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Sample records for vanadyl carboxylate-catalyzed enantioselective

  1. Vanadyl complexes with ethylenedithiodiacetic acid

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    Napoli, A. (Rome Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimia Analitica)

    1981-12-01

    The complex formation between vanadyl ions and ethylenedithiodiacetic acid (H/sub 2/L) has been studied at 25/sup 0/C in 0.5 M-NaClO/sub 4/ as inert medium, by measuring the hydrogen ion concentration with a glass electrode. In acidic medium and in the investigated concentration ranges (2.07 mM<=Csub(M)<=7.50 mM, Csub(L) up to 12.5 mM)sup(*) the emf data can be explained assuming the equilibrium: VO/sup 2 +/ + L/sup 2 -/ reversible VOL log..beta.. /sub 101/ = 2.68 +-0.03.

  2. Spectral thermodynamic method to investigate complex mixtures of vanadyl porphyrins

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    Poluboyarov, V.A.; Anufrienko, V.F. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Kataliza)

    1982-09-01

    The method for analysis of composition of complex mixtures of vanadyl porphyrins, extracted from oils and other geoorganic objects, is suggested. Enthalpy and entropy of vanadyl porphyrin extracoordination with bases (pyridine) in solution are obtained experimentally. It is shown that knowledge of thermodynamic parameters of vanadyl porphyrins with bases gives an idea of their structural peculiarities. The application of the method of effective enthalpies and entropies reduces the time of analysis of fractions of fossile vanadyl porphyrins as well as the cost of the analyses.

  3. Synthesis of liquid-crystal vanadyl complex with Schiff base

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    Galyametdinov, Yu.G.; Ivanova, G.I.; Ovchinnikov, I.V. (AN SSSR, Kazan. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1984-12-01

    The paramagnetic Schiff base vanadyl (4) complex (4-octiloxy-N-(2-hydroxy-4-heptyloxybenziliden aniline) possessing liquid-crystal properties is obtained. The complex is synthesized by heating Schiff base with vanadyl acetate in absolute ethanol with the 65% yield. The IR and EPR spectra are measured.

  4. Intracomplex compounds of vanadyl with carboxylic acid hydrazides

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    Musaev, Z.M.; Usmankhodzhaeva, Ya.S.; Khodzhaev, O.F. (AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Inst. Khimii)

    1984-07-01

    Intracomplex vanadyl (2) compounds with some carboxylic acid hydrazides (HL) of the VOL/sub 2/xnH/sub 2/O composition, are prepared. Using IR absorption spectra of complexes, it is established that hydrazides are connected with a vanadyl ion in the deprotonated inidoalcohol form through an oxygen atom a nitrogen atom of aminogroup.

  5. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

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    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  6. The kerogen vanadyl porphyrins: incorporation during catagenesis

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    MIROSLAV P. PREMOVIC

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural vanadyl (VO2+-deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrins (DPEP have been shown to be capable of reacting and quantitatively incorporating into immature kerogen model materials (torbanite, lignites, subbituminous coal and immature lacustrine kerogen at 200°C for 72 h in the absence/presence of air. Electron spin resonance was used to monitor the incorporation of VO2+-DPEP into the kerogen models. The products of the incorporation resemble natural kerogen enriched with VO2+. The simulation experiments described in this paper clearly show that the kerogen VO2+-P may originate from VO2+-DPEP incorporation into the kerogen macromolecular structures during catagenesis.

  7. CATALYTIC ENANTIOSELECTIVE ALLYLIC OXIDATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rispens, Minze T.; Zondervan, Charon; Feringa, Bernard

    Several chiral Cu(II)-complexes of cyclic amino acids catalyse the enantioselective allylic oxidation of cyclohexene to cyclohexenyl esters. Cyclohexenyl propionate was obtained in 86% yield with e.e.'s up to 61%.

  8. Obtaining vanadyl porphyrins from asphaltite of Sadkinsk deposit

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    Nadirov, N.K.; Kotova, A.V.; Ergalieva, A.K.; Yag' yaeva, S.M.; Gol' dberg, I.S.

    1987-11-01

    A method of obtaining vanadyl porphyrins by acetone treatment of asphaltite was proposed. A 1 gram asphaltite sample and 200 ml of acetone were placed in a flask and refluxed by 1 hour. After cooling, the solution was filtered and the content of vanadyl porphyrins in the acetone extract was determined by a spectrophotometer. The product was obtained in crystalline form after the solvent was driven off. Tests show that use of acetone resulted in a more complete extraction of the porphyrins than can be obtained by ordinary alcohol-acetone or alcohol extraction methods.

  9. Air oxidation of the kerogen/asphaltene vanadyl porphyrins: an electron spin resonance study

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    MIRJANA S. PAVLOVIC

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of vanadyl porphyrins was studied by electron spin resonance during heating of kerogens, isolated from the La Luna (Venezuela and Serpiano (Switzerland bituminous rocks, at 25°C for 1 to 20 days in the presence of air. During the thermal treatment of the kerogens, the vanadyl porphyrins resonance signals decrease monotonically and become quite small after 6 days of heating. Concomitantly, new vanadyl signals appear and, at longer heating times, dominate the spectrum. It is suggested that the secondary vanadyl species must have been formed from vanadyl porphyrins. Similar conversions of vanadyl porphyrins are observed under the same experimental conditions for asphaltenes extracted from the La Luna and Serpiano rocks, and floating asphalt from the Dead Sea (Israel. A comparison of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for vanadyl porphyrins and the vanadyl compounds obtained during pyrolysis of the kerogens/asphaltenes suggests that the latter are of a non-porphyrin type. For comparison a study was conducted on Western Kentucky No. 9 coal enriched with vanadium (>>400 ppm from six mines. All the coal samples show only the presence of predominant by non-porphyrin vanadyl compounds, similar to those generated through laboratory heating of the kerogens/asphaltenes in air. In addition, some samples also contain a minor amount of vanadyl porphyrins.

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION FACILE ENANTIOSELECTIVE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FACILE ENANTIOSELECTIVE PALLADIUM CATALYSED TRANSFER. HYDROGENATION OF α-METHYLCINNAMIC ACID IN THE PRESENCE OF. OPTICAL PURE ORGANIC ACIDS. Reginah N. Bwire, Runner R. T. Majinda and Ishmael B. Masesane*. Chemistry Department, University of Botswana, P/Bag UB00704, ...

  11. Electron spin resonance study of the kerogen/asphaltene vanadyl porphyrins: air oxidation

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    Premovic, P.I.; Tonsa, I.R.; Pajovic, M.T.; Lopez, L.; Monaco, S.L.; Dordevic, D.M.; Pavlovic, M.S. [University of Nis, Nis (Yugosalvia). Lab. for Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry, Dept. of Chemistry

    2001-04-01

    Thermal behavior of vanadyl porphyrins was studied by electron spin resonance during heating of the kerogens isolated from the La Luna (Venezuela), Maganik (Montenegro) and Serpiano (Switzerland) bituminous rocks at 150 and 250{degree}C for 1 to 20 days in the presence of air. During the thermal treatment of the kerogens the vanadyl porphyrins' resonance signals decrease monotonically and become quite small after six days of heating. Concomitantly, new vanadyl signals appear, and, at longer heating times, dominate the spectrum. It is suggested that the secondary vanadyl species must have been formed from vanadyl porphyrins. Similar conversion of vanadyl porphyrins are observed under the same experimental conditions for the asphaltenes extracted from the La Luna and Serpiano rocks, and the floating asphalt from the Dead Sea (Israel). A comparison of the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for vandyl porphyrisn and vanadyl compounds obtained during pyrolysis of the kerogens/asphaltenes suggests that these are of non-porphyrin type. For comparison, a study was conducted on the Western Kentucky No. 9 coal enriched with vanadium (up to 800 ppm) from six mines. All coal samples show only the presence of predominant vanadyl-non-porphyrin compounds similar to those generated through laboratory heating of the kerogens/asphaltenes in air. In addition, some samples also contain a minor amount of vanadyl porphyrins. 21 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Synthesis, Spectral and Thermal Studies of New Rutin Vanadyl Complexes

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    Rodica Olar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Complexes between oxovanadium (IV cation and flavonoid derivatives were developed recently in order to increase the intestinal absorption and to reduce the toxicity of vanadium compounds. For these reasons, is interesting to investigate the complexation process between flavonoid rutin (Rut and vanadyl cation in order to isolate new complexes. Two new complexes [VO(Rut(H2O2](SO40.5×2H2O and [VO(Rut2]×4H2O have been obtained and characterized by elemental and thermal analyses and several spectroscopic techniques (ESI-MS, IR, UV-Vis, fluorescence. The studies concerning complex formation between vanadyl and rutin (Rut performed in different solutions show the formation of mononuclear complexes with 1:1 and 1:2 metal to ligand stoichiometry.

  13. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Padmanabhan; Moldowan, J. Michael

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steroid maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C 28E /(C 28E + C 32D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of > 100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C 29-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl "etio" porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America.

  14. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

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    Sundararaman, P. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., La Habra, CA (United States)); Moldowan, J.M. (Chevron Oil Field Research Co., Richmond, CA (United States))

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steriod maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C[sub 28]E/(C[sub 28]E + C[sub 32]D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of >100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C[sub 29]-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl [open quotes]etio[close quotes] porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. ENDOR study of nitrogen hyperfine and quadrupole tensors in vanadyl porphyrins of heavy crude oil

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    Gracheva I.N., Gafurov M.R., Mamin G.V., Biktagirov T.B., Rodionov A.A., Galukhin A.V., Orlinskii S.B.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We report the observation of pulsed electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR spectrum caused by interactions of the nitrogen nuclei 14N with the unpaired electron of the paramagnetic vanadyl complexes VO2+ of vanadyl porphyrins in natural crude oil. We provide detailed experimental and theoretical characterization of the nitrogen hyperfine and quadrupole tensors.

  16. Enantioselective Hydroformylation of Aniline Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Candice L.; Tan, Kian L.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a ligand that reversibly binds to aniline substrates allowing for the control of regioselectivity and enantioselectivity in hydroformylation. In this paper we address how the electronics of the aniline ring affect both binding of the substrate to the ligand and the enantioselectivity in this reaction. PMID:21842847

  17. Unusual coordination and metal-ligand geometry of a vanadyl porphyrin in aqueous solution

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    Shelnutt, J.A.; Dobry, M.M.

    1983-08-04

    Vanadyl uroporphyrin I in aqueous alkaline solution has considerably modified absorption and resonance Raman spectra when compared with vanadyl porphyrins in organic solvents or in the crystalline state. Under these latter conditions vanadyl porphyrins are known to contain 5-coordinate, out-of-plane vanadium(IV). The unusual spectra of vanadyl uroporphyrin in water can be converted to spectra typical of the 5-coordinate vanadyl prophyrins by formation of ..pi..-..pi.. complexes or by ..pi..-..pi.. dimerization. Because ..pi..-..pi.. complex formation and dimerization block addition of an axial sixth ligand a 6-coordinate, in-plane dihydroxide vanadium(IV) uroporphyrin complex is indicated. This hypothesis is consistent with an analysis of the frequencies of the core-size marker lines of metalloporphyrins indicating expansion of the metal core by 0.03 to 0.04 A in V(OH)/sub 2/UroP. 5 figures.

  18. Distribution of vanadyl porphyrins in a Mexican offshore heavy crude oil

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    Pena, M.E.; Manjarrez, A.; Campero, A. [Mexican Petroleum Institute, Mexico City (Mexico). Geosciences Research Division

    1996-03-01

    A study was made of vanadyl porphyrins distribution of Mexican heavy crude oil from Sonda de Campeche offshore field (drilling range 4350-4371 m) in the southeast of Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, according to planning request about future trends of refining schemes the distribution of vanadyl porphyrins was investigated in the total heavy crude oil and their distilled residue, free of the asphaltene fraction. Vanadyl-metaloporphyrins were extracted and separated by means of adsorption chromatographic schemes using adsorbents and solvents of increasing polarities. Vanadyl porphyrins were identified and characterized by ultraviolet and visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS). Results show that vanadyl porphyrins are present in the total crude oil and within the deasphalted residue, namely five homologues series DPEP, ETIO, THBD, BD and B with the ETIO series predominating in deasphalted residue. On the whole, data related to the distribution of vanadyl porphyrins indicates the convenience of using procedures that eliminate asphaltenes in order to remove vanadyl porphyrins and improve the efficiency of catalysts used in different catalytic refining processes. 17 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Estimation of vanadyl porphyrin concentration in sedimentary kerogens and asphaltenes

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    Premovic, P.I.; Allard, T.; Nikolic, N.D.; Tonsa, I.R.; Pavlovic, M.S. [University of Nis, Nis (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rapid method for determining the concentration of vanadyl prophyrins (VO{sup 2+}-P) associated with the kerogen of bituminous sedimentary rocks using electron spin resonance (ESR). The method is simple, straightforward and inexpensive. Several concentrations of a vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) standard dissolved in glycerol-lignite-mixture were prepared. The VO{sup 2+} concentrations ranged from 100 to 1000 ppm. The anisotropic ESR spectra of both the standards and kerogen samples were recorded at room temperature and the integrated areas of the pre-selected ESR line (attributed to nuclear spin m{sub 1} = -5/2) were computed. The concentrations of VO{sup 2+} found in the kerogen samples were calculated using the relative ratio of the integrated areas for the standards and the kerogen samples. The VO{sup 2+}-P concentrations of the kerogen materials were then calculated using 450 as the mean molecular weight of these species. Quantitative determination of VO{sup 2+}-P in the kerogen fractions in the range of 800-8000 ppm and higher is feasible by the method reported. The method of analysis was also extended to the asphaltene samples (enriched with VO{sup 2+}-P) and a coal sample containing non-porphyrin VO{sup 2+} associated with its organic fraction. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Enantioselective solvent-free Robinson annulation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    initial formation of an acid-base complex followed by a Michael reaction and then an enantioselective cyclization. Such enantioselective cyclizations probably occur on the surface of S-proline crystals. Keywords. Enantioselective annulation; cyclization; S-proline; S-phenylalanine; d-camphorsulphonic acid. 1. Introduction.

  1. Incorporation of vanadyl porphyrins into kerogen structures during catagenesis

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    Premovic, P.I.; Tonsa, I.R.; Dordevic, D.M.; Premovic, M.P. [Univesity of Nis, Nis (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Chemistry, Lab. for Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry

    2000-07-01

    Natural vanadyl (VO{sup 2+})-deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrins (DPEP) are shown to be capable of reacting and quantitatively incorporating into the immature koergen model materials (torbanite, lignites, subbituminous coal and an immature lacustrine kerogen) at 200{degree}C for 72 h in the absence/presence of air oxygen. Electron spin resonance is used to monitor the incorporation of VO{sup 2+}-DPEP into the kerogen models. The products of the incorporation resemble natural kerogen enriched with VO{sup 2+}-DPEP. The simulation experiments described in this paper clearly show that the kerogen VO{sup 2+}-P may originate from VO{sup 2+}-DPEP incorporation into the kerogen macromolecular structures during catagenesis. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Physico-chemical studies on vanadyl complexes of some tridentates

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    Sharma, K.G.; Mathur, R.P.; Mehta, R.K. (Jodhpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1981-05-01

    The vanadyl complexes of the type (VO.L.(H/sub 2/O)/sub 2/) were synthesised with 3-(..cap alpha..-benzoylmethyl-benzylideneimino) propanoic acid (H/sub 2/BP), O-(..cap alpha..-benzoylmethyl-benzylideneimino) benzoic acid (H/sub 2/BB) and (..cap alpha..-benzoylmethyl-benzylideneimino) benzene sulphonic acid (H/sub 2/BBS). These complexes have been studied potentiometrically in aqueous medium (..mu..=0.1, 0.05 and 0.01 M NaClO/sub 4/) at 25deg, 35deg and 45deg C. The solid chelates have also been synthesised and characterised by elemental analysis, molecular weight, magnetic, conductance and spectral techniques.

  3. Protective effect of vanadyl sulfate on the pancreas of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkent, Sema; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study is to examine from a biochemical and histological perspective, whether vanadium has a protective effect on the pancreas of diabetic rats. Male, 6-6.5 months old, Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups. Group I: control (intact) animals (n=13). Group II: control rats given vanadyl sulfate (n=5). Group III: streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals (n=11). Group IV: streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals given vanadyl sulfate (n=11). Vanadyl sulfate was given by gavage technique to rats in a dose of 100mg/kg daily for 60 days, after experimental animals were made diabetic. On day 60, the pancreas tissue and blood samples were taken from the animals. In the streptozotocin-induced diabetic group, blood glucose levels significantly increased in contrast to the loss of body weight, but vanadyl sulfate in streptozotocin-diabetic rats reduced blood glucose levels and increased both blood glutathione levels and body weight. Tissue sections were immunostained using an insulin antibody. The control group given vanadyl sulfate was no different from the other intact control group considering the insulin immunoreactivity in B cells. In pancreatic islets of the diabetic group, a decrease in the number of immunoreactive B cells was observed in comparison to the control group. On the other hand, pancreatic islets of the diabetic group given vanadyl sulfate showed a higher number of immunoreactive B cells in comparison to the diabetic group. According to the immunohistochemical and biochemical results obtained, it was concluded that vanadyl sulfate can regenerate B cells of endocrine pancreas in experimental diabetes.

  4. Cyclopalladated complexes in enantioselective catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunina, Valeria V.; Gorunova, Olga N.; Zykov, P. A.; Kochetkov, Konstantin A.

    2011-01-01

    The results of the use of optically active palladacycles in enantioselective catalysis of [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, aldol condensation, the Michael reaction and cross-coupling are analyzed. Reactions with allylic substrates or reagents and some other transformations are considered.

  5. Enantioselective Thiourea-Catalyzed Cationic Polycyclizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Robert R.; Lin, Song

    2010-01-01

    A new thiourea catalyst is reported for the enantioselective cationic polycyclization of hydroxylactams. Both the yield and enantioselectivity of this transformation were found to vary strongly with the identity of a single aromatic residue on a common catalyst framework, with more expansive and polarizable arenes proving optimal. Evidence is presented for a mechanism in which stabilizing cation-π interactions are a principal determinant of enantioselectivity. PMID:20369901

  6. Catalytic enantioselective Reformatsky reaction with ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez-Ibanez, M. Angeles; Macia, Beatriz; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2008-01-01

    Chiral tertiary alcohols were obtained with good yields and enantioselectivities via a catalytic Reformatsky reaction with ketones, including the challenging diaryl ketones, using chiral BINOL derivatives.

  7. Theoretical analysis of ESR spectra of vanadyl 2-formul-3-hydroxybenzothiophene-2-hydroxyanilinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakitin, Yu.V.; Kasumov, R.D.; Zelentsov, V.V.; Kalinnikov, V.T. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Obshchej i Neorganicheskoj Khimii; Moskovskij Inzhenerno-Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1981-01-01

    The dimer structure of vanadyl 2-formyl-3-hydroxybenzothiophene-2-hydroxyanilinate is confirmed on the basis of the analysis of ESR spectra. It is shown that the compound presents a mixture of two stereoisomers, in which yl oxygens are in cis- or trans-positions as to the coordination plane, the trans-form dominating. The data obtained are used to explain magnetic properties of vanadyl dimer complexes with three-dentate Schiff bases and to analyze the mechanisms of exchange interactions in the compounds.

  8. Spectroscopic determination of vanadyl porphyrin content in oils obtained from tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazliev, D.F.; Sadykov, A.N.; Safiullina, G.K.

    1988-05-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine vanadyl porphyrin content in oils derived from several tar sand fields in the USSR by in situ combustion or steam injection. The oils were diluted with carbon tetrachloride and their spectra recorded in the 470-650 nm interval. The optical density of the alpha band at 575 nm was calculated and the porphyrin content determined from this property. Results compared favorably with spectral data on vanadyl porphyrin content in acetone extracts. Lower content limits for reliable measurement were found to be 30-40 mg porphyrins per 100 g of oil. Methylene group content in isoprenoid units of the oils was also determined.

  9. Solubility of vanadyl sulfate in concentrated sulfuric acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, F.; Skyllas-Kazacos, M.

    The specific energy of the vanadium redox battery is determined by the solubility of the four vanadium oxidation states in sulfuric acid. While recent studies have shown that a higher vanadium concentration than that initially proposed might be feasible, further reliable solubility data for the various vanadium ions is required if the electrolyte composition is to be properly optimized. This study describes the results of a solubility study of vanadyl sulfate in sulfuric acid. VOSO 4 is the species which exists in the discharged positive half-cell of the vanadium redox cell. The solubility data have been generated in sulfuric acid concentrations that range from 0 to 9 mol/l and at temperatures between 10 and 50°C. The solubility of VOSO 4 is found to decrease continuously with increasing H 2SO 4 concentration and decreasing temperature. At 20°C, the solubility of VOSO 4 in distilled water is 3.280 mol/l whereas in 9 M H 2SO 4 it is 0.260 mol/l. The drop in solubility with increasing H 2SO 4 concentration is significant and is more pronounced at lower concentrations. A multivariable solubility prediction model has been developed as a function of temperature and total sulfate/bisulfate (SO 42- and HSO 4-) concentration using the extended Debye-Huckel functional form. The average absolute deviation of the predicted solubility values from experimental data is 4.5% with a maximum deviation of about 12% over the abovementioned temperature and sulfuric acid concentration range. When solubility data in the more useful H 2SO 4 concentration range of 3-7 M is considered, the solubility correlation improved with an average absolute deviation of only 3.0% and a maximum deviation of about 7%.

  10. Enantioselective Transport by a Steroidal Guanidinium Receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baragaña, Beatriz; Blackburn, Adrian G.; Breccia, Perla; Davis, Anthony P.; Mendoza, Javier de; Padrón-Carrillo, José M.; Prados, Pilar; Riedner, Jens; Vries, Johannes G. de

    2002-01-01

    The cationic steroidal receptors 9 and 11 have been synthesized from cholic acid 3. Receptor 9 extracts N-acetyl-α-amino acids from aqueous media into chloroform with enantioselectivities (L:D) of 7-10:1. The lipophilic variant 11 has been employed for the enantioselective transport of

  11. Tertiary Aminourea-Catalyzed Enantioselective Iodolactonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Gemma E.

    2010-01-01

    Binding the anion: A highly enantioselective iodolactonization of 5-hexenoic acids has been achieved using a tertiary aminourea-catalyst. The use of catalytic iodine in this process is critical to enhancing both the reactivity and enantioselectivity of the stoichiometric I+source.The mechanism is proposed to involve binding of an iodonium imidate intermediate by the H-bond donor catalyst. PMID:20803601

  12. Enantioselective solvent-free Robinson annulation reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The enantioselective cyclization of the prochiral cyclic substrates 1 to 7 and 26, can be carried out in the neat using -proline as catalyst. The substrates 18 to 22 and 27 could not be cyclized with S-proline but could be cyclized with a mixture of -phenylalanine and -camphorsulphonic acid. The enantioselective ...

  13. Alteration of composition of oil and vanadyl-porphyrines under some factors of hypergenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkova, V.N.; Ryadovaya, L.V.; Serebrennikova, O.V.; Titov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Oxidizing conditions under thermolysis stimulate the destruction of porphyrines having isocyclic ring. The same tendency in alteration of composition of vanadyl-porphyrines is observed in the process of microbe-induced oxidation of oil. Under thermooxidation the formation of porphyrine structures observed in some oils were revealed.

  14. Vanadyl sulfate protects against streptozotocin-induced morphological and biochemical changes in rat aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün-Dar, Kadriye; Bolkent, Sehnaz; Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of vanadyl sulfate on aorta tissue of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were made diabetic by an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) and vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg) that was given every day for 60 days by gavage technique to rats. Under the light and transmission electron microscopes, hypertrophy of the vessel wall, focal disruption in the elastic lamellae, an increase in thickness of total aortic wall, tunica intima, subendothelial space and adventitial layer, and a disorganization in smooth muscular cells of the tunica media were observed in diabetic animals. The aorta lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were significantly increased and the aorta glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly reduced in STZ diabetic rats. In diabetic rats administered vanadyl sulfate for 60 days, aorta LPO levels significantly decreased and the aorta GSH level significantly increased. In conclusion, in vivo treatment with vanadyl sulfate of diabetic rats prevented the morphological and biochemical changes observed in thoracic aorta of diabetic animals. Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Vanadyl sulfate administration protects the streptozotocin-induced oxidative damage to brain tissue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanardag, Refiye; Tunali, Sevim

    2006-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus manifests itself in a wide variety of complications and the symptoms of the disease are multifactorial. The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of vanadyl sulfate on biochemical parameters, enzyme activities and brain lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nonenzymatic glycosylation of normal- and streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered as a single dose (65 mg/kg) to induce diabetes. A dose of 100 mg/kg vanadyl sulfate was orally administered daily to STZ-diabetic and normal rats, separately until the end of the experiment, at day 60. In STZ-diabetic group, blood glucose, serum sialic and uric acid levels, serum catalase (CAT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, brain lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) increased, while brain glutathione (GSH) level and body weight decreased. In the diabetic group given vanadyl sulfate, blood glucose, serum sialic and uric acid levels, serum CAT and LDH activities and brain LPO and NEG levels decreased, but brain GSH and body weight increased. The present study showed that vanadyl sulfate exerted antioxidant effects and consequently may prevent brain damage caused by streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

  16. n-Alkylamine-assisted preparation of a high surface area vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, João Paulo L., E-mail: billbrujah@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil); Zampronio, Elaine C.; Oliveira, Herenilton P. [Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirão Preto, SP 14040-901 (Brazil)

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: CuK{sub α} X-ray diffraction patterns of the VP, VPOc, VPOcT, VPOcT200 and VPOcT500. Highlights: ► TEOS and octylamine incorporation into the VP was achieved by expanding the lamellar. ► The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VP to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT. ► The VPOcT exhibited thermal resistance up to 200 °C in air. ► Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 838 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. -- Abstract: We have developed a vanadyl phosphate/tetraethylorthosilicate (VPO/TEOS) nanocomposite comprised of silicate chains interleaved with VPO layers, prepared by using an n-alkylamines such as octylamine as the structure directing agent. The nanocomposites were synthesized by reacting amine-intercalated vanadyl phosphate with tetraethylorthosilicate via the soft chemistry approach. The synthetic procedure encompassed the exfoliation of the layered vanadyl phosphate as well as the reorganization of this exfoliated solid into a mesostructured lamellar phase with the same V–P–O connectivity as in the original matrix. TEOS incorporation into the vanadyl phosphate was achieved by expanding the lamellar structure with n-alkylamine (Δd = 13 Å with n-octylamine). The specific surface area increased from 15 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in the vanadyl phosphate matrix to 237 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} in VPOcT, and the isotherm curves revealed the characteristic hysteresis of mesoporous materials. Upon thermal treatment up to 500 °C, the surface area increased to 837 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}, which is suitable for catalytic purposes.

  17. Oxidation of two-electron 8-tungsten-4-vanadophosphoric heteropolyblue by molecular oxygen in the presence of vanadyl ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsova, L.I.; Maksimovskaya, R.I.; Matveev, K.I. (AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Kataliza)

    1983-04-01

    Oxidation of reduced 8-tungsten-4-vanadophosphoric heteropoly-acid (HPA-V/sub 4/) containing 2 atoms of V(4) by O/sub 2/ in the presence of excessive vanadyl ions is investigated. 8-tungsten-4-vanadophosphoric heteropolyacid reduced in 50% acetic acid at pH>=3 practically does not dissociate with evaporation of free vanadyl ions. Method of catalytic oxidation of vanadyl in the presence of HPA has been used to study kinetics of oxidation of heteropolyblue containing two atoms of vanadium (4) by oxygen: Hsub(x)PWsub(8)Vsub(2)sup(4)Vsub(2)sup(5)Osub(40)sup(-(9-x)). Additional outer-sphere addition of two or one ions of vanadyl to heteropolyanion is necessary for the reaction to rapidly proceed.

  18. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dan Li; Desheng Chen; Guozhi Zhang; Hongxin Zhao; Tao Qi; Weijing Wang; Lina Wang; Yahui Liu

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA...

  19. Enantioselective environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Niu, Lili; Liu, Weiping

    2015-03-16

    The enantioselective environmental toxic effect of chiral pesticides is becoming more important. As the industry develops, increasing numbers of chiral insecticides and herbicides will be introduced into use, potentially posing toxic effects on nontarget living beings. Chiral pesticides, including herbicides such as acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids, and imidazolinones, and insecticides such as synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, and DDT often behave enantioselectively during agricultural use. These compounds also pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological threats to nontarget living beings and/or humans, affecting the food chain and entire ecosystems. Thus, to investigate the enantioselective toxic effects of chiral insecticides and herbicides is necessary during environmental protection. The environmental toxicology of chiral pesticides, especially the findings obtained from studies conducted in our laboratory during the past 10 years, is reviewed.

  20. Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Nudelman

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The study carried out with a series of ligands allows the correlation between the structural characteristics and their reactivity.

  1. Enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of ?-ketocarboxylic acids

    OpenAIRE

    Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Kitahara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Iwasa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Stereoselective halogenation is a highly useful organic transformation for multistep syntheses because the resulting chiral organohalides can serve as precursors for various medicinally relevant derivatives. Even though decarboxylative halogenation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is a useful and fundamental synthetic method for the preparation of a variety of organohalides, an enantioselective version of this reaction has not been reported. Here we report a highly enantioselective decarboxylati...

  2. Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking via enantioselective autocatalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avetisov, V.A. [N. N. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, ul.Kossvgina 4, 11-7977 Moscow (Russia)

    1996-07-01

    The conditions for spontaneous generation of optically active product under autocatalytic type reactions is considered on the base of the general kinetic model of enantioselective autocatalytic stages. It is shown that the spontaneous generation of optical activity mostly depends on the enantioselectivity of catalytic transformations. The properties of autocatalytic reactions, which are needed for an experiment, as well as the necessary chemical conditions, are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Artificial metalloenzymes based on the biotin-avidin technology: enantioselective catalysis and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas R

    2011-01-18

    Artificial metalloenzymes are created by incorporating an organometallic catalyst within a host protein. The resulting hybrid can thus provide access to the best features of two distinct, and often complementary, systems: homogeneous and enzymatic catalysts. The coenzyme may be positioned with covalent, dative, or supramolecular anchoring strategies. Although initial reports date to the late 1970s, artificial metalloenzymes for enantioselective catalysis have gained significant momentum only in the past decade, with the aim of complementing homogeneous, enzymatic, heterogeneous, and organic catalysts. Inspired by a visionary report by Wilson and Whitesides in 1978, we have exploited the potential of biotin-avidin technology in creating artificial metalloenzymes. Owing to the remarkable affinity of biotin for either avidin or streptavidin, covalent linking of a biotin anchor to a catalyst precursor ensures that, upon stoichiometric addition of (strept)avidin, the metal moiety is quantitatively incorporated within the host protein. In this Account, we review our progress in preparing and optimizing these artificial metalloenzymes, beginning with catalytic hydrogenation as a model and expanding from there. These artificial metalloenzymes can be optimized by both chemical (variation of the biotin-spacer-ligand moiety) and genetic (mutation of avidin or streptavidin) means. Such chemogenetic optimization schemes were applied to various enantioselective transformations. The reactions implemented thus far include the following: (i) The rhodium-diphosphine catalyzed hydrogenation of N-protected dehydroaminoacids (ee up to 95%); (ii) the palladium-diphosphine catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenylallylacetate (ee up to 95%); (iii) the ruthenium pianostool-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of prochiral ketones (ee up to 97% for aryl-alkyl ketones and ee up to 90% for dialkyl ketones); (iv) the vanadyl-catalyzed oxidation of prochiral sulfides (ee up to 93%). A number of

  4. Oxidative transformations of cyclohexene hydroperoxide catalyzed by penta(dimethylsulfoxido) vanadyl hexathiocyanatoplatinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholuiskaya, S.N.; Rubailo, V.L.; Emanuel, N.M.

    1987-07-10

    Oxidation of cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide by molecular oxygen in the presence of penta(dimethylsulfoxido)vanadyl hexathiocyanatoplatinate proceeds at a high rate at low temperatures with the formation of bifunctional, oxygen-containing products. The main route of the reaction is the molecular oxidation of the hydroperoxide with ring opening in a complex (Cat/sub m/...HOOR/sub n/); oxidation of cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide to a dihydroperoxide takes place simultaneously by a chain mechanism.

  5. Novel vanadyl complexes of alginate saccharides: synthesis, characterization, and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shengyi; Liu, Guangyang; Yi, Yuetao

    2015-05-05

    Vanadium compounds present many physiological functions. However, vanadium(IV) and (V) salts are difficult for gastrointestinal absorption and have strong side effects. Therefore organic oxovanadium compounds gain more attention. Vanadyl alginate polysaccharides (VAPS) and vanadyl alginate oligosaccharides (VAOS) were obtained from aqueous solutions of VOSO4 at pH 12. They were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The antioxidant activity of oxovanadium(IV) complexes was investigated in hydroxyl and DPPH radical scavenging systems in vitro. The results reveal that activities of VAPS and VAOS in the two systems were stronger than those of alginate polysaccharides (APS) and alginate oligosaccharides (AOS), respectively. In addition, VAPS and VAOS promoted significantly the antiproliferation of ligands of human hepatoma cell line BEL-7402. Oxovanadium(IV) complexes were potent inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) with IC50 values in the range of 6.4-18.7μg/mL, indicated in biochemical assays. In addition, Vanadyl-alginate had no significant side effects on proliferation and viability of HL-7702 hepatic cells. In the future, they can be added to medicines and ease the growing threat that cancer and diabetes mellitus cause to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Complexes of vanadyl and uranyl ions with the chelating groups of humic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, M.L.S.; Mota, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    The uranyl and vanadyl complexes formed with salicylic, phthalic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids have been studied by potentiometry in order to determine the stability constants of the Msub(m) Lsub(n) species formed in solution, and the constants for hydrolysis and polymeric complexes, at 25.0/sup 0/, in 0.10, 0.40 and 0.70M sodium perchlorate. MINIQUAD was used in process the data to find the best models for the species in solution, and calculate the formation constants. The uranyl-salicylic acid sytem was also studied by spectrophotometry and the program SQUAD used to process the data obtained. The best models for these systems show that co-ordination of the uranyl ion by carboxylate groups is easier than for the vanadyl ion, whereas the vanadyl ion seems to form more stable complexes with phenolate groups. Both oxo-cations seem to tend to hydrolyse rather than form complexes when the L:M ratios are greater than unity. Although the change in the constants with ionic strength is small, the activity coefficients of the salicylate and phthalate species have been calculated at ionic strengths 0.40 and 0.70M, along with the interaction parameters with Na/sup +/, from the stability constants found for the species ML and H/sub 2/L, according to the Bronsted-Guggenheim expression.

  7. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)‐Liphagal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Joshua J.; McFadden, Ryan M.; Virgil, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Ring a ding: The first catalytic enantioselective total synthesis of the meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal is disclosed. The approach showcases a variety of technology including enantioselective enolate alkylation, a photochemical alkyne-alkene [2+2] reaction, microwaveassisted metal cat...

