consumed. Elevated risks of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke in meat consumers have also been reported. In this overview, the evidence regarding

  20. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    Juni Sumarmono; Samsu Wasito

    2010-01-01

    Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thor...

  1. Ensayo de diferentes lecitinas en la dieta de juveniles de Penaeus vannamei (Crustacea: Decapoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Denisse Re-Araujo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Para comparar diferentes niveles y calidades de lecitina se hizo un bioensayo nutricional con dietas isoenergéticas; para medir el crecimiento, la tasa de conversión alimenticia y sobrevivencia de juveniles de P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02. Las lecitinas experimentales fueron de calamar, lecitina liquida de soya (7%, lecitina desaceitada de soya (3.48% en combinación con aceite de pescado o lípidos neutros de calamar, en una formula parcialmente desaceitada. Las cinco dietas fueron administradas ad libitum con cuatro replicas (estanques de 15 camarones cada uno (5 x 4 x 15, durante 28 días. La mayor ganancia en peso fue (191% y FCR (1.69±0.041 fueron obtenidos con la dieta que contenía 7% de lecitina cruda de soya como única fuente de lípidos, seguida por la dieta que contenía 3.94% de lecitina desaceitada y 2.24% de aceite Menhaiden (172% y 2.03±0.054 respectivamente. Como se esperaba los resultados menos propicios fueron con la dieta que no contenía lecitina (121% y 2.42±0.129. La lecitina cruda de soya, cubrió los requerimientos de fosfolípidos y de lípidos neutrales, tanto como la dieta con lecitina desaceitada de soya con aceite de pescado o aceite de calamarThe effect of different lecithin sources and presentations on growth, food conversion ratio and survival of P. vannamei (290 mg ± 0.02 was studied. The bioassay was designed in order to compare different dietary levels and different quality of lecithin. Squid lecithin, crude soybean (7%, deoiled soybean lecithin (3.48% in combination with fish oil or squid neutral lipids, in a partially dilapidate formula. The isoenergetic diets were fed ad libitum to four replicate groups (tanks of 15 shrimps each (5 x 4 x 15, during 28 days. The result of the bioassay with the partially dilapidate formulas was; the best growth rate (191% and FCR (1.69±0.041 were obtained with the diet containing 7% of soybean crude lecithin as the unique lipid source. Followed by the diet countering 3

  2. Comparison of some reproductive characteristics of farmed and wild white shrimp males Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rendón Rodríguez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We rated some reproductive characteristics of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 males using 46 farmed individuals (weighing 21.42±0.56 g and 40 wild individuals (weighing 36.10±0.72 g. In farmed shrimps, spermatophore mean weight was 8.94±0.51 mg; total mean sperm count was 3.90±0.27 x 10(6 in each spermatophore; and mean percentage of normal sperm was 86.9±0.37 %. In wild individuals, the respective values were 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; and 62.1±3.56 %. In both groups, the differences between right and left spermatophore were not significant (pResumen Se evaluaron características reproductivas como peso del espermatóforo, número de espermatozoides y porcentaje de espermatozoides normales en 86 organismos de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannamei. de éstos, 46 individuos provinieron de estanques de cultivo con un peso de 21.42±0.56 g y el resto, 40, silvestres con un peso de 36.10±0.72 g. En los camarones cultivados, el peso de los espermatóforos fue de 8.94±0.51 mg; el número total de espermatozoides en cada espermatóforo fue de 3.90±0.27 x 10(6; y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales fue de 86.9±0.37 %. En los silvestres, los valores respectivos fueron de 30.68±2.32 mg; 6.22±1.09 x 10(6; y 62.1±3.56 %. En ambos grupos, las diferencias entre los espermatóforos derecho e izquierdo no fueron estadísticamente diferentes (p<0.01. Las diferencias en el peso de los espermatóforos y el porcentaje de espermatozoides normales, entre los camarones cultivados y silvestres, fueron significativas (p<0.01; sin embargo, en el número de espermatozoides tales diferencias no fueron significativas (p<0.01. La relación entre el peso del espermatóforo (Ws y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue Ws (mg=1.23(Wo-17.34 (r²=0.89, en camarones cultivados; y Ws (mg=2.57(Wo-60.04 (r²=0.64, en los silvestres. En organismos cultivados, la relación entre el número de espermatozoides (Cs y el peso de los individuos (Wo fue

  3. Polyculture of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and Mugil platanus mullet in earthen ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léa Carolina de Oliveira Costa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the growth performance of the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the mullet Mugil platanus in earthen ponds (200 m² located in the Laboratory of Continental Aquaculture of Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG, in both polyculture and monoculture systems. The study consisted of three replicates, as follows: shrimp monoculture (SM, shrimp and mullet polyculture (PO and mullet monoculture (MM. The stocking density was 10 post-larvae shrimp (PL m−2 and 0.67 mullet m−2. Fish and shrimp were fed commercial shrimp meal (38% crude protein once a day. Initially, the amount of feed to shrimp was 20% of their total biomass which was later reduced to 5%. Mullets were fed at 5% of their stocked biomass. The experiment lasted 79 days during the summer of 2007/2008. At harvest, shrimp in monoculture had weight gain (15.59 g, specific growth rate (8.40% day−1, apparent feed conversion (0.88, survival (91% and production (1.454 kg ha−1 significantly higher than in polyculture (1.039 kg ha−1. Mullets in polyculture had significantly better weight gain (42.72 g and specific growth rate (3.99 % day−1 than those in monoculture (31.04 g and 3.69% day−1, respectively, while the mullet condition factor was significantly smaller in polyculture (1.06 than in monoculture (1.13. The apparent feed conversion of the mullets did not present significant differences between monoculture (2.50 and polyculture (2.40. The physical and chemical water parameters were not significantly different in any of the experiments, except for the transparency, which was higher in earthen ponds with mullet monoculture. Polyculture of shrimp and mullet reared together in earthen ponds negatively affects the shrimp production and favors the production of mullets.

  4. Efecto de Vibrio harveyi en la sobre vivencia de larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Aguirre-Guzmán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos acuícolas son de gran relevancia en la alimentación humana, pero crean un medio ambiente artificial que promueve el crecimiento de diferentes especies de bacterias. Las especies del género Vibrio son bacterias de la microflora normal de los camarones peneidos y son también agentes patógenos oportunistas que pueden tomar ventaja de éstos cambios ecológicos generados en los cultivos acuícolas causando diferentes enfermedades, sobrevivencias bajas y pérdidas económicas en la producción de camarón. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue determinar la variación en la sensibilidad, de diferentes subestadios larvarios (nauplio, zoea I-III, misis I-III y en el de postlarva 1, del camarón blanco del Pacifico Litopenaeus vannamei al ser expuestos a tres dosis [103, 105, y 107 unidades formadoras de colonias (UFC ml-1] de V. harveyi, mediante infecciones por inmersión (30 min. Esta especie generó una sobrevivencia baja significativa en las larvas (p < 0,05 solamente en las dosis más altas (105 y 107 UFC ml-1, siendo la última dosis la que presentó los valores más bajos de sobrevivencia. Además, se observó que los subestadios larvales y en el de postlarva 1 fueron más resistentes a V. harveyi al aumentar la edad de los mismos. Esta información tiene gran significado para la industria acuícola, ya que les permite generar estrategias que disminuyan los efectos de V. harveyi y que les permita mejorar el crecimiento y sobrevivencia de las larvas y de postlarva 1 del camarón.

  5. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 from Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES. The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g–1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg–1g dry weight. The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= –0.70, Mn-Cu (r= –0.74, Se-Cu (r= –0.68, Se-Mn (r= 0.82 in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99, Mn-Al (r= 0.62, Mn-Fe (r= 0.62, Se-Al (r = 0.88, Se-Fe (r= 0.87, Se-Mn (r= 0.58 in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68, Al-Cu (r= 0.88, Fe-Cu (r= 0.95 and Fe-Al (r= 0.97 in the viscera.

  6. The oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of Litopenaeus vannamei to low temperature and air exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zihan; Regenstein, Joe M; Xie, Dandan; Lu, Wenjing; Ren, Xingchen; Yuan, Jiajia; Mao, Linchun

    2018-01-01

    Low temperature and air exposure were the key attributes for waterless transportation of fish and shrimp. In order to investigate the oxidative stress and antioxidant responses of the live shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in the mimic waterless transportation, live shrimp were cooled at 13 °C for 3 min, stored in oxygen at 15 °C for 12 h, and then revived in water at 25 °C. The survival rate of shrimp under this waterless transportation system was over 86.67%. The ultrastructure of hepatopancreas cells were observed while activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), antisuperoxide anion free radicals (ASAFR), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, content of malondialdehyde (MDA) and relative mRNA expressions of CAT and GSH-Px in the hemolymph and hepatopancreas were determined. Slight distortions of some organelles in hepatopancreas cells was reversible upon the shrimp revived from the cold shock. The activities of SOD, POD, CAT, GSH-Px, TAOC, ROS production and relative mRNA expressions of CAT and GSH-Px increased following the cold shock and reached peak levels after 3 or 6 h of storage, and then decreased gradually. There was no significant difference between the fresh and the revived shrimp in SOD, POD, GSH-Px, TAOC, ROS, MDA and relative mRNA expressions of CAT and GSH-Px. The oxidative stress and antioxidant responses were tissue-specific because hepatopancreas seemed to have a greater ability to defend against organelle damage and was more sensitive to stress than hemolymph based on the results of SOD activity, MDA content and GSH-Px mRNA expression. These results revealed that low temperature and air exposure caused significant oxidative and antioxidant responses, but did not lead to irreversible damages in this waterless system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis on the expression and function of syndecan in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Wen, Rong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2015-08-01

    Syndecan is considered to be a multifunctional protein which functions as a cell surface receptor involved in cell adhesion, migration, cytoskeleton organization and differentiation. Previous bioinformatic analysis has revealed that syndecan in shrimp might interact with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In the present study, we experimentally studied the function of syndecan in shrimp immunity. The syndecan from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvSDC) was cloned and analyzed. The full-length cDNA of LvSDC was 1005 bp, consisting of 59 bp 5'-UTR, 253 bp 3'-UTR, and 693 bp open reading frame encoding 230 amino acids. LvSDC consisted of an extracellular domain (ED), a transmembrane domain (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CD). TM and CD shared high similarities with those of syndecan proteins from other species. LvSDC was ubiquitously expressed in all tested tissues, with the highest level in Oka. After WSSV challenge, the transcription level of LvSDC in Oka was apparently up-regulated. Recombinant LvSDC protein and its rabbit polyclonal antibody were prepared for detecting the location of LvSDC in hemocytes using immunocytochemistry approach. Data showed that LvSDC mainly located at the cell membrane and the cytoplasm of hemocytes. After silencing of LvSDC with siRNA, the WSSV copy numbers and mortality of shrimp after WSSV infection were both significantly decreased. These data provide useful information for understanding the immune mechanism of shrimp to WSSV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei recombinant lactate dehydrogenase: Biochemical and kinetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregoso-Peñuñuri, Ambar A; Valenzuela-Soto, Elisa M; Figueroa-Soto, Ciria G; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Ochoa-Valdez, Manuel; Leyva-Carrillo, Lilia; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2017-09-01

    Shrimp lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is induced in response to environmental hypoxia. Two protein subunits deduced from different transcripts of the LDH gene from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LDHvan-1 and LDHvan-2) were identified. These subunits are expressed by alternative splicing. Since both subunits are expressed in most tissues, the purification of the enzyme from the shrimp will likely produce hetero LDH containing both subunits. Therefore, the aim of this study was to overexpress, purify and characterize only one subunit as a recombinant protein, the LDHvan-2. For this, the cDNA from muscle was cloned and overexpressed in E. coli as a fusion protein containing an intein and a chitin binding protein domain (CBD). The recombinant protein was purified by chitin affinity chromatography column that retained the CBD and released solely the full and active LDH. The active protein appears to be a tetramer with molecular mass of approximately 140 kDa and can use pyruvate or lactate as substrates, but has higher specific activity with pyruvate. The enzyme is stable between pH 7.0 to 8.5, and between 20 and 50 °C with an optimal temperature of 50 °C. Two pK a of 9.3 and 6.6, and activation energy of 44.8 kJ/mol°K were found. The kinetic constants K m for NADH was 23.4 ± 1.8 μM, and for pyruvate was 203 ± 25 μM, while V max was 7.45 μmol/min/mg protein. The shrimp LDH that is mainly expressed in shrimp muscle preferentially converts pyruvate to lactate and is an important enzyme for the response to hypoxia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  10. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.

  11. High pressure processing of meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Christensen, Mette; Ertbjerg, Per

    the rheological properties of pork meat batters by inducing formation of protein gels. HP induced protein gels are suggested to be formed by high molecular weight myofibrillar protein aggregates and by peptides formed by lysosomal enzyme-induced cleavage of myofibrillar proteins. Perspectives: The data presented...

  12. Fetal programming in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Min; Wang, Bo; Fu, Xing; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2015-11-01

    Nutrient fluctuations during the fetal stage affects fetal development, which has long-term impacts on the production efficiency and quality of meat. During the early development, a pool of mesenchymal progenitor cells proliferate and then diverge into either myogenic or adipogenic/fibrogenic lineages. Myogenic progenitor cells further develop into muscle fibers and satellite cells, while adipogenic/fibrogenic lineage cells develop into adipocytes, fibroblasts and resident fibro-adipogenic progenitor cells. Enhancing the proliferation and myogenic commitment of progenitor cells during fetal development enhances muscle growth and lean production in offspring. On the other hand, promoting the adipogenic differentiation of adipogenic/fibrogenic progenitor cells inside the muscle increases intramuscular adipocytes and reduces connective tissue, which improves meat marbling and tenderness. Available studies in mammalian livestock, including cattle, sheep and pigs, clearly show the link between maternal nutrition and the quantity and quality of meat production. Similarly, chicken muscle fibers develop before hatching and, thus, egg and yolk sizes and hatching temperature affect long-term growth performance and meat production of chicken. On the contrary, because fishes are able to generate new muscle fibers lifelong, the impact of early nutrition on fish growth performance is expected to be minor, which requires further studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Meeting the demand for meat?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yates-Doerr, E.

    2012-01-01

    Renewed fears expressed by the United Nations about worldwide population growth have coincided with international concerns about the increased consumption of meat. This article, which draws upon long-term fieldwork in the Guatemalan highlands and ongoing scientific research in the Netherlands,

  14. Effect of radiation processing on meat tenderisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    The effect of radiation processing (0, 2.5, 5 and 10 kGy) on the tenderness of three types of popularly consumed meat in India namely chicken, lamb and buffalo was investigated. In irradiated meat samples dose dependant reduction in water holding capacity, cooking yield and shear force was observed. Reduction in shear force upon radiation processing was more pronounced in buffalo meat. Protein and collagen solubility as well as TCA soluble protein content increased on irradiation. Radiation processing of meat samples resulted in some change in colour of meat. Results suggested that irradiation leads to dose dependant tenderization of meat. Radiation processing of meat at a dose of 2.5 kGy improved its texture and had acceptable odour.

  15. Main Concerns of Pathogenic Microorganisms in Meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nørrung, Birgit; Andersen, Jens Kirk; Buncic, Sava

    Although various foods can serve as sources of foodborne illness, meat and meat products are important sources of human infections with a variety of foodborne pathogens, i.e. Salmonella spp., Campylobacter jejuni/coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Verotoxigenic E. coli and, to some extent, Listeria monocytogenes. All these may be harboured in the gastrointestinal tract of food-producing animals. The most frequent chain of events leading to meat-borne illness involves food animals, which are healthy carriers of the pathogens that are subsequently transferred to humans through production, handling and consumption of meat and meat products. Occurrences of Salmonella spp., C. jejuni/coli, Y. enterocolitica and Verotoxigenic E. coli in fresh red meat vary relatively widely, although most often are between 1 and 10%, depending on a range of factors including the organism, geographical factors, farming and/or meat production practices.

  16. Experimental infection with different bacterial strains in larvae and juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei reared in Santa Catarina State, Brazil = Infecção experimental em larvas e juvenis de Litopaenaeus vannamei cultivados no Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Carlos Buglione

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the pathogenic characteristics of bacteria isolated from Litopenaeus vannamei during an outbreak at the Laboratory of Marine Shrimp, UFSC, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Their virulence potential in larvae and juvenile shrimp and theeffects on the total haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity and serum agglutinate titre were examined after experimental infection. Bacterial strains were isolated from larvae and adult shrimps, identified by the AP120E biochemical system as: two strains of Vibrioalginolyticus, three of Aeromonas salmonicida and one of Pasteurella multocida sp. and Pasteurella sp. All the bacterial strains isolated in this study caused mortality in shrimp. One strain of V. alginolyticus was responsible for 97.3 and 88.7% mortality in larvae and juvenil shrimps, respectively. The shrimp immunological system was influenced by experimental infection with V. alginolyticus. Decrease in the total haemocyte count and increase in the phenoloxidase activity and the serum agglutinate titre (p Este estudo avaliou as características patogênicas de cepas de bactérias isoladas de Litopenaeus vannamei durante surto de mortalidade no Laboratório de Camarões Marinhos, UFSC, Estado de Santa Catarina, Brasil. Seu potencial de virulência em larvas e juvenis de camarão marinho e os efeitos sobre a contagem total de hemócito, atividade de fenoloxidase e título aglutinante do soro foramavaliados após infecção experimental. As cepas bacterianas foram isoladas de larvas e de camarões adultos e identificadas bioquimicamente pelo sistema API20E como: duas cepas de Vibrio alginolyticus, três de Aeromonas salmonicida e uma de Pasteurella sp. e P. multocida. Todas as cepas isoladas provocaram mortalidade em L. vannamei, e uma de V. alginolyticus resultou em mortalidade de 97,3 e 88,7% para larvas e juvenis de camarões, respectivamente. O sistema imunológico dos camarões juvenis sofreu influência da infecção experimental

  17. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de 1pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1,T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p The objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-driedembryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4,post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose dietwas supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than growth found in the other experimental groups (T1, T3 and T4. Shrimp fed with DMP and EMB obtained a significantly higher absolute weight gain (6.7 mg than those found in treatments that used DMP and FLO (5.4 mg or DMP alone (5.8 mg in T3 and 5.7 mg in T4. Theseresults underline the nutritional value of freeze-dried Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei.

  18. Nutritional evaluation of lowering consumption of meat and meat products in the Nordic context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Hoppe, Camilla; Frost Andersen, Lene

    The World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) recommended in 2007 that consumer intake of red meat is minimized and processed meat eliminated. The recommendation was based on a systematic review of the available literature on the association between meat consumption and cancer. The recommendation...... to individuals was to ingest less than 500 grams of red meat per weeks, and very little - if anything - processed meats. In a new study, National Food Institute has assessed the nutritional consequences from living the recommendations of the WCRF, in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Denmark. The current consumption...... of meat in the Nordic countries is not far from the level WCRF has proposed on an individual level. The study also shows that it will have no significant nutritional consequences to reduce the intake of meat to the recommended, neither when it comes to red meat nor processed meat....

  19. Of Meat and Men: Sex Differences in Implicit and Explicit Attitudes Toward Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamish J. Love

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern attitudes to meat in both men and women reflect a strong meat-masculinity association. Sex differences in the relationship between meat and masculinity have not been previously explored. In the current study we used two IATs (implicit association tasks, a visual search task, and a questionnaire to measure implicit and explicit attitudes toward meat in men and women. Men exhibited stronger implicit associations between meat and healthiness than did women, but both sexes associated meat more strongly with ‘healthy’ than ‘unhealthy’ concepts. As ‘healthy’ was operationalized in the current study using terms such as “virile” and “powerful,” this suggests that a meat-strength/power association may mediate the meat-masculinity link readily observed across western cultures. The sex difference was not related to explicit attitudes to meat, nor was it attributable to a variety of other factors, such as a generally more positive disposition toward meat in men than women. Men also exhibited an attention bias toward meats, compared to non-meat foods, while females exhibited more caution when searching for non-meat foods, compared to meat. These biases were not related to implicit attitudes, but did tend to increase with increasing hunger levels. Potential ultimate explanations for these differences, including sex differences in bio-physiological needs and receptivity to social signals are discussed.

  20. Organic beef production by Maremmana breed: qualitative meat characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mele, Prof. Marcello; Morbidini, Prof. Luciano; Cozza, Dr. Francesca; Pauselli, Prof. Mariano; Pollicardo, Dr. Alice

    2008-01-01

    Meat quality of Maremmana young bulls and steers was evaluated during three consecutive years, according to an extension service experimental program. Cooking loss values of meat samples were lower in meat from steers, whereas shear force values were higher. Meat from steers was darker than meat from young bulls, as a consequence of a low level of Lightness and a high level of Chroma. Meat chemical composition showed a higher content of intramuscular fat in steer meat, which showed also a low...

  1. Control of salmonella in meat and meat products by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dempster, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of food irradiation in the protection of the public against food poisoning from eating meat or meat products contaminated with salmonella. Salmonella infections are increasing at an alarming rate (2000 in 1952 to 12000 reported cases in 1982 in England and Wales alone). Dr. Dempster reports that 50% of the chicken carcasses examined by workers in America were found to be salmonella contaminated. Use of irradiation in conjunction with mild refrigeration can extend the shelf-life of vacuum packed chicken by a factor of three. Important legislation now under discussion in the U.S.A. is likely to extend the applicability of food irradiation rapidly in the near future

  2. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathwar, Swapna C; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2012-12-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of "functional foods" which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared to the foods that conventionally have a high health image. This review gives the overall perception about importance of using meat/meat products as a functional food.

