WorldWideScience

Sample records for vancouver island health

  1. Vancouver Island gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Des Brisay, C.

    2005-01-01

    Terasen Gas is pursuing alternatives for the supply of additional natural gas capacity to Vancouver Island. Its subsidiary, Terasen Gas (Vancouver Island) Inc. (TGVI), is responding to the need for delivery of increased gas supply and, is supporting plans for new gas-fired power generation on Vancouver Island. TGVI's proposal for new natural gas capacity involves a combination of compression and pipeline loops as well as the addition of a storage facility for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Mt. Hayes to help manage price volatility. This presentation outlined the objectives and components of the resource planning process, including demand forecast scenarios and the preferred infrastructure options. tabs., figs

  2. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-12-20

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism.  Created: 12/20/2006 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 12/29/2006.

  3. Spread of Rare Fungus from Vancouver Island

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Cryptococcus gattii, a rare fungus normally found in the tropics, has infected people and animals on Vancouver Island, Canada. Dr. David Warnock, Director, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, CDC, discusses public health concerns about further spread of this organism

  4. Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant

  5. Is Climate influencing Cryptococcus gattii on Vancouver Island?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-03-24

    Dr. Christopher Uejio, Department of Geography and Program in Public Health, Florida State University, discusses Cryptococcus gattii on Vancouver Island.  Created: 3/24/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/24/2016.

  6. Network constrained wind integration on Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddaloni, Jesse D.; Rowe, Andrew M.; Kooten, G. Cornelis van

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the costs and carbon emissions associated with operating a hydro-dominated electricity generation system (Vancouver Island, Canada) with varying degrees of wind penetration. The focus is to match the wind resource, system demand and abilities of extant generating facilities on a temporal basis, resulting in an operating schedule that minimizes system cost over a given period. This is performed by taking the perspective of a social planner who desires to find the lowest-cost mix of new and existing generation facilities. Unlike other studies, this analysis considers variable efficiency for thermal and hydro-generators, resulting in a fuel cost that varies with respect to generator part load. Since this study and others have shown that wind power may induce a large variance on existing dispatchable generators, forcing more frequent operation at reduced part load, inclusion of increased fuel cost at part load is important when investigating wind integration as it can significantly reduce the economic benefits of utilizing low-cost wind. Results indicate that the introduction of wind power may reduce system operating costs, but this depends heavily on whether the capital cost of the wind farm is considered. For the Vancouver Island mix with its large hydro-component, operating cost was reduced by a maximum of 15% at a wind penetration of 50%, with a negligible reduction in operating cost when the wind farm capital cost was included

  7. The Potential for Wind Energy Meeting Electricity Needs on Vancouver Island

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Prescott; G. Cornelis van Kooten; Hui Zhu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an in-depth analysis of power supply and demand on Vancouver Island is used to provide information about the optimal allocation of power across ‘generating’ sources and to investigate the economics of wind generation and penetrability into the Island grid. The methodology developed can be extended to a region much larger than Vancouver Island. Results from the model indicate that Vancouver Island could experience blackouts in the near future unless greater name-plate capacity i...

  8. Oil spill remote sensing flights around Vancouver Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.E.; Fingas, M.F.; Marois, R. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    A large number of oiled seabirds are found on beaches and shorelines in Canada each year. Although there are several programs in place to detect high-volume oily bilge dumping incidents, the sensors used in many surveillance procedures are not capable of detecting suspected chronic low-volume disposal of contaminated waste waters by ships. This paper described the development and testing procedures of the Scanning Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (SLEAF), which was designed to map and characterize oil contamination in marine coastal and shoreline environments. Laser-induced fluorescence is detected by SLEAF with a spectrometric receiver. Full-spectral resolution geo-referenced fluorescence data are collected for each laser pulse and recorded directly to a computer. Eight oil spill remote sensing flights using SLEAF were conducted during March and April 2006. Geo-referenced infrared, ultraviolet, colour video and digital still imagery was collected alongside the fluorosensor data. Several light patches of oil were observed with SLEAF, most of which were in shipping lanes in the Strait of Juan de Fuca. The oil patches were light, and some were not visible to the naked eye, and were only detected by the laser fluorosensor. Larger slicks were captured in video imagery. Approximately 50 marine vessels were overflown during the flight demonstration program, and only 2 vessels appeared to be associated with the oil slicks. It was concluded that chronic low-volume oil releases in shipping lanes around Vancouver Island are a cause for concern. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  9. The potential for wind energy meeting electricity needs on Vancouver Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prescott, R.; Kooten, van G.C.; Zhu, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, an in-depth analysis of power supply and demand on Vancouver Island is used to provide information about the optimal allocation of power across 'generating' sources and to investigate the economics of wind generation and penetrability into the Island grid. The methodology developed

  10. Impact of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline construction on water quality: Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G

    1993-01-01

    Prior to the construction of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline, concern was expressed for the potential defilement of community domestic water supplies when the construction work occurred in community watersheds. When drinking water becomes turbid from rainfall runoff passing through construction sites, the community disinfection process is rendered inefficacious. At a specified turbidity level, the water becomes too risky to drink without alternative disinfection such as boiling. This situation creates significant administrative problems for local health officials, intolerable social problems for residents and processing problems for industries which require clean water. This document is a review of the weekly environmental surveillance reports submitted by D. Tripp Biological Consultants to the B.C. Utilities Commission. The material is organized to relate construction practices with weather patterns thereby showing the resultant effects on water quality (turbidity).

  11. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m 3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m 3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Colonization and Community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Douglas Belshaw [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-04-01

    In the nineteenth century coal-miners imported from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America burrowed beneath the Vancouver Island towns of Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The book looks at British Columbia's first working class, the men, women, and children beneath and beyond the pit-head. Beginning with an exploration of emigrant expectations and ambitions, it investigates working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, community building, and the fluid identity of the British mining colony, the archetypal west coast proletariat. By connecting the story of Vancouver Island to the larger story of Victorian industrialization, the author delineates what was distinctive and what was common about the lot of the settler society.

  13. Colonization and community: the Vancouver Island coalfield and the making of the British Columbian working class

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belshaw, J.D. [University College of the Cariboo, Kamloops, BC (Canada). Department of Philosophy, History, and Politics

    2002-07-01

    During the nineteenth century, coal miners from Europe, Asia, and eastern North America settled on Vancouver Island, British Columbia to mine coal deposits at Nanaimo, Wellington, and Cumberland. The factors that attracted British miners and their families, their expectations and ambitions, and their integration into mining communities are discussed. Working conditions, household wages, racism, industrial organization, gender, schooling, leisure, and community building and identity are considered.

  14. Environmental disturbance and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.H.; Butler, R.W.; Vermeer, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Loss of habitat and oiling of birds represent two major threats to marine and shoreline bird populations on Vancouver Island's west coast, since their effects are widespread and cumulative. Offshore tanker traffic and local inshore shipments of petroleum products expose the coast to high risks of oiling. Large numbers of birds are most at risk when concentrated in relatively small areas, such as highly productive feeding areas, at communal roosting sites, and around nesting colonies. Logging of mature and old-growth forests has led to destruction of the nesting habitat of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus), while industrial development of estuaries, mudflats, and spawning grounds of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) has diminished feeding habitats for other marine and shoreline birds. Fisheries operations, human disturbance of colonies, and introduced predators, notably the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and mink (Mustela vison), have impacted upon local populations. Management actions and research needs to mitigate these threats are addressed. 40 refs

  15. The January 1989 Nestucca oil spill on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that at the beginning of January 1989, bunker C oil from the barge Nestucca began coming ashore on the West Coast of Vancouver Island, necessitating a major environmental assessment and clean-up response on the part of a number of Canadian agencies, volunteers, Native groups and concerned Parties. The oil impacted the exposed outer coastline, including the recreational beaches of Pacific Rim National Park, and caused concerns with respect to harvesting the shellfish and other marine life, the important salmon and herring resources of the area, marine mammals including two colonies of sea otters and also with respect to seabird mortality. This spill, coupled wit public sensitivity to the Exxon Valdez spill and the transportation of oil and hazardous substances along the West Coast, led to several public inquiry processes as well as internal reviews of agency response, preparedness and other issues and generated considerable public outcry and criticism

  16. Mismatched racial identities, colourism, and health in Toronto and Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2011-10-01

    Using original telephone survey data collected from adult residents of Toronto (n = 685) and Vancouver (n = 814) in 2009, I investigate associations between mental and physical health and variously conceived racial identities. An 'expressed racial identity' is a self-identification with a racial grouping that a person will readily express to others when asked to fit into official racial classifications presented by Census forms, survey researchers, insurance forms, and the like. Distinguishing between Asian, Black, South Asian, and White expressed racial identities, I find that survey respondents expressing Black identity are the most likely to report high blood pressure or hypertension, a risk that is slightly attenuated by socioeconomic status, and that respondents expressing Asian identity are the most likely to report poorer self-rated mental health and self-rated overall health, risks that are not explained by socioeconomic status. I also find that darker-skinned Black respondents are more likely than lighter-skinned Black respondents to report poor health outcomes, indicating that colourism, processes of discrimination which privilege lighter-skinned people of colour over their darker-skinned counterparts, exists and has implications for well-being in Canada as it does in the United States. Finally, 'reflected racial identity' refers to the racial identity that a person believes that others tend to perceive him or her to be. I find that expressed and reflected racial identities differ from one another for large proportions of self-expressed Black and South Asian respondents and relatively few self-expressed White and Asian respondents. I also find that mismatched racial identities correspond with relatively high risks of various poor health outcomes, especially for respondents who consider themselves White but believe that others tend to think they are something else. I conclude by presenting a framework for conceptualizing multifaceted suites of racial

  17. Seismic wave triggering of nonvolcanic tremor, episodic tremor and slip, and earthquakes on Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Justin L.; Gomberg, Joan; Vidale, John E.; Wech, Aaron G.; Kao, Honn; Creager, Kenneth C.; Rogers, Garry

    2009-02-01

    We explore the physical conditions that enable triggering of nonvolcanic tremor and earthquakes by considering local seismic activity on Vancouver Island, British Columbia during and immediately after the arrival of large-amplitude seismic waves from 30 teleseismic and 17 regional or local earthquakes. We identify tremor triggered by four of the teleseismic earthquakes. The close temporal and spatial proximity of triggered tremor to ambient tremor and aseismic slip indicates that when a fault is close to or undergoing failure, it is particularly susceptible to triggering of further events. The amplitude of the triggering waves also influences the likelihood of triggering both tremor and earthquakes such that large amplitude waves triggered tremor in the absence of detectable aseismic slip or ambient tremor. Tremor and energy radiated from regional/local earthquakes share the same frequency passband so that tremor cannot be identified during these smaller, more frequent events. We confidently identify triggered local earthquakes following only one teleseism, that with the largest amplitude, and four regional or local events that generated vigorous aftershock sequences in their immediate vicinity. Earthquakes tend to be triggered in regions different from tremor and with high ambient seismicity rates. We also note an interesting possible correlation between large teleseismic events and episodic tremor and slip (ETS) episodes, whereby ETS events that are "late" and have built up more stress than normal are susceptible to triggering by the slight nudge of the shaking from a large, distant event, while ETS events that are "early" or "on time" are not.

  18. The impact of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline construction on water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gaoshe.

    1993-04-01

    A study was initiated to evaluate the impact of construction of the Vancouver Island natural gas pipeline on water quality, where the pipeline passed along or through lakes and streams. The main concern was for the potential defilement of community water supplies when construction occurred in community watersheds. When water becomes turbid from rainfall runoff passing through construction areas, disinfection processes are rendered inefficacious and at specified turbidity levels, the water becomes too risky to drink without alternative disinfection such as boiling. The weekly environmental surveillance reports generated during construction are reviewed. The material is organized to relate construction practices with weather patterns, thereby showing the resultant effects on water quality (turbidity). The effectiveness of construction measures in reducing the risk of contamination and water turbidity at intakes is assessed. Generally, water turbidity during project construction was acceptable although it sometimes reached very high levels. These high levels resulted from incidents or mistakes that were usually related to rainy days. Among the 12 types of work activity, bridge construction, drilling, and grading caused relatively slight increases in water turbidity levels, while backfilling and ditching caused the greatest increase in turbidity. Improvements in inspection and monitoring programs are recommended. A key recommendation is that construction work be stopped on rainy days. 6 refs., 4 figs., 20 tabs

  19. Defining historical baselines for conservation: ecological changes since European settlement on Vancouver Island, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Anne D; Vellend, Mark

    2010-12-01

    Conservation and restoration goals are often defined by historical baseline conditions that occurred prior to a particular period of human disturbance, such as European settlement in North America. Nevertheless, if ecosystems were heavily influenced by native peoples prior to European settlement, conservation efforts may require active management rather than simple removal of or reductions in recent forms of disturbance. We used pre-European settlement land survey records (1859-1874) and contemporary vegetation surveys to assess changes over the past 150 years in tree species and habitat composition, forest density, and tree size structure on southern Vancouver Island and Saltspring Island, British Columbia, Canada. Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that frequent historical burning by native peoples, and subsequent fire suppression, have played dominant roles in shaping this landscape. First, the relative frequency of fire-sensitive species (e.g., cedar [Thuja plicata]) has increased, whereas fire-tolerant species (e.g., Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii]) have decreased. Tree density has increased 2-fold, and the proportion of the landscape in forest has greatly increased at the expense of open habitats (plains, savannas), which today contain most of the region's threatened species. Finally, the frequency distribution of tree size has shifted from unimodal to monotonically decreasing, which suggests removal of an important barrier to tree recruitment. In addition, although most of the open habitats are associated with Garry oak (Quercus garryana) at present, most of the open habitats prior to European settlement were associated with Douglas-fir, which suggests that the current focus on Garry oak as a flagship for the many rare species in savannas may be misguided. Overall, our results indicate that the maintenance and restoration of open habitats will require active management and that historical records can provide critical guidance to such

  20. Studying levels of Fukushima-derived radioactivity in sockeye salmon collected on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, T.; Starosta, K.; Chester, A.; Williams, J.; Ross, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    To investigate potential radioisotope contamination from the Fukushima nuclear accident, measurements of 10 sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) collected on June 21 and June 31, 2014 in the Alberni Inlet on the west coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada were performed using low-background gamma-ray spectroscopy. Activity concentrations of the anthropogenic radioisotopes 134Cs and 137Cs as well as the naturally occurring radioisotope 40K were measured. Detection of 137Cs occurred in half of the sockeye with activity concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 1.43 Bq/kg dry weight. The 134Cs isotope was detected in a single sockeye salmon with activity concentrations (±σ) measured in the two subsamples of 0.31(8) and 0.37(10) Bq/kg dry weight. The dose contribution from each of the measured radionuclides was calculated. In the sockeye salmon with the greatest radiocesium concentrations, the dose contribution from anthropogenic radiocesium (134Cs+137Cs) was found to be 450 times less than the dose from naturally occurring radionuclides in the same sample. In conclusion, the total radiocesium activity concentration in every sample is at least 500 times lower than Health Canada's action levels for radioactively contaminated food following a nuclear emergency. Assuming all seafood has as much radiocesium as the most contaminated sample measured, the added annual dose from radiocesium to an adult individual with an average Canadian level of seafood consumption would be 0.046 μSv per year.

  1. Cretaceous origin of dogwoods: an anatomically preserved Cornus (Cornaceae fruit from the Campanian of Vancouver Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Atkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Cornaceae consists of 58 species, all within the genus Cornus. The Cenozoic record of Cornus is extensive and well documented. Molecular divergence-time studies suggest that crown-group Cornus may have originated by the Late Cretaceous. However, there has been no formal report of Cornus from Cretaceous deposits. Here, we characterize a permineralized fossil fruit assignable to Cornus subg. Cornus from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Shelter Point locality of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Serial sections of the specimen were made using the cellulose acetate peel technique. Peels were mounted onto microscope slides and studied by light microscopy. Results The fossil fruit consists of a tri-locular woody endocarp with dorsal germination valves. The locules are sub-triangular to ellipsoidal in transverse section and are separated by thin septa. Endocarp tissue consists of elongated and isodiametric sclereids and secretory cavities. Internal vascular tissue was not observed, but is interpreted to have been located along the outer periphery of the septa for some length, common in many cornalean taxa. There is one seed in each locule, one of which was found to have endosperm and a dicotyledonous embryo. Discussion Woody endocarps with germination valves, without central vascular bundles, and with one seed per locule are characteristic of several families within the order Cornales. The interpreted vascular pattern and presence of secretory cavities indicates that the fossil fruit is assignable to Cornus subg. Cornus. Comparative analysis suggests that the fossil is most similar to Cornus piggae, a species described from the Paleocene of North Dakota. This fossil is the first evidence of crown-group Cornaceae from the Cretaceous and sheds light on both the plesiomorphic fruit characters and the timing of the initial diversification of the family and basal asterid lineage, Cornales.

  2. The ecology, status, and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, K.; Butler, R.W.; Morgan, K.H.

    1992-01-01

    A symposium was held to combine various disciplines to provide a review of current knowledge about the marine biology of the west coast of Vancouver Island, with a particular emphasis on birds. Papers were presented on the physical and biological environment of the study region, the population and breeding ecology of marine and shoreline birds, the distribution of marine and shoreline birds at sea, the effects of oil pollution on the bird population, and the conservation of marine and shoreline birds. Separate abstracts have been prepared for two papers from this symposium

  3. Magnitudes and Moment-Duration Scaling of Low-Frequency Earthquakes Beneath Southern Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostock, M. G.; Thomas, A.; Rubin, A. M.; Savard, G.; Chuang, L. Y.

    2015-12-01

    We employ 130 low-frequency-earthquake (LFE) templates representing tremor sources on the plate boundary below southern Vancouver Island to examine LFE magnitudes. Each template is assembled from 100's to 1000's of individual LFEs, representing over 300,000 independent detections from major episodic-tremor-and- slip (ETS) events between 2003 and 2013. Template displacement waveforms for direct P- and S-waves at near epicentral distances are remarkably simple at many stations, approaching the zero-phase, single pulse expected for a point dislocation source in a homogeneous medium. High spatio-temporal precision of template match-filtered detections facilitates precise alignment of individual LFE detections and analysis of waveforms. Upon correction for 1-D geometrical spreading, attenuation, free-surface magnification and radiation pattern, we solve a large, sparse linear system for 3-D path corrections and LFE magnitudes for all detections corresponding to a single ETS template. The spatio-temporal distribution of magnitudes indicates that typically half the total moment release occurs within the first 12-24 hours of LFE activity during an ETS episode when tidal sensitity is low. The remainder is released in bursts over several days, particularly as spatially extensive RTRs, during which tidal sensitivity is high. RTR's are characterized by large magnitude LFEs, and are most strongly expressed in the updip portions of the ETS transition zone and less organized at downdip levels. LFE magnitude-frequency relations are better described by power-law than exponential distributions although they exhibit very high b-values ≥ 6. We examine LFE moment-duration scaling by generating templates using detections for limiting magnitude ranges MW<1.5, MW≥ 2.0. LFE duration displays a weaker dependence upon moment than expected for self-similarity, suggesting that LFE asperities are limited in dimension and that moment variation is dominated by slip. This behaviour implies

  4. PBO Borehole Strainmeters: 2017 Episodic Tremor and Slip Event for Southern Vancouver Island, BC, Canada through Olympia, WA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Boskirk, E. J.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Henderson, D. B.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory's (PBO) borehole strainmeters along the Cascadia Subduction Zone (CSZ) record the development and migration of Episodic Tremor and Slip (ETS). Along the southern Vancouver Island to Olympia, WA portion of the CSZ ETS events seem to repeat every 14 months. ETS events are non-volcanic tremor swarms that occur over periods of weeks, often migrating along segments of the subduction zone and can release the energy equivalent to a M7 or greater earthquake. Each ETS event is different; initial propagation location, ETS movement, duration, and direction all vary. Constraints provided by strainmeter observations of ETS events illuminate strain release patterns along the subducting slab interface and may help resolve questions regarding the location of the locked zone of the slab and what role ETS events play in the CSZ earthquake cycle. The 2017 CSZ ETS began in early February continuing through early April. Beginning in the northern Olympic Peninsula, near Port Angeles, it migrated south towards Olympia over the course of a week. After a two week pause it resumed under the Straits of Juan de Fuca and propagated northwest under Vancouver Island. There are 15 PBO borehole strainmeters along this segment, and ETS strain observations correlate with seismic and GPS measurements. The PBO borehole strainmeters are sensitive even over great distances from the ETS epicenters, and observe compression or extension relative to the ETS migration. Openly available PBO borehole strainmeter data used by the community has made significant contributions to understanding the ETS process, including the determination that ETS slip is tidally modulated. Data are publically available through UNAVCO and IRIS, which provide links to online tutorials and scripts. There are 32 strainmeters covering the CSZ from southern Vancouver Island, Canada to northern California, USA, and data spans back to 2005. Each site has a Gladwin tensor borehole strainmeter, a Malin three

  5. Quantification of marine macro-debris abundance around Vancouver Island, Canada, based on archived aerial photographs processed by projective transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Tomoya; Murray, Cathryn Clarke; Isobe, Atsuhiko

    2017-09-12

    The abundance of marine macro-debris was quantified with high spatial resolution by applying an image processing technique to archived shoreline aerial photographs taken over Vancouver Island, Canada. The photographs taken from an airplane at oblique angles were processed by projective transformation for georeferencing, where five reference points were defined by comparing aerial photographs with satellite images of Google Earth. Thereafter, pixels of marine debris were extracted based on their color differences from the background beaches. The debris abundance can be evaluated by the ratio of an area covered by marine debris to that of the beach (percent cover). The horizontal distribution of percent cover of marine debris was successfully computed from 167 aerial photographs and was significantly related to offshore Ekman flows and winds (leeway drift and Stokes drift). Therefore, the estimated percent cover is useful information to determine priority sites for mitigating adverse impacts across broad areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vancouver Coastal Health's Second Generation Health Strategy: A need for a reboot?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Jeffrey R; Chan, Sophy

    2017-03-01

    In this commentary, we consider the motivations and implications of Vancouver Coastal Health's place-based population health strategy called the Downtown Eastside Second Generation Health Strategy (2GHS) in light of a broader historical view of shifting values in population and public health and structural health reforms in Canada over the past three decades. We argue that the tone and content of the 2GHS signals a shift towards a neoliberal clientelist model of health that treats people as patients and the DTES as a site of clinical encounter rather than as a community in its own right. In its clinical emphasis, the 2GHS fails to recognize the political dimension of health and well-being in the DTES, a community that faces compounding health risks associated with colonialism, gentrification, human displacement, the criminalization of poverty, sex work, and the street economy. Furthermore, we suggest that in its emphasis on allocating funding based on a rationalist model of health system access, the 2GHS undermines well-established insights and best practices from community-driven health initiatives. Our aim is to provide a provocation that will encourage public health policy-makers to embrace community-based leadership as well as the broader structural health determinants that are at the root of the current circumstances of people in the DTES and other marginalized communities in Canada.

  7. A Cross-Sectional Analysis of Acute Hepatitis B Virus Reported to the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority from 2000 to 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette Leung

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV transmission remains a significant public health problem despite effective vaccination and prophylaxis strategies. Vancouver, British Columbia, has a large ethnic community from endemic areas, which may further impact on the epidemiology of acute HBV. A cross-sectional study of factors associated with acute HBV cases reported to the Vancouver Coastal Health Authority (Vancouver, British Columbia from 2000 to 2003 is reported.

  8. Bottom trawling and oxygen minimum zone influences on continental slope benthic community structure off Vancouver Island (NE Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leo, Fabio C.; Gauthier, Maéva; Nephin, Jessica; Mihály, Steven; Juniper, S. Kim

    2017-03-01

    Understanding responses of benthic ecosystems to cumulative impacts of natural stressors, long-term ocean change and increasing resource exploitation is an emerging area of interest for marine ecologists and environmental managers. Few, if any, studies have quantitatively addressed cumulative effects in the deep sea. We report here on a study from the continental slope off Vancouver Island (Canada) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, where the Oxygen Minimum Zone impinges on seabed habitats that are subjected to widespread bottom trawling, primarily by the fishery for thornyhead (Sebastolobus ssp.). We examined how the benthic megafauna in this area was influenced by varying levels of dissolved oxygen and trawling activity, along a depth gradient that was also likely to shape community composition. Continuous video and sonar records from two ROV surveys (50 linear km total; depth range 300-1400 m) respectively provided data on faunal attributes (composition, abundance and diversity) and the frequency of trawl door marks on the seabed. Faunal and trawl data were compiled in a geo-referenced database along with corresponding dissolved oxygen data, and pooled into 500 m segments for statistical analysis. Trawl mark occurrence peaked between 500 and 1100 m, corresponding to areas of slope subjected to hypoxia (PERMANOVA analyses, with characterizing taxa identified for all three factors. Depth, dissolved oxygen and trawl mark density accounted for 21% to 52% of the variability in benthic community structure according to multiple regression (DISTLM) models. Species richness was highest at intermediate depths and in areas subject to intermediate levels of trawling, and higher under hypoxia than under severe hypoxia. These statistically significant trends demonstrate that the structuring influences of bottom trawling on deep-sea benthic communities can be observed even where communities are being shaped by strong environmental gradients.

  9. Human Activity and Habitat Characteristics Influence Shorebird Habitat Use and Behavior at a Vancouver Island Migratory Stopover Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Colleen R; Zharikov, Yuri; Nol, Erica

    2016-09-01

    Pacific Rim National Park Reserve on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada, has 16 km of coastal beaches that attract many thousands of people and shorebirds (S.O. Charadrii) every year. To identify locations where shorebirds concentrate and to determine the impact of human activity and habitat characteristics on shorebirds, we conducted shorebird and visitor surveys at 20 beach sectors (across 20 total km of beach) during fall migration in 2011-2014 and spring migration in 2012 and 2013. Using zero-inflated negative binomial regression and a model selection approach, we found that beach width and number of people influenced shorebird use of beach sectors (Bayesian information criterion weight of top model = 0.69). Shorebird absence from beaches was associated with increasing number of people (parameter estimate from top model: 0.38; 95 % CI 0.19, 0.57) and decreasing beach width (parameter estimate: -0.32; 95 % CI -0.47, -0.17). Shorebirds spent more time at wider beaches (parameter estimate: 0.68; 95 % CI 0.49, 0.87). Close proximity to people increased the proportion of time shorebirds spent moving, while shorebirds spent more time moving and less time foraging on wider beaches than on narrower ones. Shorebird disturbance increased with proximity of people, activity speed, and presence of dogs. Based on our findings, management options, for reducing shorebird disturbance at Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and similar shorebird stopover areas, include mandatory buffer distances between people and shorebirds, restrictions on fast-moving activities (e.g., running, biking), prohibiting dogs, and seasonal closures of wide beach sections.

  10. Report on the FY 1987 potential survey of overseas coal development. Nanaimo coal field, Vancouver island, State of British Columbia, Canada; 1987 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Canada British Columbia shu Vancouver to Nanaimo tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    In Vancouver island, coal deposits which are economically minable can be found only in Comox sub-basin and Nanaimo sub-basin. In the Nanaimo coal field, 110 coal deposits have been operated, and a total of 54.39 million MT coal was drilled and shipped. The coal reserve of approximately 90 million MT seems to be still left, but it is hard to know how much the minable coal is in the case only of within 300m below earth's surface. In the Comox coal field, there seems to be still left the coal reserve as much as approximately 1.3 billion MT. The coal of the Nanaimo coal field is ranked as high volatile 'A' bituminous, the same as the coal of the Comox coal field. In the Wolf Mountain coal mining area, there is the minable coal of approximately 2.4 million MT in the undeveloped portion. The clean coal to be produced came to be regarded as good for shipment to Japan not only as steam coal but as slightly caking coal if it is competitive in cost as viewed from the coal quality expected. (NEDO)

  11. Report on the FY 1987 potential survey of overseas coal development. Nanaimo coal field, Vancouver island, State of British Columbia, Canada; 1987 nendo kaigaitan kaihatsu kanosei chosa hokokusho. Canada British Columbia shu Vancouver to Nanaimo tanden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-03-01

    In Vancouver island, coal deposits which are economically minable can be found only in Comox sub-basin and Nanaimo sub-basin. In the Nanaimo coal field, 110 coal deposits have been operated, and a total of 54.39 million MT coal was drilled and shipped. The coal reserve of approximately 90 million MT seems to be still left, but it is hard to know how much the minable coal is in the case only of within 300m below earth's surface. In the Comox coal field, there seems to be still left the coal reserve as much as approximately 1.3 billion MT. The coal of the Nanaimo coal field is ranked as high volatile 'A' bituminous, the same as the coal of the Comox coal field. In the Wolf Mountain coal mining area, there is the minable coal of approximately 2.4 million MT in the undeveloped portion. The clean coal to be produced came to be regarded as good for shipment to Japan not only as steam coal but as slightly caking coal if it is competitive in cost as viewed from the coal quality expected. (NEDO)

  12. Multiple Paternity and Preliminary Population Genetics of Giant Pacific Octopuses, Enteroctopus dofleini, in Oregon, Washington and the Southeast Coast of Vancouver Island, BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Larson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 77 giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, tissue samples were collected from the Oregon Coast (OR, Neah Bay Washington (NB, Puget Sound Washington (PS and the southeast coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada (BC for genetic analyses. A suite of eight variable microsatellite markers developed from giant Pacific octopuses were amplified in these samples to determine population diversity, structure, relatedness and paternity. The majority of loci met Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations within each population. We found moderate genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity = 0.445, range = 0.307–0.515 and average expected heterozygosity = 0.567, range = 0.506–0.696 and moderate population structuring with distinct separation of groups (FST values ranged from 0.101 between BC and PS to 0.237 between BC and NB. Several egg strings from the BC population were collected from three female octopus dens for relatedness and paternity analyses. Results suggest strong support for multiple paternity within one egg clutch with progeny sired by between two to four males.

  13. Extending the fossil record of Polytrichaceae: Early Cretaceous Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., permineralized gametophytes with gemma cups from Vancouver Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bippus, Alexander C; Stockey, Ruth A; Rothwell, Gar W; Tomescu, Alexandru M F

    2017-04-01

    Diverse in modern ecosystems, mosses are dramatically underrepresented in the fossil record. Furthermore, most pre-Cenozoic mosses are known only from compression fossils, lacking detailed anatomical information. When preserved, anatomy vastly improves resolution in the systematic placement of fossils. Lower Cretaceous deposits at Apple Bay (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada) contain a diverse anatomically preserved flora that includes numerous bryophytes, many of which have yet to be characterized. Among them is a polytrichaceous moss that is described here. Fossil moss gametophytes preserved in four carbonate concretions were studied in serial sections prepared using the cellulose acetate peel technique. We describe Meantoinea alophosioides gen. et sp. nov., a polytrichaceous moss with terminal gemma cups containing stalked, lenticular gemmae. Leaves with characteristic costal anatomy, differentiated into sheathing base and free lamina and bearing photosynthetic lamellae, along with a conducting strand in the stem, place Meantoinea in family Polytrichaceae. The bistratose leaf lamina with an adaxial layer of mamillose cells, short photosynthetic lamellae restricted to the costa, and presence of gemma cups indicate affinities with basal members of the Polytrichaceae, such as Lyellia , Bartramiopsis , and Alophosia . Meantoinea alophosioides enriches the documented moss diversity of an already-diverse Early Cretaceous plant fossil assemblage. This is the third moss described from the Apple Bay plant fossil assemblage and represents the first occurrence of gemma cups in a fossil moss. It is also the oldest unequivocal record of Polytrichaceae, providing a hard minimum age for the group of 136 million years. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Universal Coverage without Universal Access: Institutional Barriers to Health Care among Women Sex Workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eugenia Socías

    Full Text Available Access to health care is a crucial determinant of health. Yet, even within settings that purport to provide universal health coverage (UHC, sex workers' experiences reveal systematic, institutionally ingrained barriers to appropriate quality health care. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of institutional barriers to care among sex workers in a setting with UHC.Data was drawn from an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access. Multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE, were employed to longitudinally investigate correlates of institutional barriers to care over a 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013.In total, 723 sex workers were included, contributing to 2506 observations. Over the study period, 509 (70.4% women reported one or more institutional barriers to care. The most commonly reported institutional barriers to care were long wait times (54.6%, limited hours of operation (36.5%, and perceived disrespect by health care providers (26.1%. In multivariable GEE analyses, recent partner- (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.46, % 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.10-1.94, workplace- (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.63, and community-level violence (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.92, as well as other markers of vulnerability, such as self-identification as a gender/sexual minority (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.69, a mental illness diagnosis (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.34-2.06, and lack of provincial health insurance card (AOR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.59-7.57 emerged as independent correlates of institutional barriers to health services.Despite Canada's UHC, women sex workers in Vancouver face high prevalence of institutional barriers to care, with highest burden among most marginalized women. These findings underscore the need to explore new models of care, alongside broader policy changes to fulfill sex

  15. Universal Coverage without Universal Access: Institutional Barriers to Health Care among Women Sex Workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socías, M Eugenia; Shoveller, Jean; Bean, Chili; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Access to health care is a crucial determinant of health. Yet, even within settings that purport to provide universal health coverage (UHC), sex workers' experiences reveal systematic, institutionally ingrained barriers to appropriate quality health care. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of institutional barriers to care among sex workers in a setting with UHC. Data was drawn from an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort of women sex workers in Vancouver, Canada (An Evaluation of Sex Workers' Health Access). Multivariable logistic regression analyses, using generalized estimating equations (GEE), were employed to longitudinally investigate correlates of institutional barriers to care over a 44-month follow-up period (January 2010-August 2013). In total, 723 sex workers were included, contributing to 2506 observations. Over the study period, 509 (70.4%) women reported one or more institutional barriers to care. The most commonly reported institutional barriers to care were long wait times (54.6%), limited hours of operation (36.5%), and perceived disrespect by health care providers (26.1%). In multivariable GEE analyses, recent partner- (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.46, % 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.10-1.94), workplace- (AOR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.05-1.63), and community-level violence (AOR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.04-1.92), as well as other markers of vulnerability, such as self-identification as a gender/sexual minority (AOR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.03-1.69), a mental illness diagnosis (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI 1.34-2.06), and lack of provincial health insurance card (AOR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.59-7.57) emerged as independent correlates of institutional barriers to health services. Despite Canada's UHC, women sex workers in Vancouver face high prevalence of institutional barriers to care, with highest burden among most marginalized women. These findings underscore the need to explore new models of care, alongside broader policy changes to fulfill sex workers

  16. Lifetime Doctor-Diagnosed Mental Health Conditions and Current Substance Use Among Gay and Bisexual Men Living in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowsky, Nathan J; Dulai, Joshun J S; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Patterson, Thomas L; Corneil, Trevor T; Montaner, Julio S G; Roth, Eric A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M

    2017-05-12

    Studies have found that gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM) have higher rates of mental health conditions and substance use than heterosexual men, but are limited by issues of representativeness. To determine the prevalence and correlates of mental health disorders among GBM in Metro Vancouver, Canada. From 2012 to 2014, the Momentum Health Study recruited GBM (≥16 years) via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to estimate population parameters. Computer-assisted self-interviews (CASI) collected demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral information, while nurse-administered structured interviews asked about mental health diagnoses and treatment. Multivariate logistic regression using manual backward selection was used to identify covariates for any lifetime doctor diagnosed: (1) alcohol/substance use disorder and (2) any other mental health disorder. Of 719 participants, 17.4% reported a substance use disorder and 35.2% reported any other mental health disorder; 24.0% of all GBM were currently receiving treatment. A lifetime substance use disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with being a student (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.27-0.99) and an annual income ≥$30,000 CAD (AOR = 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21-0.67) and positively associated with HIV-positive serostatus (AOR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.63-3.96), recent crystal methamphetamine use (AOR = 2.73, 95% CI: 1.69-4.40) and recent heroin use (AOR = 5.59, 95% CI: 2.39-13.12). Any other lifetime mental health disorder diagnosis was negatively associated with self-identifying as Latin American (AOR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.08-0.81), being a refugee or visa holder (AOR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.05-0.65), and living outside Vancouver (AOR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.82), and positively associated with abnormal anxiety symptomology scores (AOR = 3.05, 95% CI: 2.06-4.51). Mental health conditions and substance use, which have important implications for clinical and public health practice, were highly prevalent and co-occurring.

  17. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-04-12

    It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and substance use disorders, and physical health in a sample of homeless adults with mental illness. This study was conducted using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial in Vancouver, British Columbia for participants who completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) scale at 18 months follow-up (n=364). Primary outcomes included current mental disorders; substance use including type, frequency and severity; physical health; duration of homelessness; and vocational functioning. In multivariable regression models, ACE total score independently predicted a range of mental health, physical health, and substance use problems, and marginally predicted duration of homelessness. Adverse childhood experiences are overrepresented among homeless adults with complex comorbidities and chronic homelessness. Our findings are consistent with a growing body of literature indicating that childhood traumas are potent risk factors for a number of adult health and psychiatric problems, particularly substance use problems. Results are discussed in the context of cumulative adversity and self-trauma theory. This trial has been registered with the International Standard Randomized Control Trial Number Register and assigned ISRCTN42520374.

  18. 3D Finite Element Modeling for Possible Creeping Behavior of Gas Hydrate-related Slipstream Submarine Slide, offshore Vancouver Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, S.; He, T.; Lan, K.; Spence, G.; Yelisetti, S.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-related submarine landslides have been identified on worldwide continental slope. Being a potential risk for marine environment and engineering projects, it has been a hot topic of hydrate research in recent decades. The study target is Slipstream submarine landslide, one of the slope failures on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin, off Vancouver Island, Canada. The previous studies of P- & S-wave velocity structure based on OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) data of SeaJade (Seafloor Earthquake Array - Japan Canada Cascadia Experiment) project indicated that there are two high concentration gas-hydrate layers within the ridge, one is at a depth of 100 mbsf (meter beneath the seafloor) with anomalous high P-wave velocities and the other is just above the prominent BSR (bottom-simulating reflector) at a depth of 265-275 mbsf. In this study we investigated the possible creeping behavior of gas hydrate layer to examine the critical instability of the ridge slope using the finite element method for self weight and additional stress (e.g., mega earthquake) conditions. The elastic and elasticoplasticity moduli of gas hydrate layer were obtained from laboratory measurements for different uniaxial pressure tests, which indicated that the sediments behave elastically for uniaxial pressures below 6 MPa, but elasticoplastically between 6-6.77 MPa. The modeled shear stress distribution indicated that the current sliding surface is more likely connected with the shallow high-velocity gas hydrate layer and sliding process related with gas hydrate starts from the toe of the slope and then progressively retreats to the place of current headwall, in a series of triangular blocks or wedges. Since the study area is in the earthquake belt, the large seismic acceleration will greatly affect the stress field and pore pressure distribution within the ridge, and the landslide is going to happen and supposedly at the shallow high-velocity gas

  19. How do preferential flow features connect? Combining tracers and excavation to examine hillslope flow pathways on Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, A. E.; Weiler, M.

    2005-12-01

    Preferential flow is a complex process that influences water flow and solute transport in soils at different scales. Many studies have advanced our understanding about the physical structures of preferential pathways and their effects on water flow and solute transport at the column and plot scale. However, we still know very little about how preferential flow features connect over large distances and how they influence water flow and solute transport at the hillslope and catchment scale. Working in a forested watershed on northeast Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, we conducted several artificial tracer experiments under natural and steady state flow conditions to investigate how water and solutes move through a hillslope section above a road cutbank. After these ``black-box'' tracer experiments we applied a blue food dye and excavated the hillslope to visualize the stained flow pathways. Under natural conditions two of the largest preferential features transmitted water at rates up to 30 liters/min. When a NaCl tracer was applied 12 m upslope of the road cutbank one soil pipe transmitted 97% of the recovered tracer during two large storms. When tracer was applied 30 m upslope of the road a more diffused response was observed. For the steady-state conditions we pumped water into trenches excavated at 12 m and 30 m above the road and then applied NaCl during constant outflow. Pumping water into the 12 m trench produced flow from only two preferential features, but a response in all preferential features was observed when water was pumped into the 30 m trench. The detailed excavations showed that the largest preferential feature was connected to the lower trench by large soil pipes at the interface of the organic and mineral soil horizons that were connected by flow through the organic soil. Other cross sections between 12 and 30 m upslope revealed concentrated flow through coarse mineral soil, diffused flow through mineral and organic soil, flow along

  20. Velocity Structure and 3D Finite Element Modeling for Critical Instability of Gas Hydrate-related Slipstream Submarine Slide, offshore Vancouver Island, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    LONG, S.; He, T.; Lan, K.; Spence, G.; Yelisetti, S.

    2016-12-01

    The previous study indicated that Slipstream submarine landslide is one of a gas hydrate-related slope failures on the frontal ridges of the Northern Cascadia accretionary margin, off Vancouver Island, Canada. The OBS data collected during SeaJade project were used to derive the subseafloor Vp & Vs structures. The anomalous high Vp of about 2.0 km/s at shallow depths of 100 (± 10) mbsf closely matches the estimated depth of the glide plane. The modelled Vs above the BSR at a depth of 265-275 mbsf is about 100-150 m/s higher than a theoretical 100% water saturated background value, indicating that the hydrate acts as part of the load-bearing matrix to increase the rigidity of the sediment. Also, the Vp & Vs above BSR both indicate a consistent 40% saturation of gas hydrate. On the basis of high accurate submarine bathymetry obtained by multibeam sounding system, the submarine landform before slump is reconstructed by comparing the slump headwall geometry with surrounding ridges. Using the elastic moduli determined from Vp & Vs, the stress status was calculated by the finite element method for different conditions and confirmed that the undersea sliding process related with gas hydrate starts from the toe of the slope and then progressively retreats to the place of current headwall, in a series of triangular blocks or wedges. The shear stress are then compared with the frame shear strength of geological model, which is critical for controlling slope stability of steep frontal ridges The simulation results found that the ridge was stable under its own weight, but gas hydrate saturation decrease and pore-water pressure increase will greatly reduce shear strength of sediments and may cause a landslide. Since the study area is in the earthquake belt, the large seismic acceleration will greatly affect pore pressure distribution within the ridge. The simulation results indicated that the shallow high-velocity gas hydrate layer coincident with glide plane depth is more

  1. Meanings of Food, Eating and Health in Punjabi Families Living in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gwen E; Ristovski-Slijepcevic, Svetlana; Beagan, Brenda L

    2011-01-01

    Objective: South Asians living in western countries have increased risk for developing diet-related chronic disease compared to Caucasians of European heritage. To increase understanding of social and cultural factors associated with their food habits, this study examined the meanings of food, health and well-being embedded in the food practices…

  2. Sustainability and public health nutrition at school: assessing the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in Vancouver schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Velazquez, Cayley E; Ahmadi, Naseam; Chapman, Gwen E; Carten, Sarah; Edward, Joshua; Shulhan, Stephanie; Stephens, Teya; Rojas, Alejandro

    2015-09-01

    To describe the development and application of the School Food Environment Assessment Tools and a novel scoring system to assess the integration of healthy and environmentally sustainable food initiatives in elementary and secondary schools. The cross-sectional study included direct observations of physical food environments and interviews with key school personnel regarding food-related programmes and policies. A five-point scoring system was then developed to assess actions across six domains: (i) food gardens; (ii) composting systems; (iii) food preparation activities; (iv) food-related teaching and learning activities; and availability of (v) healthy food; and (vi) environmentally sustainable food. Vancouver, Canada. A purposive sample of public schools (n 33) from all six sectors of the Vancouver Board of Education. Schools scored highest in the areas of food garden and compost system development and use. Regular integration of food-related teaching and learning activities and hands-on food preparation experiences were also commonly reported. Most schools demonstrated rudimentary efforts to make healthy and environmentally sustainable food choices available, but in general scored lowest on these two domains. Moreover, no schools reported widespread initiatives fully supporting availability or integration of healthy or environmentally sustainable foods across campus. More work is needed in all areas to fully integrate programmes and policies that support healthy, environmentally sustainable food systems in Vancouver schools. The assessment tools and proposed indicators offer a practical approach for researchers, policy makers and school stakeholders to assess school food system environments, identify priority areas for intervention and track relevant changes over time.

  3. The pacific island health care project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Donald Ames

    2014-01-01

    US Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) include three freely associated states: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, and three Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP) provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. More than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. Three thousand Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997) and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present), the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific Islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital. (The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.).

  4. The Pacific Island Health Care Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Ames Person

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/BackgroundUS Associated/Affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI include 3 Freely Associated States: Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau and 3 Territories: American Samoa, Guam, and Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. ObjectiveThe Pacific Island Health Care Project (PIHCP provides humanitarian medical referral/consultation/care to >500,000 indigenous people of these remote islands. Methods In the mid-1990s, we developed a simple store-and-forward program to link the USAPI with Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC. This application allowed image attachment to email consultations. ResultsMore than 8000 Pacific Islanders have benefited from the program. 3000 Pacific Islanders prior to telemedicine (1990-1997 and since store-and-forward telemedicine (1997-present, the PIHCP has helped an additional 5000. Records post dynamically and are stored in an archival database. Conclusion The PIHCP is the longest running telemedicine program in the world delivering humanitarian medical care. It has bridged the Developing World of the remote Pacific islands with advanced medical and surgical care available at a major US military teaching hospital.(The opinions expressed here are those of the author and not that of the Army, Department of Defense, or the US Government.

  5. Vancouver Accelerator Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1985-06-15

    Anyone who contends that particle physics is conducted in an ivory tower, not contributing to other fields of science or to humanity at large, should have attended the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference in Vancouver. Over a thousand participants contributed 781 papers and only a fraction were actually related to accelerators for high energy physics. The majority of present developments are in the service of other fields of science, for alternative power sources, for medicine, for industrial applications, etc.

  6. Vancouver Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Anyone who contends that particle physics is conducted in an ivory tower, not contributing to other fields of science or to humanity at large, should have attended the 1985 Particle Accelerator Conference in Vancouver. Over a thousand participants contributed 781 papers and only a fraction were actually related to accelerators for high energy physics. The majority of present developments are in the service of other fields of science, for alternative power sources, for medicine, for industrial applications, etc

  7. Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Report.pdf [1.2MB] Obesity and Overweight Among Asian American Children and Adolescents 2016.04.28-OBESITY AND ... Month Stay Connected! Receive the latest APIAHF updates Asian & Pacific Islander American Health Forum. All rights reserved. One Kaiser Plaza, ...

  8. Sociodemographic Factors Influencing Island Food Consumption in the Pacific Islander Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Baumhofer, Nicole Kau'i

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the relationships between island food consumption, sociodemographic variables, and cardiovascular risk using data from the Pacific Islander Health Study (PIHS). Chapter 1 explores the associations between self-reported level of island food consumption and key covariates. Island food consumption was modeled using Poisson regression and adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural characteristics. Increased Pacific Island cultural affinity was the strongest p...

  9. Universal Coverage without Universal Access: Institutional Barriers to Health Care among Women Sex Workers in Vancouver, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Soc?as, M. Eugenia; Shoveller, Jean; Bean, Chili; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Background Access to health care is a crucial determinant of health. Yet, even within settings that purport to provide universal health coverage (UHC), sex workers? experiences reveal systematic, institutionally ingrained barriers to appropriate quality health care. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence and correlates of institutional barriers to care among sex workers in a setting with UHC. Methods Data was drawn from an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort of women sex worke...

  10. Health status of Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, O M

    1995-02-01

    The elder Asian or Pacific-Island American presents a dynamic, interactive paradigm of forces beyond medical practice that includes religious, societal, and historical factors of delivering health care. The cultural characteristics of family and function, perception of time and healing, and the anthropologic factors of health beliefs on health behaviors can add to understanding our medical patients. Some important trends of environmental factors on expression of genetic predisposition to certain illnesses, such as diabetes and gout, can be used in health prevention. The significance of diet on certain cancers can be better understood using nativity factors. Many of the mental illnesses borne by immigrants can be recognized and treated. Significant clinical research directions imply an ability of American medicine to target at-risk Asians and Pacific Islanders for specific prevention and early diagnoses. The base knowledge of differential physiologic changes for aging and disease due to genetic predisposition and the correlates of social, cultural, and behavioral factors of diseases can then be improved.

  11. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  12. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  13. FastStats: Health of Asian or Pacific Islander Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to Health Care ... 2015, table 1 [PDF – 2.7 MB] Leading causes of death for Asian or Pacific Islander population ...

  14. First hvdc underwater transmission links mainland and Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-06-01

    Delicate and complex equipment for North America's first hvdc underwater transmission line is being installed. The power link will connect British Columbia Hydro and power authority's switchyards on the mainland near Ladner with the western terminus of the transmission scheme at Duncan on Vancouver Island, a distance of 42 miles. Nearly 19 miles of the transmission will be underwater, between Tsawwassen and Galiano Island, and between Parker and Saltspring Islands. The remaining distance will be spanned by a conventional aerial conductor. The submarine conductor cable will be approximately 3-1/2 inches in diameter and its copper core will be sheathed in lead and armored with a ring of steel wire. The cable, which is being manufactured in Calais, France, and coiled in a planned sequence aboard the cable laying vessel, Marcel Bayard, will be placed across the Gulf of Georgia in the spring of 1968.

  15. The health effects of the accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The major healt effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population living in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children, and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect has proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers, who continued to show relatively high levels of demoralization some months after the accident. Moreover, the groups in the general population and the workers, in their differen ways, had continuing problems of trust that stemmed directly from the Three Mile Island accident. For both the nuclear workers and general population, the mental health and behavioral effects are understandable in terms of the objective realities of the threats they faced during the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

  16. Waste management in Greater Vancouver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrusca, K. [Greater Vancouver Regional District, Burnaby, BC (Canada); Richter, R. [Montenay Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)]|[Veolia Environmental Services, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An outline of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) waste-to-energy program was presented. The GVRD has an annual budget for solid waste management of $90 million. Energy recovery revenues from solid waste currently exceed $10 million. Over 1,660,00 tonnes of GVRD waste is recycled, and another 280,000 tonnes is converted from waste to energy. The GVRD waste-to-energy facility combines state-of-the-art combustion and air pollution control, and has processed over 5 million tonnes of municipal solid waste since it opened in 1988. Its central location minimizes haul distance, and it was originally sited to utilize steam through sales to a recycle paper mill. The facility has won several awards, including the Solid Waste Association of North America award for best facility in 1990. The facility focuses on continual improvement, and has installed a carbon injection system; an ammonia injection system; a flyash stabilization system; and heat capacity upgrades in addition to conducting continuous waste composition studies. Continuous air emissions monitoring is also conducted at the plant, which produces a very small percentage of the total air emissions in metropolitan Vancouver. The GVRD is now seeking options for the management of a further 500,000 tonnes per year of solid waste, and has received 23 submissions from a range of waste energy technologies which are now being evaluated. It was concluded that waste-to-energy plants can be located in densely populated metropolitan areas and provide a local disposal solution as well as a source of renewable energy. Other GVRD waste reduction policies were also reviewed. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... racial or ethnic group has specific health concerns. Differences in the health of groups can result from: Genetics Environmental factors Access to care Cultural factors On this page, you'll find links ...

  18. Children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Hanna K; Viner-Brown, Samara I; Garcia, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    Our objectives were to (a) estimate the prevalence of children's mental health problems, (b) assess family functioning, and (c) investigate the relationship between children's mental health and family functioning in Rhode Island. From the 2003 National Survey of Children's Health, Rhode Island data for children 6 to 17 years of age were used for the analyses (N = 1326). Two aspects of family functioning measures, parental stress and parental involvement, were constructed and were examined by children's mental health problems, as well as other child and family characteristics (child's age, gender, race/ethnicity, special needs, parent's education, income, employment, family structure, number of children, and mother's general and mental health). Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression were used to investigate the relationship. Among Rhode Island children, nearly 1 (19.0%) in 5 had mental health problems, 1 (15.6%) in 6 lived with a highly stressed parent, and one third (32.7%) had parents with low involvement. Bivariate analyses showed that high parental stress and low parental involvement were higher among parents of children with mental health problems than parents of children without those problems (33.2% vs 11.0% and 41.0% vs 30.3%, respectively). In multivariate logistic regression, parents of children with mental health problems had nearly 4 times the odds of high stress compared with parents of children without those problems. When children's mental health problems were severe, the odds of high parental stress were elevated. However, children's mental health was not associated with parental involvement. Children's mental health was strongly associated with parental stress, but it was not associated with parental involvement. The findings indicate that when examining the mental health issues of children, parental mental health and stress must be considered.