  8. Enantioselective olefin metathesis with cyclometalated ruthenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, John; Dornan, Peter K; Grubbs, Robert H

    2014-09-17

    The success of enantioselective olefin metathesis relies on the design of enantioenriched alkylidene complexes capable of transferring stereochemical information from the catalyst structure to the reactants. Cyclometalation of the NHC ligand has proven to be a successful strategy to incorporate stereogenic atoms into the catalyst structure. Enantioenriched complexes incorporating this design element catalyze highly Z- and enantioselective asymmetric ring opening/cross metathesis (AROCM) of norbornenes and cyclobutenes, and the difference in ring strain between these two substrates leads to different propagating species in the catalytic cycle. Asymmetric ring closing metathesis (ARCM) of a challenging class of prochiral trienes has also been achieved. The extent of reversibility and effect of reaction setup was also explored. Finally, promising levels of enantioselectivity in an unprecedented Z-selective asymmetric cross metathesis (ACM) of a prochiral 1,4-diene was demonstrated.

  9. Enantioselective Esterification of Ibuprofen under Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantong Zhao

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen has been successfully carried out in an organic solvent catalyzed by recombinant APE 1547 (a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1. Here we used microwave irradiation (MW as the mode of heating to improve the enzyme performance. Under the optimum conditions, the enzyme activity of APE 1547 was 4.16 μmol/mg/h and the enantioselectivity (E value was 52.9. Compared with conventional heating, the enzyme activity and the enantioselectivity were increased about 21.9-fold and 1.4-fold, respectively. The results also indicated that APE 1547 can maintain 95% of its activity even after being used five times, suggesting that the enzyme is stable under low power MW conditions.

  10. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Secalonic Acid E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapathy, Dhandapani; Reiner, Johannes R; Löffler, Lorenz E; Ma, Ling; Gnanaprakasam, Boopathy; Niepötter, Benedikt; Koehne, Ingo; Tietze, Lutz F

    2015-11-16

    The first enantioselective synthesis of a secalonic acid containing a dimeric tetrahydroxanthenone skeleton is described, using a Wacker-type cyclization of a methoxyphenolic compound to form a chiral chroman with a quaternary carbon stereogenic center with >99% ee. Further steps are a Sharpless dihydroxylation and a Dieckmann condensation to give a tetrahydroxanthenone. A late-stage one-pot palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-dimerization reaction leads to the 2,2'-biphenol linkage to complete the enantioselective total synthesis of secalonic acid E in 18 steps with 8% overall yield. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Optimization of enantioselective production of chiral epichlorohydrin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-19

    Oct 19, 2009 ... Kinetic resolution for optically active epoxides by microbial enantioselective hydrolysis. Biotechnol. Tech. 12: 225-228. Choi WJ, Lee EY, Yoon SJ, Yang ST, Choi CY (1999). Biocatalytic production of chiral epichlorohydrin in organic solvents. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 88: 339-341. De Vries EJ, Janssen DB (2003).

  12. An enantioselective artificial metallo-hydratase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jeffrey; Garcia-Herraiz, Ana; Roelfes, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Direct addition of water to alkenes to generate important chiral alcohols as key motif in a variety of natural products still remains a challenge in organic chemistry. Here, we report the first enantioselective artificial metallo-hydratase, based on the transcription factor LmrR, which catalyses the

  13. The Catalytic Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (+)-Liphagal

    KAUST Repository

    Day, Joshua J.

    2011-06-10

    Ring a ding: The meroterpenoid natural product (+)-liphagal has been synthesized enantioselectively in 19 steps from commercially available materials. The trans-homodecalin system was achieved by ring expansion followed by stereoselective hydrogenation. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition with Grignard reagents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez, Fernando; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.

    In this Account, recent advances in catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition of Grignard reagents are discussed. Synthetic methodology to perform highly enantioselective Cu-catalyzed conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to cyclic enones with ee's up to 96% was reported in 2004 from our

  15. Thiourea-Catalyzed Enantioselective Cyanosilylation of Ketones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, Douglas E.; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    The new chiral amino thiourea catalyst 3d promotes the highly enantioselective cyanosilylation of a wide variety of ketones. The hindered tertiary amine substituent plays a crucial role both with regard to stereoinduction and reactivity, suggesting a cooperative mechanism involving electrophile activation by thiourea and nucleophile activation by the amine. PMID:15969569

  16. Directed evolution of an enantioselective lipase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebeton, Klaus; Zonta, Albin; Schimossek, Klaus; Nardini, Marco; Lang, Dietmar; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Reetz, Manfred T.; Jaeger, Karl-Erich

    Background: The biocatalytic production of enantiopure compounds is of steadily increasing importance to the chemical and biotechnological industry. In most cases, however, it is impossible to identify an enzyme that possesses the desired enantioselectivity. Therefore, there is a strong need to

  17. Change in the composition of oil vanadyl-porphyrines under the action of a number of factors of hypergenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkova, V.N.; Ryadovaya, L.V.; Serebrennikova, O.V.; Titov, V.I.

    1980-01-01

    Oxidational conditions during thermolysis stimulate the destruction of porphyrines which contain an isocyclic ring. The same trend in the change of the composition of vanadyl-porphyrines is observed with microbal oxidation of oil. The formation of porphyrine structures encountered in a number of oils is detected during thermooxidation.

  18. A general enantioselective route to the chamigrene natural product family

    KAUST Repository

    White, David E.

    2010-06-01

    Described in this report is an enantioselective route toward the chamigrene natural product family. The key disconnections in our synthetic approach include sequential enantioselective decarboxylative allylation and ring-closing olefin metathesis to form the all-carbon quaternary stereocenter and spirocyclic core present in all members of this class of compounds. The generality of this strategy is demonstrated by the first total syntheses of elatol and the proposed structure of laurencenone B, as well as the first enantioselective total syntheses of laurencenone C and α-chamigrene. A brief exploration of the substrate scope of the enantioselective decarboxylative allylation/ring-closing metathesis sequence with fully substituted vinyl chlorides is also presented.

  19. Palladium-Catalyzed, Enantioselective Heine Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punk, Molly; Merkley, Charlotte; Kennedy, Katlyn; Morgan, Jeremy B

    2016-07-01

    Aziridines are important synthetic intermediates for the generation of nitrogen-containing molecules. N-Acylaziridines undergo rearrangement by ring expansion to produce oxazolines, a process known as the Heine reaction. The first catalytic, enantioselective Heine reaction is reported for meso-N-acylaziridines where a palladium(II)-diphosphine complex is employed. The highly enantioenriched oxazoline products are valuable organic synthons and potential ligands for transition-metal catalysis.

  20. Spin Dynamics and Low Energy Vibrations: Insights from Vanadyl-Based Potential Molecular Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Matteo; Tesi, Lorenzo; Benci, Stefano; Lunghi, Alessandro; Righini, Roberto; Taschin, Andrea; Torre, Renato; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta

    2017-03-29

    Here we report the investigation of the magnetization dynamics of a vanadyl complex with diethyldithiocarbamate (Et2dtc(-)) ligands, namely [VO(Et2dtc)2] (1), in both solid-state and frozen solution. This showed an anomalous and unprecedentedly observed field dependence of the relaxation time, which was modeled with three contributions to the relaxation mechanism. The temperature dependence of the weight of the two processes dominating at low fields was found to well correlate with the low energy vibrations as determined by THz spectroscopy. This detailed experimental comparative study represents a fundamental step to understand the spin dynamics of potential molecular quantum bits, and enriches the guidelines to design molecule-based systems with enhanced quantum coherence.

  1. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  2. Nickel, copper and vanadyl porphyrins from Moroccan oil shales. Composition, novel structures, biological precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verne-Mismer, J.; Ocampo, R.; Bauder, C.; Callot, H.J.; Albrecht, P. (Universite Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg (France))

    1989-03-01

    An exhaustive structural investigation of the nickel and vanadyl-porphyrin fractions from two Moroccan oil shales, Timahdit and Oulad Abdoun, was carried out. More than 20 structures, half of them showing a novel carbon skeleton, were unambiguously assigned by combined spectroscopic (FT NMR + nOe) and synthetic (total or partial synthesis) methods. In addition to the classical series, two groups of structures are of particular interest: (a) the tetrahydrobenzoporphyrins which might derive from a still unknown family of natural chlorophylls; (b) the 17-nor-DPEPs which are likely fossils of the algal chlorophyll c. The last series is complementary to the known 15,17-ethanoporphyrins, specific markers for chlorophyll c and the distribution of both series in various oil shales will be discussed. The composition of a minor copper-porphyrin fraction and preliminary indications concerning the free bases from Oulad Abdoun oil shale will also be presented.

  3. Vanadyl 3-nor C sub 30 DPEP: Indicator of depositional environment of a lacustrine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundararaman, P. (Chevron Oil Field Research Company, La Habra, CA (USA)); Boreham, C.J. (Bureau of Mineral Resources, Canberra (Australia))

    1991-01-01

    Vanadyl 3-nor C{sub 30}DPEP (Fig. 1) was first isolated as the nickel complex by Fookes (1983) and is presumably formed from chlorophyll during early diagenesis. Porphyrin analyses of the extracts from the Bucomazi Formation, Onshore Cabinda, West Africa, show that the concentration of 3-nor C{sub 30}DPEP increases systematically relative to C{sub 32}DPEP with depth. This systematic change is not due to maturity and has been interpreted to indicate that the pH of the depositional environment of Bucomazi Formation increased with time. Superimposed on this pH change was change in oxicity, which is indicated by the change in VO/(VO + Ni) porphyrin ratio.

  4. Layered vanadyl (IV) nitroprusside: Magnetic interaction through a network of hydrogen bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil, D.M. [Instituto de Química Física, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Lorenzo 456, T4000CAN San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); Osiry, H. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México (Mexico); Pomiro, F.; Varetti, E.L. [CEQUINOR (CONICET-UNLP), Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 47 and 115, 1900, La Plata (Argentina); Carbonio, R.E. [INFIQC – CONICET, Departamento de Físico Química, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Haya de la Torre esq, Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba (Argentina); Alejandro, R.R. [Centro de Investigación en Ciencia Aplicada y Tecnología Avanzada, Unidad Legaria, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México (Mexico); Ben Altabef, A. [INQUINOA-UNT-CONICET, Instituto de Química Física, Facultad de Bioquímica, Química y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, San Lorenzo 456, T4000CAN San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); and others

    2016-07-15

    The hydrogen bond and π-π stacking are two non-covalent interactions able to support cooperative magnetic ordering between paramagnetic centers. This contribution reports the crystal structure and related magnetic properties for VO[Fe(CN){sub 5}NO]·2H{sub 2}O, which has a layered structure. This solid crystallizes with an orthorhombic unit cell, in the Pna2{sub 1} space group, with cell parameters a=14.1804(2), b=10.4935(1), c=7.1722(8) Å and four molecules per unit cell (Z=4). Its crystal structure was solved and refined from powder X-ray diffraction data. Neighboring layers remain linked through a network of hydrogen bonds involving a water molecule coordinated to the axial position for the V atom and the unbridged axial NO and CN ligands. An uncoordinated water molecule is found forming a triple bridge between these last two ligands and the coordinated water molecule. The magnetic measurements, recorded down to 2 K, shows a ferromagnetic interaction between V atoms located at neighboring layers, with a Curie-Weiss constant of 3.14 K. Such ferromagnetic behavior was interpreted as resulting from a superexchange interaction through the network of strong OH····O{sub H2O}, OH····N{sub CN}, and OH····O{sub NO} hydrogen bonds that connects neighboring layers. The interaction within the layer must be of antiferromagnetic nature and it was detected close to 2 K. - Graphical abstract: Coordination environment for the metals in vanadyl (II) nitroprusside dihydrate. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Crystal structure of vanadyl nitroprusside dehydrate. • Network of hydrogen bonds. • Magnetic interactions through a network of hydrogen bonds. • Layered transition metal nitroprussides.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, antitumoral and osteogenic activities of quercetin vanadyl(IV) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Evelina G; Salinas, María V; Correa, María J; Naso, Luciana; Barrio, Daniel A; Etcheverry, Susana B; Lezama, Luis; Rojo, Teófilo; Williams, Patricia A M

    2006-09-01

    The development of new vanadium derivatives with organic ligands, which improve the beneficial actions (insulin-mimetic, antitumoral) and decrease the toxic effects, is of great interest. A good candidate for the generation of a new vanadium compound is the flavonoid quercetin because of its own anticarcinogenic effect. The complex [VO(Quer)(2)EtOH]( n ) (QuerVO) has been synthesized and characterized by means of different spectroscopic techniques (UV-vis, Fourier transform IR, electron paramagnetic resonance) and its magnetic and stability properties. The inhibitory effect on bovine alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity has been tested for the free ligand, the complex as well as for the vanadyl(IV) (comparative purposes). The biological activity of the complex on the proliferation of two osteoblast-like cells in culture, a normal one (MC3T3E1) and a tumoral one (UMR106), has been compared with that of the vanadyl(IV) cation and quercetin. The differentiation osteoblast markers ALP specific activity and collagen synthesis have been also tested. In addition, the effect of QuerVO on the activation of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is reported. The bone antitumoral effect of quercetin alone was established with the cell proliferation assays (it inhibits the proliferation of the tumoral cells and does not exert any effect on the normal osteoblasts). Moreover, the complex exerts osteogenic effects since it stimulates the type I collagen production and is a weak inhibitory agent upon ALP activity. Finally, QuerVO stimulated the ERK phosphorylation in a dose-response manner and this activation seems to be involved as one of the possible mechanisms for the biological effects of the complex.

  6. Chiral separation by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, B.; Verkuijl, B. J. V.; Minnaard, A. J.; De Vries, J. G.; Heeres, H. J.; Feringa, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    The literature on enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) spans more than half a century of research. Nonetheless, a comprehensive overview has not appeared during the past few decades. Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction is a technology of interest for a wide range of chemists and

  7. Biochemical properties and mechanism of action of a vanadyl(IV)-aspirin complex on bone cell lines in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etcheverry, Susana B; Williams, Patricia A M; Sálice, Viviana C; Barrio, Daniel A; Ferrer, Evelina G; Cortizo, Ana M

    2002-03-01

    A recently synthesized vanadyl(IV) complex with aspirin [VO(aspirin)ClH2O]2, has been thoroughly investigated by physicochemical techniques. In order to support the proposed structure, stoichiometry and the coordination sphere of the vanadium center, some studies such as elemental analysis, electronic (diffuse reflectance) and vibrational (infrared) spectroscopies, magnetic susceptibility, as well as the thermal behavior, were carried out. The bioactivity of the vanadium complex (VOAspi) was evaluated on two osteoblast-like cell lines in culture, being its cytotoxic effects stronger than the vanadyl cation as assessed by morphological changes and lipid peroxidation. These effects may be partially explained through the induction of the expression of Erks (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and the inhibition of the PTPases (Phosphotyrosine phosphatases) present in the cellular extracts.

  8. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Li; Desheng Chen; Guozhi Zhang; Hongxin Zhao; Tao Qi; Weijing Wang; Lina Wang; Yahui Liu

    2017-01-01

    The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV) and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV) and iron were 68% and 53%, respectiv...

  9. Effect of vanadyl sulfate on the status of lipid parameters and on stomach and spleen tissues of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunali, Sevim; Yanardag, Refiye

    2006-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular complications. Experimental evidence suggests that oxidative stress plays a dominant role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipid profiles and on stomach and spleen tissues in STZ-induced diabetic rats. In this study, male 6-6.5-month-old Swiss albino rats were used. Rats were randomly divided into four groups. Group I: control animals (normal, nondiabetic animals) (n = 13); Group II: vanadyl sulfate controls (n = 5); Group III: streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic, untreated animals (n = 11); and Group IV: STZ diabetic animals given vanadyl sulfate (n = 11). Experimental diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of STZ in a single dose of 65 mg kg(-1) body weight. Vanadyl sulfate was administered by gavage at a dose of 100 mg kg(-1). The levels of cholesterol, phospholipid, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-), triglycerides and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in serum and cholesterol in liver were assayed according to standard procedures. The levels of lipid peroxidation, glutathione (GSH) and nonenzymatic glycosylation (NEG) in stomach and lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) in spleen tissues were analyzed. After 60 days of treatment, serum cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, VLDL-cholesterol, LPO, blood glucose levels, stomach LPO and NEG, spleen LPO significantly increased, but serum HDL-cholesterol, stomach GSH and spleen GSH levels significantly decreased in the diabetic group. On the other hand, treatment with vanadyl sulfate reversed these effects. These results reveal that diabetes mellitus increased oxidative damage in stomach and spleen tissues and vanadyl sulfate has an ameliorating effect on the oxidative stress via its antioxidant property. The

  10. Enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene and (-)-irofulven.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2009-12-18

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late-stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (-)-acylfulvene (1) and (-)-irofulven (2).

  11. Conjugate addition–enantioselective protonation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Phelan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The addition of nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes represents one of the more general and commonly used strategies for the convergent assembly of more complex structures from simple precursors. In this review the addition of diverse protic and organometallic nucleophiles to electron-deficient alkenes followed by enantioselective protonation is summarized. Reactions are first categorized by the type of electron-deficient alkene and then are further classified according to whether catalysis is achieved with chiral Lewis acids, organocatalysts, or transition metals.

  12. Lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphite: Influence of the water content on the crystal structures and the dehydration scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auguste, S.; Alonzo, V. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Bataille, T. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Université de Rennes 1, CNRS, Campus de Beaulieu, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Le Pollès, L. [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France); Cañón-Mancisidor, W.; Venegas-Yazigi, D. [Facultad de Quimia y Biologia, Universitad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Casilla, 40 Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de Nanociencias y Nanotecnología, CEDENNA (Chile); Le Fur, E., E-mail: eric.le-fur@ensc-rennes.fr [Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, UMR 6226, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); Université Européenne de Bretagne, 12 avenue Janvier, 35000 Rennes (France)

    2014-03-15

    Two new lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphites have been synthesized by hydrothermal treatment. The respective formula are Li{sub 2}(VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 6H{sub 2}O (1) and Li{sub 2}(VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 4H{sub 2}O (2). The structures of the compounds have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in triclinic symmetry in space group P-1, a=6.3592(2) Å, b=8.0789(3) Å, c=9.1692(3) Å, α=64.390(2), β=87.277(2)°, γ=67.624(2) and, compound 2 in monoclinic symmetry, space group P2{sub 1}/a, a=6.3555(2) Å b=12.6368(7) Å c=9.0242(4) Å β=105.167(3)°. The vanadium phosphite framework consists of infinite chains of corner-sharing vanadium octahedra and hydrogenophosphite tetrahedra. The oxalate groups ensure the connection between the chains. The lithium ions and the water molecules are located between the anionic [(VO){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sup 2−} layers. Thermal behavior of both compounds was carefully studied by combining thermogravimetric analyses and thermal dependant X-ray diffraction in order to study the thermal stability of the layered oxalatophosphites and to see the influence of the decomposition of the carbon-based anions into the final lithium vanadyl phosphate. Various intermediate phases were evidenced and for both compounds the final product was LiVOPO{sub 4}. -- Graphical abstract: Two new lithium vanadyl oxalatophosphites layered compounds, Li{sub 2} (VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 6H{sub 2}O (1) and Li{sub 2} (VOHPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4} 4H{sub 2}O (2) have been hydrothermally synthesized. Lithium ions and water molecules are located between the anionic [(VO){sub 2}(HPO{sub 3}){sub 2}C{sub 2}O{sub 4}]{sup 2−} layers. Thermal behaviors were carefully studied by thermogravimetric and thermal dependant X-ray diffraction. Various intermediate phases were evidenced and for both compounds the final product was LiVOPO{sub 4}. Highlights: • The first

  13. Chiral amides via copper-catalysed enantioselective conjugate addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonen, Anne K; Fernández-Ibáñez, M Ángeles; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Teichert, Johannes F; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-01-07

    A highly enantioselective one pot procedure for the synthesis of β-substituted amides was developed starting from the corresponding α,β-unsaturated esters. This new methodology is based on the copper-catalysed enantioselective conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to α,β-unsaturated esters and subsequent direct formation of amides by quenching the corresponding enolates with different amines. Various primary and secondary amines bearing alkyl or aryl substituents can be used giving rise to a large variety of β-substituted amides with excellent enantioselectivities.

  14. Iminium and enamine catalysis in enantioselective photochemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörmann, Fabian M.

    2018-01-01

    Although enantioselective catalysis under thermal conditions has been well established over the last few decades, the enantioselective catalysis of photochemical reactions is still a challenging task resulting from the complex enantiotopic face differentiation in the photoexcited state. Recently, remarkable achievements have been reported by a synergistic combination of organocatalysis and photocatalysis, which have led to the expedient construction of a diverse range of enantioenriched molecules which are generally not easily accessible under thermal conditions. In this tutorial review, we summarize and highlight the most significant advances in iminium and enamine catalysis of enantioselective photochemical reactions, with an emphasis on catalytic modes and reaction types. PMID:29155908

  15. Chromatographic enrichment and subsequent separation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from natural seeps and molecular characterization by positive electrospray ionization FT-ICR mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Jonathan C; Rowland, Steven M; Corilo, Yuri E; McKenna, Amy M

    2014-11-04

    We report a novel chromatographic method to enrich and separate nickel and vanadyl porphyrins from a natural seep sample and combine molecular level characterization by positive-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Vanadyl and nickel porphyrin model compound elution from primary secondary amine (PSA) stationary phase combined with UV-vis spectroscopy confirms enrichment and subsequent fractionation of nickel and vanadyl porphyrins into polarity-based subfractions. A more than 100-fold increase in signal-to-noise ratio for nickel porphyrins enables unequivocal elemental composition assignment confirmed by isotopic fine structure for all isotopes >1% relative abundance, and the first mass spectral identification of (61)Ni porphyrin isotopologues derived from natural seeps. Oxygen-containing vanadyl porphyrins and sulfur-containing vanadyl porphyrins are isolated in the same fraction simultaneously from the same sample. We provide the first chromatographic evidence of carboxylic acid functionalities peripheral to the porphyrin core, in agreement with previous studies.

  16. Different enantioselective degradation of pyraclofos in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yuxin; Zhang, Hu; Zhuang, Shulin; Yu, Man; Xiao, Hua; Qian, Mingrong

    2012-05-02

    This study investigated the enantioselective degradation behavior of pyraclofos in three soils (NC, HZ, and ZZ) under native and sterilized conditions. The absolute configuration of pyraclofos enantiomers has been determined by the combination of experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra. S-(+)- and R-(-)-Pyraclofos were separated and determined on a cellulose tri-(4-chloro-3-methylphenylcarbamate) (Lux Cellulose-4) chiral column by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pyraclofos enantiomers were configurationally stable in three soils and no interconversion was observed during the incubation of enantiopure S-(+)- or R-(-)-pyraclofos under native conditions. The enantioselective degradation behavior of chiral pyraclofos was dramatically different in three soils under native conditions, with half-lives (t(1/2)) of pyraclofos in NC, HZ, and ZZ soils of 2.6, 13.4, and 7.8 days for S-(+)-pyraclofos and 9.2, 9.3, and 8.2 days for R-(-)-pyraclofos. Compared to the half-lives (t(1/2)) of rac-pyraclofos of 21.5, 55.9, and 14.4 days in sterilized NC, HZ and ZZ soils, the degradation velocity was greatly improved in native soils, indicating that degradation was greatly attributed to microbially mediated processes in agricultural cultivating soils.

  17. Enantioselective separation on chiral Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Nisha; Bartel, Melissa A; Gellman, Andrew J

    2010-06-30

    The surfaces of chemically synthesized Au nanoparticles have been modified with d- or l-cysteine to render them chiral and enantioselective for adsorption of chiral molecules. Their enantioselective interaction with chiral compounds has been probed by optical rotation measurements during exposure to enantiomerically pure and racemic propylene oxide. The ability of optical rotation to detect enantiospecific adsorption arises from the fact that the specific rotation of polarized light by (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide is enhanced by interaction with Au nanoparticles. This effect is related to previous observations of enhanced circular dichroism by Au nanoparticles modified by chiral adsorbates. More importantly, chiral Au nanoparticles modified with either d- or l-cysteine selectively adsorb one enantiomer of propylene oxide from a solution of racemic propylene oxide, thus leaving an enantiomeric excess in the solution phase. Au nanoparticles modified with l-cysteine (d-cysteine) selectively adsorb the (R)-propylene oxide ((S)-propylene oxide). A simple model has been developed that allows extraction of the enantiospecific equilibrium constants for (R)- and (S)-propylene oxide adsorption on the chiral Au nanoparticles.

  18. Ordered growth of vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) on an iron phthalocyanine (FePc) monolayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochford, Luke A; Ramadan, Alexandra J; Woodruff, D Phil; Heutz, Sandrine; Jones, Tim S

    2015-11-28

    The growth and characterisation of a non-planar phthalocyanine (vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc) on a complete monolayer (ML) of a planar phthalocyanine (Iron(II) phthalocyanine, FePc) on an Au(111) surface, has been investigated using ultra-high vacuum (UHV) scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). The surface mesh of the initial FePc monolayer has been determined and shown to correspond to an incommensurate overlayer, not commensurate as previously reported. Ordered islands of VOPc, with (1 × 1) epitaxy, grow on the FePc layer at submonolayer coverages. The individual VOPc molecules occupy sites directly atop the underlying FePc molecules, indicating that significant intermolecular bonding must occur. It is proposed that this interaction implies that the V[double bond, length as m-dash]O points down into the surface, allowing a Fe-O bond to form. The detailed appearance of the STM images of the VOPc molecules is consistent with previous studies in other VOPc growth studies in which this molecular orientation has been proposed.

  19. Transformation of cellulose and its derived carbohydrates into formic and lactic acids catalyzed by vanadyl cations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchen; Deng, Weiping; Wang, Yanliang; Zhu, Enze; Wan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Ye

    2014-06-01

    The transformation of cellulose or cellulose-derived carbohydrates into platform chemicals is the key to establish biomass-based sustainable chemical processes. The systems able to catalyze the conversion of cellulose into key chemicals in water without the consumption of hydrogen are limited. We report that simple vanadyl (VO(2+)) cations catalyze the conversions of cellulose and its monomer, glucose, into lactic acid and formic acid in water. We have discovered an interesting shift of the major product from formic acid to lactic acid on switching the reaction atmosphere from oxygen to nitrogen. Our studies suggest that VO(2+) catalyzes the isomerization of glucose to fructose, the retro-aldol fragmentation of fructose to two trioses, and the isomerization of trioses, which leads to the formation of lactic acid under anaerobic conditions. The oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds in the intermediates caused by the redox conversion of VO2(+)/VO(2+) under aerobic conditions results in formic acid and CO2. We demonstrate that the addition of an alcohol suppresses the formation of CO2 and enhances the formic acid yield significantly to 70-75 %. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Room-Temperature Quantum Coherence and Rabi Oscillations in Vanadyl Phthalocyanine: Toward Multifunctional Molecular Spin Qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Matteo; Tesi, Lorenzo; Morra, Elena; Chiesa, Mario; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta

    2016-02-24

    Here we report the investigation of the magnetic relaxation and the quantum coherence of vanadyl phthalocyanine, VOPc, a multifunctional and easy-processable potential molecular spin qubit. VOPc in its pure form (1) and its crystalline dispersions in the isostructural diamagnetic host TiOPc in different stoichiometric ratios, namely VOPc:TiOPc 1:10 (2) and 1:1000 (3), were investigated via a multitechnique approach based on the combination of alternate current (AC) susceptometry, continuous wave, and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. AC susceptibility measurements revealed a linear increase of the relaxation rate with temperature up to 20 K, as expected for a direct mechanism, but τ remains slow over a very wide range of applied static field values (up to ∼5 T). Pulsed EPR spectroscopy experiments on 3 revealed quantum coherence up to room temperature with T(m) ∼1 μs at 300 K, representing the highest value obtained to date for molecular electronic spin qubits. Rabi oscillations are observed in this nuclear spin-active environment ((1)H and (14)N nuclei) at room temperature also for 2, indicating an outstanding robustness of the quantum coherence in this molecular semiconductor exploitable in spintronic devices.

  1. New Mechanism for the Reduction of Vanadyl Acetylacetonate to Vanadium Acetylacetonate for Room Temperature Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamie, Jack S. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Liu, Caihong [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Shaw, Leon L. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago Illinois 60616 USA; Sprenkle, Vincent L. [Energy Storage and Conversion Energy Materials, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 USA

    2016-12-29

    In this study, a new mechanism for the reduction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, VO(acac)2, to vanadium acetylacetonate, V(acac)3, is introduced. V(acac)3 has been studied for use in redox flow batteries (RFBs) for some time; however, contamination by moisture leads to the formation of VO(acac)2. In previous work, once this transformation occurs, it is no longer reversible because there is a requirement for extreme low potentials for the reduction to occur. Here, we propose that, in the presence of excess acetylacetone (Hacac) and free protons (H+), the reduction can take place between 2.25 and 1.5 V versus Na/Na+ via a one-electron-transfer reduction. This reduction can take place in situ during discharge in a novel hybrid Na-based flow battery (HNFB) with a molten Na–Cs alloy as the anode. The in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge is shown to allow the Coulombic efficiency of the HNFB to be ≈100 % with little or no capacity decay over cycles. In addition, utilizing two-electron-transfer redox reactions (i.e., V3+/V4+ and V2+/V3+ redox couples) per V ion to increase the energy density of RFBs becomes possible owing to the in situ recovery of V(acac)3 during discharge. The concept of in situ recovery of material can lead to more advances in maintaining the cycle life of RFBs in the future.

  2. Enantioselective Fluorination of Spirocyclic β-Prolinals Using Enamine Catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of spirocyclic carbaldehydes were successfully fluorinated using enamine catalysis, furnishing the corresponding tertiary fluorides in both high yields and enantioselectivities. The fluorinated spirocycles provide a set of novel building blocks interesting from a medicinal chemistry point...

  3. Kinetic mechanism and enantioselectivity of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Lixia; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Janssen, DB

    2003-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 catalyzes the reversible intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of a halogen by a hydroxyl group in vicinal haloalcohols, producing the corresponding epoxides. The enzyme displays high enantioselectivity toward some aromatic

  4. Mechanism of the catalytic action of penta(dimethylsulfoxido)vanadyl hexathiocyanatoplatinate in the liquid-phase oxidation of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kholuiskaya, S.N.; Kasparov, V.V.; Kovalev, V.V.; Konovalova, A.A.; Rubailo, V.L.

    1987-07-10

    The complex studied - penta(dimethylsulfoxido)vanadyl hexathiocyanatoplatinate (I) is an effective catalyst for the low-temperature oxidation of cyclohexene in alcoholic media, ensuring a high reaction rate up to a high degree of conversion. It has been established that there is a synergism between the component parts of the catalyst, the maximum rate of oxidation of cyclohexene being observed with V/Pt = 2. In the initial stages of the oxidation of cyclohexene in the presence of (I), the reaction rate is described by the kinetics of a chain growth-chain breaking process.

  5. Preparation of Highly Pure Vanadyl Sulfate from Sulfate Solutions Containing Impurities of Iron and Aluminum by Solvent Extraction Using EHEHPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation of highly pure vanadyl sulfate from sulfate solutions containing impurities of iron and aluminumwas investigated by solvent extraction with 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (EHEHPA and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP as the phase modifier. The extraction and stripping conditions of vanadium (IV and its separation from iron and aluminum were optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the extraction of vanadium (IV and iron were 68% and 53%, respectively, while only 2% aluminum was extracted in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from aluminum. Sulfuric acid solution was used for the stripping. Nearly 100% vanadium (IV and 95% aluminum were stripped, while only 10% iron was stripped under the optimal stripping conditions in a single contact, suggesting good separation of vanadium (IV from iron. After five stages of extraction and stripping, highly pure vanadyl sulfate containing 76.5 g/L V (IV with the impurities of 12 mg/L Fe and 10 mg/L Al was obtained, which is suitable for the electrolyte of a vanadium redox flow battery. Organic solution was well regenerated after stripping by oxalic acid solution to remove the remaining iron. The mechanism of vanadium (IV extraction using EHEHPA was also discussed based on the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis.

  6. Solvent and Temperature Dependence of Spin Echo Dephasing for Chromium(V) and Vanadyl Complexes in Glassy Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Gareth R.; Eaton, Sandra S.

    1999-01-01

    The solvent and temperature dependence of the rate constant for spin echo dephasing, 1/Tm, for 0.2 to 1.2 mM glassy solutions of chromyl bis(1-hydroxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid), CrO(HCA)-2; aquo vanadyl ion, VO2+(aq), and vanadyl bis(trifluoroacetylacetonate), VO(tfac)2were examined. At low temperatures where 1/T1≪ 1/Tm, 1/Tmin 1:1 H2O:glycerol is dominated by solvent protons. At low temperature 1/Tmincreases in the order 1:1 H2O:glycerol or 9:1 CF3CH2OH:ethyleneglycol (no methyl groups) < 9:1i-PrOH:MeOH (hindered methyl groups) < 9:1n-PrOH:MeOH (less hindered methyl groups). This solvent dependence of 1/Tmis similar to that observed for nitroxyl radicals, which indicates that the effect of solvent methyl groups on spin-echo dephasing at low temperature is quite general. At higher temperatures the echo dephasing is dominated by spin-lattice relaxation and is concentration dependent. As the glass softens, echo dephasing is dominated by the onset of molecular tumbling.

  7. NMR relaxation studies in solution of transition metal complexes, Pt. 7. Protonation of the vanadyl ion in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagypal, I.; Fabian, I. (Kossuth Lajos Tudomanyegyetem, Debrecen (Hungary). Szervetlen es Analitikai Kemiai Tanszek); Connick, R.E. (California Univ., Berkeley (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1982-01-01

    The protonation of the vanadyl ion in aqueous solution has been detected and the equilibrium constant for the reaction has been determined spectrophotometrically at 298 K, in 6 M(Na,H)ClO/sub 4/. The transverse relaxation of water protons in acidic solutions of vanadyl ion has been studied at 2.5 and 100 MHz frequencies. A model is given to interpret the relaxation measurements, which takes into account the presence of two paramagnetic sites and the coupling between them through the proton exchange reactions. The contradictory statements concerning the relaxation behaviour of the system have been reinterpreted and reconciled by the use of the present model. An electric circuit description of the coupled chemical exchange and paramagnetic relaxation processes is introduced and proved to be equivalent with that of the descriptions based on the BLOCH equations and on formal kinetic considerations. The interrelation of the proton exchange rate constants and the paramagnetic relaxation times are calculated and illustrated on a nomogram.