  3. Pelacakan Virus Bercak Putih pada Udang Vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei di Lombok dengan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (DETECTION OF WHITE SPOT SYNDROME VIRUS IN LITOPENAEUS VANNAMEI IN LOMBOK ISLAND USING REAL-TIME POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Arafani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is one of the most threatening diseases in shrimp and othercrustaceans affecting global shrimp farming. Since firstly detected in Taiwan in 1992, the disease hasspread globally and followed with considerable socio-economic consequences. This research was performedto detect the WSSV infection in shrimp farming in Lombok Island’s (West Nusa Tenggara using real-timepolymerase chain reaction. Samples of vaname (Litopenaeus vannamei were collected from several shrimpfarming in Lombok. Results indicated that the spread of WSSV has reached shrimp farms in Lombok,especially in Lendang Jae, West Lombok. Therefore, a biosurveillance program is strongly recommendedto government to avoid and halt the spread of the disease in East Indonesia region .

  4. Concentrations of environmental organic contaminants in meat and meat products and human dietary exposure: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, José L

    2017-09-01

    Meat and meat products is one of the most relevant food groups in an important number of human diets. Recently, the IARC, based on results of a number of epidemiological studies, classified the consumptions of red meat and processed meat as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. It was suggested that the substances responsible of the potential carcinogenicity would be mainly generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures. However, the exposure to environmental pollutants through meat consumption was not discussed. The purpose of the present paper was to review recent studies reporting the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and PAHs in meat and meat products, as well as the human exposure to these pollutants through the diet. It is concluded that the health risks derived from exposure to carcinogenic environmental contaminants must be considered in the context of each specific diet, which besides meat and meat products, includes other foodstuffs containing also chemical pollutants, some of them with carcinogenic potential. Anyhow, meat and meat products are not the main food group responsible of the dietary exposure to carcinogenic (or probably carcinogenic) environmental organic pollutants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. PRODUCTOS NATURALES COMO ESTIMULADORES DEL SISTEMA INMUNOLÓGICO DE Litopenaeus vannamei, INFECTADO CON Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Pe\\u00F1a-Navarro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la respuesta inmunológica de Litopenaeus vannamei con manano-oligosacáridos (T1, ajo (T2 y un compuesto de extractos de plantas (T3 después de ser infectados con Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Se realizaron dos bioensayos con una duración de seis (1x106 UFC y catorce (3x106 UFC días en el Centro de Investigación en Ciencias del Mar y Limnología de la Universidad de Costa Rica durante el 2011. Para esta investigación se extrajeron 120 camarones para cada periodo experimental de fincas ubicadas en la Península de Nicoya. Al finalizar la dosificación de los productos se evaluó la ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia. Luego de la infección con V. parahaemolyticus se realizaron hemogramas, coagulación, bacteriología de hemolinfa y mortalidad acumulada. Los parámetros inmunológicos no mostraron diferencias estadísticas (P>0,05 entre tratamientos en ningún periodo, sin embargo a los seis días T1 mostró los mejores resultados con 41,07x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,40 s y 4,44x103 UFC/ ml. En el periodo de catorce días T2 obtuvo los mejores valores (55,76x105 hemocitos/ml; una coagulación de 34,20 s y15,4x103 UFC/ml. La mortalidad acumulada se presentó a las diez horas de inoculación, hubo menor cantidad de muertes en T1 y T3 (76,2% a los seis días, mientras que a los catorce días fue para T1 (93,2%. La ganancia de peso y la conversión alimenticia resultaron con diferencias estadísticas (P<0,05 solo para el bioensayo que se extendió por seis días, donde T2 presentó una biomasa de 54,3 g, un incremento en la ganancia de peso de 19,3% y una conversión alimenticia de 1,4.

  6. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a

  7. PENGARUH STARVASI RANSUM PAKAN TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN, SINTASAN, DAN PRODUKSI UDANG VANAMEI (Litopenaeus vannamei DALAM WADAH TERKONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwardi Tahe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik terhadap pertumbuhan, sintasan, produksi, rasio konversi pakan, dan efisiensi pakan pada pemeliharaan udang vanamei dalam wadah terkontrol. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan 12 akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm dan dilengkapi dengan sistem aerasi. Hewan uji adalah pascalarva udang vanamei dengan bobot awal rata-rata 0,18 ± 0,02 g yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 50 ekor/akuarium. Rancangan penelitian adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yang masing-masing perlakuan terdiri atas tiga ulangan. Perlakuan yang diujikan adalah starvasi (pemuasaan melalui pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik yaitu A pengurangan ransum pakan 75%, B pengurangan ransum pakan 50%, C pengurangan ransum pakan 25%, dan D kontrol (tanpa pengurangan ransum pakan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pengurangan ransum pakan secara periodik tidak berpengaruh nyata (P > 0,05 terhadap pertambahan bobot biomassa, laju pertumbuhan harian, sintasan, produksi, dan rasio konversi pakan serta mampu meningkatkan efisiensi pakan sekitar 16,04%—21,97%. Penghematan penggunaan pakan untuk udang vanamei dapat dilakukan dengan pengurangan ransum pakan hingga 75% bobot biomassa/minggu. The aim of this study was to know the effect of starvation period by a gradual decrease in feed amounts on the growth, survival rate, productivity, food conversion ration (FCR, and food efficiency rate of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei in controlled containers. Twelve of 50 cm x 75 cm x 60 cm aquaria with aeration systems were used in this experiment. In each aquarium, we stocked 50 post larvae (PL with average weight of 0.18 ± 0.02 g. Four treatments, comprising, A a 75% decrease in feed, B a 50% decrease in feed, C a 25% decrease in feed, and D control (without feed reduction with three replications were employed in the experiment following complete randomized design (DSG. The results

  8. Meat-based enteral nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derevitskay, O. K.; Dydykin, A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Enteral nutrition is widely used in hospitals as a means of nutritional support and therapy for different diseases. Enteral nutrition must fulfil the energy needs of the body, be balanced by the nutrient composition and meet patient’s nutritional needs. Meat is a source of full-value animal protein, vitamins and minerals. On the basis of this research, recipes and technology for a meat-based enteral nutrition product were developed. The product is a ready-to-eat sterilised mixture in the form of a liquid homogeneous mass, which is of full value in terms of composition and enriched with vitamins and minerals, consists of particles with a size of not more than 0.3 mm and has the modified fat composition and rheological characteristics that are necessary for passage through enteral feeding tubes. The study presents experimental data on the content of the main macro- and micro-nutrients in the developed product. The new product is characterised by a balanced fatty acid composition, which plays an important role in correction of lipid metabolism disorders and protein-energy deficiency, and it is capable of satisfying patients’ daily requirements for vitamins and the main macro- and microelements when consuming 1500-2000 ml. Meat-based enteral nutrition can be used in diets as a standard mixture for effective correction of the energy and anabolic requirements of the body and support of the nutritional status of patients, including those with operated stomach syndrome.

  9. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon in Intensive Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Tarsim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield affected by addition of this species. Final  affected by white legged shrimp addition. No adding effects were found on the water quality parameters. The results indicate that, at densities tested, white legged shrimp addition to the intensive farming of tiger shrimp polyculture is viable as species increase crop production Key words: Penaeus vannamei, P. monodon, growth, survival, polyculture

  10. Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as affected by prior autolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senphan, Theeraphol; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-09-15

    Compositions and yield of lipids extracted from hepatopancreas of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) subjected to autolysis at 60°C for different times (0, 30, 60, 90 120 and 150 min) were investigated. Extraction yield increased from 7.4% to 8.8% as autolysis time increased from 0 to 150 min. Coincidental increase in total carotenoid content was obtained with increasing autolysis time (pautolysis time increased (pautolysis (p>0.05), but subsequently increased up to 150 min. (pautolysis were observed. Lipids extracted contained docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6(n-3)) as the most abundant fatty acid, followed by eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5(n-3)). Therefore, prior autolysis at 60°C for 60 min increased the extraction yield without negative effect on lipid quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate and immune parameters in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutchanee Chotikachinda

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Effects of dietary inactive yeast cell wall on growth performance, survival rate, and immune parameters in pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei was investigated. Three dosages of inactive yeast cell wall (0, 1, and 2 g kg-1 were tested in three replicate groups of juvenile shrimps with an average initial weight of 7.15±0.05 g for four weeks. There was no significant difference in final weight, survival rate, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, feed intake, protein efficiency ratio, and apparent net protein utilization of each treatments. However, different levels of inactive yeast cell wall showed an effect on certain immune parameters (p<0.05. Total hemocyte counts, granular hemocyte count, and bacterial clearance were better in shrimp fed diets supplemented with 1 and 2 g kg-1 inactive yeast cell wall as compared with thecontrol group.

  12. Effect of light and aeration on the metamorphosis rate from nauplii to protozoea and larval quality of Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadja Radtke Nunes

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the optimal ranges of the factors light intensity and aeration that reflect the best rate of metamorphosis from nauplii to the first protozoea stage of Litopenaeus vannamei, and also the highest quality of the larvae, two separate experiments were carried out. The nauplii were exposed to four different light intensities (0; 5,000; 10,000; and 15,000 lux and four aeration conditions (static, low, medium and strong. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA (significance level of 5%, followed by Tukey test for comparison of means. There were no significant differences between the percentages of metamorphosis under the different conditions of light and aeration that were tested (P>0.05. However, the score of the quality of the larvae was significantly lower (P<0.05 for the condition of continuous darkness (0 lux and the treatment with low intensity of aeration compared to other treatments in both experiments.

  13. Isolation and risk assessment of Geotrichum spp. in the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931 from culture ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ochoa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was done in order to identify the fungus invading some of the supralittoral ponds used for shrimp aquaculture in the CIBNOR facilities in La Paz, Baja California Sur (BCS, México during the summer season. From the walls and bottoms of the ponds, two strains of Geotrichum spp. were isolated and morphologically identified. Fungal adhesion towards hemocytes and primary cultures of various white shrimp (Litopeneaus vannamei tissues (gill, tegument, and gut was analyzed to determine infectivity. Extracellular protease, lipase, and amylase activity were evaluated as virulence factors. Survival of shrimp post-larvae (PL8 exposed to fungal culture supernatant or to their filaments was also investigated. The results showed that shrimp tegument cells and hemocytes were very susceptible to Geotrichum spp. invasion, and that this fungus provokes great mortality of post-larvae. Hence, Geotrichum spp. could be considered an opportunistic pathogen that might represent a serious health risk to shrimp in culture.

  14. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 + 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 + 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 + 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 + 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  15. Nursery Culture Performance of Litopenaeus vannamei with Probiotics Addition and Different C/N Ratio Under Laboratory Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIDANARNI

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Application of bioflocs technology and probiotics has improved water quality and production of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei culture. This experiment was to verify the effect of probiotic bacteria addition and different carbon:nitrogen (C:N ratio on water quality and performance of Pacific white shrimp nursery culture. Nursery culture was carried out for 25 days in an aquarium under laboratory condition with stock density of one Post-Larvae (PL (poslarval per liter (24 PL/aquarium of PL16 shrimp. Different C:N ratio resulted a significant difference on shrimp production performance. Treatment of 10 C:N ratio demonstrated the best shrimp growth (20.37 ± 0.48% per day in weight and 6.05 ± 0.41% per day in length, harvesting yield (1180 ± 62 g/m3 and feed efficiency (121 ± 6%. There was however no significant difference observed between treatments in water quality.

  16. The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, G Owen; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-05-01

    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either to nature or to animals; 2) it will reduce the number of happy animals in the world; and 3) it will open the door to cannibalism. While each objection has some attraction, we ultimately find that all can be overcome. The upshot is that in vitro meat production is generally permissible and, especially for ethical vegetarians, worth promoting.

  17. Meat and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M J

    1999-05-01

    In early epidemiological studies of diet and cancer the stress was on the search for causal factors. Population (ecological) studies tended to show a strong correlation between meat intake, particularly red meat, and the risk of colo-rectal cancer. They also tended to show meat to be strongly inversely correlated with cancers of the stomach and oesophagus and liver. Early case-control studies tended to support the postulated role for red meat in colo-rectal carcinogenesis, although more recent case-control studies, particularly those from Europe, have tended to show no relationship. The cohort studies in general failed to detect any relationship between meat intake and colo-rectal cancer risk. The available evidence points to the intake of protective factors such as vegetables and whole-grain cereals being the main determinants of colo-rectal cancer risk, with meat intake only coincidentally related.

  18. Introducing the new meat. Problems and prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stellan Welin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cultured meat, or in vitro meat, is one of the ideas that are being proposed to help solve the problems associated with the ever-growing global meat consumption. The prospect may bring benefit for the environment, climate, and animal ethics, but has also generated doubts and criticism. A discussion of the possible environmental benefit and of animal ethics issues in relation to cultured meat production will be given. A perceived 'unnaturalness' of cultured meat may be one of the strongest barriers for public acceptance. This will be discussed and rejected. As to our relations with nature and animals, it is plausible that cultured meat will lead to improvement rather than to deterioration. The issue of public acceptance and some of the problems of introducing this new product on the market will also be discussed.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v7i1.1788

  19. Probiotic modulation of the gut bacterial community of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irasema E Luis-Villaseñor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of two probiotic mixtures was studied using the fingerprints of the bacterial community of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles exposed to probiotics and challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus CAIM 170. Fingerprints were constructed using 16S rRNA gene and the PCR-SSCP (Single strand conformation polymorphism technique, and the probiotics used were an experimental Bacillus mixture (Bacillus tequilensis YC5-2 + B. endophyticus C2-2 and YC3-B and the commercial probiotic Alibio. The DNA for PCR-SSCP analyses was extracted directly from the guts of shrimps treated for 20 days with the probiotics and injected with 2.5*10(5 CFU g-1 of V. parahaemolyticus one week after suspension of the probiotic treatment. Untreated shrimps served as positive (injected with V. parahaemolyticus and negative (not injected controls Analysis of the bacterial community carried out after inoculation and 12 and 48 h later confirmed that V. parahaemolyticus was present in shrimps of the positive control , but not in the negative control or treated with the probiotic mixtures. A significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between times after infection. The band patterns in 0-12 h were clustered into a different group from that determined after 48 h, and suggested that during bacterial infection the guts of whiteleg shrimp were dominated by gamma proteobacteria represented by Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. Our results indicate that the experimental and the commercial mixtures are suitable to modulate the bacterial community of L. vannamei and could be used as a probiotic to control vibriosis in juvenile shrimp.

  20. Adaptation of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei to gradual changes to a low-pH environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Si-Yin; Wang, Bao-Jie; Liu, Mei; Wang, Meng-Qiang; Jiang, Ke-Yong; Liu, Xin-Wei; Wang, Lei

    2018-03-01

    pH variation could cause a stress response in euryhaline penaeids, we evaluated the mortality, growth performance, osmoregulation gene expression, digestive enzyme activity, histology, and resistance against Vibrio parahemolyticus of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared under conditions of gradual changes to a low-pH environment (gradual-low pH, 6.65-8.20) or a high-pH environment (gradual-high pH, 8.20-9.81) versus a normal pH environment (8.14-8.31) during a 28-d experiment. Consequently, under gradual-high pH, the cumulative mortality rate (CMR) rose with time until 39.9% on days 28; the weight gain percentage (WGP) and length gain percentage (LGP) decreased continuously. However, under gradual-low pH, the CMR of shrimp stabilized at 6.67% during 7-28 d; the WGP and LGP decreased first and then returned to normal. These results indicated that L. vannamei displayed a moderate tolerance to gradual-low pH, compared with gradual-high pH. Under gradual-low pH, the Na + /K + -ATPase, cytoplasmic carbonic anydrase (CAc), and glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol-linked carbonic anhydrase (CAg) transcripts of shrimp increased continuously or then back to normal; the amylase, lipase, and trypsin activities decreased first and then returned to normal or increased; the hepatopancreases and midguts showed histopathological lesions first and then got remission. Thus, the major adaptation mechanism of shrimp to gradual-low pH might be its high osmoregulation ability, which made shrimp achieve a new, balanced steady-state, then promoted longer intestinal villi and recuperative hepatopancreases of shrimp with enhanced digestive enzyme activities to increase nutrient absorption after long-term exposure. Meanwhile, the enhanced resistance against V. parahemolyticus under gradual-low pH would probably inhibit disease outbreak in the shrimp farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal content and ratio of lysine to arginine in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhengfu; Dong, Chaohua; Wang, Linlin; Hu, Yanjiang; Zhu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    The optimal quantity of dietary lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg), and the optimal ratio of dietary Lys to Arg for Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei were investigated. Coated Lys and Arg were added to a basal diet (37.99% crude protein and 7.28% crude lipid) to provide graded levels of Lys and Arg. The experimental diets contained three Lys levels (2.51%, 2.11%, and 1.70% of total diet), and three Arg levels (1.41%, 1.80%, and 2.21% of total diet) and all combinations of these levels were tested. Pacific white shrimp, with a mean weight of 3.62±0.1 g, were randomly distributed in 36 fiberglass tanks with 30 shrimp per tank and reared on the experimental diets for 50 days. After the feeding trial, the growth performance, survival, feed conversion rate (FCR), body composition and protease and lipase activities in the hepatopancreases of the experimental shrimps were determined. The results show that weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), FCR, body protein, body Lys and Arg content were significantly affected by dietary Lys and Arg ( P shrimps appeared higher when dietary Lys and Arg quantities were 2.11% ˜2.51% and 1.80%˜2.21%, although the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05). Therefore, according to our results, the optimal Lys and Arg quantities in the diet of Pacific white shrimp, L. vannamei, were considered to be 2.11%-2.51% and 1.80%-2.21%, respectively, and the optimal ratio to be 1:0.88-1:1.05.

  2. Validation of a commercial insulated isothermal PCR-based POCKIT test for rapid and easy detection of white spot syndrome virus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Long Tsai

    Full Text Available Timely pond-side detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV plays a critical role in the implementation of bio-security measures to help minimize economic losses caused by white spot syndrome disease, an important threat to shrimp aquaculture industry worldwide. A portable device, namely POCKIT™, became available recently to complete fluorescent probe-based insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR, and automatic data detection and interpretation within one hour. Taking advantage of this platform, the IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system was established to allow simple and easy WSSV detection for on-site users. The assay was first evaluated for its analytical sensitivity and specificity performance. The 95% limit of detection (LOD of the assay was 17 copies of WSSV genomic DNA per reaction (95% confidence interval [CI], 13 to 24 copies per reaction. The established assay has detection sensitivity similar to that of OIE-registered IQ2000™ WSSV Detection and Protection System with serial dilutions of WSSV-positive Litopenaeus vannamei DNA. No cross-reaction signals were generated from infectious hypodermal and haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV, monodon baculovirus (MBV, and hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV positive samples. Accuracy analysis using 700 L. vannamei of known WSSV infection status shows that the established assayhassensitivity93.5% (95% CI: 90.61-95.56% and specificity 97% (95% CI: 94.31-98.50%. Furthermore, no discrepancy was found between the two assays when 100 random L. vannamei samples were tested in parallel. Finally, excellent correlation was observed among test results of three batches of reagents with 64 samples analyzed in three different laboratories. Working in a portable device, IQ Plus™ WSSV Kit with POCKIT system allows reliable, sensitive and specific on-site detection of WSSV in L. vannamei.

  3. Effect of dietary poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on growth performance, intestinal health status and body composition of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yafei; Zhang, Yue; Dong, Hongbiao; Zheng, Xiaoting; Wang, Yun; Li, Hua; Liu, Qingsong; Zhang, Jiasong

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of dietary supplementation of poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) on the growth performance, intestinal digestive and immune function, intestinal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) content and body composition of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) was evaluated. The shrimp was fed for 35 days with four different diets: 0%, 1%, 3% and 5% PHB supplemented feed. The results indicated that supplementation of PHB significantly increased the growth performance of the shrimp, and the feed conversion rate (FCR) in 3%PHB treatment group was significantly lower than the control (P PHB treatment groups were all significantly higher than that of the control (P PHB treatment (P > 0.05). The activities of intestinal immune enzymes such as total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was significantly induced by 3%PHB treatment (P PHB treatment and nitric oxide (NO) content was significantly induced in three PHB treatments. Meanwhile, PHB induced significantly the expression level of intestinal heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), Toll and immune deficiency (Imd) gene. HE staining showed that PHB induced the intestinal health status of L. vannamei. Intestinal SCFA content analysis revealed that the content of propionic and butyric acid of 3%PHB treatment were significantly higher than that of the control (P PHB treatments, and the crude lipid in 1% and 5%PHB treatments were all significantly higher than the control (P PHB could improve the growth performance, modulated intestinal digestive and immune function, increased intestinal SCFA content and body composition in L. vannamei, and the optimum dietary PHB requirement by L. vannamei was estimated at 3% (w/w) diet. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Potential Probiotic Lactococcus lactis Subsp. lactis on Growth Performance, Intestinal Microbiota, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Disease Resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; El-Sayed, Abdel-Fattah M; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Giri, Sib Sankar

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis on the growth, intestinal microbiota, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of Litopenaeus vannamei. Diets containing four different concentrations of L. lactis (0 [basal diet], 10 6 , 10 7 , and 10 8  CFU g -1 ) were fed to white shrimps L. vannamei (average weight 5.89 ± 0.36 g) for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, shrimps were immersed in Caspian Seawater (10.8 ppt) contaminated with 10 6  CFU ml -1 pathogenic V. anguillarum for 2 h. Results revealed that growth rate, survival, and body protein level were increased with dietary supplementation of L. lactis. The activities of digestive enzymes (cellulose, lipase, amylase, and protease) were significantly higher in the groups fed with diets containing 10 7 or 10 8  CFU g -1 L. lactis than those in the control. The Lactobacillus and Bacillus counts were higher (P lactis-supplemented diets. In addition, higher level of L. lactis supplementation decreased the Vibrio counts. Moreover, L. vannamei fed diet supplemented with 10 8  CFU g -1 of L. lactis exhibited significantly the highest hematocyte count and post-challenge survival rate (79.2 %). Collectively, these results suggest that dietary supplementation of L. lactis subsp. lactis at 10 8  CFU g -1 can promote growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and disease resistance of L. vannamei.