  19. Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withy, Kelley; Andaya, January; Vitousek, Sharon; Sakamoto, David

    2009-12-01

    Anecdotal reports of a doctor shortage on the Big Island have been circulating for years, but a detailed assessment of the health care workforce had not previously been accomplished. The Hawai'i Island Health Workforce Assessment used licensure data, focus groups, telephone follow up to provider offices, national estimates of average provider supply and analysis of insurance claims data to assess the extent of the existing medical and mental health workforce, approximate how many additional providers might be effectively utilized, develop a population-based estimate of future demand and identify causes and potential solutions for the challenges faced. As of February 2008, the researchers were able to locate 310 practicing physicians, 36 nurse practitioners, 6 physician assistants, 51 psychologists, 57 social workers and 42 other mental health providers. Based on national averages, claims analysis and focus groups, the Island could use approximately 45 additional medical professionals to care for the 85% of the population that is medically insured; a larger number to care for the entire population. Ascertaining a complete roster of mental health professionals was not possible using this methodology. The researchers compared the current supply of physicians with the national average of physicians to population and the number of visits to different specialists for the year 2006 and found specific regional shortages of providers. The focus groups concentrated on solutions to the workforce crisis that include the formation of a well-organized, broad collaboration to coordinate recruitment efforts, expand and strengthen retention and renewal activities, and reinvigorate the health profession pipeline and training opportunities. The researchers recommend collaboration between the community, government, business, health center care providers, hospitals and centers to develop a plan before the tenuous state of healthcare on the Big Island worsens. In addition, continued

  20. Functional food availability, a limitation to peoples’ health on Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ndungu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:All foods are imported to markets in smaller islands in the Caribbean. Before export of foods to these destinations, the foods are subjected to several preservative procedures like irradiation, pesticide spray and prolonged refrigeration etc., to last the extended transport periods. This reduces availability of protective elements and the nutrient contents of the foods to scanty levels,especially to common people with low and middle incomes. Hence the majority of people in these categories on the small islands become vulnerable to ill health. Aims and Objectives: To assess 1. Food availability 2. Normal transport period for foods to reach from the suppliers, and 3. Current level of prevalence of non-infective chronic diseases in the area. Methods: Data were collected from two sources. One set of data was collected from the three supermarkets on the island to obtain information on source, transport time and nature of foods imported; and the second from 200 randomly selected responses of diseased persons for information on the age, gender and cause of death. Results: All the foods were imported and the time taken for the food (including protective foods to reach the island was about 3 weeks. The major causes of death were malignancy (30%, diabetes and its complications (25%, cardio vascular diseases (19.5%, STD / HIV (8.5% and other causes (17.0%. A review of prevalence of chronic diseases like hypertension, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and associated functional limitations, in the region reveals that their prevalence is proportionately high on the island compared to nearby developed mainland Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 7:222-231 regions. Body mass index of ≥25 was reported to be as high as 58.3%. The health care facilitiesavailable are seen to be limited and public health activity to prevent or manage the prevailing chronic health issues, appeared to be meager. Conclusion: There is a need to address the

  1. Health effects of the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-05-01

    Between March 28 and April 15, 1979 the collective dose resulting from the radioactivity released to the population living within a 50-mile radius of the Three Mile Island nuclear plant was about 2000 person-rems, less than 1% of the annual natural background level. The average dose to a person living within 5 miles of the nuclear plant was less than 10% of annual background radiation. The maximum estimated radiation dose received by any one individual in the general population (excluding the nuclear plant workers) during the accident was 70 mrem. The doses received by the general population as a result of the accident were so small that there will be no detectable additional cases of cancer, developmental abnormalities, or genetic ill-health. Three Three Mile Island nuclear workers received radiation doses of about 3 to 4 rem, exceeding maximum permissible quarterly dose of 3 rem. The major health effect of the accident at Three Mile Island was that of a pronounced demoralizing effect on the general population in the Three Mile Island area, including teenagers and mothers of preschool children and the nuclear plant workers. However, this effect proved transient in all groups studied except the nuclear workers

  2. Training competent and effective Primary Health Care Workers to fill a void in the outer islands health service delivery of the Marshall Islands of Micronesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keni Bhalachandra H

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human resources for health are non-existent in many parts of the world and the outer islands of Marshall Islands in Micronesia are prime examples. While the more populated islands with hospital facilities are often successful in recruiting qualified health professionals from overseas, the outer islands generally have very limited health resources, and are thus less successful. In an attempt to provide reasonable health services to these islands, indigenous people were trained as Health Assistants (HA to service their local communities. In an effort to remedy the effectiveness of health care delivery to these islands, a program to train mid-level health care workers (Hospital Assistants was developed and implemented by the Ministry of Health in conjunction with the hospital in Majuro, the capital city of the Marshall Islands. Methods A physician instructor with experience and expertise in primary health care in these regions conducted the program. The curriculum included training in basic health science, essentials of endemic disorders and their clinical management appropriate to the outer islands. Emphasis was given to prevention and health promotion as well as to the curative aspects. For clinical observation, the candidates were assigned to clinical departments of the Majuro hospital for 1 year during their training, as assistants to the nursing staff. This paper discusses the details of the training, the modalities used to groom the candidates, and an assessment of the ultimate effectiveness of the program. Results Out of 16 boys who began training, 14 candidates were successful in completing the program. In 1998 a similar program was conducted exclusively for women under the auspices of Asian Development Bank funding, hence women were not part of this program. Conclusion For developing countries of the Pacific, appropriately trained human resources are an essential component of economic progress, and the health workforce

  3. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  4. Implementation research and Asian American/Pacific Islander health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hsin-Chun Tsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous barriers prevent the translation of research into practice, especially in settings with diverse populations. Nurses are in contact with diverse populations across settings and can be an important influence to further implementation research. This paper describes conceptual approaches and methodological issues pertinent to implementation research and implications for Asian American/Pacific Islander (AAPI health research. The authors discussed the values of using theory to guide implementation research, levels of theory that are commonly used in interventions, and decisions for theory selection. They also articulated the shortcoming of randomized controlled trials, the gold standard for testing efficacy of interventions, and present quasi-experimental designs as a plausible alternative to randomized controlled trials when research is conducted in real-world settings. They examined three types of quasi-experimental designs, the unit of analysis, the choice of dependent variables, and measurement issues that influence whether research findings and evidence-based interventions are successfully translated into practice. Practicing nurses who are familiar with the AAPI population, as well as nurse researchers who have expertise in AAPI health can play critical roles in shaping future implementation research to advance AAPI health. Nurses can provide practice-based evidence for refining evidence-supported interventions for diverse, real-world settings and theory-based interventions that are socioculturally appropriate for AAPIs. Interdisciplinary, practice-based research networks that bring multiple agencies, organizations, communities, and academic institutions together can be a mechanism for advancing implementation research for AAPI health.

  5. Defining Population Health Vulnerability Following an Extreme Weather Event in an Urban Pacific Island Environment: Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natuzzi, Eileen S.; Joshua, Cynthia; Shortus, Matthew; Reubin, Reginald; Dalipanda, Tenneth; Ferran, Karen; Aumua, Audrey; Brodine, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Extreme weather events are common and increasing in intensity in the southwestern Pacific region. Health impacts from cyclones and tropical storms cause acute injuries and infectious disease outbreaks. Defining population vulnerability to extreme weather events by examining a recent flood in Honiara, Solomon Islands, can help stakeholders and policymakers adapt development to reduce future threats. The acute and subacute health impacts following the April 2014 floods were defined using data obtained from hospitals and clinics, the Ministry of Health and in-country World Health Organization office in Honiara. Geographical information system (GIS) was used to assess morbidity and mortality, and vulnerability of the health system infrastructure and households in Honiara. The April flash floods were responsible for 21 acute deaths, 33 injuries, and a diarrhea outbreak that affected 8,584 people with 10 pediatric deaths. A GIS vulnerability assessment of the location of the health system infrastructure and households relative to rivers and the coastline identified 75% of the health infrastructure and over 29% of Honiara's population as vulnerable to future hydrological events. Honiara, Solomon Islands, is a rapidly growing, highly vulnerable urban Pacific Island environment. Evaluation of the mortality and morbidity from the April 2014 floods as well as the infectious disease outbreaks that followed allows public health specialists and policy makers to understand the health system and populations vulnerability to future shocks. Understanding the negative impacts natural disaster have on people living in urban Pacific environments will help the government as well as development partners in crafting resilient adaptation development. PMID:27091867

  6. Metro Vancouver air quality management plan : progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-10-15

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) developed an air quality management plan (AQMP) in 2005 as a means of addressing air quality issues in the region. The plan required progress reports every 2 years as well as a comprehensive review every 5 years. The AQMP established goals to minimize risk to public health from air pollution, improve visibility, and minimize the region's contributions to global climatic change by reducing emissions; implementing local air quality management programs; and enhancing air quality information and public awareness. The AQMP also included a sustainability framework for GVRD's policies and regulations related to regional growth, service delivery and political leadership. Regional strategies for solid waste and liquid waste management were developed in 2008. The sustainability framework has developed 3 priority goals: (1) to reduce diesel particulates by 75 per cent from Metro Vancouver corporate sources by 2012, (2) to be carbon neutral by 2012 excluding solid waste operations, and (3) to reduce regional GHGs by 15 per cent by 2015, and 33 per cent by 2020. Progress updates on regional planning efforts for the AQMP were presented. The report also outlined trends and performance measures used by the GVRD, and discussed changes in air quality issues and priorities that have occurred since the AQMP was adopted in 2005. 1 tab., 8 figs.

  7. Metro Vancouver air quality management plan : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    The Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) developed an air quality management plan (AQMP) in 2005 as a means of addressing air quality issues in the region. The plan required progress reports every 2 years as well as a comprehensive review every 5 years. The AQMP established goals to minimize risk to public health from air pollution, improve visibility, and minimize the region's contributions to global climatic change by reducing emissions; implementing local air quality management programs; and enhancing air quality information and public awareness. The AQMP also included a sustainability framework for GVRD's policies and regulations related to regional growth, service delivery and political leadership. Regional strategies for solid waste and liquid waste management were developed in 2008. The sustainability framework has developed 3 priority goals: (1) to reduce diesel particulates by 75 per cent from Metro Vancouver corporate sources by 2012, (2) to be carbon neutral by 2012 excluding solid waste operations, and (3) to reduce regional GHGs by 15 per cent by 2015, and 33 per cent by 2020. Progress updates on regional planning efforts for the AQMP were presented. The report also outlined trends and performance measures used by the GVRD, and discussed changes in air quality issues and priorities that have occurred since the AQMP was adopted in 2005. 1 tab., 8 figs

  8. Comparisons of health expenditure in 3 Pacific Island Countries using National Health Accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sandra; Irava, Wayne; Kei, Tin Yiu

    2010-09-01

    National Health Accounts (NHA) is an important monitoring tool for health policy and health systems strengthening. A pilot project amongst three Pacific Island Countries (PICs) to assist in developing their NHAs, allowed these countries to identify their sources of health funds, the health providers on which these funds are spent, and the types of health goods and services provided. In this paper we report some of the findings from the NHA exercises in FSM, Fiji and Vanuatu. The development of these NHA country reports have allowed these countries to better understand the flow of financial resources from financing agents, to health providers, and to health functions. The NHA findings across the three countries enabled a comparative analysis of health expenditures between the three countries as well as with countries in the Asia Pacific Region.

  9. Vancouver winters: Environmental influences on inpatient adult orthopaedic trauma demographics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordin, S.; Masri, B. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare the pattern of adult inpatient orthopaedic injuries admitted at three Vancouver hospitals following one of the worst winter snowstorms in the region with the preceding control winter period. Methods: The surveillance study was conducted at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada, 2007 to 2010. Inpatient adult admissions for orthopaedic injuries at three hospitals were recorded, including age, gender, anatomic location of injury, type of fracture (open or closed), fixation method (internal versus external fixation), and length of acute care hospital stay. Comparisons between admissions during this weather pattern and admission during a previous winter with minimal snow were made. SPSS 19 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the 511 patients admitted under Orthopaedic trauma service during the significant winter snowstorms of December 2008 - January 2009, 100 (19.6%) (CI: 16.2%-23.2%) were due to ice and snow, whereas in the preceding mild winter only 18 of 415 (4.3%) (CI: 2.5%-6.8%) cases were related to snow (p<0.05). Ankle and wrist fractures were the most frequent injuries during the index snow storm period (p<0.05). At all the three institutions, 97 (96.5%) fractures were closed during the snowstorm as opposed to 17 (95%) during the control winter period. Internal fixation in 06 (89%) fractures as opposed to external fixation in 12 (11%) patients was the predominant mode of fixation across the board during both time periods. Conclusion: The study demonstrated a significantly higher inpatient orthopaedic trauma volume during the snowstorm more rigorous prospective studies need to be designed to gain further insight to solving these problems from a public health perspective. (author)

  10. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  11. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M A; Bromet, E J; Schulberg, H C; Dunn, L O; Parkinson, D K

    1987-08-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms.

  12. Mental health effects of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor restart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dew, M.A.; Bromet, E.J.; Schulberg, H.C.; Dunn, L.O.; Parkinson, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Controversy over potential mental health effects of the Three Mile Island Unit-1 restart led the authors to examine prospectively the pattern of psychiatric symptoms in a sample of Three Mile Island area mothers of young children. Symptom levels after restart were elevated over previous levels; a sizable subcohort of the sample reported relatively serious degrees of postrestart distress. History of diagnosable major depression and generalized anxiety following the Three Mile Island accident, plus symptoms and beliefs about personal risk prior to the restart, best predicted postrestart symptoms

  13. Perceptions of electronic health record implementation: a statewide survey of physicians in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Matthew C; Baier, Rosa R; Gardner, Rebekah L

    2014-10-01

    Although electronic health record use improves healthcare delivery, adoption into clinical practice is incomplete. We sought to identify the extent of adoption in Rhode Island and the characteristics of physicians and electronic health records associated with positive experience. We performed a cross-sectional study of data collected by the Rhode Island Department of Health for the Health Information Technology Survey 2009 to 2013. Survey questions included provider and practice demographics, health record information, and Likert-type scaled questions regarding how electronic health record use affected clinical practice. The survey response rate ranged from 50% to 65%, with 62% in 2013. Increasing numbers of physicians in Rhode Island use an electronic health record. In 2013, 81% of physicians used one, and adoption varied by clinical subspecialty. Most providers think that electronic health record use improves billing and quality improvement but has not improved job satisfaction. Physicians with longer and more sophisticated electronic health record use report positive effects of introduction on all aspects of practice examined (P electronic health record introduction (P electronic health record vendors most frequently used in Rhode Island, 5 were associated with improved job satisfaction. We report the largest statewide study of electronic health record adoption to date. We found increasing physician use in Rhode Island, and the extent of adoption varies by subspecialty. Although older physicians are less likely to be positive about electronic health record adoption, longer and more sophisticated use are associated with more positive opinions, suggesting acceptance will grow over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Howland Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites around...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Baker Island, Phoenix Islands, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 4 sites around...

  16. Mental health in the island nations of the Western Pacific: a rapid review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Ernest; Thusanth, Sneha; McCalman, Janya; Gopalkrishnan, Narayan

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to identify mental-health-relevant literature accessible to policy makers and healthcare workers in the island nations of the Western Pacific. Material collated to support the inaugural Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course held in Cairns in May 2015 was used as the basis of a "rapid review". The rapid review considered 303 documents identified by a search carried out using James Cook University's OneSearch, Google Scholar, and the authors' knowledge. Search terms included mental health and the like, and terms with Pacific and current Pacific island country names. Findings were classified by region/country, year of release/publication, mental health issue addressed, peer-reviewed or grey literature, and type of study. Almost half of the findings had been released in the previous five years. However, only 36% were peer-reviewed publications and only 3.6% of the findings were intervention studies. There is limited easily accessible documentation to confidently direct practice or policies regarding which strategies are likely to be effective in responding to the high rates of mental ill-health experienced in the Pacific island nations, or to plan for increases as a consequence of rapid social and demographic changes that are transforming Pacific island societies. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. Achieving universal health coverage in small island states: could importing health services provide a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Helen; Smith, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Background Universal health coverage (UHC) is difficult to achieve in settings short of medicines, health workers and health facilities. These characteristics define the majority of the small island developing states (SIDS), where population size negates the benefits of economies of scale. One option to alleviate this constraint is to import health services, rather than focus on domestic production. This paper provides empirical analysis of the potential impact of this option. Methods Analysis was based on publicly accessible data for 14 SIDS, covering health-related travel and health indicators for the period 2003–2013, together with in-depth review of medical travel schemes for the two highest importing SIDS—the Maldives and Tuvalu. Findings Medical travel from SIDS is accelerating. The SIDS studied generally lacked health infrastructure and technologies, and the majority of them had lower than the recommended number of physicians in a country, which limits their capacity for achieving UHC. Tuvalu and the Maldives were the highest importers of healthcare and notably have public schemes that facilitate medical travel and help lower the out-of-pocket expenditure on medical travel. Although different in approach, design and performance, the medical travel schemes in Tuvalu and the Maldives are both examples of measures used to increase access to health services that cannot feasibly be provided in SIDS. Interpretation Our findings suggest that importing health services (through schemes to facilitate medical travel) is a potential mechanism to help achieve universal healthcare for SIDS but requires due diligence over cost, equity and quality control. PMID:29527349

  18. Acceptability of Mental Health Apps for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povey, Josie; Mills, Patj Patj Janama Robert; Dingwall, Kylie Maree; Lowell, Anne; Singer, Judy; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-03-11

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience high rates of mental illness and psychological distress compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. E-mental health tools offer an opportunity for accessible, effective, and acceptable treatment. The AIMhi Stay Strong app and the ibobbly suicide prevention app are treatment tools designed to combat the disproportionately high levels of mental illness and stress experienced within the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community. This study aimed to explore Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members' experiences of using two culturally responsive e-mental health apps and identify factors that influence the acceptability of these approaches. Using qualitative methods aligned with a phenomenological approach, we explored the acceptability of two culturally responsive e-mental health apps through a series of three 3-hour focus groups with nine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community members. Thematic analysis was conducted and coresearcher and member checking were used to verify findings. Findings suggest strong support for the concept of e-mental health apps and optimism for their potential. Factors that influenced acceptability related to three key themes: personal factors (eg, motivation, severity and awareness of illness, technological competence, and literacy and language differences), environmental factors (eg, community awareness, stigma, and availability of support), and app characteristics (eg, ease of use, content, graphics, access, and security and information sharing). Specific adaptations, such as local production, culturally relevant content and graphics, a purposeful journey, clear navigation, meaningful language, options to assist people with language differences, offline use, and password protection may aid uptake. When designed to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians, e-mental health tools add an important element to public health

  19. Appropriate health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities: crucial for closing the gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaio, Alessandro; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-06-01

    Health promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and their people has generally had limited efficacy and poor sustainability. It has largely failed to recognise and appreciate the importance of local cultures and continues to have minimal emphasis on capacity building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization and the Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It serves as a guide for community-focused health promotion practice to be built on and shaped by the respect for understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion is not about targeting, intervening or responding. Rather, it encourages health programme planners and policymakers to have a greater understanding, respect, a sense of empowerment and collaboration with communities, and their sociocultural environment to improve health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the eight principles of Culturally Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes a widespread adoption of the framework for a more respectful, collaborative, locally suitable and therefore appropriate approach to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health promotion.

  20. Overview of a public health approach to pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspar, Annette; Kei, Joseph; Driscoll, Carlie; Swanepoel, De Wet; Goulios, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Childhood hearing impairment is a significant cause of disability in developing countries. Otitis media and meningitis are leading infectious causes of preventable hearing loss in children. It is estimated that the Pacific Islands have among the greatest global burden of childhood hearing impairment due to infectious causes, and yet there is currently very little in the research literature on pediatric hearing disorders in this region. (1) To review existing research literature on pediatric hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands, and (2) to present a public health approach to the development and improvement of childhood hearing services in the Pacific Islands. The primary tool was a comprehensive literature review. MEDLINE and ScienceDirect databases were searched for relevant journal articles. There was no limit on the date of publication. Any article reporting on hearing impairment in the Pacific Region was included. A total of 23 journal articles were found that satisfied the above inclusion criteria. The limited information available in the literature suggests that otitis media and vaccine-preventable infections are a significant cause of avoidable childhood hearing impairment in the Pacific Islands. Pediatric audiology services are limited in this region. Further research is required to develop effective public health programs that should reduce the burden of preventable childhood hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. There is limited information in the research literature on pediatric hearing impairment and audiology services in the Pacific Islands. Epidemiological data based on the WHO Ear and Hearing Disorders Survey Protocol are urgently needed, and the development of audiology services within the existing public and primary health care framework should reduce the burden of preventable hearing loss in the Pacific Islands. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Hawaii Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Molokai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Jarvis Island, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maui Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Necker Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lisianski Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Laysan Island, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Niihau Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lanai Island, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  10. Pacific island health inequities forecast to grow unless profound changes are made to health systems in the region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Don; Park, Kunhee; Soakai, Taniela Sunia

    2017-10-01

    Objective Twenty years ago the Pacific's health ministers developed a 'Healthy Islands' vision to lead health development in the subregion. This paper reports on a review of health development over this period and discusses the implications for the attainment of the health related Sustainable Development Goals. Methods The review used qualitative and quantitative methods. The qualitative review included conducting semi-structured interviews with Pacific Island Government Ministers and officials, regional agencies, health workers and community members. A document review was also conducted. The quantitative review consisted of examining secondary data from regional and global data collections. Results The review found improvement in health indicators, but increasing health inequality between the Pacific and the rest of the world. Many of the larger island populations were unable to reach the health Millennium Development Goals. The 'Healthy Islands' vision remained an inspiration to health ministers and senior officials in the region. However, implementation of the 'Healthy Islands' approach was patchy, under-resourced and un-sustained. Communicable and Maternal and Child Health challenges persist alongside unprecedented levels of non-communicable diseases, inadequate levels of health finance and few skilled health workers as the major impediments to health development for many of the Pacific's countries. Conclusions The current trajectory for health in the Pacific will lead to increasing health inequity with the rest of the world. The challenges to health in the region include persisting communicable disease and maternal and child health threats, unprecedented levels of NCDs, climate change and instability, as well as low economic growth. In order to change the fortunes of this region in the age of the SDGs, a substantial investment in health is required, including in the health workforce, by countries and donors alike. That investment requires a nuanced response

  11. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of an unsanctioned supervised smoking facility in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozaghi, Ehsan

    2014-11-13

    Smoking crack involves the risk of transmitting diseases such as HIV and hepatitis C (HCV). The current study determines whether the formerly unsanctioned supervised smoking facility (SSF)-operated by the grassroot organization, Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU) for the last few years-costs less than the costs incurred for health-care services as a direct consequence of not having such a program in Vancouver, Canada. The data pertaining to the attendance at the SSF was gathered in 2012-2013 by VANDU. By relying on this data, a mathematical model was employed to estimate the number of HCV infections prevented by the former facility in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES). The DTES SSF's benefit-cost ratio was conservatively estimated at 12.1:1 due to its low operating cost. The study used 70% and 90% initial pipe-sharing rates for sensitivity analysis. At 80% sharing rate, the marginal HCV cases prevented were determined to be 55 cases. Moreover, at 80% sharing rate, the marginal cost-effectiveness ratio ranges from $1,705 to $97,203. The results from both the baseline and sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the establishment of the SSF by VANDU on average had annually saved CAD$1.8 million dollars in taxpayer's money. Funding SSFs in Vancouver is an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain; therefore, Vancouver Coastal Health should actively participate in their establishment in order to reduce HCV and other blood-borne infections such as HIV within the non-injecting drug users.

  12. What constitutes 'support' for the role of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander child health workforce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karen; Young, Jeanine; Barnes, Margaret

    2013-02-01

    As well as providing primary health care services, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health workers are known to significantly contribute to the overall acceptability, access and use of health services through their role of cultural brokerage in the communities within which they work. As such they are uniquely positioned to positively influence health improvements for this vulnerable population. This study sought to identify key areas that both Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous health professionals working within Indigenous communities felt were important in providing support for their roles. This group of workers require support within their roles particularly in relation to cultural awareness and capability, resource provision, educational opportunities, collaboration with colleagues and peers, and professional mentorship.

  13. Amazing grace: Vancouver's supervised injection facility granted six-month lease on life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Small Dan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Addiction should be a matter, primarily, for the Chief of Medicine rather than the Chief of Police. While internationally renowned for its social kindness, Canada has not been without its share of disgraceful political mistakes in the not too distant past. Regrettably, there are many shameful events in Canada that have unfolded in the name of public policy including the banishment without medical treatment of Chinese Canadians living with leprosy to die on D'Arcy and Bentinck Islands in British Columbia while European Canadians stricken similarly enjoyed healthcare on the mainland as well as the eternally haunting treatment of people of aboriginal ancestry who were without full voting privileges in some parts of Canada until 1965 and abandoned to encampments, reserves, that paralleled South African apartheid. In due course, these public policies have come to be understood as horrific in retrospect. Many have all met with a remorseful fate where a future Prime Minister is held to public account for the sad excesses of an earlier generation. With respect to North America's only supervised injection facility (SIF, a medical program aimed at reducing fatal overdoses and infections (HIV, HCV in injection drug users, Canada's Prime Minister Stephen Harper holds the ability to forestall a similarly heartrending fate in his political hands. The SIF currently has a temporary exemption from Canada's "Controlled Drugs and Substances Act" in order to operate until June of 2008. As such, the fate of the SIF is politically determined each time behind closed doors by the Prime Minister and his ministers. Sadly, the Prime Minister appears lost at present, content to ignore the scientific and medical evidence on the matter of population health. In light of the vast medical evidence accumulated on Vancouver's SIF, the fate of injection facilities needs to be taken out of the political realm entirely. I am hoping that the Prime Minister will be found, see

  14. Asian and Pacific Islander Cultural Values: Considerations for Health Care Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Linda A.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    1998-01-01

    Some history on health-care decision making is reviewed. The current "individualist" model in the United States is contrasted with "collectivist" models of Asian and Pacific Islander cultures. Decision making styles are discussed in relationship to Western medicine. Six groups' cultural norms are presented. Conflicts with U.S.…

  15. U.S. Naval Weather Service Command. Summary of Synoptic Meteorological Observations, North American Coastal Marine Areas - Revised. Pacific Coast. Volume 6. Area 36 - Point Arena, Area 37 - Eureka, Area 38 - Cape Blanco, Area 39 - Newport, Area 40 - Astoria, Area 41 - Vancouver Island SW

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    4U) H63-H7J JULY ritiE ia ICONTI »CT FH6« Of HIND SPEED UTSI »NO OHECTION VE«$US SEt HEIGHTS (FT) IKEA 0037 EUKEKA...241 TOT 63 27 20 46.8 1960 TOT 0 2* 64 128 212 966 88 1067 PACE 186 m (N^ »6«;10I (PRIM*«¥I H35-HT2 Tine 17 IKEA 0040 ISTQUIA A6.6N 12...TiBLE 17 IKEA 00*1 VANCOUVER IS, Su «a.»N 126.OH PCT FR(0 OP ill« TENPERiTURE (DEC f) *ND THE OCCURRENCE OP POO (WITHIUT PRBCIPITRTION) VS tIR

  16. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macleod, G K

    1981-01-01

    The March 28, 1979, nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island near Harrisburg, illustrated the inadequacy of Pennsylvania's public health sector in implementing emergency measures. Throughout the crisis, decisions impacting public health were made by engineers and physicists rather than by physicians. Recommendations to improve the preparedness of the state's public health department to handle future nuclear accidents include: developing a radiological emergency response plan for the health aspects of an accident/ establishing a radiation health unit/ collecting baseline data on the incidence of hypothyroidism around nuclear power plants/ and preparing potassium iodide for deployment and distribution.

  17. Elimination of lymphatic filariasis as a public health problem from the Cook Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ave, Charlie; Kapa, D Ramaiah; Ottesen, Eric

    2018-01-01

    The Cook Islands has a long history of high-endemicity lymphatic filariasis (LF) transmitted by Aedes vector mosquitoes. Though the infection prevalence had declined between 1975 and 1999 following episodic treatment activities, still infection was widespread with pockets of persistent infection. Beginning in 1999, the Cook Islands embarked on a national program, in partnership with Pacific Programme to Eliminate LF (PacELF), to eliminate LF as a public health problem. All 12 inhabited islands were identified as endemic, and six rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with once-yearly, single-dose albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine (DEC) were implemented during 2000-2006 to interrupt transmission of LF. Surveys carried out at the baseline, mid-term, stop-MDA, and post-MDA periods assessed LF antigen (Ag) prevalence in children and adults. Historical data, health workers' observations, and hospital records were used to assess the trend and burden of chronic disease. The baseline Ag prevalence (1999) ranged from 2.0% in Manihiki to > 18.0% in Aitutaki, Mitiaro, and Pukapuka, and the national average Ag prevalence was 8.6%. MDA, carried out with a national treatment coverage over six annual rounds of MDA ranging from 63.5 to 96.7% in different years, was stopped in 2007. By then, the national Ag prevalence had declined to 0.27%. The post-MDA surveillance survey results (2013-2014) showed that Ag prevalence had fallen to 0% in 11/12 islands, and the national prevalence was only 0.03%. Chronic filarial disease had almost entirely disappeared. The Cook Islands met all the criteria required for the World Health Organization (WHO) to acknowledge elimination of LF as a public health problem, as it did officially in 2016. This success also confirms that LF, even when transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes that are recognized to be more efficient than other vector species, can be eliminated as a public health problem by six rounds of MDA.

  18. Low health literacy and poor health status in Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentell, Tetine; Baker, Kay Kromer; Onaka, Alvin; Braun, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    Health literacy is understudied in Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (AA/PI). We used a population-based sample in Hawai'i to consider if low health literacy is associated with poor health outcomes in Japanese, Filipino, Native Hawaiians, and other AA/PI groups compared with Whites. In data weighted and adjusted for population undercounts and complex survey design, low health literacy varied significantly by group, from 23.9% among Filipinos, 20.6% in Other AA/PI, 16.0% in Japanese, 15.9% in Native Hawaiians, and 13.2% in Whites (χ(2) (4) = 52.22; p culture, and health outcomes.

  19. Command and Control Analysis of the South West Provincial Regional Emergency Operations Centre during Vancouver 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Venue Site WACC - Whistler Area Command Centre OTHER GPPAG - Government Partners Public Affairs Group 18 ANNEX B. Interview questions...Vancouver Vancouver Richmond WACC Decision Authority Link Information Sharing Link DOC’s 2010 Provincial Games Secretariat GPPAG CCG

  20. Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment Work Plan Mud Pit Release Sites, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-03-12

    This Work Plan describes the approach that will be used to conduct human health and ecological risk assessments for Amchitka Island, Alaska, which was utilized as an underground nuclear test site between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U.S. Department of Energy) conducted two nuclear tests (known as Long Shot and Milrow) and assisted the U.S. Department of Defense with a third test (known as Cannikin). Amchitka Island is approximately 42 miles long and located 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska, in the western end of the Aleutian Island archipelago in a group of islands known as the Rat Islands. Historically including deep drilling operations required large volumes of drilling mud, a considerable amount of which was left on the island in exposed mud pits after testing was completed. Therefore, there is a need for drilling mud pit remediation and risk assessment of historical mud pit releases. The scope of this work plan is to document the environmental objectives and the proposed technical site investigation strategies that will be utilized for the site characterization of the constituents in soil, surface water, and sediment at these former testing sites. Its goal is the collection of data in sufficient quantity and quality to determine current site conditions, support a risk assessment for the site surfaces, and evaluate what further remedial action is required to achieve permanent closure of these three sites that will protect both human health and the environment. Suspected compounds of potential ecological concern for investigative analysis at these sites include diesel-range organics, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, volatile organic compounds, and chromium. The results of these characterizations and risk assessments will be used to evaluate corrective action alternatives to include no further action, the implementation of institutional controls, capping on site, or off-sit e

  1. Delivery of eye and vision services in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthea M Burnett

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Routine eye and vision assessments are vital for the detection and subsequent management of vision loss, which is particularly important for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people, who face higher rates of vision loss than other Australians. In order to guide improvements, this paper will describe patterns, variations and gaps in these eye and vision assessments for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. Methods: Clinical audits from 124 primary health care centres (sample size 15,175 from five Australian States and Territories were conducted during 2005-2012. Main outcome measure was adherence to current guidelines for delivery of eye and vision assessments to adults with diabetes, those without a diagnosed major chronic disease and children attending primary health care centres. Results: Overall delivery of recommended eye and vision assessments varied widely between health centres. Of the adults with diabetes, 45% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-88%, and 33% had a retinal examination recorded (health centre range 0-73%. Of the adults with no diagnosed major chronic disease, 31% had a visual acuity assessment recorded within the previous two years (health centre range 0-30%, and 13% had received an examination for trichiasis (health centre range 0-40%. In children, 49% had a record of a vision assessment (health centre range 0-97%, and 25% had a record of an examination for trachoma within the previous 12 months (health centre range 0-63%. Conclusions: There was considerable range, and variation in the recorded delivery of scheduled eye and vision assessments across health centres. Sharing the successful strategies of the better-performing health centres to support focused improvements in key areas of need may increase overall rates of eye examinations – important for the timely detection, referral and treatment of eye conditions affecting Aboriginal and

  2. 33 CFR 165.1314 - Safety Zone; Fort Vancouver Fireworks Display, Columbia River, Vancouver, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... highway bridge to Hayden Island, Oregon at latitude 45°36″ 51.5′ N, longitude 122°40″ 39′ W; thence east along Hayden Island to latitude 45°36″ 36′ N, longitude 122°39″ 48′ W (not to include Hayden Bay...

  3. Appropriate Health Promotion for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll; Drysdale, Marlene; de Courten, Maximilian

    2012-01-01

    building, community empowerment and local ownership. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is a framework of principles developed in 2008 with the World Health Organization (Geneva) and Global Alliance for Health Promotion. It guides community-focused health promotion practice built on and shaped...... by the respect, understanding and utilisation of local knowledge and culture. Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion is not about ‘targeting’, ‘intervening’ or ‘responding’. Rather, it results in health program planners and policy-makers understanding, respecting, empowering and collaborating with communities......, and their socio-cultural environment, towards better health. This commentary aims to examine and apply the 8 principles of Culturally-Appropriate Health Promotion to the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander context. It proposes its widespread adoption as a framework for a more respectful...

  4. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing: a nursing perspective of primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, M; Gallant, M; MacKinnon, M; Dell, G; Herbert, R; MacNutt, G; McCarthy, M J; Murnaghan, D; Robertson, K

    2000-06-01

    The philosophy of primary health care (PHC) recognizes that health is a product of individual, social, economic, and political factors and that people have a right and a duty, individually and collectively, to participate in the course of their own health. The majority of nursing models cast the client in a dependent role and do not conceptualize health in a social, economic, and political context. The Prince Edward Island Conceptual Model for Nursing is congruent with the international move towards PHC. It guides the nurse in practising in the social and political environment in which nursing and health care take place. This model features a nurse/client partnership, the goal being to encourage clients to act on their own behalf. The conceptualization of the environment as the collective influence of the determinants of health gives both nurse and client a prominent position in the sociopolitical arena of health and health care.

  5. The destination of Pacific Island health professional graduates from a New Zealand university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair Shiva M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a shortage of health professionals in Pacific Island states and territories, and a need in New Zealand for Pacific health professionals to serve Pacific communities. Methods A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to investigate retention of Pacific graduates. All graduates of Pacific ethnicity or nationality from the University of Otago in the years 1994 to 2004 in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, physiotherapy and medical laboratory science were included. Results The response rate was 59% (75 out of 128. Only 7% of respondents were working in the Pacific Islands (12% of non-residents and 4% of New Zealand residents, though the proportion in the whole cohort could be up to 20%. One third intended to work in Pacific communities in New Zealand or the Pacific Islands in the future. Factors that would favour such an intention were an adequate income, job availability, and good working conditions. Conclusions Retention of graduates in the Pacific Islands is poor and measures to improve retention are needed.

  6. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of health research: Turning principles into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynn, Josephine; Lock, Mark; Turner, Nicole; Dennison, Ray; Coleman, Clare; Kelly, Brian; Wiggers, John

    2015-08-01

    Gaps exist in researchers' understanding of the 'practice' of community governance in relation to research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. We examine Aboriginal community governance of two rural NSW research projects by applying principles-based criteria from two independent sources. One research project possessed a strong Aboriginal community governance structure and evaluated a 2-year healthy lifestyle program for children; the other was a 5-year cohort study examining factors influencing the mental health and well-being of participants. The National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia's 'Values and ethics: guidelines for ethical conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander research' and 'Ten principles relevant to health research among Indigenous Australian populations' described by experts in the field. Adopt community-based participatory research constructs. Develop clear governance structures and procedures at the beginning of the study and allow sufficient time for their establishment. Capacity-building must be a key component of the research. Ensure sufficient resources to enable community engagement, conduct of research governance procedures, capacity-building and results dissemination. The implementation of governance structures and procedures ensures research addresses the priorities of the participating Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, minimises risks and improves outcomes for the communities. Principles-based Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander community governance of research is very achievable. Next steps include developing a comprehensive evidence base for appropriate governance structures and procedures, and consolidating a suite of practical guides for structuring clear governance in health research. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  7. A qualitative evaluation of leadership development workshops for mental health workers from four Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Paul; Montague, Ros

    2015-06-01

    This paper provides a qualitative evaluation of a series of leadership development workshops held at the New South Wales Institute of Psychiatry (NSWIOP) for mental health workers from Papua New Guinea, Federated States of Micronesia, Republic of Marshall Islands, and Palau. Fourteen mental health workers attended the week-long training focused on project management and partnership development skills. In-depth interviews were conducted with participants at the commencement and conclusion of the training, and questionnaires were completed. A focus group was conducted with the NSWIOP organisers. The data was analysed using qualitative techniques to identify emergent themes for both participants and NSWIOP project team. All Pacific Island participants responded positively to the training. All reported greater confidence in taking on formal or informal leadership roles in the workplace, developing project planning skills and interpersonal skills such as networking and partnerships. The NSWIOP organisers identified strengths and weaknesses in the delivery of this training. The strong partnerships developed between NSWIOP and the Ministry of Health in all four countries contributed to the success of the training. Leadership Development Programs are an important aspect of building capacity in the mental health services of Pacific Island Countries. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  8. [Methodology for an appreciative, dynamic and collaborative process: 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shanahan Juan, José Joaquín; Hernández Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Del Otero Sanz, Laura; Henríquez Suárez, José Andrés; Mahtani Chugani, Vinita

    The need for new approaches to strategic planning by incorporating the perspectives of professionals and inhabitants has led to a new model for the 3rd Canary Islands (Spain) Health Plan (IIIPSC). A dual-phase participatory process using qualitative techniques is proposed: 1) local phase: a quantitative and qualitative study based on training and a research-action-participation initiative; and 2) insular phase: health conferences with face-to-face discussion of results in each health area (island) and proposals for action. The process prioritises problems and establishes a specific action plan for each island through initiatives that are considered to be viable, grouped by themes and weighted according to the potential impact on priority problems. This process of interaction may help to guide planning model changes and health policy decision-making, and was included in the IIIPSC Project for its parliamentary procedure. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1981-01-01

    The problems arising from Three Mile Island were not limited to deficiencies in reactor design, safety controls or manpower training. The author, Pennsylvania's newly appointed Secretary of Health, states that the public health sector was totally unprepared to cope with this accident. H e contends that decisions were made by engineers and physicists when medical doctors were called for; that the incidence of hypothyroidism has increased tenfold downwind from two Pennsylvania reactor sites and he appeals for cooperation between physicians specialized in radiation medicine, nuclear physicists and engineers to establish public health safeguards in the event of future accidents. (Auth.)

  10. Some public health lessons from Three Mile Island: a case study in chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, G K [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA). Graduate School of Public Health

    1981-01-01

    The problems arising from Three Mile Island were not limited to deficiencies in reactor design, safety controls or manpower training. The author, Pennsylvania's newly appointed Secretary of Health, states that the public health sector was totally unprepared to cope with this accident. H e contends that decisions were made by engineers and physicists when medical doctors were called for; that the incidence of hypothyroidism has increased tenfold downwind from two Pennsylvania reactor sites and he appeals for cooperation between physicians specialized in radiation medicine, nuclear physicists and engineers to establish public health safeguards in the event of future accidents.

  11. Water and nutrient budgets for Vancouver Lake, Vancouver, Washington, October 2010-October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, Rich W.; Foreman, James R.; Marshall, Cameron A.; Welch, Wendy B.

    2014-01-01

    Vancouver Lake, a large shallow lake in Clark County, near Vancouver, Washington, has been undergoing water-quality problems for decades. Recently, the biggest concern for the lake are the almost annual harmful cyanobacteria blooms that cause the lake to close for recreation for several weeks each summer. Despite decades of interest in improving the water quality of the lake, fundamental information on the timing and amount of water and nutrients entering and exiting the lake is lacking. In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 2-year field study to quantify water flows and nutrient loads in order to develop water and nutrient budgets for the lake. This report presents monthly and annual water and nutrient budgets from October 2010–October 2012 to identify major sources and sinks of nutrients. Lake River, a tidally influenced tributary to the lake, flows into and out of the lake almost daily and composed the greatest proportion of both the water and nutrient budgets for the lake, often at orders of magnitude greater than any other source. From the water budget, we identified precipitation, evaporation and groundwater inflow as minor components of the lake hydrologic cycle, each contributing 1 percent or less to the total water budget. Nutrient budgets were compiled monthly and annually for total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate; and, nitrogen loads were generally an order of magnitude greater than phosphorus loads across all sources. For total nitrogen, flow from Lake River at Felida, Washington, made up 88 percent of all inputs into the lake. For total phosphorus and orthophosphate, Lake River at Felida flowing into the lake was 91 and 76 percent of total inputs, respectively. Nutrient loads from precipitation and groundwater inflow were 1 percent or less of the total budgets. Nutrient inputs from Burnt Bridge Creek and Flushing Channel composed 12 percent of the total nitrogen budget, 8 percent of the total phosphorus budget, and 21 percent

  12. Evaluation of a Leadership in Mental Health course for Pacific Island Nation delegates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlson, Fiona; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Hunter, Ernest

    2015-12-01

    We report the background to and preliminary evaluation of the Leadership in Mental Health: Island Nations course, run for the first time in Cairns in conjunction with Creating Futures 2015. The course was well attended and well received, with increased confidence in key areas demonstrated and concerns regarding local application identified. In addition to positive comments, content and delivery issues were raised. Future opportunities for expanding upon this initial course are discussed. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  13. A review of health leadership and management capacity in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Augustine; Roberts, Graham; Hall, John

    2012-04-01

    ACCESS AND UTILISATION OF HEALTH CARE: The armed conflict that engulfed the Solomon Islands between 1998 and 2003 significantly disrupted the provision of health care especially in rural and remote areas. There is one doctor for 3,300 people and approximately 13 nurses and midwives for 10,000 people. Despite limitations 87% of people seek health care when sick. FINANCING THE HEALTH SYSTEM: The SIG placed a series of reservations on ministerial goods and services budgets that effectively the budget by 33%, severely impacting provincial budgets and resulting in acquired debts. Shortfalls have been addressed by allocating Health Sector Support Program funds to the provinces to allow services to continue, a strategy that will likely recur, but by which donor support replaces government provision Provincial health accountants have received training in MYOB in 2009 but acquittal systems require higher level accounting skills for reports to be submitted on time to permit the release of subsequent funding tranches. HUMAN RESOURCES FOR HEALTH: The shortage of doctors and specialists is a key challenge. As at December 2010, there were a total of 2,728 health workers in the public sector in Solomon Islands. Staff costs consume on average 55% of provincial health grants Filled Public Service Division staff establishments and budgetary reservations have reduced the ability to meet the salary and wage costs of new graduates. Solomon Islands is currently negotiating to assist Vanuatu in filling its nursing staff vacancies with its surplus The return of 75 Cuban trained medical officers from 2013 presents the management challenge of accessing budget provisions for so many new positions and in funding the infrastructure needed to house, equip and maintain them in service. HEALTH MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE: Provincial health managers are operationally responsive to local needs, managerially responsible to provincial governments, while being concerned with adherence to central MHMS policy

  14. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jianguo; Zheng, Youfei; Tang, Xu; Guo, Changyi; Li, Liping; Song, Guixiang; Zhen, Xinrong; Yuan, Dong; Kalkstein, Adam J; Li, Furong

    2010-01-01

    With global warming forecast to continue into the foreseeable future, heat waves are very likely to increase in both frequency and intensity. In urban regions, these future heat waves will be exacerbated by the urban heat island effect, and will have the potential to negatively influence the health and welfare of urban residents. In order to investigate the health effects of the urban heat island (UHI) in Shanghai, China, 30 years of meteorological records (1975-2004) were examined for 11 first- and second-order weather stations in and around Shanghai. Additionally, automatic weather observation data recorded in recent years as well as daily all-cause summer mortality counts in 11 urban, suburban, and exurban regions (1998-2004) in Shanghai have been used. The results show that different sites (city center or surroundings) have experienced different degrees of warming as a result of increasing urbanization. In turn, this has resulted in a more extensive urban heat island effect, causing additional hot days and heat waves in urban regions compared to rural locales. An examination of summer mortality rates in and around Shanghai yields heightened heat-related mortality in urban regions, and we conclude that the UHI is directly responsible, acting to worsen the adverse health effects from exposure to extreme thermal conditions.

  15. Lessons of Three Mile Island for the health care community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wald, N.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the key points that we should have learned from the TMI accident. There has to be one responsible decision maker; otherwise conflicting decision increase the stress and anxiety levels. There has to be a realistic appraisal and clear communication of the situation with all of the people involved. Both overoptimistic and overpessimistic views are deleterious in promoting realistic responses from the population at risk. There has to be an action plan on paper that is credible, one which people can believe will work. Adequate time, thought, and resources have to be dedicated to the plan. It is not simply a matter of putting words on paper. Education for radiation emergencies is critically important. All professional (including governors, their staffs, and health care personnel) and the general public must know something about radiation before they are caught in the middle of a crisis

  16. Analisis Kebijakan Pembiayaan Kesehatan di Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru (Policy Analysis: Health Financing in Aru Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turniani Laksmiarti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The calculation of Community Health Development Index (IPKM of Aru Islands is in rank 352, of alldistricts/cities in Indonesia. This low in IPKM rank was suspected to be the result of the ineffectivity and ineffi ciency on health budgeting. Various problems can be detected and identifi ed through the implementation of the District Health Accounts (DHA in the district/city level. The objectives of this research is mapping district health account, which consist of resources, organizer, activity and program. Method: This method applied was cross sectional design, and was conducted in 2012. The analysis unit was health district offi ce and a cross- sector health agencies ho had health funding allocation (Hospital, Department of Population and Family Planning, Regional Development Planning Board, Social Services. Results: The results showed that the largest source of funding comes from the Aru Islands government is 91.95% (81.60% APBD and APBN 9.31%. Most budget management is dominated by the government (94.42%. Most of the archipelagic Aru District budgets are used for activities that 54.67% indirect and direct activities amounted to 45.33%. Besides, fi nancing mapping results also indicate that public health programs Aru district absorb 11.25% of the total budget, 18.36% for individual health program efforts and the remaining 70.39% for program support. Conclusions: Health budget in District Aru largely sourced from the government (central, provincial and district levels. Indirect activities absorb more budget than Important government programs such as HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, etc. Recomendations: The government should provide more funds to implement important programs of the government. Health District Offi ce should also be able to allocate substantial funds for essential government programs.

  17. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Karen E; Russell, Joanna; Gorman, Emma; Hanich, Quentin; Delisle, Aurélie; Campbell, Brooke; Bell, Johann

    2016-03-24

    Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a) household food security and b) individual nutritional status. A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30% of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  18. Fish, food security and health in Pacific Island countries and territories: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen E. Charlton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs face a double burden of disease, with a high prevalence of household food insecurity and childhood micronutrient deficiencies, accompanied by a burgeoning increase in adult obesity, diabetes and heart disease. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken to assess whether increased availability of, and access to, fish improves a household food security and b individual nutritional status. Results A total of 29 studies were reviewed. Fourteen studies identified fish as the primary food source for Pacific Islanders and five studies reported fish/seafood as the primary source of dietary protein. Fish consumption varied by cultural sub-region and Pacific Island countries and territories. Fish consumption and nutritional status was addressed in nine studies, reporting moderate iodine deficiency in Vanuatu where only 30 % of participants consumed mostly fresh fish. Similarly, the degree to which Pacific Islanders depended on fishing for household income and livelihood varied between and within PICTs. For more economically developed countries, household income was derived increasingly from salaried work and dependency on fishing activities has been declining. Conclusions Fishing remains a major contributor to food security in PICTs, through subsistence production and income generation. However, there is a paucity of research aimed at assessing how maintaining and/or improving fish consumption benefits the diets and health of Pacific Islanders as they contend with the ongoing nutrition transition that is characterised by an increasing demand for packaged imported foods, such as canned meats, instant noodles, cereals, rice, and sugar-sweetened beverages, with subsequent decreased consumption of locally-produced plants and animals.

  19. Health evaluation of Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis) on Santiago Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deem, Sharon L; Rivera-Parra, Jose Luis; Parker, Patricia G

    2012-01-01

    Galapagos Hawks (Buteo galapagoensis), the only endemic, diurnal raptor species in Galapagos, are currently distributed on eight Galapagos Islands having been extirpated from three of the human-inhabited islands. In January 2009, we performed health assessments of 89 Galapagos Hawks on Santiago Island, Galapagos. Four of the 89 Galapagos Hawks (4%) evaluated had physical abnormalities. Blood parameters did not differ between males and females, except for aspartate transaminase values, which were significantly higher in females than males. No Galapagos Hawks tested positive for antibodies to avian encephalitis virus, Marek virus, and paramyxovirus-1 or to haemosporidian antigen. Chlamydophila psittaci antigen was detected in 2 of 86 Galapagos Hawks (2%), with 24 of 43 Galapagos Hawks (56%) antibody-positive for avian adenovirus-1 and 1 of 48 Galapagos Hawks (2%) antibody positive for Toxoplasma gondii. There were no significant differences in infectious disease results based on sex. This study contributes to the understanding of the health status of the Galapagos Hawk and to the establishment of baseline information for the species.

  20. Research workshop to research work: initial steps in establishing health research systems on Malaita, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kekuabata Esau

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Atoifi Adventist Hospital is a 90 bed general hospital in East Kwaio, Malaita, Solomon Islands providing services to the population of subsistence villagers of the region. Health professionals at the hospital and attached College of Nursing have considerable human capacity and willingness to undertake health research. However they are constrained by limited research experience, training opportunities, research systems, physical infrastructure and access to resources. This brief commentary describes an 'Introduction to Health Research' workshop delivered at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in September 2009 and efforts to move from 'research workshop' to 'research work'. The Approach Using a participatory-action research approach underpinned by decolonising methodologies, staff from Atoifi Adventist Hospital and James Cook University (Queensland, Australia collaboratively designed, implemented and evaluated a health research workshop. Basic health research principles and methods were presented using active learning methodologies. Following the workshop, Atoifi Adventist Hospital and Atoifi College of Nursing staff, other professionals and community members reported an increased awareness and understanding of health research. The formation of a local Research Committee, improved ethics review procedures and the identification of local research mentors followed the week long workshop. The workshop has acted as a catalyst for research activity, increasing structural and human resource capacity for local health professionals and community leaders to engage in research. Discussion and Conclusions Participants from a variety of educational backgrounds participated in, and received benefit from, a responsive, culturally and linguistically accessible health research workshop. Improving health research systems at a remote hospital and aligning these with local and national research agendas is establishing a base to strengthen public health

  1. The Principles of Designing Hospital Hotel with the Approach of Health Tourism in Kish Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anosh Sheikh Kazemha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical tourism is known as one of the fastest growing sectors of the world tourism industry. Today, medical tourism has been highly considered by tourists to take advantage of the health benefits and physical and psychological effects of specific areas. Medical tourism as one of the tourism dimensions helps the economy of the country. Given the lucrative nature of the industry, many developing and even developed countries, focus their attention on the industry sector and plan for it. Hospital hotel is a combination of a hotel as a resort and a hospital as a place of healing and rejuvenation that in addition to the course of treatment provides accommodations after treatment as well. Hence, the present study examined the background of this type of application and its advantages and disadvantages and its feasibility in Kish Island to investigate the growth factors and potential of health tourism and ways to overcome obstacles to attract medical tourism. The findings show that the Island faces challenges in basic and health infrastructure, government’s efficient support, having a program for the development of medical tourism, having centers providing the health service with the international credit and promotion and integrated marketing. Proper planning, cheap prices of tourism services, medical education, creating websites of medical tourism and health tourism policy council are also the strategies mentioned in this study.