  8. Synthesis, characterization, and efficacy evaluation of a new anti-diabetic vanadyl(II) thiamine hydrochloride complex in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed El-Shazly, Samir; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-06-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to abnormalities in either insulin secretion or action. A range of vanadium complexes have been synthesized and demonstrated to be effective in lowering hyperglycemia. Thiamine administration was also reported to prevent deterioration in fasting glucose and insulin levels, and to improve glucose tolerance in hyperglycemic patients. This study has been conducted to evaluate the ionic vanadyl(II) thiamine hydrochloride complex (VC) as a new anti-diabetic candidate. The new complex was characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electronic spectra, magnetic susceptibility, electron spin resonance (ESR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The anti-diabetic effect of VC was investigated in comparison to vanadium sulfate in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with VC versus vanadyl sulfate showed a more potent effect on reducing serum glucose and cholesterol close to normal levels. VC suppressed the diabetes-induced upregulation of hepatic glucose transporter (GLUT)-2, Phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) more significantly than vanadyl sulfate. Either vanadyl sulfate or VC restored hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein transcription factor-1c (SREBP-1c) and muscle hexokinase (HK) mRNA expression that was downregulated in diabetic group. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mRNA expression was restored more significantly in VC-treated than vanadyl sulfate-treated diabetic rats. These results indicate that the newly synthesized VC could be an effective anti-diabetic candidate as the anti-diabetic activity of the ionic vanadium was enhanced after being modified with the organic ligand, thiamin. The results also suggest that VC achieves its effect most likely through modulating the transcription of energy metabolizing enzymes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibatomi, Kazutaka; Kitahara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Nozomi; Kawasaki, Yohei; Fujisawa, Ikuhide; Iwasa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Stereoselective halogenation is a highly useful organic transformation for multistep syntheses because the resulting chiral organohalides can serve as precursors for various medicinally relevant derivatives. Even though decarboxylative halogenation of aliphatic carboxylic acids is a useful and fundamental synthetic method for the preparation of a variety of organohalides, an enantioselective version of this reaction has not been reported. Here we report a highly enantioselective decarboxylative chlorination of β-ketocarboxylic acids to obtain α-chloroketones under mild organocatalytic conditions. The present method is also applicable for the enantioselective synthesis of tertiary α-chloroketones. The conversions of the resulting α-chloroketones into α-aminoketones and α-thio-substituted ketones via SN2 reactions at the tertiary carbon centres are also demonstrated. These results constitute an efficient approach for the synthesis of chiral organohalides and are expected to enhance the availability of enantiomerically enriched chiral compounds with heteroatom-substituted chiral stereogenic centres. PMID:28580951

  10. Enantioselective Iodolactonization of Disubstituted Olefinic Acids Using a Bifunctional Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chao; Paull, Daniel H.; Hethcox, J. Caleb; Shugrue, Christopher R.; Martin, Stephen F.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective iodolactonizations of a series of diversely-substituted olefinic carboxylic acids are promoted by a BINOL-derived, bifunctional catalyst. Reactions involving 5-alkyl- and 5-aryl-4(Z)-pentenoic acids and 6-alkyl- and 6-aryl-5(Z)-hexenoic acids provide the corresponding γ- and δ-lactones having stereogenic C–I bonds in excellent yields and >97:3 er. Significantly, this represents the first organocatalyst that promotes both bromo- and iodolactonization with high enantioselectivities. The potential of this catalyst to induce kinetic resolutions of racemic unsaturated acids is also demonstrated. PMID:23199100

  11. Pentanidium-catalyzed enantioselective phase-transfer conjugate addition reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ting

    2011-03-09

    A new chiral entity, pentanidium, has been shown to be an excellent chiral phase-transfer catalyst. The enantioselective Michael addition reactions of tert-butyl glycinate-benzophenone Schiff base with various α,β- unsaturated acceptors provide adducts with high enantioselectivities. A successful gram-scale experiment at a low catalyst loading of 0.05 mol % indicates the potential for practical applications of this methodology. Phosphoglycine ester analogues can also be utilized as the Michael donor, affording enantioenriched α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives and phosphonic analogues of (S)-proline. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  12. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Intramolecular Aza-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, Lucie; Blanchard, Florent; Masson, Géraldine

    2017-08-21

    A highly efficient catalytic enantioselective intramolecular Povarov reaction was developed with primary anilines as 2-azadiene precursors. A wide variety of angularly fused azacycles were obtained without column chromatography in high to excellent yields and with excellent diastereo- and enantioselectivity (d.r.>99:1 and up to e.r. 99:1). Furthermore, the catalyst loading could be lowered to 1 mol %, and the obtained azacycles could be used as key intermediates for further transformations to generate additional molecular diversity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Vanadyl precursors used to modify the properties of vanadium oxide thin films obtained by chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreca, D.; Franzato, E.; Rizzi, G.A.; Tondello, E.; Vettori, U. [Univ. di Padova (Italy); Depero, L.E.; Sangaletti, L. [Univ. di Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica e Fisica per i Materiali

    1999-02-01

    Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared by chemical vapor deposition using as precursors a series of vanadyl complexes of general formula VO(L){sub 2}(H), where L is a {beta}-diketonate ligand. The depositions were carried out on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates in O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O atmospheres. In order to elucidate the role played by different ligands and synthesis conditions on the properties of the obtained films, the chemical composition of the samples was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, while their microstructure and surface morphology were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman and atomic force microscopy. The thermal decomposition of the precursors, with particular attention to their reactivity in the presence of water vapor, was studied by mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Coherent coupling between Vanadyl Phthalocyanine spin ensemble and microwave photons: towards integration of molecular spin qubits into quantum circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonizzoni, C; Ghirri, A; Atzori, M; Sorace, L; Sessoli, R; Affronte, M

    2017-10-12

    Electron spins are ideal two-level systems that may couple with microwave photons so that, under specific conditions, coherent spin-photon states can be realized. This represents a fundamental step for the transfer and the manipulation of quantum information. Along with spin impurities in solids, molecular spins in concentrated phases have recently shown coherent dynamics under microwave stimuli. Here we show that it is possible to obtain high cooperativity regime between a molecular Vanadyl Phthalocyanine (VOPc) spin ensemble and a high quality factor superconducting YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO) coplanar resonator at 0.5 K. This demonstrates that molecular spin centers can be successfully integrated in hybrid quantum devices.

  15. Guanidine-catalyzed enantioselective desymmetrization of meso-aziridines

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    An amino-indanol derived chiral guanidine was developed as an efficient Brønsted base catalyst for the desymmetrization of meso-aziridines with both thiols and carbamodithioic acids as nucleophiles, which provided 1,2-difunctionalized ring-opened products in high yields and enantioselectivities. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  16. Enantioselective Claisen Rearrangements with a Hydrogen-Bond Donor Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Christopher; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2008-01-01

    N,N′-Diphenylguanidinium ion associated with the non-coorinating BArF counterion is shown to be an effective catalyst for the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of a variety of substituted allyl vinyl ethers. Highly enantioselective catalytic Claisen rearrangements of ester-substituted allyl vinyl ethers are then documented using a new C2-symmetric guanidinium ion derivative. PMID:18576616

  17. Preorganization in highly enantioselective diaza-Cope rearrangement reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Jo; Kim, Hyunwoo; Alhakimi, Gamil; Jeong, Eui June; Thavarajah, Nirusha; Studnicki, Lisa; Koprianiuk, Alicja; Lough, Alan J; Suh, Junghun; Chin, Jik

    2005-11-30

    Crystal structure and activation entropy data indicate that H-bond directed diaza-Cope rearrangement of chiral diimines takes place with a high degree of preorganization. CD spectroscopy and HPLC data show that there is inversion of stereochemistry for the reaction with excellent enantioselectivity.

  18. DNA and RNA induced enantioselectivity in chemical synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelfes, Gerard

    One of the hallmarks of DNA and RNA structures is their elegant chirality. Using these chiral structures to induce enantioselectivity in chemical synthesis is as enticing as it is challenging. In recent years, three general approaches have been developed to achieve this, including chirality transfer

  19. Enantioselective Hydroxylation of 4-Alkylphenols by Vanillyl Alcohol Oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijfhout, Falko P.; Fraaije, Marco W.; Jongejan, Hugo; Berkel, Willem J.H. van; Franssen, Maurice C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) from Penicillium simplicissimum catalyzes the enantioselective hydroxylation of 4-ethylphenol, 4-propylphenol, and 2-methoxy-4-propylphenol into 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol, 1-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)propanol, and 1-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)propanol, respectively, with

  20. Schiff base complex-catalysed enantioselective epoxidation of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Chiral Ru(II) Schiff base complex-catalysed enantioselective epoxidation of styrene derivatives. R I KURESHY, N H KHAN, S H R ABDI, S T PATEL, P IYER and. R V JASRA. Silicates and Catalysis Discipline, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals. Research Institute, Bhavnagar 364 002, India. Ruthenium(II) chiral Schiff base ...

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of (R)-isocarvone from (S)-perillaldehyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamba, Douglas; Pisoni, Diego S.; Costa, Jesse S. da; Petzhold, Cesar L.; Borges, Antonio C.A.; Ceschi, Marco A. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: mceschi@iq.ufrgs.br

    2008-07-01

    This work describes the enantioselective preparation of (R)-(+)-isocarvone, (S)-(-)-5-isopropenylcyclohex-2-enone and (S)-(-)-3-isopropenylcyclohexanone starting from (S)-(-)-perillaldehyde. These compounds hold the prospect of serving as useful chiral building blocks or intermediates in organic synthesis. (author)

  2. Quantum Coherence Times Enhancement in Vanadium(IV)-based Potential Molecular Qubits: the Key Role of the Vanadyl Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Matteo; Morra, Elena; Tesi, Lorenzo; Albino, Andrea; Chiesa, Mario; Sorace, Lorenzo; Sessoli, Roberta

    2016-09-07

    In the search for long-lived quantum coherence in spin systems, vanadium(IV) complexes have shown record phase memory times among molecular systems. When nuclear spin-free ligands are employed, vanadium(IV) complexes can show at low temperature sufficiently long quantum coherence times, Tm, to perform quantum operations, but their use in real devices operating at room temperature is still hampered by the rapid decrease of T1 caused by the efficient spin-phonon coupling. In this work we have investigated the effect of different coordination environments on the magnetization dynamics and the quantum coherence of two vanadium(IV)-based potential molecular spin qubits in the solid state by introducing a unique structural difference, i.e., an oxovanadium(IV) in a square pyramidal versus a vanadium(IV) in an octahedral environment featuring the same coordinating ligand, namely, the 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate. This investigation, performed by a combined approach of alternate current (ac) susceptibility measurements and continuous wave (CW) and pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies revealed that the effectiveness of the vanadyl moiety in enhancing quantum coherence up to room temperature is related to a less effective mechanism of spin-lattice relaxation that can be quantitatively evaluated by the exponent n (ca. 3) of the temperature dependence of the relaxation rate. A more rapid collapse is observed for the non-oxo counterpart (n = 4) hampering the observation of quantum coherence at room temperature. Record coherence time at room temperature (1.04 μs) and Rabi oscillations are also observed for the vanadyl derivative in a very high concentrated material (5 ± 1%) as a result of the additional benefit provided by the use of a nuclear spin-free ligand.

  3. Graphene-based hybrid for enantioselective sensing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zor, Erhan; Morales-Narváez, Eden; Alpaydin, Sabri; Bingol, Haluk; Ersoz, Mustafa; Merkoçi, Arben

    2017-01-15

    Chirality is a major field of research of chemical biology and is essential in pharmacology. Accordingly, approaches for distinguishing between different chiral forms of a compound are of great interest. We report on an efficient and generic enantioselective sensor that is achieved by coupling reduced graphene oxide with γ-cyclodextrin (rGO/γ-CD). The enantioselective sensing capability of the resulting structure was operated in both electrical and optical mode for of tryptophan enantiomers (D-/L-Trp). In this sense, voltammetric and photoluminescence measurements were conducted and the experimental results were compared to molecular docking method. We gain insight into the occurring recognition mechanism with selectivity toward D- and L-Trp as shown in voltammetric, photoluminescence and molecular docking responses. As an enantioselective solid phase on an electrochemical transducer, thanks to the different dimensional interaction of enantiomers with hybrid material, a discrepancy occurs in the Gibbs free energy leading to a difference in oxidation peak potential as observed in electrochemical measurements. The optical sensing principle is based on the energy transfer phenomenon that occurs between photoexcited D-/L-Trp enantiomers and rGO/γ-CD giving rise to an enantioselective photoluminescence quenching due to the tendency of chiral enantiomers to form complexes with γ-CD in different molecular orientations as demonstrated by molecular docking studies. The approach, which is the first demonstration of applicability of molecular docking to show both enantioselective electrochemical and photoluminescence quenching capabilities of a graphene-related hybrid material, is truly new and may have broad interest in combination of experimental and computational methods for enantiosensing of chiral molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Ming; Lackner, Aaron D; Toste, F Dean

    2014-03-18

    During the past decade, the use of Au(I) complexes for the catalytic activation of C-C π-bonds has been investigated intensely. Over this time period, the development of homogeneous gold catalysis has been extraordinarily rapid and has yielded a host of mild and selective methods for the formation of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. The facile formation of new bonds facilitated by gold naturally led to efforts toward rendering these transformations enantioselective. In this Account, we survey the development of catalysts and ligands for enantioselective gold catalysis by our research group as well as related work by others. We also discuss some of our strategies to address the challenges of enantioselective gold(I) catalysis. Early on, our work with enantioselective gold-catalyzed transformations focused on bis(phosphinegold) complexes derived from axially chiral scaffolds. Although these complexes were highly successful in some reactions like cyclopropanation, the careful choice of the weakly coordinating ligand (or counterion) was necessary to obtain high levels of enantioselectivity for the case of allene hydroamination. These counterion effects led us to use the anion itself as a source of chirality, which was successful in the case of allene hydroalkoxylation. In general, these tactics enhance the steric influence around the reactive gold center beyond the two-coordinate ligand environment. The use of binuclear complexes allowed us to use the second gold center and its associated ligand (or counterion) to exert a further steric influence. In a similar vein, we employed a chiral anion (in place of or in addition to a chiral ligand) to move the chiral information closer to the reactive center. In order to expand the scope of reactions amenable to enantioselective gold catalysis to cycloadditions and other carbocyclization processes, we also developed a new class of mononuclear phosphite and phosphoramidite ligands to supplement the previously widely

  5. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)2 and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Feringa, Bernard

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)2 in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved.

  6. Dynamic control of chirality in phosphine ligands for enantioselective catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Depeng; Neubauer, Thomas M; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-03-25

    Chirality plays a fundamental role in biology and chemistry and the precise control of chirality in a catalytic conversion is a key to modern synthesis most prominently seen in the production of pharmaceuticals. In enantioselective metal-based catalysis, access to each product enantiomer is commonly achieved through ligand design with chiral bisphosphines being widely applied as privileged ligands. Switchable phosphine ligands, in which chirality is modulated through an external trigger signal, might offer attractive possibilities to change enantioselectivity in a catalytic process in a non-invasive manner avoiding renewed ligand synthesis. Here we demonstrate that a photoswitchable chiral bisphosphine based on a unidirectional light-driven molecular motor, can be used to invert the stereoselectivity of a palladium-catalysed asymmetric transformation. It is shown that light-induced changes in geometry and helicity of the switchable ligand enable excellent selectivity towards the racemic or individual enantiomers of the product in a Pd-catalysed desymmetrization reaction.

  7. Enantioselective epoxide polymerization using a bimetallic cobalt catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M; Widger, Peter C B; Ahmed, Syud M; Jeske, Ryan C; Hirahata, Wataru; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (k(fast)/k(slow)) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T(m) values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides.

  8. Enantioselective Epoxide Polymerization Using a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Renee M.

    2010-11-24

    A highly active enantiopure bimetallic cobalt complex was explored for the enantioselective polymerization of a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. The polymerizations were optimized for high rates and stereoselectivity, with s-factors (kfast/kslow) for most epoxides exceeding 50 and some exceeding 300, well above the threshold for preparative utility of enantiopure epoxides and isotactic polyethers. Values for mm triads of the resulting polymers are typically greater than 95%, with some even surpassing 98%. In addition, the use of a racemic catalyst allowed the preparation of isotactic polyethers in quantitative yields. The thermal properties of these isotactic polyethers are presented, with many polymers exhibiting high T m values. This is the first report of the rapid synthesis of a broad range of highly isotactic polyethers via the enantioselective polymerization of racemic epoxides. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  9. Enantioselective Polyene Cyclization via Organo-SOMO Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendler, Sebastian; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2010-01-01

    The first organocatalytic enantioselective radical polycyclization has been accomplished using singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis. The presented strategy relies on a selective single-electron oxidation of chiral enamines formed by condensation of polyenals with an imidazolidinone catalyst employing a suitable copper(II) oxidant. The reaction proceeds under mildly acidic conditions at room temperature and shows compatibility with an array of electron-poor as well as electron-rich functional groups. Upon termination by radical arylation, followed by subsequent oxidation and rearomatization, a range of polycyclic aldehydes has been accessed (12 examples, 54-77% yield, 85-93% ee). The enantioselective formation of up to six new carbocycles in a single catalyst-controlled cascade is described. Evidence for a radical-based cascade mechanism is indicated by a series of experimental results. PMID:20334384

  10. Enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole in cabbage, cucumber, and soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinquan; Wang, Xuesong; Zhang, Hu; Wu, Changxing; Wang, Xiangyun; Xu, Hao; Wang, Xiaofu; Li, Zhen

    2012-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation of tebuconazole has been investigated to elucidate the behaviors in agricultural soils, cabbage, and cucumber fruit. Rac-tebuconazole was fortified into three types of agricultural soils and sprayed foliage of cabbage and cucumber, respectively. The degradation kinetics, enantiomer fraction and enantiomeric selectivity were determined by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) on a Lux amylose-2 chiral column. The process of the degradation of tebuconazole enantiomers followed first-order kinetic in the test soils and vegetables. It has been shown that the degradation of tebuconazole was enantioselective. The results indicated that the (+)-S-tebuconazole showed a faster degradation in cabbage, while the (-)-R-tebuconazole dissipated faster than (+)-S-form in cucumber fruit and the test soils. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Shunsuke; Sugiura, Masaharu; Nakajima, Makoto

    2013-08-01

    The development of enantioselective aldol reactions catalyzed by chiral phosphine oxides is described. The aldol reactions presented herein do not require the prior preparation of the masked enol ethers from carbonyl compounds as aldol donors. The reactions proceed through a trichlorosilyl enol ether intermediate, formed in situ from carbonyl compounds, which then acts as the aldol donor. Phosphine oxides activate the trichlorosilyl enol ethers to afford the aldol adducts with high stereoselectivities. This procedure was used to realize a directed cross-aldol reaction between ketones and two types of double aldol reactions (a reaction at one/two α position(s) of a carbonyl group) with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities. Copyright © 2013 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Catalytic diastereo- and enantioselective annulations between transient nitrosoalkenes and indoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Stephens, David; Hernandez, Graciela; Mendoza, Rosalinda; Larionov, Oleg V

    2012-12-21

    Caught in transition: an efficient catalytic system is the key to the successful development of the first highly diastereo- and enantioselective annulation reaction between indoles and transient nitrosoalkenes. This robust reaction affords structurally unique architectures with up to three new chiral centers. The products can be readily elaborated into other indoline-based chiral heterocyclic motifs, including those of pyrrolidinoindoline alkaloids. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Enantioselective decarboxylative amination: synthesis of axially chiral allenyl amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Baoqiang; Ma, Shengming

    2013-01-02

    Getting axed: synthesis of the title amines, bearing functionality (R(1) and R(2)), involves the enantioselective palladium-catalyzed decarboxylation of allenyl N-tosylcarbamates. The reaction proceeds smoothly using both the chiral ligands (S)- and (R)-DTBM-Segphos (1) to afford the allenyl amines in good yields and with high enantioseletivities. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Light-Driven Enantioselective Organocatalytic β-Benzylation of Enals

    OpenAIRE

    Amico, L.; Fernández-Alvarez, V.M.; Maseras, F; P. Melchiorre

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A photochemical organocatalytic strategy for the direct enantioselective ??benzylation of ?,??unsaturated aldehydes is reported. The chemistry capitalizes upon the light?triggered enolization of 2?alkyl?benzophenones to afford hydroxy?o?quinodinomethanes. These fleeting intermediates are stereoselectively intercepted by chiral iminium ions, transiently formed upon condensation of a secondary amine catalyst with enals. Density functional theory (DFT) studies provided an explanation fo...

  15. The enantioselective b-keto ester reductions by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN TAJIK

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselective yeast reduction of aromatic b-keto esters, by use of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, calcium phosphate (monobasic, magnesium sulfate and ammonium tartrate (diammonium salt (10:1:1:50 in water at pH 7 as a buffer for 72–120 h with 45–90 % conversion to the corresponding aromatic -hydroxy esters was achieved by means of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  16. Emerging functional chiral microporous materials: synthetic strategies and enantioselective separations

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Ming; Li, Bin; Qiu, Shilun; Chen, Banglin

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, chiral microporous materials with open pores have attracted much attention because of their potential applications in enantioselective separation and catalysis. This review summarizes the recent advances on chiral microporous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs). We will introduce the synthetic strategies in detail and highlight the current status of chiral microporous materials on...

  17. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Wang, Huili; Qin, Fang; Xu, Peng; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2014-02-01

    The enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of metalaxyl by a single dose of exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory condition were studied by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS) based on a ChiralcelOD-3R [cellulosetris-tris-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl-carbamate)] column. Exposure of enantiopure R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae exhibited significant enantiomerization, with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa, which might be attributed to the chiral pesticide catalyzed by a certain enzyme in Tenebrio molitor larvae. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 d. In addition, bioaccumulation of rac-metalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae was enantioselective with a preferential accumulation of S-metalaxyl. These results showed that enantioselectivity was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of metalaxyl enantiomers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization–Borylation of Enallenes**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-01-01

    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization–borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. PMID:25808996

  19. Enantioselective α-Arylation of Carbonyls via Cu(I)-Bisoxazoline Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, James S.; Simonovich, Scott P.; Jamison, Christopher R.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2011-01-01

    The enantioselective α-arylation of both lactones and acyl oxazolidones has been accomplished using a combination of diaryliodonium salts and copper catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a new strategy for the enantioselective construction and retention of enolizable α-carbonyl benzylic stereocenters, a valuable synthon for the production of medicinal agents. PMID:21848265

  20. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Three-Component Synthesis of α-Substituted Amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisel, Tamara; Manolikakes, Georg

    2015-06-19

    The first general palladium-catalyzed, enantioselective three-component synthesis of α-arylamines starting from sulfonamides, aldehydes, and arylboronic acids has been developed. These reactions generate a wide array of α-arylamines with high yields and enantioselectivities. Notably, this process is tolerant to air and moisture, providing an operationally simple approach for the synthesis of chiral α-arylamines.

  1. Highly enantioselective synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines via Rh-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Liu, Tang-Lin; Cao, Min; Xue, Zejian; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2014-07-03

    Highly regioselective and enantioselective asymmetric hydrogenation of cyclic dienamides catalyzed by an Rh-DuanPhos complex has been developed, which provides a readily accessible method for the synthesis of chiral cyclic allylic amines in excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The products are valuable chiral building blocks and could be easily transformed to multisubstituted cyclohexane derivatives.

  2. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Malonates to Chalcone Derivatives Catalyzed by Dipeptide-derived Multifunctional Phosphonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongdong; Fang, Guosheng; Zhang, Jiaxing; Wang, Hongyu; Zheng, Changwu; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-21

    Highly enantioselective Michael addition of malonates to enones catalyzed by dipeptide-derived multifunctional phosphonium salts has been developed. The newly established catalytic system was characterized with its wide substrate scope featured with aliphatic aldehyde-derived enones and substituted malonates. The gram scale-up synthesis of adducts can also be successfully achieved under optimal conditions with both excellent yield and enantioselectivity.

  3. Catalytic enantioselective syn hydration of enones in water using a DNA-based catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Arnold J.; Coquière, David; Geerdink, Danny; Rosati, Fiora; Roelfes, Gerard; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective addition of water to olefins in an aqueous environment is a common transformation in biological systems, but was beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Here, we present the first examples of a non-enzymatic catalytic enantioselective hydration of enones, for which we used a

  4. Copper-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate addition of organometallic reagents to acyclic dienones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sebesta, Radovan; Pizzuti, M. Gabriella; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Šebesta, Radovan

    The enantioselective, copper/phosphoramidite-catalyzed 1,4-addition of dialkylzinc reagents to acyclic dienones is described. The products of this reaction, obtained with enantioselectivities of up to 95%, can be further functionalized by a second conjugate addition, or employed in an enolate

  5. Enantioselective Copper-Catalyzed Arylation-Driven Semipinacol Rearrangement of Tertiary Allylic Alcohols with Diaryliodonium Salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukamto, Daniel H; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2017-07-12

    A copper-catalyzed enantioselective arylative semipinacol rearrangement of allylic alcohols using diaryliodonium salts is reported. Chiral Cu(II)-bisoxazoline catalysts initiate an electrophilic alkene arylation, triggering a 1,2-alkyl migration to afford a range of nonracemic spirocyclic ketones with high yields, diastereo- and enantioselectivities.

  6. Rhodium/bisphosphine-thiourea-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated N-acylpyrazoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pan; Hu, Xinquan; Dong, Xiu-Qin; Zhang, Xumu

    2016-09-22

    We successfully extended our Rh/bisphosphine-thiourea (ZhaoPhos) catalytic system to asymmetric hydrogenation of α,β-unsaturated N-acylpyrazoles affording products with high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 97% yield, 99% ee). The pyrazole moiety played an important role in providing H-bond acceptor sites, which is critical for achieving high reactivities and enantioselectivities.

  7. Thermal aging effect of vanadyl acetylacetonate precursor for deposition of VO{sub 2} thin films with thermochromic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jung-Hoon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Sang-Hun [Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Donguk; Kim, Minha [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Hyeon Jin; Ro, Yu Hyeon [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yong Tae [YOUNG DO Glass Industry Co., Ltd., Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaehyeong [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of); Boo, Jin-Hyo, E-mail: jhboo@skku.edu [Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Basic Science, Sungkyunkwan University, 440-746 Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • 7 day aged VO(acac){sub 2} sol shows enhanced adhesivity on the SiO{sub 2} compared with non-aged sol. • The aging process has significantly affected the morphologies of VO{sub 2} films. • From the FT-IR spectra, thermal aging process provides the deformation of precursor. • The metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency (ΔT{sub at2000} {sub nm}) reached a maximum value of 51% at 7 day aging. • Thermal aging process could shorten the aging time of sol solution. - Abstract: Thermochromic properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) have been studied extensively due to their IR reflection applications in energy smart windows. In this paper, we studied the optical switching property of VO{sub 2} thin film, depending on the thermal aging time of the vanadyl acetylacetonate (VO(acac){sub 2}) precursor. We found the alteration of the IR spectra of the precursor by tuning the aging time as well as heat treatments of the precursor. An aging effect of vanadium precursor directly affects the morphologies, optical switching property and crystallinity of VO{sub 2} films. The optimum condition was achieved at the 7 day aging time with metal insulator transition (MIT) efficiency of 50%.

  8. Oxy-Allyl Cation Catalysis: An Enantioselective Electrophilic Activation Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chun; Oblak, E. Zachary; Vander Wal, Mark N.; Dilger, Andrew K.; Almstead, Danielle K.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-01-01

    A generic activation mode for asymmetric LUMO-lowering catalysis has been developed using the long-established principles of oxy-allyl cation chemistry. Here, the enantioselective conversion of racemic α-tosyloxy ketones to optically enriched α-indolic carbonyls has been accomplished using a new amino alcohol catalyst in the presence of electron-rich indole nucleophiles. Kinetic studies reveal that the rate-determining step in this SN1 pathway is the catalyst-mediated α-tosyloxy ketone deprotonation step to form an enantiodiscriminant oxy-allyl cation prior to the stereodefining nucleophilic addition event. PMID:26797012

  9. Synthesis and investigation of thermal properties of vanadyl complexes with azo-containing Schiff-base dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Salih Al-Hamdani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Azo-Schiff base compounds (L1 and L2 have been synthesized from the reaction of m-hydroxy benzoic acid with 1,5-dimethyl-3-[2-(5-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl-ethylimino]-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylamine and with 3-[2-(1H-indol-3-yl-ethylimino]-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ylamine. The free ligands and their complexes were characterized based on elemental analysis, determination of metal, molar conductivity, (1H, 13C NMR, UV–vis, FT-IR, mass spectra and thermal analysis (TGA. The molar conductance data revealed that all the complexes are non-electrolytes. The study of complex formation via molar ratio in DMF solution has been investigated and results were consistent to those found in the solid complexes with a ratio of (M:L as (1:1. Moreover, the thermodynamic activation parameters, such as ΔE∗, ΔH∗, ΔS∗, ΔG∗and K are calculated from the TGA curves using Coats–Redfern method. Hyper Chem-6 program has been used to predict the structural geometries of compounds in gas phase. The heat of formation (ΔHf° and binding energy (ΔEb at 298 K for the free ligands and their vanadyl complexes were calculated by PM3 method. The synthesized ligands and their metal complexes were screened for their biological activity against bacterial species, two Gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and two Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  10. Nickel-catalyzed regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2015-04-08

    The first catalytic regio- and enantioselective aminolysis of 3,4-epoxy alcohols has been accomplished. Under the catalysis of Ni(ClO4)2·6H2O, the C4 selective ring opening of various 3,4-epoxy alcohols proceeded in a stereospecific manner with high regioselectivities. Furthermore, with the Ni-BINAM catalytic system the enantioselective ring opening of 3,4-epoxy alcohols furnished various γ-hydroxy-δ-amino alcohols as products with complete regiocontrol and high enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee).

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy amides via Umpolung amide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighty, Matthew W; Shen, Bo; Johnston, Jeffrey N

    2012-09-19

    α-Oxy amides are prepared through enantioselective synthesis using a sequence beginning with a Henry addition of bromonitromethane to aldehydes and finishing with Umpolung Amide Synthesis (UmAS). Key to high enantioselection is the finding that ortho-iodo benzoic acid salts of the chiral copper(II) bis(oxazoline) catalyst deliver both diastereomers of the Henry adduct with high enantiomeric excess, homochiral at the oxygen-bearing carbon. Overall, this approach to α-oxy amides provides an innovative complement to alternatives that focus almost entirely on the enantioselective synthesis of α-oxy carboxylic acids.

  12. Chiral separation and enantioselective degradation of vinclozolin in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Donghui; Shen, Zhigang; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Wang, Peng

    2014-03-01

    Vinclozolin is a chiral fungicide with potential environmental problems. The chiral separation of the enantiomers and enantioselective degradation in soil were investigated in this work. The enantiomers were separated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on Chiralpak IA, IB, and AZ-H chiral columns under normal phase and the influence of the mobile phase composition on the separation was also studied. Complete resolutions were obtained on all three chiral columns under optimized conditions with the same elution order of (+)/(-). The residual analysis of the enantiomers in soil was conducted using accelerate solvent extraction followed by HPLC determination. The recoveries of the enantiomers ranged from 85.7-105.7% with relative standard deviation (SD) of 0.12-3.83%, and the limit of detection (LOD) of the method was 0.013 µg/g. The results showed that the degradations of vinclozolin enantiomers in the soils followed first-order kinetics. Preferential degradation of the (-)-enantiomer was observed only in one soil with the largest |ES| value of 0.047, and no obvious enantioselective degradation was observed in other soils. It was found that the persistence of vinclozolin in soil was related to pH values based on the half-lives. The two enantiomers disappeared about 8 times faster in basic soils than that in neutral or acidic soils. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective allylic alkylation with organolithium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornillos, Valentín; Guduguntla, Sureshbabu; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Pérez, Manuel; Bos, Pieter H; Rudolph, Alena; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-03-01

    This protocol describes a method for the catalytic enantioselective synthesis of tertiary and quaternary carbon stereogenic centers, which are widely present in pharmaceutical and natural products. The method is based on the direct reaction between organolithium compounds, which are cheap, readily available and broadly used in chemical synthesis, and allylic electrophiles, using chiral copper catalysts. The methodology involves the asymmetric allylic alkylation (AAA) of allyl bromides, chlorides and ethers with organolithium compounds using catalyst systems based on Cu-Taniaphos and Cu-phosphoramidites. The protocol contains a complete description of the reaction setup, a method based on 1 H-NMR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chiral HPLC for assaying the regioselectivity and enantioselectivity of the product, and isolation, purification and characterization procedures. Six Cu-catalyzed AAA reactions between different organolithium reagents and allylic systems are detailed in the text as representative examples of these procedures. These reactions proceed within 1-10 h, depending on the nature of the allylic substrate (bromide, chloride, or ether and disubstituted or trisubstituted) or the chiral ligand used (Taniaphos or phosphoramidite). However, the entire protocol, including workup and purification, generally requires an additional 4-7 h to complete.

  14. RNA-Cleaving DNA Enzymes with Altered Regio- or Enantioselectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordoukhanian, Phillip; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    In vitro evolution methods were used to obtain DNA enzymes that cleave either a 2',5' - phosphodiester following a wibonucleotide or a 3',5' -phosphodiester following an L-ribonucleotide. Both enzymes can operate in an intermolecular reaction format with multiple turnover. The DNA enzyme that cleaves a 2',5' -phosphodiester exhibits a k(sub cat) of approx. 0.01/ min and catalytic efficiency, k(sub cat)/k(sub m) of approx. 10(exp 5)/ M min. The enzyme that cleaves an L-ribonudeotide is about 10-fold slower and has a catalytic efficiency of approx. 4 x 10(exp 5)/ M min. Both enzymes require a divalent metal cation for their activity and have optimal catalytic rate at pH 7-8 and 35-50 C. In a comparison of each enzyme s activity with either its corresponding substrate that contains an unnatural ribonudeotide or a substrate that instead contains a standard ribonucleotide, the 2',5' -phosphodiester-deaving DNA enzyme exhibited a regioselectivity of 6000- fold, while the L-ribonucleotide-cleaving DNA enzyme exhibited an enantioselectivity of 50-fold. These molecules demonstrate how in vitro evolution can be used to obtain regio- and enantioselective catalysts that exhibit specificities for nonnatural analogues of biological compounds.

  15. Alloxazine-cyclodextrin conjugates for organocatalytic enantioselective sulfoxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojr, Viktor; Buděšínský, Miloš; Cibulka, Radek; Kraus, Tomáš

    2011-11-07

    Four structurally different alloxazine-cyclodextrin conjugates were prepared and tested as catalysts for the enantioselective oxidation of prochiral sulfides to sulfoxides by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solutions. The alloxazinium unit was appended to the primary face of α- and β-cyclodextrins via a linker with variable length. A series of sulfides was used as substrates: n-alkyl methyl sulfides (n-alkyl = hexyl, octyl, decyl, dodecyl), cyclohexyl methyl sulfide, tert-butyl methyl sulfide, benzyl methyl sulfide and thioanisol. α-Cyclodextrin conjugate having alloxazinium unit attached via a short linker proved to be a suitable catalyst for oxidations of n-alkyl methyl sulfides, displaying conversions up to 98% and enantioselectivities up to 77% ee. β-Cyclodextrin conjugates were optimal catalysts for the oxidation of sulfides carrying bulkier substituents; e.g. tert-butyl methyl sulfide was oxidized with quantitative conversion and 91% ee. Low loadings (0.3-5 mol%) of the catalysts were used. No overoxidation to sulfones was observed in this study.