  5. Functional Characteristics of Spent Duck Meat for Use in Emulsion-Type Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juni Sumarmono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Spent ducks produce nutritive meat; however the meat possesses undesirable characteristics such as strong odor and tough. Hence, appropriate yet simple processing technologies need to be developed in order to maximize the use of duck meat. The experiment was conducted to evaluate functional characteristics of spent duck meat as raw material for the production of emulsion-type meat products, such as nugget and sausage. Chilled carcasses of 96 spent ducks were deboned manually, then mixed thoroughly and ground using a 5 mm diameter grinding plate. The ground meat was divided into 4 batches (group of treatments; one batch was treated with iced tap water (M1, one batch with 0.1% NaCl solution (M2, one batch with 0.5% NaHCO3 solution (M3, and one batch was left as is as control (M4. Variables measured were water holding capacity (WHC, pH, emulsion capacity and stability of the meat; and firmness and tenderness of the meat gel. Results showed that M1 meat has significantly higher WHC (less percentage of free water than control (M4, whereas M2 and M3 meat has similar WHC to control. Processing caused the ground duck meat to have significantly higher pH than control. The highest meat pH was observed in M3, followed by M2, M1 and control. Processing duck meat with iced tap water, NaCl or NaHCO3 produced significantly more tender meat gel compared to untreated meat (as is. Tenderness of meat gel of M3 was the most tender followed by M2 and M1. Similar results for meat gel firmness were observed. No significant differences were observed in term of emulsion capacity (expressed as ml oil/gr protein and ml oil/gr fresh meat, emulsion stability (expressed as ml oil and total liquid released per 100 gr emulsion, and cooking recovery (%. The study reported in this paper offers simple processing technologies to improve functional characteristics of spent duck meat to be use as raw material for the production of emulsion type meat products. (Animal Production 12

  6. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds res...

  7. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey Fisher; Richard Stock; David A. Mangione; Larry A. Nye

    2009-01-01

    Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaught...

  8. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications stri...

  9. Characteristics and consumer acceptance of healthier meat and meat product formulations—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Hathwar, Swapna C.; Rai, Amit Kumar; Modi, Vinod Kumar; Narayan, Bhaskar

    2011-01-01

    Awareness of health and nutrition has led to the development of “functional foods” which is a new approach to achieve healthier status thus reducing the risk of diseases. Meat has been highly exploited as a functional ingredient/food in recent years wherein meat has either been modified or incorporated into non meat products. Changing consumer demand has influenced the market for all types of meat. The development and marketing the functional foods can be, however, very challenging compared t...

  10. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, relig...

  11. 9 CFR 311.38 - Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been exposed to radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat and meat byproducts from... MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR OTHERWISE ADULTERATED CARCASSES AND PARTS § 311.38 Meat and meat byproducts from livestock which have been...

  12. Endogenous molecules released by haemocytes receiving Sargassum oligocystum extract lead to downstream activation and synergize innate immunity in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin-Ze; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Hui-Fang

    2018-05-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei haemocytes receiving immunostimulating Sargassum oligocystum extract (SE) caused necrosis in haemocyte cells, which released endogenous EM-SE molecules. This study examined the immune response of white shrimp L. vannamei receiving SE and EM-SE in vitro and in vivo. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE exhibited degranulation, changes in cell size and cell viability, necrosis and a release of EM-SE. Shrimp haemocytes receiving SE, EM-SE, and the SE + EM-SE mixture (SE + EM-SE) increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity which was significantly higher in shrimp haemocytes receiving the SE + EM-SE mixture. Furthermore, shrimp haemocytes receiving EM-SE showed degranulation and changes in cell size and cell viability. Shrimp receiving SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE all increased their immune parameters, phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus, being significantly higher in shrimp receiving SE + EM-SE. Meanwhile, the recombinant lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan binding protein of L. vannamei (rLvLGBP) was bound to SE, EM-SE, and SE + EM-SE. We conclude that in shrimp haemocytes receiving a non-self molecule, SE in dying cells released EM-SE which led to downstream activation and synergization of the immune response. This study demonstrated that the innate immunity of shrimp was elicited and enhanced by a mixture of endogenous molecules and exogenous substances (or immunostimulants). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental impacts of cultured meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomisto, Hanna L; de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira

    2011-07-15

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m(3) water, 190-230 m(2) land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO(2)-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat.

  14. Improvement of organic meat products nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Žilytė, Eglė

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research: to improve the food value indicators of cold-smoked organic meat and implement the quality requirements, which are raised for a national meat products of the company X. To answer the purpose it has been created a new recipe for cold-smoked sausage and cold-smoked minced sausage by using the produced meat in the farm X. It has been evaluated the compliance of the national products quality with the index of food value of improved cold-smoked meat products. It has bee...

  15. Longissimus muscle transcriptome profiles related to carcass and meat quality traits in fresh meat Pietrain carcasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Hulsegge, B.; Hoving-Bolink, A.H.; Evans, G.; Mulder, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    High quality pork is consumed as fresh meat while other carcasses are used in the processing industry. Meat quality is determined measuring technical muscle parameters. The objective of this research was to investigate the molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying meat quality differences of pork

  16. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  17. Meat consumption, meat cooking and risk of lung cancer among Uruguayan men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, María

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted in Uruguay, including 876 male cases of lung cancer and 876 male hospitalized controls, frequency matched for age (ten-year intervals), residence and hospital. The following explanatory variables were included in the study: fried red meat, barbecued red meat, boiled red meat, and salted red meat. These items were log transformed and energy-adjusted by the residuals method. The following potential confounders were included into the models: age, residence, hospital, education, family history of lung cancer, body mass index, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy intake, non-meat fatty foods and total fruits. The main objective was to estimate the odds ratios associated with lung cancer risk. Whereas fried meat, barbecued meat, and salted meat were positively associated with risk (OR of the highest quartile of salted meat versus the lowest, 2.90, 95 % CI 1.99-4.25, p-value for trend<0.0001), boiled red meat was mainly protective. We conclude that salted meat was the main risk factor. The mechanisms could be related to the content of N-nitroso compounds in salted meat.

  18. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY...

  19. An Insight of Meat Industry in Pakistan with Special Reference to Halal Meat: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Jamil, Faraz

    2017-01-01

    Livestock is considered central component in agricultural sector of Pakistan, provides employment to more than 8 million families. Meat and meat products holds pivotal significance in meeting dietary requirements serving as major protein source and provide essential vitamins and minerals. Globally, consumer demand is increasing for healthy, hygienic and safe meat and meat products due to growing population, income level and food choices. As, food choices are mainly influenced by region, religion and economic level. However, religion is one of the major factor to influence the food choices. In this context, halal foods a growing trend, trade estimated to cross USD $ 3 trillion and among this, meat sector contribute about US$ 600 billion. Halal meat and allied products is requirement from Muslims but it is also accepted by non-Muslims due to safe and hygienic nature, nutritious value and superior quality. Pakistan meat industry is vibrant and has seen rigorous developments during last decade as government also showed interest to boost livestock production and processing facilities to meet increasing local and global demand. The industry has potential to grow owing to its natural animal rearing capability, muslim majority country (96% of total population), improvisation of market and consumer preference towards halal meat. Current review debates Pakistan meat industry scenario, production trend, global trade as well as future potential with respect to modernization, processing, distribution and trade. The data presented here is useful for meat producers, processors and people involved in export of Pakistani meat and meat based products.

  20. Consumers' motivational associations favoring free-range meat or less meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.; Aiking, H.

    2009-01-01

    The present paper analyzed the motivational orientations of consumers who choose to eat (1) small portions of meat or (2) ethically distinctive meat, such as free-range meat, in relation to the motivational orientations of their opposites. Going beyond the conventional approach to consumer behavior,

  1. Radappertization of chicken and pork meat by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    In this report the benefits that presents the irradiation process in the conservation of meat products, as the chicken, head meat and pig meat are analysed, also the implications that it brings in health and economical aspects. (Author)

  2. Radiation sensitivity of foodborne pathogens in meat byproducts with different packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, Hae In; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Nam, Ki Chang; Kwon, Joong Ho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine radiation sensitivity of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in edible meat byproducts. Seven beef byproducts (heart, liver, lung, lumen, omasum, large intestine, and small intestine) and four pork byproducts (heart, large intestine, liver, and small intestine) were used. Electron beam irradiation significantly reduced the numbers of pathogenic microorganisms in meat byproducts and no viable cells were detected in both aerobically- and vacuum-packaged samples irradiated at 4 kGy. Meat byproducts packed under vacuum had higher D 10 value than the ones packed aerobically. No significant difference was observed between the D 10 values of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes inoculated in either aerobically or vacuum packaged samples. These results suggest that low-dose electron beam irradiation can significantly decrease microbial numbers and reduce the risk of meat byproduct contamination by the foodborne pathogens. - Highlights: • Radiation sensitivities of pathogens in meat byproduct were tested. • Electron beam irradiation of 3 or 4 kGy reduced pathogens by> 9 log • The D 10 values were lower in the aerobic-packaging than under vacuum condition

  3. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, G.A.; Tobi, H.; Fischer, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries

  4. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces th...

  5. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Liran Christine; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G.; Monahan, Frank J.

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences ...

  6. ACTIVE PACKAGING SYSTEM FOR MEAT AND MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pavelková

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the recent past, food packaging was used to enable marketing of products and to provide passive protection against environmental contaminations or influences that affect the shelf life of the products. However, unlike traditional packaging, which must be totally inert, active packaging is designed to interact with the contents and/or the surrounding environment. Interest in the use of active packaging systems for meat and meat products has increased in recent years. Active packaging systems are developed with the goal of extending shelf life for foods and increasing the period of time that the food is high quality. Developments in active packaging have led to advances in many areas, including delayed oxidation and controlled respiration rate, microbial growth, and moisture migration. Active packaging technologies include some physical, chemical, or biological action which changes interactions between a package, product, and/or headspace of the package in order to get a desired outcome. Active packaging systems discussed include oxygen scavengers, carbon dioxide scavengers and emitters, moisture control agents, flavour/odour absorbers and releasers  and antimicrobial packaging technologies. Active packaging is typically found in two types of systems; sachets and pads which are placed inside of packages, and active ingredients that are incorporated directly into packaging materials.  Recognition of the benefits of active packaging technologies by the food industry, development of economically viable packaging systems and increased consumer acceptance is necessary for commercial realisation of these packaging technologies.doi:10.5219/205

  7. Effects of electrical stimulation on meat quality of lamb and goat meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Omer; Bingol, Enver Baris; Colak, Hilal; Hampikyan, Hamparsun

    2012-01-01

    Effect of various voltage of electrical stimulation (ES) on meat quality of lamb and goat was investigated by using a total of 36 animals at 3-5 years old. Constant 50 Hz frequency and 50, 100, and 250 V, 90 sec of ES were administered to 1/2 carcasses and were examined according their textural, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics. ES decreased the pH values of lamb and goat meat, and accelerated the rigor mortis (P goat meat, and tenderness was improved depending on voltage range used (P goat meat compared with the control groups (P meat quality of lamb and goat, in contrast to undesirable consumer preferences.

  8. Effect of dietary plant extract on meat quality and sensory parameters of meat from Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Ratti, Sabrina; Pastorelli, Grazia; Maghin, Federica; Martemucci, Giovanni; Casamassima, Donato; D'Alessandro, Angela Gabriella; Corino, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Plant extracts as Lippia spp. have been proven antioxidant properties. Recent studies have been shown that dietary supplementation with plant extracts is able to enhance meat quality parameters. Studies regarding meat quality in Equidae are limited. The effect of dietary plant extract (PE), containing verbascoside, on meat quality, oxidative stability and sensory parameters of Longissimus Lumborum (LL) muscle in Equidae was studied. Dietary treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) pH, colour indices and chemical parameters of muscle in both donkey and horse. Dietary PE improved (P meat and to affect the sensory attributes of Equidae meat. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Clostridium difficile in Retail Meats

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-16

    Clostridium difficile is a common cause of diarrhea in healthcare settings but little is known about what causes cases in the community. In this podcast, CDC's Dr. L. Clifford McDonald discusses two papers in the May 2009 edition of Emerging Infectious Diseases that explore whether the organism could be found in meat samples purchased in grocery stores in Arizona and Canada.  Created: 4/16/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 4/16/2009.

  10. Production of crispy bread snacks containing chicken meat and chicken meat powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HULYA CAKMAK

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chicken meat in two different forms (chicken meat and chicken meat powder were added into white flour and whole wheat blend baguette bread formulations for protein enrichment and finally developing new and healthy snacks. The chicken meat and powder levels were 10% for white flour baguette, and 15% for whole wheat blend. The dried baguette samples were packaged under 100% N2, and physical, chemical, microbiological and sensorial properties were evaluated during 3 months of storage. Protein content of chicken meat powder added samples were found statistically higher than chicken meat added samples. Hardness of the snacks was significantly affected from type of chicken meat, such as values were higher for chicken meat added samples than chicken meat powder added samples. Lipid oxidation of the snacks was determined by TBA analysis, and TBA value for whole wheat mixture snack with 15% of chicken meat was the highest among all during storage. The highest overall acceptance score was obtained from white flour snack with 10% chicken meat. There was no coliform bacteria detected during storage and the results of yeast-mold count and aerobic plate count of snacks remained between the quantitative ranges.

  11. Prospects and challenges of radiation processing of meats and meat products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chander, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    In India goat, lamb and chicken meat are widely preferred, while, bovine meat and pork are consumed only by a small segment of the population. Meats in the country are mainly marketed fresh or in frozen state. Recently chilled poultry has been introduced in Indian market. In addition to fresh meats, several other ready to eat or ready to cook meat products like chicken chilly, chicken tikka, mutton shammi kababs, mutton seekh kababs etc are available in urban Indian market. These products are marketed only in the frozen state and have limited market due to expensive and inadequate freezing facilities. Major share of domestic fresh meat and poultry market is by unorganized sector and only a few corporate houses like Godrej and Venkey's are marketing poultry products. The time has come to benefit from radiation processing for safe, chilled meat and poultry in India. Shelf-stable, nutritious meat and meat products can also be produced by the process. Radiation processing of these foods will be of great economic and health significance and give boost to exports. This radiation processing can meet the needs of services of convenient and ready-to-eat meat and meat products

  12. CARCASS AND MEAT QUALITY CONSUMER AND RESEARCH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Meat Research is concerned with measuring meat quality and quantity and investigating how production methods, processing, storage and transport, display for sale and methods of cooking influence quality. Quality must be defined as the requirements of the consumer, the market place and the processor. Take for example ...

  13. Meat and Poultry Processing. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This curriculum guide contains instructional materials for a program that provides students with job skills in meat and poultry processing. The curriculum consists of 10 units that cover the following material: orientation to meat and poultry processing; maintaining plant facilities; equipment and equipment maintenance; purchasing livestock for…

  14. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fact Sheets / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products / Additives in Meat and Poultry Products Z7_0Q0619C0JGR010IFST1G5B10H3 ... Affairs Recalls and Public Health Alerts Regulatory Compliance Regulations, Directives and Notices Rulemaking ...

  15. Meat Cutting Classes--Popular with Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostad, James; Carpentier, Dale

    1976-01-01

    Presents a session by session description of a "meats" class, which is offered to high school students (9-week period) and adults (8-week period). The classes cover identification of cuts (beef, sheep, hogs, and veal; grades and grading of live animals and carcasses; economics of butchering and cutting your own meat; actual slaughtering; and the…

  16. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Tramper, J.

    2014-01-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth

  17. SURVEY OF VIRAL DISEASES OF PACIFIC WHITE SHRIMP, Litopenaeus vannamei IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taukhid Taukhid

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid shrimp culture is a major contributor to foreign exchange earning in Indonesia. It has significant impact on economic development of fisheries sector, and leads to be one of prime mover to improve social prosperity. However, shrimp industry particularly black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon has been facing unpredictable situation due to disease problem. The main constrain in correlation to the development of shrimp industry is disease outbreak, especially caused by viral agents. White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV occurred in 1994, causing mass mortality of black tiger shrimp almost in all of the middle and western part of Indonesia. Due to the disease problem, it is estimated that in year 2000, more than 50% of shrimp pond were idle. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei or “udang vanamei” was introduced to Indonesia at the end of 1999, and released officially in July, 2001. Response of shrimp farmers to the shrimp rapidly accepted and distributed to many provinces in the country. At the end of 2006, distribution of white shrimp culture was encountered in more than 15 provinces. The seeds are mainly produced from hatcheries located in East Java and Lampung. The information of TSV in Indonesia was reported firstly from East Java at the end of 2002, without a clear history. Since then, survey of TSV distribution was conducted intensively in white shrimp production areas. Beside TSV, population of white shrimp coming to Indonesia also susceptible to White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHHNV infection. A survey with the aim to know significant viral diseases of white shrimp is needed to set up an alternative strategy to control them. The survey was conducted, firstly in the main production centers of white shrimp; and planned to be continued throughout the country. Samples collection, diagnostic method and data compiled in this study were collected from both

  18. High pressure processing of meat: effects on ultrastructure and protein digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Lovedeep; Astruc, Thierry; Vénien, Annie; Loison, Olivier; Cui, Jian; Irastorza, Marion; Boland, Mike

    2016-05-18

    The effects of high pressure processing (HPP, at 175 and 600 MPa) on the ultrastructure and in vitro protein digestion of bovine longissimus dorsi muscle meat were studied. HPP caused a significant change in the visual appearance and texture of the meat subjected to HPP at 600 MPa so that it appeared similar to cooked meat, unlike the meat subjected to HPP at 175 MPa that showed no significant visible change in the colour and texture compared to the raw meat. The muscles were subjected to digestion under simulated gastric conditions for 1 h and then under simulated small-intestinal conditions for a further 2 h. The digests were analysed using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and ninhydrin assay for amino N. The effect of the acid conditions of the stomach alone was also investigated. Reduced SDS-PAGE results showed that pepsin-digested (60 min) HPP meats showed fewer proteins or peptides of high molecular weight than the pepsin-digested untreated meat, suggesting more breakdown of the parent proteins in HPP-treated meats. This effect was more pronounced in the muscles treated at 600 MPa. These results are in accordance with microscopy results, which showed greater changes in the myofibrillar structure after simulated gastric digestion of the sample processed at 600 MPa than at 175 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy also showed the presence of protein aggregates in the former sample, resulting probably from protein denaturation of sarcoplasmic proteins, in the subcellular space and between myofibrils; along with cell contraction (similar to that caused by heating) in the former.

  19. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by "1H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  20. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castejón, David [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); García-Segura, Juan Manuel [Centro de Asistencia a la Investigación de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear y de Espín Electrónico, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Bioquímica y Biología Molecular I, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Escudero, Rosa [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Herrera, Antonio [Departamento de Química Orgánica, Facultad de Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cambero, María Isabel, E-mail: icambero@vet.ucm.es [Departamento de Nutrición, Bromatología y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Veterinaria. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression. - Highlights: • NMR spectra from beef samples and their exudates are very strongly correlated. • 23 metabolites not reported in previous NMR meat studies have been identified. • Meat exudate NMR spectra allow monitoring of biochemical changes related to aging. • PCA of exudate NMR spectra classified meat samples by their storage time. • The aging of a meat sample can be predicted by PLS analysis of its exudate.

  1. Bioactive Compounds in Functional Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelska-Nowicka, Ewelina; Atanasov, Atanas G; Horbańczuk, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2018-01-31

    Meat and meat products are a good source of bioactive compounds with positive effect on human health such as vitamins, minerals, peptides or fatty acids. Growing food consumer awareness and intensified global meat producers competition puts pressure on creating new healthier meat products. In order to meet these expectations, producers use supplements with functional properties for animal diet and as direct additives for meat products. In the presented work seven groups of key functional constituents were chosen: (i) fatty acids; (ii) minerals; (iii) vitamins; (iv) plant antioxidants; (v) dietary fibers; (vi) probiotics and (vii) bioactive peptides. Each of them is discussed in term of their impact on human health as well as some quality attributes of the final products.

  2. Sociological aspects of meat in meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Katherine O'Doherty

    2009-01-01

    Health professionals and environmental experts advocate reduced consumption of meat in industrialized regions. On this background, and in light of a number of sociological studies of food practices and meal formats among consumers, this paper examines some aspects of the cultural entrenchment...... and vulnerability of meat consumption. Tacit meanings of meat products are seen as arising from the human tendency to rank and grade objects relative to each other, a process that is intrinsic to consumption practices. Examples of the ways in which gradient meanings of meat products are entrenched in food practices...... and of ways in which this consumption is vulnerable to change, are presented. On this basis, the likelihood that current levels of meat consumption in industrialized societies will remain relatively stable or tend to decrease are briefly discussed....