  2. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cayley E. Velazquez

    2015-01-01

    In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  3. Update on the Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, B.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' The Vancouver Fuel Cell Vehicle Program (VFCVP) is a $5.8 million initiative designed to test four Ford Focus Fuel Cell Vehicles for three years in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. The project is the first of its kind in Canada and is led by Fuel Cells Canada (FCC), the Ford Motor Company (Ford), and the Governments of Canada and British Columbia. This presentation will provide program details and an update on activities leading up to currently planned delivery to Vancouver in November 2004. The VFCVP will test the performance, durability and reliability of the Ford fuel cell vehicle cars in real-world conditions and will examine fuelling issues and solutions, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and public acceptance of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. The program will generate data to help evolve the technology and develop international codes and standards E cents Epnd the implementation and adoption of fuel cell technology. (author)

  4. Community perceptions of mental health needs: a qualitative study in the Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silove Derrick

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial and mental health needs in the aftermath of conflict and disaster have attracted substantial attention. In the Solomon Islands, the conceptualisation of mental health, for several decades regarded by policy makers as primarily a health issue, has broadened and been incorporated into the national development and social policy agendas, reflecting recognition of the impact of conflict and rapid social change on the psychosocial wellbeing of the community as a whole. We sought to understand how mental health and psychosocial wellbeing were seen at the community level, the extent to which these issues were identified as being associated with periods of 'tension', violence and instability, and the availability of traditional approaches and Ministry of Health services to address these problems. Methods This article reports the findings of qualitative research conducted in a rural district on the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. Key informant interviews were conducted with community leaders, and focus groups were held with women, men and young people. Wellbeing was defined broadly. Results Problems of common concern included excessive alcohol and marijuana use, interpersonal violence and abuse, teenage pregnancy, and lack of respect and cooperation. Troubled individuals and their families sought help for mental problems from various sources including chiefs, church leaders and traditional healers and, less often, trauma support workers, health clinic staff and police. Substance-related problems presented special challenges, as there were no traditional solutions at the individual or community level. Severe mental illness was also a challenge, with few aware that a community mental health service existed. Contrary to our expectations, conflict-related trauma was not identified as a major problem by the community who were more concerned about the economic and social sequelae of the conflict. Conclusion

  5. Health-related economic costs of the Three-Mile Island accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Slaysman, K S

    1984-01-01

    On March 1979, a nuclear power station at Three-Mile Island (TMI) near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, had a major breakdown. During the two-week period of the accident, about 150,000 residents were evacuated for reasons associated with safety and health. Many residents during and after the accident, regardless of whether they left or stayed, made mental and physical adjustments due to this accident. This paper is to estimate the economic costs incurred by individuals or communities as a result of a change in physical or mental health status and/or a change in health care services due to the TMI accident. The findings indicate that stress symptoms caused by the accident did affect the health-related behaviors of area residents. Of the costs examined, the economic costs of work days lost and physician visits are the largest cost items. There were some increases in consumption of alcohol, cigarettes, and tranquilizers immediately following the accident.

  6. Air quality overview assessment of thermal power generation in Vancouver, BC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caton, R.B.; Brotherston, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    B.C. Hydro is preparing a 25 year utilization plan for Burrard Thermal Generating Plant, a 900 MW natural gas fired steam boiler facility near Vancouver. Historical emissions from the plant and ambient air quality in the region were reviewed to place plant operations in context of the technological modifications which have been made over the past 10 years. Environmental effects criteria and regulatory developments which may constrain planning were reviewed and evaluated. Unit emission rates at Burrard have been reduced by 40% since 1989, by extensive combustion modifications, to ca 40 ng/J of NOx. Nevertheless, anticipated regulatory requirements of emissions reductions nationally and in the Vancouver region will necessitate further reductions, or equivalent strategies, over the next ten years. The findings of the Burrard Thermal air quality review are summarized, including historical emissions in the Lower Mainland, transport and transformation of oxidants and acidic deposition, human health impacts, and vegetation impacts. The difficulties that arise in evaluating the imapct of an isolated source of NOx in an urban area are discussed. 30 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  7. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012, the World Health Organization Division of Pacific Technical Support led a regional climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project, in collaboration with health sector partners, in 13 Pacific island countries-Cook Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Palau, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu. We assessed the vulnerabilities of Pacific island countries to the health impacts of climate change and planned adaptation strategies to minimize such threats to health. This assessment involved a combination of quantitative and qualitative techniques. The former included descriptive epidemiology, time series analyses, Poisson regression, and spatial modeling of climate and climate-sensitive disease data, in the few instances where this was possible; the latter included wide stakeholder consultations, iterative consensus building, and expert opinion. Vulnerabilities were ranked using a "likelihood versus impact" matrix, and adaptation strategies were prioritized and planned accordingly. The highest-priority climate-sensitive health risks in Pacific island countries included trauma from extreme weather events, heat-related illnesses, compromised safety and security of water and food, vector-borne diseases, zoonoses, respiratory illnesses, psychosocial ill-health, non-communicable diseases, population pressures, and health system deficiencies. Adaptation strategies relating to these climate change and health risks could be clustered according to categories common to many countries in the Pacific region. Pacific island countries are among the most vulnerable in the world to the health impacts of climate change. This vulnerability is a function of their unique geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic characteristics combined with their exposure to changing weather patterns associated with climate change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity

  8. The Transcultural Wellness Center: rehabilitation and recovery in Asian and Pacific Islander mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Rebecca P; Ton, Hendry; Yang, Cynthia; Endriga, Marya C; Lan, Mei-Fang; Koike, Alan K

    2008-01-01

    Asian and Pacific Islander Americans (APIAs) are a diverse group, representing many cultures of origin, a range of immigration experiences, and varying access to economic and other resources. Despite stereotypes such as the "model minority" and cultural values that stigmatize mental illness and complicate mental health help-seeking, APIAs' psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery needs are significant. These needs are inadequately treated within existing systems of care. Passage of California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) in 2004 created the opportunity for Sacramento County to fund a full-service mental health clinic designed to meet the needs of the APIA community. The process by which this clinic, the Transcultural Wellness Center, was conceptualized, advocated for, and launched is described. This clinic is considered a best practice model within the MHSA system redesign effort.

  9. Understanding practitioner professionalism in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health: lessons from student and registrar placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askew, Deborah A; Lyall, Vivian J; Ewen, Shaun C; Paul, David; Wheeler, Melissa

    2017-10-01

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to be pathologised in medical curriculum, leaving graduates feeling unequipped to effectively work cross-culturally. These factors create barriers to culturally safe health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. In this pilot pre-post study, the learning experiences of seven medical students and four medical registrars undertaking clinical placements at an urban Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary healthcare service in 2014 were followed. Through analysis and comparison of pre- and post-placement responses to a paper-based case study of a fictitious Aboriginal patient, four learning principles for medical professionalism were identified: student exposure to nuanced, complex and positive representations of Aboriginal peoples; positive practitioner role modelling; interpersonal skills that build trust and minimise patient-practitioner relational power imbalances; and knowledge, understanding and skills for providing patient-centred, holistic care. Though not exhaustive, these principles can increase the capacity of practitioners to foster culturally safe and optimal health care for Aboriginal peoples. Furthermore, competence and effectiveness in Aboriginal health care is an essential component of medical professionalism.

  10. [Health assessment of Qi'ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Gong; Zheng, Yao-Hui; Peng, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Gui-Zhu

    2010-02-01

    Based on the theories of wetland ecosystem health and by using "Pressure-State-Response" model, a health assessment indicator system for Qi' ao Island mangrove wetland ecosystem in Pearl River Estuary was built, and the assessment indices, assessment criteria, indices weighted values, assessment grades, and assessment methods were established to assess the health state of this ecosystem. In 2008, the overall health index of this ecosystem was 0.6580, health level was of grade II (healthy), and the pressure, state, and response indices were 0.3469, 0.8718, and 0.7754, respectively, suggesting that this ecosystem was good in state and response, but still had definite pressure. As a provincial nature reserve, this ecosystem was to be further improved in its health level. However, the research on the health assessment of mangrove wetland ecosystem was still young. Further studies should be made on the selection of assessment indices, long-term oriented monitoring of these indices, and quantification of the relations between ecosystem health level and ecosystem services.

  11. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  12. Pubs in Public Life: A Place for Liquor Spaces in the City of Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Vancouver liquor licensing bylaws has been described by members of the media, industry, government and general public as overly restrictive, especially in the areas of hours ofservice, geographical distribution and the cultural diversity ofpublic liquor spaces. According to the City of Vancouver, the objective of city stewardship is to provide for the social, economic and physical well-being of citizens. A consultation of both academic research and the Vancouver community suggests that public...

  13. Gay Men's Understanding and Education of New HIV Prevention Technologies in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Benjamin J; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Lin, Sally Yue; Edward, Joshua B; Chown, Sarah A; Hogg, Robert S; Moore, David M; Roth, Eric A

    2017-10-01

    Effective rollout of HIV treatment-based prevention such as pre-exposure prophylaxis and treatment as prevention has been hampered by poor education, limited acceptability, and stigma among gay men. We undertook a thematic analysis regarding the education sources and acceptability of these New Prevention Technologies (NPTs) using 15 semistructured interviews with gay men in Vancouver, Canada, who were early adopters of NPTs. NPT education was derived from a variety of sources, including the Internet, health care providers, community organizations, sexual partners, and peers; participants also emphasized their own capacities as learners and educators. Acceptable forms of NPT education featured high-quality factual information, personal testimony, and easy access. Stigma was highlighted as a major barrier. For public health, policy makers, and gay communities to optimize the personal and population benefits of NPTs, there is a need for increased community support and dialogue, antistigma efforts, early NPT adopter testimony, and personalized implementation strategies.

  14. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  15. Neocolonialism and Health Care Access among Marshall Islanders in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Michael R

    2017-09-01

    In the Marshall Islands, a history of extensive nuclear weapons testing and covert biomedical research, coupled with the U.S.'s ongoing military presence in the country, has severely compromised the health of the local population. Despite the U.S.'s culpability in producing ill health along with high rates of emigration from the islands to the mainland United States, the large portion of Marshallese who reside in the United States face substantial barriers to accessing health care. Drawing from ongoing field research with a Marshallese community in Arkansas, this article explores the multifaceted impediments that U.S.-based Marshall Islanders face in receiving medical treatment. Calling on an expansive and inclusive notion of neocolonialism, I argue that Marshallese structural vulnerability with regard to health and health care treatment derives from their status as neocolonial subjects and from their limited claims to health-related deservingness associated with this status. [Marshall Islanders, health care access, neocolonialism, radiation exposure, immigrant health] L̗ōmn̗ak ko rōttin̗o: Ilo M̗ajel̗, juon bwebwenato kōn kōmmālmel im nuclear baam̗ ko im ekkatak ko rōttin̗o̗ kōn wāwein an baijin ko jelōt armej, barāinwōt an to an ri tarinae ro an Amedka pād ilo aelōn̄ kein, em̗ōj an jelōt ājmour an armej ro ilo aelōn̄ kein. Men̄e alikkar bwe Amedka in ear jino nan̄inmej kein im ej un eo armej rein rej em̗m̗akūt jān āne kein āne er n̄an ioon Amedka, elōn̄ iaan ri M̗ajel̗ rein rej jelm̗ae elōn̄ apan̄ ko n̄an aer del̗o̗n̄e jikin ājmour ko. Jān ekkatak eo ej bōk jikin kiō, jerbal in ej etali kabōjrak rak kein rōlōn̄ im armej in M̗ajel̗ ro ioon Amedka in rej jelm̗ae ilo aer jibadōk lo̗k jikin taktō. Ilo an kar Amedka jibadōk juon jea eo eutiej imejān lal̗ in, ij kwal̗ok juon aō akweelel bwe apan̄ ko an armej in M̗ajel̗ ikijjeen ājmour im jikin taktō ej itok jān aer kar ri kōm̗akoko ilo an kar

  16. Assessing Heat Health Risk for Sustainability in Beijing’s Urban Heat Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Dong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This research is motivated by the increasing threat of urban heat waves that are likely worsened by pervasive global warming and urbanization. Different regions of the city including urban, borderland and rural area will experience different levels of heat health risk. In this paper, we propose an improved approach to quantitatively assess Beijing’s heat health risk based on three factors from hazard, vulnerability and especially environment which is considered as an independent factor because different land use/cover types have different influence on ambient air temperatures under the Urban Heat Island effect. The results show that the heat health risk of Beijing demonstrates a spatial-temporal pattern with higher risk in the urban area, lower risk in the borderland between urban and rural area, and lowest risk in the rural area, and the total risk fluctuated dramatically during 2008–2011. To be more specific, the heat health risk was clearly higher in 2009 and 2010 than in 2008 and 2011. Further analysis with the urban area at sub-district level signifies that the impervious surface (urban area such as buildings, roads, et al. ratio is of high correlation with the heat health risk. The validation results show that the proposed method improved the accuracy of heat health risk assessment. We recommend that policy makers should develop efficient urban planning to accomplish Beijing’s sustainable development.

  17. Mental health issues from rising sea level in a remote coastal region of the Solomon Islands: current and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asugeni, James; MacLaren, David; Massey, Peter D; Speare, Rick

    2015-12-01

    There is little published research about mental health and climate change in the Pacific, including Solomon Islands. Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of sea-level rise globally. The aim of this research was to document mental health issues related to sea-level rise for people in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. A cross-sectional study was carried out in six low-lying villages in East Malaita, Solomon Islands. The researcher travelled to villages by dugout canoe. In addition to quantitative, closed-ended questions, open-ended questions with villagers explored individual and community responses to rising sea level. Of 60 people asked, 57 completed the questionnaire. Of these, 90% reported having seen a change in the weather patterns. Nearly all participants reported that sea-level rise is affecting them and their family and is causing fear and worry on a personal and community level. Four themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: experience of physical impacts of climate change; worry about the future; adaptation to climate change; government response needed. Given predictions of ongoing sea-level rise in the Pacific it is essential that more research is conducted to further understand the human impact of climate change for small island states which will inform local, provincial and national-level mental health responses. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  18. Evaluation of the impact of the 2012 Rhode Island health care worker influenza vaccination regulations: implementation process and vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hanna; Lindley, Megan C; Dube, Donna; Kalayil, Elizabeth J; Paiva, Kristi A; Raymond, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    In October 2012, the Rhode Island Department of Health (HEALTH) amended its health care worker (HCW) vaccination regulations to require all HCWs to receive annual influenza vaccination or wear a surgical mask during direct patient contact when influenza is widespread. Unvaccinated HCWs failing to wear a mask are subject to a fine and disciplinary action. To describe the implementation of the 2012 Rhode Island HCW influenza vaccination regulations and examine their impact on vaccination coverage. Two data sources were used: (1) a survey of all health care facilities subject to the HCW regulations and (2) HCW influenza vaccination coverage data reported to HEALTH by health care facilities. Descriptive statistics and paired t tests were performed using SAS Release 9.2. For the 2012-2013 influenza season, 271 inpatient and outpatient health care facilities in Rhode Island were subject to the HCW regulations. Increase in HCW influenza vaccination coverage. Of the 271 facilities, 117 facilities completed the survey (43.2%) and 160 facilities reported vaccination data to HEALTH (59.0%). Between the 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 influenza seasons, the proportion of facilities having a masking policy, as required by the revised regulations, increased from 9.4% to 94.0% (P employee HCWs in Rhode Island increased from 69.7% in the 2011-2012 influenza season to 87.2% in the 2012-2013 season. Rhode Island's experience demonstrates that statewide HCW influenza vaccination requirements incorporating mask wearing and moderate penalties for noncompliance can be effective in improving influenza vaccination coverage among HCWs.

  19. Effects of Community Singing Program on Mental Health Outcomes of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A Meditative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a meditative singing program on the health outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The study used a prospective intervention design. The study took place in six Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities and Community Controlled Health Services in Queensland, Australia. Study participants were 210 Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults aged 18 to 71 years, of which 108 were in a singing intervention group and 102 in a comparison group. A participative community-based community singing program involving weekly singing rehearsals was conducted over an 18-month period. Standardized measures in depression, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and singing related quality of life were used. The general linear model was used to compare differences pre- and postintervention on outcome variables, and structural equation modeling was used to examine the pathway of the intervention effect. Results revealed a significant reduction in the proportion of adults in the singing group classified as depressed and a concomitant significant increase in resilience levels, quality of life, sense of connectedness, and social support among this group. There were no significant changes for these variables in the comparison group. The participatory community singing approach linked to preventative health services was associated with improved health, resilience, sense of connectedness, social support, and mental health status among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. Methods A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37–41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members’ satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. Results From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Conclusion Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who

  1. Providing culturally appropriate mental health first aid to an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent: development of expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, Kathryn J; Bond, Kathy S; Jorm, Anthony F; Kelly, Claire M; Kitchener, Betty A; Williams-Tchen, Aj

    2014-01-28

    It is estimated that the prevalence of mental illness is higher in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescents compared to non-Aboriginal adolescents. Despite this, only a small proportion of Aboriginal youth have contact with mental health services, possibly due to factors such as remoteness, language barriers, affordability and cultural sensitivity issues. This research aimed to develop culturally appropriate guidelines for anyone who is providing first aid to an Australian Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent who is experiencing a mental health crisis or developing a mental illness. A panel of Australian Aboriginal people who are experts in Aboriginal youth mental health, participated in a Delphi study investigating how members of the public can be culturally appropriate when helping an Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander adolescent with mental health problems. The panel varied in size across the three sequential rounds, from 37-41 participants. Panellists were presented with statements about cultural considerations and communication strategies via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest additional content. All statements endorsed as either Essential or Important by ≥ 90% of panel members were written into a guideline document. To assess the panel members' satisfaction with the research method, participants were invited to provide their feedback after the final survey. From a total of 304 statements shown to the panel of experts, 194 statements were endorsed. The methodology was found to be useful and appropriate by the panellists. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Youth mental health experts were able to reach consensus about what the appropriate communication strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adolescent. These outcomes will help ensure that the community provides the best possible support to Aboriginal adolescents who are developing mental illnesses or are in a

  2. Possibilities and Expectations for mHealth in the Pacific Islands: Insights From Key Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umali, Elaine; McCool, Judith; Whittaker, Robyn

    2016-01-20

    The increase in mobile phone use across the globe is creating mounting interest for its application in addressing health system constraints. Although still limited, there is growing evidence of success in using mobile phones for health (mHealth) in low- and middle- income countries. The promise of mHealth to address key health system issues presents a huge potential for the Pacific Island countries where mobile use has radically increased. Current projections indicate an improved information and communications technology (ICT) environment to support greater access to mobile and digital devices in the Pacific region. The objective of the study was to explore key stakeholder perspectives on the potential for mHealth in the Pacific region. A series of in-depth interviews were conducted either face-to-face, via Skype or by email, with a series of key informants from the Pacific Rim region. Interviews were audio-recorded and later transcribed for detailed thematic analysis. We found widespread support for the potential to use mobile phones as a mechanism to facilitate improved health service delivery in the region. Essential elements for the successful development and implementation of mHealth were identified by these stakeholders. These included: developing an understanding of the local context and the problems that may be usefully addressed by the addition of mHealth to existing strategies and services; consideration of local infrastructure, capability, policy, mobile literacy and engagement; learning from others, particularly other low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); the importance of building supportive environments and of evaluation to provide evidence of impact and total cost. The rapid growth of mobile phone use in the region presents a unique juxtaposition of opportunity and promise. Though the region lags behind other LMICs in the adoption of mHealth technologies, this offers the convenience of learning from past mHealth interventions and applying these

  3. Healthy imaginations: a social history of the epidemiology of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brough, M

    2001-01-01

    It is difficult to imagine Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health without the powerful descriptors of epidemiology. The statistical imagery of numerical tables, pie charts, and bar graphs have become a key element in the public presentation of Indigenous public health issues. Such quantitative measurements of health draw on the authority of neutral, objective science and are thus rarely questioned in terms of their social meaning. This paper traces the history of this imagery through the 20th century, providing a social account of epidemiological description. Historical notions such as social Darwinism, assimilation, and dangerous other are all seen to be woven into the epidemiological text. The enormous rise in the epidemiological description of Indigenous health problems in recent years needs to be analyzed as a social phenomenon and, in particular, as an aspect of emerging forms of governmentality. Finally, it is argued that such analyses are needed in order to promote an anthropology of epidemiology and to avoid limiting medical anthropology to applications within epidemiology.

  4. An innovative community organizing campaign to improve mental health and wellbeing among Pacific Island youth in South Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hahrie; Nicholas, Alexandra; Aimer, Margaret; Gray, Jonathon

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether being an organizer in a community organizing program improves personal agency and self-reported mental health outcomes among low-income Pacific Island youth in Auckland, New Zealand. Counties Manukau Health initiated a community organizing campaign led and run by Pacific Island youth. We used interviews, focus groups and pre- and post-campaign surveys to examine changes among 30 youths as a result of the campaign. Ten youths completed both pre- and post-campaign surveys. Eleven youths participated in focus groups, and four in interviews. Overall, youths reported an increased sense of agency and improvements to their mental health. Community organizing has potential as a preventive approach to improving mental health and developing agency over health among disempowered populations. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  5. Optimizing learning in healthcare: how Island Health is evolving to learn at the speed of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfredson, Conrad; Stroud, Carol; Jackson, Mary; Stevenson, R Lynn; Archer, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Healthcare organizations are challenged with constrained resources and increasing service demands by an aging population with complex care needs. Exponential growth in competency requirements also challenges staff's ability to provide quality patient care. How can a healthcare organization support its staff to learn "at or above the speed of change" while continuing to provide the quality patient care? Island Health is addressing this challenge by transforming its traditional education model into an innovative, evidence-based learning and performance support approach. Implementation of the methodology is yielding several lessons learned, both for the internal Learning and Performance Support team, and for what it takes to bring a new way of doing business into an organization. A key result is that this approach is enabling the organization to be more responsive in helping staff gain and maintain competencies.

  6. Associations between Psychosocial and Physiological Factors and Diabetes Health Indicators in Asian and Pacific Islander Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The associations between psychosocial and physiological factors and diabetes’ health indicators have not been widely investigated among Asians and Pacific Islanders. We hypothesize that health behaviour and depression are directly or indirectly associated with diabetes’ health indicators such as BMI, glycemic control, general health, and diabetes quality of life. Our hypothesis was tested through a structural equation modelling (SEM approach. Questionnaires that assessed health behaviour, depression, general health, diabetes quality of life, and haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, along with patients’ demographic information, were obtained from 207 Asian and Pacific Islander adults with type 2 diabetes. IBM SPSS Amos 20 was used for the SEM analysis at 5% level of significance, and the goodness fit of the SEM model was also evaluated. The final SEM model showed that diet and exercise and foot care had positive associations, while depression had a negative association with diabetes’ health indicators. The results highlighted the importance of exercise and depression in diabetes patients’ BMI, glycemic control, general health, and quality of life, which provide evidence for the need to alleviate patients’ depression besides education and training in diet and exercise in future intervention studies among Asians and Pacific Islanders with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Community structure and coral health status across the depth gradients of Grande Island, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Manikandan, B.; Ravindran, J.; Mohan, H.; Periasamy, R.; ManiMurali, R.; Ingole, B.S.

    The Grande Island, located at the central west coast of India is one of the less studied coral reef systems in India. In this study, we provide a comprehensive description of the coral community structure and health status of corals across...

  8. Social influences upon injection initiation among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Street-involved youth are a population at risk of adopting injection as a route of administration, and preventing the transition to injection drug use among street youth represents a public health priority. In order to inform epidemiological research and prevention efforts, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate the initiation of injection drug use among street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Methods Qualitative interviews with street youth who inject drugs elicited descriptions of the adoption of injection as a route of administration. Interviewees were recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS, a cohort of street-involved youth who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Audio recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was conducted. Results 26 youth aged 16 to 26 participated in this study, including 12 females. Among study participants the first injection episode frequently featured another drug user who facilitated the initiation of injecting. Youth narratives indicate that the transition into injecting is influenced by social interactions with drug using peers and evolving perceptions of injecting, and rejecting identification as an injector was important among youth who did not continue to inject. It appears that social conventions discouraging initiating young drug users into injection exist among established injectors, although this ethic is often ignored. Conclusion The importance of social relationships with other drug users within the adoption of injection drug use highlights the potential of social interventions to prevent injection initiation. Additionally, developing strategies to engage current injectors who are likely to initiate youth into injection could also benefit prevention efforts.

  9. Indicators for continuous quality improvement for otitis media in primary health care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Beverly; Agostino, Jason; Coates, Harvey; Weeks, Sharon; Lehmann, Deborah; Wood, Marianne; Lannigan, Francis; McAullay, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Otitis media is a common, generally self-limiting childhood illness that can progress to severe disease and have lifelong sequelae, including hearing loss and developmental delays. Severe disease is disproportionately prevalent among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Primary health care is at the frontline of appropriate prevention and treatment. Continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of important causes of morbidity in client populations is accepted best practice in primary health care and now a requirement of Australian Government funding to services providing care for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. To date, there have been no indicators for continuous quality improvement in the prevention and management of otitis media and its sequelae in primary health care. Through an expert group consensus process, seven evidence-based indicators, potentially extractable from electronic health records, have been developed. The development process and indicators are described.

  10. Strategic approaches to enhanced health service delivery for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspin Clive

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness confront multiple challenges that contribute to their poor health outcomes, and to the health disparities that exist in Australian society. This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to care and support for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. Methods Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes, chronic heart failure or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n-16 and family carers (n = 3. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and the transcripts were analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified and these were used to inform the key findings of the study. Results Participants reported both negative and positive influences that affected their health and well-being. Among the negative influences, they identified poor access to culturally appropriate health services, dislocation from cultural support systems, exposure to racism, poor communication with health care professionals and economic hardship. As a counter to these, participants pointed to cultural and traditional knowledge as well as insights from their own experiences. Participants said that while they often felt overwhelmed and confused by the burden of chronic illness, they drew strength from being part of an Aboriginal community, having regular and ongoing access to primary health care, and being well-connected to a supportive family network. Within this context, elders played an important role in increasing people’s awareness of the impact of chronic illness on people and communities. Conclusions Our study indicated that non-Indigenous health services struggled to meet the needs of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with chronic illness. To address their complex needs, health services could gain considerably by recognising that Aboriginal and Torres Strait

  11. Urban policy engagement with social sustainability in metro Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Meg

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of social sustainability in comparative theoretical context and as a challenge to the post-political interpretation of sustainability in policy practice at the urban and regional scales. Metro Vancouver provides a case study for improving our understanding of the meaning of social sustainability as a framework for social policy in that it is among the handful of cities around the world currently working to define and enact social sustainability in governance terms. Results of this participant research provide evidence that some cities are politically engaging alternative development pathways using the concept of social sustainability. For sustainable development to retain its promise as an alternative policy framework for cities, social sustainability must be at the forefront.

  12. Detecting cardiometabolic syndrome using World Health Organization public health action points for Asians and Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandinetti, Andrew; Kaholokula, Joseph K; Mau, Marjorie K; Chow, Dominic C

    2010-01-01

    To assess the screening characteristics of World Health Organization (WHO) body mass index action points for cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS) in Native Hawaiians and people of Asian ancestry (ie, Filipino and Japanese). Cross-sectional data were collected from 1,452 residents of a rural community of Hawai'i between 1997 and 2000, of which 1,198 were analyzed in this study. Ethnic ancestry was determined by self-report. Metabolic status was assessed using National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATPIII) criteria. Screening characteristics of WHO criteria for overweight and obesity were compared to WHO public health action points or to WHO West Pacific Regional Office (WPRO) cut-points. Among Asian-ancestry participants, WHO public health action points improved both sensitivity and specificity for detecting CMS. However, similar improvements were not observed for WPRO criteria for Native Hawaiians. Moreover, predictive values were high regardless of which criteria were utilized due to high CMS prevalence. WHO public health actions points for Asians provide a significant improvement in sensitivity in detection of CMS. However, predictive value, which varies greatly with disease prevalence, should be considered when deciding which criteria to apply.

  13. Ciguatera fish poisoning: Incidence, health costs and risk perception on Moorea Island (Society archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Ewen; Gatti, Clémence; Bambridge, Tamatoa; Chinain, Mireille

    2016-12-01

    Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) is a non-bacterial seafood poisoning well characterized in the remote archipelagos of French Polynesia, yet poorly documented in the Society archipelago, most notably on Moorea, the second most populated island in French Polynesia, which counts a high proportion of fishermen fishing on a regular basis. To address this knowledge gap, a holistic study of the ciguatera issue was conducted on Moorea. First, ciguatera risk was analysed in terms of incidence rate, fish species most commonly involved and risk stratification in Moorea lagoon based on 2007-2013 epidemiological data. A mean incidence rate of 8 cases per 10,000 inhabitants for the study period and an average under-reporting rate of 54% were found. Taking into account hospitalization and medication fees, and loss of productive days, the health-related costs due to CFP were estimated to be USD $1613 and $749 for each reported and unreported case, respectively, with an overall cost of USD $241,847 for the study period. Comparison of the present status of CFP on Moorea with a risk map established in the late 1970's showed that the spatial distribution of the risk has stayed relatively stable in time, with the north shore of the island remaining the most prone to ciguatera. Evaluation of the current knowledge on CFP among different populations groups, i.e. fishermen, residents and visitors, was also conducted through direct and indirect interviews. About half of the fishermen interviewed were actually able to identify risky fishing areas. While, overall, the CFP risk perception in the fishing community of Moorea seemed accurate, although not scientifically complete, it was sufficient for the safe practice of their fishing activities. This may be due in part to adaptive responses adopted by 36% of the fishermen interviewed, such as the avoidance of either high-risk fishing sites or toxic species. At the residents and visitors' level, the study points out a striking lack of awareness

  14. Forest insect and disease conditions, Vancouver forest region, 1986. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, N; Ferris, R L

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines the status of forest pest conditions in the Vancouver Forest Region, and forecasts population trends of some potentially damaging pests. Pests are listed by host in order of importance.

  15. The accuracy of clinical malaria case reporting at primary health care facilities in Honiara, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunimitsu Ayano

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accuracy of malaria case reporting is challenging due to restricted human and material resources in many countries. The reporting often depends on the clinical diagnosis because of the scarcity of microscopic examinations. Particularly, clinical malaria case reporting by primary health care facilities (local clinics, which constitutes the baseline data of surveillance, has never previously been sufficiently evaluated. In order to improve the malaria reporting system to the level required to eventually eliminate this disease, this study estimates the gaps between the records of clinics and government statistics regarding the incidence of clinical malaria, and then also examines some factors that might explain the data discrepancy, including such variables as clinic staffing and record keeping. Methods All medical records for outpatients in 2007, handwritten by nurses, were collected from local clinics in Honiara, the capital of the Solomon Islands. The all-monthly clinical malaria cases were then recalculated. The corresponding monthly data in official statistics were provided by the government. Next, in order to estimate any data discrepancy, the ratio of the cases recorded at clinics to the cases reported to the government was determined on the monthly basis. Finally, the associations between the monthly discrepancy and other variables were evaluated by a multiple regression analysis. Results The mean data discrepancy between the records of clinics and government statistics was 21.2% (n = 96. Significant associations were observed between the discrepancy and the average number of patients (coefficient: 0.05, 95%CI: 0.31, 0.07, illegible handwriting (coefficient: 0.09, 95%CI: 0.04, 0.15, the use of tally sheets (coefficient:-0.38, 95%CI: -0.54, -0.22, and the clinic level (coefficient:-0.48, 95%CI:-0.89,-0.06. Conclusion The findings of this study demonstrate the huge data discrepancy between the records of clinics and

  16. Translating E-Mental Health Into Practice: What Are the Barriers and Enablers to E-Mental Health Implementation by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Professionals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Judy; DuBois, Simon; Hyde, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    Background With increasing evidence for the effectiveness of e-mental health interventions for enhancing mental health and well-being, a growing challenge is how to translate promising research findings into service delivery contexts. A 2012 e-mental health initiative by the Australian Federal Government (eMHPrac) has sought to address the issue through several strategies, one of which has been to train different health professional workforces in e-mental health (e-MH). Objective The aim of the study was to report on the barriers and enablers of e-MH uptake in a cohort of predominantly Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health professionals (21 Indigenous, 5 non-Indigenous) who occupied mainly support or case management roles within their organizations. Methods A 3- or 2-day e-MH training program was followed by up to 5 consultation sessions (mean 2.4 sessions) provided by the 2 trainers. The trainer-consultants provided written reports on each of the 30 consultation sessions for 7 consultation groups. They were also interviewed as part of the study. The written reports and interview data were thematically analyzed by 2 members of the research team. Results Uptake of e-MH among the consultation group was moderate (22%-30% of participants). There were significant organizational barriers to uptake resulting from procedural and administrative problems, demanding workloads, prohibitive policies, and a lack of fit between the organizational culture and the introduction of new technologies. Personal barriers included participant beliefs about the applicability of e-MH to certain populations, and workers’ lack of confidence and skills. However, enthusiastic managers and tech-savvy champions could provide a counter-balance as organizational enablers of e-MH; and the consultation sessions themselves appear to have enhanced skills and confidence, shifted attitudes to new technologies, and seeded a perception that e-MH could be a valuable health education resource

  17. Hard to Stomach: Food Insecurity and Inequitable Access to Nutritious Food in Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Jennifer Lauren

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a problem in Vancouver, BC. Through analysis of the systemic causes and negative correlates of food insecurity, this study examines effective ways to mitigate food insecurity in Vancouver by enabling consistent access to sufficient, nutritious food. Assessments of the economics of food insecurity and multi-level governmental positions on the issue provide a theoretical and practical basis for the research. A literature review and four in-depth stakeholder interviews identif...

  18. Attracting new advertisers and retaining old ones: carving a niche in Vancouver's city magazine market

    OpenAIRE

    McCready, Kathryn Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This report examines city magazine advertising in Vancouver. It explores the types of advertisers that use this medium, their marketing needs, the range of media in Vancouver that attempt to satisfy these needs, and how these local businesses plan and execute their media campaigns. It uses a case study of a city magazine, VLM to explore and analyse the advertising sales process. It provides an overview of the changes in editorial, circulation and advertising strategy that VLM introduced in 20...

  19. Health related physical fitness of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores Islands, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Pina de Morais

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purposes of this research were: (1 to investigate health related physical fitness (HPF of school children (6 to 10 years from Azores islands, Portugal, and to (2 analyse sex differences in each age. The sample comprised 3742 children of both sexes, residents in Azores islands, Portugal. Twenty-five percent of the children in each gender and age in each island were evaluated with FITNESSGRAM: 1-mile run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk lift and body mass index (BMI (kg/m-2. Data were analysed as follow: χ2 to test the differences in ratio of success/failure in each age group; factorial ANOVA gender*age to test the differences between age groups and gender; discriminant function to test the presence of multivariate profiles of HPF in age natural groups. The ratios of success in both boys and girls were low. In girls there was a substantial decrease of ratio of success between 6 and 10 years of age. Among 10-year-old girls the global ratio of success was only 18%. In boys, the ratios of success had also a tendency to decrease along age. Among 10-years-old boys the global ratio of success was 39%. Boys had better performance in all tests than girls of all ages. Discriminant function analyses indicated that there were a low percentage of children classified in their natural age groups. Although there were children with HPF level advanced for their natural age groups, there were a considerable number of children with HPF level lower than the expected for their own age. RESUMO Pretendeu-se (1 conhecer os níveis da aptidão física associada à saúde (ApFS da população escolar de 6 a 10 anos de idade do arquipélago dos Açores, Portugal e (2 analisar as diferenças entre os sexos ao longo da idade. A amostra foi constituída por 3742 crianças, de ambos os sexos, residentes no arquipélago dos Açores. A avaliação da ApFS foi efectuada de acordo com a bateria de testes FITNESSGRAM: corrida/marcha da milha, curl-ups, push-ups, trunk

  20. Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audra de Witt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes.MethodsAboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific, and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii advise how this information was obtained.ResultsTen primary health care centers (PHCCs across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8, searching paper records (n = 1, and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1. Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers

  1. [Taxation of traditional rums in French overseas territories and public health: The example of Reunion Island].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mété, D

    2017-11-01

    France has a complex system for the taxation of alcoholic beverages. In the French overseas territories (FOT), the system includes little-known specificities whose purpose is to preserve the sugar-cane-rum sector, a pillar for the weak economies in these territories. Taxes are reduced for traditional rums produced and sold locally. This favors the marketing of alcoholic spirits at low prices. In metropolitan France, on the contrary, spirits are heavily taxed drinks and their share in consumption is minor. Reunion Island (RI) is a FOT confronted with significant socioeconomic precariousness and with one of the highest national morbidity and mortality rates associated with alcohol abuse. Spirits account for half of the total consumption of pure alcohol, with a strong predominance for local traditional rums. These products are preferentially consumed by vulnerable subjects, often affected by an alcohol-use disorder. This study consists of three parts. First, a comparative analysis of alcoholic beverage prices between RI and mainland France. Second, an analysis of the bibliography on the consequences of preferential consumption of spirits. Third, a literature review on the impact of taxation on alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. In France, the cheapest gram of pure alcohol is found in the FOT. The preferential consumption of spirits is associated with more frequent and more rapid complications. It is correlated with the level of alcoholic psychoses. Taxation is effective in reducing damage caused by the abuse of alcoholic beverages. The World Health Organization recommends the application of a minimum price for alcohol and tax increases. The reduced taxation of the traditional rums of the FOT does not take into account public health data. Its purpose is economic. In RI, it contributes to a high level of consumption of spirits and encourages excess mortality through alcohol abuse. It constitutes an inequality of health for these populations. Changes in this tax

  2. Workplace violence among female sex workers who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada: does client-targeted policing increase safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prangnell, Amy; Shannon, Kate; Nosova, Ekaterina; DeBeck, Kora; Milloy, M-J; Kerr, Thomas; Hayashi, Kanna

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, by clients or predators, poses serious negative health consequences for sex workers. In 2013, the Vancouver (British Columbia), Canada Police Department changed their guidelines with the goal of increasing safety for sex workers by focusing law enforcement on clients and third parties, but not sex workers. We sought to examine the trends and correlates of workplace violence among female sex workers (FSW) before and after the guideline change, using data collected from prospective cohorts of persons who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. Among 259 FSW, 21.0% reported workplace violence at least once during the study period between 2008 and 2014. There was no statistically significant change in rates of workplace violence after the guideline change. In our multivariable analysis, daily heroin use was independently associated with workplace violence. The 2013 policing guideline change did not appear to have resulted in decreased reports of workplace violence. Increased access to opioid agonist therapies may reduce workplace violence among drug-using FSW.

  3. Pediatrics in the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dungy, C.I.; Morgan, B.C.; Adams, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The delivery of health care to children living on isolated island communities presents unique challenges to health professionals. An evolved method of providing longitudinal services to infants and children residing on islands of the Marshall Island chain - a central Pacific portion of the Micronesian archipelago - is presented. The difficulties associated with provision of comprehensive health care in a vast ocean area are discussed

  4. Secular variations of radon in metropolitan Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghomshei, M.M.; Slawson, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper sampling of radon within the soil from three sites in metropolitan Vancouver is reported. Alpha trace bi-weekly measurements during a period of 4 years show secular variations with a period of 8-15 months. There are low-radon and high-radon episodes enduring several months to a year. Average radon level during the high-radon episodes reaches 5-10 times that of the low-radon periods. During high-radon episodes the high-frequency variations show very high amplitudes. After filtering of the high-frequency fluctuations, the data from different sites demonstrate remarkably similar trends. It is suggested that along with hydrogeological events, stress relaxation in rocks, earthquake, and magma emplacement may contribute to the sources of secular variations of radon. Because of long-term variations, radon level in urban areas should be monitored on a continuous basis. Single measurements, even those integrating radiation over a period of few months, may sample a low-radon episode, and provide a false assurance, or occur during a high-radon episode and give a false alarm

  5. Jim Peters' collapse in the 1954 Vancouver Empire Games marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Tim; Mekler, Jackie; Pedoe, Dan Tunstall

    2008-08-01

    On 7 August 1954, the world 42 km marathon record holder, Jim Peters, collapsed repeatedly during the final 385 metres of the British Empire and Commonwealth Games marathon held in Vancouver, Canada. It has been assumed that Peters collapsed from heatstroke because he ran too fast and did not drink during the race, which was held in windless, cloudless conditions with a dry-bulb temperature of 28 degrees C. Hospital records made available to us indicate that Peters might not have suffered from exertional heatstroke, which classically produces a rectal temperature > 42 degrees C, cerebral effects and, usually, a fatal outcome without vigorous active cooling. Although Peters was unconscious on admission to hospital approximately 60 minutes after he was removed from the race, his rectal temperature was 39.4 degrees C and he recovered fully, even though he was managed conservatively and not actively cooled. We propose that Peters' collapse was more likely due to a combination of hyperthermia-induced fatigue which caused him to stop running; exercise-associated postural hypotension as a result of a low peripheral vascular resistance immediately he stopped running; and combined cerebral effects of hyperthermia, hypertonic hypernatraemia associated with dehydration, and perhaps undiagnosed hypoglycaemia. But none of these conditions should cause prolonged unconsciousness, raising the possibility that Peters might have suffered from a transient encephalopathy, the exact nature of which is not understood.

  6. Greater Vancouver's water supply receives ozone treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, J.; Singh, I.; Reil, D. D.; Neden, G.

    2000-10-01

    To improve the overall quality of the treated water delivered to the member municipalities of the Greater Vancouver Water District (GVWD), the GVWD implemented a phased drinking water quality improvement program. The phased treatment program is directed at attaining effective disinfection while minimizing the formation of chlorinated disinfection by-products. Accordingly, the current primary disinfection method of chlorination was reevaluated and an ozone primary disinfection without filtration was authorized. Ozonization provides increased protection against Giardia and Cryptosporidium and a decrease in the formation potential for disinfection by-products (DPBs). This paper describes the design for the ozonation facility at Coquitlam, construction of which began in 1998 and completed during the summer of 2000. The facility houses the liquid oxygen supply, ozone generation, cooling water, ozone injection, primary off-gas ozone destruct system, and provides a home for various office, electrical maintenance and diesel generating functions. The second site at Capilano is expected to start construction in the fall of 2000 and be completed late in 2002. Wit its kilometre long stainless steel ozone contactor and sidestream injector tower, the Coquitlam Ozonation Facility is the first ozone pressure injection system of its kind in North America. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Heat Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Heat Island Effect Site provides information on heat islands, their impacts, mitigation strategies, related research, a directory of heat island reduction initiatives in U.S. communities, and EPA's Heat Island Reduction Program.

  8. Island biogeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, Robert James; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Matthews, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits gener...

  9. Hydrate studies of northern Cascadia margin off Vancouver Island : a reference source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Sidney, BC (Canada). Geological Survey of Canada, Pacific Geoscience Centre]|[Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences; Riedel, M. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Spence, G.D. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2008-07-01

    Extensive geophysical studies have been conducted to determine the occurrence, distribution, and concentration of gas hydrate in the Cascadia subduction zone off western Canada. In this paper, the authors compiled a comprehensive reference list of studies involving marine natural gas hydrate surveys and studies on the northern Cascadia margin. The reference categories included general reviews; regional tectonic framework for northern Cascadia hydrate; prism sediment thickening, fluid expulsion and hydrate formation; and, seismic surveys. This paper first addressed the local tectonics and the sedimentary accretionary prism in which the hydrate forms, followed by a description of the geophysical and geological surveys that have been conducted. The surveys included a wide range of seismic surveys such as multichannel, ocean-bottom, high-resolution single channel and very high resolution deep towed surveys. Heat flow, electrical sounding, seafloor compliance, sediment coring, and mapping gas plumes from the seafloor were among the other geophysical studies listed in this paper. The conclusions that have resulted from this work in terms of distribution, concentrations and amounts of hydrate were presented along with a discussion on the process of hydrate formation and dissociation. 96 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Post-Glacial and Paleo-Environmental History of the West Coast of Vancouver Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    Annually laminated sediments in anoxic fjords are potentially ideal paleoclimate recorders, particularly once proxy measurements for atmospheric, oceanographic and sedimentological conditions have been calibrated. On the west coast of Canada, these sediments also record the changing environment as glaciers retreated from this area about 12 ka y BP. In Effingham Inlet, a 40 m core taken from the French ship the Marion Dufresne as part of the international IMAGES/PAGES program, gives evidence of an isolation basin at maximum glacial isostatic rebound and lowest paleo-sea level followed by eustatic sea level rise about 10 ka y BP. The Late Pleistocene record also marks dramatic changes in glacial sedimentary source and transport. Excellent chronological control is provided by complementary yet independent dating methods including radiocarbon dates on both plants and shells, identification of the Mazama Ash, varve counting and paleomagnetic, paleosecular variation correlations in the lower, pro-glacial section of the core which does not contain organic material. Paleoenvironmental evidence from this core provides information on immediate post-glacial conditions along the coast and rapid climatic changes throughout the Holocene, with implications for the possibility of early human migration routes and refugia.

  11. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 6 - Findings and recommendations. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    This report is the final report in a series of six reports detailing the findings from the Cowichan Valley Energy Mapping and Modelling project that was carried out from April of 2011 to March of 2012 by Ea Energy Analyses in conjunction with Geographic Resource Analysis and Science (GRAS). The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The present report is the final report and presents a summary of the findings of project tasks 1-5 and provides a set of recommendations to the CVRD based on the work done and with an eye towards the next steps in the energy planning process of the CVRD. (LN)

  12. Elements of Pacific public health laws: an analysis of the public health acts of Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu, the Solomon Islands, and Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Genevieve

    2012-09-01

    Pacific countries are sovereign nations with distinctive histories, ethnicity, customs, primary resources, economies, and health systems. Despite these and other acknowledged differences, similarities exist in many areas such as geography, legal history, and culture. Many share the experience of colonization, with imported British laws and the subsequent experience of independence. Most Pacific countries are also developing countries. This article broadly describes approaches to legislating in public health in Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands and notes common elements in their public health laws, in particular, in relation to administration, allocation of powers and responsibilities, interaction with local government, communicable disease control, and nuisance. The article concludes that many Pacific public health laws could deliver better support for current health policy, more sensitivity to the culture and customs of the region, and better management of public health risk through laws that are better suited to their Pacific environment, easier to understand, more flexible, and more relevant to current health policy.

  13. Strengthening capacity for local evidence to inform local responders to HIV in a remote Solomon Island health service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David MacLaren

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Documenting specific knowledge and attitudes about HIV in the culturally diverse nation of Solomon Islands is essential to inform locally targeted public health responses. As part of a large capacity-strengthening project at Atoifi Adventist Hospital in East Kwaio, Solomon Islands, researchers, using a ‘learn-by-doing’ process, worked with participants in public health research methods. Methods: Overall, 43 people attended research capacity building workshops in 2011; eight joined the HIV study group. A cross-sectional survey including semi-structured interviews on HIV was conducted by the group. In February 2014, a hospital administrator was interviewed about how the 2011 study informed local HIV responses. Results: Of the 53 survey participants, 64% self-assessed as having little or no HIV knowledge, but 90% knew HIV could be transmitted between men and women during sex. Less than 50% knew HIV could be transmitted between two men having sex, 45% thought HIV could be transmitted by mosquitoes and 55% agreed condoms help protect from HIV. Most participants reported negative attitudes towards people with HIV. Three years later the health administrator reported ad hoc responses to HIV because of low HIV prevalence, increasing noncommunicable diseases, staff turnover and resource shortages. Discussion: This HIV study was used to strengthen research skills in local health professionals and community members in Solomon Islands. It showed that community members require accurate information about HIV transmission and that entrenched stigma is an issue. Although results provided local evidence for local response, ongoing health system challenges and little local HIV transmission meant HIV services remain rudimentary.

  14. Diversity in eMental Health Practice: An Exploratory Qualitative Study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Service Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Jennifer; Rotumah, Darlene; Bennett-Levy, James; Singer, Judy

    2017-05-29

    In Australia, mental health services are undergoing major systemic reform with eMental Health (eMH) embedded in proposed service models for all but those with severe mental illness. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers have been targeted as a national priority for training and implementation of eMH into service delivery. Implementation studies on technology uptake in health workforces identify complex and interconnected variables that influence how individual practitioners integrate new technologies into their practice. To date there are only two implementation studies that focus on eMH and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. They suggest that the implementation of eMH in the context of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations may be different from the implementation of eMH with allied health professionals and mainstream health services. The objective of this study is to investigate how Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers in one regional area of Australia used eMH resources in their practice following an eMH training program and to determine what types of eMH resources they used. Individual semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 16 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander service providers. Interviews were co-conducted by one indigenous and one non-indigenous interviewer. A sample of transcripts were coded and thematically analyzed by each interviewer and then peer reviewed. Consensus codes were then applied to all transcripts and themes identified. It was found that 9 of the 16 service providers were implementing eMH resources into their routine practice. The findings demonstrate that participants used eMH resources for supporting social inclusion, informing and educating, assessment, case planning and management, referral, responding to crises, and self and family care. They chose a variety of types of eMH resources to use with their clients, both culturally

  15. Seroadaptive Strategies of Gay & Bisexual Men (GBM) with the Highest Quartile Number of Sexual Partners in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, Kiffer G; Lachowsky, Nathan J; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Rich, Ashleigh; Jollimore, Jody; Howard, Terry; Birch, Robert; Carter, Allison; Montaner, Julio; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert S; Roth, Eric Abella

    2017-05-01

    Despite continued research among men with more sexual partners, little information exists on their seroadaptive behavior. Therefore, we examined seroadaptive anal sex strategies among 719 Vancouver gay and bisexual men (GBM) recruited using respondent-driven sampling. We provide descriptive, bivariable, and multivariable adjusted statistics, stratified by HIV status, for the covariates of having ≥7 male anal sex partners in the past 6 months (Population fourth quartile versus <7). Sensitivity Analysis were also performed to assess the robustness of this cut-off. Results suggest that GBM with more sexual partners are more likely to employ seroadaptive strategies than men with fewer partners. These strategies may be used in hopes of offsetting risk, assessing needs for subsequent HIV testing, and balancing personal health with sexual intimacy. Further research is needed to determine the efficacy of these strategies, assess how GBM perceive their efficacy, and understand the social and health impacts of their widespread uptake.

  16. Assessing the validity of commercial and municipal food environment data sets in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine Ig; Black, Jennifer

    2017-10-01

    The present study assessed systematic bias and the effects of data set error on the validity of food environment measures in two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets. Sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV) and concordance were calculated by comparing two municipal and two commercial secondary data sets with ground-truthed data collected within 800 m buffers surrounding twenty-six schools. Logistic regression examined associations of sensitivity and PPV with commercial density and neighbourhood socio-economic deprivation. Kendall's τ estimated correlations between density and proximity of food outlets near schools constructed with secondary data sets v. ground-truthed data. Vancouver, Canada. Food retailers located within 800 m of twenty-six schools RESULTS: All data sets scored relatively poorly across validity measures, although, overall, municipal data sets had higher levels of validity than did commercial data sets. Food outlets were more likely to be missing from municipal health inspections lists and commercial data sets in neighbourhoods with higher commercial density. Still, both proximity and density measures constructed from all secondary data sets were highly correlated (Kendall's τ>0·70) with measures constructed from ground-truthed data. Despite relatively low levels of validity in all secondary data sets examined, food environment measures constructed from secondary data sets remained highly correlated with ground-truthed data. Findings suggest that secondary data sets can be used to measure the food environment, although estimates should be treated with caution in areas with high commercial density.

  17. Greater Vancouver regional district air quality management plan : implementation status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    In December 1994, an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) was adopted by the Greater Vancouver Regional District. The AQMP included ways to improve air quality in the region, leading to reduced emissions from commercial and industrial operations. This Plan encourages cooperation with the various communities affected to achieve clean air lifestyles and manage emissions from human activity to enhance human health and the integrity of the environment. The reduction of total emissions of the common air contaminants sulphur and nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds by 38 per cent is the stated aim of the AQMP. Five years of planning resulted in the formulation of the AQMP. The issues addressed were assigned one of four priorities as follows: priority 1 deals with ground level ozone and fine particulate, priority 2 looks at visibility, hazardous air pollutants, and global climate change, priority 3 concerns odour, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, acidic deposition, and nitrogen dioxide, and priority 4 contains total suspended particulate matter and volatile organic compounds. A total of 54 Emission Reduction Measures were established, and the document reviewed them. Progress is being made in all areas. 2 tabs., 3 figs

  18. Clean air benefits and costs in the GVRD [Greater Vancouver Regional District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gislason, G.; Martin, J.; Williams, D.; Caton, B.; Rich, J.; Rojak, S.; Robinson, J.; Stuermer, A. von

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia. An analysis was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of an innovative plan to reduce the emissions of five primary pollutants in the GVRD: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulates, and CO. The study adopts a damage function approach in which the benefits of reduced emissions are given by the averted damages to human health, crops, and so on. Under a base case scenario, motor vehicle emission controls and additional measures proposed in the region's air quality management plan (AQMP) are projected to lead to emission reductions of 873,000 tonnes in the GVRD by the year 2020, compared to the emission level projected without intervention. The AQMP is projected to avert over its life some 2,800 premature deaths, 33,000 emergency room visits, 13 million restricted activity days, and 5 million symptoms. Crop losses due to ozone are projected to decrease by 1-4%/y over the next several decades due to the AQMP. Damage averted to materials and property per tonne of pollutant reduced ranges from $30 for VOC to $180 for particulates. Under base-case conservative assumptions, the AQMP generates $5.4 billion in benefits and $3.8 billion in costs, nearly 2/3 of which are paid by the industrial and commercial sectors. 1 tab

  19. Utilization and Accessibility of Healthcare on Pemba Island, Tanzania: Implications for Health Outcomes and Disease Surveillance for Typhoid Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, Linda M.; Pach, Alfred; Thriemer, Kamala; Ley, Benedikt; Ali, Said M.; Jiddawi, Mohamed; Puri, Mahesh; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Deen, Jacqueline; Ochiai, Leon; Wierzba, Thomas; Clemens, John

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi) was estimated to cause over 200,000 deaths and more than 21 million illnesses worldwide, including over 400,000 illnesses in Africa. The current study was conducted in four villages on Pemba Island, Zanzibar, in 2010. We present data on policy makers', health administrators', and village residents' and leaders' perceptions of typhoid fever, and hypothetical and actual health care use among village residents for typhoid fever. Qualitative data provided descriptions of home-based treatment practices and use of western pharmaceuticals, and actual healthcare use for culture-confirmed typhoid fever. Survey data indicate health facility use was associated with gender, education, residency, and perceptions of severity for symptoms associated with typhoid fever. Data have implications for education of policy makers and health administrators, design and implementation of surveillance studies, and community-based interventions to prevent disease outbreaks, decrease risks of complications, and provide information about disease recognition, diagnosis, and treatment. PMID:23208887

  20. Using cultural immersion as the platform for teaching Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in an undergraduate medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janie D; Wolfe, Christina; Springer, Shannon; Martin, Mary; Togno, John; Bramstedt, Katrina A; Sargeant, Sally; Murphy, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Bond University was looking for innovative ways to meet the professional standards and guidelines in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health in its Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) curriculum. In 2012 Bond piloted a compulsory cultural immersion program for all first year students, which is now a usual part of the MBBS program. Three phases were included - establishing an Indigenous health group, determining the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander educational content based on the professional standards and developing nine educational sessions and resources - as well as significant administrative processes. The cultural immersion was piloted in 2012 with 92 first year medical students. Following refinements it was repeated in 2013 with 95 students and in 2014 with 94 students. A comprehensive evaluation process was undertaken that included a paper-based evaluation form using a five-point Likert scale, as well as a confidential talking circle evaluation. The response rate was 95.4% (n=271, pooled cohort). Data were entered separately into SPSS and annual reports were written to the Faculty. Descriptive statistics are reported alongside themed qualitative data. The three combined student evaluation results were extremely positive. Students (n=271) strongly agreed that the workshop was well organised (M=4.3), that the facilitators contributed very positively to their experience (M=4.3), and that they were very satisfied overall with the activity (M=4.2). They agreed that the eight overall objectives had been well met (M=3.9-4.3). The nine sessions were highly evaluated with mean ratings of between 3.9 and 4.8. The 'best thing' about the immersion identified by more than half of the students was overwhelmingly (n=140) the Storytelling session, followed by bonding with the cohort, the Torres Strait Islander session and learning more about culture. The item identified as needing most improvement was the food (n=87), followed by the

  1. Use of Integrated Landscape Indicators to Evaluate the Health of Linked Watersheds and Coral Reef Environments in the Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Ku`ulei S.; Kido, Michael H.; Jokiel, Paul L.; Edmonds, Tim; Brown, Eric K.