  16. Enantioselective degradation and enantiomerization of indoxacarb in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dali; Pang, Junxiao; Qiu, Jing; Li, Li; Liu, Chenglan; Jiao, Bining

    2013-11-27

    In this study, the enantioselective degradation and enantiomerizaton of indoxacarb were investigated in two soils under nonsterilized and sterilized conditions using a chiral OD-RH column on a reversed-phase HPLC. Under nonsterilized conditions, the degradation of indoxacarb in two soils was enantioselective. In acidic soil, the half-lives of R-(-)- and S-(+)-indoxacarb were 10.43 and 14.00 days, respectively. Acidic soil was preferential to the degradation of R-(-)-indoxacarb. In alkaline soil, the half-lives of R-(-)- and S-(+)-indoxacarb were 12.14 and 4.88 days, respectively. S-(+)-Indoxacarb was preferentially degraded. Under sterilized conditions, approximately 5-10% of the initial concentration degraded after 75 days of incubation in acidic soil, whereas in alkaline soil, approximately half of the initial concentration degraded due to chemical hydrolysis under alkaline conditions. Enantiomerization was also discovered in acidic and alkaline soils. The results showed that mutual transformation existed between two enantiomers and that S-(+)-indoxacarb had a significantly higher inversion rate to R-(-)-indoxacarb than its antipode.

  17. Optimisation of stabilised carboxylesterase NP for enantioselective hydrolysis of naproxen methyl ester

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steenkamp, Lucia H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the enantioselective kinetic resolution of ester racemates of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug naproxen ([2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl) propionic acid]) is a common demonstration for biocatalysis, the enantiomeric excess of the reactions...

  18. Enantioselective Addition of Organolithium Reagents to Imines Mediated by C2-Symmetric Bis(aziridine) Ligands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, F.; Tanner, David Ackland

    1998-01-01

    The C-2-symmetric bis(aziridine) ligands 1 - 5 have been screened in the enantioselective addition of organolithium reagents to imines. Ligand 1 (used in stoichiometric amounts) was found to be superior in terms of chemical yield and enantioselectivity, the best result being 90% yield and 89% e.......e. in the addition of vinyllithium to imine 6a. Use of ligand 1 in substoichiometric amounts gave poorer yield and lower enantioselectivity. The enantioselectivity of the reaction was investigated as a function of substrate, reagent, stoichiometry and temperature, but no firm mechanistic conclusions could be drawn....... Preliminary results with deuterium-labelled methyllithium indicate complexation/exchange processes involving ligand, reagent and substrate. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Improved Enantioselectivity of Subtilisin Carlsberg towards Secondary Alcohols by Protein Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorau, Robin; Görbe, Tamas; Svedendahl Humble, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Generally, the catalytic activity of subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) for transacylation reactions with secondary alcohols in organic solvent is low. Enzyme immobilization and protein engineering was performed to improve the enantioselectivity of SC towards secondary alcohols. Possible amino-acid residues...

  20. Identification of Enantioselective Extractants for Chiral Separation of Amines and Amino-Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensma, M.; Kuipers, N.J.M.; de Haan, A.B.; Kwant, Gerard

    2006-01-01

    lack of versatile enantioselective extractants. Therefore, a rational approach is developed to transfer the extensive knowledge of chiral selectors reported in the literature on chiral recognition and other chiral separation techniques to extraction. Based on a similarity in separation mechanisms,

  1. Quantum Molecular Interaction Field Models of Substrate Enantioselection in Asymmetric Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Marisa C; Ianni, James C

    2010-06-01

    Computational models correlating substrate structure to enantioselection with asymmetric catalysts using the QMQSAR program are described. In addition to rapidly providing predictions that could be used to facilitate the screening of catalysts for novel substrates, the QMQSAR program identifies the portions of the substrate that most directly influence the enantioselectivity. The lack underlying relationship between all the substrates in one case, requires two quantitative structure selectivity relationships (QSSR) models to describe all of the experimental results.

  2. Asymmetric Synthesis of Optically Active Spirocyclic Indoline Scaffolds through an Enantioselective Reduction of Indoles

    KAUST Repository

    Borrmann, Ruediger

    2016-11-30

    An enantioselective synthesis of spirocyclic indoline scaffolds was achieved by applying an asymmetric iridium-catalyzed hydrogenation of 3H-indoles. Low catalyst loadings and mild reaction conditions provide a broad range of differently substituted products with excellent yields and enantioselectivities. The developed methodology allows an efficient synthesis of this important spirocyclic structural motif, which is present in numerous biologically active molecules and privileged structures in medicinal chemistry.

  3. Enantioselective α-Vinylation of Aldehydes Via the Synergistic Combination of Copper and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, Eduardas; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective α-vinylation of aldehydes using vinyl iodonium triflate salts has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a direct route for the enantioselective construction of enolizable α-formyl vinylic stereocenters without racemization or olefin transposition. These high-value coupling adducts are readily converted into a variety of useful olefin synthons. PMID:22616631

  4. Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in the Assessment of Enantioselective Toxicity of Chiral Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoqing; Liu, Ying; Li, Feixue

    2017-01-01

    In biological systems, the individual stereoisomers of chiral substances possess significantly different biochemical properties because the specific structure-activity relationships are required for a common site on biomolecules. In the past decade, there has been increasing concern over the enantioselective toxicity of environmental chiral pollutants, especially chiral pesticides. Different responses and activities of a pair of enantiomers of chiral pesticides were often observed. Therefore, assessment of the enantioselective toxicological properties of chiral pesticides is a prerequisite in application of single-isomer products and particularly important for environmental protection. The development of biomarkers that can predict enantioselective effects from chiral pesticides has recently been gained more and more attention. The biomarkers of oxidative stress have become a topic of significant interest for toxic assessments. In this review, we summarized current knowledge and advances in the understanding of enantiomeric oxidative processes in biological systems in response to chiral pesticides. The consistent results in two types of chiral insecticides (synthetic pyrethroids and organochlorine pesticides) showed the significant difference in cytotoxicity of enantiomers, suggesting the antioxidant enzymes are reliable biomarkers for the assessment of toxicity of chiral chemicals. Results indicate that antioxidant enzymes are sensitive and valid biomarkers to assess the oxidative damage caused by chiral herbicides. In addition, it can be inferred that the enantioselectivity of chiral herbicides on antioxidant enzymes exists in other species. Compared with insecticides and herbicides, researches about the enantioselectivity of oxidative stress caused by chiral fungicides are quite limited. Only two kinds of chiral fungicides has been used to study the enantioselectivity of oxidative stress by now. The current knowledge that enantioselective processes of oxidative

  5. Enhancement of Enantioselectivity by Altering Alcohol Concentration for Esterification in Supercritical CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jau-yann.; Liang, Ming-tsai

    1999-06-01

    This work used Candida rugosa lipase to resolve racemic Naproxen by esterification with ethanol, n-butanol, n-hexanol, or n-decanol in supercritical CO{sub 2}. It was found that the lipase enantioselectively esterified (S)-Naproxen within all systems. The enantiomeric ratio increased four folds by slightly decreasing the alcohol concentration. The effect of the alcohol concentration on the enantioselectivity was greater than of changing acyl acceptors. (author)

  6. Enhancement of Enantioselectivity by Altering Alcohol Concentration for Esterification in Supercritical CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jau-yann.; Liang, Ming-tsai

    1999-06-01

    This work used Candida rugosa lipase to resolve racemic Naproxen by esterification with ethanol, n-butanol, n-hexanol, or n-decanol in supercritical CO[sub 2]. It was found that the lipase enantioselectively esterified (S)-Naproxen within all systems. The enantiomeric ratio increased four folds by slightly decreasing the alcohol concentration. The effect of the alcohol concentration on the enantioselectivity was greater than of changing acyl acceptors. (author)

  7. Enantioselective Hydrolysis of Amino Acid Esters Promoted by Bis(β-cyclodextrin) Copper Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shan-Shan; Zhao, Meng; Ke, Zhuo-Feng; Cheng, Bei-Chen; Su, Hua; Cao, Qian; Cao, Zhen-Kun; Wang, Jun; Ji, Liang-Nian; Mao, Zong-Wan

    2016-02-01

    It is challenging to create artificial catalysts that approach enzymes with regard to catalytic efficiency and selectivity. The enantioselective catalysis ranks the privileged characteristic of enzymatic transformations. Here, we report two pyridine-linked bis(β-cyclodextrin) (bisCD) copper(II) complexes that enantioselectively hydrolyse chiral esters. Hydrolytic kinetic resolution of three pairs of amino acid ester enantiomers (S1-S3) at neutral pH indicated that the “back-to-back” bisCD complex CuL1 favoured higher catalytic efficiency and more pronounced enantioselectivity than the “face-to-face” complex CuL2. The best enantioselectivity was observed for N-Boc-phenylalanine 4-nitrophenyl ester (S2) enantiomers promoted by CuL1, which exhibited an enantiomer selectivity of 15.7. We observed preferential hydrolysis of L-S2 by CuL1, even in racemic S2, through chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We demonstrated that the enantioselective hydrolysis was related to the cooperative roles of the intramolecular flanking chiral CD cavities with the coordinated copper ion, according to the results of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), inhibition experiments, rotating-frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY), and theoretical calculations. Although the catalytic parameters lag behind the level of enzymatic transformation, this study confirms the cooperative effect of the first and second coordination spheres of artificial catalysts in enantioselectivity and provides hints that may guide future explorations of enzyme mimics.

  8. Integrative assessment of enantioselectivity in endocrine disruption and immunotoxicity of synthetic pyrethroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Meirong [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Chen Fang [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wang Cui; Zhang Quan [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Gan Jianying [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Liu Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zjut.edu.c [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China)

    2010-05-15

    The increasing release of chiral chemicals into the environment dictates attention to a better understanding of enantioselectivity in their human and ecotoxicological effects. Although enantioselectivity has been considered in many recent studies, there is little effort for discerning the connection between different processes, and as such, our current knowledge about chiral contaminants is rather scattered and incoherent. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated enantioselectivity of two chiral pesticides, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT) and (Z)-cis-bifenthrin (cis-BF), in immunotoxicity to macrophage cells (RAW264.7), and endocrine disruption activity in human breast carcinoma cell line MCF-7. Analysis of cell proliferation, cell viability, apoptosis, and receptor gene expression showed significant differences between the enantiomers of LCT or cis-BF in estrogenic potential and immunocytotoxicity. The selectivity in these effects consistently followed the same direction, with (-)-LCT or 1S-cis-BF displaying a greater activity than its counterpart. The consistency was attributed to interplaying mechanisms in the closely interacting immune and endocrine systems. The underlying interplays suggest that other chiral xenobiotics may also show a directional enantioselectivity in immunotoxicity and endocrine toxicity. Given that many biological processes are inter-related, enantioselectivity may follow specific patterns that can be revealed via integrative assessments as demonstrated in this study. - Chiral contaminants should consider multiple effects and relate directions of enantioselectivity to their interplaying processes.

  9. Catalytic Enantioselective Alkylation of β-Keto Esters with Xanthydrol in the Presence of Chiral Palladium Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Dae Young [Soonchunhyang Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Our research interest has been directed toward the development of synthetic methods for the enantioselective construction of stereogenic carbon centers. Recently, we explored the catalytic enantioselective functionalization of active methines in the presence of chiral palladium(II) complexes. In conclusion, we have accomplished the efficient catalytic enantioselective alkylation of β-keto esters 1 with xanthydrol 2 with high yields and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). It should be noted that this alkyaltion reaction proceeds well using air- and moisture-stable chiral palladium com- plexes with low loading (1 mol%)

  10. Enantioselective construction of spirocyclic oxindoles via Tandem michael/Michael reactions catalyzed by multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salt

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hongyu Wang; Yongjia Shang; Dongdong Cao; Jiaxing Zhang; Gang Zhao; Changwu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    The enantioselective construction of five-membered spirocyclic oxindoles via a double Michael cascade reaction is described by using dipeptide-based multifunctional quaternary phosphonium salt catalysts...

  11. Enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen; LV, Xiao Tian; Zhu, Wen Xue; QU, Hao Yang; Gao, Yong Xin; Guo, Bao Yuan; Wang, Hui Li

    2013-12-01

    The enantioselective bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor Linne larva was investigated with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry based on the ChiralcelOD-3R[cellulose tri-(3,5-dimethylphenyl carbamate)] column. In this study we documented the effects of dietary supplementation with wheat bran contaminated by racemic diniconazole at two dose levels of 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) (dry weight) in Tenebrio molitor. The results showed that both doses of diniconazole were taken up by Tenebrio molitor rapidly in the first few days, the concentrations of R-enantiomer and S-enantiomer at high doses reached the highest level of 0.55 mg kg(-1) and 0.48 mg kg(-1) , respectively, on the 1(st) d, and the concentrations of them obtained a maxima of 0.129 mg kg(-1) and 0.128 mg kg(-1) at low dose, respectively, on the 3(rd) d, which means that the concentration of diniconazole was proportional to the time of achieving the highest accumulated level. It afterwards attained equilibrium after a sharp decline at both 20 mg kg(-1) and 2 mg kg(-1) of diniconazole. The determination results from the feces of Tenebrio molitor demonstrated that the extraction recovery (ER) values of the high dose group were higher than that of the low dose group and the values were all above 1; therefore, it could be inferred that enantiomerization existed in Tenebrio molitor. Additionally, the biota accumulation factor was used to evaluate the bioaccumulation of diniconazole enantiomers, showing that the bioaccumulation of diniconazole in Tenebrio molitor was enantioselective with preferential accumulation of S-enantiomer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. An enantioselective cascade reaction between α,β-unsaturated aldehydes and malonic half-thioesters: a rapid access to chiral δ-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qiao; Sun, Shaofa; Huang, Jiayao; Li, Wenjun; Wu, Minghu; Guo, Haibing; Wang, Jian

    2014-06-11

    We disclose a novel efficient enantioselective organocatalytic cascade reaction for the preparation of δ-lactones in good to excellent yields (69-93%) and with high to excellent enantioselectivities (88-96% ee).

  13. Control of molecular packing structure of a derivative of vanadyl-phthalocyanine using pore wall of porous alumina and/or magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takami, Seiichi [Advanced Device Materials Group, Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)], E-mail: TAKAMI.Seiichi@nims.go.jp; Shirai, Yasuhiro; Wakayama, Yutaka; Chikyow, Toyohiro [Advanced Device Materials Group, Advanced Electronic Materials Center, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2008-03-03

    We filled one-dimensional alumina pores with a molten derivative of vanadyl-phthalocyanine (VOPcHt) and evaluated the effect of the surface of pore wall on the molecular packing structure of VOPcHt. We also evaluated the effect of a magnetic field of 5.0 T on the packing structure of VOPcHt that was solidified on a flat substrate. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that both the surface effect as well as the magnetic field controlled the packing structure of VOPcHt. When both the pore wall and the magnetic field existed, the surface effect was dominant in the control of the packing structure. These results provide practical methods to fabricate nanostructures of organic molecules with a controlled molecular packing structure.

  14. Enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone catalyzed by Co(acac)(2) and chiral amino alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.H.M.; Feringa, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    Co(acac)(2) in the presence of chiral ligands has been employed as catalyst for the enantioselective conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcone. With chiral amino alcohols derived from (+)-camphor, enantioselectivities up to 83% were achieved. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  15. Parameterization of Acyclic Diaminocarbene Ligands Applied to a Gold(I)-Catalyzed Enantioselective Tandem Rearrangement/Cyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Zachary L; Pindi, Suresh; Khrakovsky, Dimitri A; Kuzniewski, Christian N; Hong, Cynthia M; Joyce, Leo A; Sigman, Matthew S; Toste, F Dean

    2017-09-20

    Computed descriptors for acyclic diaminocarbene ligands are developed in the context of a gold catalyzed enantioselective tandem [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement-[2+2]-cyclization. Surrogate structures enable the rapid identification of parameters that reveal mechanistic characteristics. The observed selectivity trends are validated in a robust multivariate analysis facilitating the development of a highly enantioselective process.

  16. Enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed synthesis of saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones with cis-selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Wang, Dong-Ling; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Ye, Song

    2016-07-06

    The enantioselective N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed [2 + 4] cyclocondensation of α-chloroaldehydes and saccharine-derived 1-azadienes was developed, giving the corresponding saccharine-derived dihydropyridinones in good yields with exclusive cis-selectivities and excellent enantioselectivities.

  17. Enantioselective Aza-Sakurai Cyclizations: Dual Role of Thiourea as H-Bond Donor and Lewis Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongho; Schindler, Corinna S; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-11-16

    An enantioselective, catalytic aza-Sakurai cyclization of chlorolactams has been developed as an efficient entry into indolizidine and quinolizidine frameworks. Structure-enantioselectivity relationship studies and mechanistic analysis point to a dual role of the catalyst wherein the thiourea moiety of the catalyst is engaged in both anion binding and Lewis base activation of a substrate.

  18. Enantioselective cytotoxicity profile of o,p'-DDT in PC 12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meirong; Wang, Cui; Zhang, Chunlong; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant. Current approaches for ecological and health risk assessment has ignored the chiral nature of DDT. In this study by employing an array of cytotoxicity related endpoints, we investigated the enantioselective cytotoxicity of o,p'-DDT. we demonstrated for the first time that R-(-)-o,p'-DDT caused more neuron cell death by inducing more severe oxidative stress, which selectively imbalanced the transcription of stress-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, HSP70) and enzyme (superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase) activities, and greater cellular apoptosis compared to its enantiomer S-(+)-o,p'-DDT at the level comparable to malaria area exposure (parts per million). We further elucidated enantioselective modes of action using microarray combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The enantioselective apoptosis might involve three signaling pathways via caspase 3, tumor protein 53 (p53) and NF(k)B. Based on DDT stereochemistry and results reported for other chiral pesticides, our results pointed to the same directional enantioselectivity of chiral DDT toward mammalian cells. We proposed that risk assessment on DDT should consider the enantiomer ratio and enantioselectivities.

  19. Enantioselective cytotoxicity profile of o,p'-DDT in PC 12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Zhao

    Full Text Available The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant. Current approaches for ecological and health risk assessment has ignored the chiral nature of DDT. In this study by employing an array of cytotoxicity related endpoints, we investigated the enantioselective cytotoxicity of o,p'-DDT.we demonstrated for the first time that R-(--o,p'-DDT caused more neuron cell death by inducing more severe oxidative stress, which selectively imbalanced the transcription of stress-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, HSP70 and enzyme (superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, and greater cellular apoptosis compared to its enantiomer S-(+-o,p'-DDT at the level comparable to malaria area exposure (parts per million. We further elucidated enantioselective modes of action using microarray combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The enantioselective apoptosis might involve three signaling pathways via caspase 3, tumor protein 53 (p53 and NF(kB.Based on DDT stereochemistry and results reported for other chiral pesticides, our results pointed to the same directional enantioselectivity of chiral DDT toward mammalian cells. We proposed that risk assessment on DDT should consider the enantiomer ratio and enantioselectivities.

  20. Enantioselective Cytotoxicity Profile of o,p’-DDT in PC 12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunlong; Wen, Yuezhong; Liu, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    Background The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant. Current approaches for ecological and health risk assessment has ignored the chiral nature of DDT. In this study by employing an array of cytotoxicity related endpoints, we investigated the enantioselective cytotoxicity of o,p’-DDT. Principal Findings we demonstrated for the first time that R-(−)-o,p’-DDT caused more neuron cell death by inducing more severe oxidative stress, which selectively imbalanced the transcription of stress-related genes (SOD1, SOD2, HSP70) and enzyme (superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase) activities, and greater cellular apoptosis compared to its enantiomer S-(+)-o,p’-DDT at the level comparable to malaria area exposure (parts per million). We further elucidated enantioselective modes of action using microarray combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The enantioselective apoptosis might involve three signaling pathways via caspase 3, tumor protein 53 (p53) and NFkB. Conclusions Based on DDT stereochemistry and results reported for other chiral pesticides, our results pointed to the same directional enantioselectivity of chiral DDT toward mammalian cells. We proposed that risk assessment on DDT should consider the enantiomer ratio and enantioselectivities. PMID:22937105

  1. Characterization of Diastereo- and Enantioselectivity in Degradation of Synthetic Pyrethroids in Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaotong; Li, Zhaoyang; Li, Qiaoling; Zhao, Jiahe; Li, Sen

    2016-01-01

    Permethrin (PM), cypermethrin (CP), and cyfluthrin (CF) are three important synthetic pyrethroids, which contain two, four, and four enantiomeric pairs (diastereomers) and thus have four, eight, and eight stereoisomers, respectively. In this study, the stereo- and enantioselective degradation of PM, CP, and CF in a Shijiazhuang alkaline yellow soil and a Wuhan acidic red soil were studied in detail by a combination of achiral and chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that PM, CP, and CF degraded faster in Shijiazhuang soil than in Wuhan soil, and the dissipation rate followed an order of PM > CF > CP in both soils. The three pyrethroids exhibited similar diastereomer selectivity, while CP and CF showed higher enantioselectivity than PM. Moreover, the trans-diastereomers degraded faster, and showed higher enantioselectivity than the corresponding cis-diastereomers. For PM, the enantiomer 1S-trans-PM degraded most rapidly in both soils. As for CP and CF, the highest enantioselectivity was observed for diastereomer trans-3, and the insecticidally active enantiomer 1R-trans-αS degraded fastest among the 8 CP or CF stereoisomers in both soils. In addition, the Wuhan acidic soil displayed higher diastereomer and enantiomer selectivity than the Shijiazhuang alkaline soil for the three pyrethroids. Further incubation of CF in an alkaline-treated Wuhan soil showed that the dissipation rate greatly increased and the diastereo- and enantioselectivity significantly decreased after the alkaline treatment process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Enantioselective toxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of the chiral insecticide fipronil in earthworms (Eisenia feotida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Han; Wang, Peng; Ma, Rui-Xue; Qiu, Xing-Xu; Xu, Peng; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Dong-Hui

    2014-07-01

    The enantioselective acute toxicity to earthworms of racemic fipronil and its individual enantiomers was studied. R-(-)-fipronil was approximately 1.5 times more toxic than the racemate and approximately 2 times more toxic than S-(+)-fipronil after 72 and 96 h of exposure, respectively. Assays of fipronil enantiomer bioaccumulation and degradation in earthworms were conducted. The bio-concentration factors (BCFs) were slightly different between the two enantiomers. The enantiomeric fraction (EF) values in earthworms in the bioaccumulation period were approximately 0.5, which indicated there was no enantioselective bioaccumulation. In contrast, the degradation of fipronil in earthworms was enantioselective: the t1/2 values for R- and S-fipronil were 3.3 and 2.5 days, respectively, in natural soil, and 2.1 and 1.4 days, respectively, in artificial soil. The results of soil analyses showed that the degradation of fipronil was not enantioselective, which suggested that the enantioselectivity of fipronil in earthworms results from the organism's metabolism. The study also demonstrated that the presence of earthworms could accelerate the degradation of fipronil in soil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of enantiomers of synthetic pyrethroids in water by solid phase microextraction - enantioselective gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weiping; Gan, Jay J

    2004-02-25

    Solid phase microextraction (SPME) is an ideal sample preparation technique because of its speed and solvent-free features. Sampling by SPME is selective and only the dissolved concentration is measured, which allows measurement of the bioavailable fraction of a contaminant in aqueous media. One potential application of SPME is for analysis of enantiomers of chiral contaminants in environmental samples. In this study, a method was developed for determining enantiomers of (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin in water using coupled SPME and enantioselective gas chromatography (GC). Following SPME sampling, enantiomers of (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin were separated at the baseline on a beta-cyclodextrin-based enantioselective column, and analyte enrichment onto the SPME fiber was not enantioselective. The GC response increased as sampling time was increased from 0 to 240 min, and as sampling temperature was increased from 20 to 40 degrees C. Organic solvents such as methanol, acetone, and acetonitrile enhanced, while soil extracts slightly decreased, the GC response. The integrated SPME-enantioselective GC method was used to analyze surface runoff samples. The analysis showed preferential degradation of the 1S-3S enantiomer over the 1R-3R enantiomer for both (Z)-cis-bifenthrin and cis-permethrin. The concentrations detected by SPME-GC were substantially smaller than those determined following solvent extraction, suggesting that SPME-enantioselective GC analysis selectively measured the dissolved fraction.

  4. Enantioselective Effects of Chiral Pesticides on their Primary Targets and Secondary Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Jianyun; Yao, Yijun

    2017-01-01

    Enantioselectivity has been well recognized in the environmental fate and effects of chiral pesticides. Enantiospecific action of the optical enantiomers on the biological molecules establishes the mechanistic basis for the enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides to both target and non-target organisms. We undertook a structured search of bibliographic databases for research literature concerning the enantioselective effects of chiral pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, on biomolecules in various species by using some key words. The results of the relevant literatures were reviewed in the text and summarized in tables. Pesticides generally exert their activity on the target organisms via disrupting the primary target biomolecules. In non-target species, effects of pesticides on the secondary targets distinguished from the primary ones make great contribution to their toxicity. Recent investigations have provided convincing evidence of enantioselective toxicity of chiral pesticides to both target and non-target species which is recognized to result from their enantiospecific action on the primary or secondary targets in organisms. This review confirms that chiral pesticides have enantiospecific effects on both primary and secondary target biomolecules in organisms. Future studies regarding toxicological effects of chiral pesticides should focus on the relationship between the enantiomeric difference in the compound-biomolecules interaction and the enantioselectivity in their toxicity.

  5. Enantioselective degradation of chiral insecticide dinotefuran in greenhouse cucumber and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiu; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wang, Yunhao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective degradation behavior of the chiral insecticide dinotefuran in cucumber and soil was investigated under greenhouse conditions based on the method established with a normal-phase high-performance chromatography (HPLC) on a ChromegaChiral CCA column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm, ES Industries). The linearity range, matrix effect, precision, and accuracy of the method were evaluated and the method was then successfully applied for the enantioselective analysis of dinotefuran in cucumber and soil. Significant enantioselectivity of degradation was observed in soil according to the results. The (+)-dinotefuran was more persistent in soil with half-life of 21.7 d, which is much longer than that of (-)-dinotefuran (16.5 d). In cucumber, the (-)-dinotefuran also tended to be preferentially degraded both in foliar and douche treatment. However, the statistical analysis indicated the enantioselectivity of degradation in cucumber was not significant. The research provides the first report concerning the enantioselective degradation of dinotefuran enantiomers and the results can be used for understanding the insect-controlling effect and food safety evaluation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyunga; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  7. Nanoscopic control and quantification of enantioselective optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Saleh, Amr A. E.; van de Haar, Marie Anne; Baum, Brian; Briggs, Justin A.; Lay, Alice; Reyes-Becerra, Olivia A.; Dionne, Jennifer A.

    2017-11-01

    Circularly polarized light (CPL) exerts a force of different magnitude on left- and right-handed enantiomers, an effect that could be exploited for chiral resolution of chemical compounds as well as controlled assembly of chiral nanostructures. However, enantioselective optical forces are challenging to control and quantify because their magnitude is extremely small (sub-piconewton) and varies in space with sub-micrometre resolution. Here, we report a technique to both strengthen and visualize these forces, using a chiral atomic force microscope probe coupled to a plasmonic optical tweezer. Illumination of the plasmonic tweezer with CPL exerts a force on the microscope tip that depends on the handedness of the light and the tip. In particular, for a left-handed chiral tip, transverse forces are attractive with left-CPL and repulsive with right-CPL. Additionally, total force differences between opposite-handed specimens exceed 10 pN. The microscope tip can map chiral forces with 2 nm lateral resolution, revealing a distinct spatial distribution of forces for each handedness.

  8. Enantioselective Henry reaction catalyzed by "ship in a bottle" complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Kusum K; Karunakar, Galla V; Goutham, Kommuru; Deka, Ramesh C

    2013-07-15

    Two chiral Schiff-base complexes of copper(II) have been successfully encapsulated inside the cavity of zeolite-NaY via a "ship in a bottle" synthesis method. The presence of the two complexes inside the cages of zeolite-Y has been confirmed based on various spectrochemical and physicochemical techniques, viz. FTIR, UV-vis/DRS, ESR, XPS, CV, EDX, SEM, and TGA. Zeolite-encapsulated chiral copper(II) Schiff-base complexes are found to give a high-enantioselective (84% ee, R conformation) nitro-aldol product at -20 °C. The encapsulated copper complexes are found to show higher catalytic efficiency than their homogeneous counterparts under identical conditions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation has been implemented to understand the effect of the zeolite matrix on structural, electronic, and reactivity properties of the synthesized complexes. Theoretical calculation predicts that upon encapsulation into the zeolite matrix the Cu center becomes more susceptible to nucleophilic attack, favoring a nitro-aldol reaction. A plausible mechanism is suggested based on the experimental and theoretical results. The structures of reaction intermediates and transition state(s) involved in the catalytic cycle are derived using DFT.

  9. Catalytic enantioselective reductions and allylations of prochiral ketones

    CERN Document Server

    Cunningham, A

    2002-01-01

    The use of LiGaH sub 4 in combination with the S,O-chelate 2-hydroxy-2'-mercapto-1,1'-binaphthyl (monothiobinaphthol, MTBH sub 2), forms an active catalyst (2 mol %) for the asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, when using catecholborane as the hydride source. This catalyst has successfully been applied to the enantioselective reduction of aryl/n-alkyl ketones, providing the chiral sec-alcohols in yields of 82 - 96% and with enantiomeric excess values of 59 - 93%. Alkyl/methyl ketones are reduced in yields of 72 - 93% and in 46 - 79% enantiomeric excess. Enantioface differentiation is on the basis of the steric requirements of the ketone substituents. The X-ray structure of the pre-catalyst, Li(THF) sub 3 Ga(MTB) sub 2 has been determined and in solution is in equilibrium with a dimeric species of constitution Li sub 2 Ga sub 2 (MTB) sub 4. An indium analogue whose X-ray structure was determined as Li sub 2 (THF) sub 5 lnCI(MTB) sub 2 has also been prepared. The indium- based catalyst does not form an en...

  10. Enantioselective dissipation of pyriproxyfen in soils and sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2017-07-01

    Under normal conditions, the environmental behaviors of pesticides are affected by complex environmental factors and the manner of administration together with constraints. In order to meet the actual needs, we imitated the experiment and found that the degradation rate of pyriproxyfen in soils rendered complex changes. Rac-pyriproxyfen was successfully chiral separated on an AZ-H column and the residue analysis method was in accord with the demand of pesticide analysis. The results indicated that pyriproxyfen dissipated at a faster rate in Heilongjiang soil and Hainan soil, while at a much slower speed in another three soils and sand. Obvious enantioselective degradation was observed in Hainan soil and Qingdao sand. The results suggested that pyriproxyfen alone had low persistence in soil, but the moisture, soil type, the use of mixture formulation, and second spraying treatment could play important roles in dissipation of pyriproxyfen. Too large and too small moisture content could both make pyriproxyfen persist for a longer period in soil than in soil with 25% moisture content. Residues dissipated much slower after using Ai Qiu, while Shi Dingkang did not have a big effect on degradation, with only a small acceleration effect. Pyriproxyfen also dissipated in Hainan soil with difficulty after the second treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Enantioselective degradation of dufulin in four types of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kan-Kan; Hu, De-Yu; Zhu, Hui-Jun; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Song, Bao-An

    2014-02-26

    In this study, enantioselective degradation of dufulin in four types of soil (Guiyang silty loam, Nanning silty clay, Hefei silty clay, and Harbin silty clay) was investigated under sterile and nonsterile conditions. Pesticide residues in soil samples were extracted with acetonitrile. S-(+)-Dufulin and R-(-)-dufulin were separated and determined on an amylose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) (Chiralpak IA) chiral column by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The absolute configurations of dufulin enantiomers were determined by obtaining experimental and computed circular dichroism spectra. Dufulin enantiomers were found to be configurationally stable in the selected soils, and no interconversion was observed during the incubation of enantiopure S-(+)- or R-(-)-dufulin under nonsterile conditions. Compared to the half-life (t1/2) of dufulin in sterile soils, the degradation rate was higher in nonsterile soils, which suggests that dufulin degradation can be attributed primarily to microbial activity in soils used for agricultural cultivation. Furthermore, enantiopure S-(+)-dufulin degraded more rapidly than its antipode. This suggests that use of enantiopure S-(+)-dufulin could exert less disturbance to soil bioactivity and contribute less to environmental pollution.

  12. Engineering homochiral metal-organic frameworks for heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis and enantioselective separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Xuan, Weimin; Cui, Yong

    2010-10-01

    Owing to the potential applications in technological areas such as gas storage, catalysis, separation, sensing and nonlinear optics, tremendous efforts have been devoted to the development of porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) over the past ten years. Homochiral porous MOFs are particularly attractive candidates as heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts and enantioselective adsorbents and separators for production of optically active organic compounds due to the lack of homochiral inorganic porous materials such as zeolites. In this review, we summarize the recent research progress in homochiral MOF materials, including their synthetic strategy, distinctive structural features and latest advances in asymmetric heterogeneous catalysis and enantioselective separation.

  13. Catalytic enantioselective protonation of nitronates utilizing an organocatalyst chiral only at sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, Kyle L; Weaver, Jimmie D; Lee, Melissa; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2012-06-06

    The highly enantioselective protonation of nitronates formed upon the addition of α-substituted Meldrum's acids to terminally unsubstituted nitroalkenes is described. This work represents the first enantioselective catalytic addition of any type of nucleophile to this class of nitroalkenes. Moreover, for the successful implementation of this method, a new type of N-sulfinyl urea catalyst with chirality residing only at the sulfinyl group was developed, thereby enabling the incorporation of a diverse range of achiral diamine motifs. Finally, the Meldrum's acid addition products were readily converted to pharmaceutically relevant 3,5-disubstituted pyrrolidinones in high yield.

  14. Direct and enantioselective α-allylation of ketones via singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastracchio, Anthony; Warkentin, Alexander A.; Walji, Abbas M.; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2010-01-01

    The first enantioselective organocatalytic α-allylation of cyclic ketones has been accomplished via singly occupied molecular orbital catalysis. Geometrically constrained radical cations, forged from the one-electron oxidation of transiently generated enamines, readily undergo allylic alkylation with a variety of commercially available allyl silanes. A reasonable latitude in both the ketone and allyl silane components is readily accommodated in this new transformation. Moreover, three new oxidatively stable imidazolidinone catalysts have been developed that allow cyclic ketones to successfully participate in this transformation. The new catalyst platform has also been exploited in the first catalytic enantioselective α-enolation and α-carbooxidation of ketones. PMID:20921367

  15. Enantioselective Synthesis of Acyclic α-Quaternary Carboxylic Acid Derivatives through Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockley, Samantha E; Hethcox, J Caleb; Stoltz, Brian M

    2017-09-11

    The first highly enantioselective iridium-catalyzed allylic alkylation that provides access to products bearing an allylic all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center has been developed. The reaction utilizes a masked acyl cyanide (MAC) reagent, which enables the one-pot preparation of α-quaternary carboxylic acids, esters, and amides with a high degree of enantioselectivity. The utility of these products is further explored through a series of diverse product transformations. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Estimation of the number of enantioselective sites of bovine serum albumin using frontal chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, S C; Andersson, S; Allenmark, S G; Guiochon, G

    1993-01-01

    On a column with bovine serum albumin (BSA) immobilized covalently to silica, the adsorption isotherms of the enantiomers of mandelic acid, tryptophan, 2-phenylbutyric acid, and N-benzoylalanine are measured using a buffered mobile phase. Knowing the amount of BSA immobilized on the column (36 mg), the ratio of the number of enantiomer molecules needed to saturate the enantioselective retention mechanism to the number of BSA molecules is determined. The mean of the set of eight enantiomers is 0.28. These data confirm that at most one enantioselective site exists for each BSA molecule for the kind of enantiomers studied.