  3. OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry approach compared with DNA-based PCR method for authentication of meat species from raw and cooked ground meat mixtures containing cattle meat, water buffalo meat and sheep meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Jagadeesh Babu, A; Madhava Rao, T; Kamuni, Veeranna; Vaithiyanathan, S; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Rapole, Srikanth

    2017-10-15

    The present study compared the accuracy of an OFFGEL electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach with a DNA-based method for meat species identification from raw and cooked ground meat mixes containing cattle, water buffalo and sheep meat. The proteomic approach involved the separation of myofibrillar proteins using OFFGEL electrophoresis, SDS-PAGE and protein identification by MALDI-TOF MS. Species-specific peptides derived from myosin light chain-1 and 2 were identified for authenticating buffalo meat spiked at a minimum 0.5% level in sheep meat with high confidence. Relative quantification of buffalo meat mixed with sheep meat was done by quantitative label-free mass spectrometry using UPLC-QTOF and PLGS search engine to substantiate the confidence level of the data. In the DNA-based method, PCR amplification of mitochondrial D loop gene using species specific primers found 226bp and 126bp product amplicons for buffalo and cattle meat, respectively. The method was efficient in detecting a minimum of 0.5% and 1.0% when buffalo meat was spiked with cattle meat in raw and cooked meat mixes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approach for authentication of meat species from minced meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, Basappa M; Jagadeesh, Deepak S; Kamuni, Veeranna; Muthukumar, Muthupalani; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Kiran, Mohan; Rapole, Srikanth

    2018-02-01

    Fraudulent mislabelling of processed meat products on a global scale that cannot be detected using conventional techniques necessitates sensitive, robust and accurate methods of meat authentication to ensure food safety and public health. In the present study, we developed an in-gel (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, 2DE) and OFFGEL-based proteomic method for authenticating raw and cooked water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries) and goat (Caprus hircus) meat and their mixes. The matrix-assisted liquid desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometric analysis of proteins separated using 2DE or OFFGEL electrophoresis delineated species-specific peptide biomarkers derived from myosin light chain 1 and 2 (MLC1 and MLC2) of buffalo-sheep-goat meat mix in definite proportions at 98:1:1, 99:0.5:0.5 and 99.8:0.1:0.1 that were found stable to resist thermal processing. In-gel and OFFGEL-based proteomic approaches are efficient in authenticating meat mixes spiked at minimum 1.0% and 0.1% levels, respectively, in triple meat mix for both raw and cooked samples. The study demonstrated that authentication of meat from a complex mix of three closely related species requires identification of more than one species-specific peptide due to close similarity between their amino acid sequences. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Meet meat: An explorative study on meat and cultured meat as seen by Chinese, Ethiopians and Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, Gerben A; Tobi, Hilde; Fischer, Arnout R H

    2017-07-01

    In this cross-cultural study we investigated how study participants from China, Ethiopia and the Netherlands operationalize the concept of meat and to what extent cultured meat fits or does not fit into this operationalization. We argue that combining the conceptual approaches symbolic boundaries and theory of social practices helps to better understand the possibly culturally dependent operationalization of the concept meat. Ten visiting graduate students from China, 10 from Ethiopia and 10 native Dutch graduate students completed freelist tasks, a pile sort task, interview and essay task, during a single session. We found that butchered animals are at the center of the concept of meat, although depending on culture not all animals are a source of meat. Symbolic boundaries were restricted or stretched depending on social practices within countries. Ethiopian participants applied strictly defined symbolic boundaries, where Chinese and Dutch participants used more broadly defined symbolic boundaries. Cultured meat was seen as a technology for the future and was positioned across the symbolic boundaries of meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Types of fraud in meat and meat products: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza T.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Affects the food control. The globalization, increased imports and exports and free trade agreements have led to greater sharing and access to food worldwide; along with it, the problems associated with fraud such as adulteration, substitution, intentionality, and counterfeiting have been increased. Therefore, there are various tasks associated with food fraud, which in most reviews published only new identification techniques have been discussed. However, a discussion about the types of fraud and its impact on society, bioterrorism and religion, has been little commented. This review focuses primarily on describing the types of fraud that has as objective to obtain economic benefit or cause terrorism. Also, latest techniques available for detecting meat adulteration are mentioned.

  7. Tratamiento de efluentes del cultivo de Litopenaeus vannamei mediante procesos de sedimentación, filtración y absorción Treatments of effluents from Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp cultures through sedimentation, filtration and absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available La eficiencia de remoción de materia particulada y nutrientes disueltos de efluentes de estanques de reproductores de Litopenaeus vannamei fue evaluada a escala de laboratorio, empleando tratamientos de sedimentación, filtración por Crassostrea rhizophorae y absorción por Ulva fasciata. En cada tratamiento se empleó un tiempo de residencia hidráulica del efluente de seis horas. En la etapa de sedimentación se utilizaron estanques con 90 L del efluente. Para la etapa de filtración, se emplearon estanques con 20 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de sedimentación. En la absorción se utilizaron estanques con 15 L del efluente sobrenadante de la etapa de filtración. Al final de cada etapa se colectaron muestras de 500 mL para los análisis de calidad de agua. Los resultados indicaron que en la sedimentación, la turbidez, clorofila-a y sólidos suspendidos totales presentaron una remoción de 93,8%, 94,5% y 65,9%, respectivamente. La filtración alcanzó eficiencias de 89,3% y 100% para bacterias totales y clorofila a, respectivamente. En la absorción, fosfato (PO4-3 , amonio (N-NH4- y nitrato (N-NO3 fueron reducidos en 53,6%, 49,6% y 70,2%, respectivamente, en relación a los valores del estanque control. Los tratamientos combinados de sedimentación, filtración y absorción, bacterias totales (95,1%, turbidez (97,1% sólidos suspendidos totales (81,3%, clorofila-a (99,1%, amonio (54,1%, nitrito (58,0%, nitrato (69,2% y fosfato (52,9%, presentaron una alta eficiencia de remoción, en relación a los valores del efluente bruto. Se concluye que la combinación de tratamientos mejora significativamente la calidad de los efluentes del cultivo del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei.

  8. Evaluación de un sistema experimental para ensayar los efectos de dietas artificiales de maduración en la reproducción de litopenaeus vannamei

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Portilla, Jaen Jorge; Molina P., César

    2004-01-01

    Evaluación de un Sistema Experimental para ensayar los efectos de dietas artificiales de maduración en la reproducción de Litopenaeus vannamei La domesticación del camarón Litopenaeus vannamei es de vital importancia para el sostenimiento de la industria camaronera del Ecuador. Esto conlleva a una mayor dependencia de los sistemas de maduración y reproducción en cautiverio. Un factor esencial en la maduración de los reproductores es la calidad del alimento suministrado, el cual ha estado c...

  9. Advances in ingredient and processing systems for meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jochen; Gibis, Monika; Schuh, Valerie; Salminen, Hanna

    2010-09-01

    Changes in consumer demand of meat products as well as increased global competition are causing an unprecedented spur in processing and ingredient system developments within the meat manufacturing sector. Consumers demand healthier meat products that are low in salt, fat, cholesterol, nitrites and calories in general and contain in addition health-promoting bioactive components such as for example carotenoids, unsaturated fatty acids, sterols, and fibers. On the other hand, consumers expect these novel meat products with altered formulations to taste, look and smell the same way as their traditionally formulated and processed counterparts. At the same time, competition is forcing the meat processing industry to use the increasingly expensive raw material "meat" more efficiently and produce products at lower costs. With these changes in mind, this article presents a review of novel ingredient systems and processing approaches that are emerging to create high quality, affordable meat products not only in batch mode but also in large-scale continuous processes. Fat replacers, fat profile modification and cholesterol reduction techniques, new texture modifiers and alternative antioxidant and antimicrobial systems are being discussed. Modern processing equipment to establish continuously operating product manufacturing lines and that allow new meat product structures to be created and novel ingredients to be effectively utilized including vacuum fillers, grinders and fine dispersers, and slicers is reviewed in the context of structure creation in meat products. Finally, trends in future developments of ingredient and processing systems for meat products are highlighted.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of meat lipids: an alternative approach to the identification of irradiated meats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hampson, J.W.; Jones, K.C.; Foglia, T.A.; Kohout, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is currently under study as an alternative method for extending the shelf life of meats and meat products. Accordingly, methods are needed to determine if a meat or meat product has been exposed to ionizing radiation. In this study, a method is described for the isolation and analysis of volatile hydrocarbons formed in meat lipids after exposure to ionizing radiation. The method is based on supercritical fluid extraction of the hydrocarbons from meat lipids and subsequent identification and quantitation of individual hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) with a mass selection detector (MSD). Supercritical carbon dioxide at 175 bar and 40°C extracted the hydrocarbon fraction from total meat lipids within 20 min. The presence of radiolytic hydrocarbons, as determined by GC/MSD, was then correlated to the degree of irradiation of the meat from 0 to 10 kGy. Besides being faster, this method has the advantage of reduced solvent consumption when compared to current methods for determining if a meat or meat product has been irradiated

  11. Preservation of crab meat by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.; Prompubesara, C.; Kraisorn, K.; Noochpramool, K.

    1972-01-01

    Fresh crab meat from swimming crab (Portunus pelagicus, Linn.) was irradiated at doses of 0.075, 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad and held at 3 0 C. The storage life of non-irradiated crab meat was approximately 7 days compared with 14 days for crab meat irradiated at 0.075 Mrad and 28 days for samples receiving 0.15 or 0.25 Mrad treatment. Total aerobic count, trimethylamine nitrogen, total volatile basic nitrogen, and ammonia contents were used as objective indices of freshness in comparison with sensory evaluation of the crab meat. All objective indices correlated well with the sensory judgement of the samples. The crab meat used in the study was heavily contaminated with microorganisms. Irradiation at 0.15 and 0.25 Mrad reduced approximately 2 log cycles in the total count. Acinetobacter (Achromobacter) was predominated in irradiated crab meat, especially after prolonged storage. High coagulase positive staphylococci count was detected in only non-irradiated crab meat

  12. Identification of a C-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Chaozheng; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Xiaohan; Zeng, Digang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-10-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has a mutated 'EPD' motif in Ca(2+)-binding site 2. LvCTL3 mRNA can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of LvCTL3 in gills was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting activation responses of LvCTL3 to bacterial, virus and immune stimulant challenges. The 5'flanking regulatory region of LvCTL3 was cloned and we identified a NF-κB binding motif in the LvCTL3 promoter region. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that over-expression of L. vannamei dorsal can dramatically up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL3, suggesting that LvCTL3 expression could be regulated through NF-κB signaling pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on signaling pathway involve in shrimp CTLs expression. The recombinant LvCTL3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified LvCTL3 can agglutinate Gram-negative microbe Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the presence of calcium ions, but cannot agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae. The agglutination activity of LvCTL3 was abolished when Ca(2+) was chelated with EDTA, suggesting the function of LvCTL3 is Ca(2+)-dependent. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant LvCTL3 protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. parahemolyticus and WSSV infection, indicating LvCTL3 might play significant roles in shrimp innate immunity defense against bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin β and its role in immunomodulation by dsRNA-mediated gene silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Chun-Hung; Cheng, Winton; Hsu, Chih-Hung; Tsui, Wen-Ching

    2013-06-01

    The full sequence of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei integrin β (LV-B) is 2879bp which encodes 787 amino acids (aa) of the open reading frame (ORF). The mature protein (764 aa) contains (1) an extracellular domain (ED) of 692 aa, (2) a transmembrane domain (TD) of 23 aa, and (3) a cytoplasmic domain (CD) of 49 aa. The cloned LV-B grouped together with crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus integrin β (PL-B1), but was far away from vertebrate integrin β1, β3, β5, β6, β7, and β8, and another L. vannamei integrin β (LV). A Southern blot analysis indicated that the cloned LV-B was a single copy of genomic DNA. LV-B mRNA was expressed in all tissues, and was highly expressed in haemocytes. LV-B was downregulated in shrimp 24 and 96h after having received white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). LV-B expression by haemocytes of shrimp was higher in the postmoult (A and B) stage, and lower in the premoult (D2/D3) stage. LV-B expression was significantly higher by shrimp reared in 2.5‰ and 5‰ salinities. Shrimp injected with integrin β dsRNA showed gene silencing of integrin β after 36h. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed decreased hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), the total haemocyte count (THC), respiratory bursts (RBs), and lysozyme activity, but showed increased RB/HC, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity/HC, and the phenoloxidase (PO) activity/GC. LV-B-silenced shrimp showed upregulated expressions of lipopolysaccharide- and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), prophenoloxidase I (proPO I), proPO II, proPO-activating enzyme (ppA), α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It was concluded that integrin β plays important roles in proPO activation, phagocytosis, and the antioxidant system for immunomodulation in shrimp. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei is not the cause of white feces syndrome in whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The microsporidian Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei was first described from Thailand in 2009 in farmed, indigenous giant tiger shrimp Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. The natural reservoir for the parasite is still unknown. More recently, a microsporidian closely resembling it in morphology and tissue preference was found in Thai-farmed, exotic, whiteleg shrimp Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei exhibiting white feces syndrome (WFS). Our objective was to compare the newly found pathogen with E. hepatopenaei and to determine its causal relationship with WFS. Results Generic primers used to amplify a fragment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssu rRNA) gene for cloning and sequencing revealed that the new parasite from WFS ponds had 99% sequence identity to that of E. hepatopenaei, suggesting it was conspecific. Normal histological analysis using tissue sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed that relatively few tubule epithelial cells exhibited spores, suggesting that the infections were light. However, the H&E results were deceptive since nested PCR and in situ hybridization analysis based on the cloned ssu rRNA gene fragment revealed very heavy infections in tubule epithelial cells in the central region of the hepatopancreas in the absence of spores. Despite these results, high prevalence of E. hepatopenaei in shrimp from ponds not exhibiting WFS and a pond that had recovered from WFS indicated no direct causal association between these infections and WFS. This was supported by laboratory oral challenge trials that revealed direct horizontal transmission to uninfected shrimp but no signs of WFS. Conclusions The microsporidian newly found in P. vannamei is conspecific with previously described E. hepatopenaei and it is not causally associated with WFS. However, the deceptive severity of infections (much greater than previously reported in P. monodon) would undoubtedly have a negative effect on whiteleg shrimp growth and production efficiency and

  15. L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) induces neuroendocrinological, physiological, and immunological regulation in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapanao, Ratchaneegorn; Kuo, Hsin-Wei; Chang, Chin-Chuan; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2018-03-01

    L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) is a precursor for dopamine (DA) synthesis. Assessments were conducted to analyze the effects of l-DOPA on mediating regulation of neuroendocrinological, immunological, and physiological parameters in the shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei when they were individually injected with 0.01 N HCl or l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 for 60, 120, and 240 min. For catecholamine synthesis evaluation, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and DA beta hydroxylase (DBH) activities, l-DOPA, DA, and norepinephrine (NE) levels in hemolymph were determined. The total hemocyte count (THC), differential hemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, phagocytic activity, and clearance efficiency in response to the pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus were assessed for immune responses, and plasma glucose and lactate levels were for physiological response. Results showed that the TH activity, THC, hyaline cells (HCs), and semigranular cells (SGCs) at 120 min, DA levels at 60-240 min, PO activity in hemocytes per 50 μL of hemolymph at 60-120 min, and PO activity per granulocyte (granular cells (GCs) + SGCs) at 60 min significantly increased, but TH activity, l-DOPA levels, GCs, SGCs, and respiratory bursts in hemocytes per 10 μL of hemolymph at 60 min, respiratory bursts per hemocyte and SOD activity at 120 min, phagocytic activity at 60-240 min, and the clearance efficiency at 60-120 min significantly decreased in shrimp injected with l-DOPA at 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 . In another experiment, 60 min after shrimp had received l-DOPA at 0.5 or 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 , they were challenged with an injection of V. alginolyticus at 2 × 10 5  colony-forming units (cfu) shrimp -1 . The injection of l-DOPA at 1.0 μmol shrimp -1 also significantly increased the cumulative mortality of shrimp by 16.7%, compared to the HCl-challenged control after 120 h. These results suggest

  16. Improvement of survival and development of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei larvae by feeding taurine enriched rotifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Jusadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of the present experiment was to study the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers in improving Pacific white shrimp larva Litopenaeus vannamei survival and development. White shrimp larvae at sixth naupliar stage were reared in 12 units of 500 L fibre glass tanks with a stocking density of 125 ind/L. Starting from zoea two stage (Z-2, the larva was provided with rotifers with different taurine enrichment concentration according to the treatments, i.e. 0 mg/L enrichment medium (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50 mg/L(C, and 100 mg/L (D. The results show that different taurine concentration in the enrichment media increased taurine level in rotifers. Furthermore, the administration of taurine enriched rotifers up to 50 mg/L significantly improved larval survival and may accelerate larval development. The experimental results also concluded that a concentration of 50 mg/L is the most optimum taurine enrichment concentration of rotifers for the improvement of white shrimp larval survival and developmental stage.Keywords: taurine, rotifer, white shrimp, enrichmentABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji konsentrasi optimum taurin melalui pengayaan pada rotifera terhadap tingkat kelangsungan hidup dan perkembangan stadia larva udang vaname Litopenaeus vannamei. Larva udang vaname stadia naupli-6 dipelihara dalam 12 tangki fiberglass volume 500 L dengan kepadatan 125 ind/L. Dimulai sejak stadia zoea 2 (Z-2 larva diberi rotifera yang diperkaya dengan taurin dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda sesuai dengan perlakuan, yaitu 0 mg/L media pengkaya (A, 25 mg/L (B, 50mg/L (C, dan 100mg/L (D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pengayaan taurin pada konsentrasi yang berbeda menyebabkan peningkatan kandungan taurin rotifera. Sementara pemberian rotifera yang diperkaya taurin hingga 50 mg/L meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup dan mempercepat perkembangan stadia larva udang. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian

  17. Embriões liofilizados e flocos de Artemia no cultivo pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424 Use of freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes in the post-larval culture of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i1.1424

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Hercílio de Oliveira Cavalcante

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o crescimento e sobrevivência de pós-larvas de Litopenaeus vannamei que receberam embriões liofilizados (EMB e flocos (FLO de Artemia como suplementos alimentares a uma dieta microparticulada (DMP. Nos tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, os camarões receberam DMP e após 2h, acréscimos de FLO (T1; de EMB (T2; e da mesma DMP, anteriormente, ofertada (T3. No T4, as pós-larvas foram alimentadas com DMP, mas sem suplementações posteriores. Não houve diferença significativa (p > 0,05 na sobrevivência dos camarões após o período experimental de 21 dias. Por outro lado, o ganho de peso absoluto (mg peso seco das pós-larvas, cuja dieta foi suplementada com BEM, foi significativamente superior (p Artemia e recomendam sua inclusão na dieta pós-larval de Litopenaeus vannameiThe objective of the study was to evaluate the growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei post-larvae fed with freeze-dried embryos and Artemia flakes as feeding supplements to a microparticulate diet (DMP. In treatments T1, T2 and T3, the shrimp were fed with DMP and after 2 hours, received supplements of FLO (T1; EMB (T2; and the same DMP previously offered (T3. In T4, post-larvae were fed with DMP but without additional supplementation. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05 in shrimp survival after the experimental period of 21 days. On the other hand, the absolute weight gain (mg of dry weight of post-larvae whose diet was supplemented with EMB (T2 was significantly higher (p Artemia embryos and recommend their inclusion in the post-larval diet of Litopenaeus vannamei

  18. Potential applications of radiation technology in meat industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, S.P.; Kanatt, S.R.; Rao, M.S.; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    Microbial load determines shelf-life and safety of meat products. Radiation technology is an effective tool in eliminating spoilage and pathogenic microbes in meat products. Radiation processing of meat can work in synergy with traditional preservation methods to enhance shelf-life and safety of meat products. (author)

  19. 78 FR 68327 - Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... thus has no bearing on this rulemaking. Goat Meat One commenter expressed concern that inspectors may... goats. It is unlikely that a facility would slaughter a goat and present its meat as ovine meat. As.... APHIS-2008-0085] RIN 0579-AD17 Importation of Ovine Meat From Uruguay AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health...

  20. RESEARCH ON CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR ON BUCHAREST MEAT MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze consumer behavior for meat on Bucharest market, using a sample of 100 individuals, representatives as age, sex and profession, who were interviewed within a structured questionaire based survey on their preference to buy and consume meat. The answers were processed using the semantic differential and Likert Scale. The obtained results pointed out that white meat is the top preference, because it is healthier and its price is more acceptable compared to red meat. However, men prefer red meat, no matter its price. The most prefered meat sorts in order of their importance are chicken meat, pork and beef. Consumers prefer to buy 1-2 kg fresh meat from supermarket every 2-3 days. Income/family and meat pice are the major factors limiting the amount of consumed meat and buying frequence. The term of availability and meat origin have become more and more important criteria on which buying decision is based, besides meat quality. All consumers prefer to consume Romanian meat which is tasty and has a pleasant flavor. As a conclusion, consumers expectations from meat producers are related to a large variety of meat of a higher quality. Also, presentation form in packed portionated meat parts on the shelf as wellas hygiene come on the next positions from consumers side in order to satisfy their needs better.

  1. 9 CFR 319.307 - Spaghetti sauce with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spaghetti sauce with meat. 319.307... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.307 Spaghetti sauce with meat. “Spaghetti Sauce with Meat” shall contain...

  2. In vitro meat: Zombies on the menu?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, NS

    2010-01-01

    In April 2008 the In Vitro Meat Consortium held its first meeting at the Norwegian Food Research Institute. They are a group of scientists and advocates who seek to turn the techniques of tissue engineering to the production of food, producing meat in laboratories that has at no point been part of a living animal. This is a fascinating technology, and one that fits well with the topic of this SCRIPTed analysis section: the ‘zombification’ of meat products. I have been conducting interviews wi...

  3. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    African wildlife meat offers South Africans' a healthy and novel red meat alternative, yet consumption is far less than that of beef and lamb. Laddering interviews with 40 respondents were employed to identify the consequences and values associated with the product's perceived attributes. Important...... attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  4. A METHOD OF FRYING MINCED MEAT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    A method of frying minced meat comprising the steps of providing a heated frying surface, providing a flow of discrete and separate particles of minced meat in a condition wherein the mean temperature of the flow of particles is less than 5 degrees centigrade, preferably less than 2 degrees...... centigrade and most preferably less than 0.5 degrees centigrade, and heating the discrete particles to the onset of frying conditions defined as a discernible change of the colour of the particle from the original red meat colour to a grey and brownish colour by bringing the discrete particles into contact...

  5. Thermal resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in sausage meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, J M; Hughes, A; Holley, R; Brown, B

    1989-01-01

    The heat resistance of a mixture of 10 different strains of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated into ground meat and ground meat plus cure was examined. D-values for ground meat ranged from 1.01 min at 62 degrees C to 13.18 min at 56 degrees C. The D-values obtained for ground meat plus cure were approximately 5-8 fold times higher than those for ground meat alone. These results imply that rare meats and possibly some cooked fermented meats may not be heated adequately to inactivate Listeria.