    2012-07-01

    A linkage between the condition of watersheds and adjacent nearshore coral reef communities is an assumed paradigm in the concept of integrated coastal management. However, quantitative evidence for this "catchment to sea" or "ridge to reef" relationship on oceanic islands is lacking and would benefit from the use of appropriate marine and terrestrial landscape indicators to quantify and evaluate ecological status on a large spatial scale. To address this need, our study compared the Hawai`i Watershed Health Index (HI-WHI) and Reef Health Index (HI-RHI) derived independently of each other over the past decade. Comparisons were made across 170 coral reef stations at 52 reef sites adjacent to 42 watersheds throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. A significant positive relationship was shown between the health of watersheds and that of adjacent reef environments when all sites and depths were considered. This relationship was strongest for sites facing in a southerly direction, but diminished for north facing coasts exposed to persistent high surf. High surf conditions along the north shore increase local wave driven currents and flush watershed-derived materials away from nearshore waters. Consequently, reefs in these locales are less vulnerable to the deposition of land derived sediments, nutrients and pollutants transported from watersheds to ocean. Use of integrated landscape health indices can be applied to improve regional-scale conservation and resource management.

  2. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C.; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta. PMID:27683658

  3. Value Chains of Public and Private Health-care Services in a Small EU Island State: A SWOT Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttigieg, Sandra C; Schuetz, Marcus; Bezzina, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The global financial and macroeconomic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically, in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private health-care sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health-care systems in Malta, a small European Union island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains, and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT). The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health-policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health-care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that, unless addressed, may threaten the state's health-care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health-care services in Malta.

  4. Prevalence of health-risk behaviors among Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students in the U.S., 2001-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Eaton, Danice K; Brener, Nancy D; Kann, Laura

    2011-01-01

    We provided national prevalence estimates for selected health-risk behaviors for Asian American and Pacific Islander high school students separately, and compared those prevalence estimates with those of white, black, and Hispanic students. We analyzed data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System. To generate a sufficient sample of Asian American and Pacific Islander students, we combined data from four nationally representative surveys of U.S. high school students conducted in 2001, 2003, 2005, and 2007 (total n = 56,773). Asian American students were significantly less likely than Pacific Islander, white, black, or Hispanic students to have drunk alcohol or used marijuana. Asian American students also were the least likely to have carried a weapon, to have been in a physical fight, to have ever had sexual intercourse, or to be currently sexually active. Once sexually active, Asian American students were as likely as most other racial/ethnic groups to have used alcohol or drugs at last sexual intercourse or to have used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Pacific Islander students were significantly more likely than Asian American, white, black, or Hispanic students to have seriously considered or attempted suicide. The prevalence estimates of health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American students and Pacific Islander students are very different and should be reported separately whenever feasible. To address the different health-risk behaviors exhibited by Asian American and Pacific Islander students, prevention programs should use culturally sensitive strategies and materials.

  5. Conditions in the Channel Islands during the 1940–45 German Occupation and their impact on the health of islanders: A systematic review of published reports and first-hand accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George T. H. Ellison

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The 1940-45 German occupation of the Channel Islands culminated in a 10-month siege between the liberation of Normandy in 1944 and the fall of Berlin in May 1945. This paper systematically reviews published reports and first-hand accounts of conditions in the Channel Islands during the occupation, and assesses the impact of these conditions on the health of islanders. Vital registration data, official reports and first-hand accounts all suggest that the occupation was accompanied by widespread weight loss and an increase in mortality, particularly among the elderly and other vulnerable groups. Children, adolescents and young adults may have also suffered disproportionately as these groups (teenagers in particular were allocated rations that underestimated their full nutritional requirements. Indeed, data collected before, during and after the occupation reveal that the height and weight of school children was significantly lower during the occupation, while age at menarche was significantly delayed amongst girls entering puberty.

  6. Land Use and Land Cover Change, Urban Heat Island Phenomenon, and Health Implications: A Remote Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, C. P.; Quattrochi, Dale A.

    2003-01-01

    Land use and land cover maps of Atlanta Metropolitan Area in Georgia were produced from Landsat MSS and TM images for 1973,1979,1983,1987,1992, and 1997, spanning a period of 25 years. Dramatic changes in land use and land cover have occurred with loss of forest and cropland to urban use. In particular, low-density urban use, which includes largely residential use, has increased by over 119% between 1973 and 1997. These land use and land cover changes have drastically altered the land surface characteristics. An analysis of Landsat images revealed an increase in surface temperature and a decline in NDVI from 1973 to 1997. These changes have forced the development of a significant urban heat island effect and an increase in ground level ozone production to such an extent, that Atlanta has violated EPA's ozone level standard in recent years. The urban heat island initiated precipitation events that were identified between 1996 and 2000 tended to occur near high-density urban areas but outside the I-285 loop that traverses around the Central Business District, i.e. not in the inner city area, but some in close proximity to the highways. The health implications were investigated by comparing the spatial patterns of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, the two ingredients that form ozone by reacting with sunlight, with those of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. A clear core-periphery pattern was revealed for both VOC and NOx emissions, but the spatial pattern was more random in the cases of rates of cardiovascular and chronic lower respiratory diseases. Clearly, factors other than ozone pollution were involved in explaining the rates of these diseases. Further research is therefore needed to understand the health geography and its relationship to land use and land cover change as well as urban heat island effect. This paper illustrates the usefulness of a remote sensing approach for this purpose.

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  8. Value chains of public and private health care services in a small EU Island State: A SWOT analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra C. Buttigieg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The global financial and macro-economic crisis of 2008/2009 and the ensuing recessions obliged policy makers to maximize use of resources and cut down on waste. Specifically in health care, governments started to explore ways of establishing collaborations between the public and private healthcare sectors. This is essential so as to ensure the best use of available resources, while securing quality of delivery of care, as well as health systems sustainability and resilience. This qualitative study explores complementary and mutual attributes in the value creation process to patients by the public and private health care systems in Malta, a small EU island state. A workshop was conducted with 28 professionals from both sectors to generate two separate value chains and this was followed by an analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT. The latter revealed several strengths and opportunities, which can better equip health policy makers in the quest to maximize provision of health care services. Moreover, the analysis also highlighted areas of weaknesses in both sectors as well as current threats of the external environment that unless addressed, may threaten the state’s health care system sustainability and resilience to macroeconomic shocks. The study goes on to provide feasible recommendations aimed at maximizing provision of health care services in Malta.

  9. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavior responses of the general population and the nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1982-02-01

    A main conclusion drawn from the investigation by the President's Commission was that the most serious health effect of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident was severe mental stress, which was short-lived. The highest levels of psychological distress were found among those living within 5 miles of Three Mile Island, in families with preschool children, and among the Three Mile Island nuclear workers. This report provides some understanding of how these conclusions were drawn, the methods used to obtain information of the experiences of mental stress and the behavioral effects and responses of the general population and the nuclear workers to the accident at Three Mile Island. In order to limit the scope of the discussion, information is taken from the Behavioral Effects Task Group Report [TMI79c] to the President's Commission, and thus from the labors of the many behavioral scientists

  10. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  11. Dreams deferred: Contextualizing the health and psychosocial needs of undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander young adults in Northern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; Ling, Irving; To, Tu My; Melo, Jason; Quach, Thu

    2017-07-01

    There are currently 1.5 million undocumented Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs) in the US. Undocumented API young adults, in particular, come of age in a challenging political and social climate, but little is known about their health outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the psychosocial needs and health status of API undocumented young adults. Guided by social capital theory, this qualitative study describes the social context of API undocumented young adults (ages 18-31), including community and government perceptions, and how social relationships influence health. This study was conducted in Northern California and included four focus group discussions (FGDs) and 24 in-depth interviews (IDIs), with 32 unique participants total. FGDs used purposeful sampling by gender (two male and two female discussions) and education status (in school and out-of-school). Findings suggest low bonding and bridging social capital. Results indicate that community distrust is high, even within the API community, due to high levels of exploitation, discrimination, and threats of deportation. Participants described how documentation status is a barrier in accessing health services, particularly mental health and sexual and reproductive health services. This study identifies trusted community groups and discusses recommendations for future research, programs, and policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Surviving the housing crisis: Social violence and the production of evictions among women who use drugs in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Alexandra B; Boyd, Jade; Damon, Will; Czechaczek, Sandra; Krüsi, Andrea; Cooper, Hannah; McNeil, Ryan

    2018-04-11

    Single room accommodation (SRA) housing is among the only forms of accessible housing to marginalized women who use illicit drugs in many urban settings. However, SRA housing environments may create specific health and drug risks for women. Little research has examined the gendered mechanisms contributing to housing vulnerability for women who use drugs and the subsequent ways they aim to mitigate harm. This study examines the gendered vulnerabilities to, and harms stemming from, evictions from SRAs in Vancouver, Canada. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 56 people who use drugs who were recently evicted (past 60 days) from SRAs in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside neighbourhood, 19 of whom identified as women which informed this analysis. Participants were recruited by Peer Researcher Assistants for baseline and follow-up interviews three to six months later. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically and interpreted by drawing on concepts of social violence. Findings underscore how gendered violence and forms of social control operationalized within SRAs normalized violence against women and restricted their agency. Surveillance mechanisms increased women's experiences of violence as they sought to evade such interventions. Post-eviction, women faced pronounced vulnerability to harm which reinforced their social and spatial marginality within a drug scene. Collectively, women's experiences within SRAs highlight how the hybrid forms of disciplinary mechanisms used within these housing environments significantly impacted women's experiences of harm. Greater attention to the impacts of housing and building policies on women who use drugs is needed to better address the morbidity and mortality of this population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowokan, A O; Black, J L; Holmes, E; Seto, D; Lear, S A

    2018-06-01

    Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk. Adults ≥18 years (n = 77) from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI) risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score. Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent. Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members.

  14. Examining risk factors for cardiovascular disease among food bank members in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Fowokan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Food banks provide supplemental food to low-income households, yet little is known about the cardiovascular health of food banks members. This study therefore described cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors among food bank members and explored associations between food insecurity and CVD risk.Adults ≥18 years (n = 77 from three food bank sites in metro Vancouver, British Columbia completed surveys and physical assessments examining a range of socio-demographic variables and CVD risk factors. A composite measure of myocardial infarction (MI risk called the INTERHEART score was assessed and household food insecurity was measured using the Household Food Security Survey Module. Regression models were used to explore associations between food insecurity and CVD risk measures, including the INTERHEART score.Ninety-seven percent of food bank members reported experiencing food insecurity, 65% were current smokers, 53% reported either chronic or several periods of stress in the past year, 55% reported low physical activity levels and 80% reported consuming fewer than five servings of fruit and vegetables daily. Prevalence of self-reported diabetes and hypertension were 13% and 29% respectively. Fifty-two percent of the sample were at high risk of non-fatal MI. No statistically significant associations were found between increased severity of food insecurity and CVD risk factors among this sample where both severe food insecurity and high CVD risks were prevalent.Food bank members were at elevated risk for CVD compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to reduce prevalence of food insecurity and CVD risk factors, both of which disproportionately affected food bank members. Keywords: Food insecurity, Food banks, Cardiovascular disease, Risk factors, Canada

  15. High school incompletion and childhood maltreatment among street-involved young people in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Brittany; Kerr, Thomas; Dong, Huiru; Wood, Evan; DeBeck, Kora

    2017-03-01

    While the link between educational attainment and future health and wellness is well understood, little investigation has considered the potential impacts of distinct forms of childhood maltreatment on high school completion. In the present study, the relationship between five categories of childhood maltreatment (physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and physical and emotional neglect) and completion of high school education were examined using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). From September 2005 to May 2013, data were collected for the At-Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of street-involved young people who use illicit drugs in Vancouver, Canada. We used logistic regression to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and high school completion, while controlling for a range of potential confounding variables. Specifically, five separate models for each category of maltreatment and two combined models were employed to examine the relative associations between, and cumulative impact of, different forms of childhood maltreatment and educational attainment. Among 974 young people, 737 (76%) reported not completing high school. In separate multivariable analyses physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect remained positively and independently associated with an incomplete high school education. In a combined multivariable model with all forms of childhood maltreatment considered together, emotional abuse (adjusted odds ratio = 2.08; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-2.86) was the only form of maltreatment that remained significantly associated with an incomplete high school education. The cumulative impact assessment indicated a moderate dose-dependent trend where the greater the number of different forms of childhood maltreatment the greater the risk of not completing a high school education. These findings point to the need for trauma-informed interventions to improve educational attainment among vulnerable young

  16. Adventure Education and the Acculturation of First-Generation Chinese Canadians in Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Simon; Gidlow, Bob; Cushman, Grant

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on research that demonstrates how parents in first-generation Chinese families in Vancouver, Canada, most of them from Hong Kong, control their children's involvement in local adventure education (AE) programs and in so doing minimize the likelihood of intergenerational culture conflict involving those children. The research…

  17. Building a Virtual Branch at Vancouver Public Library Using Web 2.0 Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the work undertaken by Vancouver Public Library (VPL) in an effort to convert its website into a true virtual branch, both through the functionality of the website itself and by extending its web presence on to external social networking sites. Design/methodology/approach: VPL worked with its…

  18. Going Social at Vancouver Public Library: What the Virtual Branch Did Next

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kay

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to follow up on the 2009 publication "Building a virtual branch at Vancouver Public Library (VPL) using Web 2.0 tools" and to explore the work that VPL has been doing in the social media space over the past two years. Design/methodology/approach: Following the launch of its new web site in 2008,…

  19. The Geography of School Choice in a City with Growing Inequality: The Case of Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ee-Seul; Lubienski, Christopher; Lee, Jin

    2018-01-01

    This analysis aims to measure the impact of school choice policy on secondary school students' enrolment patterns within the social geography of Vancouver, an increasingly polarized global city. The rationale for the study is to examine the impact of "education market" reforms on the socio-economic composition of schools in a Canadian…

  20. Embracing a New Understanding of the City: The Museum of Vancouver's Vision in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    The Museum of Vancouver recently undertook a major rethinking of its role in the city. New interplays are being proposed between emerging conceptions of urbanity and civic participation, and the museum's collection and function as facilitator and advocate. This short paper provides a brief overview of the museum's recent transformation, situates…

  1. Immigrants as Active Citizens: Exploring the Volunteering Experience of Chinese Immigrants in Vancouver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that immigration has played an important role in transforming Canada into an ethno-culturally diverse and economically prosperous nation, immigrants themselves are often criticised as passive citizens. This study attempts to deconstruct this myth by investigating the volunteering experiences of Chinese immigrants in Vancouver. The…

  2. The "ripple effect": Health and community perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program on Thursday Island in the Torres Strait, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macniven, Rona; Plater, Suzanne; Canuto, Karla; Dickson, Michelle; Gwynn, Josephine; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Justin

    2018-02-19

    Physical inactivity is a key health risk among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) Australians. We examined perceptions of the Indigenous Marathon Program (IMP) in a remote Torres Strait island community. Semi-structured interviews with community and program stakeholders (n = 18; 14 Indigenous) examined barriers and enablers to running and the influence of the IMP on the community. A questionnaire asked 104 running event participants (n = 42 Indigenous) about their physical activity behaviours, running motivation and perceptions of program impact. Qualitative data were analysed using thematic content analysis, and quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Interviews revealed six main themes: community readiness, changing social norms to adopt healthy lifestyles, importance of social support, program appeal to hard-to-reach population groups, program sustainability and initiation of broader healthy lifestyle ripple effects beyond running. Barriers to running in the community were personal (cultural attitudes; shyness) and environmental (infrastructure; weather; dogs). Enablers reflected potential strategies to overcome described barriers. Indigenous questionnaire respondents were more likely to report being inspired to run by IMP runners than non-Indigenous respondents. Positive "ripple" effects of the IMP on running and broader health were described to have occurred through local role modelling of healthy lifestyles by IMP runners that reduced levels of "shame" and embarrassment, a common barrier to physical activity among Indigenous Australians. A high initial level of community readiness for behaviour change was also reported. SO WHAT?: Strategies to overcome this "shame" factor and community readiness measurement should be incorporated into the design of future Indigenous physical activity programs. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  3. Adolescent suicide and health risk behaviors: Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yongwen; Perry, Donald K; Hesser, Jana E

    2010-05-01

    Suicide is the third-leading cause of death among high school students in the U.S. This study examined the relationships among indicators of depressed mood, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts, and demographics and risk behaviors in Rhode Island high school students. Data from Rhode Island's 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Survey were utilized for this study. The statewide sample contained 2210 randomly selected public high school students. Data were analyzed in 2008 to model for each of five depressed mood/suicide indicators using multivariable logistic regression. By examining depressed mood and suicide indicators through a multivariable approach, the strongest predictors were identified, for multiple as well as specific suicide indicators. These predictors included being female, having low grades, speaking a language other than English at home, being lesbian/gay/bisexual/unsure of sexual orientation, not going to school as a result of feeling unsafe, having been a victim of forced sexual intercourse, being a current cigarette smoker, and having a self-perception of being overweight. The strength of associations between three factors (immigrant status, feeling unsafe, and having forced sex) and suicide indicators adds new information about potential predictors of suicidal behavior in adolescents. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-related Nonadherence to Medication Treatment Plans: Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfish, Pearl A; Long, Christopher R; Payakachat, Nalin; Felix, Holly; Bursac, Zoran; Rowland, Brett; Hudson, Jonell S; Narcisse, Marie-Rachelle

    2018-04-01

    Adherence to medication treatment plans is important for chronic disease (CD) management. Cost-related nonadherence (CRN) puts patients at risk for complications. Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) suffer from high rates of CD and socioeconomic disparities that could increase CRN behaviors. Examine factors related to CRN to medication treatment plans within an understudied population. Using 2014 NHPI-National Health Interview Survey data, we examined CRN among a nationally representative sample of NHPI adults. Bonferroni-adjusted Wald test and multivariable logistic regression were performed to examine associations among financial burden-related factors, CD status, and CRN. Across CD status, NHPI engaged in CRN behaviors had, on an average, increased levels of perceived financial stress, financial insecurity with health care, and food insecurity compared with adults in the total NHPI population. Regression analysis indicated perceived financial stress [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.16; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.10-1.22], financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.96; 95% CI, 1.32-2.90), and food insecurity (AOR=1.30; 95% CI, 1.06-1.61) all increase the odds of CRN among those with CD. We also found significant associations between perceived financial stress (AOR=1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), financial insecurity with health care (AOR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.19-2.12), and food insecurity (AOR=1.31; 95% CI, 1.04-1.65) and request for lower cost medication. This study demonstrated health-related and non-health-related financial burdens can influence CRN behaviors. It is important for health care providers to collect and use data about the social determinants of health to better inform their conversations about medication adherence and prevent CRN.

  5. Assessing the health care system of services for non-communicable diseases in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands: a Pacific regional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitaoto, Nia; Ichiho, Henry M

    2013-05-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCD) have been recognized as a major health threat in the US-affiliated Pacific Islands (USAPI) and health officials declared it an emergency.1 In an effort to address this emergent pandemic, the Pacific Chronic Disease Council (PCDC) conducted an assessment in all six USAPI jurisdictions which include American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Guam, the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and the Republic of Palau to assess the capacity of the administrative, clinical, support, and data systems to address the problems of NCD. Findings reveal significant gaps in addressing NCDs across all jurisdictions and the negative impact of lifestyle behaviors, overweight, and obesity on the morbidity and mortality of the population. In addition, stakeholders from each site identified and prioritized administrative and clinical systems of service needs.

  6. Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This easterly looking view shows the seven major volcanic islands of the Canary Island chain (28.0N, 16.5W) and offers a unique view of the islands that have become a frequent vacation spot for Europeans. The northwest coastline of Africa, (Morocco and Western Sahara), is visible in the background. Frequently, these islands create an impact on local weather (cloud formations) and ocean currents (island wakes) as seen in this photo.

  7. Innovative tools and OpenHDS for health and demographic surveillance on Rusinga Island, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.; Pasquale, di A.; Kiche, I.; Onoka, K.; Hiscox, A.F.; Mweresa, C.K.; Mukabana, W.R.; Takken, W.; Maire, N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Health in low and middle income countries is on one hand characterized by a high burden associated with preventable communicable diseases and on the other hand considered to be under-documented due to improper basic health and demographic record-keeping. health and demographic

  8. Food and beverage promotions in Vancouver schools: A study of the prevalence and characteristics of in-school advertising, messaging, and signage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, Cayley E; Black, Jennifer L; Ahmadi, Naseam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a descriptive profile of food-related advertising, messaging, and signage in Vancouver schools and to examine differences in the prevalence and characteristics of promotions between elementary and secondary schools. All food-related promotions were photographed in 23 diverse Vancouver public schools between November 2012 and April 2013. Key attributes, including the location, size, and main purpose of each promotion, as well as the type of food and/or beverage advertised and compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines, were coded. Descriptive statistics assessed the prevalence and characteristics of promotions. Cross-tabulations examined whether the promotional landscape differed between elementary and secondary schools. All secondary and 80% of elementary schools contained food or beverage promotions (median = 17, range = 0-57 promotions per school). Of the 493 promotions documented, approximately 25% depicted "choose least" or "not recommended" items, prohibited for sale by provincial school nutrition guidelines. Nearly 1/3 of promotions advertised commercial items (e.g., brand name beverages such as Pepsi), in violation of the Board of Education's advertising policies and only 13% conveyed nutrition education messages. Close to half of all promotions were created by students for class projects, many of which marketed minimally nutritious items. In Vancouver schools, food-related promotions are common and are more prevalent in secondary than elementary schools. Students are regularly exposed to messaging for nutritionally poor items that are not in compliance with provincial school nutrition guidelines and which violate school board advertising policies. Stronger oversight of food-related promotional materials is needed to ensure that schools provide health promoting food environments.

  9. Still "at risk": An examination of how street-involved young people understand, experience, and engage with "harm reduction" in Vancouver's inner city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozinoff, Nikki; Small, Will; Long, Cathy; DeBeck, Kora; Fast, Danya

    2017-07-01

    Vancouver is an international leader in implementing interventions to reduce harms related to drug use. However, street-involved young people who use drugs continue to be vulnerable to overdose death, hepatitis C (HCV) infection, and high rates of syringe sharing. To better understand this in the context of the intensive public health response, we examined how young people, who are involved in the 'street drug scene', understood, experienced and engaged with harm reduction. Twelve semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2013 with 13 young people (ages 17-28) recruited from the At-Risk Youth Study, a prospective cohort of street-involved and drug-using young people. These interviews were embedded within a larger, eight-year program of ethnographic research and explored participants' understandings of harm reduction, their use of specific services, and their ideas about improving their day-to-day lives. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and a thematic analysis was performed. Young peoples' ideas about harm reduction were diverse and expansive. They articulated the limitations of existing programs, indicating that while they are positioned to reduce the risk of HIV and HCV transmission, they offer little meaningful support to improve young peoples' broader life chances. Young people described strategies to mitigate risk and harm in their own lives, including transitioning to drugs deemed less harmful and attempting to gain access to drug treatment. Finally, young people indicated that spatial considerations (e.g., distance from Vancouver's Downtown Eastside) strongly determined access to services. In Vancouver, a large, well established harm reduction infrastructure seeks to reduce HIV and HCV transmission among street-involved young people. However, young peoples' multiple understandings, experiences and engagements with harm reduction in this setting illustrate the limitations of the existing infrastructure in improving their broader life chances. Copyright

  10. A prescription for sustaining community engagement in malaria elimination on Aneityum Island, Vanuatu: an application of Health Empowerment Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Noriko; Kaneko, Akira; Yamar, Sam; Taleo, George; Tanihata, Takeo; Lum, J Koji; Larson, Peter S; Shearer, Nelma B C

    2015-07-31

    Community engagement has contributed to disease control and elimination in many countries. Community engagement in malaria elimination (ME) on Aneityum Island has been sustained since its introduction in the early 1990s. Capacity developed within this population has led to a health empowered community response. Health Empowerment Theory (HET) can account for the innovative community actions and capacity development efforts taken to realize and sustain meaningful changes in well-being. This study used the HET framework to investigate participant perceptions of ME efforts on the island focusing on two HET elements, personal and social-contextual resources. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of empowerment as a critical element of community engagement. Six focus group discussions, ten key informant interviews and 17 in-depth interviews were conducted in July 2012 on Aneityum. Both deductive and inductive approaches to qualitative content analysis were used to identify themes, which were condensed, coded and classified based on the HET elements above. Awareness and use of personal and social-contextual resources played an important role in ME efforts. Most participants shared their knowledge to prevent malaria reintroduction. Many participants reported their skills needed for behavioral maintenance, problem-solving or leadership. Participants who perceived a threat took preventive actions even in the dry season. Community leaders focused on second generation capacity development. A local health coalition provided ME services. Members of networks were sources of information and assistance. Face-to-face was the preferred method of communication. Barriers to engagement (e.g., financial difficulties, health literacy issues and underdeveloped infrastructure) were minimized through active collaboration and mutual assistance. In the community engagement continuum, health empowerment develops incrementally overtime as people gain their knowledge and skills, form

  11. Contests over social memory in waterfront Vancouver: Historical editing & obfuscation through public art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Brent Ingram

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Every public art site has a relationship to the history of surrounding areas whether in obscuring social memory or in highlighting certain relationships and events over others. Over the last decade, much of central Vancouver's waterfront, particularly around False Creek (a marine inlet, has been redeveloped with international capital - much of which has been linked to Hong Kong. Several large redevelopment areas have involved close cooperation in urban design processes between `the city' and `the developer'. In these megaprojects, public art has emerged as a more substantial and stable urban amenity while becoming less overtly ideological and associated with democratic public space. In this part of North America, such relatively public art projects have become almost iconographic for economic and social changes associated with globalization. Contentious historical information has tended to be censored - particularly around a range of non-European communities and events over the last century involving social conflict. In the same period, outdoor art has been increasingly used as a part of strategies to reclaim public space and attempts to democratize it. These two kinds and functions of public art have tended to be used for divergent experiences of the relationships of history to the present, of public space and the existence of and responses to social conflict, and of `sense of place'. Six public art sites, with four built, along the north shore of False Creek, in central Vancouver, are analyzed in terms of their cultural, urban and spatial politics and, in particular, in terms of contemporary tensions around the extent of aboriginal presence before and after the arrival of Europeans, the multiracial and multicultural origins and character of the city, contamination with toxic chemicals, violence against women, and the AIDS pandemic. A method for better analyzing the cultural politics of public art sites (and the design processes that were

  12. Substance use disorders among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people in custody: a public health opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, Ed; Davidson, Fiona; Andersen, Kimina; Kinner, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Background To describe the prevalence, type, and mental health correlates of substance use disorders in a large sample of incarcerated Indigenous Australians. Methods An epidemiological survey of the mental health of Indigenous people in custody in the state of Queensland, Australia was conducted using culturally informed methods. The prevalence, type and mental health correlates of substance use disorders were determined using a diagnostic interview and questionnaire. Results In a sample of ...

  13. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  14. Environmental impacts on human health during a Saharan dust episode at Crete Island, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastos, P.T. [Univ. of Athens, Athen (Greece). Lab. of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment; Kampanis, N.A. [Foundation for Research and Technology, Hellas (Greece). Inst of Applied and Computational Mathematics; Giaouzaki, K.N. [Univ. of Crete, Iraklion (Greece). Dept. of Cardiology; Matzarakis, A. [Univ. of Freiburg (Germany). Meteorological Inst.

    2011-10-15

    The objective of this study is to examine the synergistic environmental impacts (thermal bioclimatic conditions and air quality due to particulate pollution) with cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes, in Heraklion in the northern part of Crete Island, during a Saharan dust episode on March 22-23, 2008. Daily counts of admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory syndromes were obtained from the two main hospitals in Heraklion. The corresponding daily meteorological parameters, such as maximum and minimum air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and cloud cover, from the meteorological station of Heraklion (Hellenic National Meteorological Service), were processed in order to estimate and analyze the bioclimatic conditions expressed by the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), which is based on the energy balance models of the human body. Dust concentrations were derived from the SKIRON forecast model of the University of Athens, while Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products such as aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550), aerosol small mode fraction (SM), Aangstroem exponent in the 550-865 nm band and mass concentration, were used for the episode. Besides, daily composite anomalies (reference period: 1968-1996) of the air temperature and vector wind from the middle to the lower atmospheric levels (500 hPa - mean sea level) on March 23, 2008, were calculated from the reanalysis datasets of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The analysis of MODIS and SKIRON products showed that high AOD{sub 550} values (>0.9) and high dust concentration (>250 {mu}g/m{sup 3}), respectively, appear on March 23, 2008, while the respiratory admissions were five-fold than the mean daily admissions on the same day of the emergence of the Saharan dust episode (key day). According to the analysis, this is due to the existence of coarse-mode particles along the dust pathway, which

  15. A mental health first aid training program for Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples: description and initial evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanowski, Len G; Jorm, Anthony F; Hart, Laura M

    2009-01-01

    Background Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training was developed in Australia to teach members of the public how to give initial help to someone developing a mental health problem or in a mental health crisis situation. However, this type of training requires adaptation for specific cultural groups in the community. This paper describes the adaptation of the program to create an Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Mental Health First Aid (AMHFA) course and presents an initial evaluation of its uptake and acceptability. Methods To evaluate the program, two types of data were collected: (1) quantitative data on uptake of the course (number of Instructors trained and courses subsequently run by these Instructors); (2) qualitative data on strengths, weaknesses and recommendations for the future derived from interviews with program staff and focus groups with Instructors and community participants. Results 199 Aboriginal people were trained as Instructors in a five day Instructor Training Course. With sufficient time following training, the majority of these Instructors subsequently ran 14-hour AMHFA courses for Aboriginal people in their community. Instructors were more likely to run courses if they had prior teaching experience and if there was post-course contact with one of the Trainers of Instructors. Analysis of qualitative data indicated that the Instructor Training Course and the AMHFA course are culturally appropriate, empowering for Aboriginal people, and provided information that was seen as highly relevant and important in assisting Aboriginal people with a mental illness. There were a number of recommendations for improvements. Conclusion The AMHFA program is culturally appropriate and acceptable to Aboriginal people. Further work is needed to refine the course and to evaluate its impact on help provided to Aboriginal people with mental health problems. PMID:19490648

  16. Very high vitamin D supplementation rates among infants aged 2 months in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crocker Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D deficiency during infancy may lead to rickets and possibly other poor health outcomes. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months. Breast milk is the best food for infants but does not contain adequate vitamin D. Health Canada recommends all breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 400 IU; however, there appears to be limited current Canadian data as to whether parents or caregivers are following this advice. The aim of this study was to determine the rates of vitamin D supplementation among 2-month old infants in Vancouver and Richmond, British Columbia, Canada. Methods Mothers of all healthy infants born between April and May 2010 were approached to participate. Telephone surveys were conducted with 577 mothers (response rate 56% when their infants turned 2 months. Results Over half of the infants received only breast milk in the week prior to the survey. One third received a mixture of breast milk and infant formula and 10% received only formula. About 80% of the infants were supplemented with vitamin D at 2 months. Infants who received only breast milk were most likely to be supplemented with vitamin D (91%. Over 60% of the infants had a total vitamin D intake of 300- Conclusions About 90% of the infants received breast milk at 2 months of age. The vitamin D supplementation rate was 80%. Future studies are needed to monitor breastfeeding duration and vitamin D supplementation rates as infants get older.

  17. Medical Care Before and During the Winter Paralympic Games in Turin 2006, Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawroński Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Medical care in disabled sports is crucial both as prophylaxis and as ongoing medical intervention. The aim of this paper was to present changes in the quality of medical care over the consecutive Paralympic Games (PG. The study encompassed 31 paralympians: Turin (11, Vancouver (12, and Sochi (8 competing in cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, biathlon and snowboarding. The first, questionnaire-based, part of the study was conducted in Poland before the PG. The athletes assessed the quality of care provided by physicians, physiologists, dieticians, and physiotherapists, as well as their cooperation with the massage therapist and the psychologist. The other part of the study concerned the athletes’ health before leaving for the PG, as well as their diseases and injuries during the PG. The quality of medical care was poor before the 2006 PG, but satisfactory before the subsequent PG. Only few athletes made use of psychological support, assessing it as poor before the 2006 PG and satisfactory before the 2010 and 2014 PG. The athletes’ health condition was good during all PG. The health status of cross-country skiers was confirmed by a medical fitness certificate before all PG, while that of alpine skiers only before the 2014 PG. There were no serious diseases; training injuries precluded two athletes from participation. The quality of medical care before the PG was poor, however, became satisfactory during the actual PG. The resulting ad hoc pattern deviates from the accepted standards in medical care in disabled sports.

  18. Medical Care Before and During the Winter Paralympic Games in Turin 2006, Vancouver 2010 and Sochi 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawroński, Wojciech; Sobiecka, Joanna

    2015-11-22

    Medical care in disabled sports is crucial both as prophylaxis and as ongoing medical intervention. The aim of this paper was to present changes in the quality of medical care over the consecutive Paralympic Games (PG). The study encompassed 31 paralympians: Turin (11), Vancouver (12), and Sochi (8) competing in cross-country skiing, alpine skiing, biathlon and snowboarding. The first, questionnaire-based, part of the study was conducted in Poland before the PG. The athletes assessed the quality of care provided by physicians, physiologists, dieticians, and physiotherapists, as well as their cooperation with the massage therapist and the psychologist. The other part of the study concerned the athletes' health before leaving for the PG, as well as their diseases and injuries during the PG. The quality of medical care was poor before the 2006 PG, but satisfactory before the subsequent PG. Only few athletes made use of psychological support, assessing it as poor before the 2006 PG and satisfactory before the 2010 and 2014 PG. The athletes' health condition was good during all PG. The health status of cross-country skiers was confirmed by a medical fitness certificate before all PG, while that of alpine skiers only before the 2014 PG. There were no serious diseases; training injuries precluded two athletes from participation. The quality of medical care before the PG was poor, however, became satisfactory during the actual PG. The resulting ad hoc pattern deviates from the accepted standards in medical care in disabled sports.

  19. Community-based participatory research projects and policy engagement to protect environmental health on St Lawrence Island, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela K. Miller

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives . This article synthesizes discussion of collaborative research results, interventions and policy engagement for St Lawrence Island (SLI, Alaska, during the years 2000–2012. Methods . As part of on-going community-based participatory research (CBPR studies on SLI, 5 discrete exposure-assessment projects were conducted: (a a biomonitoring study of human blood serum; (b–d 3 investigations of levels of contaminants in environmental media at an abandoned military site at Northeast Cape – using sediment cores and plants, semi-permeable membrane devices and blackfish, respectively; and (e a study of traditional foods. Results . Blood serum in residents of SLI showed elevated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs with higher levels among those exposed to the military site at Northeast Cape, an important traditional subsistence-use area. Environmental studies at the military site demonstrated that the site is a continuing source of PCBs to a major watershed, and that clean-up operations at the military site generated PCB-contaminated dust on plants in the region. Important traditional foods eaten by the people of SLI showed elevated concentrations of PCBs, which are primarily derived from the long-range transport of persistent pollutants that are transported by atmospheric and marine currents from more southerly latitudes to the north. Interventions . An important task for all CBPR projects is to conduct intervention strategies as needed in response to research results. Because of the findings of the CBPR projects on SLI, the CBPR team and the people of the Island are actively engaging in interventions to ensure cleanup of the formerly used military sites; reform chemicals policy on a national level; and eliminate persistent pollutants internationally. The goal is to make the Island and other northern/Arctic communities safe for themselves and future generations. Conclusions . As part of the CBPR projects conducted from 2000 to 2012

  20. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander public health: online and integrated into core Master of Public Health subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynnell Angus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Master of Public Health (MPH is an internationally recognised post-graduate qualification for building the public health workforce. In Australia, MPH graduate attributes include six Indigenous public health (IPH competencies. The University of Melbourne MPH program includes five core subjects and ten specialisation streams, of which one is Indigenous health. Unless students complete this specialisation or electives in Indigenous health, it is possible for students to graduate without attaining the IPH competencies. To address this issue in a crowded and competitive curriculum an innovative approach to integrating the IPH competencies in core MPH subjects was developed. Five online modules that corresponded with the learning outcomes of the core public health subjects were developed, implemented and evaluated in 2015. This brief report outlines the conceptualisation, development, and description of the curriculum content; it also provides preliminary student evaluation and staff feedback on the integration project.

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Saipan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Asuncion Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Maug Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maug...

  6. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  7. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rose Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  8. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rota Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6 sites at Rota...

  9. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Oahu, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Oahu...

  10. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Uracas Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  11. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Wake Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at...

  12. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Sarigan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  13. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tinian Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 5 sites at...

  14. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kingman Reef, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  15. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Guguan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ofu-Olosega Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  17. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Ta'u Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Ta'u...

  18. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Lehua Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  19. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at...

  20. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Aguijan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 1 sites at...

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Alamagan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Agrihan Island, Marianas Archipelago in 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kaula Rock, Main Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at...

  4. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Tutuila Island, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 23 sites at...

  5. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at French Frigate Shoals, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at...

  6. Competing priorities that rival health in adults on probation in Rhode Island: substance use recovery, employment, housing, and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kimberly R; Must, Aviva; Tang, Alice M; Beckwith, Curt G; Stopka, Thomas J

    2018-02-27

    Individuals on probation experience economic disadvantage because their criminal records often prohibit gainful employment, which compromises their ability to access the basic components of wellbeing. Unemployment and underemployment have been studied as distinct phenomenon but no research has examined multiple determinants of health in aggregate or explored how these individuals prioritize each of these factors. This study identified and ranked competing priorities in adults on probation and qualitatively explored how these priorities impact health. We conducted in-depth interviews in 2016 with 22 adults on probation in Rhode Island to determine priority rankings of basic needs. We used Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory and the literature to guide the priorities we pre-selected for probationers to rank. Within a thematic analysis framework, we used a modified ranking approach to identify the priorities chosen by participants and explored themes related to the top four ranked priorities. We found that probationers ranked substance use recovery, employment, housing, and food intake as the top four priorities. Probationers in recovery reported sobriety as the most important issue, a necessary basis to be able to address other aspects of life. Participants also articulated the interrelatedness of difficulties in securing employment, food, and housing; these represent stressors for themselves and their families, which negatively impact health. Participants ranked healthcare last and many reported underinsurance as an issue to accessing care. Adults on probation are often faced with limited economic potential and support systems that consistently place them in high-risk environments with increased risk for recidivism. These findings emphasize the need for policies that address the barriers to securing gainful employment and safe housing. Interventions that reflect probationer priorities are necessary to begin to mitigate the health disparities in this population.

  7. Telling our stories: heroin-assisted treatment and SNAP activism in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Susan; Murray, Dave; MacPherson, Donald

    2017-05-18

    This article highlights the experiences of a peer-run group, SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP), that meets weekly in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. SNAP is a unique independent peer- run drug user group that formed in 2011 following Canada's first heroin-assisted treatment trial (HAT), North America Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI). SNAP's members are now made up of former research participants who participated in two heroin-assisted trials in Vancouver. This article highlights SNAP members' experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial conducted in Vancouver, Study to Assess Longer-term Opioid Medication Effectiveness (SALOME), that began recruitment of research participants in 2011. This paper draws on one brainstorming session, three focus groups, and field notes, with the SALOME/NAOMI Association of Patients (SNAP) in late 2013 about their experiences as research subjects in Canada's second clinical trial, SALOME in the DTES of Vancouver, and fieldwork from a 6-year period (March 2011 to February 2017) with SNAP members. SNAP's research draws on research principles developed by drug user groups and critical methodological frameworks on community-based research for social justice. The results illuminate how participating in the SALOME clinical trial impacted the lives of SNAP members. In addition, the findings reveal how SNAP member's advocacy for HAT impacts the group in positive ways. Seven major themes emerged from the analysis of the brainstorming and focus groups: life prior to SALOME, the clinic setting and routine, stability, 6-month transition, support, exiting the trial and ethics, and collective action, including their participation in a constitutional challenge in the Supreme Court of BC to continue receiving HAT once the SALOME trial ended. HAT benefits SNAP members. They argue that permanent HAT programs should be established in Canada because they are an effective harm reduction

  8. Social capital generators? A case study of industry associations within the Vancouver new media cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Petrusevich, Michelle Regina

    2005-01-01

    This thesis uses a case study approach to explore the question: "How do civic associations affect social capital formation in an industrial cluster?" The Vancouver new meda industry is the site of thls research, which is based on over seventy interviews, statistical information from published sources, qualitative and quantitative surveys, and participant observation. The study concludes that civic associations play a crucial role in influencing the production, quality, and amount of social ca...

  9. The conscious city II: traffic congestion and the tipping point in greater Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The Conscious City II explores how broad, long-term change toward sustainability in cities can be fostered, nurtured and facilitated. Using a qualitative, mixed-method approach, this research adapts a model from Malcolm Gladwell’s Tipping Point framework to explore how social consciousness can be mobilized to achieve change toward sustainability through an analysis of traffic congestion in Greater Vancouver. The results demonstrate the important influence of leadership, context and message on...

  10. Tile-Ippokratis: The Experience of an Ehealth Platform for the Provision of Health Care Services in the Island of Chios and Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Homer

    2010-01-01

    Tile-Ippokratis proposed an integrated platform for the provision of low-cost ehealth services to citizens in southeast Mediterranean area (Island of Chios and Cyprus). The aim of the paper is to present the architecture, the design, and the evaluation results of this platform. The platform based on already evaluated state-of-the-art mobile ehealth systems and using wireless and terrestrial telecommunication networks is able to provide the following health care services: (i) telecollaboration and teleconsultation services between health care personnel and between health care personnel and patients and (ii) ehealth services for “at risk” citizens such as elderly and patients with chronic diseases (Island of Chios) and postsurgery patients (Cyprus). The ehealth systems supported capabilities for vital signal measurements (ECG 1 lead, SPO2, HR, BP, weight, and temperature), an Electronic Patient Record (EPR) infrastructure, and video conference, along with communication gateways for data transmission over ADSL, GPRS, and WLAN networks. PMID:20871664

  11. Treatment of emulsified oily wastewater by commercial scale electrocoagulation at Vancouver shipyards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, R.J.; Tennant, B.D. [McKay Creek Technologies Ltd., North Vancouver, BC (Canada); Hartle, D.R. [Vancouver Shipping Co. Ltd., BC (Canada); Stuckert, B. [Quantum Environmental Group, Richmond, BC (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    Some of the emulsified oily wastewater generated by the Washington Marine Group fleet and the Vancouver shipyards are from sources such as bilge water, tank wash water from gas freeing operations, ballast water, and wastewater from pressure washing equipment. The Washington Marine Group is the largest shipbuilding, ship maintenance and repair, and marine transportation company in Canada, a group to which McKay Creek Technologies belongs. A investigation was performed in an attempt to find commercially viable means of treating this wastewater. McKay Creek Technologies developed its own cleaning process. Electrocoagulation is a process based on the use of an electrical current in an electrochemical cell to coagulate contaminants in wastewater. With three years of experience gained by treating the wastewater of the Washington Marine Group operations at Vancouver shipyards using this technology, McKay Creek Technologies has found ways to treat emulsified oily wastewater simply and effectively. It has been determined that electrocoagulation is an effective treatment method for emulsified oils, poly-nuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), poorly settling solids, poorly soluble organics, contaminants which add turbidity to water, and negatively charged metal species like arsenic, molybdenum, and phosphate. A brief history of electrocoagulation was provided, and the authors explained the process and how it was applied to the situation at Vancouver shipyards. 2 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. “SALOME gave my dignity back”: The role of randomized heroin trials in transforming lives in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Jozaghi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies on heroin-assisted treatment (HAT have been published in leading international journals, little attention has been given to HAT's clients, their stories, and what constitutes the most influential factor in the treatment process. The present study investigates the role of HAT in transforming the lives of injection drug users (IDUs in Vancouver, Canada. This study is qualitative focusing on 16 in-depth interviews with patients from the randomized trials of HAT. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically using NVivo 10 software. The findings revealed a positive change in many respects: the randomized trials reduce criminal activity, sex work, and illicit drug use. In addition, the trials improved the health and social functioning of its clients, with some participants acquiring work or volunteer positions. Many of the participants have been able to reconnect with their family members, which was not possible before the program. Furthermore, the relationship between the staff and patients at the project appears to have transformed the behavior of participants. Attending HAT in Vancouver has been particularly effective in creating a unique microenvironment where IDUs who have attended HAT have been able to form a collective identity advocating for their rights. The result of this research points to the need for continuation of the project beyond the current study, leading toward a permanent program.

  13. Vitamin D supplementation is associated with higher serum 25OHD in Asian and White infants living in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Tim J; Li, Wangyang; Barr, Susan I; Jahani, Mitra; Chapman, Gwen E

    2015-04-01

    To prevent rickets, the Health Canada and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that breastfed infants receive a daily vitamin D supplement of 10 μg d(-1) . Compliance with this recommendation is variable and its effect on infant vitamin D status is unclear. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in Asian immigrant (n=28) and White (n=37) mothers and their infants aged 2-4 months living in Vancouver (49°N). Mothers completed health and demographic questionnaires. All subjects were term infants who were primarily breastfed. Analysis of variance, χ(2) , multiple regression and logistic regression analysis were performed as appropriate. Mean 25OHD of the infants was 31 (95% confidence interval 28-34) ng mL(-1) . Only two infants had a 25OHD concentration indicative of deficiency, colour or ethnicity (Asian vs. White) did not influence infant 25OHD. The infants in our study, most of whom received vitamin D supplements, were generally protected against low 25OHD. The study was limited by sample size and the nature of the cross-sectional study design. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Baseline reef health surveys at Bangka Island (North Sulawesi, Indonesia reveal new threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Ponti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide coral reef decline appears to be accompanied by an increase in the spread of hard coral diseases. However, whether this is the result of increased direct and indirect human disturbances and/or an increase in natural stresses remains poorly understood. The provision of baseline surveys for monitoring coral health status lays the foundations to assess the effects of any such anthropogenic and/or natural effects on reefs. Therefore, the objectives of this present study were to provide a coral health baseline in a poorly studied area, and to investigate possible correlations between coral health and the level of anthropogenic and natural disturbances. During the survey period, we recorded 20 different types of coral diseases and other compromised health statuses. The most abundant were cases of coral bleaching, followed by skeletal deformations caused by pyrgomatid barnacles, damage caused by fish bites, general pigmentation response and galls caused by cryptochirid crabs. Instances of colonies affected by skeletal eroding bands, and sedimentation damage increased in correlation to the level of bio-chemical disturbance and/or proximity to villages. Moreover, galls caused by cryptochirid crabs appeared more abundant at sites affected by blast fishing and close to a newly opened metal mine. Interestingly, in the investigated area the percentage of corals showing signs of ‘common’ diseases such as black band disease, brown band disease, white syndrome and skeletal eroding band disease were relatively low. Nevertheless, the relatively high occurrence of less common signs of compromised coral-related reef health, including the aggressive overgrowth by sponges, deserves further investigation. Although diseases appear relatively low at the current time, this area may be at the tipping point and an increase in activities such as mining may irredeemably compromise reef health.

  15. Standardised alcohol screening in primary health care services targeting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mofizul; Oni, Helen T; Lee, K S Kylie; Hayman, Noel; Wilson, Scott; Harrison, Kristie; Hummerston, Beth; Ivers, Rowena; Conigrave, Katherine M

    2018-03-29

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) around Australia have been asked to standardise screening for unhealthy drinking. Accordingly, screening with the 3-item AUDIT-C (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption) tool has become a national key performance indicator. Here we provide an overview of suitability of AUDIT-C and other brief alcohol screening tools for use in ACCHSs. All peer-reviewed literature providing original data on validity, acceptability or feasibility of alcohol screening tools among Indigenous Australians was reviewed. Narrative synthesis was used to identify themes and integrate results. Three screening tools-full AUDIT, AUDIT-3 (third question of AUDIT) and CAGE (Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilty and Eye-opener) have been validated against other consumption measures, and found to correspond well. Short forms of AUDIT have also been found to compare well with full AUDIT, and were preferred by primary care staff. Help was often required with converting consumption into standard drinks. Researchers commented that AUDIT and its short forms prompted reflection on drinking. Another tool, the Indigenous Risk Impact Screen (IRIS), jointly screens for alcohol, drug and mental health risk, but is relatively long (13 items). IRIS has been validated against dependence scales. AUDIT, IRIS and CAGE have a greater focus on dependence than on hazardous or harmful consumption. Detection of unhealthy drinking before harms occur is a goal of screening, so AUDIT-C offers advantages over tools like IRIS or CAGE which focus on dependence. AUDIT-C's brevity suits integration with general health screening. Further research is needed on facilitating implementation of systematic alcohol screening into Indigenous primary healthcare.

  16. Conditions underpinning success in joint service-education workforce planning

    OpenAIRE

    Styles Laureen; Stevenson Lynn; Herringer Barbara; Purkis Mary; Van Neste-Kenny Jocelyne

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vancouver Island lies just off the southwest coast of Canada. Separated from the large urban area of Greater Vancouver (estimated population 2.17 million) by the Georgia Strait, this geographical location poses unique challenges in delivering health care to a mixed urban, rural and remote population of approximately 730 000 people living on the main island and the surrounding Gulf Islands. These challenges are offset by opportunities for the Vancouver Island Health Authority (VIHA) t...

  17. Antenatal emotional wellbeing screening in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausia, Kaniz; Thompson, Sandra; Nagel, Tricia; Rumbold, Alice; Connors, Christine; Matthews, Veronica; Boyle, Jacqueline; Schierhout, Gill; Bailie, Ross

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which antenatal emotional wellbeing (EW) assessments are undertaken in primary health care (PHC) centres and factors associated with completion of EW screening. Medical records of 797 pregnant women from 36 PHC centres in five states (NSW, QLD, SA, WA and NT) were audited. Overall, 85% of the women were Aboriginal. The proportion of women with documented screening for EW varied from 5 to 38% between states (mean 17%). Aboriginal women were four times more likely (adjusted Odds Ratio (OR = 4.13, 95% CI = 2.46-6.92) to not be screened for antenatal EW than non-Aboriginal women. Aboriginality, lack of counselling on financial support were independently linked with no screening of EW. Provision of training for health service providers and further research on appropriate screening tools for Aboriginal women are needed to help redress this gap.

  18. The Principles of Designing Hospital Hotel with the Approach of Health Tourism in Kish Island

    OpenAIRE

    Anosh Sheikh Kazemha; Kaveh Shokoohi Dehkordi

    2017-01-01

    Medical tourism is known as one of the fastest growing sectors of the world tourism industry. Today, medical tourism has been highly considered by tourists to take advantage of the health benefits and physical and psychological effects of specific areas. Medical tourism as one of the tourism dimensions helps the economy of the country. Given the lucrative nature of the industry, many developing and even developed countries, focus their attention on the industry sector and plan for it. Hospita...