  17. Chiral Dawson-Type Hybrid Polyoxometalate Catalyzes Enantioselective Diels-Alder Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Wen-Jing; Botuha, Candice; Hasenknopf, Bernold; Thorimbert, Serge

    2015-11-09

    Can achiral organocatalysts linked to chiral polyanionic metal oxide clusters provide good selectivity in enantioselective C-C bond formations? The answer to this question is investigated by developing a new active hybrid polyoxometalate-based catalyst for asymmetric Diels-Alder reaction. Chirality transfer from the chiral anionic polyoxometalate to the covalently linked achiral imidazolidinone allows Diels-Alder cycloaddition products to be obtained with good yields and high enantioselectivities when using cyclopentadiene and acrylaldehydes as partners. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Enantioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) of polar Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Michael; Qiu, Shiran; Elsner, Martin

    2013-04-01

    The complexity of aquatic systems makes it challenging to assess the environmental fate of chiral micropolutants. As an example, chiral herbicides are frequently detected in the environment (Buser and Muller, 1998); however, hydrological data is needed to determine their degradability from concentration measurements. Otherwise declining concentrations cannot unequivocally be attributed to degradation, but could also be caused by dilution effects. In contrast, isotope ratios or enantiomeric ratios are elegant alternatives that are independent of dilution and can even deliver insights into reaction mechanisms. To combine the advantages of both approaches we developed an enatioselective stable isotope analysis (ESIA) method to investigate the fate of the chiral herbicides 4-CPP ((RS)-2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-propionic acid), mecoprop (2-(4-Chloro-2-methylphenoxy)-propionic acid) and dichlorprop (2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)-propionic acid). After testing the applicable concentration range of the method, enantioselective isotope fractionation was investigated by microbial degradation using dichlorprop as a model compound. The method uses enantioselective gas-chromatography (GC) to separate enantiomers. Subsequently samples are combusted online to CO2 and carbon isotope ratios are determined for each enantiomer by isotope-ratio-mass-spectrometry (IRMS). Because the analytes contain a polar carboxyl-group, samples were derivatised prior to GC-IRMS analysis with methanolic BF3 solution. Precise carbon isotope analysis (2σ ≤0.5‰) was achieved with a high sensitivity of ≥ 7 ng C that is needed on column for one analysis. Microbial degradation of the model compound dichlorprop was conducted with Delftia acidovorans MC1 and pronounced enantiomer fractionation, but no isotope fractionation was detected. The absence of isotope fractionation can be explained by two scenarios: either the degrading enzyme has no isotopic preference, or another step in the reaction without an isotopic

  19. The specification of the production of three different complexes via thermodynamic investigations between vanadyl (IV bis(acetylacetonate and D-penicillamine at three various pHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhshan Hakimelahi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available d-H2Pen-binding behavior to [VO(acac2] at pH=7.00, 7.50 and 10.0 has been studied in thermodynamic viewpoint using UV/VIS spectroscopy. The optical absorption spectra of [VO(acac2] were analyzed in order to obtain binding constants and stoichiometries using SQUAD software. The estimation of binding constant at various temperatures enabled us to calculate all of the thermodynamic parameters of binding using the van't Hoff equation. Studies of described reactions at pH=7.00, 7.50 and 10.0 show exothermic, endothermic and exothermic modality, respectively. d-penicillamine is a potentially tridentate ligand, but the pKa for the ‒ COOH, NH3 and S‒ H groups are 1.99–2.00, 8.0 and 10.6, respectively, as a result S‒H can not release proton at pH=7.00 and pH=7.50, so the coordination of S is not possible except at strong alkali mediums. At pH=7.00, d-H2Pen converts [VO(acac2] to a vanadyl Schiff base complex (coordination mode is N2O2. At pH=7.50, d-H2Pen is converted to HPen− and the exchange of acac− with HPen− produces VO(HPen2. It is clear that the coordination is formed via amine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen. At pH=10.0, the main product is a vanadyl complex with the (S2O2 coordination mode. Studies in different ionic strengths of KCl confirm these products according to the number of ions in each medium. The formation constants of the products of VO(acac2 with d-penicillamine at pH=7.00 and 7.50 are independent of ionic strength, but a Debye–Huckel-type equation was established for the dependence of the formation constant on ionic strength at pH=10.0.

  20. Brønsted acid catalyzed enantioselective indole aza-Claisen rearrangement mediated by an arene CH-O interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Pradip; Pemberton, Ryan P; Tantillo, Dean J; Tambar, Uttam K

    2013-11-06

    Although the aromatic aza-Claisen rearrangement is a general strategy for accessing substituted aromatic amines, there are no highly enantioselective examples of this process. We report the first Brønsted acid catalyzed enantioselective indole aza-Claisen rearrangement for the synthesis of chiral 3-amino-2-substituted indoles. We present evidence for an arene CH-O interaction as a source of activation and stereoinduction, which is an unprecedented phenomenon in enantioselective Brønsted acid catalysis. The products of this reaction can be transformed into 3-aminooxindoles, which are prevalent in many biologically active small molecules.

  1. A DFT exploration of the enantioselective rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide to cyclohexenol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Peter; Norrby, Per-Ola; Andersson, Pher G.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present computational results for the (1S,3R,4R)-3-(pyrrolidinyl)-methyl-2-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane mediated rearrangement of cyclohexene oxide. The results nicely explain the differences in enantioselectivities between catalytic and stoichiometric mode between different ligands...

  2. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Two Distinct Nucleophiles across Alkenes Capable of Quinone Methide Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Katrina H.; Pathak, Tejas P.; Zhang, Yang; Sigman, Matthew S.

    2009-01-01

    A sequential intramolecular-intermolecular enantioselective alkene difunctionalization reaction has been developed which is thought to proceed through Pd-catalyzed quinone methide formation. The synthesis of new chiral heterocyclic compounds with adjacent chiral centers is achieved in enantiomeric ratios up to 99:1 and diastereomeric ratios up to 10:1.

  3. Concise enantioselective synthesis of duloxetine via direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuta; Iwata, Mitsutaka; Yazaki, Ryo; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2012-05-04

    Direct catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of thioamide offers a new entry to the concise enantioselective synthesis of duloxetine. The direct aldol protocol was scalable (>20 g) to afford the aldol product in 92% ee after LiAlH(4) reduction, and 84% of the chiral ligand was recovered after recrystallization. The following four steps of transformation delivered duloxetine.

  4. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prior, Amir; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Sastre-Toraño, Javier; Marina, Maria Luisa; de Jong, Gerhardus J.; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    d-Amino acids (AAs) are increasingly being recognized as essential molecules in biological systems. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic AAs in biological samples was accomplished by CE–MS employing β-CD as chiral selector and ESI via sheath-liquid (SL) interfacing. Prior to analysis, AAs were

  5. Enantioselective transesterification of glycidol catalysed by a novel lipase expressed from Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tai, Jian-Dong; Wang, Ren; Xun, Er-Na; Wei, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Lei; Wang, Zhi

    2010-05-10

    A novel plasmid (pBSR2) was constructed by incorporating a strong lipase promoter and a terminator into the original pBD64. The lipase gene from Bacillus subtilis strain IFFI10210 was cloned into the plasmid pBSR2 and transformed into B. subtilis A.S.1.1655 to obtain an overexpression strain. The recombinant lipase [BSL2 (B. subtilis lipase 2)] has been expressed from the novel constructed strain and used in kinetic resolution of glycidol through enantioselective transesterification. The effects of reaction conditions on the activity as well as enantioselectivity were investigated. BSL2 showed a satisfying enantioselectivity (E>30) under the optimum conditions [acyl donor: vinyl butyrate; the mole ratio of vinyl butyrate to glycidol was 3:1; organic medium: 1,2-dichloroethane with water activity (a(w))=0.33; temperature 40 degrees C]. The remaining (R)-glycidol with a high enantiomeric purity [ee (enantiomeric excess) >99%] could be obtained when the conversion was approx. 60%. The results clearly show a good potential for industrial application of BSL2 in the resolution of glycidol through enantioselective transesterification.

  6. Lipase Catalyzed Enantioselective Transesterification of 5-Acyloxy-2(5H)-Furanones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, Hanneke van der; Hof, Robert P.; Oeveren, Arjan van; Kellogg, Richard M.; Feringa, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Several lipases catalyse the transesterification of gamma-acyloxyfuranones in organic solvents with high enantioselectivities. This method has been used for the kinetic resolution of 5-acetoxy-2(5H)-furanone, 5-acetoxy-4-methyl-2(5H)-furanone and 5-propionyloxy-2(5H)-furanone, in e.e.'s ranging from

  7. Biphenol-based phosphoramidite ligands for the enantioselective copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of diethylzinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandre; Polet, Damien; Rosset, Stéphane; March, Sébastien

    2004-08-20

    Phosphoramidite ligands, based on ortho-substituted biphenols and a chiral amine, induce high enantioselectivities (ee's up to 99%) in the copper-catalyzed conjugate addition of dialkylzinc reagents to a variety of Michael acceptors. Particularly, the best reported ee's were obtained for acyclic nitroolefins. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  8. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Syud M; Poater, Albert; Childers, M Ian; Widger, Peter C B; LaPointe, Anne M; Lobkovsky, Emil B; Coates, Geoffrey W; Cavallo, Luigi

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands.

  9. Optimisation of the enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of naproxen ethyl ester using ChiroCLEC-CR

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-04

    Full Text Available In a biocatalytic reaction the immobilized lipase ChiroCLEC-CR enantioselectively hydrolysed a naproxen ethyl ester racemate, yielding (S)-naproxen with an enantiomeric excess of more than 98%, an enantiomeric ratio (E) of more than 100...

  10. Enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko Reduction of b-Hydroxyketone Catalyzed by Lithium Binaphtholate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakajima

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lithium diphenylbinaphtholate catalyzed the enantioselective Evans-Tishchenko reduction of achiral b-hydroxyketones to afford monoacyl-protected 1,3-diols with high stereoselectivities. In the reaction of racemic b-hydroxyketones, kinetic optical resolution occurred in a highly stereoselective manner.

  11. Fipronil-induced enantioselective developmental toxicity to zebrafish embryo-larvae involves changes in DNA methylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Wang, Cui; Wang, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Meirong; Lu, Chensheng

    2017-05-23

    Enantioselectivity in the aquatic toxicity of chiral pesticides has been widely investigated, while the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Thus far, few studies has focused on genomic expression related to selective toxicity in chiral pesticide, nor on epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation. Here, we used fipronil, a broad-spectrum insecticide, as a model chemical to probe its enantioselective toxicity in embryo development. Our results showed that S-(+)-fipronil caused severer developmental toxicity in embryos. The MeDIP-Seq analysis demonstrated that S-(+)-fipronil dysregulated a higher level of genomic DNA methylation than R-(-)-fipronil. Gene Ontology analysis revealed that S-(+)-fipronil caused more differentially methylated genes that are involved in developmental processes. Compared with R-(-)-fipronil, S-(+)-fipronil significantly disrupted 7 signaling pathways (i.e., mitogen-activated protein kinases, tight junctions, focal adhesion, transforming growth factor-β, vascular smooth muscle contraction, and the hedgehog and Wnt signaling pathways) by hyper-methylation of developmentally related genes, which further induced the downregulation of those genes. Together, these data suggest that differences in DNA methylation may partly explain the enantioselectivity of fipronil to zebrafish embryos. The application of epigenetics to investigate the enantioselective toxicity mechanism of chiral chemicals would provide a further understanding of their stereoselectivity biological effects.

  12. Enantioselective polymerization of epoxides using biaryl-linked bimetallic cobalt catalysts: A mechanistic study

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Syud M.

    2013-12-18

    The enantioselective polymerization of propylene oxide (PO) using biaryl-linked bimetallic salen Co catalysts was investigated experimentally and theoretically. Five key aspects of this catalytic system were examined: (1) the structural features of the catalyst, (2) the regio- and stereoselectivity of the chain-growth step, (3) the probable oxidation and electronic state of Co during the polymerization, (4) the role of the cocatalyst, and (5) the mechanism of monomer enchainment. Several important insights were revealed. First, density functional theory (DFT) calculations provided detailed structural information regarding the regio- and stereoselective chain-growth step. Specifically, the absolute stereochemistry of the binaphthol linker determines the enantiomer preference in the polymerization, and the interaction between the salen ligand and the growing polymer chain is a fundamental aspect of enantioselectivity. Second, a new bimetallic catalyst with a conformationally flexible biphenol linker was synthesized and found to enantioselectively polymerize PO, though with lower enantioselectivity than the binaphthol linked catalysts. Third, DFT calculations revealed that the active form of the catalyst has two active exo anionic ligands (chloride or carboxylate) and an endo polymer alkoxide which can ring-open an adjacent cobalt-coordinated epoxide. Fourth, calculations showed that initiation is favored by an endo chloride ligand, while propagation is favored by the presence of two exo carboxylate ligands. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. Enantioselectivity Measurements of Copper(II) Amino Acid Complexes Using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de T.J.M.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Enantioselectivity experiments for the binding to chiral Cu(II) complexes have been performed for several -amino acids using isothermal titration calorimetry. To a system containing nonionic micelles, Cu(II) ions, and cholesteryl glutamate as chiral selector, either the D- or L-amino acid was

  14. Elucidating steric effects on enantioselective epoxidation catalyzed by (salen)Mn in metal-organic frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oxford, G.A.E.; Dubbeldam, D.; Broadbelt, L.J.; Snurr, R.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The steric effects of a metal-organic framework (MOF) on the enantioselectivity of a (salen)Mn were studied using classical atomistic modeling. Rotational energy profiles for the approach of 2,2-dimethyl-2H-chromene to the active site of (salen)Mn were mapped for the homogeneous catalyst and the

  15. Improvement of enantioselectivity by immobilized imprinting of epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenburg, N.A.E.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Fischer, L.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Rhodotorula glutinis contains an enantioselective, membrane-associated epoxide hydrolase (EH). Partially purified EH was immobilized in a two-step procedure. In the first step, the proteins were derivatized with itaconic anhydride. In the second step, the derivatized proteins were

  16. Enantioselective conjugate additions of α-amino radicals via cooperative photoredox and Lewis acid catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Espelt, Laura; McPherson, Iain S; Wiensch, Eric M; Yoon, Tehshik P

    2015-02-25

    We report the highly enantioselective addition of photogenerated α-amino radicals to Michael acceptors. This method features a dual-catalyst protocol that combines transition metal photoredox catalysis with chiral Lewis acid catalysis. The combination of these two powerful modes of catalysis provides an effective, general strategy to generate and control the reactivity of photogenerated reactive intermediates.

  17. Asymmetric synthesis of N,O-heterocycles via enantioselective iridium-catalysed intramolecular allylic amidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Depeng; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Chang, Mu-Chieh; Otten, Edwin; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    Chiral N,O-heterocycles were synthesized in high yields and excellent enantioselectivity up to 97% ee via iridium-catalysed intramolecular allylic substitution with nucleophilic attack by the amide oxygen atom. The resulting benzoxazine derivatives were further transformed into challenging chiral

  18. On the Role of DNA in DNA-based Catalytic Enantioselective Conjugate Addition Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Ewold W.; Boersma, Arnold J.; Roelfes, Gerard; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    A kinetic study of DNA-based catalytic enantioselective Friedel–Crafts alkylation and Michael addition reactions showed that DNA affects the rate of these reactions significantly. Whereas in the presence of DNA, a large acceleration was found for the Friedel–Crafts alkylation and a modest

  19. An Enantioselective Synthesis of a MEM-Protected Aetheramide A Derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arun K; Rao, Kalapala Venkateswara; Akasapu, Siddhartha

    2014-09-10

    Aetheramides A and B are very potent anti-HIV agents. An enantioselective synthesis of a MEM-protected aetheramide A derivative is described. The synthesis was accomplished in a convergent and stereoselective manner. The key reactions involved asymmetric dihydroxylation, asymmetric allylation, asymmetric syn-aldol reactions and asymmetric hydrogenation.

  20. ENANTIOSELECTIVE CONJUGATE ADDITION OF DIETHYLZINC TO CHALCONES CATALYZED BY CHIRAL NI(II) AMINOALCOHOL COMPLEXES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, AHM; JANSEN, JFGA; FERINGA, BL

    1994-01-01

    Conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcones is catalysed by complexes prepared in situ from Ni(acac)(2) and cis-exo-N,N-dialkyl-3-aminoisoborneols or (+)-cis-endo-N,N-dimethyl-3-aminoborneol ((+)- DAB) (13b). The products are obtained with enantioselectivities up to 84 %. When scalemic

  1. Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Diethylzinc to Chalcones Catalysed by Chiral Ni(II) Aminoalcohol Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André H.M. de; Jansen, Johan F.G.A.; Feringa, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Conjugate addition of diethylzinc to chalcones is catalysed by complexes prepared in situ from Ni(acac)2 and cis-exo-N,N-dialkyl-3-aminoisoborneols or (+)-cis-endo-N,N-dimethyl-3-aminoborneol ((+)-DAB) (13b). The products are obtained with enantioselectivities up to 84 %. When scalemic

  2. Enantioselective formation of a dynamic hydrogen-bonded assembly based on the chiral memory concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ish-i Tsutomu, T.I.; Crego Calama, Mercedes; Timmerman, P.; Reinhoudt, David; Shinkai, Seiji

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we report the enantioselective formation of a dynamic noncovalent double rosette assembly 1a3·(CYA)6 composed of three 2-pyridylcalix[4]arene dimelamines (1a) and six butylcyanuric acid molecules (BuCYA). The six 2-pyridyl functionalities of the assembly interact stereoselectively

  3. DNA-based asymmetric catalysis : Sequence-dependent rate acceleration and enantioselectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Arnold J.; Klijn, Jaap E.; Feringa, Ben L.; Roelfes, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    This study shows that the role of DNA in the DNA-based enantioselective Diels-Alder reaction of azachalcone with cyclopentadiene is not limited to that of a chiral scaffold. DNA in combination with the copper complex of 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine (Cu-L1) gives rise to a rate acceleration of up to

  4. Enantioselective adsorption in homochiral metal-organic frameworks: the pore size influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhi-Gang; Grosjean, Sylvain; Bräse, Stefan; Wöll, Christof; Heinke, Lars

    2015-05-28

    Uptake experiments in thin films of isoreticular chiral MOFs of type Cu2(Dcam)2(L) with identical stereogenic centers but different pore dimensions show that the enantioselectivity is significantly influenced by the pore size. The highest selectivity was found for medium pore sizes, roughly corresponding to the extension of the chiral guest molecule, limonene.

  5. Diversity-Oriented Enantioselective Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Cyclic and Bicyclic Alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, Bin; Fananas Mastral, Martin; Lutz, Martin; Feringa, Ben L.

    The copper-catalyzed hetero-allylic asymmetric alkylation (h-AAA) of functionalized Grignard reagents that contain alkene or alkyne moieties has been achieved with excellent regio-and enantioselectivity. The corresponding alkylation products were further transformed into a variety of highly

  6. Catalytic diastereo- and enantioselective additions of versatile allyl groups to N-H ketimines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwanjong; Romiti, Filippo; Torker, Sebastian; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-12-01

    There are many biologically active organic molecules that contain one or more nitrogen-containing moieties, and broadly applicable and efficient catalytic transformations that deliver them diastereoselectively and/or enantioselectively are much sought after. Various methods for enantioselective synthesis of α-secondary amines are available (for example, from additions to protected/activated aldimines), but those involving ketimines are much less common. There are no reported additions of carbon-based nucleophiles to unprotected/unactivated (or N-H) ketimines. Here, we report a catalytic, diastereo- and enantioselective three-component strategy for merging an N-H ketimine, a monosubstituted allene and B2(pin)2, affording products in up to 95% yield, >98% diastereoselectivity and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. The utility of the approach is highlighted by synthesis of the tricyclic core of a class of compounds that have been shown to possess anti-Alzheimer activity. Stereochemical models developed with the aid of density functional theory calculations, which account for the observed trends and levels of enantioselectivity, are presented.

  7. Catalytic asymmetric trifluoromethylthiolation via enantioselective [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of sulfonium ylides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhikun; Sheng, Zhe; Yu, Weizhi; Wu, Guojiao; Zhang, Rui; Chu, Wen-Dao; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Jianbo

    2017-10-01

    The trifluoromethylthio (SCF3) functional group has been of increasing importance in drug design and development as a consequence of its unique electronic properties and high stability coupled with its high lipophilicity. As a result, methods to introduce this highly electronegative functional group have attracted considerable attention in recent years. Although significant progress has been made in the introduction of SCF3 functionality into a variety of molecules, there remain significant challenges regarding the enantioselective synthesis of SCF3-containing compounds. Here, an asymmetric trifluoromethylthiolation that proceeds through the enantioselective [2,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of a sulfonium ylide generated from a metal carbene and sulfide (Doyle-Kirmse reaction) has been developed using chiral Rh(II) and Cu(I) catalysts. This transformation features mild reaction conditions and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 98% yield and 98% e.e.), thus providing a unique, highly efficient and enantioselective method for the construction of C(sp3)-SCF3 bonds bearing chiral centres.

  8. A Green, Enantioselective Synthesis of Warfarin for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Terence C.; Sultana, Camille M.; Vosburg, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The enantioselective synthesis of drugs is of fundamental importance in the pharmaceutical industry. In this experiment, students synthesize either enantiomer of warfarin, a widely used anticoagulant, in a single step from inexpensive starting materials. Stereoselectivity is induced by a commercial organocatalyst, ("R","R")- or…

  9. Simple Aziridino Alcohols as Chiral Ligands. Enantioselective Additions of Diethylzinc to N-Diphenylphosphinoylimines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Andersson, Pher G.; Guijarro, David

    1996-01-01

    Simple chiral aziridino alcohols 2-5, easily available from L-serine, L-threonine or L-allo-threonine, have been used as ligands to promote the addition of Et(2)Zn to the diphenylphosphinoylimine 1 (Ar=Ph). Enantioselectivities of up to 94% could be obtained by proper choice of the substituents...

  10. Enantioselective gamma- and delta-Borylation of Unsaturated Carbonyl Derivatives: Synthesis, Mechanistic Insights, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Gia L.

    Chiral boronic esters are valuable synthetic intermediates widely used in a variety of stereospecific transformations. Transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric hydroboration (CAHB) of alkenes is among the most popular methods for their preparation. Enantioselective hydroboration of activated alkenes (i.e., vinyl arene derivatives or conjugated carbonyl compounds) have been extensively studied by many research groups. We, on the other hand, are interested in enantioselective hydroboration of unactivated alkenes utilizing coordinating functional groups (e.g., carbonyl derivatives) to give functionalized, chiral boronic esters. While conjugate addition and C-H activation methodologies provide efficient alternatives to CAHB for enantioselective beta-borylation of carbonyl compounds, direct gamma- and delta-borylations were essentially unknown prior to our wok on CAHB. The gamma-borylated products were used for understanding stereochemical aspects of Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions resulting in stereoretention and in contrast to similar beta-borylated carbonyl derivatives reported in literature. Some other selected transformations were carried out to construct a number of biologically relevant structural motifs, such as lignan precursors, 1,4-amino alcohols, gamma-amino acid derivatives, 5-substitued-gamma-lactone and lactam ring systems. In addition, collaborative experimental and computational studies of the enantioselective desymmetrization via CAHB gain a better understanding of the mechanistic pathways.

  11. Enantioselective uptake, translocation and degradation of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tao; Carvalho, Pedro N; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Bollmann, Ulla E; Arias, Carlos A; Brix, Hans; Bester, Kai

    2017-10-01

    Phytoremediation of realistic environmental concentrations (10 μg L-1) of the chiral pesticides tebuconazole and imazalil by Phragmites australis was investigated. This study focussed on removal dynamics, enantioselective mechanisms and transformation products (TPs) in both hydroponic growth solutions and plant tissues. For the first time, we documented uptake, translocation and metabolisation of these pesticides inside wetland plants, using enantioselective analysis. Tebuconazole and imazalil removal efficiencies from water reached 96.1% and 99.8%, respectively, by the end of the experiment (day 24). Removal from the solutions could be described by first-order removal kinetics with removal rate constants of 0.14 d-1 for tebuconazole and 0.31 d-1 for imazalil. Removal of the pesticides from the hydroponic solution, plant uptake, within plant translocation and degradation occurred simultaneously. Tebuconazole and imazalil concentrations inside Phragmites peaked at day 10 and 5d, respectively, and decreased thereafter. TPs of tebuconazole i.e., (5-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2,2-dimethyl-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-ylmethyl)-1,3-pentanediol and 5-(3-((1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1-yl)methyl)-3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylpentyl)-2-chlorophenol) were quantified in solution, while the imazalil TPs (α-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1H-imidazole-1-ethanol and 3-[1-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)ethoxy]-1,2-propanediol) were quantified in both solution and plant tissue. Pesticide uptake by Phragmites was positively correlated with evapotranspiration. Pesticide removal from the hydroponic solution was not enantioselective. However, tebuconazole was degraded enantioselectively both in the roots and shoots. Imazalil translocation and degradation inside Phragmites were also enantioselective: R-imazalil translocated faster than S-imazalil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yanli; Liu, Donghui; Luo, Mai; Jing, Xu; Wang, Peng; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-03-01

    The stereoselective degradation and transformation of the enantiomers of the herbicide fluazifop-butyl in soil and water were studied to investigate the environmental behavior and chiral stability of the optical pure product. Its main chiral metabolite fluazifop was also monitored. LC/MS/MS with Chiralpak IC chiral column was used to separate the enantiomers of fluazifop-butyl and fluazifop. Validated enantioselective residue analysis methods were established with recoveries ranging from 77.1 to 115.4% and RSDs from 0.85 to 8.9% for the enantiomers. It was found the dissipation of fluazifop-butyl was rapid in the three studied soils (Beijing, Harbin and Anhui soil), and the degradation half-lives of the enantiomers ranged from 0.136 to 2.7 d. Enantioselective degradations were found in two soils. In Beijing soil, R-fluazifop-butyl was preferentially degraded leading to relative enrichment of S-enantiomer, but in Anhui soil, S-fluazifop-butyl dissipated faster. There was no conversion of the R-fluazifop-butyl into S-fluazifop-butyl or vice versa in the soils. The formation of fluazifop in the soils was rapidly accompanied with the fast degradation of fluazifop-butyl, and the enantioselectivity and the transformation of S-fluazifop to R-fluazifop were found. The degradation of fluazifop-butyl in water was also quick, with half-lives of the enantiomers ranging from 0.34 to 2.52 d, and there was no significant enantioselectivity of the degradation of fluazifop-butyl and the formation of fluazifop. The effects of pH on the degradation showed fluazifop-butyl enantiomers degraded faster in alkaline conditions. This study showed an evidence of enantioselective behavior and enantiomerization of the chiral herbicide fluazifop-butyl. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Ameliorative effect of vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex on high-fat high-sucrose diet-induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanjun; Xu, Jie; Guo, Yongli; Xue, Yong; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-10-01

    There is mounting evidence demonstrating causative links between hyperglycemia, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance, the core pathophysiological features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Using a combinational approach, we synthesized a vanadium-antioxidant (i.e., l-ascorbic acid) complex and examined its effect on insulin resistance and oxidative stress. This study was designed to examine whether vanadyl(IV)-ascorbate complex (VOAsc) would reduce oxidative stress, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance in high-fat high-sucrose diet (HFSD)-induced type 2 diabetes in mice. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFSD for 12 weeks to induce insulin resistance, rendering them diabetic. Diabetic mice were treated with rosiglitazone, sodium l-ascorbate, or VOAsc. At the end of treatment, fasting blood glucose, fasting serum insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index, and serum adipocytokine levels were measured. Serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) parameters were also determined. The liver was isolated and used for determination of malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase levels, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. VOAsc groups exhibited significant reductions in serum adipocytokine and NO levels, and oxidative stress parameters compared to the corresponding values in the untreated diabetic mice. The results indicated that VOAsc is non-toxic. In conclusion, we identified VOAsc as a potentially effective adjunct therapy for the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of solvents, axial ligation, and radical cation formation on the V=O stretching Raman frequency in vanadyl porphyrins: implications for peroxidase intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Y.O.; Czernuszewicz, R.S.; Miller, L.A.; Spiro, T.G.

    1988-06-22

    The systematics of the V/double bond/O stretching frequency in vanadyl porphyrins are investigated with resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopy. For a series of solvents the frequency decreases with increasing solvent acceptor number consistent with solvent-induced polarization of the V-O bond. Variations in the solvent dependence are seen for different porphyrins, reflecting different polarization effects on the peripheral substituents. In coordinating solvents a second V-O stretching band, at lower frequency, arises from six-coordinate species. The downshift in v/sub V-O/ upon ligation increases with increasing donor strength of the ligand. It is larger for imidazolate than imidazole, and it is especially large for hydroxide; the hydroxide effect is attributed to OH/sup -/ ..-->.. V/sup IV/ ..pi..-donation, competing with the oxo ligand for acceptor d orbitals. The RR spectrum of (VO)OEP/sup center dot +/ produced by electrochemical oxidation shows porphyrin skeletal mode frequency shifts similar to those seen for other OEP ..pi..-cation radicals. The V-O stretching frequency increases 15 cm/sup -1/ relative to (VO)OEP. These findings are discussed in relation to recent RR data on ferryl porphyrins and ferryl species in home proteins. Differences among these species can be accounted for on the basis of proximal and distal effects.

  15. Temperature effects on the enantioselectivity of basic analytes in capillary EKC using sulfated beta-CDs as chiral selectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen-Lei; Yi, Fei; Guo, Baoyuan; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-10-01

    The thermodynamic processes were investigated to reveal the temperature effects during chiral separation by capillary EKC with reversed polarity mode using sulfated beta-CD (S-beta-CD) as chiral selectors. The temperature effects on enantioselectivities of basic analytes (ephedrine, norephedrine, synephrine, and epinephrine) were investigated in detail over a temperature range of 20-60 degrees C. An increase of the capillary temperature produced the decrease of enantioselectivities for ephedrine and norephedrine, but increase of enantioselectivities for synephrine and epinephrine. The thermodynamic variations showed that the interactions between the basic analytes and chiral selectors were always enthalpy- driven. However, the difference in enthalpy and entropy showed that the enantioseparation was an enthalpy-driven process for ephedrine and norephedrine, but an entropydriven process for synephrine and epinephrine. Just because of the different driving forces, there exist two kinds of temperature effects on enantioselectivities mentioned above.

  16. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, RM; Rozeboom, HJ; Kalk, KH; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, DB; Dijkstra, BW

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  17. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of an enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, René M. de; Rozeboom, Henriëtte J.; Kalk, Kor H.; Tang, Lixia; Janssen, Dick B.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2002-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenases are key enzymes in the bacterial degradation of vicinal halopropanols and structurally related nematocides. Crystals of the enantioselective halohydrin dehalogenase HheC from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 have been obtained at room temperature from hanging-drop

  18. Synthesis of Chiral Tertiary Alcohols by Cu(I) -Catalyzed Enantioselective Addition of Organomagnesium Reagents to Ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rong, Jiawei; Pellegrini, Tilde; Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic enantioselective addition of organometallic nucleophiles to ketones is among the most straightforward approaches to the synthesis of chiral tertiary alcohols. The first such catalytic methodologies using the highly reactive organomagnesium reagents, which are the preferred organometallic

  19. One pot 'click' reactions : tandem enantioselective biocatalytic epoxide ring opening and [3+2] azide alkyne cycloaddition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell-Verduyn, Lachlan S.; Szymanski, Wiktor; Postema, Christiaan P.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Janssen, Dick B.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2010-01-01

    Halohydrin dehalogenase (HheC) can perform enantioselective azidolysis of aromatic epoxides to 1,2-azido alcohols which are subsequently ligated to alkynes producing chiral hydroxy triazoles in a one-pot procedure with excellent enantiomeric excess.

  20. Total syntheses of mitragynine, paynantheine and speciogynine via an enantioselective thiourea-catalysed Pictet-Spengler reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerschgens, I. P.; Claveau, E.; Wanner, M.J.; Ingemann, S.; van Maarseveen, J.H.; Hiemstra, H.

    2012-01-01

    The pharmacologically interesting indole alkaloids (-)-mitragynine, (+)-paynantheine and (+)-speciogynine were synthesised in nine steps from 4-methoxytryptamine by a route featuring (i) an enantioselective thiourea-catalysed Pictet-Spengler reaction, providing the tetrahydro-β-carboline ring and

  1. Enantioselective silver nanoclusters: Preparation, characterization and photoluminescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrag, Mostafa, E-mail: mostafafarrag@aun.edu.eg

    2016-09-01

    prepared silver nanoclusters were investigated using nitrogen adsorption-desorption at −196 °C. Specific surface area S{sub BET}, pore volume and average pore diameter were calculated. - Highlights: • New wet chemistry method to prepare mirror image small silver clusters protected by penicillamine. • Preparation enantioselective catalysts by easy wet chemistry method. • The synthesized silver clusters have photoluminescence properties. • The synthesized silver clusters show high Anisotropy factors up to 3 × 10{sup −4}. • The adsorption isotherms of all synthesized clusters are mainly of type II of Brunaue’s classification.