  6. Development and assessment of healthy properties of meat and meat products designed as functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla-Alonso, Begoña; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2013-12-01

    This review deals with the two major aspects to be considered in the context of meat-based functional foods and human health. One involves the different strategies used to improve (increase or reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy and unhealthy) compounds in meat and meat products in order to develop potential meat-based functional foods; these strategies are basically concerned with animal production practices, meat processing and storage, distribution and consumption conditions. Since the link between the consumption of those foods and their potentially beneficial effects (improving health and/or reducing the risk of several chronic diseases) needs to be demonstrated scientifically, the second aspect considered is related to intervention studies to examine the functional capacity of meat-based potentially functional foods in humans, discussing how the functionality of a food can be assessed in terms of its effects on health in relation to both target body functions and risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT MEAT SHOP ON MEAT PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND BACTERIA POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H.C. Dewi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of different meat shops on meat physicalcharacteristics and bacteria population. Sixteen PO carcasses were used in the experiment which wasarranged in a completely randomized design with 4 treatments of different meat shops (traditionalmarket, meat shop, supermarket and slaughter house. Parameters measured were meat pH, waterholding capacity, cooking loss and bacterial total count. The result showed that the average of pH was5.25- 6.03; water holding capacity was 17.07-38.87%; cooking loss was 33.15-48.20 and bacterial totalcount was 1.48x106-10.75x106 CFU/g. It was concluded that bacterial total count in slaughter house andspecial market (meat shop and supermarket were less than those in traditional market.

  8. The future of meat: a qualitative analysis of cultured meat media coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, J N; Shoulders, C W

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to explore the informational themes and information sources cited by the media to cover stories of cultured meat in both the United States and the European Union. The results indicated that cultured meat news articles in both the United States and the European Union commonly discuss cultured meat in terms of benefits, history, process, time, livestock production problems, and skepticism. Additionally, the information sources commonly cited in the articles included cultured meat researchers, sources from academia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), New Harvest, Winston Churchill, restaurant owners/chefs, and sources from the opposing countries (e.g. US use some EU sources and vice versa). The implications of this study will allow meat scientists to understand how the media is influencing consumers' perceptions about the topic, and also allow them to strategize how to shape future communication about cultured meat. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Use of Atmospheric Pressure Cold Plasma for Meat Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juri; Lee, Cheol Woo; Yong, Hae In; Lee, Hyun Jung; Jo, Cheorun; Jung, Samooel

    2017-01-01

    Novel, effective methods to control and prevent spoilage and contamination by pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products are in constant demand. Non-thermal pasteurization is an ideal method for the preservation of meat and meat products because it does not use heat during the pasteurization process. Atmospheric pressure cold plasma (APCP) is a new technology for the non-thermal pasteurization of meat and meat products. Several recent studies have shown that APCP treatment reduces the number of pathogenic microorganisms in meat and meat products. Furthermore, APCP treatment can be used to generate nitrite, which is an essential component of the curing process. Here, we introduce the effectiveness of APCP treatment as a pasteurization method and/or curing process for use in the meat and meat product processing industry.

  10. Genetics of Poultry Meat Production in Organic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Poul

    2012-01-01

    Organic Meat Production and Processing describes the challenges of production, processing and food safety of organic meat. The editors and international collection of authors explore the trends in organic meats and how the meat industry is impacted. Commencing with chapters on the economics, market....... The book concludes by describing pre-harvest control measures for assuring the safety of organic meats. Organic Meat Production and Processing serves as a unique resource for fully understanding the current and potential issues associated with organic meats...... and regulatory aspects of organic meats, coverage then extends to management issues for organically raised and processed meat animals. Processing, sensory and human health aspects are covered in detail, as are the incidences of foodborne pathogens in organic beef, swine, poultry and other organic meat species...

  11. Can we cut out the meat of the dish? Constructing consumer-oriented pathways toward meat substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schösler, H.; de Boer, J.; Boersema, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The shift towards a more sustainable diet necessitates less reliance on foods of animal origin. This study presents data from a representative survey of Dutch consumers on their practices related to meat, meat substitution and meat reduction. The practices reflected a cultural gradient of meat

  12. Preparation of salted meat products, e.g. cured bacon - by injecting liquid comprising meat proteins hydrolysed with enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    Preparation of salted meat products comprises the following:(1) meat is chopped into fine pieces and mixed with water to form a slurry; (2) enzymes hydrolyse proteins in the meat; (3) adding a culture to the resulting medium, which comprises short peptide chains or amino acids; (4) forming...... flavourings as the culture is growing, and (5) injecting the liquid into pieces of meat....

  13. Reduction of radioactive caesium in meat and fish by soaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petaejae, E.; Puolanne, E.

    1992-01-01

    The removal of radioactive caesium from meat by soaking in brine or water and the effect of injection curing, temperature, size of meat piece and cooking on this removal were studied. The availability of the brined meat for the manufacture of cured, smoked and cooked meat, oven-cooked meat and cooked sausages was also investigated. The soaking method was also tested on fish. (Author)

  14. Evaluation and monitoring of the satisfaction of meat and meat products consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Constanta Rușeț

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The managers have to be focused on clients and satisfy their needs, so that the products meet their expectations. The evaluation and monitoring the consumers satisfaction is very important because it is a managerial instrument which offers the possibility to understand and satisfy the needs of the existing consumers. In this study we used the questionnaire as research method and after analyzing and processing the data we noticed the consumers preferences related to the meat and meat products consumption, the frequency of consumption and the places from where the consumers procure their meat and meat products.

  15. Revenue impact on the demand of Slovak households for meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubica Kubicová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economical crisis was felt in the differences in the incomes of the households and their food consumption. In the paper are analyzed the changing patterns in the structure of demand for meat and the impact on total expenditure on meat and meat products in the households of employees, households of self-employed persons and households of pensioners. When examining the sensitivity of demand to changes in consumer meat prices in different social groups of households was estimated own-price elasticity of demand, as well as cross-price elasticity.

  16. FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF ORGANIC GOAT KID MEAT FROM DAIRY GOAT AND CROSSBRED MEAT GOAT KIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Sophia; Ude, Gracia; Rahmann, Gerold; Aulrich, Karen; Georg, Heiko

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the increasing demand for dairy goat products in Germany, a market for goat kid meat as a related product does not exist. Thus, the objective of this study was to develop a concept for organic goat kid meat production for dairy goat farms. In collaboration with a wholesaler, organic dairy goat farmers and marketing research the experimental part of this study was to find out if cross-breeding of meat-goats could improve meat quality and performance of fattening goat kids togeth...

  17. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  18. Effects of dietary chlorogenic acid on growth performance, antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei under normal condition and combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Li, Zheng; Li, Jian; Duan, Ya-Fei; Niu, Jin; Wang, Jun; Huang, Zhong; Lin, Hei-Zhao

    2015-04-01

    An eight-week feeding trial followed by an acute combined stress test of low-salinity and nitrite were performed to evaluate effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on growth performance and antioxidant capacity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp were randomly allocated in 12 tanks (30 shrimp per tank) and triplicate tanks were fed with a control diet or diets containing different levels of CGA (100, 200 and 400 mg kg(-1) feed) as treatment groups. Growth performance including weight gain (WG), biomass gain (BG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed intake were determined after feeding for 56 days. Antioxidant capacity were evaluated by determining the activity of total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) as well as the gene expression of GSH-Px and CAT in the hepatopancreas of shrimp at the end of feeding trial and again at the end of the combined stress test. The results indicated that supplemention of CGA had no significant effects on the growth performance and the activities of TAS, SOD, GSH-Px and CAT in hepatopancreas of shrimp cultured under normal conditions for 56 days. However, compared with the control group, CGA (200, 400 mg kg(-1) feed) significantly improved the resistance of L. vannamei against the combined stress of low-salinity and nitrite, as indicated by the significant (P shrimp treated with CGA in the combined tress test. Our findings suggested that CGA possessed dual-modulatory effects on antioxidant capacity of L. vannamei and could be a potential feed additive that can enhance shrimp resistance against environmental stresses. The recommended application dosage is 200 mg kg(-1) and further studies are needed to clarify the action model of CGA efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer perception of meat quality and safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bredahl, Lone

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of meat quality and safety is not an easy task for consumers. In this article, the Total Food Quality Model will be introduced as a framework for understanding how consumers perceive meat quality, and results from a Danish study dealing with consumer perception and experience of beef...... will be presented. Consumers form expectations about the eating quality of meat at the point of purchase, based on prior experience and information available in the shopping environment, while the eating quality is experienced in the home during and after meal preparation. Results show that consumers have...... difficulty in evaluating meat quality, resulting in uncertainty and dissatisfaction, and reveal a need for educating consumers about evaluating eating quality during shopping....

  20. Evaluation of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei health during a superintensive aquaculture growout using NMR-based metabolomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey B Schock

    Full Text Available Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc. The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production.

  1. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yuan Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰ containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE at 0 (control, 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen, and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs, granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells, total hemocyte count (THC, phenoloxidase (PO activity, respiratory bursts (RBs, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP, peroxinectin (PX, cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  2. Effect of shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) farming waste on the growth, digestion, ammonium-nitrogen excretion of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Luo, Peng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-06-01

    In this study, specific growth rate (SGR), ingestion rate (IR), food conversion ratio (FCR), apparent digestion ratio (ADR) and ammonium-nitrogen excretion were determined for sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) reared in plastic containers (70 L; 4 containers each diet treatment). Sea cucumbers were fed with five diets containing different amounts of farming waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% and 0) and a formulated compound (20% sea mud and 80% powdered algae). Sea cucumbers grew faster when they were fed with diet D (25% shrimp waste and 75% formulated compound) than those fed with other diets. Although IR value of sea cucumber fed with diet A (shrimp waste) was higher than those fed with other diets, both the lowest SGR and the highest FCR occurred in this diet group. The highest and the lowest ADR occurred in diet E (formulated compound) and diet A group, respectively, and the same to ammonium-nitrogen excretion. The contents of crude protein, crude lipid and total organic matter (TOM) in feces decreased in comparison with corresponding diets. In the feces from different diet treatments, the contents of crude protein and TOM increased gradually as the contents of crude protein and TOM in diets increased, while crude lipid content decreased gradually as the crude lipid content in diets increased.

  3. Application of wet waste from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) with or without sea mud to feeding sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanfeng; Hu, Chaoqun; Ren, Chunhua

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the applicability of the wet waste collected from shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) to the culture of sea cucumber ( Stichopus monotuberculatus) was determined. The effects of dietary wet shrimp waste on the survival, specific growth rate (SGR), fecal production rate (FPR), ammonia- and nitrite-nitrogen productions of sea cucumber were studied. The total organic matter (TOM) level in the feces of sea cucumber was compared with that in corresponding feeds. Diet C (50% wet shrimp waste and 50% sea mud mash) made sea cucumber grow faster than other diets. Sea cucumber fed with either diet D (25% wet shrimp waste and 75% sea mud mash) or sole sea mud exhibited negative growth. The average lowest total FPR of sea cucumber occurred in diet A (wet shrimp waste), and there was no significant difference in total FPR between diet C and diet E (sea mud mash) ( P > 0.05). The average ammonia-nitrogen production of sea cucumber in different diet treatments decreased gradually with the decrease of crude protein content in different diets. The average highest nitrite-nitrogen production occurred in diet E treatment, and there was no significant difference in nitrite-nitrogen production among diet A, diet B (75% wet shrimp waste and 25% sea mud mash) and diet C treatments ( P > 0.05). In each diet treatment, the total organic matter (TOM) level in feces decreased to different extent compared with that in corresponding feeds.

  4. Evaluation of dietary soybean meal as fish meal replacer for juvenile whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonho Yun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Different levels of dietary soybean meal (SBM as a fish meal (FM replacer, with and without amino acid supplementation, for whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei reared in the biofloc system was examined in eight weeks of feeding trial. Eight experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 0% FM replacement by SBM provided in clear sea water without biofloc system (S0SW, four diets replacing FM at 0% (S0, 33% (S33, 67% (S67 and 100% (S100 by SBM, and three diets replacing FM at 33% (S33A, 67% (S67A and 100% (S100A by SBM supplemented with amino acids (methionine and lysine in the seawater biofloc system. Results of water quality analyses showed significantly lower total suspended solids and nitrate for S0SW group than all other treatments. Diets S0 and S33A resulted in higher weight gain and specific growth rate among all groups, with no significant differences with S33 group. In addition, whole-body protein and amino acid compositions of shrimp fed S0SW were lower than most biofloc groups. Haemolymph parameters showed significant differences in total protein, cholesterol and triglyceride between groups S0 and S0SW. Also, superoxide dismutase activity showed a decreasing trend with increasing replacement level. In conclusion, based on these results, SBM could replace up to 33% of FM with or without amino acid supplementation in juvenile whiteleg shrimp diets reared in the biofloc system.

  5. Cyanobacteria Community Dynamics and Trophic Status of Intensive Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Farming Pond in Situbondo East Java Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Aliviyanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the dynamics community structure of Cyanobacteria and trophic status in ponds of intensive shrimp culture (Litopenaeus vannamei in Situbondo based on Trophic Diatom Index (TDI.  The ex post facto research was conducted in situ in the hamlet of Pond Mutiara Mas III Klatakan Situbondo East Java Indonesia.  Observation of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community structure were done every week during four cycles of shrimp farming ponds.  Cycle of shrimp farming ponds is the times for enlargement process of the shrimps from seed to mature which ranges from 90-120 days.  The dependent variables were the density of Cyanobacteria and Diatoms community, as well as chemical parameters nitrite and orthophosphate.  Trophic status was determined from TDI be counted from data of diatom density.  All of the data were then classified using cluster and biplot analysis program PAST Ver. 3.11 to discribe the profile of ecosystem quality.  The research results showed that there were four taxa of Cyanobacteria during farming cycle which the highest density was found from the genus of Oscillatoria.  Based on the value of TDI, we found that the trophic status of water in shrimps pond during the production process was eutrophic until hyper-eutrophic.  The water quality was decreases along with the length of incubation time.

  6. Supplemental effects of biofloc powder on growth performance, innate immunity, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chorong Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of a biofloc powder on growth performance and non-specific immune response of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven experimental diets were prepared with supplementation of graded levels of dried biofloc powder by 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0% (designated as Con, BF0.5, BF1, BF2, BF4, BF6, and BF8, respectively. Triplicate groups of shrimp (1.01 ± 0.01 g were hand-fed with one of the diets four times a day. At the end of the feeding trial, significantly (P ˂ 0.05 higher growth performance and feed utilization were obtained in BF4 groups compared to those fed the Con diet. The innate immunity of shrimp was improved by the dietary supplementation of biofloc. Dietary inclusion of biofloc at the level of 4.0% significantly increased disease resistance of shrimp against Vibrio harveyi. The results indicate that biofloc might be used as a dietary supplement for growth performance, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp.

  7. Effect of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count and prophenoloxidase system of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Hu, Fawen; Zheng, Debin

    2011-09-01

    Effects of dopamine injection on the hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, serine proteinase activity, proteinase inhibitor activity and α2-macroglobulin-like activity in L. vannamei were studied. Results showed that dopamine injection resulted in a significant effect on the parameters measured ( P < 0.05), while no significant difference was observed in the control group (0.85% NaCl). In the experimental groups, the hemocyte count reached the minimum in 3 h; granular and semi-granular cells became stable after 12 h and hyaline cells and the total hemocyte count became stable after 18 h. Phenoloxidase activity reached the minimum in 6 h, and then became stable after 9 h. Serine protease activity and proteinase inhibitor activity reached the minimum in 3 h, and α2-macroglobulin-like activity reached the maximum in 3 h, and all the three parameters became stable after 12 h. The results suggest that the activating mechanisms of the proPO system triggered by dopamine are different from those triggered by invasive agents or spontaneously activated under a normal physical condition.

  8. Envelope Proteins of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV Interact with Litopenaeus vannamei Peritrophin-Like Protein (LvPT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xie

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome virus (WSSV is a major pathogen in shrimp cultures. The interactions between viral proteins and their receptors on the surface of cells in a frontier target tissue are crucial for triggering an infection. In this study, a yeast two-hybrid (Y2H library was constructed using cDNA obtained from the stomach and gut of Litopenaeus vannamei, to ascertain the role of envelope proteins in WSSV infection. For this purpose, VP37 was used as the bait in the Y2H library screening. Forty positive clones were detected after screening. The positive clones were analyzed and discriminated, and two clones belonging to the peritrophin family were subsequently confirmed as genuine positive clones. Sequence analysis revealed that both clones could be considered as the same gene, LV-peritrophin (LvPT. Co-immunoprecipitation confirmed the interaction between LvPT and VP37. Further studies in the Y2H system revealed that LvPT could also interact with other WSSV envelope proteins such as VP32, VP38A, VP39B, and VP41A. The distribution of LvPT in tissues revealed that LvPT was mainly expressed in the stomach than in other tissues. In addition, LvPT was found to be a secretory protein, and its chitin-binding ability was also confirmed.

  9. A single WAP domain (SWD)-containing protein with antiviral activity from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Linwei; Niu, Shengwen; Gao, Jiefeng; Zuo, Hongliang; Yuan, Jia; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2018-02-01

    The single whey acidic protein (WAP) domain (SWD)-containing proteins, also called type III crustins, are a group of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in crustaceans. At present, a number of SWDs have been identified in shrimp, which showed essential antibacterial activities. However, the roles of SWDs in antiviral immune responses have not been reported up to now. In this study, a novel SWD (LvSWD3) was identified from Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, which contained a typical single WAP domain homologous to those of other crustacean SWDs. Although lacking the pro and arg-rich region between the signal peptide and the WAP domain, LvSWD3 was closely clustered with other shrimp SWDs in the phylogenetic tree. Similar to many shrimp SWDs, the highest expression of LvSWD3 was detected in hemocytes. The LvSWD3 expression exhibited only limited changes after challenges with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Poly (I:C) and lipopolysaccharide, but was significantly up-regulated after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Silencing of LvSWDs significantly accelerated the death of the WSSV-infected but not the V. parahaemolyticus-infected shrimp. The recombinant LvSWD3 protein did not show proteinase inhibitory and antibacterial activities but could significantly postpone the death of WSSV-infected shrimp and reduce the viral load in tissues. These suggested that LvSWD3 was a novel SWD with antiviral activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotype by environment interaction for adult body weights of shrimp Penaeus vannamei when grown at low and high densitie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Famula Thomas R

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Shrimp is one of few marine species cultured worldwide for which several selective breeding programs are being conducted. One environmental factor that can affect the response to selection in breeding programs is the density at which the shrimp are cultured (low-medium-high. Phenotypic plasticity in the growth response to different densities might be accompanied by a significant genotype by environment interaction, evidenced by a change in heritabilities between environments and by a genetic correlation less than one for a unique trait between environments. Our goal was to understand whether different growth densities affect estimates of those genetic parameters for adult body weight (BW in the Pacific white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei. BW heritabilities were significantly different between environments, with the largest at high density. These differences resulted from both an increased additive genetic variance and a decreased environmental variance when grown at high density. The genetic correlation between BWs at the two environmental conditions was significantly less than one. Whereas these results might be suggestive for carrying out shrimp selective breeding for BW under high density conditions, further understanding of genetic correlations between growth and reproductive traits within a given environment is necessary, as there are indications of reduced reproductive fitness for shrimp grown at high densities.

  11. Potential of using tropical brown macroalgae sargassum cristaefolium meal in the diets for juvenile white shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryono, A.; Sukardi, P.; Yudiarti, E.; Hardi, E. H.; Hastuti, S.; Susilowati, T.

    2018-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of different dietary levels of tropical marine brown macroalgae, Sargassum cristaefolium meal (SCM) on growth performance and feed utilization efficiency of juvenile white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (mean initial weight 2.65±0.1 g). The algae were collected from Bandengan Coast, Jepara, Indonesia. The study used a completely randomized design with 5 treatments of dietary different S. cristaefolium meal levels (0, 10, 20, 30, and 40 g algae meal/kg feed) in triplicates. The results showed that the different levels of dietary SCM did not significantly affect (P>0.05) average daily growth (ADG;.204-224 mg/day) and survival (80-97%) of the shrimp after a 42-day feeding period. However, the test diets significantly affected (P<0.05) feed intake (FI), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Better FCR (2.13) and PER (1.34) was found by the diet with 2% SCM compared to the control diet (no SCM) (FCR 3.42 and PER 0.81). This finding indicates that the supplement of dietary 2% SCM (20 g/kg feed) can increase the feed utilization efficiency up to 62% or reduce the FCR up to 38% without any adverse in growth performance.

  12. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  13. Evaluation of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Health during a Superintensive Aquaculture Growout Using NMR-Based Metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, Tracey B.; Duke, Jessica; Goodson, Abby; Weldon, Daryl; Brunson, Jeff; Leffler, John W.; Bearden, Daniel W.

    2013-01-01

    Success of the shrimp aquaculture industry requires technological advances that increase production and environmental sustainability. Indoor, superintensive, aquaculture systems are being developed that permit year-round production of farmed shrimp at high densities. These systems are intended to overcome problems of disease susceptibility and of water quality issues from waste products, by operating as essentially closed systems that promote beneficial microbial communities (biofloc). The resulting biofloc can assimilate and detoxify wastes, may provide nutrition for the farmed organisms resulting in improved growth, and may aid in reducing disease initiated from external sources. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic techniques were used to assess shrimp health during a full growout cycle from the nursery phase through harvest in a minimal-exchange, superintensive, biofloc system. Aberrant shrimp metabolomes were detected from a spike in total ammonia nitrogen in the nursery, from a reduced feeding period that was a consequence of surface scum build-up in the raceway, and from the stocking transition from the nursery to the growout raceway. The biochemical changes in the shrimp that were induced by the stressors were essential for survival and included nitrogen detoxification and energy conservation mechanisms. Inosine and trehalose may be general biomarkers of stress in Litopenaeus vannamei. This study demonstrates one aspect of the practicality of using NMR-based metabolomics to enhance the aquaculture industry by providing physiological insight into common environmental stresses that may limit growth or better explain reduced survival and production. PMID:23555690

  14. TAT improves in vitro transportation of fortilin through midgut and into hemocytes of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Zhang, Wenbing; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Yanjiao; Ai, Qinghui; Wang, Xiaojie

    2012-06-01

    Fortilin is a multifunctional protein implicated in many important cellular processes. Since injection of Pm-fortilin reduces shrimp mortality caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), there is potential application of fortilin in shrimp culture. In the present study, in order to improve trans-membrane transportation efficiency, the protein transduction domain of the transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide was fused to fortilin. The Pichia pastoris yeast expression system, which is widely accepted in animal feeds, was used for production of recombinant fusion protein. Green fluorescence protein (GFP) was selected as a reporter because of its intrinsic visible fluorescence. The fortilin, TAT and GFP fusion protein were constructed. Their trans-membrane transportation efficiency and effects on immune response of shrimp were analyzed in vitro. Results showed that TAT peptide improved in vitro uptake of fortilin into the hemocytes and midgut of Litopenaeus vannamei. The phenoloxidase (PO) activity of hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin or GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly increased compared with that in the control without expressed fortilin. The PO activity of hemocytes incubated with 200 μg mL-1 GFP-Fortilin-TAT was significantly higher than that in the group with the same concentration of GFP-Fortilin. Hemocytes incubated with GFP-Fortilin-TAT at all concentrations showed significantly higher nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity than those in the control or in the GFP-Fortilin treatment. The present in vitro study indicated that TAT fusion protein improved the immune effect of fortilin.