  19. From 'what' to 'how' -- capacity building in health promotion for HIV/AIDS prevention in the Solomon Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; MacLaren, David; Isihanua, Angela; MacLaren, Michelle

    2007-09-01

    This paper describes a capacity building process undertaken within the HIV/AIDS prevention project of the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in the Solomon Islands. ADRA HIV/AIDS has recently reoriented its project structure, moving beyond its awareness raising approach to incorporate health promotion frameworks, theories, strategies and assumptions. These have been used to inform project practice in project planning, delivery and evaluation. This paper shares what has worked and not worked in the capacity building process, including a project evaluation of the initial HIV/AIDS awareness raising project and the application of a number of capacity building strategies, including utilising a volunteer Australian Youth Ambassador for Development (AYAD) funded by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID). Existing and new projects are outlined. The underlying theme is that any capacity building exercise must include structural support (e.g. management, national frameworks) to ensure the incorporation of new initiatives and approaches. With time this enables ownership by counterparts and external partnerships to develop. The presence of an AYAD volunteer has been an effective strategy to achieve this. Reflections from the evaluators, the AYAD volunteer and the HIV/AIDS team are included.

  20. Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Sleep Outcomes in the Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Marielle C; Gerber, Monica W; Ash, Tayla; Horan, Christine M; Taveras, Elsie M

    2018-05-16

    Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPIs) have the lowest attainment of healthy sleep duration among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We examined associations of neighborhood social cohesion with sleep duration and quality. Cross-sectional analysis of 2,464 adults in the NHPI National Health Interview Survey (2014). Neighborhood social cohesion was categorized as a continuous and categorical variable into low (15) according to tertiles of the distribution of responses. We used multinomial logistic regression to examine the adjusted odds ratio of short and long sleep duration relative to intermediate sleep duration. We used binary logistic regression for dichotomous sleep quality outcomes. Sleep outcomes were modeled as categorical variables. 40% of the cohort reported short (9 hours) duration. Mean (SE, range) social cohesion score was 12.4 units (0.11, 4-16) and 23% reported low social cohesion. In multivariable models, each 1 SD decrease in neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.29). Additionally, low social cohesion was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.13). No associations between neighborhood social cohesion and having trouble falling or staying asleep and feeling well rested were found. Low neighborhood social cohesion is associated with short sleep duration in NHPIs.

  1. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on the mental health and behavioral responses of the general population and nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1983-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, an accident occurred at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant Unit No. 2 near Middletown, PA. A Presidential Commission was established to investigate the incident and was given the responsibility to evaluate the actual and potential impact of the events on the health and safety of the workers and the public. A main conclusion of the investigation was that the most serious health effect was severe, short-lived mental stress. This paper describes the study and the findings for four different study groups: (1) the general population of heads of households located within 20 miles of the plant; (2) mothers of preschool children from the same area; (3) teenagers in the 7th, 9th, and 11th grades from the area; and (4) nuclear workers employed at the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant

  2. Pacific Island publications in the reproductive health literature 2000-2011: with New Zealand as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekeroma, Alec J; Pollock, Terina; Kenealy, Tim; Shulruf, Boaz; Shurulf, Boaz; Sopoaga, Faafetai; Montorzi, Gabriela; McCowan, Lesley M E; Hill, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    There is a keen interest to develop research systems and increase research output in the 14 Pacific Island Forum Countries (PIFC) to support development of policies and practice based on locally relevant research evidence. To assess the quantity and characteristics of reproductive health research output by each country (14 PIFC) from 2000 to 2011 using New Zealand's reproductive research outputs as the reference. A systematic search of the literature using a broad definition of reproductive health. There were 174 papers published in the PIFC from 2000 to 2011 compared with 628 papers published in New Zealand (NZ). Most (57%) of the PIFC papers were from Papua New Guinea (PNG), although Samoa had the most papers by population (10/100,000). Five of the countries did not have a single publication. The majority of papers from both the PIFC and NZ were observational studies (72 vs 36%). Authors from Australia were responsible for 34% of PIFC publications followed by 25% from PNG. Sixty-three per cent of papers by PIFC sole and first authors were published in local journals, whereas 86% of non-PIFC authors published in international journals. There is a need for reproductive research in PIFC. PNG had the most publications on the back of a well-funded dedicated research institute and a significant collaboration with Australian researchers. The large number of papers in PIFC countries without PIFC authors raises the question about the need to require non-PIFC researchers to enter into genuine research partnerships in order to build research capacity in the PIFC. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. Improvement of tuberculosis laboratory capacity on Pemba Island, Zanzibar: a health cooperation project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria G Paglia

    Full Text Available Low-income countries with high Tuberculosis burden have few reference laboratories able to perform TB culture. In 2006, the Zanzibar National TB Control Programme planned to decentralize TB diagnostics. The Italian Cooperation Agency with the scientific support of the "L. Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases sustained the project through the implementation of a TB reference laboratory in a low-income country with a high prevalence of TB. The implementation steps were: 1 TB laboratory design according to the WHO standards; 2 laboratory equipment and reagent supplies for microscopy, cultures, and identification; 3 on-the-job training of the local staff; 4 web- and telemedicine-based supervision. From April 2007 to December 2010, 921 sputum samples were received from 40 peripheral laboratories: 120 TB cases were diagnosed. Of all the smear-positive cases, 74.2% were culture-positive. During the year 2010, the smear positive to culture positive rate increased up to 100%. In March 20, 2010 the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Zanzibar officially recognized the Public Health Laboratory- Ivo de Carneri as the National TB Reference Laboratory for the Zanzibar Archipelago. An advanced TB laboratory can represent a low cost solution to strengthen the TB diagnosis, to provide capacity building and mid-term sustainability.

  4. Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Obesity Obesity and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders Native Hawaiians/Pacific ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...

  5. Public Health Needs Assessments of Tutuila Island, American Samoa, After the 2009 Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Ekta; Chen, Tai-Ho; Martin, Colleen; Vagi, Sara; Roth, Joseph; Keim, Mark; Noe, Rebecca; Ponausuia, Seiuli Elisapeta; Lemusu, Siitia; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Objective An 8.3 magnitude earthquake followed by tsunami waves devastated American Samoa on September 29, 2009, resulting in widespread loss of property and public services. An initial and a follow-up Community Needs Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER) objectively quantified disaster-affected population needs. Methods Using a 2-stage cluster sampling method of CASPER, a household questionnaire eliciting information about medical and basic needs, illnesses, and injuries was administered. To assess response efforts, percent changes in basic and medical needs, illnesses, and injuries between the initial and follow-up CASPER were calculated. Results During the initial CASPER (N=212 households), 47.6% and 51.6% of households reported needing a tarpaulin and having no electricity, respectively. The self-reported greatest needs were water (27.8%) and financial help with cleanup (25.5%). The follow-up CASPER (N=207 households) identified increased vector problems compared to pre-tsunami, and food (26%) was identified as the self-reported greatest need. As compared to the initial CASPER, the follow-up CASPER observed decreases in electricity (−78.3%), drinking water (−44.4%), and clothing (−26.6%). Conclusion This study highlights the use of CASPER during the response and recovery phases following a disaster. The initial CASPER identified basic needs immediately after the earthquake, whereas the follow-up CASPER assessed effectiveness of relief efforts and identified ongoing community needs. PMID:23077263

  6. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Langham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSocial and emotional wellbeing (SEWB is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS.MethodsCross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1 SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2 concern regarding SEWB, (3 actions in response to concern, and (4 follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening.ResultsThe largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases.ConclusionOur findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by

  7. Social and Emotional Wellbeing Screening for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders within Primary Health Care: A Series of Missed Opportunities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langham, Erika; McCalman, Janya; Matthews, Veronica; Bainbridge, Roxanne Gwendalyn; Nattabi, Barbara; Kinchin, Irina; Bailie, Ross

    2017-01-01

    Social and emotional wellbeing (SEWB) is a critical determinant of health outcomes for Indigenous Australians. This study examined the extent to which primary healthcare services (PHSs) undertake SEWB screening and management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients, and the variation in SEWB screening and management across Indigenous PHS. Cross-sectional analysis between 2012 and 2014 of 3,407 Indigenous client records from a non-representative sample of 100 PHSs in 4 Australian states/territory was undertaken to examine variation in the documentation of: (1) SEWB screening using identified measurement instruments, (2) concern regarding SEWB, (3) actions in response to concern, and (4) follow up actions. Binary logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with screening. The largest variation in SEWB screening occurred at the state/territory level. The mean rate of screening across the sample was 26.6%, ranging from 13.7 to 37.1%. Variation was also related to PHS characteristics. A mean prevalence of identified SEWB concern was 13% across the sample, ranging from 9 to 45.1%. For the clients where SEWB concern was noted, 25.4% had no referral or PHS action recorded. Subsequent internal PHS follow up after 1 month occurred in 54.7% of cases; and six-monthly follow up of referrals to external services occurred in 50.9% of cases. Our findings suggest that the lack of a clear model or set of guidelines on best practice for screening for SEWB in Indigenous health may contribute to the wide variation in SEWB service provision. The results tell a story of missed opportunities: 73.4% of clients were not screened and no further action was taken for 25.4% for whom an SEWB concern was identified. There was no follow up for just under half of those for whom action was taken. There is a need for the development of national best practice guidelines for SEWB screening and management, accompanied by dedicated SEWB funding, and training for health

  8. ZEUS contributions to the Real-Time 93 conference, Vancouver, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This is a collection of the eight contributions of the ZEUS Data Acquisition group, presented at the Eighth Conference on Real-Time Computer Applications in Nuclear, Particle and Plasma Physics, Vancouver, Canada, June 8-11, 1993. This note describes the major parts of the ZEUS Data Acquisition system and the experience gained since the first HERA running in April 1992. Note that the papers are appended in the order of recommended reading, which does not reflect the order of importance. The presenters for the papers are listed in the following. (orig.)

  9. Forest insect and disease conditions, Vancouver forest region, 1987. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, N; Ferris, R L

    1988-01-01

    The Forest Insect and Disease Survey (FIDS) is a nation-wide network within Forestry Canada with the responsibility of producing an overview of forest pest conditions and their implications; maintaining records and surveys to support quarantine and facilitate predictions; supporting forestry research with records, insect collections and herbaria; providing advice on forest insect and disease conditions; developing and testing survey techniques; and conducting related biological studies. This report outlines the status of forest pest conditions in the Vancouver Forest Region, and forecasts population trends of some potentially damaging pests. Pests are listed by host in order of importance.

  10. Marshall Islands

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    This note aims to build understanding of the existing disaster risk financing and insurance (DRFI) tools in use in The Marshall Islands and to identify gaps where potential engagement could further develop financial resilience. The likelihood that a hazardous event will have a significant impact on the Marshall Islands has risen with the increasing levels of population and assets in the urban ...

  11. Social and economic costs and health-related quality of life in stroke survivors in the Canary Islands, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Bastida Julio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-of-illness analysis is the main method of providing an overall vision of the economic impact of a disease. Such studies have been used to set priorities for healthcare policies and inform resource allocation. The aim of this study was to determine the economic burden and health-related quality of life (HRQOL in the first, second and third years after surviving a stroke in the Canary Islands, Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective study of 448 patients with stroke based on ICD 9 discharge codes, who received outpatient care at five hospitals. The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Nuestra Señora de la Candelaria University Hospital. Data on demographic characteristics, health resource utilization, informal care, labor productivity losses and HRQOL were collected from the hospital admissions databases and questionnaires completed by stroke patients or their caregivers. Labor productivity losses were calculated from physical units and converted into monetary units with a human capital-based method. HRQOL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Healthcare costs, productivity losses and informal care costs were analyzed with log-normal, probit and ordered probit multivariate models. Results The average cost for each stroke survivor was €17 618 in the first, €14 453 in the second and €12 924 in the third year after the stroke; the reference year for unit prices was 2004. The largest expenditures in the first year were informal care and hospitalizations; in the second and third years the main costs were for informal care, productivity losses and medication. Mean EQ-5D index scores for stroke survivors were 0.50 for the first, 0.47 for the second and 0.46 for the third year, and mean EQ-5D visual analog scale scores were 56, 52 and 55, respectively. Conclusions The main strengths of this study lie in our bottom-up-approach to costing, and in the evaluation of stroke survivors from a

  12. Prostitution in Vancouver: violence and the colonization of First Nations women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Melissa; Lynne, Jacqueline; Cotton, Ann J

    2005-06-01

    We interviewed 100 women prostituting in Vancouver, Canada. We found an extremely high prevalence of lifetime violence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Fifty-two percent of our interviewees were women from Canada's First Nations, a significant overrepresentation in prostitution compared with their representation in Vancouver generally (1.7-7%). Eighty-two percent reported a history of childhood sexual abuse, by an average of four perpetrators. Seventy-two percent reported childhood physical abuse, 90% had been physically assaulted in prostitution, 78% had been raped in prostitution. Seventy-two percent met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD. Ninety-five percent said that they wanted to leave prostitution. Eighty-six percent reported current or past homelessness with housing as one of their most urgent needs. Eighty-two percent expressed a need for treatment for drug or alcohol addictions. Findings are discussed in terms of the legacy of colonialism, the intrinsically traumatizing nature of prostitution and prostitution's violations of basic human rights.

  13. Socio Economic Status and Traumatic Brain Injury amongst Pediatric Populations: A Spatial Analysis in Greater Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Amram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within Canada, injuries are the leading cause of death amongst children fourteen years of age and younger, and also one of the leading causes of morbidity. Low Socio Economic Status (SES seems to be a strong indicator of a higher prevalence of injuries. This study aims to identify hotspots for pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI and examines the relationship between SES and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, British Columbia (BC, Canada. Methods: Pediatric TBI data from the BC Trauma Registry (BCTR was used to identify all pediatric TBI patients admitted to BC hospitals between the years 2000 and 2013. Spatial analysis was used to identify hotspots for pediatric TBI. Multivariate analysis was used to distinguish census variables that were correlated with rates of injury. Results: Six hundred and fifty three severe pediatric TBI injuries occurred within the BC Lower Mainland between 2000 and 2013. High rates of injury were concentrated in the East, while low rate clusters were most common in the West of the region (more affluent neighborhoods. A low level of education was the main predictor of a high rate of injury (OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.03–1.23, p-Value 0.009. Conclusion: While there was a clear relationship between different SES indicators and pediatric TBI rates in greater Vancouver, income-based SES indicators did not serve as good predictors within this region.

  14. Perceived discrimination and its associations with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander undergraduate and graduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.

  15. Maternal self-report of oral health in 4-year-old Pacific children from South Auckland, New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Durward, Callum; Cartwright, Susan; Paterson, Janis

    2007-01-01

    To report on the oral health risk in a disadvantaged group of 4-year-old Pacific children and their mothers living in South Auckland, New Zealand. The Pacific Islands Families study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. Maternal self-report of mother and child's oral health practices and child's filling and extraction experience was undertaken at interview approximately 4 years postpartum. Overall, 1,048 mothers of children were interviewed. Children's reported oral health practices were generally poor, with 47 percent brushing Culturally appropriate and targeted strategies aimed at these modifiable practices need to be widely promoted so that the oral health burden carried by Pacific children can be reduced.

  16. The Influence of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals on Undocumented Asian and Pacific Islander Young Adults: Through a Social Determinants of Health Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhinaraset, May; To, Tu My; Ling, Irving; Melo, Jason; Chavarin, Josue

    2017-06-01

    There is an urgent need to provide evidence-based policies to address the health of the 11.7 million undocumented immigrants in the United States. Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) offers temporary relief to qualified undocumented immigrants. Asians and Pacific Islanders (APIs), in particular, are the fastest growing immigrant population; yet, little is known about their health challenges. This article examines the influence of DACA on the health of API undocumented young adults. In total, 32 unique participants participated in 24 in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions. Participants were aged 18-31 years and identified as undocumented API. DACA potentially improves health outcomes through four potential social determinants: economic stability, educational opportunities, social and community contexts, and access to health care. These determinants improve the mental health and sense of well-being among undocumented young adults. Targeted outreach and education in communities should be informed by these research findings with an eye toward promoting the economic, education, and health benefits of enrolling in DACA. Social policies that address the social determinants of health have significant potential to address health inequities. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S.; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-01-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning...

  18. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 2 - Energy consumption and density mapping. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The second task in the overall project was the mapping of regional energy consumption density. Combined with the findings from task one, this enables comparison of energy consumption density per area unit with the renewable energy resource availability. In addition, it provides an energy baseline against which future energy planning activities can be evaluated. The mapping of the energy consumption density was divided into categories to correspond with local British Columbia Assessment Authority (BCAA) reporting. The residential sub-categories were comprised of single family detached dwellings, single family attached dwellings, apartments, and moveable dwellings. For commercial and industrial end-users the 14 sub-categories are also in line with BCAA as well as the on-going provincial TaNDM project of which the CVRD is a partner. The results of task two are documented in this report. (LN)

  19. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 5 - Energy density mapping projections. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Task 5 focused on energy projection mapping to estimate and visualise the energy consumption density and GHG emissions under different scenarios. The scenarios from task 4 were built around the energy consumption density of the residential sector under future land use patterns and rely on different energy source combinations (the suite of pathways). In task 5 the energy usage under the different scenarios were fed back into GIS, thereby giving a visual representation of forecasted residential energy consumption per unit area. The methodology is identical to that used in task 2 where current usage was mapped, whereas the mapping in this task is for future forecasts. These results are documented in this report. In addition, GHG mapping under the various scenarios was also undertaken. (LN)

  20. Pathogenicity of the bioherbicide fungus chondrostereum purpureum to some trees and shrubs of southern Vancouver Island. FRDA report No. 246

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, R.E.

    1996-11-01

    Chondrostereum purpureum is a common stem-invading fungus of trees and shrubs. The fungus has attracted interest as a bioherbicide, but a better understanding of its biology is required. This study was undertaken to determine the range of virulence of isolates of C. purpureum from a given region on major hardwood species in British Columbia. The investigators inoculated wounds of stems of standing red alder (Alnus rubra) and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum) saplings with 11 isolates of the fungus and measured the resulting stem cankers as an index of virulence. They also inoculated eight hardwood and shrub species with two isolates to demonstrate the range of susceptibility of species to the fungus, as well as the intraspecific variation.

  1. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 3 - Analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The third task built upon the findings of the previous two and undertook an analysis of potentially applicable distributed energy opportunities. These opportunities were analysed given a number of different parameters, which were decided upon in consultation with the CVRD. The primary output of this task was a series of cost figures for the various technologies, thus allowing comparison on a cents/kWh basis. All of the cost figures from this task have been entered into a tailor made Excel model. This 'technology cost' model is linked to the Excel scenario model utilised in task 4. As a result, as technology costs change, they can be updated accordingly and be reflected in the scenarios. Please note, that the technologies considered at present in the technology cost model are well-proven technologies, available in the market today, even though the output is being used for an analysis of development until 2050. Task 3 results are detailed in this report and both presents an initial screening for various local renewable energies, and provides the CVRD with the means of evaluating the costs and benefits of local energy productions versus imported energy. (LN)

  2. Developing an instrument for assessing fidelity of motivational care planning: The Aboriginal and Islander Mental health initiative adherence scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Phuong-Tu; Nagel, Tricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and trial an Adherence Scale to measure fidelity of Motivational Care Planning (MCP) within a clinical trial. This culturally adapted therapy MCP uses a client centered holistic approach that emphasises family and culture to motivate healthy life style changes. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale (MCP-AS) was developed through consultation with Aboriginal and Islander Mental Health Initiative (AIMhi) Indigenous and non-Indigenous trainers, and review of MCP training resources. The resultant ten-item scale incorporates a 9-Point Likert Scale with a supporting protocol manual and uses objective, behaviourally anchored criteria for each scale point. A fidelity assessor piloted the tool through analysis of four audio-recordings of MCP (conducted by Indigenous researchers within a study in remote communities in Northern Australia). File audits of the remote therapy sessions were utilised as an additional source of information. A Gold Standard Motivational Care Planning training video was also assessed using the MCP-AS. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale contains items measuring both process and content of therapy sessions. This scale was used successfully to assess therapy through observation of audio or video-recorded sessions and review of clinical notes. Treatment fidelity measured by the MCP-AS within the pilot study indicated high fidelity ratings. Ratings were high across the three domains of rapport, motivation, and self-management with especially high ratings for positive feedback and engagement, review of stressors and goal setting. The Motivational Care Planning-Adherence Scale has the potential to provide a measure of quality of delivery of Motivation Care Planning. The pilot findings suggest that despite challenges within the remote Indigenous community setting, Indigenous therapists delivered therapy that was of high fidelity. While developed as a research tool, the scale has the potential to

  3. Effect of recycling activities on the heating value of solid waste: case study of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (Metro Vancouver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Ali R; Atwater, James W; Fu, George Yuzhu

    2012-08-01

    Two main goals of the integrated solid waste management system (ISWMS) of Metro Vancouver (MV) include further recycling of waste and energy recovery via incineration of waste. These two very common goals, however, are not always compatible enough to fit in an ISWMS depending on waste characteristics and details of recycling programs. This study showed that recent recycling activities in MV have negatively affected the net heating value (NHV) of municipal solid waste (MSW) in this regional district. Results show that meeting MV's goal for additional recycling of MSW by 2015 will further reduce the NHV of waste, if additional recycling activities are solely focused on more extensive recycling of packaging materials (e.g. paper and plastic). It is concluded that 50% additional recycling of paper and plastic in MV will increase the overall recycling rate to 70% (as targeted by the MV for 2015) and result in more than 8% reduction in NHV of MSW. This reduction translates to up to 2.3 million Canadian dollar (CAD$) less revenue at a potential waste-to-energy (WTE) plant with 500 000 tonnes year(-1) capacity. Properly designed recycling programmes, however, can make this functional element of ISWMS compatible with green goals of energy recovery from waste. Herein an explanation of how communities can increase their recycling activities without affecting the feasibility of potential WTE projects is presented.

  4. Online Hookup Sites for Meeting Sexual Partners Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Rhode Island, 2013: A Call for Public Health Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Philip A; Towey, Caitlin; Poceta, Joanna; Rose, Jennifer; Bertrand, Thomas; Kantor, Rami; Harvey, Julia; Santamaria, E Karina; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Nunn, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Frequent use of websites and mobile telephone applications (apps) by men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners, commonly referred to as "hookup" sites, make them ideal platforms for HIV prevention messaging. This Rhode Island case study demonstrated widespread use of hookup sites among MSM recently diagnosed with HIV. We present the advertising prices and corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of the top five sites used by newly diagnosed HIV-positive MSM to meet sexual partners: Grindr, Adam4Adam, Manhunt, Scruff, and Craigslist. Craigslist offered universal free advertising. Scruff offered free online advertising to selected nonprofit organizations. Grindr and Manhunt offered reduced, but widely varying, pricing for nonprofit advertisers. More than half (60%, 26/43) of newly diagnosed MSM reported meeting sexual partners online in the 12 months prior to their diagnosis. Opportunities for public health agencies to promote HIV-related health messaging on these sites were limited. Partnering with hookup sites to reach high-risk MSM for HIV prevention and treatment messaging is an important public health opportunity for reducing disease transmission risks in Rhode Island and across the United States.

  5. Does ethno-cultural betrayal in trauma affect Asian American/Pacific Islander college students' mental health outcomes? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M

    2017-01-01

    Interpersonal trauma has deleterious effects on mental health, with college students experiencing relatively high rates of lifetime trauma. Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) have the lowest rate of mental healthcare utilization. According to cultural betrayal trauma theory, societal inequality may impact within-group violence in minority populations, thus having implications for mental health. In the current exploratory study, between-group (interracial) and within-group (ethno-cultural betrayal) trauma and mental health outcomes were examined in AAPI college students. Participants (N = 108) were AAPI college students from a predominantly white university. Data collection concluded in December 2015. Participants completed online self-report measures. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed that when controlling for interracial trauma, ethno-cultural betrayal trauma significantly impacted dissociation, hallucinations, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hypervigilance. The results have implications for incorporating identity, discrimination, and ethno-cultural betrayal trauma victimization into assessments and case conceptualizations in therapy.

  6. NEGOTIATING STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY FOLLOWING REGULATORY CHANGES TO A PROVINCIAL METHADONE PROGRAM IN VANCOUVER, CANADA: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Anderson, Solanna; Maher, Lisa; Keewatin, Chereece; Milloy, MJ; Wood, Evan; Small, Will

    2015-01-01

    While regulatory frameworks governing methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) require highly regimented treatment programs that shape treatment outcomes, little research has examined the effects of regulatory changes to these programs on those receiving treatment, and located their experiences within the wider context of socialstructural inequities. In British Columbia (BC), Canada, provincial regulations governing MMT have recently been modified, including: replacing the existing methadone formulation with Methadose® (pre-mixed and 10 times more concentrated); prohibiting pharmacy delivery of methadone; and, prohibiting pharmacies incentives for methadone dispensation. We undertook this study to examine the impacts of these changes on a structurally vulnerable population enrolled in MMT in Vancouver, BC. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 people enrolled in MMT and recruited from two ongoing observational prospective cohort studies comprised of drug-using individuals in the six-month period in 2014 following these regulatory changes. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, and by drawing on the concept of ‘structural vulnerability’. Findings underscore how these regulatory changes disrupted treatment engagement, producing considerable health and social harms. The introduction of Methadose® precipitated increased withdrawal symptoms. The discontinuation of pharmacy delivery services led to interruptions in MMT and codispensed HIV medications due to constraints stemming from their structural vulnerability (e.g., poverty, homelessness). Meanwhile, the loss of pharmacy incentives limited access to material supports utilized by participants to overcome barriers to MMT, while diminishing their capacity to assert some degree of agency in negotiating dispensation arrangements with pharmacies. Collectively, these changes functioned to compromise MMT engagement and increased structural vulnerability to harm, including re-initiation of injection drug

  7. The Learning Exchange: A Shared Space for the University of British Columbia and Vancouver's Downtown Eastside Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Leahy, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Exchange was established by the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 1999 in Vancouver's Downtown Eastside (DTES). The challenge has been to create a shared space for learning exchanges between two very different communities: a research-intensive university and an inner city area most commonly depicted as a place of hopelessness.…

  8. Toward a cardiovascular pathology training report on the forum held in Vancouver, March 6, 2004, Society for Cardiovascular Pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiene, Gaetano; Becker, Anton E.; Buja, L. Maximilian; Fallon, John T.; McManus, Bruce M.; Schoen, Frederick J.; Winters, Gayle L.

    2005-01-01

    Cardiovascular pathology is a subspecialty of anatomic pathology that requires both clinical education and expertise in contemporary physiopathology. The Society for Cardiovascular Pathology sponsored a special workshop within the frame of the USCAP Annual Meeting, held in Vancouver, March 6-12,

  9. The impact of visual air quality on tourism revenues in Greater Vancouver and the Lower Fraser Valley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeill, R. [Environment Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Roberge, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Greater Vancouver area has been experiencing common episodes of poor visibility as a result of urban and agricultural sources of emissions. A study was conducted to determine the response of tourists in the Vancouver and Lower Fraser Valley Regions to visible air quality and to estimate the potential losses in tourist revenue due to poor visibility episodes. This was accomplished using an interactive survey of tourists in 1999. The results were statistically analyzed to develop visibility response functions. A simple economic model based on the visibility response function was then created to predict losses in tourist revenue. The group of tourists were shown four photographic slides of the Valley and Vancouver area depicting various stages of degradation in visibility. They were asked to rate each slide as either acceptable or unacceptable (if they would not make a return visit). Unacceptability rates for the four camera locations were statistically analyzed. The effect of clouds and the measurable visibility parameter was examined. The model predicts future tourist revenue losses in the amount of $7.45 million for the Greater Vancouver Area and $1.32 million in the Fraser Valley. It was recommended that further research should be conducted with more camera locations to provide a wider variety of viewpoints for assessment. This study can provide direction in setting policies to improve visibility in the region. 25 refs., 20 tabs., 4 figs., 3 appendices.

  10. A Search for Decolonizing Place-Based Pedagogies: An Exploration of Unheard Histories in Kitsilano Vancouver, B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elizabeth Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the ways that place-based pedagogies can facilitate dialogue on colonization, or some of the "dark matters" of environmental education, specifically by engaging non-Indigenous adults in decolonizing dialogues. I share findings from an action research project with Kitsilano Neighbourhood House in Vancouver, British…

  11. Perks of controlled circ: a case study of the distribution practices of Vancouver and Western Living magazines

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Melanie

    2007-01-01

    This report examines controlled-circulation magazines using Vancouver and Western Living magazines as successful examples. It provides an analysis of the workings of controlled circulation with reference to advertising, editorial, branding, and operations, and shows how magazines with this distribution method can be successful despite publishing professionals’ common assumption that controlled-circulation magazines are of lesser quality than paid-circulation magazines.

  12. Preparing for Further Introduction of Computing Technology in Vancouver Community College Instruction. Report of the Instructional Computing Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancouver Community Coll., British Columbia.

    After examining the impact of changing technology on postsecondary instruction and on the tools needed for instruction, this report analyzes the status and offers recommendations concerning the future of instructional computing at Vancouver Community College (VCC) in British Columbia. Section I focuses on the use of computers in community college…

  13. Heron Island, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heron Island is located at the sourthern end of Australia's 2,050 km-long Great Barrier Reef. Surrounded by coral reef and home to over 1000 species of fish, scuba divers and scientists alike are drawn to the island's resort and research station. The true-color image above was taken by Space Imaging's Ikonos satellite with a resolution of 4 meters per pixel-high enough to see individual boats tied up at the small marina. The narrow channel leading from the marina to the ocean was blasted and dredged decades ago, before the island became a national park. Since then the Australian government has implemented conservation measures, such as limiting the number of tourists and removing or recycling, instead of incinerating, all trash. One of the applications of remote sensing data from Ikonos is environmental monitoring, including studies of coral reef health. For more information about the island, read Heron Island. Image by Robert Simmon, based on data copyright Space Imaging

  14. Re-development of mental health first aid guidelines for supporting Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in non-suicidal self-injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Gregory; Ironfield, Natalie; Kelly, Claire M; Dart, Katrina; Arabena, Kerry; Bond, Kathy; Jorm, Anthony F

    2017-08-22

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) disproportionally affects Indigenous Australians. Friends, family and frontline workers (for example, teachers, youth workers) are often best positioned to provide initial assistance if someone is engaging in NSSI. Culturally appropriate expert consensus guidelines on how to provide mental health first aid to Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders who are engaging in NSSI were developed in 2009. This study describes the re-development of these guidelines to ensure they contain the most current recommended helping actions. The Delphi consensus method was used to elicit consensus on potential helping statements to be included in the guidelines. These statements describe helping actions that Indigenous community members and non-Indigenous frontline workers can take, and information they should have, to help someone who is engaging in NSSI. The statements were sourced from systematic searches of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, books, websites and online materials, and existing NSSI courses. A panel was formed, comprising 26 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders with expertise in NSSI. The panellists were presented with the helping statements via online questionnaires and were encouraged to suggest re-wording of statements and any additional helping statements that were not included in the original questionnaire. Statements were only accepted for inclusion in the guidelines if they were endorsed by ≥90% of panellists as essential or important. From a total of 185 statements shown to the expert panel, 115 were endorsed as helping statements to be included in the re-developed guidelines. A panel of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with expertise in NSSI were able to reach consensus on appropriate strategies for providing mental health first aid to an Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander engaging in NSSI. The re-development of the guidelines has resulted in more comprehensive guidance than the earlier

  15. Accessibility to health care facilities in Montreal Island: an application of relative accessibility indicators from the perspective of senior and non-senior residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morency Catherine

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographical access to health care facilities is known to influence health services usage. As societies age, accessibility to health care becomes an increasingly acute public health concern. It is known that seniors tend to have lower mobility levels, and it is possible that this may negatively affect their ability to reach facilities and services. Therefore, it becomes important to examine the mobility situation of seniors vis-a-vis the spatial distribution of health care facilities, to identify areas where accessibility is low and interventions may be required. Methods Accessibility is implemented using a cumulative opportunities measure. Instead of assuming a fixed bandwidth (i.e. a distance threshold for measuring accessibility, in this paper the bandwidth is defined using model-based estimates of average trip length. Average trip length is an all-purpose indicator of individual mobility and geographical reach. Adoption of a spatial modelling approach allows us to tailor these estimates of travel behaviour to specific locations and person profiles. Replacing a fixed bandwidth with these estimates permits us to calculate customized location- and person-based accessibility measures that allow inter-personal as well as geographical comparisons. Data The case study is Montreal Island. Geo-coded travel behaviour data, specifically average trip length, and relevant traveller's attributes are obtained from the Montreal Household Travel Survey. These data are complemented with information from the Census. Health care facilities, also geo-coded, are extracted from a comprehensive business point database. Health care facilities are selected based on Standard Industrial Classification codes 8011-21 (Medical Doctors and Dentists. Results Model-based estimates of average trip length show that travel behaviour varies widely across space. With the exception of seniors in the downtown area, older residents of Montreal Island tend to be

  16. The use of environmental assessment in port management: The case of Vancouver, B.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgison, J.P.; Day, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The approach adopted to assess the environmental impacts of development proposals in the Port of Vancouver is analyzed. The institutional and regulatory system for managing Canada's largest port is examined to identify opportunities for, and impediments to, application of effective environmental impact assessments. The Exxon Valdez and Nestucca, Washington incidents increased public awareness and concern regarding the magnitude and effect of bulk liquid commodity spills along the Canadian west coast. In September 1990, the federally mandated Public Review Panel on Tanker Safety and Marine Spills Response Capability concluded that environmental assessment and review of terminal expansion proposals must address the impact of expanded liquid cargo shipments on surrounding communities and risk to air and water quality. It is recommended that assessment consistency, comprehensiveness, and objectiveness should be defined through formulation of legally binding regulations under the forthcoming Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. 23 refs., 1 fig

  17. Experimental High-Resolution Land Surface Prediction System for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belair, S.; Bernier, N.; Tong, L.; Mailhot, J.

    2008-05-01

    The 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games will take place in Vancouver, Canada, from 12 to 28 February 2010 and from 12 to 21 March 2010, respectively. In order to provide the best possible guidance achievable with current state-of-the-art science and technology, Environment Canada is currently setting up an experimental numerical prediction system for these special events. This system consists of a 1-km limited-area atmospheric model that will be integrated for 16h, twice a day, with improved microphysics compared with the system currently operational at the Canadian Meteorological Centre. In addition, several new and original tools will be used to adapt and refine predictions near and at the surface. Very high-resolution two-dimensional surface systems, with 100-m and 20-m grid size, will cover the Vancouver Olympic area. Using adaptation methods to improve the forcing from the lower-resolution atmospheric models, these 2D surface models better represent surface processes, and thus lead to better predictions of snow conditions and near-surface air temperature. Based on a similar strategy, a single-point model will be implemented to better predict surface characteristics at each station of an observing network especially installed for the 2010 events. The main advantage of this single-point system is that surface observations are used as forcing for the land surface models, and can even be assimilated (although this is not expected in the first version of this new tool) to improve initial conditions of surface variables such as snow depth and surface temperatures. Another adaptation tool, based on 2D stationnary solutions of a simple dynamical system, will be used to produce near-surface winds on the 100-m grid, coherent with the high- resolution orography. The configuration of the experimental numerical prediction system will be presented at the conference, together with preliminary results for winter 2007-2008.

  18. The emerging threats of climate change on tropical coastal ecosystem services, public health, local economies and livelihood sustainability of small islands: Cumulative impacts and synergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Delgado, E A

    2015-12-15

    Climate change has significantly impacted tropical ecosystems critical for sustaining local economies and community livelihoods at global scales. Coastal ecosystems have largely declined, threatening the principal source of protein, building materials, tourism-based revenue, and the first line of defense against storm swells and sea level rise (SLR) for small tropical islands. Climate change has also impacted public health (i.e., altered distribution and increased prevalence of allergies, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases). Rapid human population growth has exacerbated pressure over coupled social-ecological systems, with concomitant non-sustainable impacts on natural resources, water availability, food security and sovereignty, public health, and quality of life, which should increase vulnerability and erode adaptation and mitigation capacity. This paper examines cumulative and synergistic impacts of climate change in the challenging context of highly vulnerable small tropical islands. Multiple adaptive strategies of coupled social-ecological ecosystems are discussed. Multi-level, multi-sectorial responses are necessary for adaptation to be successful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Acculturation and its impact on the oral health status of Pacific children in New Zealand: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluter, Philip J; Kanagaratnam, Sathananthan; Taylor, Steve; Tautolo, El-Shadan

    2017-06-01

    Immigration and acculturation are increasingly recognized as important explanatory factors for health disparities, although their impact on oral health is less well understood. This study investigates the relationship between Pacific children's cultural orientation and oral health, after adjusting for potentially moderating and confounding variables. The Pacific Islands Families (PIF) study follows a cohort of Pacific infants born in 2000. PIF study participants' data from their last dental examination were extracted from service records, and matched to the cohort. A bi-directional acculturation classification, derived from maternal reports, was related to children's oral health indices in crude and adjusted analyses. 1,376 children were eligible, of whom 922 (67.0 percent) had mothers born outside New Zealand. Matching was successful for 970 (70.5 percent) children, with mean age 12.2 years (range: 6.8, 15.4 years). Significant differences were found between acculturation groups for children's tooth brushing frequency and school dental service enrollments but these differences did not moderate relationships between acculturation and oral health status. Unmet treatment need was significantly different between acculturation groups, with children of mothers having higher Pacific orientation having worse unmet needs than those with lower Pacific orientation. No other significant differences were noted. Pacific children carry a disproportionate oral health burden, particularly amongst those with mothers more aligned to their Pacific culture. Strategies which enable Pacific people to re-shape their oral health understanding, together with reducing barriers to accessing dental health care, are needed to prevent a legacy of poor oral health in Pacific people within New Zealand. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Class renormalization: islands around islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiss, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    An orbit of 'class' is one that rotates about a periodic orbit of one lower class with definite frequency. This contrasts to the 'level' of a periodic orbit which is the number of elements in its continued fraction expansion. Level renormalization is conventionally used to study the structure of quasi-periodic orbits. The scaling structure of periodic orbits encircling other periodic orbits in area preserving maps is discussed here. Fixed points corresponding to the accumulation of p/q bifurcations are found and scaling exponents determined. Fixed points for q > 2 correspond to self-similar islands around islands. Frequencies of the island boundary circles at the fixed points are obtained. Importance of this scaling for the motion of particles in stochastic regions is emphasized. (author)

  1. Welfare Checks, Drug Consumption, and Health: Evidence from Vancouver Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Chris; Riddell, Rosemarie

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the link between welfare payments and drug use among injection drug users. The authors find an increase in the likelihood of an overdose in the days following check arrival, and in the probability of leaving the hospital against medical advice (AMA) on check day. Using the check arrival date as an instrument, we estimate…

  2. Assessing beliefs and risk perceptions on smoking and smoking cessation in immigrant Chinese adult smokers residing in Vancouver, Canada: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, J Mark; Poureslami, Iraj; Shum, Jessica

    2015-02-03

    We aimed to conduct culturally-based participatory research to assess cultural and belief contexts for smoking behaviours within Mandarin and Cantonese communities. Outcome variables were smoking-related knowledge, smoking patterns, attitudes and beliefs, and perceived barriers and facilitators to successful cessation. A community-based approach was applied involving smokers, community key-informants and professionals in study design and implementation. Initially, focus groups were conducted and findings were used to develop study instrument. Participants responded once to study questionnaire after informed consent. Community based in the Greater Vancouver Area, Canada. 16 Chinese smokers participated in focus groups and subsequently, 167 current Chinese immigrant (137 males and 30 females) smokers from Mandarin and Cantonese communities, recruited with the help of community agencies and collaborating physicians, were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. We found that a majority believed smoking was harmful on their health. Younger smokers (Cantonese smokers (pculturally and linguistically appropriate cessation programmes impacted on their ability to quit smoking. Our study highlighted the importance of tobacco beliefs and perceptions among Mandarin and Cantonese speaking immigrants with limited access to healthcare information and for younger smokers whose attention to health consequences of smoking may be limited as well. Study participants were generally aware of the health risks and were willing to quit. Access to appropriate cessation programmes would fulfil their willingness. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Using systems thinking and the Intervention Level Framework to analyse public health planning for complex problems: Otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Jo; Schubert, Lisa; Vaughan, Lisa; Willis, Cameron D

    2018-01-01

    Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. The objective of this paper is to examine the alignment between efforts designed to address otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Queensland, Australia and core concepts of systems thinking. This paper's overall purpose is to identify which combination of activities, and at which level, hold the potential to facilitate systems changes to better support ear health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. We began with a review of documents identified in consultation with stakeholders and an online search. In addition, key informants were invited to participate in an online survey and a face-to-face or phone interview. Qualitative interviews using a semi-structured interview guide were used to explore survey responses in more depth. We also undertook interviews at the community level to elicit a diverse range of views. Ideas, statements or activities reported in the documents and interviews as being performed under the Intervention Level Framework were identified using qualitative thematic and content analysis. A quantitative descriptive analysis was also undertaken, whereby data was extracted into an Excel spreadsheet and coded under the relevant strategic directions and performance indicators of the Framework. Subsequently, we coded activities against the five-level intervention framework developed by Malhi and colleagues, that is: 1) paradigm; 2) goals; 3) system structure; 4) feedback and delays; and 5) structural elements. Overall, twenty

  4. Collaborative Citation Analysis and Accuracy Degree of Vancouver Style Application in References Of The Scientific Journal of Birjand University Of Medical Sciences: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    halimeh sadeghi

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: It was found that in the bibliography Of the cited English articles, Vancouver style had not been applied completely, which should be paid attention to by scholars in their initial surveying of the articles.

  5. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability and validity of the Vancouver classification system of periprosthetic femoral fractures after hip arthroplasty.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Naqvi, Gohar A

    2012-06-01

    The Vancouver classification system of periprosthetic fractures has been revalidated in this study, using the radiographs of 45 patients. Three consultants and 3 trainees reviewed the radiographs independently, on 2 separate occasions, at least 2 weeks apart. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement and validity were analyzed, using weighted κ statistics. The mean κ value for interobserver agreement was found to be 0.69 (0.63-0.72) for consultants and 0.61 (0.56-0.65) for the trainees, both representing substantial agreement. Intraobserver κ values ranged from 0.74 to 0.90, showing substantial agreement. Validity analysis of 37 type B cases revealed 81% agreement within B1, B2, and B3 subgroups with a κ value of 0.68 (substantial agreement). This study has reconfirmed the reliability and validity of the Vancouver classification while it also emphasizes the intraoperative assessment of implant stability.

  6. Population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. Preliminary estimates for the period March 28, 1979--April 7, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battist, L.; Congel, F.; Buchanan, J.; Peterson, H.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a preliminary assessment of the radiation dose and potential health impact of the accident on March 28, 1979 at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station. This assessment was prepared by a task group composed of technical staff members from The Environmental Protection Agency, The Department of Health, Education and Welfare, and The Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The estimated dose that might have been received by an individual is less than 100 mrem. The collective dose received by the 2,164,000 people estimated to live within 50 miles of the reactor site is calculated to be 3,300 person-rem (with a range of 1600 to 5300 person-rem). This corresponds to an average dose of approximately 1.5 mrem. The potential number of fatal cancers that is projected to occur as a result of the accident is less than 1. This potential impact would be undetectable compared to the 325,000 cancer deaths that would normally be expected to occur in a population of 2,164,000. The estimated total health impact, including fatal and non-fatal cancers and genetic effects to all future generations is approximately 2 health effects

  7. Observations on health outcome studies of exposure of the worker and the general population during the nuclear reactor accident at three mile island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island in March 1979 resulted in the release of radioactivity to the environment. Radiation exposure of the workers and the general population living in the vicinity of the damaged nuclear reactor was estimated based on dose measurements, meteorological conditions, demographic characteristics, reconstruction of the source term, and a number of other factors. The projected estimates of potential delayed health effects in the worker and general population, notable cancer, developmental abnormalities of the newborn, and genetic ill-health, were carefully estimated based on then-current knowledge of radiation risks and statistical techniques of analysis. Almost a decade later, we now have epidemiological and statistical data on certain of these health outcomes in the exposed populations at risk. Discussion includes the reliability of the initial radiation risk estimates, the major illnesses of concern, the mental stress and behavioral effects at the time of and following the accident, and the current findings of the ongoing studies of the health outcomes of the vulnerable populations at risk

  8. Violence prevention and municipal licensing of indoor sex work venues in the Greater Vancouver Area: narratives of migrant sex workers, managers and business owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Solanna; Jia, Jessica Xi; Liu, Vivian; Chattier, Jill; Krüsi, Andrea; Allan, Sarah; Maher, Lisa; Shannon, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Using a socio-ecological, structural determinants framework, this study assesses the impact of municipal licensing policies and related policing practices across the Greater Vancouver Area (Canada) on the risk of violence within indoor sex work venues. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 46 migrant/immigrant sex workers, managers and owners of licensed indoor sex work establishments and micro-brothels. Findings indicate that policing practices and licensing requirements increase sex workers' risk of violence and conflict with clients and result in heightened stress, an inability to rely on police support, lost income and the displacement of sex workers to more hidden informal work venues. Prohibitive licensing and policing practices prevent sex workers, managers and owners from adopting safer workplace measures and exacerbate health and safety risks for sex workers. This study provides critical evidence of the negative public health implications of prohibitive municipal licensing in the context of a criminalised and enforcement-based approach to sex work. Workplace safety recommendations include the decriminalisation of sex work and the elimination of disproportionately high fees for licences, criminal record restrictions, door lock restrictions, employee registration requirements and the use of police as licensing inspectors.

  9. Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and Native Hawaiians/Pacific Islanders While the overall ... data for this ethnic group is limited. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  10. Structure and agency: reflections from an exploratory study of Vancouver indoor sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bungay, Vicky; Halpin, Michael; Atchison, Chris; Johnston, Caitlin

    2011-01-01

    Sex work research continues to be characterised by debates around decriminalization. Central to these debates are claims about the agency of those involved in the sex trade. Some researchers argue that individuals involved in the sex trade are victims of structural and interpersonal constraint, whilst others depict them as workers exercising choice. Drawing on structure-agency theory, a review of legal and media accounts of the sex trade and qualitative interviews with 21 indoor sex workers in Vancouver, Canada, we argue that both of these perspectives are insufficient. Rather than reducing the sex trade to part of a binary, we suggest that it is necessary to analyse sex work through the complex interplay of both structure and agency. Specifically, structural analyses undercover the numerous ways that sex workers are controlled, observed and influenced whilst agency perspectives elicit the means that sex workers continue to exercise control in spite of disadvantage. While we do not finalise decriminalisation debates, we do critique current Canadian laws for the lack of responsiveness to the lives of sex workers and their exploitative and contradictory stance on sex work.

  11. Opportunities to learn and barriers to change: crack cocaine use in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffat Barbara

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2004, a team comprised of researchers and service providers launched the Safer Crack Use, Outreach, Research and Education (SCORE project in the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. The project was aimed at developing a better understanding of the harms associated with crack cocaine smoking and determining the feasibility of introducing specific harm reduction strategies. Specifically, in partnership with the community, we constructed and distributed kits that contained harm reduction materials. We were particularly interested in understanding what people thought of these kits and how the kits contents were used. To obtain this information, we conducted 27 interviews with women and men who used crack cocaine and received safer crack kits. Four broad themes were generated from the data: 1 the context of crack use practices; 2 learning/transmission of harm reducon education; 3 changing practice; 4 barriers to change. This project suggests that harm reduction education is most successful when it is informed by current practices with crack use. In addition it is most effectively delivered through informal interactions with people who use crack and includes repeated demonstrations of harm reduction equipment by peers and outreach workers. This paper also suggests that barriers to harm reduction are systemic: lack of safe housing and private space shape crack use practices.

  12. City of North Vancouver greenhouse gas local action plan : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hood, I.

    2005-02-01

    This paper presented details of a greenhouse gas (GHG) local action plan developed as a result of the City of North Vancouver's participation in the Partners for Climate Protection Program (PCPP). The plan is intended to better manage the impacts of urban development related to GHG and air quality, while also achieving community objectives related to affordable housing, transportation management, job creation and economic development. The report reviewed the local emissions inventory in addition to various programs, plans, policies and by-laws relating to energy management. Potential policies and programs were identified to achieve GHG emissions reductions in accordance with the PCPP. A plan for emissions reductions was also presented. A situation analysis was presented with details of population, transportation, residential and commercial building and industry. Solid waste management and transportation plans were outlined. A GHG emissions profile and forecast was presented. An outline of a GHG management framework included information on initiatives in the city as well as details of public consultation feedback. A program implementation plan includes forecasts of the program's impact, as well as details of program delivery and a performance measurement framework. Proposed initiatives in the plan included new building guidelines; fuel switching for light and heavy duty vehicles; driver training and enhanced vehicle maintenance programs; and, an environmental procurement policy. Community programs include residential and commercial building retrofits; land use planning; support for community energy systems; green building design guidelines; transportation demand management; and, public engagement and outreach programs. 21 tabs., 9 figs

  13. Vancouver Olympic rings powered by fuel cell and IESO records winning goal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The fuel cell system that provided power to the 30-foot tall floating Olympic Rings in Vancouver's harbour during the 2010 Winter Olympic Games was developed and manufactured by IdaTech in Bend, Oregon. The power source altered between a biodiesel generator and IdaTech's ElectraGen H2 zero emission hydrogen fuel cell system. The technology was chosen as a source of reliable, clean energy for applications in remote locations. The ElectraGen H2 is a hydrogen fueled proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system that emits only water vapour and heat, without any greenhouse gases. These solid state electric generators combine the best features of generators and batteries. IdaTech has sold over 400 of these fuel cell units to India and Asia to provide backup power to telecommunications networks. The 2010 Winter Olympic Games also provided an opportunity for Ontario's Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO) to track electricity consumption as people turned on their televisions to watch the Men's hockey final between Canada and the United States. An increase in electricity use of 300 MW occurred just before the game started and a similar increase occurred during the intermissions as viewers prepared snacks. Electricity consumption dropped considerably after overtime began and then climbed in the final stages of the game after the winning goal was scored. 2 figs.

  14. Social mixing through densification? The struggle over the Little Mountain public housing complex in Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosol, Marit

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In times of peak-oil and the on-going ‘urban renaissance’ (Porter and Shaw 2009, urban densification becomes increasingly more important. Densification is promoted not only for environmental reasons – in the sense of developing more compact and thus more sustainable cities – but also, as is the case in Vancouver, in the name of ‘social mixing’. Taking the conflict over “Little Mountain” – the oldest public housing complex in the province of British Columbia, Canada – as example, the article shows the conflicts that can arise in the process of densification. Despite the protests of residents and their supporters and without any concrete plans for redevelopment, almost all of the once 224 social housing units were demolished in 2009 to make room for at least 1,400 market condos (besides the 1-for-1 replacement of the social units. The example shows that densification processes that lack social measures for securing tenure for long-time residents lead to the displacement of poorer people, and to increased socio-spatial disparities. Furthermore, densification will not alleviate the affordability crisis but intensify it, if all the additionally created housing units will be market-housing only. Based on this example, the article shows that a purported social-mix policy is mainly motivated by recapturing prime real-estate, and identifies the rhetoric of ‘social mixing’ as ‘gentrification by stealth’ (Bridge et al. 2012.

  15. An Experimental High-Resolution Forecast System During the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailhot, J.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Giguère, A.; McTaggart-Cowan, R.; Erfani, A.; Denis, B.; Glazer, A.; Vallée, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environment Canada ran an experimental numerical weather prediction (NWP) system during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games, consisting of nested high-resolution (down to 1-km horizontal grid-spacing) configurations of the GEM-LAM model, with improved geophysical fields, cloud microphysics and radiative transfer schemes, and several new diagnostic products such as density of falling snow, visibility, and peak wind gust strength. The performance of this experimental NWP system has been evaluated in these winter conditions over complex terrain using the enhanced mesoscale observing network in place during the Olympics. As compared to the forecasts from the operational regional 15-km GEM model, objective verification generally indicated significant added value of the higher-resolution models for near-surface meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and dewpoint temperature) with the 1-km model providing the best forecast accuracy. Appreciable errors were noted in all models for the forecasts of wind direction and humidity near the surface. Subjective assessment of several cases also indicated that the experimental Olympic system was skillful at forecasting meteorological phenomena at high-resolution, both spatially and temporally, and provided enhanced guidance to the Olympic forecasters in terms of better timing of precipitation phase change, squall line passage, wind flow channeling, and visibility reduction due to fog and snow.

  16. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. The role of the military: to protect society -- and themselves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    Military personnel are at particularly high risk of becoming infected with HIV because they are in the age group at highest risk for infection, age 15-24 years; they are away from home for long periods of time; many feel invulnerable and ready to take risks; there are usually prostitutes and drugs in military areas; and troops have cash, but maybe not condoms, in their pockets. The level of attention given to HIV/AIDS in the military has grown over the course of the last few international AIDS conferences. One roundtable on HIV/AIDS in the armed forces was held at the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996. A large-scale survey reported at the conference found the level of sexual activity to be significantly higher among US military personnel than in the civilian population. Even the oldest soldiers reported higher levels of multiple partner sex habits than the most sexually active young men in the UK and France. The data further indicate that significant numbers of those men who were infected continued to knowingly have unprotected sex. Data from Angola, Cambodia, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Congo, Cote d'Ivoire, Thailand, and Zimbabwe show significantly higher levels of HIV infection among military personnel compared to the civilian populations. The authors stress the important role the military can play in preventing the spread of HIV and the need to involve military personnel in AIDS prevention programs.