  2. L-Threonine-derived novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide catalyst-promoted enantioselective aza-morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Zhong, Fangrui

    2011-03-18

    A series of novel bifunctional phosphine-sulfonamide organic catalysts were designed and readily prepared from natural amino acids, and they were utilized to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions. l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 9b was found to be the most efficient catalyst, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts in high yields and with excellent enantioselectivities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. Dual catalysis for the redox annulation of nitroalkynes with indoles: enantioselective construction of indolin-3-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ren-Rong; Ye, Shi-Chun; Lu, Chuan-Jun; Zhuang, Gui-Lin; Gao, Jian-Rong; Jia, Yi-Xia

    2015-09-14

    The enantioselective redox annulation of nitroalkynes with indoles is enabled by gold/chiral phosphoric acid dual catalysis. A range of indolin-3-one derivatives bearing quaternary stereocenters at the C2 position were afforded in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 96 % ee) from readily available starting materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Enantioselective Carbonyl Reverse Prenylation from the Alcohol or Aldehyde Oxidation Level Employing 1,1-Dimethylallene as the Prenyl Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Soo Bong; Kim, In Su; Han, Hoon; Krische, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of 1,1-dimethylallene 1a in the presence of aromatic, α,β-unsaturated or aliphatic aldehydes 2a-2i mediated by isopropanol and employing a cyclometallated iridium C,O-benzoate derived from allyl acetate, m-nitrobenzoic acid and (S)-SEGPHOS delivers products of reverse prenylation 4a-4i in good to excellent isolated yields (65-96%) and enantioselectivities (87-93% ee). In the absence of isopropanol, enantioselective carbonyl reverse prenylation is achieved directly from the alcohol oxidation level to furnish an equivalent set of adducts 4a-4i in good to excellent isolated yields (68-94%) and enantioselectivities (86-91% ee). Competition and isotopic labeling experiments suggest rapid alcohol-aldehyde redox equilibration in advance of carbonyl addition, and capture of the kinetically formed π-allyl complex at a rate faster than reversible β-hydride elimination-hydrometallation. This protocol represents an alternative to the use of allylboron reagents in enantioselective carbonyl reverse prenylation and represents the first use of allenes in enantioselective C-C bond forming transfer hydrogenation. PMID:19453190

  5. The uptake and fate of vanadyl ion in ascidian blood cells and a detailed hypothesis for the mechanism and location of biological vanadium reduction. A visible and X-ray absorption spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Patrick; Carlson, Elaine J; Carlson, Robert M K; Hedman, Britt; Hodgson, Keith O

    2008-04-01

    Vanadium K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) has been used to track the uptake and fate of VO(2+) ion in blood cells from Ascidia ceratodes, following exposure to dithiothreitol (DTT) or to DTT plus VO(2+). The full range of endogenous vanadium was queried by fitting the XAS of blood cells with the XAS spectra of model vanadium complexes. In cells exposed only to DTT, approximately 0.4% of a new V(III) species was found in a site similar to Na[V(edta)(H(2)O)]. With exposure to DTT and VO(2+), average intracellular [VO(aq)](2+) increased from 3% to 5%, and 6% of a new complexed form of vanadyl ion appeared evidencing a ligand array similar to [VO(edta)](2-). At the same time, the relative ratio of blood cell [V(H(2)O)(6)](3+) increased at the expense of [V(H(2)O)(5)(SO(4))](+) in a manner consistent with a significant increase in endogenous acidity. In new UV/Visible experiments, VO(2+) could be reduced to 7-coordinate [V(nta)(H(2)O)(3)] or [V(nta)(ida)](2-) with cysteine methyl ester in pH 6.5 solution. Ascorbate reduced [VO(edta)](2-) to 7-coordinate [V(edta)(H(2)O)](-), while [VO(trdta)](2-) was unreactive. These results corroborate the finding that the reductive EMF of VO(2+) is increased by the availability of a 7-coordinate V(III) product. Finally, a new and complete hypothesis is proposed for an ascidian vanadate reductase. The structure of the enzyme active site, the vanadate-vanadyl-vanadic reduction mechanism, the cellular locale, and elements of the regulatory machinery governing the biological reduction of vanadate and vanadyl ion by ascidians are all predicted. Together these constitute the new field of vanadium redox enzymology.

  6. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond

    2013-01-01

    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Determination of trace amounts of vanadyl porphyrin in marine mussel tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography with both ultraviolet/visible and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivaro, P; Frache, R

    1997-10-01

    An HPLC method with UV/VIS and ICP-AES detection is described for the determination of vanadyl porphyrins extracted from biological samples. A detection limit of 50 ng of vanadium was obtained. The method was used to determine these compounds following their extraction from tissues of mussels treated in laboratory experiments and collected during a 'Mussel Watch Programme'. This allowed some conclusions about vanadium speciation in marine organisms to be made. In the tissues of mussels, collected at several sites of the monitored area, which showed high vanadium concentrations, it was possible to establish the presence of this metal in the form of organometallic compounds.

  8. Influence of porphyrin radical type on V double bond O bond strength in vanadyl porphyrin cation radicals: Implications for heme protein intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macor, K.A. (Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (USA)); Czernuszewicz, R.S.; Spiro, T.G. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

    1990-05-16

    Resonance Raman spectra have been analyzed for vanadyl porphyrin cation radicals of octaethylporphyrin (OEP), meso-tetra-phenylporphyrin (TPP), and meso-tetrametisylporphyrin (TMP). The strength of the metal-oxo bond in these cation radicals is demonstrated to be a function of radical type, a{sub 1u} or a{sub 2u}. Porphyrin ring mode {nu}{sub 2}, which has previously been shown to be a marker for the radical type was used to identify the radicals. The a{sub 1u} OV(OEP) radical exhibited an upshift in the V{double bond}O stretching frequency resulting from the increased positive charge on the porphyrin, which reduces the porphyrin {yields} vanadium electron donation and increases the O {yields} vanadium donation. {nu}(V{double bond}O) frequency decreases were observed for the a{sub 2u} OV(TPP) and OV(TMP) radicals. These can be explained on the basis of mixing of the porphyrin {pi} a{sub 2u} orbital with the vanadium d{sub z{sup 2}} and oxygen p{sub z} orbitals, which is allowed in C{sub 4v} symmetry. This interaction decreases the bond strength in a {sub 2u} cation radicals, since an electron is removed from an orbital with partial V-O {sigma}-bonding character. Mixing of the porphyrin a{sub 1u} {pi} orbital with metal or oxygen orbitals is forbidden. These results imply that porphyrin radical type is an important determinant of the Fe{double bond}O bond strength in heme protein cation-radical intermediates. 34 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Enantioselective analysis of ibuprofen and its biotransformation products in water/sediment systems,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundström, Maria; Escola, Monica; Radke, Michael

    2015-01-01

    As ibuprofen degrades enantioselectively in activated sludge, the same process is assumed to occur in surface lake-water and in river-water based biofilms. Yet, the effects of the wastewater inflow, containing non-racemic ibuprofen, into natural systems have never been studied. The role...... and oxic) from the Baltic Sea (Tvären and B1) were collected. All systems were spiked with ibuprofen and followed during one month (aerated and in darkness). The enantiomers of ibuprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, 1-hydroxyibuprofen and 3-hydroxyibuprofen as well as carboxyibuprofen, were separated by HPLC...... equipped with an enantioselective HPLC-column. The detection was performed by MS/MS. Single first-order kinetics and Weibull distribution models were fitted to the data. Both models indicated that ibuprofen degraded with half-lives around 4-5 and 5-6 days in Largen and Fyrisån respectively and 3-4 and 5...

  10. Palladium(II)/Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Enantioselective Oxidative Carbocyclization-Borylation of Enallenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tuo; Bartholomeyzik, Teresa; Mazuela, Javier; Willersinn, Jochen; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-05-11

    An enantioselective oxidative carbocyclization-borylation of enallenes that is catalyzed by palladium(II) and a Brønsted acid was developed. Biphenol-type chiral phosphoric acids were superior co-catalysts for inducing the enantioselective cyclization. A number of chiral borylated carbocycles were synthesized in high enantiomeric excess. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  11. Enantioselective [3+3] atroposelective annulation catalyzed by N-heterocyclic carbenes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Changgui

    2018-02-05

    Axially chiral molecules are among the most valuable substrates in organic synthesis. They are typically used as chiral ligands or catalysts in asymmetric reactions. Recent progress for the construction of these chiral molecules is mainly focused on the transition-metal-catalyzed transformations. Here, we report the enantioselective NHC-catalyzed (NHC: N-heterocyclic carbenes) atroposelective annulation of cyclic 1,3-diones with ynals. In the presence of NHC precatalyst, base, Lewis acid and oxidant, a catalytic C–C bond formation occurs, providing axially chiral α-pyrone−aryls in moderate to good yields and with high enantioselectivities. Control experiments indicated that alkynyl acyl azoliums, acting as active intermediates, are employed to atroposelectively assemble chiral biaryls and such a methodology may be creatively applied to other useful NHC-catalyzed asymmetric transformations.

  12. Enantioselective Intramolecular Hydroarylation of Alkenes via Directed C-H Bond Activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Hitoshi; Thalji, Reema; Bergman, Robert; Ellman, Jonathan

    2008-05-22

    Highly enantioselective catalytic intramolecular ortho-alkylation of aromatic imines containing alkenyl groups tethered at the meta position relative to the imine directing group has been achieved using [RhCl(coe){sub 2}]{sub 2} and chiral phosphoramidite ligands. Cyclization of substrates containing 1,1- and 1,2-disubstituted as well as trisubstituted alkenes were achieved with enantioselectivities >90% ee for each substrate class. Cyclization of substrates with Z-alkene isomers proceeded much more efficiently than substrates with E-alkene isomers. This further enabled the highly stereoselective intramolecular alkylation of certain substrates containing Z/E-alkene mixtures via a Rh-catalyzed alkene isomerization with preferential cyclization of the Z-isomer.

  13. Enantioselective Decarboxylative Alkylation Reactions: Catalyst Development, Substrate Scope, and Mechanistic Studies

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-11-14

    α-Quaternary ketones are accessed through novel enantioselective alkylations of allyl and propargyl electrophiles by unstabilized prochiral enolate nucleophiles in the presence of palladium complexes with various phosphinooxazoline (PHOX) ligands. Excellent yields and high enantiomeric excesses are obtained from three classes of enolate precursor: enol carbonates, enol silanes, and racemic β-ketoesters. Each of these substrate classes functions with nearly identical efficiency in terms of yield and enantioselectivity. Catalyst discovery and development, the optimization of reaction conditions, the exploration of reaction scope, and applications in target-directed synthesis are reported. Experimental observations suggest that these alkylation reactions occur through an unusual inner-sphere mechanism involving binding of the prochiral enolate nucleophile directly to the palladium center.

  14. Enantioselective construction of quaternary N-heterocycles by palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of lactams

    KAUST Repository

    Behenna, Douglas C.

    2011-12-18

    The enantioselective synthesis of nitrogen-containing heterocycles (N-heterocycles) represents a substantial chemical research effort and resonates across numerous disciplines, including the total synthesis of natural products and medicinal chemistry. In this Article, we describe the highly enantioselective palladium-catalysed decarboxylative allylic alkylation of readily available lactams to form 3,3-disubstituted pyrrolidinones, piperidinones, caprolactams and structurally related lactams. Given the prevalence of quaternary N-heterocycles in biologically active alkaloids and pharmaceutical agents, we envisage that our method will provide a synthetic entry into the de novo asymmetric synthesis of such structures. As an entry for these investigations we demonstrate how the described catalysis affords enantiopure quaternary lactams that intercept synthetic intermediates previously used in the synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloids quebrachamine and rhazinilam, but that were previously only available by chiral auxiliary approaches or as racemic mixtures. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Enantioselective Esterification of Ibuprofen Catalyzed by a Flower-Like Nanobioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baiyi An

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A flower-like nanobioreactor was prepared for resolution of ibuprofen in organic solvents. Ultrasound irradiation has been used to improve the enzyme performance of APE1547 (a thermophilic esterase from the archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 in the enantioselective esterification. Under optimum reaction conditions (ultrasound power, 225 W; temperature, 45 °C; water activity, 0.21, the immobilized APE1547 showed an excellent catalytic performance (enzyme activity, 13.26 μmol/h/mg; E value, 147.1. After ten repeated reaction batches, the nanobioreactor retained almost 100% of its initial enzyme activity and enantioselectivity. These results indicated that the combination of the immobilization method and ultrasound irradiation can enhance the enzyme performance dramatically.

  16. Applications of homochiral metal-organic frameworks in enantioselective adsorption and chromatography separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianjiang; Chang, Cuilan; Wang, Xin; Bai, Yu; Liu, Huwei

    2014-10-01

    Chiral separation is of great importance for drug development, pharmacology, and biology. Chiral metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is a new class of porous solid materials with high surface area, large pore size, high chemical stability, uniformly structured cavities, and the availability of modification. The excellent properties of MOFs have attracted intense interest to explore their performance and mechanism in chiral separation. This review summarizes three synthetic strategies of chiral MOFs and their applications in enantioselective adsorption and chromatographic separation. All the experimental and molecular simulation results demonstrated that high enantioselectivity was strongly correlated with a close match between the size of the pore and chiral molecules. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioselective, intermolecular benzylic C-H amination catalysed by an engineered iron-haem enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prier, Christopher K.; Zhang, Ruijie K.; Buller, Andrew R.; Brinkmann-Chen, Sabine; Arnold, Frances H.

    2017-07-01

    C-H bonds are ubiquitous structural units of organic molecules. Although these bonds are generally considered to be chemically inert, the recent emergence of methods for C-H functionalization promises to transform the way synthetic chemistry is performed. The intermolecular amination of C-H bonds represents a particularly desirable and challenging transformation for which no efficient, highly selective, and renewable catalysts exist. Here we report the directed evolution of an iron-containing enzymatic catalyst—based on a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase—for the highly enantioselective intermolecular amination of benzylic C-H bonds. The biocatalyst is capable of up to 1,300 turnovers, exhibits excellent enantioselectivities, and provides access to valuable benzylic amines. Iron complexes are generally poor catalysts for C-H amination: in this catalyst, the enzyme's protein framework confers activity on an otherwise unreactive iron-haem cofactor.

  18. Multicomponent, Enantioselective Michael-Michael-Aldol-β-Lactonizations Delivering Complex β-Lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Khoi N; Romo, Daniel

    2018-01-19

    Optically active, tertiary amine Lewis bases react with unsaturated acid chlorides to deliver chiral, α,β-unsaturated acylammonium salts. These intermediates participate in a catalytic, enantioselective, three-component process delivering bi- and tricyclic β-lactones through a Michael-Michael-aldol-β-lactonization. In a single operation, the described multicomponent, organocascade process forms complex bi- and tricyclic β-lactones by generating four new bonds, two rings, and up to four contiguous stereocenters. In the racemic series, yields of 22-75% were achieved using 4-pyrrolidinopyridine as Lewis base. In the enantioselective series employing isothiourea catalysts, a kinetic resolution of the initially formed racemic Michael adduct appears operative, providing yields of 46% to quantitative (based on 50% max) with up to 94:6 er. Some evidence for a dynamic kinetic asymmetric transformation for tricyclic-β-lactone 1d was obtained following optimization (yields up to 61%, 94:6 er) through a presumed reversible Michael.

  19. A possible mechanism for enantioselectivity in the chiral epoxidation of olefins with.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, H; Cavallo, L

    2001-01-01

    The origin of enantioselectivity in the Jacobsen-Katsuki reaction has been investigated by applying density functional calculations in combination with molecular mechanics methodologies. The calculations suggest that a high enantiomeric excess is connected to three specific features: 1) a chiral diimine bridge, which induces folding of the salen ligand(H2salen = bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine), and hence the formation of a chiral pocket; 2) bulky groups at the 3,3'-positions of the salen ligand, which cause a preferential approach from the side of the aromatic rings; and 3) pi conjugation of the olefinic double bond, which confers regioselectivity and, consequently, enantioselectivity. In combination with experimental studies, the model also provides a rationale for the decrease in ee values when one of these components is missing.

  20. Enantioselective Cytotoxicity Profile of o,p’-DDT in PC 12 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meirong Zhao; Cui Wang; Chunlong Zhang; Yuezhong Wen; Weiping Liu

    2012-01-01

    Background The continued uses of dichlordiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) for indoor vector control in some developing countries have recently fueled intensive debates toward the global ban of this persistent legacy contaminant. Current approaches for ecological and health risk assessment has ignored the chiral nature of DDT. In this study by employing an array of cytotoxicity related endpoints, we investigated the enantioselective cytotoxicity of o,p’-DDT. Principal Findings we demonstrated for ...

  1. Biochemical characterization of an enantioselective esterase from Brevundimonas sp. LY-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhao, Mengjun; Yu, Die; Yin, Jingang; Zhang, Hao; Huang, Xing

    2017-06-19

    Lactofen, a member of the diphenylether herbicides, has high activity and is commonly used to control broadleaf weeds. As a post-emergent herbicide, it is directly released to the environment, and easily caused the pollution. This herbicide is degraded in soil mainly by microbial activity, but the functional enzyme involved in the biodegradation of lactofen is still not clear now. A novel esterase gene lacH, involved in the degradation of lactofen, was cloned from the strain Brevundimonas sp. LY-2. The gene contained an open reading frame of 921 bp, and a putative signal peptide at the N-terminal was identified with the most likely cleavage site between Ala 28 and Ala 29. The encoded protein, LacH, could catalyze the hydrolysis of lactofen to form acifluorfen. Phylogenetic analysis showed that LacH belong to family V of bacterial lipolytic enzymes. Biochemical characterization analysis showed that LacH was a neutral esterase with an optimal pH of 7.0 and an optimal temperature of 40 °C toward lactofen. Besides, the activity of LacH was strongly inhibited by Hg 2+ and Zn 2+ . LacH preferred short chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C 2 -C 6 ), exhibited maximum activity toward p-nitrophenyl acetate. Furthermore, the enantioselectivity of LacH during lactofen hydrolysis was also studied, and the results show that R-(-)-lactofen was degraded faster than S-(+)-lactofen, indicating the occurrence of enantioselectivity in the enzymatic reaction. Our studies characterized a novel esterase involved in the biodegradation of diphenylether herbicide lactofen. The esterase showed enantioselectivity during lactofen degradation, which revealed the occurrence of enzyme-mediated enantioselective degradation of chiral herbicides.

  2. Highly enantioselective Ag(i)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmire, James M; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Xumu

    2002-11-13

    A highly reactive Ag(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides is founded using AgOAc as the catalytic precursor and phosphines as ligands. Using a new bis-ferrocenyl amide phosphine (FAP) as the ligand, we found that high enantioselectivities (up to 97% ee) have been achieved in the [3 + 2] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides. Up to four stereogenic centers can be established in this multicomponent coupling reaction from readily available materials such as aldehydes, aminoesters, and dipolarophiles.

  3. Enantioselective total syntheses of belactosin A, belactosin C, and its homoanalogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Oleg V; de Meijere, Armin

    2004-06-24

    [reaction: see text] Enantioselective total syntheses of belactosin A, belactosin C, and its homoanalogue have been accomplished in high overall yields (32% for belactosin A from the amino acid 10, and 35 and 36% for belactosin C and its homoanalogue, respectively). This concise approach comprises a novel sequential acylation/beta-lactonization reaction and allows a facile alteration of the substituents, thus providing a flexible route to a new family of highly active belactosin-based proteasome inhibitors.

  4. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiono, Erli; Rueping, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization-transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  5. Mo-catalyzed asymmetric olefin metathesis in target-oriented synthesis: Enantioselective synthesis of (+)-africanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Gabriel S.; Cortez, G. A.; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2004-01-01

    Catalytic asymmetric ring-opening metathesis (AROM) provides an efficient method for the synthesis of a variety of optically enriched small organic molecules that cannot be easily prepared by alternative methods. The development of Mo-catalyzed AROM transformations that occur in tandem with ring-closing metathesis are described. The utility of the Mo-catalyzed AROM/ring-closing metathesis is demonstrated through an enantioselective approach to the synthesis of (+)-africanol. PMID:15056762

  6. Carbamate-directed benzylic lithiation for the diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of diaryl ether atropisomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Page

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Diaryl ethers carrying carbamoyloxymethyl groups may be desymmetrised enantio- and diastereoselectively by the use of the sec-BuLi–(−-sparteine complex in diethyl ether. Enantioselective deprotonation of one of the two benzylic positions leads to atropisomeric products with ca. 80:20 e.r.; an electrophilic quench typically provides functionalised atropisomeric diastereoisomers in up to 97:3 d.r.

  7. Catalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of Tetrahydocarbazoles and Exocyclic Pictet-Spengler-Type Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Casper Lykke; Ohm, Ragnhild Gaard; Olsen, Lasse Bohn

    2016-01-01

    A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of chiral tetrahydrocarbazoles (THCAs) has been developed. The strategy relies on two types of 6-exo-trig cyclization of 3-substituted indole substrates. Enantioselective domino Friedel-Crafts-type reactions leading to THCAs can be catalyzed by chiral phosph...... phosphoric acid derivatives (with up to >99% ee), and the first examples of exocyclic Pictet-Spengler reactions to form THCAs are reported....

  8. A combined continuous microflow photochemistry and asymmetric organocatalysis approach for the enantioselective synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erli Sugiono

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A continuous-flow asymmetric organocatalytic photocyclization–transfer hydrogenation cascade reaction has been developed. The new protocol allows the synthesis of tetrahydroquinolines from readily available 2-aminochalcones using a combination of photochemistry and asymmetric Brønsted acid catalysis. The photocylization and subsequent reduction was performed with catalytic amount of chiral BINOL derived phosphoric acid diester and Hantzsch dihydropyridine as hydrogen source providing the desired products in good yields and with excellent enantioselectivities.

  9. Tertiary thiols from allylic thiocarbamates by tandem enantioselective [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement and stereospecific arylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingat, Gaëlle; MacLellan, Paul; Laars, Marju; Clayden, Jonathan

    2014-02-21

    The synthesis of tertiary thiols in enantiomerically enriched form is accomplished by lithiation of enantiomerically enriched N-aryl allylic thiocarbamates. Formation of an allyllithium derivative promotes intramolecular N to C aryl migration to the position α to sulfur, generally with good stereospecificity. The substrates may themselves be obtained by Pd-catalyzed enantioselective [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-aryl O-allyl thiocarbamates. Solvolysis of the product thiocarbamates yields tertiary thiols, which may be converted to sulfide derivatives.

  10. Synthesis of 3-fluoro-3-aryl oxindoles: Direct enantioselective α arylation of amides

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Linglin

    2012-02-06

    Modus operandi: Catalytic access to the title compounds through a new asymmetric α-arylation protocol is reported (see scheme). These products are formed in good yields and excellent enantioselectivities by using a new and easily synthesized chiral N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand. Advanced DFT calculations reveal the properties of the NHC ligand and the mode of operation of the catalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Ligand effect in enantioselective hydrogenation on skeletal copper-palladium catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedenyapin, A.A.; Kuznetsova, T.I.; Klabunovskii, E.I.

    1987-08-10

    In the continuation of the study of the capacity of skeletal Cu-Pd catalysts modified with RR-tartaric acid and containing no more than 5 at.% Pd, to conduct enantioselective hydrogenation of ethylacetoacetate (EAA) into R-ethyl-..beta..-hydroxybutyrate (R-EHB), they studied this phenomenon in more detail and made the previously obtained data more precise. Pronounced synergism of the asymmetric effect of chiral copper-palladium catalysts related to manifestation of a ligand effect was found.

  12. Catalytic enantioselective vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael addition of 2-silyloxyfurans to cyclic unsaturated oxo esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusseau, Xavier; Retailleau, Pascal; Chabaud, Laurent; Guillou, Catherine

    2013-03-15

    The copper-catalyzed asymmetric addition of 2-silyloxyfurans to cyclic unsaturated oxo esters is reported. The reaction proceeds with excellent diastereocontrol (usually dr 99:1) and modest to high enantioselectivity, depending on the nature of the ester group and the substitution of the cyclic oxo ester. We have shown that these substrates can be transformed into a variety of building blocks bearing a γ-butenolide or γ-lactone connected to a cycloalkane or cycoalkene moiety.

  13. Conformational Control of Chiral Amido-Thiourea Catalysts Enables Improved Activity and Enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnherr, Dan; Ford, David D; Bendelsmith, Andrew J; Kennedy, C Rose; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2016-07-01

    While aryl pyrrolidinoamido-thioureas derived from α-amino acids are effective catalysts in a number of asymmetric transformations, they exist as mixtures of slowly interconverting amide rotamers. Herein, the compromising role of amide bond isomerism is analyzed experimentally and computationally. A modified catalyst structure that exists almost exclusively as a single amide rotamer is introduced. This modification is shown to result in improved reactivity and enantioselectivity by minimizing competing reaction pathways.

  14. Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman carbonates with water

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Bo

    2011-08-19

    A Lewis base catalyzed allylic hydroxylation of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) carbonates has been developed. Various chiral MBH alcohols can be synthesized in high yields (up to 99%) and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 94% ee). This is the first report using water as a nucleophile in asymmetric organocatalysis. The nucleophilic role of water has been verified using 18O-labeling experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Crystalline-gradient polycarbonates prepared from enantioselective terpolymerization of meso-epoxides with CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Ren, Wei-Min; He, Ke-Ke; Lu, Xiao-Bing

    2014-12-01

    The development of efficient processes for CO2 transformation into useful products is a long-standing goal for chemists, since CO2 is an abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic renewable C1 resource. Here we describe the enantioselective copolymerization of 3,4-epoxytetrahydrofuran with CO2 mediated by biphenol-linked dinuclear cobalt complex, affording the corresponding polycarbonate with >99% carbonate linkages and excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99% enantiomeric excess). Notably, the resultant isotactic polycarbonate is a typical semicrystalline polymer, possessing a melting point of 271 °C. Furthermore, the enantioselective terpolymerization of 3,4-epoxytetrahydrofuran, cyclopentene oxide and CO2 mediated by this dinuclear cobalt complex gives novel gradient polycarbonates, in which the decrement of one component and the increment of the other component occur sequentially from one chain end to the other end. The resultant terpolymers show perfectly isotactic structure and have unique crystalline-gradient nature, in which the crystallinity continuously varies along the main chain.

  16. Phytotoxicity of chiral herbicide bromacil: Enantioselectivity of photosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zunwei; Zou, Yuqin; Wang, Jia [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Meichao [Research Center of Analysis and Measurement, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wen, Yuezhong, E-mail: wenyuezhong@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation & Ecosystem Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-04-01

    With the wide application of chiral herbicides and the frequent detection of photosystem II (PSII) herbicides, it is of great importance to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis in an enantiomeric level. In the present study, the enantioselective phytotoxicity of bromacil (BRO), typical photosynthesis inhibition herbicide, on Arabidopsis thaliana was investigated. The results showed that S-BRO exhibited a greater inhibition of electron transmission in photosystem I (PSI) of A. thaliana than R-BRO by inhibiting the transcription of fnr 1. S-BRO also changed the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Y (II), Y (NO), and Y (NPQ) to a greater extent than R-Bro. Transcription of genes psbO2, Lhcb3 and Lhcb6 was down-regulated in an enantioselective rhythm and S-BRO caused more serious influence, indicating that S-BRO did worse damage to the photosystem II (PSII) of A. thaliana than R-BRO. This study suggested that S-BRO disturbed the photosynthesis of plants to a larger extent than R-BRO and provided a new sight to evaluate the phytotoxicity of chiral herbicides. - Highlights: • It is necessary to assess the direct effects of PSII herbicides on photosynthesis. • Phytotoxicity of bromacil is investigated in an enantiomeric level. • Bromacil disturbed enantioselectively the photosystem II of Arabidopsis thaliana. • S-bromacil caused severer damage to photosynthesis of Arabidopsis than R-bromacil. • Photosynthesis should be considered for phytotoxicity assessment of herbicides.

  17. By-design enantioselective self-amplification based on non-covalent product-catalyst interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Golo; Trapp, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    The synthesis of enantiomerically pure compounds is of great importance in pharmaceuticals, fragrances and biological applications, and functions as a key to many processes in nature. Asymmetric catalysis using enantiomerically pure catalysts represents an efficient synthetic method to achieve this goal. The enantiomeric excess of the reaction product correlates with the enantiomeric purity of the catalysts, except for nonlinear behaviour, therefore the use of stereochemically flexible catalysts seems to complicate the control of stereoselectivity. Self-amplifying catalytic reactions are attractive, but a general rational design is highly challenging. Here we show that product interaction with chiral recognition sites attached to structurally flexible phoshoramidite-type catalysts can sense the chirality and induce enantioselectivity in the catalyst. Structural flexibility along with sensing of the chirality of the product molecules results in a rapid increase of enantioselectivity of the dynamic catalysts (Δe.e. of up to 76%) and a shift out of equilibrium. In contrast to stereodynamic catalysts controlled with cleavable chiral auxiliaries, the enantioselectivity does not decrease.

  18. Computer-Assisted Design and Synthetic Applications of Chiral Enol Borinates: Novel, Highly Enantioselective Aldol Reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennari Cesare

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available We have recently described the development of a quantitative transition state model for the prediction of stereoselectivity in the boron-mediated aldol reaction. This model provides qualitative insights into the factors contributing to the stereochemical outcome of a variety of reactions of synthetic importance. The force field model was used to assist the design and preparation of new chiral boron ligands derived from menthone. The chiral boron enolates were employed in various stereoselective processes, including the addition to chiral aldehydes and the reagent-controlled total synthesis of (3S,4S-statine. The chiral enolates derived from alpha-halo and alpha-oxysubstituted thioacetates were added to aldehydes and imines. Addition to imines leads to the enantioselective synthesis of chiral aziridines, a formal total synthesis of (+-thiamphenicol, and a new highly efficient synthesis of the paclitaxel (taxol® C-13 side-chain and taxol semisynthesis from baccatin III. The stereochemical outcome of the addition to imines was rationalised with the aid of computational studies. Enantioselective addition reactions of the chiral boron enolate derived from thioacetate have successfully been applied to solid phase bound aldehydes to give aldol products in comparable yields and enantioselectivities to the usual solution conditions.

  19. Modelling substrate specificity and enantioselectivity for lipases and esterases by substrate-imprinted docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Sadhna

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previously, ways to adapt docking programs that were developed for modelling inhibitor-receptor interaction have been explored. Two main issues were discussed. First, when trying to model catalysis a reaction intermediate of the substrate is expected to provide more valid information than the ground state of the substrate. Second, the incorporation of protein flexibility is essential for reliable predictions. Results Here we present a predictive and robust method to model substrate specificity and enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases that uses reaction intermediates and incorporates protein flexibility. Substrate-imprinted docking starts with covalent docking of reaction intermediates, followed by geometry optimisation of the resulting enzyme-substrate complex. After a second round of docking the same substrate into the geometry-optimised structures, productive poses are identified by geometric filter criteria and ranked by their docking scores. Substrate-imprinted docking was applied in order to model (i enantioselectivity of Candida antarctica lipase B and a W104A mutant, (ii enantioselectivity and substrate specificity of Candida rugosa lipase and Burkholderia cepacia lipase, and (iii substrate specificity of an acetyl- and a butyrylcholine esterase toward the substrates acetyl- and butyrylcholine. Conclusion The experimentally observed differences in selectivity and specificity of the enzymes were reproduced with an accuracy of 81%. The method was robust toward small differences in initial structures (different crystallisation conditions or a co-crystallised ligand, although large displacements of catalytic residues often resulted in substrate poses that did not pass the geometric filter criteria.

  20. Enantioselective bioaccumulation and toxic effects of fipronil in the earthworm Eisenia foetida following soil exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Xu, Peng; Guo, Baoyuan; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2015-04-01

    Enantiomers of chiral pesticides often have different bioactivity, toxicity and environmental behaviours. Fipronil has been used in racemate for agricultural purposes against soil insects, leading to increased inputs into soil environments and complex biota exposures. To understand the potential risk associated with fipronil enantiomer exposure, subchronic toxicity and bioaccumulation tests with earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in fipronil-spiked soils were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Enantioselective toxicity was measured in E. foetida biomass after 28 days of subchronic exposure, with increased toxicity from racemate and S-fipronil compared with R-fipronil. The bioaccumulation of fipronil in earthworm tissues was also enantioselective, with a preferential accumulation of S-fipronil, and the enantiomer fraction was approximately 0.56-0.60. During soil exposure, fipronil was transformed primarily into fipronil sulfide, sulfone and amide, and E. foetida rapidly accumulated fipronil and sulfone. This work demonstrates the enantioselective subchronic toxicity and bioaccumulation of enantiomers of fipronil in E. foetida. The earthworm tissues exhibited a relative enrichment of fipronil and fipronil sulfone, and these compounds might biomagnify (with a biota-to-soil accumulation factor of ≥1.0 kgOCkglip-1), allowing for the possible trophic transfer and/or bioaccumulation of all these chemicals if earthworms were consumed by predator organisms. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Enantioselective acute toxicity effects and bioaccumulation of furalaxyl in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fang; Gao, Yongxin; Guo, Baoyuan; Xu, Peng; Li, Jianzhong; Wang, Huili

    2014-06-01

    The enantioselectivities of individual enantiomers of furalaxyl in acute toxicity and bioaccumulation in the earthworm (Eisenia foetida) were studied. The acute toxicity was tested by filter paper contact test. After 48 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values of the R-form, rac-form, and S-form were 2.27, 2.08, and 1.22 µg cm(-2), respectively. After 72 h of exposure, the calculated LC50 values were 1.90, 1.54, and 1.00 µg cm(-2), respectively. Therefore, the acute toxicity of furalaxyl enantiomers was enantioselective. During the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction of furalaxyl in earthworm tissue was observed to deviate from 0.50 and maintained a range of 0.55-0.60; in other words, the bioaccumulation of furalaxyl was enantioselective in earthworm tissue with a preferential accumulation of S-furalaxyl. The uptake kinetic of furalaxyl enantiomers fitted the first-order kinetics well and the calculated kinetic parameters were consistent with the low accumulation efficiency. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Preparation, characterization, and stereochemistry of binuclear vanadyl(IV) monomethyl- and dimethyltartrate(4-) complexes and the crystal structure of tetrasodium (. mu. -(+)-dimethyltartrato(4-))-(. mu. -(-)-dimethyltartrato(4-))-bis(oxovanadate(IV)) dodecahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahs, S.K.; Ortega, R.B.; Tapscott, R.E.; Campana, C.F.; Morosin, B.

    1982-02-01

    The syntheses and characterizations (by ESR, IR, and electronic spectroscopies) of the sodium salts of the DL and DD (or LL) binuclear complexes of vanadyl(IV) with dimethyltartrate(4-), dmt, and with monomethyltartrate(4-), mmt, are described. Na/sub 4/((VO)/sub 22/((+)-dmt)((-)-dmt)) exists in two crystal forms - a blue dodecahydrate and a pink hexahydrate. An x-ray diffraction study of the former shows that the V-V distance (3.429 (3) A) of the binuclear anion is decreased relative to that of the unsubstituted tartrate(4-), tart, complex, as predicted from earlier ESR studies, and that this decrease is due in part to a dropping of the vanadium atom into the plane of the four coordinating equatorial oxygen atoms. A sixth oxygen atom is weakly coordinated (2.377 (3) A) trans to the vanadyl oxygen atom. A purple tetradecahydrate also obtained with racenic dmt contains a mixture of ((VO)/sub 2/ ((+)-dmt)/sub 2/)/sup 4 -/ and ((VO)/sub 2/((-)-dmt)/sub 2/)/sup 4 -/). The aqueous solution ligand-exchange reaction between the DD and LL complexes of this salt to give the more stable DL isomer is remarkably slow (several hours at room temperature). Stereoselective effects allow the production of mixed-ligand species containing two of the three ligands tart, dmt, and mmt, and potentiometric titrations indicate a decreasing stability of the DL isomer (relative to the DD and LL isomers) as methyl substitution increases.