  15. Shelf life extension of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using chitosan and ε-polylysine during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Soyoung; Kim, Jin-Hee; Jang, Hye-Jin; Park, Hee Jung; Oh, Se-Wook

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of an ε-polylysine (PL) and chitosan (CH) coating on the quality of shrimp under refrigeration. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were coated with PL, CH, or CH + PL and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. The quality of shrimp was measured by observing changes in microbiota, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), and sensory characteristics. Among the coating films, the CH + PL coating most effectively inhibited the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., and H 2 S-producing bacteria. This coating increased the shelf life of shrimp by decreasing the amount of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria, with inhibition greater than three log cycles on the ninth day of storage. In addition, the CH and CH + PL coatings effectively suppressed the formation of TVB-N compared with that in the control by 43% and 30%, respectively. The pH of all treated samples increased slowly compared with that of the control, but no significant difference was observed. Sensory quality was similar to microbial and physicochemical properties, and the acceptability of all treated samples gradually decreased. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Replacement of fishmeal for soy protein concentrate in diets for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc-based rearing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jatobá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to assess the final body weight, weekly weight gain, yield, apparent feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and feed intake of the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei fed four diets containing different levels of soy protein concentrate (SPC as a replacement for fishmeal, reared in a super-intensive biofloc system. Diets consisted of replacing 209 g kg-1 fishmeal at 0, 33, 66, and 100% SPC. Shrimp were raised in a biofloc system using twelve experimental units stocked with 250 shrimp m-3 under constant aeration (O2>5mg L-1 and temperature (29±0.5 °C. No significant differences among treatments were observed based on water quality parameters. Shrimp fed diets with 0 and 33% substitution exhibited the highest weekly growth (1.88 and 1.79 g per week and final weights (15.2 and 14.7 g compared with shrimp fed the 66 and 100% replacement. A lower feed intake was observed for shrimp fed the 33% SPC diet (3.18 kg per experimental unit compared with 0% replacement (3.62 kg. Shrimp fed the 33% replacement achieved a similar performance and lower feed intake than animals fed diet without replacement.

  17. Effects of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarasuwan, C; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

    2011-08-01

    Effects of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) on yield and characteristics of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were studied. Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing both compounds at different levels of pH (5.5, 7, 8.5, 10 and 11.5) showed an increase in the weight gain and cooking yield and a reduced cooking loss as pH of solutions increased (p<0.05). Increases in pH and salt content in soaked shrimp muscle were obtained with increasing pH (p<0.05). Higher pH of soaking solution partially solubilized proteins in the muscle as well as carotenoproteins. pH of solutions above 8.5 led to the pronounced leaching of pigments, associated with the lowered redness of cooked shrimp. Shear force of raw and cooked shrimp continuously decreased as pH of solution increased (p<0.05). Solution containing 2.5% NaCl and 2.0% NaHCO3 (pH 8.5) was recommended for treatment of white shrimp as a promising alternative for phosphates to increase the yield and to lower cooking loss without any negative effect on sensory properties.

  18. The effect of phytase levels in the diet on the digestibility and growth performance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammmad Agus Suprayudi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of phytase levels in the diet on the digestibility and growth performance of white shrimp Litopenaeus vanname. White shrimp were used in the trial with initial body weight of 3.8±0.01 g were reared in  aquarium (60×40×50 cm3 and filled with 60L treated sea water at a density of ten individu. Experimental diet were formulated in isonitrogeneous (36% protein and isocaloric (3960 kcal/kg to contain four levels of phytase: 0 iu/kg (diet A, 500 iu/kg (diet B, 750 iu/kg (diet C, and 1000 iu/kg(diet D. All diets were supplied with 0.5% of Cr2O3 as an indicator for digestibility measurement shrimp fed three times daily at satiation levelfor how many days of rearing. A factorial completely randomized experimental design was selected consisted of four treatments and triplicates. The result showed that the phytase addition improved the digestibility of protein, calcium, and phosphor as well as improve growth performance of white shrimp. Based on evaluation of those parameters, it is concluded that phytase level of500 IU support the best growth performance ofjuvenile white shrimp. Keywords: phytase, feed digestibility, growth,Litopenaeus vannamei

  19. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuskhanova, Eleonora; Assenova, Bahytkul; Rebezov, Maksim; Amirkhanov, Kumarbek; Yessimbekov, Zhanibek; Smolnikova, Farida; Nurgazezova, Almagul; Nurymkhan, Gulnur; Stuart, Marilyne

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food. PMID:28717313

  20. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Okuskhanova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC, and amino acid content. Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography. Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%. Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g, threonine (5.38 g/100 g, and valine (5.84 g/100 g predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g, methionine (3.29 g/100 g, and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content. Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.

  1. Is meat consumption associated with depression? A meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Yang, Ye; Xie, Ming-Sheng; Ding, Xiang; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Chen; Peng, Shi-Fang

    2017-12-28

    A number of epidemiological studies have examined the effect of meat consumption on depression. However, no conclusion has been reached. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between meat consumption and depression. The electronic databases of PUBMED and EMBASE were searched up to March 2017, for observational studies that examined the relationship between meat consumption and depression. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of depression and the relative risk (RR) for the incidence of depression, as well as their corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated respectively (the highest versus the lowest category of meat consumption). A total of eight observational studies (three cross-sectional, three cohort and two case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. Specifically, six studies were related to the prevalence of depression, and the overall multi-variable adjusted OR suggested no significant association between meat consumption and the prevalence of depression (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.22; P = 0.469). In contrast, for the three studies related to the incidence of depression, the overall multi-variable adjusted RR evidenced an association between meat consumption and a moderately higher incidence of depression (RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.24; P = 0.013). Meat consumption may be associated with a moderately higher risk of depression. However, it still warrants further studies to confirm such findings due to the limited number of prospective studies.

  2. Irradiation of poultry meat and its products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, I.; Lapidot, M.

    1992-02-01

    Modern poultry production methods provide many opportunities for microbial contamination, and poultry meat is considered to have a high bacterial load. This document describes means by which poultry meat can be decontaminated, placing especial emphasis on the use of ionizing radiation. Separate chapters describe the irradiation process, methods for detecting whether the food has been irradiated, the wholesomeness of the irradiated products and the regulatory aspects of poultry irradiation. 441 refs, 35 figs, 16 tabs

  3. The animal fat paradox and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, E C; O'Neill, H A

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the paradoxical issues and perceptions regarding animal fats and the related effects on meat quality and consumer perceptions. Meat scientists have been studying carcass characteristics for many years and although the factors that influence the accumulation, distribution and composition of carcass fat in livestock have been extensively researched, the role, value and perceptions of animal fats in meat quality differ significantly in importance between producers, abattoirs, butchers, retailers and consumers. Fat and long-chain fatty acids, whether in adipose tissue or muscle, contribute to important aspects of meat quality and are central to the nutritional and sensory values of meat. In this review the nutritional value of fat, as well as the importance of fat in terms of carcass and meat quality will be highlighted. The 'quality' of meat depends greatly on the socio-demographic backgrounds of the consumer. The aim is to focus on the global importance of fat in the carcass to the producer, processor and consumer. There is currently no clear cut definition for fat quality because the acceptability and perceived quality of fat varies significantly in terms of quantity, colour, consistency and chemical composition in different species of livestock around the world. The association between animal fats and human health is critical and recommendations by health professionals range from excluding fats altogether to a moderate consumption of fats due to their essential role in the body. Recently the emphasis has shifted away from fat quantity to fat quality. Despite these recommendations and years of bad publicity in terms of the adverse affects of animal fats in human health, the livestock industry seems reluctant to shift its focus to fat quality rather than quantity. This approach may adversely affect future meat consumption by consumers who are becoming increasingly critical about the food they eat.

  4. From killing cows to culturing meat.

    OpenAIRE

    Buscemi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate how in Britain, France and Italy the idea of the living animal is being detached from the action of eating meat. It is an ongoing historical process, which has recently been fuelled by the new issue of cultured meat.\\ud Design/methodology/approach – Starting from Goody’s developmentalist stages (Production, Distribution, Preparation and Consumption), first this work analyses historically how these stages have undergone the process of the d...

  5. Geriatric dietary meat-based products

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzelov, Aco; Agunova, Larisa

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary nutrition pattern referring to different age groups of the population does not meet quantitative and qualitative requirements. In Ukraine the manufacture of geriatric meat-based dietary products is underdeveloped. Therefore, the development of healthy and functional foods is the priority objective for the food industry. The research is devoted to considering the possibility of using quail meat, wheat germ flakes and walnut oil in the production process of the sausages for ...

  6. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  7. Cultured meat: every village its own factory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Weele, Cor; Tramper, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Rising global demand for meat will result in increased environmental pollution, energy consumption, and animal suffering. Cultured meat, produced in an animal-cell cultivation process, is a technically feasible alternative lacking these disadvantages, provided that an animal-component-free growth medium can be developed. Small-scale production looks particularly promising, not only technologically but also for societal acceptance. Economic feasibility, however, emerges as the real obstacle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Caracterización de la textura sensorial e instrumental del camarón de cultivo Litopenaeus vannamei en la camaronera de Tunas de Zaza.

    OpenAIRE

    Tamarit Pino, Y.

    2008-01-01

    El camarón, como el resto de los alimentos, puede hacer uso de las técnicas de Evaluación Sensorial para evaluar su calidad. Dentro de los atributos sensoriales que se analizan, la textura es la primera que se afecta. El objetivo del presente trabajo consistió en constituir una Comisión de Evaluación Sensorial (CES) especializada en textura del camarón de cultivo cocido Litopenaeus vannamei, para lo cual fue necesario estudiar 12 tratamientos para variar la textura del camar...

  9. Effect of Adding the White Legged Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on Growth and Survival of Tiger Shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in Intensive Farming

    OpenAIRE

    . Tarsim

    2007-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in the framework of a project to develop a viable shrimp polyculture technology under intensive farming. The objectives were to assess the effect of adding white legged shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) on growth and survival of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in intensive Farming. Tiger shrimp were stocked in 2800-3400 m2 earthen ponds at 40 individuals/m2 and reared for 133 days. White legged shrimp added at 70 day at 8±2 individuals/m2. Growth rate and total yield af...

  10. Effect of Sucrose as Carbon Source and Probiotic Administrations on Bacterial Population Dinamic and Water Quality in White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    . Sukenda

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection and nutrient enrichment prior stocking of  post larvae in the pond will be affected on the growth and composition of microbe.  Attention should be taken to some factors related to deterministic and stochastic factors of aquaculture environment  in order to develop microbe community.  This study was performed to determine effect of sucrose and probiotic supplementation to shrimp culture pond on water quality profile and population dynamic on shrimp culture media.  The treatments were supplementation of sucrose as carbon source, probiotic, and sucrose + probiotic into 25 L culture medium containing white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.  Shrimp were fed commercial diet containing 30% protein by 5% body weight every day.  The result of study showed that bacterial population was increased by increasing time of shrimp rearing.  Increased of bacterial population was contrary to DO value.   Bacteria grew was heterotrop and vibrio that its intensity varied during experiment.  Supplementation of sucrose supported proliferation of bacteria including heterotrop, probiotik and vibrio groups.  Specifically, interaction between probiotic bacteria and vibrio was also found.  The presence of probiotic bacteria showed a negative impact on vibrio population.  Further, development of bacteria in general was also implicated to fluctuation of ammonia concentration in pond. Keywords: carbon, sucrose, probiotic, white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei   ABSTRAK Kegiatan disinfeksi dan pengkayaan nutrien sebelum penebaran PL akan mempengaruhi pola pertumbuhan dan komposisi mikroba di tambak. Hal-hal yang perlu diperhatikan dalam pengembangan komunitas mikroba adalah faktor-faktor deterministic dan sthocastic masing-masing lingkungan budidaya. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian bahan berkarbon (sukrosa dan probiotik di tambak terhadap profil kualitas air serta dinamika populasi pada perairan budidaya. Pada penelitian ini

  11. The Sensory Quality of Meat, Game, Poultry, Seafood and Meat Products as Affected by Intense Light Pulses: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasevic, Igor; Rajkovic, Andreja

    2015-01-01

    The effect of intense light pulses (ILP) on sensory quality of 16 different varieties of meat, meat products, game, poultry and seafood are reviewed. Changes induced by ILP are animal species, type of meat product and fluences applied dependent. ILP significantly deteriorates sensory quality of cooked meat products. It causes less change in the sensory properties of dry cured than cooked meat products while fermented sausage is least affected. The higher fluence applied significantly changes ...

  12. Processing temperature and moisture content effects on the texture and microscopic appearance of cooked fowl meat gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voller, L M; Dawson, P L; Han, I Y

    1996-12-01

    New aseptic processes are being used and refined to produce convenient, shelf stable liquid products containing meat particles. These processes utilize high temperature, short time thermal treatments to minimize food quality change; however, little research has been conducted on the effects of this process on the texture of meat from mature hens traditionally used for canning. The objective of this study was to examine textural and structural changes in meat structure due to different high temperature (HT) heat treatments and meat moisture contents were examined by use of electron microscopy and torsion analyses. Cooked gels of different moisture contents (71.2 to 74.8%) were formulated from spent fowl breast meat and exposed to processing temperatures of 120 or 124 C. The HT processing resulted in stronger (tougher) meat gels that were more deformable (more chewy) than gels that were not processed by HT. Water added prior to cooking was not retained in samples that were cooked and then processed at 124 C, but was retained in the samples processed at 120 C. Electron micrographs showed a more organized and open gel structure in the samples with higher moisture content and lower temperature (120 C) processing compared to the lower moisture and higher (124 C) temperature treatments.

  13. Factors influencing internal color of cooked meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suman, Surendranath P; Nair, Mahesh N; Joseph, Poulson; Hunt, Melvin C

    2016-10-01

    This manuscript overviews the pertinent research on internal color of uncured cooked meats, biochemical processes involved in meat cookery, and fundamental mechanisms governing myoglobin thermal stability. Heat-induced denaturation of myoglobin, responsible for the characteristic dull-brown color of cooked meats, is influenced by a multitude of endogenous (i.e., pH, muscle source, species, redox state) and exogenous (i.e., packaging, ingredients, storage) factors. The interactions between these factors critically influence the internal cooked color and can confuse the consumers, who often perceive cooked color to be a reliable indicator for doneness and safety. While certain phenomena in cooked meat color are cosmetic in nature, others can mislead consumers and result in foodborne illnesses. Research in meat color suggests that processing technologies and cooking practices in industry as well as households influence the internal cooked color. Additionally, the guidelines of many international public health and regulatory authorities recommend using meat thermometers to determine safe cooking endpoint temperature and to ensure product safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. BIOTECHNOLOGIES OF MEAT PRODUCTS MANUFACTURE. CURRENT STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prilipko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of literature and patents related to the possibilities of biotechnology for optimizing the domestic meat processing plants was the aim of the article. The analysis of the results of the use of biotechnological methods in the meat processing industry is given. The prospects for their implementation are evaluated. The main development strategy of technological meat processing to develop the methods of obtaining high quality and safe meat products is highlighted. Targeted use of special strains of microorganisms in production of functional meat products offers some opportunities. Thus, such action is associated with formation of the following specific dietary components: organic acids, bactericins, enzymes, vitamins and others. They promote to improve the sanitary microbiological, organoleptic, functional and technological parameters of meat products. Using of denitrifying microbial strains could reduce the residual content of sodium nitrite in the finished product, minimizing the possible carcinogenic and mutagenic impact of this compound on a human body, producing functional safe products while maintaining its high organoleptic characteristics.

  15. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  16. Plants as natural antioxidants for meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomović, V.; Jokanović, M.; Šojić, B.; Škaljac, S.; Ivić, M.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry is demanding antioxidants from natural sources to replace synthetic antioxidants because of the negative health consequences or beliefs regarding some synthetic ones. Plants materials provide good alternatives. Spices and herbs, generally used for their flavouring characteristics, can be added to meat products in various forms: whole, ground, or as isolates from their extracts. These natural antioxidants contain some active compounds, which exert antioxidative potential in meat products. This antioxidant activity is most often due to phenolic acids, phenolic diterpenes, flavonoids and volatile oils. Each of these compounds often has strong H-donating activity, thus making them extremely effective antioxidants; some compounds can chelate metals and donate H to oxygen radicals, thus slowing oxidation via two mechanisms. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of natural antioxidants when used in meat products. Based on this literature review, it can be concluded that natural antioxidants are added to fresh and processed meat and meat products to delay, retard, or prevent lipid oxidation, retard development of off-flavours (rancidity), improve colour stability, improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life, without any damage to the sensory or nutritional properties.

  17. Black bone syndrome in chiken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAA Baldo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Black bone syndrome (BBS affects poultry industry, and it is caused by the darkening of the tissue adjacent to the bone due to leak age of bone marrow contents during cooking. The objective of this experiment was to estimate BBS incidence in chicken thighs. A completely randomized experimental design, with two treatments (refrigerated or frozen of 50 replicates each, was applied. The influence of BBS on meat quality was assessed according to bone lightness (*L, and meat appearance and sensorial characteristics. Lightness was measured using a colorimeter (Minolta® 410R positioned on the proximal epiphyseal growth plate. Meat quality was evaluated after roasting by assigning scores for appearance (acceptable = no darkening, intermediate = little darkened, and unacceptable = severe darkening. Twelve refrigerated and 12 frozen thighs were used for sensorial analysis (adjacent muscle appearance, odor, tenderness, and flavor, assessed using a hedonic scale (1 = bad to 10 = very good by trained panelists. Lightness was submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test (p37.5=normal. The incidence of BBS was 35%,with a 16%increase thighs were frozen. Meat taste was not influenced by the treatments. Meat appearance, flavor, and tenderness were not affected by freezing or refrigeration, only by BBS degree. It was concluded that freezing increases the incidence of BBS and chicken thighs with bones presenting lower luminosity have worse meat quality.

  18. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D.; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-01-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  19. Flavour chemistry of chicken meat: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasena, Dinesh D; Ahn, Dong Uk; Nam, Ki Chang; Jo, Cheorun

    2013-05-01

    Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers' meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for flavour deterioration

  20. Flavour Chemistry of Chicken Meat: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh D. Jayasena

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavour comprises mainly of taste and aroma and is involved in consumers’ meat-buying behavior and preferences. Chicken meat flavour is supposed to be affected by a number of ante- and post-mortem factors, including breed, diet, post-mortem ageing, method of cooking, etc. Additionally, chicken meat is more susceptible to quality deterioration mainly due to lipid oxidation with resulting off-flavours. Therefore, the intent of this paper is to highlight the mechanisms and chemical compounds responsible for chicken meat flavour and off-flavour development to help producers in producing the most flavourful and consistent product possible. Chicken meat flavour is thermally derived and the Maillard reaction, thermal degradation of lipids, and interaction between these 2 reactions are mainly responsible for the generation of flavour and aroma compounds. The reaction of cysteine and sugar can lead to characteristic meat flavour specially for chicken and pork. Volatile compounds including 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, methionol, 2,4,5-trimethyl-thiazole, nonanol, 2-trans-nonenal, and other compounds have been identified as important for the flavour of chicken. However 2-methyl-3-furanthiol is considered as the most vital chemical compound for chicken flavour development. In addition, a large number of heterocyclic compounds are formed when higher temperature and low moisture conditions are used during certain cooking methods of chicken meat such as roasting, grilling, frying or pressure cooking compared to boiled chicken meat. Major volatile compounds responsible for fried chicken are 3,5-dimethyl-1,2,4-trithiolanes, 2,4,6-trimethylperhydro-1,3,5-dithiazines, 3,5-diisobutyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-butyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 3-methyl-5-pentyl-1,2,4-trithiolane, 2,4-decadienal and trans-4,5-epoxy-trans-2-decenal. Alkylpyrazines were reported in the flavours of fried chicken and roasted chicken but not in chicken broth. The main reason for

  1. The role of red meat in a balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxton, Carrie

    Lean red meat is rich in essential nutrients, such as iron and zinc. Recent changes in farming practice have lowered the fat content of meat significantly. Observational studies have associated high meat consumption with negative health outcomes, but these studies have limitations. The only consistent data relate to colorectal cancer, although it is unclear whether the risk relates to all red meat or to processed or overcooked meats only. The UK government has recently recommended that high consumers of red meat should reduce their intake to 500g per week, although average meat consumption is actually below this figure. This article describes patterns of meat consumption, discusses associations with health and offers guidance on how patients can consume meat as part of a healthy, balanced diet.