  17. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. Rwandan refugee camps: NGOs get rough treatment from both sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    NGOs attempting to grapple with the thankless task of helping the Rwandan refugee camps have come in for some rough treatment from two directions over their HIV/AIDS efforts. At the policy level, an AMREF paper presented to the Vancouver conference charges bluntly that "There is no policy regarding HIV/STDs in refugee camps among international organizations specializing in refugee crises; thus there is absence of STD drugs and protocols, no privacy in open (tent) clinics, no means of protection (no condoms), and no information regarding STDs/HIV." AMREF bases its comments upon its experience among 700,000 Rwandan refugees in camps in West and North-West Tanzania, an area where (AMREF remarks pointedly) there was previously a low prevalence of HIV by Tanzanian standards, at 2-5%. At the operational level, CARE International, in a conference paper, reported rough treatment at the hands of the Rwandans themselves. It has been working under contract from AIDSCAP among the 400,000 Rwandans who fled to the Ngara district of Tanzania. Not surprisingly, it found that women and girls in the camps faced a higher risk than men. But more surprisingly at first sight, it found that after its HIV educational efforts "negative attitudes about condom use increased from 22% to 78%," which was possibly explained by "political ideology." "Young Hutu men in the camps boasted of their efforts to impregnate as many women and girls as possible to help replenish the population." full text

  18. Experiences of discrimination and their impact on the mental health among African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hee; Paul, Jay; Ayala, George; Boylan, Ross; Gregorich, Steven E

    2013-05-01

    We examined the associations between specific types and sources of discrimination and mental health outcomes among US racial/ethnic minority men who have sex with men (MSM) and how these associations varied by race/ethnicity. A chain-referral sample of 403 African American, 393 Asian and Pacific Islander (API), and 400 Latino MSM recruited in Los Angeles County, California completed a standardized questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Ethnic Minority Men's Health Study from May 2008 to October 2009. Past-year experiences of racism within the general community and perceived homophobia among heterosexual friends were positively associated with depression and anxiety. Past-year homophobia experienced within the general community was also positively associated with anxiety. These statistically significant associations did not vary across racial/ethnic groups. The positive association of perceived racism within the gay community with anxiety differed by race/ethnicity, and was statistically significant only for APIs. Perceived homophobia within the family was not associated with either depression or anxiety. Higher levels of experiences of discrimination were associated with psychological distress among MSM of color. However, specific types and sources of discrimination were differentially linked to negative mental health outcomes among African American, API, and Latino MSM.

  19. Responses of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health-Care Services to Continuous Quality Improvement Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkins, Sarah; Woods, Cindy E; Matthews, Veronica; Thompson, Sandra C; Schierhout, Gill; Mitropoulos, Maxwell; Patrao, Tania; Panzera, Annette; Bailie, Ross Stewart

    2015-01-01

    Indigenous primary health-care (PHC) services participating in continuous quality improvement (CQI) cycles show varying patterns of performance over time. Understanding this variation is essential to scaling up and sustaining quality improvement initiatives. The aim of this study is to examine trends in quality of care for services participating in the ABCD National Research Partnership and describe patterns of change over time and examine health service characteristics associated with positive and negative trends in quality of care. PHC services providing care for Indigenous people in urban, rural, and remote northern Australia that had completed at least three annual audits of service delivery for at least one aspect of care (n = 73). Longitudinal clinical audit data from use of four clinical audit tools (maternal health, child health, preventive health, Type 2 diabetes) between 2005 and 2013 were analyzed. Health center performance was classified into six patterns of change over time: consistent high improvement (positive), sustained high performance (positive), decline (negative), marked variability (negative), consistent low performance (negative), and no specific increase or decrease (neutral). Backwards stepwise multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between health service characteristics and positive or negative trends in quality of care. Trends in quality of care varied widely between health services across the four audit tools. Regression analyses of health service characteristics revealed no consistent statistically significant associations of population size, remoteness, governance model, or accreditation status with positive or negative trends in quality of care. The variable trends in quality of care as reflected by CQI audit tools do not appear to be related to easily measurable health service characteristics. This points to the need for a deeper or more nuanced understanding of factors that moderate the

  20. Experiences of three states implementing the Medicaid health home model to address opioid use disorder-Case studies in Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans-Cope, Lisa; Wishner, Jane B; Allen, Eva H; Lallemand, Nicole; Epstein, Marni; Spillman, Brenda C

    2017-12-01

    The United States is facing an unprecedented opioid epidemic. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) included several provisions designed to increase care coordination in state Medicaid programs and improve outcomes for those with chronic conditions, including substance use disorders. Three states-Maryland, Rhode Island, and Vermont - adopted the ACA's optional Medicaid health home model for individuals with opioid use disorder. The model coordinates opioid use disorder treatment that features opioid agonist therapy provided at opioid treatment programs (OTPs) and Office-based Opioid Treatment (OBOT) with medical and behavioral health care and other services, including those addressing social determinants of health. This study examines state approaches to opioid health homes (OHH) and uses a retrospective analysis to identify facilitators and barriers to the program's implementation from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. We conducted 28 semi-structured discussions with 70 discussants across the three states, including representatives from state agencies, OHH providers (OTPs and OBOTs), Medicaid health plans, and provider associations. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using NVivo. In addition, we reviewed state health home applications, policies, regulatory guidance, reporting, and other available OHH materials. We adapted the Exploration, Preparation, Implementation, and Sustainment (EPIS) model as a guiding framework to examine the collected data, helping us to identify key factors affecting each stage of the OHH implementation. Overall, discussants reported that the OHH model was implemented successfully and was responsible for substantial improvements in patient care. Contextual factors at both the state level (e.g., legislation, funding, state leadership, program design) and provider level (OHH provider characteristics, leadership, adaptability) affected each stage of implementation of the OHH model. States took a variety of approaches in

  1. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coral health and disease assessments were conducted along 2 consecutively placed 25-m transects, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at...

  3. Decision-making and radiological protection at Three Mile Island. Response of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; California Univ., San Francisco

    1982-01-01

    The author's comments are limited to only three acts dealing with radiological health and protection: the struggle for power and assertion of leadership in response to possible health consequences of the accident; the decisions to evacuate the area during the radiological emergency; and the use of potassium iodide as a means of protecting the public and the workers from the hazards of exposure to radioactive iodine released to the environment. (author)

  4. Driving culture change to empower the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child and Youth Health (ATSIHW) workforce

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: ATSIHW face significant unique workforce challenges which hinder efforts to improve health for their communities.Practice change: Extensive consultation led to the Qld Child and Youth Clinical Network (QCYCN) establishing a statewide governance model to drive workforce culture change.Aim: To empower ATSIHW to drive change within their workforce & lead an integrated cultural shift toward respect & equity, enabling better health outcomes for ATSI communities.Targeted stake...

  5. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  6. Il museo di antropologia come museo culturale: il caso del MOA di Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gualtieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay will examine anthropology museums as cultural museums from the methodological approach of Cultural Studies. Within this frame, the museum acts as a mode of conservation of material culture thus revealing its immaterial consequences. In the museum, historical memories are preserved and re-enacted to articulate cultural identities in the present, to shed light on the past, and to illuminate future communal practices. After a brief survey on collections in the epoch of European geographical discoveries and on the birth of anthropology as a science in colonial times, the essay will consider the exhibition of cultural artefacts belonging to the First Nations of British Columbia in the Museum of Anthropology (MOA in Vancouver. References to native land claims will help to understand the links between time and place, history and geography, cultural memory and land that are central to native re-constructions of identity. Through a critical reading of conventional ethnographic and anthropological criteria in museum displays, the codes of conservation and repatriation will be introduced in relation to the notion of native title and cultural property. The MOA will be used as a case in point to explore practices of negotiation with native peoples. The indigenous worldview regarding the use of objects and the performance of a living culture will be presented as opposed to the conventional aesthetic appreciation and exhibition of cultural objects. The essay will then illustrate how museums are produced and organised according to ideologically relevant standpoints in specific times and places, and how visitor-oriented practices should address a critical reading of dynamics of power and knowledge control in contemporary societies.

  7. Tenarife Island, Canary Island Archipelago, Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Tenarife Island is one of the most volcanically active of the Canary Island archipelago, Atlantic Ocean, just off the NW coast of Africa, (28.5N, 16.5W). The old central caldera, nearly filled in by successive volcanic activity culminating in two stratocones. From those two peaks, a line of smaller cinder cones extend to the point of the island. Extensive gullies dissect the west side of the island and some forests still remain on the east side.

  8. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.S.; Shultz, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography is divided into the following categories: Accident Overviews, Sequence and Causes; International Commentary and Reaction; Emergency Preparedness and Disaster Planning; Health Effects; Radioactive Releases and the Environment; Accident Investigations/Commissions; Nuclear Industry: Safety, Occupational, and Financial Issues; Media and Communications; Cleanup; Sociopolitical Response and Commentary; Restart; Legal Ramifications; Federal Documents: President's Commission on the Accident at Three Mile Island; Federal Documents: Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Federal Documents: United States Department of Energy; Federal Documents: Miscellaneous Reports; Pennsylvania State Documents; Federal and State Hearings; and Popular Literature

  9. Applicability of health physics lessons learned from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 accident to the Fukushima Daiichi accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelacqua, J J

    2012-02-01

    The TMI-2 and Fukushima Daiichi accidents appear to be dissimilar because they involve different reactor types. However, the health physics related lessons learned from TMI-2 are applicable, and can enhance the Fukushima Daiichi recovery effort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lifestyle and health determinants of cardiovascular disease among Greek older adults living in Eastern Aegean Islands: An adventure within the MEDIS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Foscolou

    2016-11-01

    Conclusions: Overall, CVD risk seems to be low among Eastern Aegean Islanders; certain differences in CVD risk factors exist between Greek islanders and their counterparts living in Gökçeada, and those differences may be attributed to various environmental, cultural and lifestyle factors.

  11. E-Mental Health Innovations for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: A Qualitative Study of Implementation Needs in Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puszka, Stefanie; Dingwall, Kylie M; Sweet, Michelle; Nagel, Tricia

    2016-09-19

    Electronic mental health (e-mental health) interventions offer effective, easily accessible, and cost effective treatment and support for mental illness and well-being concerns. However, e-mental health approaches have not been well utilized by health services to date and little is known about their implementation in practice, particularly in diverse contexts and communities. This study aims to understand stakeholder perspectives on the requirements for implementing e-mental health approaches in regional and remote health services for Indigenous Australians. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 managers, directors, chief executive officers (CEOs), and senior practitioners of mental health, well-being, alcohol and other drug and chronic disease services. The implementation of e-mental health approaches in this context is likely to be influenced by characteristics related to the adopter (practitioner skill and knowledge, client characteristics, communication barriers), the innovation (engaging and supportive approach, culturally appropriate design, evidence base, data capture, professional development opportunities), and organizational systems (innovation-systems fit, implementation planning, investment). There is potential for e-mental health approaches to address mental illness and poor social and emotional well-being amongst Indigenous people and to advance their quality of care. Health service stakeholders reported that e-mental health interventions are likely to be most effective when used to support or extend existing health services, including elements of client-driven and practitioner-supported use. Potential solutions to obstacles for integration of e-mental health approaches into practice were proposed including practitioner training, appropriate tool design using a consultative approach, internal organizational directives and support structures, adaptations to existing systems and policies, implementation planning and organizational and government

  12. Youth lead youth in Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G

    1988-01-01

    The promotion of family planning and birth control in Pacific countries is often frustrated by traditional and religious beliefs, if not deterred by tremendous funding and logistics problems. In the central Pacific republic of the Marshall Islands, however, youthful health workers are taking a unique approach to health promotion that has spurred acceptance of the once controversial subjects of family planning and birth control. A group known as Youth to Youth in Health is spearheading a family planning outreach drive in the schools and community in the Marshall Islands. Coupling health presentations with traditional island music and dance to produce lively health shows, the group's programs on family planning, birth control, nutrition, and cancer have struck a responsive chord in a culture known for its religious and traditional conservatism. The group makes creative use of puppet shows, skits, health songs, and pantomimes, interspersed with contemporary renditions of Marshall Islands music and traditional dances. These have rekindled pride in their culture among the group and sparked a sense of urgency about the need to improve health conditions in the islands. As evidence of the group's impact, family planning staff point to a nearly 4-fold rise in the number of youth clients under 19 years since the Youth to Youth started in mid-1986. Their combination of traditional custom with family planning and other health information has proved to be an innovative and needed program for the islands.

  13. “Columns of the House” and Proud Workers: Greek Immigrant Women in Vancouver, 1954-1975

    OpenAIRE

    Kalogeropoulou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the experiences of eight first-generation Greek immigrant women who moved to Vancouver between 1954 and 1975 by listening to and contextualizing their oral life histories. Looking at their lives before they immigrated, I explore how these women’s gender experiences were very much shaped by religion, class, and rural vis-à-vis urban locations in Greece. I also demonstrate that many exercised agency in this patriarchal culture, and that they were part of the decision-mak...

  14. Coral reef health response to chronic and acute changes in water quality in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Rosmin S; Brandt, Marilyn E; Wilson Grimes, Kristin R; Smith, Tyler B

    2016-10-15

    It is suspected that land cover alteration on the southern coast of St. Thomas, USVI has increased runoff, degrading nearshore water quality and coral reef health. Chronic and acute changes in water quality, sediment deposition, and coral health metrics were assessed in three zones based upon perceived degree of human influence. Chlorophyll (pturbidity (p=0.0113) were significantly higher in nearshore zones and in the high impact zone during heavy precipitation. Net sediment deposition and terrigenous content increased in nearshore zones during periods of greater precipitation and port activity. Macroalgae overgrowth significantly increased along a gradient of decreasing water quality (p<0.0001). Coral bleaching in all zones peaked in November with a regional thermal stress event (p<0.0001). However, mean bleaching prevalence was significantly greater in the most impacted zone compared to the offshore zone (p=0.0396), suggesting a link between declining water quality and bleaching severity. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Health Status of Galápagos Sea Lions (Zalophus wollebaeki) on San Cristóbal Island Rookeries Determined by Hematology, Biochemistry, Blood Gases, and Physical Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez-Rosas, Diego; Hirschfeld, Maximilian; Deresienski, Diane; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2016-01-01

    The Galápagos sea lion, Zalophus wollebaeki, is an endemic and endangered species subject to population decline associated with environmental variability, such as El Niño events, constant feeding stress, and exposure to diseases through contact with introduced species. Reference blood parameter intervals have been published for some pinniped species, but baseline biochemical and blood gas values are lacking from Z. wollebaeki. We analyzed blood samples from 30 juvenile Galápagos sea lions (19 females, 11 males) captured in two rookeries on San Cristóbal Island. A portable blood analyzer (iSTAT) was used to obtain near-immediate field results for pH, partial pressure of O2, partial pressure of CO2, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin, Na, K, ionized Ca, and glucose, and blood lactate was measured using a portable Lactate Plus(TM) analyzer. Average heart rate, biochemistry, and hematology parameters were comparable with healthy individuals of other pinniped species. Hemoglobin was significantly correlated with body condition of juvenile Galápagos sea lions. When compared with available blood values of clinically healthy California sea lions, Galápagos sea lions had higher total protein and Hct and lower Ca and K levels. Our results provide baseline data that may be useful in comparisons among populations and in detecting changes in health status among Galápagos sea lions.

  16. A comparison of dietary estimates from the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Survey to food and beverage purchase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Emma; Wycherley, Thomas; O'Dea, Kerin; Brimblecombe, Julie

    2017-12-01

    We compared self-reported dietary intake from the very remote sample of the National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (VR-NATSINPAS; n=1,363) to one year of food and beverage purchases from 20 very remote Indigenous Australian communities (servicing ∼8,500 individuals). Differences in food (% energy from food groups) and nutrients were analysed using t-test with unequal variance. Per-capita energy estimates were not significantly different between the surveys (899 MJ/person/day [95% confidence interval -152,1950] p=0.094). Self-reported intakes of sugar, cereal products/dishes, beverages, fats/oils, milk products/dishes and confectionery were significantly lower than that purchased, while intakes of meat, vegetables, cereal-based dishes, fish, fruit and eggs were significantly higher (pfood and nutrient availability in this population longitudinally; however, further evidence is needed on approaches to estimate wastage and foods sourced outside the store. There is potential for these data to complement each other to inform nutrition policies and programs in this population. © 2017 Menzies School of Health Research.

  17. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veenstra Gerry

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Methods Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. Results The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Conclusions Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup

  18. Expressed racial identity and hypertension in a telephone survey sample from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada: do socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress explain the relatively high risk of hypertension for Black Canadians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2012-10-12

    Canadian research on racial health inequalities that foregrounds socially constructed racial identities and social factors which can explain consequent racial health inequalities is rare. This paper adopts a social typology of salient racial identities in contemporary Canada, empirically documents consequent racial inequalities in hypertension in an original survey dataset from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, and then attempts to explain the inequalities in hypertension with information on socioeconomic status, perceived experiences with institutionalized and interpersonal discrimination, and psychosocial stress. Telephone interviews were conducted in 2009 with 706 randomly selected adults living in the City of Toronto and 838 randomly selected adults living in the Vancouver Census Metropolitan Area. Bivariate analyses and logistic regression modeling were used to examine relationships between racial identity, hypertension, socio-demographic factors, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and psychosocial stress. The Black Canadians in the sample were the most likely to report major and routine discriminatory experiences and were the least educated and the poorest. Black respondents were significantly more likely than Asian, South Asian and White respondents to report hypertension controlling for age, immigrant status and city of residence. Of the explanatory factors examined in this study, only educational attainment explained some of the relative risk of hypertension for Black respondents. Most of the risk remained unexplained in the models. Consistent with previous Canadian research, socioeconomic status explained a small portion of the relatively high risk of hypertension documented for the Black respondents. Perceived experiences of discrimination both major and routine and self-reported psychosocial stress did not explain these racial inequalities in hypertension. Conducting subgroup analyses by gender, discerning between real and perceived experiences

  19. Strengthening the admissions process in health care professional education: focus on a premier Pacific Island medical college

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chinyere Ezeala

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Relying solely on measures of intellectual aptitude and academic performance in university admissions can be disadvantageous to underprivileged students. The Fiji School of Medicine primarily uses such measures to evaluate and select student applicants, and the introduction of supplementary assessments could provide better access for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. This study examined the need for supplementary assessments in the admission process, types of additional assessments needed, and stakeholders??views on a multi-entry multi-exit strategy currently in use at the Fiji School of Medicine. A survey of the key stakeholders was conducted in February and March 2012 using closed and open ended questionnaire. One hundred and twenty-two validated questionnaires were self-administered by key stakeholders from the College of Medicine, Nursing and Health Sciences (CMNHS and Fiji Ministries of Education and Health, with a response rate of 61%. Returned questionnaires were analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Sixty-five percent of respondents supported the introduction of supplementary assessments, 49% favoured admissions test, and 16% preferred assessing non-academic factors. Many respondents supported the School?占퐏 multi-entry multi-exit strategy as a ?占퐂ood policy??that provided ?占퐀lexibility??and opportunity for students, but should be better regulated. These findings demonstrate the need for supplementary assessments in the selection process and for continued support for the use of multi-entry multi-exit strategy at the school.

  20. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  1. Outdoor brothel culture: the un/making of a transsexual stroll in Vancouver's West End, 1975–1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Becki

    2012-01-01

    In the mid-1970s, following a series of police raids on prostitution inside downtown nightclubs, a community of approximately 200 sex workers moved into Vancouver's West End neighborhood, where a small stroll had operated since the early 1970s. This paper examines the contributions made by three male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals of color to the culture of on-street prostitution in the West End. The trans women's stories address themes of fashion, working conditions, money, community formation, violence, and resistance to well-organized anti-prostitution forces. These recollections enable me to bridge and enrich trans history and prostitution history – two fields of inquiry that have under-represented the participation of trans women in the sex industry across the urban West. Acutely familiar with the hazards inherent in a criminalized, stigmatized trade, trans sex workers in the West End manufactured efficacious strategies of harm reduction, income generation, safety planning, and community building. Eschewing the label of “victim”, they leveraged their physical size and style, charisma, contempt towards pimps, earning capacity, and seniority as the first workers on the stroll to assume leadership within the broader constituency of “hookers on Davie Street”. I discover that their short-lived outdoor brothel culture offered only a temporary bulwark against the inevitability of eviction via legal injunction in July 1984, and the subsequent rise in lethal violence against all prostitutes in Vancouver, including MTF transsexuals.

  2. Academic performance and educational pathways of young allophones: A comparative multivariate analysis of Montreal, Toronto, and Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ledent

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Using several local and provincial data banks enabling one to follow the school progression of the cohort of students who, in Canada’s three main immigration-destination cities, were expected to graduate secondary school in 2004, this article examines the academic performance and educational pathways of those students who at home use a language other the main language of schooling: non-French speakers in Montreal and non-English speakers in Toronto and Vancouver. First, after accounting for differences in characteristics, those students (target group are shown to succeed better than the remaining students (comparison group, especially in Vancouver. However, within the target group, there appear to be substantial differences in performance between linguistic subgroups, which are far from being similar in all three cities. Second, the individual and contextual factors that influence the academic performance of the students in the target group appear to be similar for some and different for others in the three cities, while presenting some more-or-less large discrepancies with the corresponding factors pertaining to the comparison group. The article concludes with a few policy implications.

  3. Integrated Clinical Decision Support Systems Promote Absolute Cardiovascular Risk Assessment: An Important Primary Prevention Measure in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Primary Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Matthews

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians experience a greater burden of disease compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Around one-fifth of the health disparity is caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD. Despite the importance of absolute cardiovascular risk assessment (CVRA as a screening and early intervention tool, few studies have reported its use within the Australian Indigenous primary health care (PHC sector. This study utilizes data from a large-scale quality improvement program to examine variation in documented CVRA as a primary prevention strategy for individuals without prior CVD across four Australian jurisdictions. We also examine the proportion with elevated risk and follow-up actions recorded.MethodsWe undertook cross-sectional analysis of 2,052 client records from 97 PHC centers to assess CVRA in Indigenous adults aged ≥20 years with no recorded chronic disease diagnosis (2012–2014. Multilevel regression was used to quantify the variation in CVRA attributable to health center and client level factors. The main outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adults who had CVRA recorded. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of clients with elevated risk that had follow-up actions recorded.ResultsApproximately 23% (n = 478 of eligible clients had documented CVRA. Almost all assessments (99% were conducted in the Northern Territory. Within this jurisdiction, there was wide variation between centers in the proportion of clients with documented CVRA (median 38%; range 0–86%. Regression analysis showed health center factors accounted for 48% of the variation. Centers with integrated clinical decision support systems were more likely to document CVRA (OR 21.1; 95% CI 5.4–82.4; p < 0.001. Eleven percent (n = 53 of clients were found with moderate/high CVD risk, of whom almost one-third were under 35 years (n = 16. Documentation of follow-up varied with respect to the targeted risk factor

  4. 76 FR 27253 - Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... environmental risk to health or risk to safety that may disproportionately affect children. Indian Tribal...-AA00 Safety Zone; Catawba Island Club Fireworks, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH AGENCY: Coast... zone in the Captain of the Port Detroit Zone on Lake Erie, Port Clinton, Ohio. This zone is intended to...

  5. Researching Pacific island livelihoods:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund Christensen, Andreas; Mertz, Ole

    2010-01-01

    on contemporary theories of nissology and conceptual analytical frameworks for island research. Through a review of selected case-study-based island literature on changing livelihoods coming out of the South Pacific, we wish to illustrate and discuss advantages of finding common grounds for small island studies....... The focus is on two dimensions of island livelihood, migration and natural resource management, both of which are significant contributors in making island livelihoods and shaping Pacific seascapes. We argue that there is still a substantial lack of studies targeting small island dynamics that are empirical...

  6. Targeting screening and social marketing to increase detection of acute HIV infection in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Cook, Darrel; Steinberg, Malcolm; Kwag, Michael; Robert, Wayne; Doupe, Glenn; Krajden, Mel; Rekart, Michael

    2013-10-23

    The contribution of acute HIV infection (AHI) to transmission is widely recognized, and increasing AHI diagnosis capacity can enhance HIV prevention through subsequent behavior change or intervention. We examined the impact of targeted pooled nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) and social marketing to increase AHI diagnosis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Vancouver. Observational study. We implemented pooled NAAT following negative third-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) testing for males above 18 years in six clinics accessed by MSM, accompanied by two social marketing campaigns developed by a community gay men's health organization. We compared test volume and diagnosis rates for pre-implementation (April 2006-March 2009) and post-implementation (April 2009-March 2012) periods. After implementation, we used linear regression to examine quarterly trends and calculated diagnostic yield. After implementation, the AHI diagnosis rate significantly increased from 1.03 to 1.84 per 1000 tests, as did quarterly HIV test volumes and acute to non-acute diagnosis ratio. Of the 217 new HIV diagnoses after implementation, 54 (24.9%) were AHIs (25 detected by pooled NAAT only) for an increased diagnostic yield of 11.5%. The average number of prior negative HIV tests (past 2 years) increased significantly for newly diagnosed MSM at the six study clinics compared to other newly diagnosed MSM in British Columbia, per quarter. Targeted implementation of pooled NAAT at clinics accessed by MSM is effective in increasing AHI diagnoses compared to third-generation EIA testing. Social marketing campaigns accompanying pooled NAAT implementation may contribute to increasing AHI diagnoses and frequency of HIV testing.

  7. Complex and Conflicting Social Norms: Implications for Implementation of Future HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP Interventions in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rod Knight

    Full Text Available HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP has been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV acquisition among seronegative individuals in a variety of risk groups, including men who have sex with men and people who inject drugs. To date, however, it remains unclear how socio-cultural norms (e.g., attitudes towards HIV; social understandings regarding HIV risk practices may influence the scalability of future PrEP interventions. The objective of this study is to assess how socio-cultural norms may influence the implementation and scalability of future HIV PrEP interventions in Vancouver, Canada.We conducted 50 interviews with young men (ages 18-24 with a variety of HIV risk behavioural profiles (e.g., young men who inject drugs; MSM. Interviews focused on participants' experiences and perceptions with various HIV interventions and policies, including PrEP.While awareness of PrEP was generally low, perceptions about the potential personal and public health gains associated with PrEP were interconnected with expressions of complex and sometimes conflicting social norms. Some accounts characterized PrEP as a convenient form of reliable protection against HIV, likening it to the female birth control pill. Other accounts cast PrEP as a means to facilitate 'socially unacceptable' behaviour (e.g., promiscuity. Stigmatizing rhetoric was used to position PrEP as a tool that could promote some groups' proclivities to take 'risks'.Stigma regarding 'risky' behaviour and PrEP should not be underestimated as a serious implementation challenge. Pre-implementation strategies that concomitantly aim to improve knowledge about PrEP, while addressing associated social prejudices, may be key to effective implementation and scale-up.

  8. Verification of an ENSO-Based Long-Range Prediction of Anomalous Weather Conditions During the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul I.; Doyle, Chris; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games and the efforts to predict these anomalies based on some preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are presented. It is shown that the Olympic Games were held under extraordinarily warm conditions in February 2010, with monthly mean temperature anomalies of +2.2 °C in Vancouver and +2.8 °C in Whistler, ranking respectively as the highest and the second highest in the past 30 years (1981-2010). The warm conditions continued, but became less anomalous, in March 2010 for the Paralympic Games. While the precipitation amounts in the area remained near normal through this winter, the lack of snow due to warm conditions created numerous media headlines and practical problems for the alpine competitions. A statistical model was developed on the premise that February and March temperatures in the Vancouver area could be predicted using an ENSO signal with considerable lead time. This model successfully predicted the warmer-than-normal, lower-snowfall conditions for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

  9. Tourism, Tolerance, or Hospitality? An Assessment of a Native/Non-Native, Urban/Rural Youth Exchange Program between Fort Good Hope, NWT, and East Vancouver, BC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hern, Matt

    2009-01-01

    This article considers and assesses a youth exchange project between two community-based youth centers: The Purple Thistle Centre in East Vancouver, British Columbia, and the K'asho Got'ine Youth Centre in Fort Good Hope, Northwest Territories. Both centers serve primarily low-income youth, but after that the similarities are very few. The…

  10. Pacific Association for Clinical Training (PACT): lessons learned and next steps in developing a sustainable continuing health professionals education system in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenconsejo-Lum, Lee E; Maskarinec, Gregory G; Palafox, Neal A

    2007-03-01

    In response to the 1998 Institute of Medicine report, "Pacific Partnerships for Health ", acknowledging the need for the continuing education of health workers in the United States-Affiliated Pacific Island (USAPI) jurisdictions, the U.S. Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) awarded a grant (1999-2003) to the University of Washington for a continuing education project in the Pacific. When shortfalls in HRSA funding threatened continuation of the program, Pacific advocates aggressively made a case for refunding of this important project. In 2003, HRSA announced competitive funding for a new program for continuing education. The Department of Family Medicine and Community Health (DFMCH) at the University of Hawai'i (UH), John A. Burns School of Medicine (JABSOM) was awarded the HRSA Cooperative Agreement to run from September 2003 through August 2007, creating PACT the Pacific Association for Clinical Training. PACT assembled a professional, community-based advisory board, most of whom were indigenous Pacific Islanders, and conducted a continuing clinical education needs assessment in every jurisdiction, subsequently developing and delivering programs utilizing distance education relevant to the needs of each USAPI jurisdiction. Priority health areas included diabetes, oral health and geriatrics, as mandated by HRSA. This report describes the processes, accomplishments, challenges and lessons learned from the project. PACT needs assessment reports for each jurisdiction and an executive summary are published as Original Articles in this issue of Pacific Health Dialog. As funding for PACT comes to an end, it is clear that much work remains to be done in the region. "Continuing clinical education" is only one part of a continuum of human resources for health (HRH) workforce development. Continued USAPI regional, U.S. national and international collaboration and resources are needed to achieve the ultimate goal of improved health and health care delivery

  11. A multi-scale approach to monitor urban carbon-dioxide emissions in the atmosphere over Vancouver, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, A.; Crawford, B.; Ketler, R.; Lee, J. K.; McKendry, I. G.; Nesic, Z.; Caitlin, S.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of long-lived greenhouse gases in the urban atmosphere are potentially useful to constrain and validate urban emission inventories, or space-borne remote-sensing products. We summarize and compare three different approaches, operating at different scales, that directly or indirectly identify, attribute and quantify emissions (and uptake) of carbon dioxide (CO2) in urban environments. All three approaches are illustrated using in-situ measurements in the atmosphere in and over Vancouver, Canada. Mobile sensing may be a promising way to quantify and map CO2 mixing ratios at fine scales across heterogenous and complex urban environments. We developed a system for monitoring CO2 mixing ratios at street level using a network of mobile CO2 sensors deployable on vehicles and bikes. A total of 5 prototype sensors were built and simultaneously used in a measurement campaign across a range of urban land use types and densities within a short time frame (3 hours). The dataset is used to aid in fine scale emission mapping in combination with simultaneous tower-based flux measurements. Overall, calculated CO2 emissions are realistic when compared against a spatially disaggregated scale emission inventory. The second approach is based on mass flux measurements of CO2 using a tower-based eddy covariance (EC) system. We present a continuous 7-year long dataset of CO2 fluxes measured by EC at the 28m tall flux tower 'Vancouver-Sunset'. We show how this dataset can be combined with turbulent source area models to quantify and partition different emission processes at the neighborhood-scale. The long-term EC measurements are within 10% of a spatially disaggregated scale emission inventory. Thirdly, at the urban scale, we present a dataset of CO2 mixing ratios measured using a tethered balloon system in the urban boundary layer above Vancouver. Using a simple box model, net city-scale CO2 emissions can be determined using measured rate of change of CO2 mixing ratios

  12. Diomede Islands, Bering Straight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Diomede Islands consisting of the western island Big Diomede (also known as Imaqliq, Nunarbuk or Ratmanov Island), and the eastern island Little Diomede (also known as Krusenstern Island or Inaliq), are two rocky islands located in the middle of the Bering Strait between Russia and Alaska. The islands are separated by an international border and the International Date Line which is approximately 1.5 km from each island; you can look from Alaska into tomorrow in Russia. At the closest land approach between the United States, which controls Little Diomede, and Russia, which controls Big Diomede, they are 3 km apart. Little Diomede Island constitutes the Alaskan City of Diomede, while Big Diomede Island is Russia's easternmost point. The first European to reach the islands was the Russian explorer Semyon Dezhnev in 1648. The text of the 1867 treaty finalizing the sale of Alaska uses the islands to designate the border between the two nations. The image was acquired July 8, 2000, covers an area of 13.5 x 10.8 km, and is located at 65.8 degrees north latitude, 169 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Tales of island tails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de Alma V.; Oost, Albert P.; Veeneklaas, Roos M.; Lammerts, Evert Jan; Duin, van Willem E.; Wesenbeeck, van Bregje K.

    2016-01-01

    The Frisian islands (Southern North Sea) have extensive island tails, i.e. the entire downdrift side of an island consisting of salt marshes, dunes, beaches and beach plains, and green beaches. Currently, large parts of these tails are ageing and losing dynamics, partly due to human influence.

  14. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  15. IAS Towards an HIV Cure Symposium: people focused, science driven: 18-19 July 2015, Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Sarah; Thornhill, John; Malatinkova, Eva; Reinhard, Robert; Lamplough, Rosanne; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chahroudi, Ann

    2015-10-01

    The International AIDS Society (IAS) convened the Towards an HIV Cure Symposium on 18-19 July 2015 in Vancouver, Canada, bringing together researchers and community to discuss the most recent advances in our understanding of HIV latency, reservoirs and a summary of the current clinical approaches towards an HIV cure. The symposium objectives were to: (1) gather researchers and stakeholders to present, review, and discuss the latest research towards an HIV cure; (2) promote cross-disciplinary global interactions between basic, clinical and social scientists; and (3) provide a platform for sharing information among scientists, clinicians, funders, media and civil society. The symposium examined basic molecular science and animal model data, and emerging and ongoing clinical trial results to prioritise strategies and determine the viral and immune responses that could lead to HIV remission without antiretroviral therapy. This report summarises some of the major findings discussed during the symposium.

  16. Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10): a World Weather Research Programme Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P. I.; Mailhot, J.; Bailey, M.; Bélair, S.; Boudala, F. S.; Brugman, M.; Campos, E.; Carpenter, R. L.; Crawford, R. W.; Cober, S. G.; Denis, B.; Doyle, C.; Reeves, H. D.; Gultepe, I.; Haiden, T.; Heckman, I.; Huang, L. X.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Mo, R.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Smith, T.; Stewart, R. E.; Wang, D.; Wilson, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    A World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) project entitled the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) was developed to be associated with the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games conducted between 12 February and 21 March 2010. The SNOW-V10 international team augmented the instrumentation associated with the Winter Games and several new numerical weather forecasting and nowcasting models were added. Both the additional observational and model data were available to the forecasters in real time. This was an excellent opportunity to demonstrate existing capability in nowcasting and to develop better techniques for short term (0-6 h) nowcasts of winter weather in complex terrain. Better techniques to forecast visibility, low cloud, wind gusts, precipitation rate and type were evaluated. The weather during the games was exceptionally variable with many periods of low visibility, low ceilings and precipitation in the form of both snow and rain. The data collected should improve our understanding of many physical phenomena such as the diabatic effects due to melting snow, wind flow around and over terrain, diurnal flow reversal in valleys associated with daytime heating, and precipitation reductions and increases due to local terrain. Many studies related to these phenomena are described in the Special Issue on SNOW-V10 for which this paper was written. Numerical weather prediction and nowcast models have been evaluated against the unique observational data set now available. It is anticipated that the data set and the knowledge learned as a result of SNOW-V10 will become a resource for other World Meteorological Organization member states who are interested in improving forecasts of winter weather.

  17. Visibility in health statistics: a population data linkage study more accurately identifying Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Births in Victoria, Australia, 1988-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ritte

    2017-04-01

    This is the first time that the VPDC and RBDM birth data were linked in Victoria. The matched birth information established a more complete population profile of Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander births. These data will provide a more accurate baseline to enhance the Victorian and Australian governments’ ability to plan services, allocate resources and evaluate funded activities aimed at eliminating disparity experienced by Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander peoples. Importantly, it has established a more accurate denominator from which to calculate Aboriginal infant mortality rates for Victoria, Australia. *Until 2009, the mother’s Indigenous identification only was recorded in the VPDC

  18. Paradise Islands? Island States and Environmental Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverker C. Jagers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Island states have been shown to outperform continental states on a number of large-scale coordination-related outcomes, such as levels of democracy and institutional quality. The argument developed and tested in this article contends that the same kind of logic may apply to islands’ environmental performance, too. However, the empirical analysis shows mixed results. Among the 105 environmental outcomes that we analyzed, being an island only has a positive impact on 20 of them. For example, island states tend to outcompete continental states with respect to several indicators related to water quality but not in aspects related to biodiversity, protected areas, or environmental regulations. In addition, the causal factors previously suggested to make islands outperform continental states in terms of coordination have weak explanatory power in predicting islands’ environmental performance. We conclude the paper by discussing how these interesting findings can be further explored.

  19. Summary and discussion of findings from: population dose and health impact of the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station (a preliminary assessment for the period March 28-April 7, 1979)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This report was prepared by technical staff members of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Department of Health, Education and Welfare (HEW), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), who constitute an Ad Hoc Population Dose Assessment Group. It is an assessment of the health impact on the approximately 2 million offsite residents within 50 miles of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Station from the dose received by the entire population (collective dose). The Ad Hoc Group has examined in detail the available data for the period up to and including April 7, 1979. The report also addresses several areas of concern about the types of radionuclides released, about the contribution to population exposure due to beta radiation (which does not penetrate the clothing and skin) emitted from the released radionuclides, about the degree of coverage afforded by available radiation measurements, and about the range of health effects that may result from the estimated collective dose

  20. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the VANCOUVER from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 1967-12-10 to 1968-01-13 (NODC Accession 6900710)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the VANCOUVER within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  1. 21st Session of the International Poplar Commission (IPC-2000): poplar and willow culture: meeting the needs of society and the environment; 200 September 24-28; Vancouver, WA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.G. Isebrands; J. Richardson

    2000-01-01

    Research results and ongoing research activities on poplar and willow breeding, diseases, insects, production, and utilization are described in 220 abstracts from the International Poplar Commission meeting in Vancouver, Washington, September 24-28, 2000.

  2. Temperature profiles from MBT casts from the VANCOUVER from Ocean Weather Station P (OWS-P) in the North Pacific Ocean from 30 October to 1968-12-01 (NODC Accession 6900711)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bathythermograph data were collected from the VANCOUVER within a 1-mile radius of Ocean Weather Station P (5000N 14500W) and in transit. Data were collected by the...

  3. Declaraciones del Comité Internacional de Directores de Revistas Médicas anexas a las normas de Vancouver Statements issued by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in conjunction with the Vancouver standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Estas declaraciones, emitidas por el Comité de Directores de Revistas Médicas como publicación anexa a las normas de Vancouver, abarcan temas relacionados con algunos aspectos legales, éticos y prácticos de la publicación de trabajos de investigación, y de los comentarios que estos suscitan, en revistas biomédicas. Partiendo de la definición de lo que constituye una revista sometida a arbitraje científico, se describen las funciones de los propietarios y directores de revistas y de los miembros de una junta editorial y se establecen normas de conducta en casos de conflictos de intereses, retractaciones o correcciones, fraude y violaciones de la confidencialidad. Por último se exploran, entre otros temas, los problemas que encierra la divulgación de los resultados de investigaciones por los medios de comunicación de masas, la inclusión de material propagandístico en la revista y la aceptación simultánea de manuscritos cuyos autores llegan a conclusiones divergentes sobre los resultados de una misma investigación.These statements, which are published by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors in conjunction with the Vancouver standards, cover some of the legal, ethical, and practical aspects of the publication of research papers, and of the comments generated by them, in biomedical journals. Following a definition of what constitutes a peer-reviewed journal, the roles of journal owners and editors are described, along with those of members of an editorial board, and procedural norms are set forth in connection with conflicts of interests, retractions or corrections, fraud, and breaches of confidentiality. Among the last topics explored are the problems involved in the dissemination of research results by the popular media, the handling of advertising within the journal, and the simultaneous acceptance of manuscripts whose authors have arrived at opposite conclusions regarding the results of a particular study.

  4. Digital stories as a tool for health promotion and youth engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Sarah; Mullett, Jennifer

    2016-08-15

    To provide opportunities for intergenerational knowledge sharing for healthy lifestyles; to facilitate youth and Elder mentorship; and to increase the self-esteem of youth by celebrating identity, cultural practices and community connection through the creation and sharing of digital stories. A youth research team (8 youth) aged 13-25, youth participants (60 core participants and 170 workshop participants) and Elders (14) from First Nations communities. The project was conducted with participants from several communities on Vancouver Island through on-site workshops and presentations. Youth and Elders were invited to a 3-day digital story workshop consisting of knowledge-sharing sessions by Elders and digital story training by the youth research team. Workshop attendees returned to their communities to develop stories. The group re-convened at the university to create digital stories focused on community connections, family histories and healthy lifestyles. During the following year the research team delivered instructional sessions in communities on the digital story process. The youth involved reported increased pride in community as well as new or enhanced relationships with Elders. The digital stories method facilitated intergenerational interactions and engaged community members in creating a digital representation of healthy lifestyles. The process itself is an intervention, as it affords critical reflection on historical, cultural and spiritual ideas of health and what it means to be healthy in an Aboriginal community. It is a particularly relevant health promotion tool in First Nations communities with strong oral history traditions.

  5. Learning That "Gay Is Okay": Educators and Boys Re/Constituting Heteronormativity through Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovin, L. J.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I draw on observations from sexual health workshops in an elementary school classroom in Vancouver, Canada and friendship pair interviews with four boys who attended the workshops. I examine how the educators organising the workshops constructed sexual health, highlighting their reliance on both a "gay is okay" and a…

  6. Tanzania - Mafia Island Airport

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation design and subsequent data gathering activities will address the following key research questions: a) Has the Mafia Island Airport Upgrade Project...

  7. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 4 - Analysis of opportunity costs and issues related to regional energy resilience. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. Based on the outputs from the first three tasks, a suite of coherent pathways towards the overall target of 75% residential local energy consumption was created, and the costs and benefits for the region were calculated. This was undertaken via a scenario analysis which also highlighted the risks and robustness of the different options within the pathways. In addition to a direct economic comparison between the different pathways, more qualitative issues were described, including potential local employment, environmental benefits and disadvantages, etc. The main tool utilised in this analysis was a tailor made Excel energy model that includes mechanisms for analysing improvements in the CVRD energy system down to an area level, for example renewable energy in residential buildings, renewable energy generation, and the effects of energy efficiency improvements. For the industrial, commercial, and transport sectors, simple and generic forecasts and input possibilities were included in the model. The Excel 'technology cost' and 'energy' models are accompanied with a user manual so that planners within the CVRD can become well acquainted with the models and update the figures going forward. In addition, hands on instruction as to how to link the Excel model with GIS maps was also provided to both planners and GIS professionals within the CVRD and associated municipal organisations. The results of task 4 are documented in the present report. (LN)

  8. Cowichan Valley energy mapping and modelling. Report 1 - GIS mapping of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. Final report. [Vancouver Island, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The driving force behind the Integrated Energy Mapping and Analysis project was the identification and analysis of a suite of pathways that the Cowichan Valley Regional District (CVRD) can utilise to increase its energy resilience, as well as reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions, with a primary focus on the residential sector. Mapping and analysis undertaken will support provincial energy and GHG reduction targets, and the suite of pathways outlined will address a CVRD internal target that calls for 75% of the region's energy within the residential sector to come from locally sourced renewables by 2050. The target has been developed as a mechanism to meet resilience and climate action target. The maps and findings produced are to be integrated as part of a regional policy framework currently under development. The first task in the project was the production of a series of thematic GIS maps and associated databases of potential renewable energy resources in the CVRD. The renewable energy sources mapped were solar, wind, micro hydro, and biomass (residues and waste). Other sources were also discussed (e.g. geothermal heat) but not mapped due to lack of spatially explicit input data. The task 1 findings are detailed in this report. (LN)

  9. The challenges and opportunities of Chinese-language media in Vancouver: A case study of Coast Mountain Publishing & Media Management Corporation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiaojun

    2018-01-01

    This report introduces how Chinese-language media based in Vancouver have experienced ups and downs, and how they seized the moment to dominate their market with the developing and expanding ethnic Chinese group. By taking Coast Mountain Publishing & Media Management Corporation as an example, this report analyses a typical Chinese-language media’s surviving strategies and revenue models in details. Going through the history and observing the existing circumstances closely, this report tr...

  10. Sexual HIV risk among gay, bisexual and queer transgender men: findings from interviews in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ashleigh; Scott, Kai; Johnston, Caitlin; Blackwell, Everett; Lachowsky, Nathan; Cui, Zishan; Sereda, Paul; Moore, David; Hogg, Robert; Roth, Eric

    2017-11-01

    Gay, bisexual, queer and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Canada. While up to 63% of transgender men identify as gay, bisexual or queer and report a variety of HIV sexual risk behaviours, transgender men are often overlooked within epidemiological HIV surveillance and research. While a growing body of research has begun to examine sexual risk for transgender gay, bisexual and queer men, most studies have been conducted in the USA. This study explored sexual HIV risk for this population in the Canadian context, specifically in British Columbia, in an environment of publically funded universal access to healthcare, including HIV testing and treatment. We conducted interviews with 11 gay, bisexual and queer transgender men. Participants' narratives suggest that HIV risk for these transgender men is shaped by a diversity of sexual behaviours, including inconsistent condom use, seeking partners online for greater safety and accessing HIV/STI testing and other healthcare services despite facing transition-related barriers. Public health prevention and health education must recognise the presence of transgender men and ensure health services and broader population health promotion meet the unique sexual health needs of this sub-population of gay, bisexual and queer men.

  11. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2018-02-01

    Background Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  12. Plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures Vancouver type B1-Trochanteric hook plate or subtrochanterical bicortical locking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Mark; Stoffel, Karl; Kielstein, Heike; Mayo, Keith; Hofmann, Gunther O; Gueorguiev, Boyko

    2016-12-01

    Proximal plate fixation in periprosthetic femur fractures can be improved by plate anchorage in the greater trochanter (lateral tension band principle) or bicortical locking screw placement beside the prosthesis stem in an embracement configuration. Both concepts were compared in a biomechanical test using a femoral hook plate (hook) or a locking attachment plate (LAP). After bone mineral density (BMD) measurement in the greater trochanter, six pairs of fresh frozen human femora were assigned to two groups and instrumented with cemented hip endoprostheses. A transverse osteotomy was set distal to the tip of the prosthesis, simulating a Vancouver B1 fracture. Each pair was instrumented using a plate tensioner with either hook or LAP construct. Cyclic testing (2Hz) with physiologic profile and monotonically increasing load was performed until catastrophic failure. Plate stiffness was compared in a four-point-bending-test. Paired student's-t-test was used for statistical evaluation (pTrochanteric fixation is highly BMD dependent and may be restricted to major greater trochanteric involvement requiring stabilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pedestrian and bicyclist motivation: an assessment of influences on pedestrians’ and bicyclists’ mode choice in Mt. Pleasant, Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffery M. Guinn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of short distance travel in North America is completed by single occupancy vehicles. Substituting walking and bicycling for these trips would reduce energy use and environmental pollution, while improving quality of life. Therefore, understanding influences on non-automotive travel behavior is crucial. Researchers and planners have touted specific factors for encouraging walking and biking, but the body of work remains fragmented. Previous studies have focused on a smaller number of factors and most of them relate to physical design. This study tests the relative importance of a range of factors, both physical and perceptual that could influence one’s choice to walk or bike. The Mt. Pleasant neighborhood in Vancouver, B.C., Canada was chosen as the location for this study as all of the pedestrian-motivating factors identified in a literature review were present. A questionnaire-based survey addressing distance, sidewalks/bike lanes, pedestrian/bicycle traffic signals, buffering from auto traffic, sense of security, cleanliness, opportunities to talk with others, enforcement of traffic laws, concern for the environment, weather, terrain, saving money, opportunities for exercise, and a visually appealing environment as influential factors was administered in person and online yielding 774 responses. All factors were shown to influence the decision to walk or bike, but some proved more significant than others, especially opportunities for exercise.

  14. The Impact of Weather Forecasts of Various Lead Times on Snowmaking Decisions Made for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics were held from 12 to 28 February 2010, and the Paralympic events followed 2 weeks later. During the Games, the weather posed a grave threat to the viability of one venue and created significant complications for the event schedule at others. Forecasts of weather with lead times ranging from minutes to days helped organizers minimize disruptions to sporting events and helped ensure all medal events were successfully completed. Of comparable importance, however, were the scenarios and forecasts of probable weather for the winter in advance of the Games. Forecasts of mild conditions at the time of the Games helped the Games' organizers mitigate what would have been very serious potential consequences for at least one venue. Snowmaking was one strategy employed well in advance of the Games to prepare for the expected conditions. This short study will focus on how operational decisions were made by the Games' organizers on the basis of both climatological and snowmaking forecasts during the pre-Games winter. An attempt will be made to quantify, economically, the value of some of the snowmaking forecasts made for the Games' operators. The results obtained indicate that although the economic value of the snowmaking forecast was difficult to determine, the Games' organizers valued the forecast information greatly. This suggests that further development of probabilistic forecasts for applications like pre-Games snowmaking would be worthwhile.

  15. Declaraciones del Comité Internacional de Directores de Revistas Médicas anexas a las normas de Vancouver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Estas declaraciones, emitidas por el Comité de Directores de Revistas Médicas como publicación anexa a las normas de Vancouver, abarcan temas relacionados con algunos aspectos legales, éticos y prácticos de la publicación de trabajos de investigación, y de los comentarios que estos suscitan, en revistas biomédicas. Partiendo de la definición de lo que constituye una revista sometida a arbitraje científico, se describen las funciones de los propietarios y directores de revistas y de los miembros de una junta editorial y se establecen normas de conducta en casos de conflictos de intereses, retractaciones o correcciones, fraude y violaciones de la confidencialidad. Por último se exploran, entre otros temas, los problemas que encierra la divulgación de los resultados de investigaciones por los medios de comunicación de masas, la inclusión de material propagandístico en la revista y la aceptación simultánea de manuscritos cuyos autores llegan a conclusiones divergentes sobre los resultados de una misma investigación.

  16. COMMUNICATING RISK IN THE CONTEXT OF METHADONE FORMULATION CHANGES: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF OVERDOSE WARNING POSTERS IN VANCOUVER, CANADA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwick, Nicole; McNeil, Ryan; Anderson, Solanna; Small, Will; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND British Columbia, Canada’s provincial methadone program recently replaced their existing methadone formulation with a formulation ten times more concentrated. The transition raised concerns about heightened risk of accidental overdose, leading two organizations to disseminate methadone overdose warning posters during the transitional period. This study explores people who use drugs’ (PWUD) perceptions of these warning posters. METHODS Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirty-four PWUD enrolled in methadone maintenance treatment in Vancouver. Participants were recruited from ongoing cohort studies of drug-using individuals. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically, focusing on participants’ perceptions of the warning posters and potential impacts on drug-related risks. RESULTS Overdose warning posters constituted a key source of information about the methadone formulation change, but did not provide adequate information for all participants. Participants articulated a preference for descriptive language, focusing on changes in concentration rather than “strength”, and universal hazard symbols to effectively communicate overdose risks. CONCLUSION Participants indicated that warnings employing descriptive language more effectively communicated risk of methadone overdose. Future overdose warnings for drug-using populations must provide adequate information for the intended audience, and be communicated to PWUD through multiple channels. PMID:26644025

  17. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  18. Structural Barriers to Antiretroviral Therapy Among Sex Workers Living with HIV: Findings of a Longitudinal Study in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Montaner, Julio; Duff, Putu; Nguyen, Paul; Dobrer, Sabina; Guillemi, Silvia; Shannon, Kate

    2016-05-01

    In light of limited data on structural determinants of access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) among sex workers, we examined structural correlates of ART use among sex workers living with HIV over time. Longitudinal data were drawn from a cohort of 646 female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada (2010-2012) and linked pharmacy records on ART dispensation. We used logistic regression with generalized estimating equations (GEE) to examine correlates of gaps in ART use (i.e., treatment interruptions or delayed ART initiation), among HIV seropositive participants (n = 74). Over a 2.5-year period, 37.8 % of participants experienced gaps in ART use (i.e., no ART dispensed in a 6-month period). In a multivariable GEE model, younger age, migration/mobility, incarceration, and non-injection drug use independently correlated with gaps in ART use. In spite of successes scaling-up ART in British Columbia, younger, mobile, or incarcerated sex workers face persistent gaps in access and retention irrespective of drug use. Community-based, tailored interventions to scale-up entry and retention in ART for sex workers should be further explored in this setting.

  19. Setting the stage for chronic health problems: cumulative childhood adversity among homeless adults with mental illness in Vancouver, British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Michelle L; Moniruzzaman, Akm; Somers, Julian M

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well documented that childhood abuse, neglect and household dysfunction are disproportionately present in the backgrounds of homeless adults, and that these experiences adversely impact child development and a wide range of adult outcomes. However, few studies have examined the cumulative impact of adverse childhood experiences on homeless adults with mental illness. This study examines adverse events in childhood as predictors of duration of homelessness, psychiatric and ...