  3. Origins of Enantioselectivity during Allylic Substitution Reactions Catalyzed by Metallacyclic Iridium Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrahimov, Sherzod T.; Hartwig, John F.

    2012-01-01

    In depth mechanistic studies of iridium catalyzed regioselective and enantioselective allylic substitution reactions are presented. A series of cyclometallated allyliridium complexes that are kinetically and chemically competent to be intermediates in the allylic substitution reactions was prepared and characterized by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopies and solid state structural analysis. The rates of epimerization of the less thermodynamically stable diastereomeric allyliridium complexes to the thermodynamically more stable allyliridium stereoisomers were measured. The rates of nucleophilic attack by aniline and by N-methylaniline on the isolated allyliridium complexes were also measured. Attack on the thermodynamically less stable allyliridium complex was found to be orders of magnitude faster than attack on the thermodynamically more stable complex, yet the major enantiomer of the catalytic reaction is formed from the more stable diastereomer. Comparison of the rates of nucleophilic attack to the rates of epimerization of the diastereomeric allyliridium complexes containing a weakly-coordinating counterion showed that nucleophilic attack on the less stable allyliridium species is much faster than conversion of the less stable isomer to the more stable isomer. These observations imply that Curtin-Hammett conditions are not met during iridium catalyzed allylic substitution reactions by η3-η1-η3 interconversion. Rather, these data imply that when these conditions exist for this reaction, they are created by reversible oxidative addition and the high selectivity of this oxidative addition step to form the more stable diastereomeric allyl complex leads to the high enantioselectivity. The stereochemical outcome of the individual steps of allylic substitution was assessed by reaction of deuterium-labeled substrates. The reaction was shown to occur by oxidative addition with inversion of configuration, followed by an outer sphere nucleophilic attack that leads to a second

  4. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-09-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and—although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions—related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  5. Enantioselective Effects of Metalaxyl Enantiomers on Breast Cancer Cells Metabolic Profiling Using HPLC-QTOF-Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an integrative high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-QTOF based metabolomics approach was performed to evaluate the enantioselective metabolic perturbations in MCF-7 cells after treatment with R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl, respectively. Untargeted metabolomics profile, multivariate pattern recognition, metabolites identification, and pathway analysis were determined after metalaxyl enantiomer exposure. Principal component analysis (PCA and partitial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA directly reflected the enantioselective metabolic perturbations induced by metalaxyl enantiomers. On the basis of multivariate statistical results, a total of 49 metabolites including carbohydrates, amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, organic acids, phospholipids, indoles, derivatives, etc. were found to be the most significantly changed metabolites and metabolic fluctuations caused by the same concentration of R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl were enantioselective. Pathway analysis indicated that R-metalaxyl and S-metalaxyl mainly affected the 7 and 10 pathways in MCF-7 cells, respectively, implying the perturbed pathways induced by metalaxyl enantiomers were also enantioselective. Furthermore, the significantly perturbed metabolic pathways were highly related to energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, and antioxidant defense. Such results provide more specific insights into the enantioselective metabolic effects of chiral pesticides in breast cancer progression, reveal the underlying mechanisms, and provide available data for the health risk assessments of chiral environmental pollutants at the molecular level.

  6. Reconstruction of the biogeochemistry and ecology of photoautotrophs based on the nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of vanadyl porphyrins from Miocene siliceous sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Kashiyama

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We determined both the nitrogen and carbon isotopic compositions of various vanadyl alkylporphyrins isolated from siliceous marine sediments of the Onnagawa Formation (middle Miocene, northeastern Japan to investigate the biogeochemistry and ecology of photoautotrophs living in the paleo-ocean. The distinctive isotopic signals support the interpretations of previous works that the origin of 17-nor-deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin (DPEP is chlorophylls-c1-3, whereas 8-nor-DPEP may have originated from chlorophylls-a2 or b2 or bacteriochlorophyll-a. Although DPEP and cycloheptanoDPEP are presumably derived from common precursory pigments, their isotopic compositions differed in the present study, suggesting that the latter represents a specific population within the photoautotrophic community. The average δ15N value for the entire photoautotrophic community is estimated to be –2 to +1‰ from the δ15N values of DPEP (–6.9 to –3.6‰; n=7, considering that the empirical isotopic relationships that the tetrapyrrole nuclei of chloropigments are depleted in 15N by ~4.8‰ and enriched in 13C by ~1.8‰ relative to the whole cells. This finding suggests that nitrogen utilized in the primary production was supplied mainly through N2-fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria. Based on the δ13C values of DPEP (–17.9 to –15.6‰; n=7, we estimated isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthetic carbon fixation to be 8–14‰. This range suggests the importance of β-carboxylation and/or active transport of the carbon substrate, indicating in turn the substantial contribution of diazotrophic cyanobacteria to primary production. Based on the δ15N values of 17-nor-DPEP (–7.4 to –2.4‰ n=7, the δ15N range of chlorophylls-c-producing algae was estimated to be –3

  7. Magnetic studies reveal near-perfect paramagnetism in the molecular semiconductor vanadyl phthalocyanine (C{sub 32}H{sub 16}N{sub 8}VO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengjun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States); Pi, Li [High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences and University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230031 (China); Seehra, Mohindar S., E-mail: mseehra@wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506-6315 (United States); Bindra, Jasleen; Van Tol, Hans; Dalal, Naresh S. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Temperature (0.5–300 K) and magnetic field (H up to 90 kOe) dependences of the magnetization (M) of a powder sample of vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc) having the Phase II-triclinic structure are measured and analyzed. The data of χ = M/H vs. T measured in H = 1 kOe fit the modified Curie-Weiss (CW) law, χ = χ{sub o}+C/(T−θ), with C = 6.266×10{sup −4} emuK/gOe, θ = −0.1 K and χ{sub o} = −9.3×10{sup −7} emu/gOe. The Curie constant C yields magnetic moment μ = 1.704 μ{sub B}, S = 1/2, and g = 1.967 characteristic of VO{sup 2+}. The magnitude of θ = −0.1 K signifying very weak inter-ion antiferromagnetic exchange coupling is supported by the analysis of the variable frequency (9.8–336 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance data. The isothermal data of M vs. H at ten temperatures between 0.5 K and 300 K when plotted as M vs. H/(T+0.1) collapses on to a single curve given by M = M{sub o}tanh {gμ_BH/[2k_B(T+0.1)]} with M{sub o} = Ngμ{sub B}S = 9.48 emu/g expected for S = 1/2 system, thus signifying near perfect paramagnetism in VOPc. - Highlights: • Magnetization M vs. temperature T from 0.5 K to 300 K in H = 1 kOe is reported. • M vs. T data fit Curie-Weiss law with θ = −0.1 K, S = 1/2, &g = 1.967 for VO{sup 2+}. • Isothermal M vs. H data (H up to 90 kOe) for ten T from 0.5 K to 300 K is reported. • M vs. H/(T−θ) plot for various T fit a single Brillouin function curve for S = 1/2. • Analysis of magnetic and EPR data in VOPc shows near perfect S = 1/2 paramagnetism.

  8. Increased enantioselectivity and remarkable acceleration of lipase-catalyzed transesterification by using an imidazolium PEG-alkyl sulfate ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Toshiyuki; Matsushita, Yuichi; Abe, Yoshikazu; Han, Shi-Hui; Wada, Shohei; Hayase, Shuichi; Kawatsura, Motoi; Takai, Shigeomi; Morimoto, Minoru; Hirose, Yoshihiko

    2006-12-13

    Several types of imidazolium salt ionic liquids were prepared derived from poly(oxyethylene)alkyl sulfate and used as an additive or coating material for lipase-catalyzed transesterification in an organic solvent. A remarkably increased enantioselectivity was obtained when the salt was added at 3-10 mol % versus substrate in the Burkholderia cepacia lipase (lipase PS-C)-catalyzed transesterification of 1-phenylethanol by using vinyl acetate in diisopropyl ether or a hexane solvent system. In particular, a remarkable acceleration was accomplished by the ionic liquid coating with lipase PS in an iPr(2)O solvent system while maintaining excellent enantioselectivity; it reached approximately 500- to 1000-fold acceleration for some substrates with excellent enantioselectivity. A similar acceleration was also observed for IL 1-coated Candida rugosa lipase. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry experiments of the ionic-liquid-coated lipase PS suggest that ionic liquid binds with lipase protein.

  9. Transition-state charge stabilization through multiple non-covalent interactions in the guanidinium-catalyzed enantioselective Claisen rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Christopher; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2011-04-06

    The mechanism by which chiral arylpyrrole-substituted guanidinium ions promote the Claisen rearrangement of O-allyl α-ketoesters and induce enantioselectivity was investigated by experimental and computational methods. In addition to stabilization of the developing negative charge on the oxallyl fragment of the rearrangement transition state by hydrogen-bond donation, evidence was obtained for a secondary attractive interaction between the π-system of a catalyst aromatic substituent and the cationic allyl fragment. Across a series of substituted arylpyrrole derivatives, enantioselectivity was observed to vary predictably according to this proposal. This mechanistic analysis led to the development of a new p-dimethylaminophenyl-substituted catalyst, which afforded improvements in enantioselectivity relative to the parent phenyl catalyst for a representative set of substrates. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Transition State Charge Stabilization Through Multiple Non-Covalent Interactions in the Guanidinium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Claisen Rearrangement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyeda, Christopher; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which chiral arylpyrrole-substituted guanidinium ions promote the Claisen rearrangement of O-allyl α-ketoesters and induce enantioselectivity was investigated by experimental and computational methods. In addition to stabilization of the developing negative charge on the oxallyl fragment of the rearrangement transition state by hydrogen-bond donation, evidence was obtained for a secondary attractive interaction between the π-system of a catalyst aromatic substituent and the cationic allyl fragment. Across a series of substituted arylpyrrole derivatives, enantioselectivity was observed to vary predictably according to this proposal. This mechanistic analysis led to the development of a new p-dimethylaminophenyl-substituted catalyst, which afforded improvements in enantioselectivity relative to the parent phenyl catalyst for a representative set of substrates. PMID:21391614

  11. Enantioselective conjugate silyl additions to cyclic and acyclic unsaturated carbonyls catalyzed by Cu complexes of chiral N-heterocyclic carbenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Sang; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2010-03-10

    An efficient Cu-catalyzed protocol for enantioselective addition of a dimethylphenylsilanyl group to a wide range of cyclic and acyclic unsaturated ketones, esters, acrylonitriles, and alpha,beta,gamma,delta-dienones is disclosed. Reactions are performed in the presence of 1-2 mol % of commercially available and inexpensive CuCl, a readily accessible monodentate imidazolinium salt, and commercially available (dimethylphenylsilyl)pinacolatoboron. Cu-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate additions proceed to completion within only 2 h to afford the desired silanes in 87-97% yield and 90:10-99:1 enantiomeric ratio (er). Use of a proton source (e.g., MeOH) is not required; accordingly, synthetically versatile alpha-silyl boron enolates can be obtained. The special utility of the present protocol, in comparison with the related catalytic enantioselective aldol and boronate conjugate additions, is discussed and illustrated through various functionalizations of the enantiomerically enriched beta-silylcarbonyls.

  12. A direct approach to amines with remote stereocenters by enantioselective CuH-catalysed reductive relay hydroamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaolin; Niljianskul, Nootaree; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Amines with remote stereocenters (stereocenters that are three or more bonds away from the C–N bond) are important structural elements in many pharmaceutical agents and natural products. However, previously reported methods to prepare these compounds in an enantioselective manner are indirect and require multistep synthesis. Here we report a copper hydride-catalysed, enantioselective synthesis of γ- or δ-chiral amines from readily available allylic alcohols, esters, and ethers using a reductive relay hydroamination strategy (a net reductive process in which an amino group is installed at a site remote from the original C–C double bond). The protocol was suitable for substrates containing a wide range of functional groups and provided remote chiral amine products with high levels of regio- and enantioselectivity. Sequential amination of substrates containing several carbon-carbon double bonds could be achieved, demonstrating the high chemoselectivity of this process. PMID:26791897

  13. Enantioselective determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil and its enantioselective degradation in pak choi using HPLC with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Qing; Tian, Mingming; Zhang, Zhaoxian; Wang, Minghua

    2016-09-01

    An enantioselective method for the simultaneous determination of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl in vegetables, fruits, and soil has been established using high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. The complete enantioseparation was conducted by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with a cellulose-tris-(4-methylbenzoate) chiral stationary phase (CSP) (Lux Cellulose-3). The effects of different mobile phase compositions, temperatures, and flow rates on enantioseparation were also investigated. The experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism spectra indicate that the first peak is (S)-(+)-isofenphos-methyl and the second peak is (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl. Alumina-A and Florisil solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns were used to clean up for vegetable, fruit, and soil samples. The mean recoveries of the two enantiomers ranged from 83.2 to 110.9 % with intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) from 3.2 to 10.8 % and inter-day RSDs from 3.6 to 10 %. Good linearity (≥0.9992) was obtained for the two enantiomers in all matrix-matched calibration curves in the range of 0.25 to 20 mg L(-1). The limit of detection for two enantiomers in six matrices was in the range of 0.008 to 0.011 mg kg(-1), and the limit of quantification was estimated to range from 0.027 to 0.037 mg kg(-1). The results indicated that this method was a convenient and dependable approach for the simultaneous determination of isofenphos-methyl enantiomers in food and environmental samples. The stereoselective degradation of isofenphos-methyl in pak choi has shown that the (R)-(-)-isofenphos-methyl isomer (half-life t 1/2 = 2.2 days) degraded faster than the (S)-(+)-isomer (t 1/2 = 1.9 days). Graphical Abstract The enantioselective determination and enantioselective degradation of the chiral pesticide isofenphos-methyl.

  14. Facile modulation of enantioselectivity of thermophilic Geobacillus zalihae lipase by regulating hydrophobicity of its Q114 oxyanion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul Wahab, Roswanira; Basri, Mahiran; Raja Abdul Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin; Leow, Thean Chor

    2016-11-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of the oxyanion-containing amino acid Q114 in the recombinant thermophilic T1 lipase previously isolated from Geobacillus zalihae was performed to elucidate its role in the enzyme's enantioselectivity and reactivity. Substitution of Q114 with a hydrophobic methionine to yield mutant Q114M increased enantioselectivity (3.2-fold) and marginally improved reactivity (1.4-fold) of the lipase in catalysing esterification of ibuprofen with oleyl alcohol. The improved catalytic efficiency of Q114L was concomitant with reduced flexibility in the active site while the decreased enantioselectivity of Q114L could be directly attributed to diminished electrostatic repulsion of the substrate carboxylate ion that rendered partial loss in steric hindrance and thus enantioselectivity. The highest E-values for both Q114L (E-value 14.6) and Q114M (E-value 48.5) mutant lipases were attained at 50°C, after 12-16h, with a molar ratio of oleyl alcohol to ibuprofen of 1.5:1 and at 2.0% (w/v) enzyme load without addition of molecular sieves. Pertinently, site-directed mutagenesis on the Q114 oxyanion of T1 resulted in improved enantioselectivity and such approach may be applicable to other lipases of the same family. We demonstrated that electrostatic repulsion phenomena could affect flexibility/rigidity of the enzyme-substrate complex, aspects vital for enzyme activity and enantioselectivity of T1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of olive-mill waste addition to agricultural soil on the enantioselective behavior of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, Beatriz; Celis, Rafael; Hermosín, M Carmen; Cornejo, Juan

    2013-10-15

    Certain soil management practices can affect the enantioselective behavior of chiral pesticide enantiomers in agricultural soils. In this work, laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effects of olive-mill waste (OMW) addition to a Mediterranean agricultural soil on the enantioselectivity of sorption, degradation, and leaching processes of the chiral fungicide metalaxyl. Sorption-desorption isotherms indicated that the sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by unamended and OMW-amended soil (2% w/w) was non-enantioselective and that OMW addition had little effect on the extent of sorption of metalaxyl enantiomers by the soil. Soil incubation experiments revealed that the degradation of metalaxyl in unamended soil was highly enantioselective, with R-metalaxyl being degraded faster (t1/2 = 12 days) than S-metalaxyl (t1/2 = 39 days). OMW addition to the soil increased the half-life of the biologically-active R-metalaxyl enantiomer from 12 to 28 days, and decreased the half-life of the non-active S-metalaxyl enantiomer from 39 to 33 days. Consequently, the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl degradation in the soil was greatly reduced upon OMW addition. Column leaching data were consistent with batch sorption and incubation results, showing similar retardation of S- and R-metalaxyl in unamended and OMW-amended soil and enantioselective leaching of the fungicide only in unamended soil. The results have important implications regarding the biological efficacy and environmental impact of the fungicide when applied as a mixture of enantiomers or racemate to OMW-treated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Enantioselective palladium(II)-catalyzed formal [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of 2-allyloxypyridines and related heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Alessandro; Lee, Ernest E; Batey, Robert A

    2010-01-15

    Enantioselective palladium(II)-catalyzed formal [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of (E)- and (Z)-allyloxy substituted N-heterocycles generates N-allyl N-heterocyclic amides in good yields and high enantioselectivities (up to 96% ee). The chiral palladacycle COP-Cl (5 mol %) is used as a catalyst with silver(I) trifluoroacetate (10 mol %) at 35-45 degrees C. Examples of heterocycles synthesized include 2-pyridones, quinolin-2(1H)-ones, and isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones.

  17. Exploration of Cocatalyst Effects on a Bimetallic Cobalt Catalyst System: Enhanced Activity and Enantioselectivity in Epoxide Polymerization

    KAUST Repository

    Widger, Peter C. B.

    2011-07-26

    Organic ionic compounds were synthesized and investigated as cocatalysts with a bimetallic cobalt complex for enantioselective epoxide polymerization. The identities of both the cation and the anion were systematically varied, and the subsequent reactivity was studied. The nature of the ionic cocatalyst dramatically impacted the rate and enantioselectivity of the catalyst system. The ionic cocatalyst [P(N=P(N(CH2)4)3) 4 +][tBuCO2 -] in combination with a bimetallic cobalt complex produced a catalyst system that exhibited the greatest activity and selectivity for a variety of monosubstituted epoxides. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Novel smart chiral magnetic microspheres for enantioselective adsorption of tryptophan enantiomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lian-Di; Song, Ya-Ya; Yu, Hai-Rong; Pan, Li-Ting; Cheng, Chang-Jing

    2017-06-01

    Multifunctional microspheres simultaneously possessing chirality, magnetism and thermosensitivity show great potentials in direct enantiomeric separation. Herein we report a novel type of smart chiral magnetic microspheres with core/shell/shell structures (Fe3O4@SiO2@PNCD) and its application in enantioselective adsorption of tryptophan (Trp) enantiomers. The prepared Fe3O4@SiO2@PNCD are composed of a Fe3O4 nanoparticle core, an acidic-resistant SiO2 middle shell and a thermosensitive microgel functional shell (PNCD). The PNCD plays an important role in the enantioselective adsorption of Trp enantiomers. The β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) molecules on the PNCD act as smart receptors or chiral selectors, and can selectively recognize and bind L-Trp enantiomers into their cavities by forming host-guest inclusion complexes. The poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) chains on the PNCD serve as microenvironmental adjustors for the association constants of β-CD/L-Trp complexes. The fabricated Fe3O4@SiO2@PNCD demonstrate fascinating temperature-responsive chiral recognition and adsorption selectivity toward Trp enantiomers. Most importantly, the desorption of Trp enantiomers and the regeneration of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PNCD can be easily achieved via simply changing the operation temperature. Moreover, the regenerated Fe3O4@SiO2@PNCD can be readily recovered from the amino acids enantiomeric solution under an external magnetic field for reuse. The present study provides a novel strategy for the direct enantioselective adsorption and separation of various enantiomeric compounds.

  19. 3D chiral nanoplasmonics: fabrication, chiroptic engineering, mechanism, and application in enantioselection (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhifeng

    2015-09-01

    Chirality does naturally exist, and the building blocks of life (e.g. DNA, proteins, peptides and sugars) are usually chiral. Chirality inherently imposes chemical/biological selectivity on functional molecules; hence the discrimination in molecular chirality from an enantiomer to the other mirror image (i.e. enantioselection) has fundamental and application significance. Enantiomers interact with left and right handed circularly polarized light in a different manner with respect to optical extinction; hence, electronic circular dichroism (ECD) has been widely used for enantioselection. However, enantiomers usually have remarkably low ECD intensity, mainly owing to the small electric transition dipole moment induced by molecular sizes compared to the ECD-active wavelength in the UV-visible-near IR region. To enhance ECD magnitude, recently it has being developed 3D chiral nanoplasmonic structures having a helical path, and the dimensions are comparable to the ECD wavelength. However, it is still ambiguous the origin of 3D chiroplasmonics, and there is a lack of studying the interaction of 3D chiroplasmoncs with enantiomers for the application of enantioselection. Herein, we will present a one-step fabrication of 3D silver nanospirals (AgNSs) via low-substrate-temperature glancing angle deposition. AgNSs can be deposited on a wide range of substrates (including transparent and flexible substrates), in an area on the order of cm2. A set of spiral dimensions (such as spiral pitches, number of turns and handedness) have been easily engineered to tune the chiroptic properties, leading to studying the chiroplasmonic principles together with finite element simulation and the LC model. At the end, it will be demonstrated that 3D chiroplasmonics can differentiate molecular chirality of enantiomers with dramatic enhancement in the anisotropy g factor. This study opens a door to sensitively discriminate enantiomer chirality.

  20. Enzymatic Kinetic Resolution of 2-Piperidineethanol for the Enantioselective Targeted and Diversity Oriented Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perdicchia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available 2-Piperidineethanol (1 and its corresponding N-protected aldehyde (2 were used for the synthesis of several natural and synthetic compounds. The existence of a stereocenter at position 2 of the piperidine skeleton and the presence of an easily-functionalized group, such as the alcohol, set 1 as a valuable starting material for enantioselective synthesis. Herein, are presented both synthetic and enzymatic methods for the resolution of the racemic 1, as well as an overview of synthesized natural products starting from the enantiopure 1.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of anti-β-hydroxy-α-amido esters by asymmetric transfer hydrogenation in emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seashore-Ludlow, Brinton; Villo, Piret; Somfai, Peter

    2012-06-04

    Herein, we present two methods for an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation through the dynamic kinetic resolution of α-amido-β-ketoesters. These procedures yield the corresponding anti-β-hydroxy-α-amido esters in good yields and with good diastereo- and enantioselectivities. First, the scope of the reduction of α-amido-β-ketoesters by using triethylammonium formate azeotrope is examined. Then, an emulsion technology with sodium formate is explored, which allows for broader substrate scope, faster reaction times, and lower catalyst loading. Furthermore, these reactions are operationally simple and can be set up in air. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Zirconium(IV) and Hafnium(IV)-Catalyzed Highly Enantioselective Epoxidation of Homoallylic and Bishomoallylic Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    In this report, zirconium(IV) and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 81% yield and up to 98% ee, while for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 75% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclize compounds could be obtained in most cases. PMID:20481541

  3. Zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-catalyzed highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic and bishomoallylic alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Yamamoto, Hisashi

    2010-06-16

    In this report, zirconium(IV)- and hafnium(IV)-bishydroxamic acid complexes were utilized in the highly enantioselective epoxidation of homoallylic alcohols and bishomoallylic alcohols, which used to be quite difficult substrates for other types of asymmetric epoxidation reactions. The performance of the catalyst was improved by adding polar additive and molecular sieves. For homoallylic alcohols, the reaction could provide epoxy alcohols in up to 83% yield and up to 98% ee, while, for bishomoallylic alcohols, up to 79% yield and 99% ee of epoxy alcohols rather than cyclized tetrahydrofuran compounds could be obtained in most cases.

  4. (Diisopinocampheyl)borane-Mediated Reductive Aldol Reactions of Acrylate Esters: Enantioselective Synthesis of Anti-Aldols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Christophe; Nuhant, Philippe; Roush, William R.

    2013-01-01

    The (diisopinocampheyl)borane promoted reductive aldol reaction of acrylate esters 4 is described. Isomerization of the kinetically formed Z(O)-enolborinate 5Z to the thermodynamic E(O)-enolborinate 5E via 1,3-boratropic shifts, followed by treatment with representative achiral aldehydes, leads to anti-α-methyl-β-hydroxy esters 9 or 10 with excellent diastereo- (up to ≥20:1 dr) and enantioselectivity (up to 87% ee). Results of double asymmetric reactions of 5E with several chiral aldehydes are also presented. PMID:23885946

  5. Enantioselective developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos toward zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Shulin, E-mail: shulin@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Zhisheng [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Wenjing; Bao, Lingling [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Xu, Chao, E-mail: chaoxu@zjut.edu.cn [Research Center of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Zhang, Hu [Institute of Quality and Standard for Agro-products, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 210021 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Pyraclofos has significant enantioselective aquatic toxicities to zebrafish. • Pyraclofos induces time- and concentration-dependent developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity. • The mRNA level of IL-1β gene was significantly up-regulated by pyraclofos. • Pyraclofos binds potently to IL-1β, potentially affecting IL-1β-dependent proinflammatory signal transduction. • Our in vitro and in silico studies help to understand the molecular basis for aquatic toxicity of pyraclofos. - Abstract: Pyraclofos, a relatively new organophosphorus pesticide, has shown potential ecotoxicities, however, its aquatic toxicity, especially enantioselective aquatic toxicity, remains largely unknown. Using zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a preeminent vertebrate aquatic model, the enantioselective differences in the developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity of pyraclofos were evaluated. Following 96-h exposure, pyraclofos enantiomers exhibited acute toxicity and showed lethal concentration 50 of 2.23 and 3.99 mg/L for (R)-Pyraclofos and (S)-Pyraclofos, respectively. Exposure to pyraclofos caused time- and concentration-dependent malformations such as pericardial edema, yolk sac edema, crooked bodies and hatching during the embryonic development, with markedly higher percentages of malformation at higher concentrations. The concentration-dependent immunotoxicity to zebrafish embryo exposed to low level pyraclofos was induced with significant up-regulation of mRNA levels of immune-related interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene. (R)-Pyraclofos was consistently more toxic than (S)-Pyraclofos for the acute toxicity, developmental toxicity and immunotoxicity to zebrafish. Molecular dynamics simulations revealed that at the atomic level, (R)-Pyraclofos binds more potently to IL-1β protein than (S)-Pyraclofos. This enantioselective binding is mainly contributed by the distinct binding mode of pyraclofos enantiomers and their electrostatic interactions with IL-1β, which potentially

  6. Enantioselective reduction of ketoimines promoted by easily available (S-proline derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bonsignore

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of readily synthesized and even commercially available (S-proline derivatives, was studied in the trichlorosilane-mediated reduction of ketoimines. A small library of structurally and electronically modified chiral Lewis bases was considered; such compounds were shown to promote the enantioselective reduction of different substrates in good chemical yields. In the HSiCl3 addition to the model substrate N-phenylacetophenone imine, the organocatalyst of choice led to the formation of the corresponding amine with good stereoselectivity, up to 75% ee. Theoretical studies were also performed in order to elucidate the origin of the stereoselection.

  7. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of (−)-Acylfulvene and (−)-Irofulven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S.; Piizzi, Grazia; Piersanti, Giovanni; Movassaghi, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    We report our full account of the enantioselective total synthesis of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2), which features metathesis reactions for the rapid assembly of the molecular framework of these antitumor agents. We discuss (1) the application of an Evans’ Cu-catalyzed aldol addition reaction using a strained cyclopropyl ketenethioacetal, (2) an efficient enyne ring-closing metathesis (EYRCM) cascade reaction in a challenging setting, (3) the reagent IPNBSH for a late stage reductive allylic transposition reaction, and (4) the final RCM/dehydrogenation sequence for the formation of (−)-acylfulvene (1) and (−)-irofulven (2). PMID:19938810

  8. Enantioselective Total Syntheses of Kuwanon X, Kuwanon Y, and Kuwanol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Han, Jianguang; Lei, Xiaoguang

    2016-02-05

    The first enantioselective total syntheses of (-)-kuwanon X, (+)-kuwanon Y, and (+)-kuwanol A have been accomplished by using asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition promoted by chiral VANOL or VAPOL/boron Lewis acid. The biosynthesis-inspired asymmetric Diels-Alder cycloaddition shows high exo selectivity (exo/endo = 13/1), which was unprecedented in the previous total syntheses of related prenylflavonoid Diels-Alder natural products. An acid catalyzed intramolecular ketalization process enabled a biomimetic transformation to construct the polycyclic skeleton of kuwanol A efficiently.

  9. Enantioselective Synthesis of Isoquinolines: Merging Chiral-Phosphine and Gold Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Ning; Shi, Feng-Chen; Xu, Qin; Shi, Min

    2016-05-10

    The highly enantioselective synthesis of dihydroisoquinoline derivatives from aromatic sulfonated imines tethered with an alkyne moiety, through a one-pot asymmetric relay catalysis of chiral-phosphine and gold catalysts, is reported. Enantiomerically enriched dihydroisoquinoline derivatives were afforded in good yields and good-to-excellent ee values under mild conditions, based on the asymmetric aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction. Dihydroisoquinoline derivatives containing two chiral centers were also synthesized through further transformations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enantioselective Cycloaddition of Münchnones onto [60]Fullerene: Organocatalysis versus Metal Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Novel chiral catalytic systems based on both organic compounds and metal salts have been developed for the enantioselective [3 + 2] cycloaddition of münchnones onto fullerenes and olefins. These two different approaches proved to be efficient and complementary in the synthesis of optically active pyrrolino[3,4:1,2][60]fullerenes with high levels of enantiomeric excess and moderate to good conversions. Further functionalization of the pyrrolinofullerene carboxylic acid derivatives has been carried out by esterification and amidation reactions. PMID:24483247

  11. Enantioselective Effects of o,p'-DDT on Cell Invasion and Adhesion of Breast Cancer Cells: Chirality in Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangming; Dong, Xiaowu; Zou, Dehong; Yu, Yang; Fang, Qunying; Zhang, Quan; Zhao, Meirong

    2015-08-18

    The o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) with a chiral center possesses enantioselective estrogenic activity, in which R-(-)-o,p'-DDT exerts a more potent estrogenic effect than S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. Although concern regarding DDT exposure and breast cancer has increased in recent decades, the mode of enantioselective action of o,p'-DDT in breast cancer development is still unknown. Herein, we conducted a systematic study of the effect of o,p'-DDT on stereoselective breast tumor cell progression in a widely used in vitro breast tumor cell model, MCF-7 cells. We demonstrated that R-(-)-o,p'-DDT promoted more cancer cell invasion mediated by the human estrogen receptor (ER) by inducing invasion-promoted genes (matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and human telomerase reverse transcriptase) and inhibiting invasion-inhibited genes (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -4). Molecular docking verified that the binding affinity between R-(-)-o,p'-DDT and human ER was stronger than that of S-(+)-o,p'-DDT. The enantioselective-induced decrease in cell-to-cell adhesion may involve the downregulation of adhesion-promoted genes (E-cadherin and β-catenin). For the first time, these results reveal that estrogenic-like chiral compounds are of significant concern in the progression of human cancers and that human health risk assessment of chiral chemicals should consider enantioselectivity.

  12. Enantioselective Precipitate of Amines, Amino Alcohols, and Amino Acids via Schiff Base Reaction in the Presence of Chiral Ionic Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Datong; Cai, Pengfei; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2017-10-06

    Two novel chiral ionic liquids are synthesized as the chiral selector. Racemates of amines, amino alcohols, and amino acids could generate enantioselective precipitate with multicomponent self-assemblies under mild conditions. The approach allows for enantioseparation with good yields (79-94%) and excellent ee's (>95%).

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of benzofurans and benzoxazines via an olefin cross-metathesis-intramolecular oxo-Michael reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun-Wei; Cai, Quan; Gu, Qing; Shi, Xiao-Xin; You, Shu-Li

    2013-09-11

    Chiral phosphoric acid and Hoveyda-Grubbs II were found to catalyze an olefin cross-metathesis-intramolecular oxo-Michael cascade reaction of the ortho-allylphenols and enones to provide a variety of benzofuran and benzoxazine derivatives in moderate to good yields and enantioselectivity.

  14. Co(salen)-mediated enantioselective radiofluorination of epoxides. Synthesis and biological evaluation of both enantiomers of [18F]FMISO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revunov, Evgeny V.

    The purpose of this PhD project was to develop an enantioselective cobalt-mediated radiofluorination of epoxides and apply this methodology for radiosynthesis of the PET radiopharmaceutical [18F]FMISO. The developed procedure utilizes [18F]HF-gas (as an efficient source of nucleophilic 18F-fluori...

  15. Enantioselective lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of acyloxymethyl and ethoxycarbonylmethyl esters of 1,4-dihydroisonicotinic acid derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobolev, A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Poikans, J.; Duburs, G.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    The lipase-catalysed kinetic resolution of four derivatives of 4-[(acyloxy)methyl] and 4-ethoxycarbonylmethyl 3-methyl 5-propyl 2,6-dimethyl-1,4-dihydro-3,4,5-pyridinetricarboxylates has been investigated. Whereas the enantioselectivity of lipases towards the acyloxymethyl derivatives was rather

  16. Conjugate-base-stabilized Brønsted acids: catalytic enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reactions with unmodified tryptamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Nisha; Sun, Diana X; Seidel, Daniel

    2014-02-07

    A conjugate-base-stabilized Brønsted acid facilitates catalytic enantioselective Pictet-Spengler reactions with unmodified tryptamine. The chiral carboxylic acid catalyst is readily assembled in just two steps and enables the formation of β-carbolines with up to 92% ee. Achiral acid additives or in situ Boc-protection facilitate catalyst turnover.

  17. Enantioselective disposition of (R)-salmeterol and (S)-salmeterol in urine following inhaled dosing and application to doping control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobson, Glenn A; Hostrup, Morten; Narkowicz, Christian K

    2017-01-01

    of salmeterol pharmacokinetics. In this study, subjects inhaled either 50 (n = 6) or 200 µg (n = 4; generally regarded as maximum therapeutic dose) of salmeterol and urine was then collected for 24 h and analyzed by enantioselective ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC...

  18. Regio- and enantioselective copper-catalyzed allylic alkylation of ortho-substituted cinnamyl bromides with Grignard reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Molen, Nathalie C; Tiemersma-Wegman, Theodora D; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-05-15

    A highly efficient method for the copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of ortho-substituted cinnamyl bromides with Grignard reagents is reported. The use of a catalytic system comprising CuBr·SMe2 and TaniaPhos as chiral ligands gives rise to a range of branched products with excellent regio- and enantioselectivity.

  19. The Use of N-Type Ligands in the Enantioselective Liquid–Liquid Extraction of Underivatized Amino Acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuijl, Bastiaan J.V.; Schoonen, Anne K.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Feringa, Bernard

    The first palladium based extraction system using chiral N-based ligands in the enantioselective liquid–liquid extraction (ELLE) of underivatized amino acids, is presented. The system shows the highest selectivity for the ELLE of methionine with metal complexes as hosts reported to date.