  2. Molecular assay to fraud identification of meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti, Abbas; Ghasemi Dehkordi, Payam; Rahimi, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Detection of species fraud in meat products is important for consumer protection and food industries. A molecular technique such as PCR method for detection of beef, sheep, pork, chicken, donkey, and horse meats in food products was established. The purpose of this study was to identification of fraud and adulteration in industrial meat products by PCR-RFLP assay in Iran. In present study, 224 meat products include 68 sausages, 48 frankfurters, 55 hamburgers, 33 hams and 20 cold cut meats were collected from different companies and food markets in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed for gene amplification of meat species using specific oligonucleotid primers. Raw meat samples are served as the positive control. For differentiation between donkey's and horse's meat, the mitochondrial DNA segment (cytochrome-b gene) was amplified and products were digested with AluI restriction enzyme. Results showed that 6 of 68 fermented sausages (8.82%), 4 of 48 frankfurters (8.33%), 4 of 55 hamburgers (7.27%), 2 of 33 hams (6.6%), and 1 of 20 cold cut meat (5%) were found to contain Haram (unlawful or prohibited) meat. These results indicate that 7.58% of the total samples were not containing Halal (lawful or permitted) meat and have another meat. These findings showed that molecular methods such as PCR and PCR-RFLP are potentially reliable techniques for detection of meat type in meat products for Halal authentication.

  3. Microbial analysis of meat and meat products sold in fast food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the rate of microbial contamination of ready-to-eat meat and meat products sold in different fast food restaurants in Aba. This study was carried out between June and August, 2015. Samples were collected aseptically from five fast food restaurants using sterile polythene bags.

  4. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover, or orchardgrass pastures: Carcass merit and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and meat quality parameters when meat goat kids were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pretense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L; OGR) pastures. Final shrunk body weights were similar whe...

  5. Maintaining knife sharpness in industrial meat cutting: A matter of knife or meat cutter ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karltun, J; Vogel, K; Bergstrand, M; Eklund, J

    2016-09-01

    Knife sharpness is imperative in meat cutting. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of knife blade steel quality with meat cutters' individual ability to maintain the cutting edge sharp in an industrial production setting. Twelve meat cutters in two different companies using three different knives during normal production were studied in this quasi-experimental study. Methods included were measuring knife cutting force before and after knife use, time knives were used, ratings of sharpness and discomfort and interviews. Results showed that the meat cutters' skill of maintaining sharpness during work had a much larger effect on knife sharpness during work than the knife steel differences. The ability was also related to feelings of discomfort and to physical exertion. It was found that meat cutters using more knives were more likely to suffer from discomfort in the upper limbs, which is a risk for developing MSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Meat goat kids finished on alfalfa, red clover or orchardgrass pastures: carcass merit and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K E; Cassida, K A; Zerby, H N

    2014-12-01

    This experiment was conducted in 2005-2007 to evaluate carcass and chevon (goat meat) quality parameters when meat-goat kids (n=72) were finished on alfalfa (Medicago sativa L; ALF); red clover (Trifolium pratense L.; RCG); or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.; OGR) pastures. Carcass conformation score was greater (P=0.08) when meat-goat kids were finished on ALF compared to OGR with RCG intermediate. Chevon meat samples from goats finished on the three pasture treatments did not differ in ash, intramuscular fat, or crude protein content or in concentrations of omega6 and omega3 fatty acids, or the omega6 to omega3 ratio. Goats finished on OGR had higher (Pmeat-goat kids finished on ALF, RCG, or ORG produced desirable carcass weights for most niche markets in the USA. Chevon is a low-fat meat option with high desirable fatty acids for human diets. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Consumer preference, behavior and perception about meat and meat products: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-I-Furnols, Maria; Guerrero, Luis

    2014-11-01

    Meat and meat products currently represent an important source of protein in the human diet, and their quality varies according to intrinsic and extrinsic parameters that can sometimes be shaped to make a product more desirable. Because consumers are the final step in the production chain, it is useful to identify which factors affect their behavioral patterns. This would allow the meat sector to better satisfy consumer expectations, demands and needs. This paper focuses on features that might influence consumer behavior, preferences and their perception of meat and meat products with respect to psychological, sensory and marketing aspects. This multidisciplinary approach includes evaluating psychological issues such as attitudes, beliefs, and expectations; sensory properties such as appearance, texture, flavor and odor; and marketing-related aspects such as price and brand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxygen consumption of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles in heterotrophic medium with zero water exchange Consumo de oxigênio de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei em meio heterotrófico sem renovação de água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Vinatea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at determining the dissolved oxygen consumption rate of Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles maintained in a microbial biofloc raceway system at high density with no aeration. Three 4 L bottles were filled for each treatment, sealed hermetically, and placed in an enclosed greenhouse raceway system. Four shrimp (13.2±1.42 g were assigned to two sets of the bottles, which underwent the following treatments: light conditions with no shrimp; dark conditions with no shrimp; light conditions with shrimp; and dark conditions with shrimp. Dissolved oxygen content was measured every 10 min for 30 min. A quadratic behavior was observed in dissolved oxygen concentration over time. Significant differences for oxigen consumption were observed only at 10 and 20 min between shrimp maintained in the dark and those under light conditions. At 10 min, a higher value was observed in shrimp maintained under light, and at 20 min, in the dark. Significant differences between 10 and 20 min and between 10 and 30 min were observed when oxygen consumption was analyzed over time in the presence of light. Under dark conditions there were significant differences only between 20 and 30 min. Lethal oxygen concentration (0.65 mg L-1 would be reached in less than one hour either under light or dark conditions with no aeration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o consumo de oxigênio dissolvido (OD de juvenis de Litopenaeus vannamei mantidos em sistema de cultivo de bioflocs bacterianos em alta densidade e ausência de aeração. Três garrafas de 4 L foram preenchidas para cada tratamento, fechadas hermeticamente e colocadas em sistema de cultivo fechado. Quatro camarões (13,2±1,42 g foram colocados em dois dos conjuntos de garrafas. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: luminosidade, sem camarões; escuro, sem camarões; luminosidade, com camarões; escuro, com camarões. A concentração de oxigênio dissolvido foi determinada a cada 10 min durante 30 min. Foi

  9. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon [Team for Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wang Geun [Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyong Su [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Cheon Jei [Division of Animal Life Science, Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed.

  10. Policy plan for the early approval for irradiated meat products and the promotion of irradiated meats in market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Kim, Wang Geun; Kim, Kyong Su; Yook, Hong Sun; Kim, Cheon Jei

    2008-01-01

    The consumption of meat products is gradually being increased by the development of livestock raising technology, industrialized farm management and international trade. This increased consumption also created new market for ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook meat products. However, these convenience meat products can be easily contaminated during the processing and storage by pathogens, and there have been many reported cases of food borne illness by meats. One of the most effective methods for the decontamination of meat products is the radiation technology. Food irradiation was the established, well-recognized and safe sterilization method. Many other countries researched the effect of irradiation on the meat products and approved the irradiation. In this article, the effectiveness, the international acceptance, the economics and the research trend of irradiation on meat products have been reviewed. Also, the policy plans for the early approval of the irradiated meat products in Korea and the promotion policy of irradiated meats in market were discussed

  11. Physical and lipids alterations of irradiated camel meat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, F.A.; Shehata, M.I.; Abd-El-Baki, M.M.; Dessouki, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Camel meat is considered to be one of the toughest kind of meat. If camel meat could be tenderized, the demand on it may be increased. Aging oof camel meat is usually carried out at low temperature (Abd-El-Baki etal., 1957). Aging could be accelerated if storage temperature could be raised. Such condition enhances the microbial spoilage of meat (Sokolov, 1965). However, with the aid of ionizing radiation, preheating, and/or antibiotics the marked growth of microorganisms may be decreased during storage. It was also claimed that ionizing radiation affects the lipids, water holding capacity and color of meat (Lawrie, 1974). (author) 19 refs

  12. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  13. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  14. Replacement of meat by meat substitutes. A survey on person- and product-related factors in consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Annet C; Luning, Pieternel A; Weijzen, Pascalle; Engels, Wim; Kok, Frans J; de Graaf, Cees

    2011-06-01

    What does it take to increase the consumption of meat substitutes and attract new consumers? We identified main barriers and drivers by a consumer survey (n=553) in the U.K. and the Netherlands. Person-related factors (food neophobia and food choice motives) and product-related attitudes and beliefs towards meat and meat substitutes were compared between non-users (n=324), light/medium-users (n=133) and heavy-users of meat substitutes (n=96). Consumer acceptance was largely determined by the attitudes and beliefs towards meat substitutes and food neophobia. Key barriers for non-users and light/medium-users were the unfamiliarity with meat substitutes and the lower sensory attractiveness compared to meat. In addition, non-users had a higher tendency to avoid new foods. Hence, the less consumers were using meat substitutes, the more they wanted these products to be similar to meat. Although non-users and light/medium-users did recognize the ethical and weight-control aspects of meat substitutes, this was obviously less relevant to them. Actually, only heavy-users had high motivations to choose ethical foods, which explains their choice for meat substitutes. In order to make meat substitutes more attractive to meat consumers, we would not recommend to focus on communication of ethical arguments, but to significantly improve the sensory quality and resemblance to meat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  16. Effect of addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yllana Ferreira-Marinho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of Navicula sp. on plankton composition and postlarvae growth of Litopenaeus vannamei reared in culture tanks with zero water exchange systems. Four treatments were considered: zero water exchange (ZWE; ZWE with the addition of feed (ZWE-F; ZWE with the addition of Navicula sp. (ZWE-N and ZWE with the addition of feed and Navicula sp. (ZWE-FN, all in triplicate. Shrimp of 17.7 ± 0.02 mg were stocked at a density of 2500 shrimp m-3 and microalgae added on the 1st, 5th and 15th day at a density of 5x10(4 cell mL-1. The shrimp were fed a commercial feed composed by 42% crude protein four times a day except in the ZWE treatment. For data analysis we used Cochran, Shapiro-Wilk, ANOVA, Tukey and Student-t tests (P < 0.05. The most frequent genera were: Anabaena, Arcella, Asplanchma, Bosmina, Brachionus, Cylindrotheca, Daphnia, Fragilaria, Hemiaulus, Keratella, Orthoseira, Oscillatoria, Phymatodocis, Rhabdonema, Skeletonema, Sckizothrix and Ulothrix. Significant differences between treatments were observed for TAN, NO2-N, alkalinity, final weight, weight gain, final biomass, biomass gain, feed conversion ratio, specific growth rate and survival. The ZWE-FN treatment showed better production parameters, indicating the benefits of the addition of Navicula sp. as a natural food source for L. vannamei postlarvae in zero water exchange systems.

  17. Effects of dietary inulin and mannan oligosaccharide on immune related genes expression and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Hong; Dai, Xilin; Li, Jingjing; Ding, Fujiang

    2018-05-01

    The effects of inulin and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) at different doses (2.5, 4 and 10 mg/g) in singular or combined diet on growth rate, immune related genes expression, and resistance to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were investigated. At the end of 28-day singular feeding experiment, the highest values of specific growth rate (SGR) and the expression of toll-like receptor1, 2 and 3 (TLR1, 2, 3), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), crustin, anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF) as well as prophenoloxidase (proPO) were observed in shrimp individually fed with 5 mg/g dietary inulin or MOS, respectively. Compared with individual treatments, diet containing combined prebiotics (5 mg/g inulin and MOS) significantly improved the expression of TLRs, STAT, proPO, crustin and ALF in L. vannamei after four-week feeding. Additionally, Pacific white shrimp fed with combined dietary prebiotics showed significantly higher expression of immune related genes and lower cumulative mortality in WSSV and Vibrio alginolyticus challenges, compared to the singular feeding groups and control. These results in the present study demonstrated that the combined supplementation of inulin (5 mg/g) and MOS (5 mg/g) remarkably enhanced innate immune response and pathogen resistance of shrimp, and should be considered as a promising immunostimulatory additive for the culture of Pacific white shrimp. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Peritrophin-like protein from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) involved in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in digestive tract challenged with reverse gavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shijun; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jiquan; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-11-01

    The peritrophic membrane plays an important role in the defense system of the arthropod gut. The digestive tract is considered one of the major tissues targeted by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp. In this study, the nucleotide sequence encoding peritrophin-like protein of Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPT) was amplified from a yeast two-hybrid library of L. vannamei. The epitope peptide of LvPT was predicted with the GenScript OptimumAntigen™ design tool. An anti-LvPT polyclonal antibody was produced and shown to specifically bind a band at 27 kDa, identified as LvPT. The LvPT protein was expressed and its concentration determined. LvPT dsRNA (4 μg per shrimp) was used to inhibit LvPT expression in shrimp, and a WSSV challenge experiment was then performed with reverse gavage. The pleopods, stomachs, and guts were collected from the shrimp at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h post-infection (hpi). Viral load quantification showed that the levels of WSSV were significantly lower in the pleopods, stomachs, and guts of shrimp after LvPT dsRNA interference than in those of the controls at 48 and 72 hpi. Our results imply that LvPT plays an important role during WSSV infection of the digestive tract.

  19. Effect of replacing fish meal with extruded soybean meal on growth, feed utilization and apparent nutrient digestibility of juvenile white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qihui; Tan, Beiping; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Liu, Hongyu

    2015-10-01

    Extruded soybean meal (ESBM) was evaluated as a protein source for partial replacement of fish meal (FM) in diets of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. In the control diet (Diet 1), FM protein was replaced with increasing dietary levels of ESBM (4.28%, 8.40%, 12.62%, 16.82%, and 25.26%) at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 60% levels (Diets 2 to 6, respectively). An eight-week feeding trial was conducted on 720 juvenile shrimp (0.67 g ± 0.01 g mean initial weight), and nutrient digestibility of the six diets was determined. ESBM could replace 20% of FM without causing a significant reduction in growth of shrimp, but other dietary treatments strongly affected whole body composition. Crude protein content of the whole body fed Diet 6 was significantly lower than that fed Diet 2 ( P digestibilities of Diets 5 and 6 were significantly lower than that of Diet 1 ( P Digestibility of lipids ranged from 96.97% in Diet 6 to 98.34% in Diet 3, whereas dry matter digestibility decreased with increasing replacement level. This study indicates that 20% FM replacement with ESBM in the basic diet containing 40% protein and 30% FM is optimal for juvenile L. vannamei.

  20. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening three Finfish Species for their Potential in Removing Organic Matter from the Effluent of White Leg Shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen, LQ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available White leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farming effluent contains pollutants that include high levels of organic matter (OM nutrients and growth-promoting substances. This study investigated the effects of varied concentrations of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei farm wastewater 0, 50, 75 and 100%, on the survival rate (SR of three finfish species: tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, grey mullet (Mugil cephalus and rabbit fish (Siganus guttatus as part of screening their potential in removing organic matter from the effluent of white leg shrimp farming. The different initial levels of shrimp wastewater from 50% to 100% had no significant effect on the survival rate of tilapia and mullet; but the survival rate of S. guttatus significantly decreased with increasing shrimp wastewater (P<0.05. The results showed that the removal of BOD, COD and TSS occurred in the range of 66-83, 68-81 and 30-54%; respectively and the removal efficiency of OM by mullet was higher than Tilapia in all treatments. The study also indicated that the reduction highest removal of BOD, COD and TSS was achieved being 83.1%, 80.7and 53,7% respectively, at the medium stocking density (25 fish/m2 of mullet.

  2. Specific Molecular Signatures for Type II Crustins in Penaeid Shrimp Uncovered by the Identification of Crustin-Like Antimicrobial Peptides in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Cairé; Coelho, Jaqueline da Rosa; Yuan, Jianbo; Xiang, Jianhai; Perazzolo, Luciane Maria

    2018-01-01

    Crustins form a large family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in crustaceans composed of four sub-groups (Types I-IV). Type II crustins (Type IIa or “Crustins” and Type IIb or “Crustin-like”) possess a typical hydrophobic N-terminal region and are by far the most representative sub-group found in penaeid shrimp. To gain insight into the molecular diversity of Type II crustins in penaeids, we identified and characterized a Type IIb crustin in Litopenaeus vannamei (Crustin-like Lv) and compared Type II crustins at both molecular and transcriptional levels. Although L. vannamei Type II crustins (Crustin Lv and Crustin-like Lv) are encoded by separate genes, they showed a similar tissue distribution (hemocytes and gills) and transcriptional response to the shrimp pathogens Vibrio harveyi and White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). As Crustin Lv, Crustin-like Lv transcripts were found to be present early in development, suggesting a maternal contribution to shrimp progeny. Altogether, our in silico and transcriptional data allowed to conclude that (1) each sub-type displays a specific amino acid signature at the C-terminal end holding both the cysteine-rich region and the whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, and that (2) shrimp Type II crustins evolved from a common ancestral gene that conserved a similar pattern of transcriptional regulation. PMID:29337853

  3. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  4. Litopenaeus vannamei sterile-alpha and armadillo motif containing protein (LvSARM is involved in regulation of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Hui Wang

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor (TLR-mediated NF-κB pathway is tightly controlled because overactivation may result in severe damage to the host, such as in the case of chronic inflammatory diseases and cancer. In mammals, sterile-alpha and armadillo motif-containing protein (SARM plays an important role in negatively regulating this pathway. While Caenorhabditis elegans SARM is crucial for an efficient immune response against bacterial and fungal infections, it is still unknown whether Drosophila SARM participates in immune responses. Here, Litopenaeus vannamei SARM (LvSARM was cloned and functionally characterized. LvSARM shared signature domains with and exhibited significant similarities to mammalian SARM. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis indicated that the expression of LvSARM was responsive to Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infections in the hemocyte, gill, hepatopancreas and intestine. In Drosophila S2 cells, LvSARM was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and could significantly inhibit the promoters of the NF-κB pathway-controlled antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs. Silencing of LvSARM using dsRNA-mediated RNA interference increased the expression levels of Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors, which are L.vannamei AMPs, and increased the mortality rate after V. alginolyticus infection. Taken together, our results reveal that LvSARM may be a novel component of the shrimp Toll pathway that negatively regulates shrimp AMPs, particularly Penaeidins and antilipopolysaccharide factors.

  5. MEAT GOAT DEMOGRAPHICS AND NICHE MARKETING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Fisher

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Six focus groups were conducted with each having ten people who attend different Islamic Centers in Ohio. The objective of the focus groups was to understand Halal meat purchase patterns and consumption patterns of the Moslem population with special attention to goat. The Ohio State University Extension personnel are utilizing these results to work with meat goat producers to understand and meet the requirements of the Halal meat market.  Participants discussed the Zabiha approach to slaughtering animals as the most merciful by causing the least pain. Many participants noted they had no way of knowing where the animal  came from and this held tremendous concerns relative to the feeding of animal by-products, use of hormones, and adulteration with pork. These trust concerns led to decisions about where to purchase their meat with 72% purchasing from a Moslem owned retail store. Only 13% purchased from a large grocery and 8% direct from a farmer.   Participants indicated their consumption patterns according to weekly, seasonal, and holiday use in addition to variations according to their personal geographic origin. The average meat purchase was 23 pounds with an average occurrence of 12.5 times per annum.  Purchasing trends indicated that 78% prefer lean over marbled cuts. Nearly 86% prefer fresh over frozen goat meat and nearly a third responded that they would pay more for fresh. Intact males were preferred by 42% of the respondents. Preferences for meat goat cuts were: Leg (71%, Chops (42%, Shoulder (24%, Breast (7%. Nearly a third indicated they also want the kidneys, heart, or head. Demographic shifts in the United States indicate that there are almost 53 million people who have a preference for goat meat. There are 2.4 million goats in the US according to the 2007 Agricultural Statistics. Based on consumption trends of this study, goat demand exceeds inventory by 160%. Meat goat consumer trends are changing regarding

  6. Chemical Aspects of Lesser Mouse Deer Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment aiming for studying chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. This research explored the chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat (Tragulus javanicus. Eight lesser mouse deer (four female and four male were used in chemical aspects of lesser mouse deer meat. The parameters observed included proximate analysis, amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA of the meat. The results showed that average meat chemical composition were content of water, protein, fat, ash and cholesterol were 76.33 %, 21.42 %, 0.51 %, 1.20% and 50.00 mg/100 g, respectively. Fatty acid consist of lauric acid, miristate, palmitate, stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic were 1.04 % 3.09%, 30.97, 0.77%., 59.41%, 3.22% and 1.12%, respectively. The total EPA and DHA was 0.13% and 0.05%,   Keywords: amino acid, fatty acid, cholesterol and EPA-DHA

  7. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rationalizing meat consumption. The 4Ns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Jared; Ruby, Matthew B; Loughnan, Steve; Luong, Mischel; Kulik, Juliana; Watkins, Hanne M; Seigerman, Mirra

    2015-08-01

    Recent theorizing suggests that the 4Ns - that is, the belief that eating meat is natural, normal, necessary, and nice - are common rationalizations people use to defend their choice of eating meat. However, such theorizing has yet to be subjected to empirical testing. Six studies were conducted on the 4Ns. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrated that the 4N classification captures the vast majority (83%-91%) of justifications people naturally offer in defense of eating meat. In Study 2, individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tended also to objectify (dementalize) animals and included fewer animals in their circle of moral concern, and this was true independent of social dominance orientation. Subsequent studies (Studies 3-5) showed that individuals who endorsed the 4Ns tend not to be motivated by ethical concerns when making food choices, are less involved in animal-welfare advocacy, less driven to restrict animal products from their diet, less proud of their animal-product decisions, tend to endorse Speciesist attitudes, tend to consume meat and animal products more frequently, and are highly committed to eating meat. Furthermore, omnivores who strongly endorsed the 4Ns tended to experience less guilt about their animal-product decisions, highlighting the guilt-alleviating function of the 4Ns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Petracci

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  10. Lactic-acid bacteria increase the survival of marine shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, after infection with Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe do Nascimento Vieira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the survival, post-larvae quality, and the population of bacteria in Litopenaeus vannamei after the addition of two strains of lactic-acid bacteria (2 and B6 experimentally infected by Vibrio harveyi. Fifteen hundred nauplii were distributed in 20 L capacity tanks with four replicates. The survival of control animals was lower (21% than that of animals fed with the strains B6 (50% and 2 (44%. Total bacterial population in the water and larvae, as well as of the Vibrio ssp. in water was not different among the treatments. No difference was observed in the population of Vibrio ssp. between the control larvae (5.5±0.5 log UFC/mL and that fed with strain 2 (5.4±0.1 log UFC/mL. Shrimp from control and fed with strain 2 showed significantly higher bacterial population than those fed with strain B6 (1.2±0.2 log UFC/mL. It was detected the lower load of Vibrio ssp. bacteria with potential of pathogenicity after feeding with strain B6.Moreover, these larvae showed more active behavior and low number of necrosis in relation to the control group and to that fed with strain 2.Este trabalho avaliou a adição de duas cepas de bactérias lácticas (2 e B6 na sobrevivência, qualidade de pós-larva e na população de bactérias na larvicultura de Litopenaeus vannamei experimentalmente infectado por Vibrio harveyi. Mil e quinhentos náuplios foram distribuídos em tanques de 20 L com quatro repetições. A sobrevivência dos animais controle foi menor (21% do que a dos alimentados com as cepas B6 (50% e 2 (44%. Sobrevivência de misis após desafio com V. harveyi foi maior em B6 do que nos outros tratamentos. A população total de bactérias na água e nas larvas, bem como de Vibrio ssp. na água não foi diferente entre os tratamentos. Não houve diferença, também, entre a população de Vibrio ssp. em larvas do grupo controle (5,5±0,5 log UFC/mL e larvas alimentadas com a cepa 2 (5,4±0,1 log UFC/mL. Camarões do grupo controle e

  11. In vitro meat: A future animal-free harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-03-04

    In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods. This new way of animal-free meat production may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and resource use associated with current meat production systems and will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe, and disease-free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controllable and manipulatable. Theoretically, this system is believed to be efficient enough to supply the global demand for meat; however, establishment of a sustainable in vitro meat production would face considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish this animal-free meat culturing system on an industrial scale.