  20. Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining on Buru Island, Indonesia – Potential future risks to environmental health and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Male, Yusthinus Thobias; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Pocock, Matt; Nanlohy, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent mercury contamination from artisanal gold mining, Buru Island, Indonesia. • Measured dispersal into the marine environment. • Implications for food safety. • Challenges for introducing mercury reduction strategies. -- Abstract: In November 2011 gold was found at Mount Botak, Buru Island, Mollucas Province, Indonesia. Since 2012 mercury has been used to extract the gold requiring large volumes of water and resulting in deposition of mercury into Wamsait River and Kayeli Bay. Total mercury in waste ponds was over 680 mg/kg. In sediments at the mouth of the local river and a small feeder creek >3.00 mg/kg and >7.66 mg/kg respectively. River and bay sediments were proportionately higher in available mercury than elemental mercury and more strongly bound mercuric sulfide compared to that in trommel waste. This preliminary investigation raises concerns about the long term distribution and speciation of mercury. The floodplain is an important agricultural resource, and Mollucas Province is recognised nationally as the centre for Indonesian fish stocks. Challenges for management include communicating the potential future risks to the community and leaders and identifying mechanisms to reduce mercury waste

  1. Exploring factors impacting early childhood health among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander families and communities: protocol for a population-based cohort study using data linkage (the ‘Defying the Odds’ study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubhaju, Lina; Jorm, Louisa; Preen, David; Jones, Jocelyn; Joshy, Grace; Shepherd, Carrington; McAullay, Daniel; Eades, Sandra; Ball, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Empirical evidence on family and community risk and protective factors influencing the comparatively high rates of potentially preventable hospitalisations and deaths among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander infants and children is limited. As is evidence on geographical variation in these risks. The ‘Defying the Odds’ study aims to explore the impact of perinatal outcomes, maternal social and health outcomes and level of culturally secure service availability on the health outcomes of Western Australian (WA) Aboriginal infants and children aged 0–5 years. Methods and analysis The study combines a retrospective cohort study that uses state-wide linked health and administrative data from 12 data sources for multiple generations within Aboriginal families in WA, with specifically collected survey data from health and social services supporting Aboriginal families in regions of WA. Data sources include perinatal/birth registration, hospital, emergency department, mental health services, drug and alcohol service use, mortality, infectious disease notifications, and child protection and family services. Multilevel regression models will be used to examine the intensity of admissions and presentations, mortality, intensity of long stays and morbidity-free survival (no admissions) for Aboriginal children born in WA in 2000–2013. Relationships between maternal (and grand-maternal) health and social factors and child health outcomes will be quantified. Community-level variation in outcomes for Aboriginal children and factors contributing to this variation will be examined, including the availability of culturally secure services. Online surveys were sent to staff members at relevant services to explore the scope, reach and cultural security of services available to support Aboriginal families across selected regions of WA. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals have been granted for the study. Interpretation and dissemination are guided by the

  2. Island formation without attractive interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.J.

    2008-01-01

    We show that adsorbates on surfaces can form islands even if there are no attractive interactions. Instead, strong repulsion between adsorbates at short distances can lead to islands, because such islands increase the entropy of the adsorbates that are not part of the islands. We suggest that this

  3. AVTA Federal Fleet PEV Readiness Data Logging and Characterization Study for the National Park Service: Fort Vancouver National Historic Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Schey; Jim Francfort

    2014-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC, managing and operating contractor for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, is the lead laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing. Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC contracted with Intertek Testing Services, North America (ITSNA) to collect data on federal fleet operations as part of the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity’s Federal Fleet Vehicle Data Logging and Characterization study. The Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity study seeks to collect data to validate the use of advanced electric drive vehicle transportation. This report focuses on the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site (FVNHS) fleet to identify daily operational characteristics of select vehicles and report findings on vehicle and mission characterizations to support the successful introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) into the agencies’ fleet. Individual observations of the selected vehicles provided the basis for recommendations related to EV adoption and whether a battery electric vehicle (BEV) or plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) (collectively plug-in electric vehicles) could fulfill the mission requirements. FVNHS identified three vehicles in its fleet for consideration. While the FVNHS vehicles conduct many different missions, only two (i.e., support and pool missions) were selected by agency management to be part of this fleet evaluation. The logged vehicles included a pickup truck and a minivan. This report will show that BEVs and PHEVs are capable of performing the required missions and providing an alternative vehicle for both mission categories, because each has sufficient range for individual trips and time available each day for charging to accommodate multiple trips per day. These charging events could occur at the vehicle’s home base, high-use work areas, or in intermediate areas along routes that the vehicles frequently travel. Replacement of vehicles in the current fleet would result in

  4. US acculturation is associated with health behaviors and obesity, but not their change, with a hotel-based intervention among Asian-Pacific Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Chen, Chuhe; Williams, Andrew E; Albright, Cheryl L; Nigg, Claudio R; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Stevens, Victor J

    2012-05-01

    Immigration to the United States has been associated with obesity, yet the relationship of acculturation to obesity and energy balance (ie, physical activity/dietary intake) in adults is a complex issue. Limited longitudinal data are available on immigrant Asians and Pacific Islanders. Analyses were conducted on baseline data and change data from baseline to 24 months in the hotel-based cluster-randomized Work, Weight and Wellness trial involving 15 control and 15 intervention hotels on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Participants were adult employees of predominantly Asian and Pacific Islander ancestry who were assessed one or more times over the course of 24 months. The full sample consisted of 4,236 hotel workers (about 40% of hotel workforce) at baseline, 3,502 hotel workers at Year 1 and 2,963 hotel workers at the 24-month follow up. One thousand one hundred fifteen hotel workers had at least two measurements, and were included in the analysis. The Work, Weight, and Wellness trial was designed to promote weight loss via motivation and support for increases in physical activity and increased access to and consumption of healthy low-fat/low-energy foods. The measure of acculturation consisted of a score that was a compilation of a participant's age when he or she immigrated to the United States, country of birth, language spoken at home, and years of education. We used mixed effect regression models for cross-sectional baseline models and longitudinal multilevel regression analysis of change in diet and physical activity behaviors and obesity over time using a random intercept. Estimates of the intervention effect are expressed as an annual rate of change for all study outcomes. At baseline acculturation was positively associated with body mass index; physical activity level; and fruit, meat, and sweetened drink intake level. In analyses of change across 24 months, acculturation did not significantly influence change in dietary intake or indexes of obesity (ie, body

  5. Injection drug users’ involvement in drug dealing in the downtown eastside of Vancouver: Social organization and systemic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Will; Maher, Lisa; Lawlor, Jeff; Wood, Evan; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Illicit drug markets are a key component of the risk environment surrounding injection drug use. However, relatively few studies have explored how injection drug users’ (IDUs) involvement in drug dealing shapes their experiences of drug market-related harm. This exploratory qualitative study aims to understand IDUs’ dealing activities and roles, as well as the perceived benefits and risks related to participation in illicit drug markets, including experiences of drug market violence. Methods Ten IDUs with extensive involvement in drug dealing activities were recruited from the Vancouver Injection Drug User Study (VIDUS) and participated in semi-structured qualitative interviews, which elicited discussion of experiences dealing drugs, perceived benefits and hazards related to dealing, and understandings of drug market violence. Results Participant's involvement in drug market activities included corporate sales, freelance or independent sales, and opportunistic sales termed “middling” as well as drug market-related hustles entailing selling bogus drugs and robbing dealers. Participants primarily dealt drugs to support their own illicit drug use, and we found that arrest and criminal justice involvement, hazards stemming from drug debts, and drug market-related violence were key risks related to dealing activities. Conclusion The challenges of managing personal consumption while selling drugs exacerbates the hazards associated with drug dealing. Efforts to address drug dealing among IDUs should consider both drug dependency and the material conditions that propel drug users towards dealing activities. Interventions should explore the potential of combining enhanced drug treatment programs with low threshold employment and alternative income generation opportunities. PMID:23664788

  6. Differences in adolescents' physical activity from school-travel between urban and suburban neighbourhoods in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Amanda; Voss, Christine; Winters, Meghan; Naylor, Patti-Jean; Higgins, Joan Wharf; McKay, Heather

    2015-01-01

    To investigate differences in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) from school-travel between adolescents in urban and suburban neighbourhoods and to describe its relative contribution to MVPA on school days. We measured 243 adolescents (51% male, grades 8-10) from Vancouver's walkable downtown core and its largely car-dependent suburb Surrey (fall 2011, 2013). We estimated mean school-travel MVPA from accelerometry (hour before/after school on ≥ 2 days; n = 110, 39% male) and compared school-travel MVPA by neighbourhood type and school-travel mode. The influence of mean school-travel MVPA on mean school-day MVPA (≥ 600 min valid wear time on ≥ 2 days) was examined by linear regression. Over half of students used active modes (urban: 63%, suburban: 53%). Those using active travel and living in the urban neighbourhood obtained the most school-travel MVPA (22.3 ± 8.0 min). Urban passive travellers used public transit and obtained more school-travel MVPA than suburban students (16.9 ± 6.2 vs. 8.0 ± 5.3, p travel MVPA (R (2) = 0.38, p travel MVPA in adolescents. School-travel MVPA is an important contributor to adolescents' school-day MVPA. Where feasible, physically active options for school-travel should be promoted, including public transit.

  7. Ecology of Leptospira interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea G Himsworth

    Full Text Available Leptospira interrogans is a bacterial zoonosis with a worldwide distribution for which rats (Rattus spp. are the primary reservoir in urban settings. In order to assess, monitor, and mitigate the risk to humans, it is important to understand the ecology of this pathogen in rats. The objective of this study was to characterize the ecology of L. interrogans in Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus in an impoverished inner-city neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.Trapping was performed in 43 city blocks, and one location within the adjacent port, over a 12 month period. Kidney samples were tested for the presence of L. interrogans using PCR and sequencing. A multivariable model was built to predict L. interrogans infection status in individual rats using season and morphometric data (e.g., weight, sex, maturity, condition, etc. as independent variables. Spatial analysis was undertaken to identify clusters of high and low L. interrogans prevalence. The prevalence of L. interrogans varied remarkably among blocks (0-66.7%, and spatial clusters of both high and low L. interrogans prevalence were identified. In the final cluster-controlled model, characteristics associated with L. interrogans-infection in rats included weight (OR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20, increased internal fat (OR = 2.12, 95% CI = 1.06-4.25, and number of bite wounds (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.96-1.49.Because L. interrogans prevalence varied with weight, body fat, and bite wounds, this study suggests that social structure and interactions among rats may influence transmission. The prevalence and distribution of L. interrogans in rats was also highly variable even over a short geographic distance. These factors should be considered in future risk management efforts.

  8. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. A verdict on the conference: sadly, not one world or one hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A

    1996-01-01

    Although the theme of the 11th International Conference on AIDS held in Vancouver during July 7-12, 1996, was "One World, One Hope," developed and developing countries have HIV/AIDS epidemics of different magnitudes, different levels of resources with which to combat the problems, and dissimilar objectives. The latest data released at the conference report an estimated 21.8 million people to be currently living with HIV/AIDS, the vast majority of whom live in developing countries. 84% of the estimated 7.7 million AIDS cases which have occurred since the beginning of the pandemic were in Africa or Asia; only 9% were in Europe and the US. The greatest burden of disease is and will be therefore experienced in the developing world which, relative to the developed world, has extremely limited resources. The epidemic continues to spread throughout much of the developing world, while levels of HIV infection in the developed world are largely remaining constant, with the center seemingly moving more into marginalized groups such as the homeless, drug users, and other groups. A whole range of new drugs will soon be available to treat HIV/AIDS among those who can afford them. It is possible that AIDS may simply become manageable as a chronic illness in the west. Such drugs, however, will be prohibitively expensive for almost all people infected with HIV. Moreover, the side effects of these new drugs remain to be seen, and it is possible that individuals will develop resistance to the treatment. The author laments the lack of papers at the conference analyzing the impact of the epidemic and hopes to see more representation and consideration of the developing world at the next conference, to be held in Geneva in 1998.

  9. Coalescence of magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper gives the analytical theory of the coalescence instability and of a new, one island, instability. These instabilities are expected to be relevant for the disruptions observed in Tokamak experiments and astrophysical plasmas

  10. Heat Island Compendium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat islands can be mitigated through measures like planting trees and vegetation, installing green roofs and cool roofs, and using cool pavements. The compendium describes all of these strategies and shows how communities around the country are being used

  11. Islands and Islandness in Rock Music Lyrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Mezzana

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a first exploration, qualitative in character, based on a review of 412 songs produced in the period 1960-2009, about islands in rock music as both social products and social tools potentially contributing to shaping ideas, emotions, will, and desires. An initial taxonomy of 24 themes clustered under five meta-themes of space, lifestyle, emotions, symbolism, and social-political relations is provided, together with some proposals for further research.

  12. Prenatal and early childhood health effects of air pollution in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hertz-Picciotto, I.; James, R. A.; Dostál, Miroslav; Keller, J.; Dejmek, Jan; Šrám, Radim

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2002), s. 93 ISSN 1044-3983. [Conference of the ISEA /12./, Conference of the ISEE /14./. 11.08.2002-15.08.2002, Vancouver - Canada] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality

  13. A 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change in the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Bowen, Kathryn; Hanna, Elizabeth; Iddings, Steven

    2017-06-01

    Small Pacific Island countries (PICs) are among the most vulnerable countries in the world to the anticipated detrimental health effects of climate change. The assessment of health vulnerabilities and planning adaptation strategies to minimize the impacts of climate change on health tests traditional health governance structures and depends on strong linkages and partnerships between actors involved in these vital processes. This article reviews the actors, processes and contexts of the climate change and health vulnerability assessment and adaptation planning project carried out by the World Health Organization and health sector partners in three island countries in the Micronesian region of the Pacific throughout 2010 and 2011: Federated States of Micronesia, Marshall Islands and Palau. Despite their shared history and cultural characteristics, the findings and implications of this article are considered to have substantial relevance and potential application to other PICs. The modified 'Healthy Islands' framework for climate change and health adaptation presented in this article draws upon real-world experience and governance theory from both the health and climate change literature and, for the first time, places health systems adaptation within the vision for 'Healthy Islands' in the Pacific region. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The radiological status of the Monte Bello Islands, May 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.B.; Lokan, K.H.; Williams, G.A.

    1983-10-01

    The results of a radiological survey of the Monte Bello Islands, performed in May 1983, are presented. The radiation environments of the sites of the two atomic weapons tests conducted over land, in 1956, on Trimouille Island and Alpha Island are described. The radiation fields at both ground zero locations are now relatively low, and present no health risk to the casual visitor. The radiation field on the southern and central parts of Trimouille Island, adjacent and downwind of the 1952 atomic weapons test offshore on HMS Plym is also described. The southern part of Trimouille Island is essentially free of radioactive contamination, whereas in the central part of the island the fallout pattern from this test is evident. Radioactive metal fragments containing Cobalt-60 were observed in large numbers scattered throughout the central part of Trimouille Island. The radioactive content was typically 6 kBq/kg. A number of soil samples from the two ground zero locations, and from central and southern Trimouille Island, were collected and analysed for radionuclide concentrations. As well, samples of oysters were obtained from three sites on Trimouille Island. There was no significant radioactive contamination of the oyster flesh or shells

  15. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans Disparidades de salud entre puertorriqueños que viven en la isla de Puerto Rico y en tierra firme estadounidense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect health disparities among three populations-Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S. mainland. METHODS: Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS provided data on Puerto Ricans living on the island and on non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. Another survey of Puerto Ricans living in New York City provided data on mainland Puerto Ricans. The age- and sex-standardized weighted prevalences of various health parameters (e.g., obesity, diabetes, smoking, and physical illness and indicators of access to health care (e.g., frequencies of routine checkups and diabetes care were compared between populations by means of standardized rate ratios (SRR. RESULTS: Puerto Ricans living on the mainland and those living on the island had a similar prevalence of obesity (21% to 22%. Compared with islanders, mainland Puerto Ricans had a higher prevalence of diabetes (SRR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01 to 2.0; those with diabetes also showed higher prevalences of smoking (SRR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.3 to 7.7 and physical illness (SRR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.0 than Puerto Ricans living on the island. While mainland Puerto Ricans were similar to non-Hispanic whites in terms of their utilization of primary prevention and diabetes care, island Puerto Ricans trailed behind significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. mainland and those living in Puerto Rico both need to target lowering their prevalence of obesity and diabetes. For island Puerto Ricans, improved education about the significance of primary prevention and diabetes care is needed. For mainland Puerto Ricans, the accessibility of the primary health care system renders it a potentially effective venue for interventions, particularly for smoking cessation. More studies are warranted to identify factors

  16. NOAA's efforts to map extent, health and condition of deep sea corals and sponges and their habitat on the banks and island slopes of Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnoyer, P. J.; Salgado, E.; Stierhoff, K.; Wickes, L.; Nehasil, S.; Kracker, L.; Lauermann, A.; Rosen, D.; Caldow, C.

    2015-12-01

    Southern California's deep-sea corals are diverse and abundant, but subject to multiple stressors, including corallivory, ocean acidification, and commercial bottom fishing. NOAA has surveyed these habitats using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) since 2003. The ROV was equipped with high-resolution cameras to document deep-water groundfish and their habitat in a series of research expeditions from 2003 - 2011. Recent surveys 2011-2015 focused on in-situ measures of aragonite saturation and habitat mapping in notable habitats identified in previous years. Surveys mapped abundance and diversity of fishes and corals, as well as commercial fisheries landings and frequency of fishing gear. A novel priority setting algorithm was developed to identify hotspots of diversity and fishing intensity, and to determine where future conservation efforts may be warranted. High density coral aggregations identified in these analyses were also used to guide recent multibeam mapping efforts. The maps suggest a large extent of unexplored and unprotected hard-bottom habitat in the mesophotic zone and deep-sea reaches of Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary.

  17. Healing the body, healing the self: the interrelationship of sickness, health, and faith in the lives of St. Lawrence Island Yupik residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolles, Carol Zane

    2003-01-01

    For about 15 years, Carol Jolles has been traveling to St. Lawrence Island, Alaska to study the role faith plays in the lives of Sivuqaq (Gambell) residents. From the outset, she was aware of the strong presence of two Christian faith traditions in the community. She was present when people “spoke in tongues” (entered a spiritual state, sometimes identified as an altered state of consciousness), and she was aware that people relied on prayer, often uttered in a spiritually inspired context, to ease the pain of daily life and to find the strength to do difficult tasks. Many months passed, however, before she realized that many people relied on faith to heal. From the perspective of her long-term working relationships and friendships with community members, Jolles takes a fresh look at some of the situations from her early work where faith and healing were intertwined. She also looks at more recent examples to place faith-based healing in a more general context. In the process, she focuses on a few special individuals to highlight the components of faith and healing associated with illness and mental distress.

  18. A multivariate assessment of the coral ecosystem health of two embayments on the lee of the island of Hawai'i

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, Michael L. [Marine Science Department, University of Hawai' i at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)], E-mail: mparsons@fgcu.edu; Walsh, William J. [Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 (United States); Settlemier, Chelsie J.; White, Darla J.; Ballauer, Josh M.; Ayotte, Paula M.; Osada, Kara M. [Marine Science Department, University of Hawai' i at Hilo, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Carman, Brent [Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and Natural Resources, Kailua-Kona, HI 96740 (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Four coral-dominated coastal sites within two embayments (Kealakekua Bay and Honokohau Bay) on the lee of the island of Hawai'i were studied to assess evidence of anthropogenic impacts in these relatively pristine locales. Nutrient-loading parameters were analyzed in relation to benthic composition data. Statistically, there were significant positive relationships between nitrate + nitrite, silicate, and ammonium with the abundance of macroalgae, coralline algae, and dead coral, and between {delta}{sup 15}N and dead coral abundance. The north outside site of Kealakekua Bay and the south outside site of Honokohau Bay appear to be most impacted by nutrient-loading factors in each bay, respectively. Comparisons with past nutrient data indicate that nutrient inputs have increased to the two bays, and that early impacts of these increased loadings are evident. It is predicted that at current nutrient-loading rates, the north sites of Kealakekua Bay and the south sites of Honokohau Bay will exhibit evidence of further degradation in future years.

  19. Comparing Machine Learning and Decision Making Approaches to Forecast Long Lead Monthly Rainfall: The City of Vancouver, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahmatkesh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimating maximum possible rainfall is of great value for flood prediction and protection, particularly for regions, such as Canada, where urban and fluvial floods from extreme rainfalls have been known to be a major concern. In this study, a methodology is proposed to forecast real-time rainfall (with one month lead time using different number of spatial inputs with different orders of lags. For this purpose, two types of models are used. The first one is a machine learning data driven-based model, which uses a set of hydrologic variables as inputs, and the second one is an empirical-statistical model that employs the multi-criteria decision analysis method for rainfall forecasting. The data driven model is built based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs, while the developed multi-criteria decision analysis model uses Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS approach. A comprehensive set of spatially varying climate variables, including geopotential height, sea surface temperature, sea level pressure, humidity, temperature and pressure with different orders of lags is collected to form input vectors for the forecast models. Then, a feature selection method is employed to identify the most appropriate predictors. Two sets of results from the developed models, i.e., maximum daily rainfall in each month (RMAX and cumulative value of rainfall for each month (RCU, are considered as the target variables for forecast purpose. The results from both modeling approaches are compared using a number of evaluation criteria such as Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE. The proposed models are applied for rainfall forecasting for a coastal area in Western Canada: Vancouver, British Columbia. Results indicate although data driven models such as ANNs work well for the simulation purpose, developed TOPSIS model considerably outperforms ANNs for the rainfall forecasting. ANNs show acceptable simulation performance during the

  20. Small Island Visitor Attractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haven Allahar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a process framework for developing and managing visitor attractions (VA in small island developing states with Trinidad and Tobago, a two-island state in the Caribbean, as the case study. An extensive literature review was conducted, supported by field observations, individual depth interviews, and small and large focus group meetings. The process framework identified four sets of processes: national policy formulation and legislation; inventory, classification, evaluation, and ranking of VA; general operations management involving project management activities; and site specific activities of development, operations, and maintenance. The value of the framework lies in the fact that no similar framework applicable to small islands was covered in the literature and validation was obtained from a panel of experts and a cross section of tourism stakeholders in Tobago.

  1. Island of Luzon, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    In this north to south view of the Island of Luzon, Philippines (13.0N, 120.0E), the prominent Cordillera Central mountain range where gold, copper and silver are mined. The several large rivers that drain this region normally carry a heavy silt load to the sea but the absence of sediment plumes in this view is evidence of hot dry weather and lack of recent rains. Manila, the capital city is just visible at the south end of the island.

  2. Chatham Islands Climate Change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullan, B.; Salinger, J.; Thompson, C.; Ramsay, D.; Wild, M.

    2005-06-01

    This brief report provides guidance on climate change specific to the Chatham Islands, to complement the information recently produced for local government by the Ministry for the Environment in 'Climate Change Effects and Impacts Assessment: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand' and 'Coastal Hazards and Climate Change: A guidance manual for Local Government in New Zealand'. These previous reports contain a lot of generic information on climate change, and how to assess associated risks, that is relevant to the Chatham Islands Council.

  3. Island in the Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Dorthe Gert

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I explore the formation of airspace in Britain from 1910 to 1913. The technology of flight challenged the “flat discourse” of nationalized geography, drawing up instead a volumetric space in the sky as airplanes flew from the Continent to England. The drive to control aerial...... extension of the Island Kingdom, extrapolating its coastal borders into the sky. However, even as Parliament passed the Aerial Navigation Act in 1913, this legal construction of an island in the air could not endure the agency of airplanes. The formation of airspace, I argue, is a history particularly well...

  4. Archaeoastronomy of Easter Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Edmundo

    Astronomer priests or "skywatchers" on Easter Island lived in stone towers that were used as observatories and built stone markers in the periphery that indicated the heliacal rising of certain stars that served to indicate the arrival of marine birds, turtles, the offshore fishing season, and times for planting and harvest. Petroglyphs related to such sites depict outriggers, fishhooks, pelagic fish, and turtles and supposedly represented a star map. In this chapter, we analyze a set of such skywatchers dwellings, and stone markers located upon the North coast of Easter Island that have astronomic orientations, its related petroglyphs, and the relations between these directions with their yearly activities and their ritual calendar.

  5. Long Island Solar Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, R.

    2013-05-01

    The Long Island Solar Farm (LISF) is a remarkable success story, whereby very different interest groups found a way to capitalize on unusual circumstances to develop a mutually beneficial source of renewable energy. The uniqueness of the circumstances that were necessary to develop the Long Island Solar Farm make it very difficult to replicate. The project is, however, an unparalleled resource for solar energy research, which will greatly inform large-scale PV solar development in the East. Lastly, the LISF is a superb model for the process by which the project developed and the innovation and leadership shown by the different players.

  6. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed.

  7. Islanded operation of distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the results of a study assessing the benefits and risks to distribution network of generator islanding and examining the technical, commercial and regulatory changes required to facilitate the operation of islanding. The background to the study is traced, and details are given of a literature review, the technical criteria for operating sections of the network in islanding mode, and the impact of islanding on trading. Case studies and a detailed implementation plan, data acquisition, and commercial incentives are discussed

  8. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    developing island smart energy systems with the integration of renewable energy resources can increase the energy supply and address the global island energy issues. The island smart energy system operates either in a single-island or in multi-islands. However the island characteristics and influ...

  9. Solomon Islands Botany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the Results of the Royal Society Expedition to the British Solomon Islands Protectorate, 1965. Organized by E.J.H. Corner. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 255 (1969) 185-631, 196 fig. University Printing House, Shaftesbury Road, Cambridge. Obtainable through booksellers or direct to the Royal

  10. Magnetic-island formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-08-01

    The response of a finite conductivity plasma to resonant magnetic perturbations is studied. The equations, which are derived for the time development of magnetic islands, help one interpret the singular currents which occur under the assumption of perfect plasma conductivity. The relation to the Rutherford regime of resistive instabilities is given

  11. Bone island and leprosy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Cordoba University, Medical School, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Tarradas, E. [Department of Imaging, Cordoba University, Medical School, Cordoba (Spain); Logrono, C. [Department of Dermatology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Carrascal, A. [Department of Radiology, Infanta Elena Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Carreto, A. [Department of Radiology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen`s disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen`s disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen`s disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen`s disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen`s disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 9 refs.

  12. Bone island and leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpintero, P.; Garcia-Frasquet, A.; Tarradas, E.; Logrono, C.; Carrascal, A.; Carreto, A.

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the incidence of bone islands in leprosy patients. Design. X-rays of feet and hands of patients with Hansen's disease (leprosy) were reviewed retrospectively. A second group of related age- and sex-matched patients who did not have Hansen's disease was used for control purposes. Controls had undergone hand or foot X-rays during diagnosis of other pathologies. The patients with Hansen's disease were compared with the control group, and were also analyzed as subgroups with different types of leprosy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. Patients. Ninety patients with Hansen's disease were randomly selected for this study. Patients who had had ulcers on hands or feet were excluded from the study. Results and conclusions. Bone islands were demonstrated in 20 patients with Hansen's disease; no bone islands were observed in the controls. This was statistically significant (P<0.01). Bone islands were only seen in patients with lepromatous leprosy and borderline types but were not demonstrated in patients with tuberculoid leprosy. There was also a statistically significant relationship for a disease duration of 15 years or more. The cause of this raised incidence of enostosis in leprosy patients is not clear, but there may be a genetic predisposition in patients with leprosy, or it may be a side effect of leprosy, especially the lepromatous form. (orig.)

  13. Multidecadal shoreline changes of atoll islands in the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atoll islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of continued sea level rise. One of the most commonly predicted outcomes of continued sea level rise is widespread and chronic shoreline erosion. Despite the widespread implications of predicted erosion, the decadal scale changes of atoll island shorelines are poorly resolved. The Marshall Islands is one of only four countries where the majority of inhabited land is comprised of reef and atoll islands. Consisting of 29 atolls and 5 mid-ocean reef islands, the Marshall Islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of sea level rise. A detailed analysis of shoreline change on over 300 islands on 10 atolls was undertaken using historic aerial photos (1945-1978) and modern high resolution satellite imagery (2004-2012). Results highlight the complex and dynamic nature of atoll islands, with significant shifts in shoreline position observed over the period of analysis. Results suggest shoreline accretion is the dominant mode of change on the islands studied, often associated with a net increase in vegetated island area. However, considerable inter- and intra-atoll variability exists with regards to shoreline stability. Findings are discussed with respect to island morphodynamics and potential hazard mitigation and planning responses within atoll settings.

  14. Parents of terror victims. A longitudinal study of parental mental health following the 2011 terrorist attack on Utøya Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, Siri; Jensen, Tine K; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Dyb, Grete

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about parents' health following their children's exposure to trauma. We investigated the mental health of parents of young terrorist survivors and assessed parental distress and guilt as potential predictors of mental health. Mothers and fathers (N=531) participated in two study waves 4-5 and 14-15 months after the shooting. Posttraumatic stress reactions (PTSS) and anxiety/depression were compared with age- and gender-adjusted expected scores that were calculated from a concurrent population study. Mixed effects models investigated the associations between parental distress, parental guilt, and mental health. Parents' level of anxiety/depression was three times higher and PTSS was five times higher than that of the general population. Parental distress and guilt about their child's traumatic experience contributed uniquely to symptoms at both time points. Parents of traumatized youth constitute a vulnerable group that has been overlooked in the literature. Intervention strategies following trauma should include both survivors and their parents. Copyright © 2016 Z. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. The Strong Family Program: an innovative model to engage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander youth and Elders with reproductive and sexual health community education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, P; Botfield, J R; Ritter, T; Wicks, J; Brassil, A

    2017-08-01

    Issue addressed Aboriginal youth in Australia often experience high rates of intimate partner violence (family violence) and poorer reproductive and sexual health than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. To address some of the disparities, the Strong Family Program was developed to deliver reproductive and sexual health education to Aboriginal communities in New South Wales. Methods Development of the program was based on an extensive consultation process with Aboriginal communities. It was implemented in three communities, with two groups from each hosting Aboriginal youth and Elders in a yarning circle within the culturally respectful frameworks of 'men and boys'' and 'women and girls'' business. An evaluation was conducted to measure reproductive and sexual health knowledge and attitude changes upon program completion, using pre- and post-program surveys and yarning (focus group discussions). Results Program participants comprised 48 females and 28 males. Overall, mean knowledge and attitude scores improved upon completion of the program (from 77% to 82% and from 4.15 to 4.32 out of 5, respectively). Among participants aged 20 years and under (the youngest participant was 13 years), there was an increase in knowledge (P=0.034); among participants aged over 20 years (the oldest participant was 78 years), there was an increase in positive attitudes (P=0.001). Participants perceived the information provided to be useful and relevant, with many reporting improved knowledge and attitudes around rights and respectful relationships. Conclusions Reproductive and sexual health education in Aboriginal communities should be based on community consultations and carried out within a culturally appropriate framework to promote greater success. Continued implementation of the Strong Family Program will promote increased understanding of respectful relationships and improved health outcomes for Aboriginal young people. So what? The Strong Family Program was based on an extensive

  16. Key players in neurodegenerative disorders in focus-New insights into the proteomic profile of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, ALS, and multiple sclerosis-24th HUPO BPP Workshop: September 29, 2015, Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrötter, Andreas; Park, Young Mok; Marcus, Katrin; Martins-de-Souza, Daniel; Nilsson, Peter; Magraoui, Fouzi El; Meyer, Helmut E; Grinberg, Lea T

    2016-04-01

    The HUPO Brain Proteome Project (HUPO BPP) held its 24th workshop in Vancouver, Canada, September 29, 2015. The focus of the autumn workshop was on new insights into the proteomic profile of Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, ALS and multiple sclerosis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Processed foods available in the Pacific Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background There is an increasing reliance on processed foods globally, yet food composition tables include minimal information on their nutrient content. The Pacific Islands share common trade links and are heavily reliant on imported foods. The objective was to develop a dataset for the Pacific Islands on nutrient composition of processed foods sold and their sources. Methods Information on the food labels, including country of origin, nutrient content and promotional claims were recorded into a standardised dataset. Data were cleaned, converted to per 100 g data as needed and then checked for anomalies and recording errors. Setting: Five representative countries were selected for data collection, based on their trading patterns: Fiji, Guam, Nauru, New Caledonia, and Samoa. Data were collected in the capitals, in larger stores which import their own foods. Subjects: Processed foods in stores. Results The data from 6041 foods and drinks were recorded. Fifty four countries of origin were identified, with the main provider of food for each Pacific Island country being that with which it was most strongly linked politically. Nutrient data were not provided for 6% of the foods, imported from various countries. Inaccurate labels were found on 132 products. Over one-quarter of the foods included some nutrient or health-related claims. Conclusions The globalisation of the food supply is having considerable impacts on diets in the Pacific Islands. While nutrient labels can be informative for consumers looking for healthier options, difficulties still exist with poor labelling and interpretation can be challenging. PMID:24160249

  18. Infant mortality in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Booth, H

    1988-12-01

    Levy and Booth present previously unpublished infant mortality rates for the Marshall Islands. They use an indirect method to estimate infant mortality from the 1973 and 1980 censuses, then apply indirect and direct methods of estimation to data from the Marshall Islands Women's Health Survey of 1985. Comparing the results with estimates of infant mortality obtained from vital registration data enables them to estimate the extent of underregistration of infant deaths. The authors conclude that 1973 census appears to be the most valid information source. Direct estimates from the Women's Health Survey data suggest that infant mortality has increased since 1970-1974, whereas the indirect estimates indicate a decreasing trend in infant mortality rates, converging with the direct estimates in more recent years. In view of increased efforts to improve maternal and child health in the mid-1970s, the decreasing trend is plausible. It is impossible to estimate accurately infant mortality in the Marshall Islands during 1980-1984 from the available data. Estimates based on registration data for 1975-1979 are at least 40% too low. The authors speculate that the estimate of 33 deaths per 1000 live births obtained from registration data for 1984 is 40-50% too low. In round figures, a value of 60 deaths per 1000 may be taken as the final estimate for 1980-1984.

  19. Telemedicine in Majuro Hospital, Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardane, K J

    2000-09-01

    Since March 1998 up to June 2000, telemedicine activities in Marshall Islands have mainly been for Referrals to Tripler Army Medical Center (TAMC) in Hawaii. The activities are based on a computer which has the Internet connection and accessories including a digital camera, flatbed scanner with a transparency adapter, color printer, a video printer, ophthalmoscope, otoscope and a video Lens, all of which were donated by Project Akamai in Hawaii. Two sessions of training were conducted by representatives from Akamai Project and from PBMA at the very beginning of the establishment of the unit, to all levels of Health Care Providers in Ministry of Health in Majuro. The computer and Internet facility is available 24 hours. Since March 1998 to June 2000, there had been 144 telemedicine consultations to TAMC. Out of a total of 326 off-island referrals for the same period, approximately 80 patients have been sent to TAMC using the PIHCP/Telemedicine program. This accounts for approximately 25% of total off-island referrals. This represents a significant reduction in cost. In addition to cost reduction the telemedicine unit most important impact is on the health providers, especially the physicians working at Majuro Hospital. Availability of medical information through internet has helped them to feel less isolated from the constantly changing field of medical science.

  20. Do competing demands of physical illness in type 2 diabetes influence depression screening, documentation and management in primary care: a cross-sectional analytic study in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierhout, Gill; Nagel, Tricia; Si, Damin; Connors, Christine; Brown, Alex; Bailie, Ross

    2013-06-06

    Relatively little is known about how depression amongst people with chronic illness is identified and managed in diverse primary health care settings. We evaluated the role of complex physical needs in influencing current practice of depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescriptions during a 12-month period, among adults with Type 2 diabetes attending Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander primary care health centres in Australia. We analysed clinical audit data from 44 health centres participating in a continuous quality improvement initiative, using previously reported standard sampling and data extraction protocols. Eligible patients were those with Type 2 diabetes with health centre attendance within the past 12 months. We compared current practice in depression screening, documentation and antidepressant prescription between patients with different disease severity and co-morbidity. We used random effects multiple logistic regression models to adjust for potential confounders and for clustering by health centre. Among the 1174 patients with diabetes included, median time since diagnosis was 7 years, 19% of patients had a co-existing diagnosis of Ischaemic Heart Disease and 1/3 had renal disease. Some 70% of patients had HbAc1>7.0%; 65% had cholesterol >4.0 mmol1-1 and 64% had blood pressure>130/80 mmHg. Documentation of screening for depression and of diagnosed depression were low overall (5% and 6% respectively) and lower for patients with renal disease (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14 to 0.31 and AOR 0.34; 95% CI 0.15 to 0.75), and for those with poorly controlled disease (HbA1c>7.00 (AOR 0.40; 95% CI 0.23 to 0.68 and AOR 0.51; 95% CI 0.30 to 84)). Screening for depression was lower for those on pharmaceutical treatment for glycaemic control compared to those not on such treatment. Antidepressant prescription was not associated with level of diabetes control or disease severity. Background levels of

  1. Island solution; Inselloesung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bah, Isaac

    2013-06-15

    On the Azores island Graciosa the Berlin-based company Younicos has installed a new electricity system with advanced storage technology, which will make the islanders independent from fossil fuels. With an energy mix of wind power, photovoltaics and biomass the dependence on fossil fuels should be terminated. In the center of the flagship project specifically developed hybrid batteries are used (combination of sodium-sulfur- and lithium-ion batteries) with 2.7 MW of power and a storage capacity of ten megawatts hours. [German] Auf der Azoren-Insel Graciosa installiert das Berliner Unternehmen Younicos ein neues Stromsystem mit modernster Speichertechnologie, das die Bewohner unabhaengig von fossilen Energietraegern machen soll. Mit einem Energiemix aus Windkraft, Photovoltaik und Biomasse soll die Abhaengigkeit von fossilen Brennstoffen beendet werden. Im Zentrum des Vorzeigeprojekts stehen speziell fuer den Inseleinsatz entwickelte Hybridbatterien (Kombination aus Natrium-Schwefel- und Lithium-Ionen-Akkus) mit 2,7 Megawatt Leistung und eine Speicherkapazitaet von zehn Megawattestunden.

  2. Urban heat island 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Oliver; Jensen, Marina Bergen; Petersen, Karen Sejr

    2010-01-01

    Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer.......Urban Heat Island beskriver det forhold, at temperaturen i byområder er højere end temperaturen i tilgrænsede landområder. Årsagen hertil ligger i den urbane arealanvendelse, hvor en mindre andel af arealerne er dækket af vegetation, og en større andel består af forseglede arealer....

  3. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  4. Islands in the Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Bagina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today’s China is an outpost of modern western architecture. All famous architects and firms build here. Having lost their historical context, the objects of traditional Chinese architecture become islands in the ocean of new development. Their destiny is controversial. Architectural masterpieces are perceived in a superficial manner not only by tourists, but also by local people. The link of times that used to be cherished in Chinese culture is being broken today.

  5. The Mental Health of Children and Parents Detained on Christmas Island: Secondary Analysis of an Australian Human Rights Commission Data Set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mares, Sarah

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes secondary analysis of previously unreported data collected during the 2014 Australian Human Rights Commission Inquiry into Children in Immigration Detention. The aim was to examine the mental health of asylum-seeking parents and children during prolonged immigration detention and to consider the human rights implications of the findings. The average period of detention was seven months. Data includes 166 Kessler 10 Scales (K10) and 70 Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) for children aged 3-17 and parental concerns about 48 infants. Extremely high rates of mental disorder in adults and children resemble clinical populations. The K10 indicated severe co-morbid depression and anxiety in 83% of adults and 85.7% of teenagers. On the SDQ, 75.7% of children had a high probability of psychiatric disorder, with lower conduct and hyperactivity scores than clinic populations. Sixty-seven percent of parents had concerns about their infant's development. Correlations were not found between time detained or parent/child distress. Multiple human rights breaches are identified, including the right to health. This is further evidence of the profound negative consequences for adults and children of prolonged immigration detention. Methodological limitations demonstrate the practical and ethical obstacles to research with this population and the politicized implications of the findings.

  6. Control of urinary schistosomiasis on Zanzibar (Unguja Island: a pilot evaluation of the educational impact of the Juma na Kichocho health booklet within primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JR Stothard

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve health education within primary schools, the health education booklet Juma na kichocho was evaluated during a study within 5 schools using key-informant questionnaires that recorded children's knowledge and attitude (KA towards schistosomiasis before and after daily structured-use of booklets. A total of 229 schoolchildren (114 boys : 115 girls of between 11 and 15 years of age were interviewed and re-assessed after a working school week. Existing and putative booklet-induced changes in KA scores for schistosomiasis were compared directly against equivalent KA scores for malaria. In total 47.4% of children were already aware that schistosomiasis was a water-borne disease while only 10.5% knew of its exact aetiology; after booklet intervention these levels increased to 54.6 and 15.7%, respectively. The majority of children still failed, however, to realise that re-infection could take place soon after treatment. While a positive increase was observed for children's total KA questionnaire scores for both malaria and schistosomiasis after booklet intervention, these were not statistically significant. In the context of control, further educational efforts are needed to promote and guide behavioural change, especially in relation to reduction of environmental water contact.

  7. Exposure to Rats and Rat-Associated Leptospira and Bartonella Species Among People Who Use Drugs in an Impoverished, Inner-City Neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVea, David A; Himsworth, Chelsea G; Patrick, David M; Lindsay, L Robbin; Kosoy, Michael; Kerr, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Rat infestations are common, particularly in impoverished, inner-city neighborhoods. However, there has been little research into the nature and consequences of rat exposure in these neighborhoods, particularly in Canada. In this study, we sought to characterize exposure to rats and rat-associated Leptospira interrogans and Bartonella tribocorum, as well as risk factors associated with exposure, in residents (n = 202) of the Downtown Eastside (DTES) neighborhood of Vancouver, Canada. There was no evidence of exposure to rat-associated L. interrogans but 6/202 (3.0%) of participants were exposed to B. tribocorum, which is known to be circulating among DTES rats. We also found that frequent and close rat exposure was common among DTES residents, and that this exposure was particularly associated with injection drug use and outdoor income-generating activities (e.g., drug dealing). These risk factors may be good targets for interventions geared toward effectively reducing rat exposure.

  8. Squaring Up: Experiences of Transition from Off-Street Sex Work to Square Work and Duality--Concurrent Involvement in Both--in Vancouver, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Raven R

    2015-11-01

    Many studies of exit from sex work are inspired by role theory, where people experience a lack of attachment to a role; are faced with individual, interactional, and structural challenges; contemplate transition and exit a role; and then struggle to establish postrole identities and new lives. This framework has been used to explicate the factors and experiences of those who leave or attempt to leave the sex industry; however, it is limited because studies present sex work as a harmful and dangerous profession that people are trapped in, escaping, or have survived. In this paper, I discuss Vancouver's history of violence against sex workers and I review research on sex work exiting and bring forward recommendations for the design of exit program based on the experiences of 22 active and former off-street sex workers from Vancouver, British Columbia. I describe study participants who include Sex-Work-No-More participants who would not return to the industry, Sex-Work-Maybe participants who consider reinvolvement, and Dual-Life participants who are employed in sex work and conventional work simultaneously. These participants uniquely challenge narrow, binary understandings of involvement and transition because they discuss their use of deception to obtain resources needed to make change; the support that clients have provided; their strategic engagement in sex work as a means to exit; their considerations of reentry; and for some, their dual employment. In light of new legislation that criminalizes activities related to sex work-the Protection of Communities and Exploited Persons Act-and the Federal government announcement of $20 million dollars for the creation of exit services nationwide, hearing from sex workers is essential to advancing agendas in this area. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  9. Contaminant risks from biosolids land application Contemporary organic contaminant levels in digested sewage sludge from five treatment plants in Greater Vancouver, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bright, D.A.; Healey, N.

    2003-01-01

    The risks of organic contaminants in sewage sludges are evaluated. - This study examines the potential for environmental risks due to organic contaminants at sewage sludge application sites, and documents metals and various potential organic contaminants (volatile organics, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, dioxins/furans, extractable petroleum hydrocarbons, PAHs, phenols, and others) in current production biosolids from five wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) within the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD). There has been greater focus in Europe, North America and elsewhere on metals accumulation in biosolids-amended soil than on organic substances, with the exception of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans. Another objective, therefore, was to evaluate the extent to which management of biosolids re-use based on metal/metalloid levels coincidentally minimizes environmental risks from organic contaminants. Historical-use contaminants such as chlorophenols, PCBs, and chlorinated pesticides were not detected at environmentally relevant concentrations in any of the 36 fresh biosolids samples, and appear to have virtually eliminated from sanitary collection system inputs. The few organic contaminants found in freshly produced biosolids samples that exhibited high concentrations relative to British Columbia and Canadian soil quality benchmarks included p-cresol, phenol, phenanthrene, pyrene, naphthalene, and heavy extractable petroleum hydrocarbons (HEPHs-nCl9-C34 effective carbon chain length). It was concluded that, with the exception of these petroleum hydrocarbon constituents or their microbial metabolites, the mixing of biosolids with uncontaminated soils during land application and based on the known metal concentrations in biosolids from the Greater Vancouver WWTPs investigated provides adequate protection against the environmental risks associated with organic substances such as dioxins and furans, phthalate esters, or volatile

  10. MARICULTURE ON CROATIAN ISLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Šarušić

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available The first attempts of intensive mariculture in Croatia commenced at the very beginning of 1980’s. The mid-eighties brought an expansion of mariculture production, which has been continuously increasing. A few different marine organisms are intensively cultured - both fish and shellfish. Among them commercially most important and highly valued species are sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax and sea bream Sparus aurata. Mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and oyster Ostrea edulis are the most important shellfish. Fish species such as dentex Dentex dentex, red sea bream Pagrus major and sheepshead bream Puntazzo puntazzo are reared too, but in a rather small quantities. Only recently the rearing, on-growing- of bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus started in Croatia. The juveniles (70% are reared in a Croatian hatcheries, and 30% has to be imported mainly from Italy and France, due to a higher demand for this kind of culture among the small growers. Croatian part of Adriatic sea possesses a number of geomorfologicaly suitable sites and meteorological conditions which determined the choice - type - of intensive culture. All fish species are reared in a floating cages. The choice of cages i. e. semi off-shore or floating frames, size, rearing volume and design depend on the investors personal preference. The annual turnouf of a market size bass was about 600t and 300t bream in 1996., by 10 island farms which is 70% of total production in Croatia. Including other cultured fish species last year production was up to 1000t, and it™s being estimated to be about 1300t in the following year. The shellfish production on the islands is usually individual attempt of farmers, producing minor quantities mostly in polyculture. This production has bigger potential but it’s limited owing to the EU quality control regulations which do not allow the export, and by domestic market which has drastically decreased due to the collapse of tourism during the recent war. Almost 80

  11. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  12. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatenet, J H; Luciani, J F [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Garbet, X [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author). 30 refs.

  13. Self-sustained magnetic islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatenet, J.H.; Luciani, J.F.; Garbet, X.

    1996-06-01

    Numerical simulations of a single magnetic island evolution are presented in the regime where the island width is smaller than an ion Larmor radius. It is shown that the island rotation is controlled by particle diffusion due to collisions or a background of microturbulence. As expected from the theory of a stationary island, there exist cases where linearly stable magnetic perturbation are nonlinearly self-sustained. This situation corresponds to large poloidal beta and temperature gradient. The drive is due to diamagnetic frequency effects. However, this situation is not generic, and islands can also decay. It is found that a magnetic island is self-sustained for a negative off-diagonal diffusion coefficient. This case occurs in a tokamak if the inward particle pinch is due to the temperature gradient. (author)

  14. Demographic Ageing on Croatian Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Nejašmić

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the changes in the population structure of the Croatian islands by age, warns of the degree of ageing, provides spatial differentiation of this process and presents perspective of ageing at the level of settlement. Typing of population ageing is based on scores and has seven types. The total island population in 2011 belongs to the type 5 – very old population. Almost a half of the settlements (out of 303 have been affected by the highest levels of ageing (types 6 and 7. It was found that a quarter of island settlements will become “dead villages” in a foreseeable future; most of them are on small islands but also in the interior of larger islands. These are villages decaying in every respect, in which the way of life, as we know it, veins and goes out. The present ageing villagers are their last residents in most cases. Eve¬rything suggests that demographic recovery of the islands is not possible with the forces in situ. It is important to strike a balance between the needs and opportunities in order to successfully organize life on the islands, both small and large ones, and the fact is that there is a continuing disparity, which is especially profound in small islands. A sensitive and selective approach is needed to overcome the unfavourable demographic trends. Therefore it is necessary to respect the particularities of indi¬vidual islands and island groups in devising development strategy. Solutions to the problems must come of the local and wider community in synergy with relevant professional and scientific institutions. However, if the solutions are not found or measures do not give results, if the islands are left to desorganisation and senilisation, a part of the islands will become a wasteland. With regard to the value of this area whose wealth are people in the first place, this would be an intolerable civilization decline.

  15. The aquatic Coleoptera of Prince Edward Island, Canada: new records and faunal composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Majka

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aquatic Coleoptera (Gyrinidae, Haliplidae, Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, Elmidae, Dryopidae, Heteroceridae of Prince Edward Island, Canada is surveyed. Seventy-two species are now known to occur on Prince Edward Island, 26 of which are added to the island's faunal list. Three species, Gyrinus aquiris LeConte, Oulimnius latiusculus (LeConte, and Helichus striatus LeConte, are removed since there are no voucher specimens or published records to substantiate their presence. The name Dineutus horni is designated as an incorrect subsequent spelling of Dineutus hornii Roberts, 1895. The composition of the fauna is briefly discussed, both from regional and zoogeographic perspectives. There is only one introduced species, Helophorus grandis Illiger. Only one third of the aquatic fauna recorded on the neighbouring mainland has been found on Prince Edward Island, perhaps reflecting an island-associated diminution, the paucity of collecting, an area effect, or a combination of all these factors. The island faunas of Prince Edward Island, Cape Breton Island, and insular Newfoundland are compared. Prince Edward Island's is 36% smaller than the others, in contrast with the island's carabid fauna which is almost identical in magnitude with that of Cape Breton. This might reflect dispersal obstacles, the relative paucity of aquatic habitats on the island, or an insufficient collecting effort. Further research would be desirable, both to better discern the composition of the province's fauna, as well as to monitor the health of aquatic ecosystems in relation to anthropogenic activities.

  16. Primary care in Caribbean Small Island Developing States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Kranenburg

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS made good process on improving the health of their populations; but concerns exist when it comes to meeting changing health needs. Due to remoteness and limited resources it is difficult to respond to high rates of non-communicable diseases (NCDs. Furthermore, little is known about how primary care (PC is organised and how this responds to current health issues. This study focused on gaining insights in the organisation of PC of Caribbean SIDS based on currently available literature. This literature review was an explorative multiple case study, where structure of PC and health status of 16 Caribbean SIDS were reviewed using available scientific and grey literature between the years 1997 and 2014. Thirty documents were used to analyse 20 indicators for the dimensions “Structure of Primary Care” and “Health Status”. Results were mapped in order to identify if there is a possible relation between structures of PC to the health of the populations. When reviewing the structure of PC, the majority of information was available for “Economic conditions of PC” (78% and the least information was available for “Governance of PC” (40%. With regards to health status, all islands show improvements on “Life expectancy at birth” since 2007. In contrast, on average, the mortality due to NCDs did not improve. Saint Lucia performs best on “Structure of PC”. The British Virgin Islands have the best health status. When both dimensions were analysed, Saint Lucia performs best. There is still little known on the responsiveness of PC of Caribbean SIDS to NCDs. There is a need for elaborate research on: (1 If and how the functioning of these health systems relate to the health status; (2 What islands can learn from an analysis over time and what they can learn from cross-island analysis; and (3 Filling the gaps of knowledge which currently exist within this field of research.

  17. Renewable energy islands in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard, Iben [ed.

    1998-12-31

    This publication includes a compiled presentation of various aspects concerning the possible transformation of some European islands into renewable energy communities and these projects were presented by a selection of pioneer islands at the first European Seminar on Renewable Energy Islands, held on the Danish island of Samsoee, 29-30 June 1998. This issue has increased in importance with the presentation of the ambitious EU-White Paper: `Energy for the future: Renewable Sources of Energy` which was adopted in 1998. One of the key elements of the strategy for an accelerated implementation of renewable energy is to transform 100 localities within Europe into communities which are to be 100% self-sufficient with renewable energy before 2010. In line with this strategy, the Danish Government appointed the island of Samsoe towards the end of 1997 to be the first `official` Danish, renewable energy island. This is to serve as a demonstration project for other local communities, both in Denmark as well as in the rest Europe. Gothland, Madeira, Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Arki, Crete, Minorca and Orkney Islands were represented. Environmental advantages of wind, solar and wave power for distant island communities were indicated. Serious savings would be achieved by limitation of fossil fuel import and utilization of local resources. (EG)

  18. Global warming and small island nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lechte, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Climate change has the potential to raise sea levels, and this could be catastrophic for many small island nations. The threats of climate change are reviewed with emphasis on the impacts on women of these nations. Considerations include land and resource inheritance traditionally held by women, traditional gardening and fishing practices for which women are responsible, deterioration of ground water and consequent health problems, increased incidence of hurricanes, and the potential for large scale resettlement programs. The small, rich European states threatened by sea level rise, such as the Netherlands and Denmark, have been proactive in proposing CO 2 reduction targets that go well beyond the Montreal Protocol. However, the Danes and the Dutch have far greater resources than small Pacific island states, or Bangladesh or the Maldives. These countries' very survivial may depend on the political will of the wealthier nations to reduce their emissions and assist the less developed countries in dealing with the threat of sea level rise

  19. Organizations as Designed Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Gagliardi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature and practice of organizational design are mostly based on simplistic conceptions which ignore recent theoretical developments in organizational studies. Conceiving of organizations as ‘designed islands’, it is argued, can contribute to a more solid theoretical foundation to organization theory, viewed as normative science. Relying on the work of Peter Sloterdijk, who describes the forms of life in space in terms of spheres, the heuristic power of the island metaphor is explored. What can be learnt from the art of isolating in order to construct lived organizational environments is then discussed, and the paradoxical relationship between connection and isolation is highlighted.