  12. Technological aspects of horse meat products - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, José M; Munekata, Paulo E S; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Zhu, Zhenzhou; Alpas, Hami; Barba, Francisco J; Tomasevic, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Horse meat and its products can be considered as a food with a high nutritional value. However, due to cases of economically motivated food adulteration by the intentional addition of horse meat beef products in recent years, horse meat has become a controversial issue. Consumer confidence in meat products and the meat industry has diminished, although consumers consider the differences between the food content and the label as the major issue rather than the safety and nutritional characteristics of horse meat. The elaboration of meat products from horse meat (e.g. "cecina", dry-cured loin, salami, bressaola and pâté) is also an interesting alternative to other traditional meat products such as dry-cured pork hams, pork sausages and liver pâtés. In this review, the technological aspects, safety and storage stability of meat products elaborated from horse meat will be addressed by highlighting the nutritional and sensory aspects of these meat products. We aim to improve the existing knowledge about horse meat in the view of recent scandals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of inland waters for culturing shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: application of a method based on survival and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Castañeda, G; Millán-Almaraz, M I; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Fregoso-López, M G; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the suitability of 21 inland waters (16 well waters and 5 surface waters) from Northwest Mexico via short- (48 h) and medium-term (28 days) tests using postlarvae (PL18) of Litopenaeus vannamei. In the short test, survival was assessed at 48 h after shrimp were placed in groups of 10 postlarvae into 2-L containers of inland water, to which they had been previously acclimated. The second, medium-term test consisted of four replicates with 10 postlarvae, and each group was placed in 15-L containers with the treatment water. Weights (initial and final) and survival were evaluated weekly for 28 days. In those waters for which the short test was positive and the medium-term test was negative and which also had a deficiency of potassium and/or magnesium, a third test was conducted. These last waters were supplemented with salts, and the shrimp survival and weights (initial and final) were recorded for 28 days. The water samples from San Jose, Mochicahui, Sinaloa River, Caimanero inner Lagoon, La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, Escopama, and Fitmar had >60% survival in the short test. The Caimanero inner Lagoon water had the highest survival (87.5 ± 9.6%) and final mean weight (201.3 ± 86.2 mg). In the third test, it was found that shrimp in the water from La Pipima, Campo Santa Fe, and Fitmar exhibited 100% survival for 2 weeks. Finally, in this work, a decision tree to evaluate the suitability of low-salinity water for shrimp farming was proposed, which can be applied in other regions.

  14. Effect of silver nanoparticles on the metabolic rate, hematological response, and survival of juvenile white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez-Moreno, Karla; Mejía-Ruiz, Claudio Humberto; Díaz, Fernando; Reyna-Verdugo, Horacio; Re, Ana Denisse; Vazquez-Felix, Edgar F; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Mota-Morales, Josué D; Pestryakov, Alexey; Bogdanchikova, Nina

    2017-02-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the survival rate of juvenile white shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) after the intramuscular administration of AgNPs. For this, different concentrations of metallic AgNPs and PVP alone were injected into the organisms. After 96 h of administration, shrimp survival was more than 90% for all treatments. The oxygen consumption routine rate and total hemocyte count remained unaltered after AgNP injection, reflecting no stress caused. We evaluated whether AgNPs had an antiviral effect in shrimps infected with WSSV. The results revealed that the survival rate of WSSV-infected shrimps after AgNP administration was 80%, whereas the survival rate of untreated organisms was only 10% 96 h after infection. These results open up the possibility to explore the potential use of AgNPs as antiviral agents for the treatment of diseases in aquaculture organisms, particularly the WSSV in shrimp culture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolation and characterisation of an enterocin P-producing Enterococcus lactis strain from a fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Braïek, Olfa; Ghomrassi, Hamdi; Cremonesi, Paola; Morandi, Stefano; Fleury, Yannick; Le Chevalier, Patrick; Hani, Khaled; Bel Hadj, Omrane; Ghrairi, Taoufik

    2017-06-01

    Screening for lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fresh shrimp samples (Penaeus vannamei) collected from retail seafood markets in the Tunisian's coast, resulted in the isolation of an Enterococcus strain termed Q1. This strain was selected for its antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Lactococcus garvieae and against fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium equiseti). The Q1 strain was characterised using standard morphological and biochemical tests, growth assays at different temperatures, pH and salinity. 16S rRNA, rpoA and pheS gene sequencing, as well as the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer analyses, were combined to identify strain Q1 as a strain of Enterococcus lactis. The bacteriocin produced by E. lactis Q1 is thermostable, active in the pH range from 4.0 to 9.0 and has a bactericidal mode of action. The enterocin P structural gene was detected by specific PCR in strain E. lactis Q1, which is in good agreement with SDS-PAGE data of the purified bacteriocin. A lack of significant antibiotic resistance genes and virulence determinants was confirmed by specific PCRs. This work provides the first description of an enterocin P producer E. lactis strain isolated from a fresh shrimp. Based on its safety properties (absence of haemolytic activity, virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes), this strain has the potential to be used as a natural additive or adjunct protective culture in food biopreservation and/or probiotic culture.

  16. A Novel Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor Participates in White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF signaling pathway is known to play key roles in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, angiogenesis, vascular permeability, inhibition of apoptosis, and virus infection. In the present study, a novel VEGFR gene (LvVEGFR2 was identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The deduced amino acid sequence of LvVEGFR2 possessed typical features of VEGFRs reported in other species, including six IG-like domains, a transmembrane motif, a protein kinase (PK domain, and one tyrosine-PK active site. The transcripts of LvVEGFR2 were mainly detected in hemocytes and lymphoid organ (Oka. Subcellular localization analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 was a membrane protein. Its expression level was obviously upregulated in hemocytes and Oka of the shrimp after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection. Knockdown of LvVEGFR2 gene expression by double-strand RNA mediated interference could lead to a decrease of virus copy number in WSSV-infected shrimp. The interaction between LvVEGFR2 and different LvVEGFs (LvVEGF1, LvVEGF2, and LvVEGF3 in shrimp was analyzed at the transcription level and protein level, respectively. Knockdown of LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could downregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2, and injection of the recombinant LvVEGF2 or LvVEGF3 could upregulate the expression level of LvVEGFR2. Yeast two-hybrid analysis showed that LvVEGFR2 could interact with LvVEGF2 and LvVEGF3 directly. The study improved our understanding on the VEGF signaling pathway of shrimp and its role during WSSV infection.

  17. Injected phage-displayed-VP28 vaccine reduces shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei mortality by white spot syndrome virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-Lucero, G; Manoutcharian, K; Hernández-López, J; Ascencio, F

    2016-08-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the most important viral pathogen for the global shrimp industry causing mass mortalities with huge economic losses. Recombinant phages are capable of expressing foreign peptides on viral coat surface and act as antigenic peptide carriers bearing a phage-displayed vaccine. In this study, the full-length VP28 protein of WSSV, widely known as potential vaccine against infection in shrimp, was successfully cloned and expressed on M13 filamentous phage. The functionality and efficacy of this vaccine immunogen was demonstrated through immunoassay and in vivo challenge studies. In ELISA assay phage-displayed VP28 was bind to Litopenaeus vannamei immobilized hemocyte in contrast to wild-type M13 phage. Shrimps were injected with 2 × 10(10) cfu animal(-1) single dose of VP28-M13 and M13 once and 48 h later intramuscularly challenged with WSSV to test the efficacy of the vaccine against the infection. All dead challenged shrimps were PCR WSSV-positive. The accumulative mortality of the vaccinated and challenged shrimp groups was significantly lower (36.67%) than the unvaccinated group (66.67%). Individual phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity was assayed on 8 and 48 h post-vaccination. No significant difference was found in those immunological parameters among groups at any sampled time evaluated. For the first time, phage display technology was used to express a recombinant vaccine for shrimp. The highest percentage of relative survival in vaccinated shrimp (RPS = 44.99%) suggest that the recombinant phage can be used successfully to display and deliver VP28 for farmed marine crustaceans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of turkey meat on residual nitrite in cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, B; Cassens, R G; Borchert, L L

    2001-02-01

    A response surface experimental design was employed to estimate residual nitrite level at various initial nitrite concentrations, percent turkey meat in the formula, and heat quantity (F) values using a typical wiener as the test system. Pork and mechanically separated turkey were used as the meat ingredients. Residual nitrite and pH were measured at day 1, 7 days, 14 days, and 49 days after processing. Protein, fat, salt, moisture, and CIE (L*a*b*) color values were also determined. Results showed that the effect of turkey meat on residual nitrite level was significant (P meat in the formula resulted in lower residual nitrite levels at a fixed pH. The residual nitrite level was initially proportional to initial nitrite concentration, but it became a nonsignificant factor during longer storage time. Differences in heat quantity had a significant effect (P nitrite level initially. Greater heat quantity decreased residual nitrite level in finished cured meat products at a fixed pH. However, this effect became nonsignificant during longer storage. Reduction of residual nitrite in wieners because of turkey meat addition at a fixed pH was due to characteristics of the turkey tissue, but the mechanism of action remains unknown. It was also established that commercial wieners had a higher pH if poultry meat was included in the formulation.

  19. Study on Influence of Different Types of Meat on the Quality of Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat species in processed food products have been gaining an increasing interest mainly due to public health, economic and legal concerns, but also due to religious reasons. In the recent years there was an increasing demand for healthier meat products. Formulation of healthier meat products based on processing strategies is one of the most important current approaches to the development of potential meat-based functional foods. The main objective of the study was to characterize different type of meat and to use that to obtain a meat product-smoked sausage. The physico-chemical analyses highlighted the moisture content (drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content and sodium chloride content (Mohr method of the meat and the final product. Sensory analyses of the samples as well as control sample were evaluated by 17 untrained panellists using a 9 point hedonic scale. Following this study, it was noted an improvement of organoleptic characteristics (texture and appearance as well as physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the new product compared with the limits stipulated.

  20. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  1. Benevolent technotopias and hitherto unimaginable meats: Tracing the promises of in vitro meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Erik

    2016-10-01

    Today, in vitro (Latin: in glass) meat researchers strive to overhaul meat production technologies by producing meat outside animal bodies, primarily by culturing cells. In the process, meat should become healthier, more environmentally friendly and kinder to animals. In this article, I scrutinize (and problematize) this promissory discourse by examining the world that proponents envision alongside the world from which promises emerge. First, I trace the increasing number of publications striving to pinpoint the nature of in vitro meat to unveil the creation of an in vitro meat canon wherein perceived possibilities become taken for granted. Second, I investigate how the promissory discourse is often relatively silent on key aspects of how this technology could remake the world. Wet laboratories, animals and end products become foregrounded at the expense of political economy and the biophysical properties of cultured cells. Thus, questions concerning how funding requirements shape representations of this new technology, together with in vitro meat's particular socio-spatial and socio-ecological implications, become problematically de-emphasized.

  2. Perspectives in production of functional meat products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, D.; Glišić, M.; Janković, V.; Dimitrijević, M.; Karabasil, N.; Suvajdžić, B.; Teodorović, V.

    2017-09-01

    The meat industry has met new challenges since the World Health Organization classified processed meat in carcinogenic Group 1. In relation to this, the functional food concept in meat processing has gained importance, especially in reducing carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as an additional imperative, apart from the usual fat and salt reduction and product enrichment with functional ingredients. PAH reduction relies on control of the smoking process, but there is also a possibility they could be degraded by means of probiotic microorganisms or spices. The reduction of N-nitroso compounds could be provided by lowering the amount of added nitrite/nitrate, using substitutes for these chemicals, and/or by preventing conditions for the creation of N-nitroso compounds. Nevertheless, fat and salt reductions still remain topical, and rely mostly on the use of functional ingredients as their substitutes.

  3. Consumer approval of irradiated meat still tentative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingsworth, P.

    1998-01-01

    Although the FDA has approved irradiation of red meat, consumers may not be so accepting of the use of this technology. Irradiation is a process used to improve food safety in food products susceptible to disease-causing microorganisms. The red meat ruling was widely praised by federal officials and food industry leaders, but consumers seem less sure. Indeed, on the night of the red meat announcement last December, CBS Evening News reported that over 70 percent of U.S. consumers would not knowingly eat irradiated food. There is hope, however, as a study by the Center for Consumer Research at the University of California, Davis, revealed that consumer interest in buying irradiated food can be substantially improved by providing consumers with information, thereby enabling them to see the benefits and to overcome the myths of irradiation

  4. MEAT QUALITY OF LOCAL AND HYBRID RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Paci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available pH, colour and oxidative status were evaluated to study the effect of rabbit genotype on meat quality. Commercial Hybrids, selected for high growth rate and a local population, characterized by slow growing, were used. Meat quality characteristics of L. lumborum and B. femoris muscles showed significant differences between genotypes. Local population had higher pHu values but lower pH fall values than Hybrids. Hybrids showed higher lightness values and TBARS contents than local population. Meat quality parameters were influenced by genotype. The differences between genotypes could be related to the different degree of maturity because the rabbits, in relation to the different growth rate, were slaughtered at the same weight but at different age.

  5. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  6. Elemental composition of game meat from Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Kathrin; Kitzer, Roland; Goessler, Walter

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 26 elements (B, Na, Mg, P, S, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Ba, Hg, Pb, U) in wild game meat from Austria were analysed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. All investigated animals were culled during the hunting season 2012/2013, including 10 chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra), 9 hare (Lepus europaeus), 10 pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), 10 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 12 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 10 wild boar (Sus scrofa). In 19 out of 61 meat samples lead concentrations were higher than 0.1 mg/kg, the maximum limit in meat as set by the European Commission (Regulation EC No 1881/2006), which is most likely caused by ammunition residues. Especially, pellet shot animals and chamois show a high risk for lead contamination. Despite ammunition residues all investigated muscle samples show no further health risk with respect to metal contamination.

  7. Quality tracing in meat supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Miriam; Dittmer, Patrick; Veigt, Marius; Kus, Mehmet; Nehmiz, Ulfert; Kreyenschmidt, Judith

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was the development of a quality tracing model for vacuum-packed lamb that is applicable in different meat supply chains. Based on the development of relevant sensory parameters, the predictive model was developed by combining a linear primary model and the Arrhenius model as the secondary model. Then a process analysis was conducted to define general requirements for the implementation of the temperature-based model into a meat supply chain. The required hardware and software for continuous temperature monitoring were developed in order to use the model under practical conditions. Further on a decision support tool was elaborated in order to use the model as an effective tool in combination with the temperature monitoring equipment for the improvement of quality and storage management within the meat logistics network. Over the long term, this overall procedure will support the reduction of food waste and will improve the resources efficiency of food production.

  8. Technological demands of meat processing-An Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wangang; Naveena, B Maheswarappa; Jo, Cheorun; Sakata, Ryoichi; Zhou, Guanghong; Banerjee, Rituparna; Nishiumi, Tadayuki

    2017-10-01

    A rapid increase in the economy, population, industrialization, and urbanization of Asian countries has driven the fast development of their meat industries over recent decades. This consistent increase in meat production and consumption in Asia has been the major cause for the development of the global meat industry. Meat production methods and consumption are very diverse across different regions and countries in Asia, and thus, it is impossible to cover the technological demands of all Asian countries in this review. Here, we have mainly highlighted the differences in meat production methods and consumption in Asia during recent decades and the meat technology demands of three east Asian countries, namely China, Korea, and Japan, and one south Asian country, India. A brief introduction of the meat industry, in particular the production and consumption trend in these countries, is provided in this article. The technology demands for fresh and processed meat products are then reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk On ... hydrocarbons, and how are they formed in cooked meats? What factors influence the formation of HCA and ...

  10. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Tourist ships on the Danube as an opportunity for export of meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tešanović Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism development launches growth of other complementary industries. River tourism, as a special selective tourism form, experiences intensive development, with an importance for all the regions through which the Danube, as an integral part of the Rhine - Main - Danube waterway, flows. During cruising, the largest consumption is achieved on the ship itself, where meat and meat products are an integral element of every meal and represent the most expensive component of the dish. The task of this paper is to analyse the consumption of meat and meat products on six tourist ships run by to 'Grand Circle Corporation' in 2013, in order to point out the possibility of supplying them with meat and meat products from sources in the territory where the ships sail. The paper presents the current suppliers and manufacturers of meat and meat products in Republic of Serbia that could supply the company 'Grand Circle Cruise Line' and other tourist ships that cruise on the Danube. Also, the research indicates that the export of meat products from the Republic Serbia could have a significant effect on improving the agricultural conditions and food production through increased competition, assuming the Serbian manufacturers supply most of tourist ships and not only the six ships analysed in this paper. Research results, specifically, point out the possibility of increasing export of poultry and beef if the potential demand of each of the eight companies with their 54 ships which operate tourist cruises on the Danube is taken into account. The data have been systematized, analysed and presented statistically in tables and graphs.

  12. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  13. Market of venison meat in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    GÓRECKA JUSTYNA

    2012-01-01

    In the Polish Hunting Association (an organization of hunting) associated more than one hundred thousand hunters. Only in 2009/2010 was shot more than 41 thousand deers, more than 162 thousand roe deers and more than 196 thousand wild boars. By shooting such quantity the wildlife animals was generated approximately 12-14 thousand tons of venison meat. The market prices of game meat in Poland are on a relatively high level, which translates into a limited interest this product in retail. Avera...

  14. An Annotated Dataset of 14 Meat Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stegmann, Mikkel Bille

    2002-01-01

    This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given.......This note describes a dataset consisting of 14 annotated images of meat. Points of correspondence are placed on each image. As such, the dataset can be readily used for building statistical models of shape. Further, format specifications and terms of use are given....

  15. Online Multi-Spectral Meat Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannik Boll; Larsen, Anders Boesen Lindbo

    2013-01-01

    We perform an explorative study on multi-spectral image data from a prototype device developed for fast online quality inspection of meat products. Because the camera setup is built for speed, we sacrifice exact pixel correspondences between the different bands of the multi-spectral images. Our...... work is threefold as we 1) investigate the color distributions and construct a model to describe pork loins, 2) classify the different components in pork loins (meat, fat, membrane), and 3) detect foreign objects on the surface of pork loins. Our investigation shows that the color distributions can...

  16. Meat grinder injuries to the upper extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, M; Bunkis, J; Trengove-Jones, G

    1985-05-01

    Three cases of hand injury caused by meat grinders are presented. All 3 injuries involved the dominant hand and resulted in varying degrees of deformity. Two of the 3 patients arrived in the emergency room with the injured hand still firmly wedged in the meat grinder. Although these injuries continue to prove very mutilating, maximum restoration of the injured hand can be accomplished by careful extrication, followed by preservation and reconstruction of all viable tissues. Perioperative antibiotics and wound irrigation with antibiotic solution are recommended. Microsurgical technique can be of value in treating selected patients.

  17. In vitro meat production system: why and how?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Shruti; Thind, Sukhcharanjit Singh; Kaur, Amarjeet

    2015-01-01

    Due to the nutritional importance and the sustained popularity of meat as a foodstuff, the livestock production sector has been expanding incessantly. This exponential growth of livestock meat sector poses a gigantic challenge to the sustainability of food production system. A new technological breakthrough is being contemplated to develop a substitute for livestock meat. The idea is to grow meat in a culture in the lab and manipulate its composition selectively. This paper aims to discuss th...

  18. Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Fayaz, Hina

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro production of meat is probably feasible with existing tissue engineering techniques and may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. By culturing loose myosatellite cells on a substrate, it is probably possible to produce cultured meat by harvesting mature muscle cells after differentiation and processing them into various meat products. Besides reducing the animal suffering signifi...

  19. Heat Integration and Renewable Energy in Meat Processing Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Colley, Tracey Anne

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to optimise energy efficiency at meat processing plants and minimise their carbon footprint, as a way of reducing operating costs and minimising the potential negative impacts of a carbon price on the red meat industry. In the context of the export meat industry, there is continual competition with the live export trade. Therefore, there is a risk that a carbon price could increase the live export trade over domestic processing of meat, thereby exporti...

  20. Antibiogram profile of pathogens isolated from processed cow meat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... Cow meat or beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines especially cattle. The generic name of cow meat is Bos taurus and the habitable weather of Bos taurus includes temperature of 101.50F (38.60C) and ability to live in a harsh terrains (Li et al., 2006). The processing of cow meat begins from ...