  20. Weather In Some Islands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良华

    2007-01-01

    There are four seasons in a year. When spring comes, the weather is mild(温和的). Summer comes after spring. Summer is the hottest season of the year. Autumn follows summer. It is the best season of the year. Winter is the coldest season of the year. Some islands(岛) have their own particular(特别的) seasons because their weather is very much affected(影响) by the oceans(海洋) around them. In Britain, winter is not very cold and summer is not very hot.

  1. Islands and non-islands in native and heritage Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyoung eKim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To a large extent, island phenomena are cross-linguistically invariable, but English and Korean present some striking differences in this domain. English has wh-movement and Korean does not, and while both languages show sensitivity to wh-islands, only English has island effects for adjunct clauses. Given this complex set of differences, one might expect Korean/English bilinguals, and especially heritage Korean speakers (i.e. early bilinguals whose L2 became their dominant language during childhood to be different from native speakers, since heritage speakers have had more limited exposure to Korean, may have had incomplete acquisition and/or attrition, and may show significant transfer effects from the L2. Here we examine islands in heritage speakers of Korean in the U.S. Through a series of four formal acceptability experiments comparing these heritage speakers with native speakers residing in Korea, we show that the two groups are remarkably similar. Both show clear evidence for wh-islands and an equally clear lack of adjunct island effects. Given the very different linguistic environment that the heritage speakers have had since early childhood, this result lends support to the idea that island phenomena are largely immune to environmental influences and stem from deeper properties of the processor and/or grammar. Similarly, it casts some doubt on recent proposals that islands are learned from the input.

  2. Three Mile Island nuclear accident, 1979. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Health and Scientific Research of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-sixth Congress, First Session on examination of the health implications of the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, April 4, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The subcommittee met on April 4, 1979. The purpose of this hearing was, to the best of its ability, to make the facts concerning the health effects of the accident public and answer the questions concerning fears of the public. The witnesses at this hearing were experts from Department of Health, Education and Welfare, National Institute of occupational Safety and Health, Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Medical Followup Agency, University of California. Besides the testimony of the witnesses this publications includes their prepared statements and a reprint from Nuclear Safety Journal 'Medical and Legal Implications of a Large Release of Radioiodine' by F.A. Mettler et.al

  3. Enjebi Island dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Phillips, W.A.

    1987-07-01

    We have updeated the radiological dose assessment for Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll using data derived from analysis of food crops grown on Enjebi. This is a much more precise assessment of potential doses to people resettling Enjebi Island than the 1980 assessment in which there were no data available from food crops on Enjebi. Details of the methods and data used to evaluate each exposure pathway are presented. The terrestrial food chain is the most significant potential exposure pathway and 137 Cs is the radionuclide responsible for most of the estimated dose over the next 50 y. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1990. The average wholebody maximum annual estimated dose equivalent derived using our diet model is 166 mremy;the effective dose equivalent is 169 mremy. The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral whole-body dose equivalents are 3.5 rem, 5.1 rem, and 6.2 rem, respectively. Bone-marrow dose equivalents are only slightly higher than the whole-body estimates in each case. The bone-surface cells (endosteal cells) receive the highest dose, but they are a less sensitive cell population and are less sensitive to fatal cancer induction than whole body and bone marrow. The effective dose equivalents for 30, 50, and 70 y are 3.6 rem, 5.3 rem, and 6.6 rem, respectively. 79 refs., 17 figs., 24 tabs

  4. An Island Called Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Stubbs

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba. Ruth Behar, photographs by Humberto Mayol. New Brunswick NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2007. xiii + 297 pp. (Cloth US$ 29.95 Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography. Fidel Castro & Ignacio Ramonet. New York: Scribner/Simon & Schuster, 2008. vii + 724 pp. (Paper US$ 22.00, e-book US$ 14.99 Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know. Julia E. Sweig. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009. xiv + 279 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 [First paragraph] These three ostensibly very different books tell a compelling story of each author’s approach, as much as the subject matter itself. Fidel Castro: My Life: A Spoken Autobiography is based on a series of long interviews granted by the then-president of Cuba, Fidel Castro, to Spanish-Franco journalist Ignacio Ramonet. Cuba: What Everyone Needs to Know, by U.S. political analyst Julia Sweig, is one of a set country series, and, like Ramonet’s, presented in question/answer format. An Island Called Home: Returning to Jewish Cuba, with a narrative by Cuban-American anthropologist Ruth Behar and photographs by Cuban photographer Humberto Mayol, is a retrospective/introspective account of the Jewish presence in Cuba. While from Ramonet and Sweig we learn much about the revolutionary project, Behar and Mayol convey the lived experience of the small Jewish community against that backdrop.

  5. Monitoring developments in island waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crellin, L.V.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental effects of islands in the Irish Sea of the offshore oil and gas industry are discussed in this paper, in particular on sand and gravel resources. This information is considered by the Department of Trade and Industry when granting prospecting, exploration and production licenses. Consultation between industry and islanders forms part of the license granting process. (UK)

  6. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  7. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored.

  8. A roadmap for island biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patino, Jairo; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, Paulo A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The 50th anniversary of the publication of the seminal book, The Theory of Island Biogeography, by Robert H. MacArthur and Edward O. Wilson, is a timely moment to review and identify key research foci that could advance island biology. Here, we take a collaborative horizon-scanning approach...... to identify 50 fundamental questions for the continued development of the field. Location: Worldwide. Methods: We adapted a well-established methodology of horizon scanning to identify priority research questions in island biology, and initiated it during the Island Biology 2016 conference held in the Azores......); global change (5); conservation and management policies (5); and invasive alien species (4). Main conclusions: Collectively, this cross-disciplinary set of topics covering the 50 fundamental questions has the potential to stimulate and guide future research in island biology. By covering fields ranging...

  9. Islanded operation of distributed networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a study to investigate the regulatory, commercial and technical risks and benefits associated with the operation of distributed generation to power an islanded section of distributed network. A review of published literature was carried out, and UK generators were identified who could operate as part of an island network under the existing technical, regulatory, and safety framework. Agreement on case studies for consideration with distributed network operators (DNOs) is discussed as well as the quantification of the risks, benefits and costs of islanding, and the production of a case implementation plan for each case study. Technical issues associated with operating sections of network in islanded mode are described, and impacts of islanding on trading and settlement, and technical and commercial modelling are explored

  10. A tale of two islands: contrasting fortunes for Subantarctic skuas at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subantarctic skuas Catharacta antarctica are key predators of burrowing petrels at sub-Antarctic islands, and can be used to monitor the health of burrowing petrel populations. A survey of skuas at the Prince Edward Islands was conducted during December 2008, repeating a previous survey in December 2001.

  11. Three Mile Island: prologue or epilogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, D.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains a minute-by-minute account of the opening hours of the Three Mile Island accident. The testimony of technicians in the plant, people in the state emergency system, and federal observers given before the President's Commission, Congress, and the Pennsylvania Select Committee is documented here. Basic information about the theory and structure of a reactor is explained so clearly that the reader grasps the full meaning of the mechanical failure at Three Mile Island. As the development of the accident is chronicled, details of the governmental response are given. Particular attention is focused on communication difficulties between the state and federal government and on jurisdictional disputes among agencies involved in emergency response and public health. The licensing and inspection processes for nuclear reactors is described, and in particular, the history of Three Mile Island's Unit II, to elucidate the weaknesses in the Nuclear Regulatory Commissions's safety procedures. The qualifications and training requirements for nuclear powerplant operators are also examined. Beyond structural and regulatory problems, the author argues that reactors can never be made fail-safe; the assumption that we can envision all possible combinations of multiple system failures is unreasonable. We must then decide whether the benefits of nuclear energy warrant the risks

  12. Description of deaths on Easter Island, 2000-2012 period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Eduardo Francisco; Saint-Pierre, Gustavo Enrique; Yaikin, Pabla Javiera; Meier, Martina Jose

    2014-01-01

    Easter Island is a small island of 180 km2, located 3,800 km from the Chilean coast and one of the most isolated inhabited places in the world. Since the mid-twentieth century, it has been undergoing an epidemiological transition in relation to the causes of death, from a predominance of infectious to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular ailments and cancer. The aim of this study is to describe the causes of death to Easter Island between 2000 and 2012, so the statistical records of Hanga Roa Hospital and death certificates were reviewed. The period under review of 13 years there was a total of 252 deaths, an average to 19.3 deaths per year. The most frequent causes of death found in the general population of Easter Island were cardiovascular diseases (25.4%), followed by neoplasms (23.4%), accidents (18.6%). Related to Rapa Nui people, cardiovascular and neoplastic diseases (both 26.7%) predominate, while in the population without belonging to the ethnic group the main causes were traumatic (25%) and cardiovascular (22.2%). Comparing the leading causes of death of Easter Island with mainland Chile, it can be seen how they resemble. Taking the island death profile, it is necessary to work on public health strategies aimed to this, considering that some of the causes are completely preventable.

  13. Island in an island – The suggestions for transportation improvement plan for Haidian Island, Haikou, Hainan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sia Rosalind Juo Ling

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haidian Island, which situated at the Northern part of Haikou City of Hainan Province, is an island within a city. Haidian Island is unique in term of it's development which centered around an university, the Hainan University, besides some others important landmarks, such as Haikou city hospital, Baishamen municipal park, Golf Driving Range etc. All commercials, residential, recreational activities etc are planned to serve Hainan University in particular. The study, taking ‘Haidian Island Area Development Control Plan’ as case study, would like to look into the importance of transportation and traffic planning. The study used observation, site investigation and traffic study methods to gather data needed. Firstly the study analyzed the current state of transportation system for Haidian Island in accordance to the Island Development Control plan and Haikou master plan and identified the problems. Then, the study made some recommendations for these problems. The study highlighted the important of non-motorized, cycling and walking as the main transportation system for an education-based island and as supportive to domestic tourism activities found. The transportation planning suggested by the study took ‘green and low-carbon’ approaches considered the role of University as the core activity in the island.

  14. Energy Self-Sufficient Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratic, S.; Krajacic, G.; Duic, N.; Cotar, A.; Jardas, D.

    2011-01-01

    In order to analyze energy self-sufficient island, example of a smaller island, connected to the power system of a bigger island with an undersea cable, was taken. Mounting substation 10/0,4 is situated on the island and for the moment it provides enough electricity using the medium voltage line. It is assumed that the island is situated on the north part of the Adriatic Sea. The most important problem that occurs on the island is the population drop that occurs for a significant number of years, therefore, life standard needs to be improved, and economic development needs to be encouraged immediately. Local authorities to stimulate sustainable development on the island through different projects, to breath in a new life to the island, open new jobs and attract new people to come live there. Because of the planned development and increase of the population, energy projects, planned as a support to sustainable development, and later achievement of the energy self-sufficiency, is described in this paper. Therefore, Rewisland methodology appliance is described taking into the account three possible scenarios of energy development. Each scenario is calculated until year 2030. Also, what is taken into the account is 100% usage of renewable sources of energy in 2030. Scenario PTV, PP, EE - This scenario includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors on the buildings roofs, as well as well as implementation of energy efficiency on the island (replacement of the street light bulbs with LED lightning, replacement of the old windows and doors on the houses, as well as the installation of the thermal insulation). Scenario PV island - This scenario, similarly to the previous one, includes installation of solar photovoltaic modules and solar thermal collectors an the residential buildings, as well as the 2 MW photovoltaic power plant and ''Green Hotel'', a building that satisfies all of its energy needs completely from renewable energy sources

  15. Healthcare needs and access in a sample of Chinese young adults in Vancouver, British Columbia: A qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H.K. Ou, RN, BN, MSN

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Chinese young adults share similar issues with other young adults in relation to not having a primary care provider and accessing preventive care but their health beliefs and practices make their needs for care unique from other young adults.

  16. Three Mile Island accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barre, B.; Olivier, E.; Roux, J.P.; Pelle, P.

    2010-01-01

    Deluded by equivocal instrumentation signals, operators at TMI-2 (Three Mile Island - unit 2) misunderstood what was going on in the reactor and for 2 hours were taking inadequate decisions that turned a reactor incident into a major nuclear event that led to the melting of about one third of the core. The TMI accident had worldwide impacts in the domain of nuclear safety. The main consequences in France were: 1) the introduction of the major accident approach and the reinforcement of crisis management; 2) the improvement of the reactor design, particularly that of the pressurizer valves; 3) the implementation of safety probabilistic studies; 4) a better taking into account of the feedback experience in reactor operations; and 5) a better taking into account of the humane factor in reactor safety. (A.C.)

  17. Three Mile Island update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    Almost six years after the accident at Three Mile Island-2, cleanup operations are proceeding and the financial condition of the owners has improved. The author reviews some of the cleanup activities and notes the milestones ahead before reaching the September, 1988 target date for completion. A decision to decommission or refurbish will follow the completion of fuel removal activities in 1987. The cleanup has produced considerable data and useful information. In particular, the experience of large-scale decontamination and radioactive waste processing, along with information on fission product transport, is relevant for maintenance and safe operation of other plants. Both macro- and microscopic examination of the core could help in developing safer reactors in the future. 3 figures, 1 table

  18. PWR: nuclear islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Framatome and its partners have produced this glossary of technical terms that can be used in writing English language documents relating to power plants (nuclear islands, individual components, nuclear services, etc.) with the hope of improving the quality of the documents intended for their clients, suppliers and partners and for others. This glossary will be particularly useful to the translators and authors of technical proposals, design documents, manufacturing documents, construction and operating documents concerning Pressurized Water Reactors written in English or French. It can also be useful as a reference document for students, researchers, journalists, etc., having to write on this subject. We would like to thank all those individuals working at the Ministere de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Electricite de France, Jeumont Schneider and Framatome who have contributed to this glossary. We would also appreciate any comments or sugestions intended to improve subsequent editions of this glossary [fr

  19. Mauritius - a Sustainable Island

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    production is determined to be the way forward. A step in this direction is to devolve upon citizens the ability and motivation to produce electricity via small-scale distributed generation (SSDG), i.e. wind, photovoltaic and hydro installations below 50 kW. Given that SSDG is more expensive per installed......The Government of Mauritius has a long-term vision of transforming Mauritius into a sustainable Island. One important element towards the achievement of this vision is to increase the country's renewable energy usage and thereby reducing dependence on fossil fuels. Democratisation of energy...... capacity than the existing much larger power plants, subsidies are needed so as to provide incentives to small independent power producers (SIPP), households and firms to invest in SSDG.The paper presents the context, the theoretical considerations and the proposed incentive schemes to enable electricity...

  20. SRTM Anaglyph: Fiji Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Sovereign Democratic Republic of the Fiji Islands, commonly known as Fiji, is an independent nation consisting of some 332 islands surrounding the Koro Sea in the South Pacific Ocean. This topographic image shows Viti Levu, the largest island in the group. With an area of 10,429 square kilometers (about 4000 square miles), it comprises more than half the area of the Fiji Islands. Suva, the capital city, lies on the southeast shore. The Nakauvadra, the rugged mountain range running from north to south, has several peaks rising above 900 meters (about 3000 feet). Mount Tomanivi, in the upper center, is the highest peak at 1324 meters (4341 feet). The distinct circular feature on the north shore is the Tavua Caldera, the remnant of a large shield volcano that was active about 4 million years ago. Gold has been mined on the margin of the caldera since the 1930s. The Nadrau plateau is the low relief highland in the center of the mountain range. The coastal plains in the west, northwest and southeast account for only 15 percent of Viti Levu's area but are the main centers of agriculture and settlement.This shaded relief anaglyph image was generated using preliminary topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data from the top (north) to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. The stereoscopic effect was created by first draping the shaded relief image back over the topographic data and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.This image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument

  1. Amchitka Island, Alaska, Biological Monitoring Report 2011 Sampling Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance (LTS&M) Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) Amchitka Island sites describes how LM plans to conduct its mission to protect human health and the environment at the three nuclear test sites located on Amchitka Island, Alaska. Amchitka Island, near the western end of the Aleutian Islands, is approximately 1,340 miles west-southwest of Anchorage, Alaska. Amchitka is part of the Aleutian Island Unit of the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, which is administered by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). Since World War II, Amchitka has been used by multiple U.S. government agencies for various military and research activities. From 1943 to 1950, it was used as a forward air base for the U.S. Armed Forces. During the middle 1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) used a portion of the island as a site for underground nuclear tests. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, the U.S. Navy constructed and operated a radar station on the island. Three underground nuclear tests were conducted on Amchitka Island. DOD, in conjunction with AEC, conducted the first nuclear test (named Long Shot) in 1965 to provide data that would improve the United States' capability of detecting underground nuclear explosions. The second nuclear test (Milrow) was a weapons-related test conducted by AEC in 1969 as a means to study the feasibility of detonating a much larger device. Cannikin, the third nuclear test on Amchitka, was a weapons-related test detonated on November 6, 1971. With the exception of small concentrations of tritium detected in surface water shortly after the Long Shot test, radioactive fission products from the tests remain in the subsurface at each test location As a continuation of the environmental monitoring that has taken place on Amchitka Island since before 1965, LM in the summer of 2011 collected biological

  2. Island biogeography of marine organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Hudson T.; Bernardi, Giacomo; Simon, Thiony; Joyeux, Jean-Christophe; Macieira, Raphael M.; Gasparini, João Luiz; Rocha, Claudia; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the distribution and evolution of organisms on oceanic islands have advanced towards a dynamic perspective, where terrestrial endemicity results from island geographical aspects and geological history intertwined with sea-level fluctuations. Diversification on these islands may follow neutral models, decreasing over time as niches are filled, or disequilibrium states and progression rules, where richness and endemism rise with the age of the archipelago owing to the splitting of ancestral lineages (cladogenesis). However, marine organisms have received comparatively little scientific attention. Therefore, island and seamount evolutionary processes in the aquatic environment remain unclear. Here we analyse the evolutionary history of reef fishes that are endemic to a volcanic ridge of seamounts and islands to understand their relations to island evolution and sea-level fluctuations. We also test how this evolutionary history fits island biogeography theory. We found that most endemic species have evolved recently (Pleistocene epoch), during a period of recurrent sea-level changes and intermittent connectivity caused by repeated aerial exposure of seamounts, a finding that is consistent with an ephemeral ecological speciation process. Similar to findings for terrestrial biodiversity, our data suggest that the marine speciation rate on islands is negatively correlated with immigration rate. However, because marine species disperse better than terrestrial species, most niches are filled by immigration: speciation increases with the random accumulation of species with low dispersal ability, with few opportunities for in situ cladogenesis and adaptive radiation. Moreover, we confirm that sea-level fluctuations and seamount location play a critical role in marine evolution, mainly by intermittently providing stepping stones for island colonization.

  3. Bamboo Diversity in Sumba Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSONO

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is one of the economic plant which grow widely in the villages and have been used by the local people in the villages. Indonesia has about 10% of the world bamboo, 50% among them was endemic to Indonesia. According Widjaja (2001 Lesser Sunda Island which consists of Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, Sumba and other small island eastern of Flores has 14 bamboo species, however, the information from the Sumba Island was lacking because of lacking data from this area except one species which was proposed by S. Soenarko in 1977 where the type specimens was collected by Iboet 443 in 1925. To fullfill data from the Sumba Island, an exploration to this area has been conducted on July 2003. The observation was done in West Sumba and East Sumba District, especially in two natioal parks at both districts. According to this inventory study in the Sumba Island, there were 10 bamboo species in Sumba Island, 1 species among them (Dinochloa sp. was a new species which has not been collected before, whereas the other species (Dinochloa kostermansiana has a new addition record from this area. The bamboo species in Sumba Island were Bambusa blumeana, Bambusa vulgaris, Dendocalamus asper, Dinochloa kostermansiana, Dinochloa sp., Gigantochloa atter, Nastus reholtumianus, Phyllostachys aurea, Schisotachyum brachycladum and Schizostachyum lima. From 10 recorded species, the genera Dinochloa and Nastus grow wild in the forest, whereas another species grow widly or cultivated in the garden. Furthermore, the genus Dinochloa was the only genus grow climbing. The endemic species found in Sumba Island was Nastus reholttumianus, whereas Dinochloa kostermansiana was also found in Flores Island.

  4. Does age matter? Sexual event-level analysis of age-disparate sexual partners among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM) in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K; Lachowsky, N J; Cui, Z; Shurgold, S; Sereda, P; Rich, A; Moore, D M; Roth, E A; Hogg, R S

    2017-08-01

    To determine factors associated with age-disparate sexual partners among Vancouver gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (GBM). Sexually active GBM aged ≥16 years were recruited from February 2012 to February 2014. Participants self-completed a questionnaire on demographics, attitudes and sexual behaviour and substance use at last sexual event with five most recent partners. Two generalised linear mixed models identified factors associated with: (1) 'same-age' (referent), 'younger' or 'much-younger' and (2) 'same-age' (referent), 'older' or 'much-older' partners. Statistical interactions between age and HIV status were tested. Participants (n=719) were predominantly gay (85.1%), White (75.0%), HIV-negative/unknown status (72.9%) with median age of 33 years (Q1,Q3: 26,47). A minority of sexual events were reported with much-older/much-younger partners (13.7%). In the multivariable models, GBM reporting older partners were more likely to be Asian or Latino, have greater Escape Motivation scores, report their partner used erectile dysfunction drugs (EDDs) and have received something for sex; compared with condom-protected insertive anal sex, participants with older partners were more likely to report condomless insertive anal sex with a serodiscordant or unknown status partner or no insertive anal sex. GBM reporting older partners were less likely to be bisexual-identified, have given something for sex and report event-level alcohol and EDD use. GBM reporting younger partners were more likely to have annual incomes >$30 000 and have met their partner online. As per significant statistical interactions, age-disparate relations were more common for younger HIV-positive and older HIV-negative GBM. Differences among age-disparate partners highlight important targets for health promotion and future research. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Reliving Island Life: Staging Stories of the Blasket Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daithí Kearney

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Blasket Islands are located off the south-west coast of Ireland. No longer inhabited, the Great Blasket Island and its distinctive culture have been documented by a variety of writers and are celebrated today in an interpretative centre on the mainland and in performances by Siamsa Tíre, The National Folk Theatre of Ireland. “Siamsa” developed from local initiatives in North Kerry during the early 1960s and is located today in Tralee, Co. Kerry. It aims to present Irish folklore and folk culture through the medium of theatre involving music, song, dance and mime but invariably no dialogue. In this paper, I focus on the production Oiléan, based loosely on the stories of the Blasket Islanders, which was initially devised as part of the fiftieth anniversary commemoration of the departure of the last inhabitants of the islands in 2003.

  6. Equilibrium theory of island biogeography: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela D. Yu; Simon A. Lei

    2001-01-01

    The topography, climatic pattern, location, and origin of islands generate unique patterns of species distribution. The equilibrium theory of island biogeography creates a general framework in which the study of taxon distribution and broad island trends may be conducted. Critical components of the equilibrium theory include the species-area relationship, island-...

  7. Oak restoration trials: Santa Catalina Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa Stratton

    2002-01-01

    Two restoration trials involving four oak species have been implemented as part of a larger restoration program for Catalina Island. In 1997 the Catalina Island Conservancy began an active program of restoration after 50 years of ranching and farming activities on the island. The restoration program includes removing feral goats and pigs island-wide and converting 80...

  8. Analysis of Phytosterols and N-Alkanols in Atmospheric Organic Particulate Matter Collected in Vancouver During the Pacific 2001 Air Quality Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leithead, A.; Li, S.

    2002-12-01

    As part of Pacific 2001, HiVol samples were collected from 5 sites in the Vancouver area. The samples were extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ACE), concentrated with nitrogen blow down, and separated into fractions by silica gel chromatography. For this portion of the study, an aliquot of one of the polar fraction was derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The results for n-alkanols and phytosterols will be reported and discussed. Previous studies have shown that the biogenic components of particulate matter are major constituents of the total organic material in atmospheric samples. Phytosterols are present in wood smoke, epicuticular waxes of many plants and microbial sources. In addition, cholesterol has been proposed as a potential tracer for emissions from cooking. The most abundant phytosterols are cholesterol, campesterol, stigmasterol and beta-sitosterol. It has been hypothesized that the phytosterol signature may be useful in identifying particulate matter from different source areas. The phytosterol signature for these samples will be reported and compared. The n-alkanol CPI and Cmax will also be reported. N-alkanols in atmospheric samples generally show a strong even to odd predominance indicating that their main source in particulate matter is biogenic. The n-alkanol signature for each sampling site will be compared.

  9. Energy-Based Seismic Risk Evaluation of Tall Reinforced Concrete Building in Vancouver, BC, Canada, under Mw9 Megathrust Subduction Earthquakes and Aftershocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Tesfamariam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a seismic performance evaluation framework for reinforced concrete (RC buildings, comprising shear walls and gravity frames. The evaluation is undertaken within a performance-based earthquake engineering framework by considering regional seismicity and site-specific ground motion selection. Different engineering demand parameters (EDPs, i.e., maximum interstory drift ratio (MaxISDR and energy-based damage index, are considered as performance indicators. Various prediction models of EDPs are developed by considering four ground motion intensity measures (IMs, i.e., spectral acceleration at the fundamental period, Arias intensity, cumulative absolute velocity (CAV, and significant duration of ground motion. For this study, a 15-story RC building, located in Vancouver, BC, Canada, is considered as a case study. By using 50 mainshock and 50 mainshock–aftershock (MS-AS earthquake records (2 horizontal components per record and bidirectional loading, non-linear dynamic analyses are performed. Subsequently, the calculated MaxISDRs and damage indices are correlated with suitable IMs using cloud analysis, and the most efficient IM-EDP prediction models are selected by comparing standard deviations (SDs of the regression errors. The MaxISDR of the shear walls is less than 1% for the mainshock and MS-AS records. The energy-based damage index shows sensitivity to delineate impact of earthquake types and aftershocks. The CAV is showed to be the most efficient IM for the energy-based damage index.

  10. Community mapping of sex work criminalization and violence: impacts on HIV treatment interruptions among marginalized women living with HIV in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Deering, Kathleen; Amram, Ofer; Guillemi, Silvia; Nguyen, Paul; Montaner, Julio; Shannon, Kate

    2017-09-01

    Despite the high HIV burden faced by sex workers, data on access and retention in antiretroviral therapy (ART) are limited. Using an innovative spatial epidemiological approach, we explored how the social geography of sex work criminalization and violence impacts HIV treatment interruptions among sex workers living with HIV in Vancouver over a 3.5-year period. Drawing upon data from a community-based cohort (AESHA, 2010-2013) and linked external administrative data on ART dispensation, GIS mapping and multivariable logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to prospectively examine the effects of spatial criminalization and violence near women's places of residence on 2-day ART interruptions. Analyses were restricted to 66 ART-exposed women who contributed 208 observations and 83 ART interruption events. In adjusted multivariable models, heightened density of displacement due to policing independently correlated with HIV treatment interruptions (AOR: 1.02, 95%CI: 1.00-1.04); density of legal restrictions (AOR: 1.30, 95%CI: 0.97-1.76) and a combined measure of criminalization/violence (AOR: 1.00, 95%CI: 1.00-1.01) were marginally correlated. The social geography of sex work criminalization may undermine access to essential medicines, including HIV treatment. Interventions to promote 'enabling environments' (e.g. peer-led models, safer living/working spaces) should be explored, alongside policy reforms to ensure uninterrupted treatment access.

  11. Association between childhood physical abuse, unprotected receptive anal intercourse and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arn J Schilder

    Full Text Available The association between childhood sexual abuse and HIV risk among men who have sex with men (MSM is well established. However, no studies have examined the potential impact of other forms of childhood maltreatment on HIV incidence in this population.We explored the impact of child physical abuse (CPA on HIV seroconversion in a cohort of gay/bisexual men aged 15 to 30 in Vancouver, Canada. Cox proportional hazard models were used, controlling for confounders.Among 287 participants, 211 (73.5% reported experiencing CPA before the age of 17, and 42 (14.6% reporting URAI in the past year. After a median of 6.6 years follow-up, 16 (5.8% participants HIV-seroconverted. In multivariate analysis, CPA was significantly associated with HIV seroconversion (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 4.89, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.65-14.48, after controlling for potential confounders.Our study uncovered a link between childhood physical violence and HIV incidence. Results highlight an urgent need for screening of young gay and bisexual men for histories of violence, and social and structural supports to prevent HIV transmission in this population.

  12. Adaptive Blending of Model and Observations for Automated Short-Range Forecasting: Examples from the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Monika E.; Isaac, George A.; Gultepe, Ismail; Heckman, Ivan; Reid, Janti

    2014-01-01

    An automated short-range forecasting system, adaptive blending of observations and model (ABOM), was tested in real time during the 2010 Vancouver Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games in British Columbia. Data at 1-min time resolution were available from a newly established, dense network of surface observation stations. Climatological data were not available at these new stations. This, combined with output from new high-resolution numerical models, provided a unique and exciting setting to test nowcasting systems in mountainous terrain during winter weather conditions. The ABOM method blends extrapolations in time of recent local observations with numerical weather predictions (NWP) model predictions to generate short-range point forecasts of surface variables out to 6 h. The relative weights of the model forecast and the observation extrapolation are based on performance over recent history. The average performance of ABOM nowcasts during February and March 2010 was evaluated using standard scores and thresholds important for Olympic events. Significant improvements over the model forecasts alone were obtained for continuous variables such as temperature, relative humidity and wind speed. The small improvements to forecasts of variables such as visibility and ceiling, subject to discontinuous changes, are attributed to the persistence component of ABOM.

  13. International migration from non-endemic settings as a protective factor for HIV/STI risk among female sex workers in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Liu, Vivian; Nguyen, Paul; Chettiar, Jill; Shannon, Kate

    2015-02-01

    Given heterogeneous evidence regarding the impacts of migration on HIV/sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among female sex workers (FSWs), we explored factors associated with international migration among FSWs in Vancouver, Canada. We draw on baseline questionnaire and HIV/STI testing data from a community-based cohort, AESHA, from 2010-2012. Logistic regression identified correlates of international migration. Of 650 FSWs, 163 (25.1%) were international migrants, who primarily worked in formal indoor establishments. HIV/STI prevalence was lower among migrants than Canadian-born women (5.5 vs. 25.9%). In multivariate analysis, international migration was positively associated with completing high school, supporting dependents, and paying a third party, and negatively associated with HIV, injecting drugs and inconsistent condom use with clients. Although migrants experience lower workplace harms and HIV risk than Canadian-born women, they face concerning levels of violence, police harassment, and HIV/STIs. Research exploring structural and socio-cultural factors shaping risk mitigation and migrants' access to support remains needed.

  14. Lai-like leptospira from the Andaman Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sehgal, S. C.; Vijayachari, P.; Smythe, L. D.; Norris, M.; Symonds, M.; Dohnt, M.; Korver, H.; v d Kemp, H.; Hartskeerl, R. A.; Terpstra, W. J.

    2000-01-01

    Leptospirosis has been an important public health problem in the Andaman Islands since 1988. As information about the exact etiological agent is not available, the present study was undertaken to isolate and identify Leptospira from human patients. An isolate coded AF61 was recovered from the blood

  15. The Three Mile Island Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Emeral

    1980-01-01

    For the past decade, education has been experiencing meltdown, explosions, radiation leaks, heat pollution, and management crises, just like the Three Mile Island disaster. This article offers suggestions on how to deal with these problems. (Author/LD)

  16. Ship impact against protection islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    1997-01-01

    The five most exposed piers and the anchor blocks on the East Bridge shall be protected by aritificial islands. Extensive analytical and experimental investitations were carried out to verify the efficiency of how these protection works....

  17. Three Mile Island Accident Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Three Mile Island Accident Data consists of mostly upper air and wind observations immediately following the nuclear meltdown occurring on March 28, 1979, near...

  18. Archaeology of Bet Dwarka Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundaresh; Gaur, A.S.

    Explorations along the shore and in the intertidal zone at Bet Dwarka island, Gujarat, India were carried out by the Marine Archaeology Centre of National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Goa, India between 1981-1994. Artefacts of both...

  19. Contaminants in tropical island streams and their biota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttermore, Elissa N; Cope, W Gregory; Kwak, Thomas J; Cooney, Patrick B; Shea, Damian; Lazaro, Peter R

    2018-02-01

    Environmental contamination is problematic for tropical islands due to their typically dense human populations and competing land and water uses. The Caribbean island of Puerto Rico (USA) has a long history of anthropogenic chemical use, and its human population density is among the highest globally, providing a model environment to study contaminant impacts on tropical island stream ecosystems. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, historic-use chlorinated pesticides, current-use pesticides, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), and metals (mercury, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, and selenium) were quantified in the habitat and biota of Puerto Rico streams and assessed in relation to land-use patterns and toxicological thresholds. Water, sediment, and native fish and shrimp species were sampled in 13 rivers spanning broad watershed land-use characteristics during 2009-2010. Contrary to expectations, freshwater stream ecosystems in Puerto Rico were not severely polluted, likely due to frequent flushing flows and reduced deposition associated with recurring flood events. Notable exceptions of contamination were nickel in sediment within three agricultural watersheds (range 123-336ppm dry weight) and organic contaminants (PCBs, organochlorine pesticides) and mercury in urban landscapes. At an urban site, PCBs in several fish species (Mountain Mullet Agonostomus monticola [range 0.019-0.030ppm wet weight] and American Eel Anguilla rostrata [0.019-0.031ppm wet weight]) may pose human health hazards, with concentrations exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) consumption limit for 1 meal/month. American Eel at the urban site also contained dieldrin (range island-wide; only mercury at one site (an urban location) exceeded EPA's consumption limit of 3 meals/month for this species. These results comprise the first comprehensive island-wide contaminant assessment of Puerto Rico streams and biota and provide natural resource and public health agencies here and

  20. Magnetic island formation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.

    1989-04-01

    The size of a magnetic island created by a perturbing helical field in a tokamak is estimated. A helical equilibrium of a current- carrying plasma is found in a helical coordinate and the helically flowing current in the cylinder that borders the plasma is calculated. From that solution, it is concluded that the helical perturbation of /approximately/10/sup /minus/4/ of the total plasma current is sufficient to cause an island width of approximately 5% of the plasma radius. 6 refs

  1. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  2. 76 FR 32950 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2012 Economic Census of Island Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... data at a geographic level equivalent to U.S. counties. Economic Census statistics for the island areas... System (NAICS)): Mining, Utilities, Construction, Manufacturing; Wholesale and Retail Trades... Support, Waste Management and Remediation Services; Educational Services; Health Care and Social...

  3. Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This document addresses the Three Mile Island accident which resulted in a core partial fusion. It recalls that other reactors of this plant are still being operated. The operation of this PWR is briefly described, and the main events and phases of the accident are briefly presented (failure of the secondary circuit supply pump, failure of a pressurizer component and wrong information about it, mistaken reaction in the control room, core partial fusion due to insufficient cooling means). It shows that the accident occurred because of a combination of technical failures and human mistakes. This situation has put operator education and organisation into question again. The main actors and their mistakes, weaknesses and responsibilities are indicated: Metropolitan Edison (the operator), the NRC (the US nuclear safety authority). Some key figures are recalled, as well as the context of construction of the plant. Impacts and consequences are reviewed: implementation of new standards, population concern. The document outlines that radioactive exposures due to the accident were minor

  4. Arctic Islands LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, W.

    1977-01-01

    Trans-Canada Pipe Lines Ltd. made a feasibility study of transporting LNG from the High Arctic Islands to a St. Lawrence River Terminal by means of a specially designed and built 125,000 cu m or 165,000 cu m icebreaking LNG tanker. Studies were made of the climatology and of ice conditions, using available statistical data as well as direct surveys in 1974, 1975, and 1976. For on-schedule and unimpeded (unescorted) passage of the LNG carriers at all times of the year, special navigation and communications systems can be made available. Available icebreaking experience, charting for the proposed tanker routes, and tide tables for the Canadian Arctic were surveyed. Preliminary design of a proposed Arctic LNG icebreaker tanker, including containment system, reliquefaction of boiloff, speed, power, number of trips for 345 day/yr operation, and liquefaction and regasification facilities are discussed. The use of a minimum of three Arctic Class 10 ships would enable delivery of volumes of natural gas averaging 11.3 million cu m/day over a period of a year to Canadian markets. The concept appears to be technically feasible with existing basic technology.

  5. Findings of the Marshall Islands nationwide radiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The Marshall Islands were affected by nuclear weapon tests carried out over the period 1946-1958, and particularly from the Bravo detonation on 1 March 1954, which deposited heavy fallout on the islands of Rongelap atoll about 100 miles to the east of Bikini. Surveys of residual radioactivity of the northern atolls of the Marshalls group had been carried out by the US Department of Energy, but continuing concerns about health effects of exposure to fallout, particularly thyroid disease, led the Marshall Islands government in 1989 to set up a study of residual radioactivity across the entire country. A study of residual radioactivity on all significant atolls and islands was carried out by ground surveys during 1990-94. The study was supervised by an international panel of 5 non US scientists. The measurements included portable gamma spectrometer measurements at points on a grid pattern, with associated soil samples and periodic soil profile and vegetation samples. From these measurements external exposure rates from deposited fallout have been calculated, and estimates made of the ingestion doses which might be received by resident populations consuming diets made up of differing amounts of locally produced foodstuffs. On the basis of a survey of dietary intake by a Rongelap community a current diet (containing 18% of foods from local sources) and a more traditional diet (75% from local sources) were used for comparison purposes. Measurements were made on 432 islands of the 29 atolls and 5 islands that make up the Marshalls group. Atolls in the latitude range 9-12 degrees north have Cs-137 soil concentrations which are elevated above levels expected from global fallout. Over 90% of the radiation dose from residual fallout is attributable to Cs-137, and arises primarily from dietary intake. Doses to actual or hypothetical residents are about 4 times greater for traditional as compared with current diets. For four atolls there are some islands where

  6. Fertility and contraception in the Marshall Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, S J; Taylor, R; Higgins, I L; Grafton-Wasserman, D A

    1988-01-01

    Data on fertility and contraception in Micronesian women in the Marshall Islands were collected during a women's health survey in 1985. High total fertility rates were found. The reproductive pattern of many Marshallese women is one that has been associated with adverse health consequences: pregnancies in teenagers and in women over 39 years, high parities of four or more births, and short birth intervals. The practice of breastfeeding is declining in younger women. The prevalence of contraceptive use is low, and the availability of reversible methods is limited. Most contraceptive nonusers would like to practice contraception, but are inhibited by the lack of information about family planning. It is suggested that more attention needs to be given to family planning services in the Marshall Islands, in particular to improving the availability of reversible methods of contraception and of information about family planning. Further research is also needed on how family planning services might best be organized to maximize participation by women and their partners who wish to use such services.

  7. Foundation Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project-Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    iL_ COPY MISCELLANEOUS PAPER GL-90-5 i iFOUNDATION INVESTIGATION FOR GROUND BASED RADAR PROJECT--KWAJALEIN ISLAND, MARSHALL ISLANDS by Donald E...C!assification) Foundatioa Investigation for Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Yule, Donald E...investigation for the Ground Based Radar Project -- Kwajalein Island, Marshall Islands , are presented.- eophysical tests comprised of surface refrac- tion

  8. Impact of modernization on adult body composition on five islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszowy, Kathryn M; Pomer, Alysa; Dancause, Kelsey N; Sun, Cheng; Silverman, Harold; Lee, Gwang; Chan, Chim W; Tarivonda, Len; Regenvanu, Ralph; Kaneko, Akira; Weitz, Charles A; Lum, J Koji; Garruto, Ralph M

    2015-01-01

    The Republic of Vanuatu, similar to other South Pacific island nations, is undergoing a rapid health transition as a consequence of modernization. The pace of modernization is uneven across Vanuatu's 63 inhabited islands, resulting in differential impacts on overall body composition and prevalence of obesity among islands, and between men and women. In this study, we investigated (1) how modernization impacts body composition between adult male and female Melanesians living on four islands of varying economic development in Vanuatu, and (2) how body composition differs between adult Melanesians and Polynesians living on rural islands in Vanuatu. Anthropometric measurements were taken on adult male and female Melanesians aged 18 years and older (n = 839) on the islands of Ambae (rural), Aneityum (rural with tourism), Nguna (rural with urban access), and Efate (urban) in Vanuatu, in addition to Polynesian adults on Futuna (rural). Mean measurements of body mass and fatness, and prevalence of obesity, were greatest on the most modernized islands in our sample, particularly among women. Additionally, differences between men and women became more pronounced on islands that were more modernized. Rural Polynesians on Futuna exhibited greater body mass, adiposity, and prevalence of obesity than rural Melanesians on Ambae. We conclude that Vanuatu is undergoing an uneven and rapid health transition resulting in increased prevalence of obesity, and that women are at greatest risk for developing obesity-related chronic diseases in urbanized areas in Vanuatu. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Contemporary distributions of Cs-137 in Marshall Islands soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Rosenstock, L.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons ranging from tens of kT to 15 MT of TNT were conducted by the United States at two sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The test areas are now parts of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Resolutions of health related problems or property damage resulting from the weapons tests were assumed by a Nuclear Claims Tribunal which was funded for this purpose. This paper describes the results of a survey conducted in 1988 which was designed to determine whether a potential connection exists between local fallout and the incidence of radiogenic disease among Marshallese residents of islands in the greater vicinity of the two test areas. Soil samples were collected from two southern atolls as controls, and from five northern sites to look for higher cesium-137 levels which may have been contributed by tropospheric fallout from the weapons tests

  10. Bryophytes from Simeonof Island in the Shumagin Islands, southwestern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, W.B.; Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    Simeonof Island is located south of the Alaska Peninsula in the hyperoceanic sector of the middle boreal subzone. We examined the bryoflora of Simeonof Island to determine species composition in an area where no previous collections had been reported. This field study was conducted in sites selected to represent the spectrum of environmental variation within Simeonof Island. Data were analyzed using published reports to compare bryophyte distribution patterns at three levels, the Northern Hemisphere, North America, and Alaska. A total of 271 bryophytes were identified: 202 mosses and 69 liverworts. The annotated list of species for Simeonof Island expands the known range for many species and fills distribution gaps within Hulte??n's Western Pacific Coast district. Maps and notes on the distribution of 14 significant distribution records are presented. Compared with bryophyte distribution in the Northern Hemisphere, the bryoflora of Simeonof Island primarily includes taxa of boreal (55%), temperate (20%), arctic (10%), and cosmopolitan (8%) distribution; 6% of the moss flora are western North America endemics. A description of the bryophytes present in the vegetation and habitat types is provided as is a quantitative analysis of the most frequently occurring bryophytes in crowberry heath.

  11. Legacy of the Pacific Islander cancer control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, F Allan; Luce, Pat H; Afeaki, William P; Cruz, Lee Ann C; McMullin, Juliet M; Mummert, Angelina; Pouesi, June; Reyes, Maria Lourdes; Taumoepeau, Leafa Tuita; Tu'ufuli, Galeai Moali'itele; Wenzel, Lari

    2006-10-15

    The groundwork for the Pacific Islander cancer control network (PICCN) began in the early 1990s with a study of the cancer control needs of American Samoans. The necessity for similar studies among other Pacific Islander populations led to the development of PICCN. The project's principal objectives were to increase cancer awareness and to enhance cancer control research among American Samoans, Tongans, and Chamorros. PICCN was organized around a steering committee and 6 community advisory boards, 2 from each of the targeted populations. Membership included community leaders, cancer control experts, and various academic and technical organizations involved with cancer control. Through this infrastructure, the investigators developed new culturally sensitive cancer education materials and distributed them in a culturally appropriate manner. They also initiated a cancer control research training program, educated Pacific Islander students in this field, and conducted pilot research projects. PICCN conducted nearly 200 cancer awareness activities in its 6 study sites and developed cancer educational materials on prostate, colorectal, lung, breast, and cervical cancer and tobacco control in the Samoan, Tongan, and Chamorro languages. PICCN trained 9 students who conducted 7 pilot research projects designed to answer important questions regarding the cancer control needs of Pacific Islanders and to inform interventions targeting those needs. The legacy of PICCN lies in its advancement of improving cancer control among Pacific Islanders and setting the stage for interventions that will help to eliminate cancer-related health disparities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  12. Barrier island facies models and recognition criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to

  13. One million served: Rhode Island`s recycling facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malloy, M.G.

    1997-11-01

    Rhode Island`s landfill and adjacent materials recovery facility (MRF) in Johnston, both owned by the quasi-public Rhode Island Resource Recovery Corp. (RIRRC, Johnston), serve the entire state. The $12-million recycling facility was built in 1989 next to the state`s sole landfill, the Central Landfill, which accepts only in-state trash. The MRF is operated for RIRRC by New England CRInc. (Hampton, N.H.), a unit of Waste Management, Inc. (WMI, Oak Brook, Ill.). It handles a wide variety of materials, from the usual newspaper, cardboard, and mixed containers to new streams such as wood waste, scrap metal, aseptic packaging (milk and juice boxes), and even textiles. State municipalities are in the process of adding many of these new recyclable streams into their curbside collection programs, all of which feed the facility.

  14. "Nothing is going to change three months from now": A mixed methods characterization of food bank use in Greater Vancouver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Eleanor; Black, Jennifer L; Heckelman, Amber; Lear, Scott A; Seto, Darlene; Fowokan, Adeleke; Wittman, Hannah

    2018-03-01

    North American food bank use has risen dramatically since the 1980s, and over 850,000 Canadians were estimated to have visited a food bank monthly in 2015. Food banks serve multiple roles in communities, ranging from 'emergency responses' to individualized and short-term experiences of hunger, to 'chronic' supports as part of long-term subsistence strategies. This study used a mixed-methods design to examine the spectrum of food bank user experiences in a large urban context, as part of a community-based project aiming to envision a redesign of the food bank to contribute to broader community food security outcomes. Survey (n = 77) and focus group (n = 27) results suggested that participants widely viewed food banks as a long-term food-access strategy. Inadequate financial resources, steep increases in housing and food costs, and long-term health challenges emerged as the most prominent factors influencing food bank use. Participants commonly reported unmet food needs despite food bank use, limited agency over factors influencing access to sufficient food, and anticipated requiring food bank services in future. These findings contest global constructions of food banks as "emergency" food providers and support growing evidence that food banks are an insufficient response to chronic poverty, lack of affordable housing and insufficient social assistance rates underlying experiences of food insecurity. Participants envisioned changes to the food bank system to increase community food security including improved food quality and quantity (short-term), changes to service delivery and increased connections with health services (capacity building), and a greater role in poverty reduction advocacy (system redesign). Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Terrestrial bird population trends on Aguiguan (Goat Island), Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Fred; Camp, Richard J.; Marshall, Ann P.; Pratt, Thane K.; Williams, Laura; Radley, Paul; Cruz, Justine B.

    2014-01-01

    The island of Aguiguan is part of the Mariana archipelago and currently supports populations of four endemic species, including one endemic genus, Cleptornis. Bird population trends since 1982 were recently assessed on the neighbouring islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Rota indicating declines in some native species. Point-transect surveys were conducted in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess population densities and trends on Aguiguan. Densities for six of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris, Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons, Golden White-eye Cleptornis marchei, Bridled White-eye Zosterops conspicillatus and Micronesian Starling Aplonis opaca—and the non-native bird—Island Collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata—were significantly greater in 2008 than in 1982. No differences in densities were detected among the surveys for Mariana Fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, and Micronesian MyzomelaMyzomela rubratra. Three federally and locally listed endangered birds—Nightingale Reed-warbler Acrocephalus luscinius, Mariana Swiftlet Collocalia bartschi, and Micronesian Megapode Megapodius laperous)—were either not detected during the point-transect counts, the surveys were not appropriate for the species, or the numbers of birds detected were too small to estimate densities. The factors behind the increasing trends for some species are unknown but may be related to increased forest cover on the island since 1982. With declining trends for some native species on neighbouring islands, the increasing and stable trends on Aguiguan is good news for forest bird populations in the region, as Aguiguan populations can help support conservation efforts on other islands in the archipelago.

  16. Flu Surveillance: Department of Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Health & Wellness Food, Water & Environment Birth, Death & Marriage Records Laboratory Healthcare facility managers Schools & child care providers Rhode Island Data Flu Surviellance Healthcare Management Agency Centers for Disease Control &amo; Prevention Flu.gov World Health Organization We can

  17. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel; Cabral, Juliano

    2016-01-01

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration–extinction dynamics1, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration–speciation–extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island...... sea levels3, 4 and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity5, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory2, 6. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed5, 7...

  18. Recommendations for a barrier island breach management plan for Fire Island National Seashore, including the Otis Pike High Dune Wilderness Area, Long Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Foley, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S Army Corps of Engineers, New York District is developing engineering plans, including economic costs and benefits, for storm damage reduction along an 83 mile stretch of the coastal barrier islands and beaches on the south shore of Long Island, NY from Fire Island Inlet east to the Montauk Point headland. The plan, expected to include various alternatives for storm protection and erosion mitigation, is referred to as the Fire Island to Montauk Point Reformulation Plan (FIMP). These plans are expected to follow the Corps of Engineers’ Environmental Operating Principles striving for long term environmental sustainability and balance between environmental protection and protection of human health and property. Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS), a 19,579 acre unit of the National Park System includes a 32 mile long coastal barrier island located within the FIMP project area. A seven-mile section of the park, Otis Pike Fire Island High Dune Wilderness Area, is also a designated Federal Wilderness Area. The FIIS includes not only the barrier island and sand dunes, but also several islands, sand flats and wetlands landward of the barrier, submerged parts of Great South Bay shoreface, extending approximately 4,000 feet into the bay with the inner shelf region extending approximately 1,000 feet seaward of the Fire Island shoreline. The Fire Island barrier islands, a sand-starved system dominated by highly dynamic processes, are struggling to maintain their integrity in the face of sea-level rise and storms. Adding to the dilemma is that development on the barriers and the mainland has increased greatly during the past 50 years. As such, managers and decision makers in federal agencies, state agencies and local governments are challenged to balance tradeoffs between protection of lives and property, public access and long term conservation of natural habitats and processes and the plants and animals that depend on these habitats. National Park Service (NPS

  19. A large foodborne outbreak on a small Pacific island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, C C; Trinidad, R M; Pavlin, B I

    2010-04-01

    On March 25, 2009, the Ebeye Leroj Kitlang Memorial Health Center on the island of Ebeye in the Republic of the Marshall Islands was overwhelmed with over 100 patients presenting for vomiting and diarrhea. Epidemiologic investigation revealed that there were 174 cases among 187 attendees at a local funeral earlier in the day. Most cases had eaten served sandwiches containing egg products that had undergone severe time-temperature abuse. While no causal agents were identified, the epidemiology and clinical presentation is compatible with foodborne toxins, most likely enterotoxins of either Staphylococcus aureus or Bacillus cereus. Mitigation measures undertaken by public health centered on education of food preparers and the general public regarding safe food preparation practices. This large outbreak serves to remind us that, while there are simple and highly effective measures to prevent such foodborne disease outbreaks, we in the public health sector have a duty to improve the community's knowledge and understanding of these measures.

  20. Late Quaternary climate change shapes island biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Patrick; Steinbauer, Manuel Jonas; Cabral, Juliano Sarmento; Kreft, Holger

    2016-04-07

    Island biogeographical models consider islands either as geologically static with biodiversity resulting from ecologically neutral immigration-extinction dynamics, or as geologically dynamic with biodiversity resulting from immigration-speciation-extinction dynamics influenced by changes in island characteristics over millions of years. Present climate and spatial arrangement of islands, however, are rather exceptional compared to most of the Late Quaternary, which is characterized by recurrent cooler and drier glacial periods. These climatic oscillations over short geological timescales strongly affected sea levels and caused massive changes in island area, isolation and connectivity, orders of magnitude faster than the geological processes of island formation, subsidence and erosion considered in island theory. Consequences of these oscillations for present biodiversity remain unassessed. Here we analyse the effects of present and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) island area, isolation, elevation and climate on key components of angiosperm diversity on islands worldwide. We find that post-LGM changes in island characteristics, especially in area, have left a strong imprint on present diversity of endemic species. Specifically, the number and proportion of endemic species today is significantly higher on islands that were larger during the LGM. Native species richness, in turn, is mostly determined by present island characteristics. We conclude that an appreciation of Late Quaternary environmental change is essential to understand patterns of island endemism and its underlying evolutionary dynamics.