  20. Enantioselective α-Alkenylation of Aldehydes with Boronic Acids via the Synergistic Combination of Copper(II) and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The enantioselective α-alkenylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using boronic acids via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. The merger of two highly utilized and robust catalytic systems has allowed for the development of a mild and operationally trivial protocol for the direct formation of α-formyl olefins employing common building blocks for organic synthesis. PMID:23889497

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of the C18-C25 segment of lasonolide A by an oxonia-cope prins cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgard, Jackline E; Rychnovsky, Scott D

    2005-04-14

    [reaction: see text] A 2-oxonia-Cope Prins cascade was developed that led to a facile and stereoselective synthesis of the C18-C25 segment of lasonolide A. The strategy nicely handles the introduction of the quaternary center in the tetrahydropyran ring, and all of the stereogenic centers in the product arise from a single stereocenter introduced in a catalytic enantioselective reaction.

  2. Kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols with ionic-surfactant-coated Burkholderia cepacia lipase: substrate scope and enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Cheolwoo; Lee, Jusuk; Cho, Jeonghun; Oh, Yeonock; Choi, Yoon Kyung; Choi, Eunjeong; Park, Jaiwook; Kim, Mahn-Joo

    2013-03-15

    Forty-four different secondary alcohols, which can be classified into several types (II-IX), were tested as the substrates of ionic surfactant-coated Burkholderia cepacia lipase (ISCBCL) to see its substrate scope and enantioselectivity in kinetic and dynamic kinetic resolution (KR and DKR). They include 6 boron-containing alcohols, 24 chiral propargyl alcohols, and 14 diarylmethanols. The results from the studies on KR indicate that ISCBCL accepted most of them with high enantioselectivity at ambient temperature and with useful to high enantioselectivity at elevated temperatures. In particular, ISCBCL displayed high enantioselectivity toward sterically demanding secondary alcohols (types VIII and IX) which have two bulky substituents at the hydroxymethine center. DKR reactions were performed by the combination of ISCBCL with a ruthenium-based racemization catalyst at 25-60 °C. Forty-one secondary alcohols were tested for DKR. About half of them were transformed into their acetates of high enantiopurity (>90% ee) with good yields (>80%). It is concluded that ISCBCL appears to be a superb enzyme for the KR and DKR of secondary alcohols.

  3. Combinatorial library based engineering of Candida antarctica lipase A for enantioselective transacylation of sec-alcohols in organic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikmark, Ylva; Svedendahl Humble, Maria; Bäckvall, Jan-E

    2015-03-27

    A method for determining lipase enantioselectivity in the transacylation of sec-alcohols in organic solvent was developed. The method was applied to a model library of Candida antarctica lipase A (CalA) variants for improved enantioselectivity (E values) in the kinetic resolution of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane. A focused combinatorial gene library simultaneously targeting seven positions in the enzyme active site was designed. Enzyme variants were immobilized on nickel-coated 96-well microtiter plates through a histidine tag (His6-tag), screened for transacylation of 1-phenylethanol in isooctane, and analyzed by GC. The highest enantioselectivity was shown by the double mutant Y93L/L367I. This enzyme variant gave an E value of 100 (R), which is a dramatic improvement on the wild-type CalA (E=3). This variant also showed high to excellent enantioselectivity for other secondary alcohols tested. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  4. Enantioselective decomposition of chiral alkyl bromides on Cu(6 4 3) R&S: Effects of moving the chiral center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampulla, D. M.; Gellman, A. J.

    2006-07-01

    The enantioselective surface chemistry of two chiral alkyl halides, S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane and R-2-bromobutane, have been compared on the naturally chiral Cu(6 4 3) R&S surfaces. Temperature programmed reaction spectroscopy was used to quantify the yields of the various decomposition products during heating. A fraction of the adsorbed alkyl bromides desorb intact while the remainder decomposes by debromination to form either S-2-methyl-1-butyl or R-2-butyl groups on the surfaces. The S-2-methyl-1-butyl group then reacts by β-hydride elimination to form 2-methyl-1-butene or by hydrogenation to form 2-methylbutane. The R-2-butyl group reacts by β-hydride elimination to form butene or by hydrogenation to form butane. This surface chemistry on Cu(6 4 3) R&S is not enantioselective at low coverages but is enantioselective at high coverages. In R-2-bromobutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the debromination reaction center while the β-hydride elimination centers are achiral. In S-1-bromo-2-methylbutane the chiral carbon atom coincides with the β-hydride elimination reaction center while the center for debromination is achiral. Results show that the enantioselectivities are influenced by the surface structure to a greater extent than they are by the adsorbate structure.

  5. Rhodium-catalyzed enantioselective hydrogenation of α-amino acrylonitriles: an efficient approach to synthesizing chiral α-amino nitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuxiu; You, Cai; Yang, Yusheng; Wang, Fangyuan; Li, Shuailong; Lv, Hui; Zhang, Xumu

    2017-01-19

    An efficient rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of α-amino acrylonitriles has been developed, affording α-acylamino nitriles with high yields and excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% yield and >99% ee). This novel methodology provides an efficient and concise synthetic route to chiral α-amino nitriles, which are versatile intermediates in organic synthesis.

  6. Mutation of Residue beta F71 of Escherichia coli Penicillin Acylase Results in Enhanced Enantioselectivity and Improved Catalytic Properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shapovalova, I. V.; Alkema, W. B. L.; Jamskova, O. V.; de Vries, E.; Guranda, D. T.; Janssen, D. B.; Svedas, V. K.

    2009-01-01

    Residue phenylalanine 71 of the beta-chain of penicillin acylase from E. coil is involved in substrate binding and chiral discrimination of its enantiomers. Different amino acid residues have been introduced at position beta F71, and the mutants were studied with respect to their enantioselectivity

  7. Mechanism-based enhancement of scope and enantioselectivity for reactions involving a copper-substituted stereogenic carbon centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehee; Radomkit, Suttipol; Torker, Sebastian; Del Pozo, Juan; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2018-01-01

    A rapidly emerging set of catalytic reactions involves intermediates that contain a copper-substituted stereogenic carbon centre. Here, we demonstrate that an intimate understanding of this distinction provides ways for addressing limitations in reaction scope and explaining why unexpected variations in enantioselectivity often occur. By using catalytic enantioselective Cu-boryl addition to alkenes as the model process, we elucidate several key mechanistic principles. We show that higher electrophile concentration can lead to elevated enantioselectivity. This is because diastereoselective Cu-H elimination may be avoided and/or achiral Cu-boryl intermediates can be converted to allyl-B(pin) rather than add to an alkene. We illustrate that lower alkene amounts and/or higher chiral ligand concentration can minimize the deleterious influence of achiral Cu-alkyl species, resulting in improved enantiomeric ratios. Moreover, and surprisingly, we find that enantioselectivities are higher with the less reactive allylphenyl carbonates as chemoselective copper-hydride elimination is faster with an achiral Cu-alkyl species.

  8. Combination of Oxyanion Gln114 Mutation and Medium Engineering to Influence the Enantioselectivity of Thermophilic Lipase from Geobacillus zalihae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Roswanira Abdul; Basri, Mahiran; Rahman, Mohd Basyaruddin Abdul; Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Leow, Thean Chor

    2012-01-01

    The substitution of the oxyanion Q114 with Met and Leu was carried out to investigate the role of Q114 in imparting enantioselectivity on T1 lipase. The mutation improved enantioselectivity in Q114M over the wild-type, while enantioselectivity in Q114L was reduced. The enantioselectivity of the thermophilic lipases, T1, Q114L and Q114M correlated better with log p as compared to the dielectric constant and dipole moment of the solvents. Enzyme activity was good in solvents with log p < 3.5, with the exception of hexane which deviated substantially. Isooctane was found to be the best solvent for the esterification of (R,S)-ibuprofen with oleyl alcohol for lipases Q114M and Q114L, to afford E values of 53.7 and 12.2, respectively. Selectivity of T1 was highest in tetradecane with E value 49.2. Solvents with low log p reduced overall lipase activity and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) completely inhibited the lipases. Ester conversions, however, were still low. Molecular sieves employed as desiccant were found to adversely affect catalysis in the lipase variants, particularly in Q114M. The higher desiccant loading also increased viscosity in the reaction and further reduced the efficiency of the lipase-catalyzed esterifications. PMID:23109876

  9. Lewis acid-Lewis base catalyzed enantioselective hetero-Diels-Alder reaction for direct access to delta-lactones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiseni, Paolo S; Peters, René

    2008-05-15

    A complex formed in situ from Er(OTf)3 and a simple commercially available norephedrine ligand promotes an unprecedented [4 + 2] cycloaddition of alpha,beta-unsaturated acid chlorides with a broad range of aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes by a cooperative bifunctional Lewis acid-Lewis base catalytic mode of action providing valuable delta-lactone building blocks with excellent enantioselectivity.

  10. Palladium-Catalyzed Enantioselective C-H Activation of Aliphatic Amines Using Chiral Anionic BINOL-Phosphoric Acid Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalley, Adam P; Cuthbertson, James D; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    The design of an enantioselective Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H amination reaction is described. The use of a chiral BINOL phosphoric acid ligand enables the conversion of readily available amines into synthetically valuable aziridines in high enantiomeric ratios. The aziridines can be derivatized to afford a range of chiral amine building blocks incorporating motifs readily encountered in pharmaceutically relevant molecules.

  11. Continuous chiral separation of amino acid derivatives by enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction in centrifugal contactor separators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuur, Boelo; Floure, Joelle; Hallett, Andrew J.; Winkelman, Jozef G.M.; Vries, Johannes G. de; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    The continuous enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of aqueous 3,5-dinitrobenzoyl-D,L-leucine (DNB-d,l-leu) by a cinchona alkaloid extractant (CA) in 1,2-dichloroethane using a centrifugal contact separator (CCS) was studied at 294 K. Typical concentrations were in the order of 1 mM for both

  12. Improved enantioselective conversion of styrene epoxides and meso-epoxides through epoxide hydrolases with a mutated nucleophile-flanking residue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loo, Bert; Kingma, Jaap; Heyman, Gertjan; Wittenaar, Alex; Lutje Spelberg, Jeffrey H.; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B.

    2009-01-01

    In epoxide hydrolase from Agrobacterium radiobacter (EchA), phenylalanine 108 flanks the nucleophilic aspartate and forms part of the substrate-binding pocket. The influence of mutations at this position on the activity and enantioselectivity of the enzyme was investigated. Screening for improved

  13. Integration of on-column catalysis and EKC analysis: investigation of enantioselective sulfoxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuessl, Simone; Trapp, Oliver

    2012-03-01

    A novel technique is presented to investigate catalytic reactions by coupling a fused-silica capillary coated with an immobilized catalyst and a bare fused-silica capillary to achieve separation of the reaction products and to generate an electroosmotic flow, which drives the transport of the reactants and products through the catalytically active capillary. The principle of this technique is illustrated by the enantioselective sulfoxidation of benzylphenylsulfide with hydrogen peroxide to the corresponding sulfoxide in the presence of a vanadium(IV)-salen catalyst, which is immobilized to nonpolar polysiloxane and permanently bonded to the inner surface of the reaction capillary. The enantiomeric ratio of the reaction product is simultaneously determined by electrokinetic chromatography using 150 mg/mL sulfated β-cyclodextrin as chiral additive in 10 mM sodium dihydrogenphosphate background electrolyte at pH 8.3. In contrast to conventional enantioselective sulfoxidations of benzylphenylsulfide using the vanadium(IV)-salen catalyst, which give ees of up to 11%, an ee of up to 23% was achieved by this approach. Furthermore, the presented technique offers many more advantages, such as improved substrate selectivity using the nonpolar polysiloxane phase as a solvent, the feasibility to perform high-throughput kinetic measurements of substrate libraries, rapid screening and investigation of stereolabile compounds, that is, chiral sulfoxides, and screening of reactions using only minute amounts of reagents. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D Bohbot

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Enantiomers differ only in the left or right handedness (chirality of their orientations and exhibit identical chemical and physical properties. In chemical communication systems, enantiomers can be differentially active at the physiological and behavioral levels. Only recently were enantioselective odorant receptors demonstrated in mammals while their existence in insects has remained hypothetical. Using the two-microelectrode voltage clamp of Xenopus oocytes, we show that the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, odorant receptor 8 (AaOR8 acts as a chiral selective receptor for the (R-(--enantiomer of 1-octen-3-ol, which in the presence of other kairomones is an attractant used by blood-sucking insects to locate their hosts. In addition to steric constraints, chain length and degree of unsaturation play important roles in this recognition process. This is the first characterization of an enantioselective odorant receptor in insects and the results demonstrate that an OR alone, without helper proteins, can account for chiral specificity exhibited by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs.

  15. Enantioselective Transamination in Continuous Flow Mode with Transaminase Immobilized in a Macrocellular Silica Monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludivine van den Biggelaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ω-Transaminases have been immobilized on macrocellular silica monoliths and used as heterogeneous biocatalysts in a continuous flow mode enantioselective transamination reaction. The support was prepared by a sol-gel method based on emulsion templating. The enzyme was immobilized on the structured silica monoliths both by adsorption, and by covalent grafting using amino-functionalized silica monoliths and glutaraldehyde as a coupling agent. A simple reactor set-up based on the use of a heat-shrinkable Teflon tube is presented and successfully used for the continuous flow kinetic resolution of a chiral amine, 4-bromo-α-methylbenzylamine. The porous structure of the supports ensures effective mass transfer and the reactor works in the plug flow regime without preferential flow paths. When immobilized in the monolith and used in the flow reactor, transaminases retain their activity and their enantioselectivity. The solid biocatalyst is also shown to be stable both on stream and during storage. These essential features pave the way to the successful development of an environmentally friendly process for chiral amines production.

  16. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2007-07-20

    The generality of Lewis base catalyzed, Lewis acid mediated, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions has been investigated. The combination of silicon tetrachloride and chiral phosphoramides is a competent catalyst for highly selective additions of a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-, 1,3-diketone-, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates to aldehydes. These reactions provided high levels of gamma-site selectivity for a variety of substitution patterns on the dienyl unit. Both ketone- and morpholine amide-derived dienol ethers afforded high enantio- and diastereoselectivity in the addition to conjugated aldehydes. Although alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-derived dienolate did not react with aliphatic aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates underwent addition at reasonable rates affording high yields of vinylogous aldol product. The enantioselectivities achieved with the morpholine derived-dienolate in the addition to aliphatic aldehydes was the highest afforded to date with the silicon tetrachloride-chiral phosphoramide system. Furthermore, the ability to cleanly convert the morpholine amide to a methyl ketone was demonstrated.

  17. Enantioselectivity of human AMP, dTMP and UMP-CMP kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Julie A C; Roy, Béatrice; Topalis, Dimitri; Pochet, Sylvie; Périgaud, Christian; Deville-Bonne, Dominique

    2007-01-01

    L-nucleoside analogues such as lamivudine are active for treating viral infections. Like D-nucleosides, the biological activity of the L-enantiomers requires their stepwise phosphorylation by cellular or viral kinases to give the triphosphate. The enantioselectivity of NMP kinases has not been thoroughly studied, unlike that of deoxyribonucleoside kinases. We have therefore investigated the capacity of L-enantiomers of some natural (d)NMP to act as substrates for the recombinant forms of human uridylate-cytidylate kinase, thymidylate kinase and adenylate kinases 1 and 2. Both cytosolic and mitochondrial adenylate kinases were strictly enantioselective, as they phosphorylated only D-(d)AMP. L-dTMP was a substrate for thymidylate kinase, but with an efficiency 150-fold less than D-dTMP. Both L-dUMP and L-(d)CMP were phosphorylated by UMP-CMP kinase although much less efficiently than their natural counterparts. The stereopreference was conserved with the 2'-azido derivatives of dUMP and dUMP while, unexpectedly, the 2'-azido-D-dCMP was a 4-fold better substrate for UMP-CMP kinase than was CMP. Docking simulations showed that the small differences in the binding of D-(d)NMP to their respective kinases could account for the differences in interactions of the L-isomers with the enzymes. This in vitro information was then used to develop the in vivo activation pathway for L-dT.

  18. Influence of gasoline inhalation on the enantioselective pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Juciane Lauren Cavalcanti; Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Pereira, Maria Paula Marques; Capela, Jorge Manuel Vieira; Lepera, José Salvador

    2013-03-01

    Fluoxetine is used clinically as a racemic mixture of (+)-(S) and (-)-(R) enantiomers for the treatment of depression. CYP2D6 catalyzes the metabolism of both fluoxetine enantiomers. We aimed to evaluate whether exposure to gasoline results in CYP2D inhibition. Male Wistar rats exposed to filtered air (n = 36; control group) or to 600 ppm of gasoline (n = 36) in a nose-only inhalation exposure chamber for 6 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week) received a single oral 10-mg/kg dose of racemic fluoxetine. Fluoxetine enantiomers in plasma samples were analyzed by a validated analytical method using LC-MS/MS. The separation of fluoxetine enantiomers was performed in a Chirobiotic V column using as the mobile phase a mixture of ethanol:ammonium acetate 15 mM. Higher plasma concentrations of the (+)-(S)-fluoxetine enantiomer were found in the control group (enantiomeric ratio AUC((+)-(S)/(-)-(R)) = 1.68). In animals exposed to gasoline, we observed an increase in AUC(0-∞) for both enantiomers, with a sharper increase seen for the (-)-(R)-fluoxetine enantiomer (enantiomeric ratio AUC((+)-(S)/(-)-(R)) = 1.07), resulting in a loss of enantioselectivity. Exposure to gasoline was found to result in the loss of enantioselectivity of fluoxetine, with the predominant reduction occurring in the clearance of the (-)-(R)-fluoxetine enantiomer (55% vs. 30%). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Poly(propylene carbonate): Insight into the Microstructure and Enantioselective Ring-Opening Mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Salmeia, Khalifah A.

    2012-11-13

    Different poly(propylene carbonate) (PPC) microstructures have been synthesized from the alternating copolymerization of CO 2 with both racemic propylene oxide (PO) and various mixtures of PO enantiomers using chiral salen catalysts. The microstructures of the obtained copolymers as a function of polymerization time have been analyzed by a combination of chiral GC and high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The 13C NMR spectra of selected poly(propylene carbonate) samples were recorded using a 900 MHz ( 1H) spectrometer, showing a previously unreported fine splitting of the carbonate resonances. This allowed a detailed assignment of signals for various copolymer microstructures taking into account the specifics in their stereo- and regioirregularities. For example, the enantioselectivity preference of the (R,R-salen)Co catalyst for (S)-PO at the beginning of the copolymerization leads predominantly to (S)-PO insertion, with any (R)-PO misinsertion being followed by incorporation of (S)-PO, so that the microstructure features isolated stereoerrors. K rel calculations for the copolymerization showed around 5-fold enantioselectivity for (S)-PO over (R)-PO at short reaction time. Analysis of the copolymer microstructures obtained under various reaction conditions appears to be an additional approach to differentiate the occurrence of bimetallic and bifunctional copolymerization mechanisms that are widely discussed in the literature. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. Regio- and enantioselective microbial hydroxylation and evaluation of cytotoxic activity of β-cyclocitral-derived halolactones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Mazur

    Full Text Available Three β-cyclocitral-derived halolactones, which exhibit antifeedant activity towards storage product pests, were subjected to microbial transformation processes. Among the thirty tested strains of filamentous fungi and yeast, the most effective biocatalysts were Absidia cylindrospora AM336, Mortierella isabellina AM212 and Mortierella vinaceae AM149. As a result of regio- and enantioselective hydroxylation four new oxygenated derivatives were obtained. Regardless of the biocatalyst applied, the δ-iodo- and δ-bromo-γ-lactones were hydroxylated in an inactivated position C-5 of cyclohexane ring. The analogous transformation of chlorolactone was observed in Mortierella isabellina AM212 culture but in the case of two other biocatalysts the hydroxy group was introduced at C-3 position. All obtained hydroxylactones were enantiomerically pure (ee = 100% or enriched (ee = 50%. The highest enantioselectivity of hydroxylation was observed for M. isabellina AM212. The cytotoxic activity of halolactones was also examined by WST-1 assay wherein tested compounds did not exhibit significant effect on the viability of tumor HeLa and normal CHO-K1 cells.

  1. Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 for Enantioselective Bioconversion of Aromatic Secondary Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Zhang, Chong; Orita, Izumi; Imanaka, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    A novel thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) showing activity toward aromatic secondary alcohols was identified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkADH). The gene, tk0845, which encodes an aldo-keto reductase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. It was highly thermostable with an optimal temperature of 90°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C. The apparent Km values for the cofactors NAD(P)+ and NADPH were similar within a range of 66 to 127 μM. TkADH preferred secondary alcohols and accepted various ketones and aldehydes as substrates. Interestingly, the enzyme could oxidize 1-phenylethanol and its derivatives having substituents at the meta and para positions with high enantioselectivity, yielding the corresponding (R)-alcohols with optical purities of greater than 99.8% enantiomeric excess (ee). TkADH could also reduce 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol with high enantioselectivity (>99.6% ee). Furthermore, the enzyme showed high resistance to organic solvents and was particularly highly active in the presence of H2O–20% 2-propanol and H2O–50% n-hexane or n-octane. This ADH is expected to be a useful tool for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols. PMID:23354700

  2. Evaluating the enantioselective distribution, degradation and excretion of epoxiconazole in mice following a single oral gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dezhen; Qiu, Jing; Zhu, Wentao; Zhang, Ping; Deng, Nian; Wang, Xinru; Wang, Yao; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2015-01-01

    1. The enantiomeric enrichment or degradation of epoxiconazole has been reported in grape, soil, tubifex and mealworm beetle. But, little is known about its enantioselective behaviors in mammals. 2. To further understand differences in the distribution, degradation and excretion of epoxiconazole enantiomers in vivo, male CD-1 mice were selected as the test model to investigate the enantioselective behaviors after a single oral gavage. Mice were sacrificed after 1 h, 3 h, 7 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h treatment, blood, tissues and excretions were collected for epoxiconazole analysis by LC-MS/MS. 3. On the Lux-Cellulose-1 chiral column, an enrichment of the second eluting (+)-epoxiconazole was generally observed, and feces and urine showed similar EF with major tissues. 4. To elucidate the potential role of intestinal bacterial flora in stereospecific degradation of epoxiconazole, mice fecal flora were cultured in vitro and incubated with epoxiconazole for 48 h. Results showed that (-)-epoxiconazole was preferentially degraded by intestinal bacterial. 5. These results may provide useful information for risk assessment of epoxiconazole on non-target animals.

  3. Thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 for enantioselective bioconversion of aromatic secondary alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xi; Zhang, Chong; Orita, Izumi; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Fukui, Toshiaki; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2013-04-01

    A novel thermostable alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) showing activity toward aromatic secondary alcohols was identified from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis KOD1 (TkADH). The gene, tk0845, which encodes an aldo-keto reductase, was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The enzyme was found to be a monomer with a molecular mass of 31 kDa. It was highly thermostable with an optimal temperature of 90°C and a half-life of 4.5 h at 95°C. The apparent K(m) values for the cofactors NAD(P)(+) and NADPH were similar within a range of 66 to 127 μM. TkADH preferred secondary alcohols and accepted various ketones and aldehydes as substrates. Interestingly, the enzyme could oxidize 1-phenylethanol and its derivatives having substituents at the meta and para positions with high enantioselectivity, yielding the corresponding (R)-alcohols with optical purities of greater than 99.8% enantiomeric excess (ee). TkADH could also reduce 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone to (R)-2,2,2-trifluoro-1-phenylethanol with high enantioselectivity (>99.6% ee). Furthermore, the enzyme showed high resistance to organic solvents and was particularly highly active in the presence of H2O-20% 2-propanol and H2O-50% n-hexane or n-octane. This ADH is expected to be a useful tool for the production of aromatic chiral alcohols.

  4. Enantioselective Dissipation of Acephate and Its Metabolite, Methamidophos, during Tea Cultivation, Manufacturing, and Infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Rong; Chen, Hongping; Wang, Chen; Wang, Qinghua; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Xin

    2015-02-04

    The enantioselective dissipation of acephate and its metabolite, methamidophos, was investigated during tea cultivation, manufacturing, and infusion, using QuEChERS sample preparation technique and gas chromatography coupled with a BGB-176 chiral column. Results showed that (+)-acephate and (-)-acephate dissipated following first-order kinetics in fresh tea leaves with half-lives of 1.8 and 1.9 days, respectively. Acephate was degraded into a more toxic metabolite, methamidophos. Preferential dissipation and translocation of (+)-acephate may exist in tea shoots, and (-)-methamidophos was degraded more rapidly than (+)-methamidophos. During tea manufacturing, drying and spreading (or withering) played important roles in the dissipation of acephate enantiomers. The enantiometic fractions of acephate changed from 0.495-0.496 to 0.479-0.486 (P ≤ 0.0081), whereas those of methamidophos changed from 0.576-0.630 to 0.568-0.645 (P ≤ 0.0366 except for green tea manufacturing on day 1), from fresh tea leaves to made tea. In addition, high transfer rates (>80%) and significant enantioselectivity (P ≤ 0.0042) of both acephate and its metabolite occurred during tea brewing.

  5. Bioaccumulation and enantioselectivity of type I and type II pyrethroid pesticides in earthworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jing; Wang, Yinghuan; Wang, Huili; Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-02-01

    In this study, the bioavailability and enantioselectivity differences between bifenthrin (BF, typeⅠpyrethroid) and lambad-cyhalothrin (LCT, type Ⅱ pyrethroid) in earthworm (Eisenia fetida) were investigated. The bio-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of BF was about 4 times greater than that of LCT. LCT was degraded faster than BF in soil while eliminated lower in earthworm samples. Compound sorption plays an important role on bioavailability in earthworm, and the soil-adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of BF and LCT were 22 442 and 42 578, respectively. Metabolic capacity of earthworm to LCT was further studied as no significant difference in the accumulation of LCT between the high and low dose experiment was found. 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBCOOH), a metabolite of LCT produced by earthworm was detected in soil. The concentration of PBCOOH at high dose exposure was about 4.7 times greater than that of in low dose level at the fifth day. The bioaccumulation of BF and LCT were both enantioselective in earthworm. The enantiomer factors of BF and LCT in earthworm were approximately 0.12 and 0.65, respectively. The more toxic enantiomers ((+)-BF and (-)-LCT) had a preferential degradation in earthworm and leaded to less toxicity on earthworm for racemate exposure. In combination with other studies, a liner relationship between Log BSAF(S) and Log K(ow) was observed, and the Log BSAF(S) decreased with the increase of Log K(ow). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution of secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts: catalyst structure, active species, and substrate scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiichi; Sasano, Yusuke; Tomizawa, Masaki; Shibuya, Masatoshi; Kwon, Eunsang; Iwabuchi, Yoshiharu

    2014-12-17

    The development and characterization of enantioselective organocatalytic oxidative kinetic resolution (OKR) of racemic secondary alcohols using chiral alkoxyamines as precatalysts are described. A number of chiral alkoxyamines have been synthesized, and their structure-enantioselectivity correlation study in OKR has led us to identify a promising precatalyst, namely, 7-benzyl-3-n-butyl-4-oxa-5-azahomoadamantane, which affords various chiral aliphatic secondary alcohols (ee up to >99%, k(rel) up to 296). In a mechanistic study, chlorine-containing oxoammonium species were identified as the active species generated in situ from the alkoxyamine precatalyst, and it was revealed that the chlorine atom is crucial for high reactivity and enantioselectivity. The present OKR is the first successful example applicable to various unactivated aliphatic secondary alcohols, including heterocyclic alcohols with high enantioselectivity, the synthetic application of which is demonstrated by the synthesis of a bioactive compound.

  7. Asymmetric NHC-catalyzed aza-Diels-Alder reactions: Highly enantioselective route to α-amino acid derivatives and DFT calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Limin

    2014-08-01

    A facile N-heterocyclic carbene catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of oxodiazenes with α-chloroaldehydes as dienophile precursors is reported, with excellent enantioselectivity (ee > 99%) and excellent yield (up to 93%). DFT study showed that cis-TSa, formed from a top face approach of oxodiazene to cis-IIa, is the most favorable transition state and is consistent with the experimental observations. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Enantioselective organocatalyzed Oxa-Michael-Aldol cascade reactions: Construction of chiral 4H-chromenes with a trifluoromethylated tetrasubstituted carbon stereocenter

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Jing

    2015-03-13

    The first organocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of 4H-chromenes bearing a trifluoromethylated tetrasubstituted carbon center is presented. Chiral secondary amines promote the oxa-Michael-aldol cascade reaction between alkynals and 2-trifluoroacetylphenols via iminium-allenamine activation to produce pharmaceutically important heterocycles with excellent enantioselectivities. The proposed reaction can be scaled-up easily with maintenance of the excellent enantioselectivity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structure and Dynamics of Individual Diastereomeric Complexes on Platinum: Surface Studies Related to Heterogeneous Enantioselective Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yi; Goubert, Guillaume; Groves, Michael N; Lemay, Jean-Christian; Hammer, Bjørk; McBreen, Peter H

    2017-05-16

    The modification of heterogeneous catalysts through the chemisorption of chiral molecules is a method to create catalytic sites for enantioselective surface reactions. The chiral molecule is called a chiral modifier by analogy to the terms chiral auxiliary or chiral ligand used in homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. While there has been progress in understanding how chirality transfer occurs, the intrinsic difficulties in determining enantioselective reaction mechanisms are compounded by the multisite nature of heterogeneous catalysts and by the challenges facing stereospecific surface analysis. However, molecular descriptions have now emerged that are sufficiently detailed to herald rapid advances in the area. The driving force for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective catalysts stems, at the minimum, from the practical advantages they might offer over their homogeneous counterparts in terms of process scalability and catalyst reusability. The broader rewards from their study lie in the insights gained on factors controlling selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Reactions on surfaces to produce a desired enantiomer in high excess are particularly challenging since at room temperature, barrier differences as low as ∼2 kcal/mol between pathways to R and S products are sufficient to yield an enantiomeric ratio (er) of 90:10. Such small energy differences are comparable to weak interadsorbate interaction energies and are much smaller than chemisorption or even most physisorption energies. In this Account, we describe combined experimental and theoretical surface studies of individual diastereomeric complexes formed between chiral modifiers and prochiral reactants on the Pt(111) surface. Our work is inspired by the catalysis literature on the enantioselective hydrogenation of activated ketones on cinchona-modified Pt catalysts. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we probe the structures

  10. Physical-Chemical Properties of the Chiral Fungicide Fenamidone and Strategies for Enantioselective Crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Anne-Kathleen; Lorenz, Heike; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters are of prime importance for designing crystallization processes. In this article, Preferential Crystallization, as a special approach to carry out enantioselective crystallization, is described to resolve the enantiomers of the chiral fungicide fenamidone. In preliminary investigations the melting behavior and solid-liquid equilibria in the presence of solvents were quantified. The analyses revealed a stable solid phase behavior of fenamidone in the applied solvents. Based on the results obtained, a two-step crystallization route was designed and realized capable of providing highly pure enantiomers. An initial Preferential Crystallization of the racemate was performed prior to crystallizing the target enantiomer preferentially out of the enriched mother liquor. Chirality 28:514-520, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Engineering chiral porous metal-organic frameworks for enantioselective adsorption and separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yongwu; Gong, Tengfei; Zhang, Kang; Lin, Xiaochao; Liu, Yan; Jiang, Jianwen; Cui, Yong

    2014-07-01

    The separation of racemic molecules is of substantial significance not only for basic science but also for technical applications, such as fine chemicals and drug development. Here we report two isostructural chiral metal-organic frameworks decorated with chiral dihydroxy or -methoxy auxiliares from enantiopure tetracarboxylate-bridging ligands of 1,1‧-biphenol and a manganese carboxylate chain. The framework bearing dihydroxy groups functions as a solid-state host capable of adsorbing and separating mixtures of a range of chiral aromatic and aliphatic amines, with high enantioselectivity. The host material can be readily recycled and reused without any apparent loss of performance. The utility of the present adsorption separation is demonstrated in the large-scale resolution of racemic 1-phenylethylamine. Control experiments and molecular simulations suggest that the chiral recognition and separation are attributed to the different orientations and specific binding energies of the enantiomers in the microenvironment of the framework.

  12. Toward the Total Synthesis of Amphidinolide O: An Enantioselective Synthesis of C3-C8 Fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Minho; Lee, Duckhyung [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-15

    The methyl ester 4, a C3-C8 fragment of am-phidinolide O (1), was prepared enantioselectively via 11 steps in 14% overall yields. The diastereoselective Ireland-Claisen rearrangement of 5 via the corresponding (E)-enolate intermediate was used as a key step in order to implement the C4 and C5 chiral centers. Retrosynthetic analysis was described in Figure 1. Amphi-dinolide O (1) might be assembled from two intermediates 2 and 3 via esterification and ring closing metathesis as key steps. Intermediate 4, a precursor to 3 as well as the target molecule in this paper, involves the γ,δ-unsaturated ester moiety along with α,β-chiral substituents with anti-stereochemical relationship.

  13. The Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Bisquinolizidine Alkaloids: A Modular 'Inside-Out' Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnagel, Dagmar; Goller, Jessica; Deibl, Nicklas; Milius, Wolfgang; Breuning, Matthias

    2018-01-23

    Bisquinolizidine alkaloids are characterized by a chiral bispidine core (3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane) to which combinations of an alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone, an endo- or exo-alpha,N-annulated piperidin(on)e, and an exo-allyl substituent are attached. We developed a modular 'inside-out' approach that permits access to most members of this class. Its applicability was proven in the asymmetric synthesis of 21 natural bisquinolizidine alkaloids, among them more than ten first enantioselective total syntheses. Key steps are the first successful preparation of both enantiomers of C2-symmetric 2,6-dioxobispidine by desymmetrization of a 2,4,6,8-tetraoxo precursor, the construction of the alpha,N-fused 2-pyridone by using an enamine-bromoacrylic acid strategy, and the installation of endo- or, optionally, exo-annulated piperidin(on)es. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Photochemically Immobilized 4-Methylbenzoyl Cellulose as a Powerful Chiral Stationary Phase for Enantioselective Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Francotte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A process to immobilize para-methylbenzoyl cellulose (PMBC on silica gel has been developed and applied to prepare chiral stationary phases (CSPs for enantioselective chromatography. The immobilization was achieved by simple irradiation of the polysaccharide derivative with ultraviolet light after coating on a silica gel support. The influence of parameters such as irradiation time and solvent on immobilization effectiveness were investigated. The performance of the prepared immobilized phases were evaluated by injection of a series of racemic compounds onto the packed columns and determination of their chiral recognition ability. By contrast to the classical coated phase, the immobilized CSP can be used under various chromatographic conditions without limitation of organic solvent types as the mobile phase. This extended applicability permits to improve selectivity and to resolve chiral compounds which are not or only poorly soluble in the mobile phases which are compatible with the non-immobilized PMBC stationary phase.

  15. Photochemically Immobilized 4-Methylbenzoyl Cellulose as a Powerful Chiral Stationary Phase for Enantioselective Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francotte, Eric; Huynh, Dan; Zhang, Tong

    2016-12-17

    A process to immobilize para-methylbenzoyl cellulose (PMBC) on silica gel has been developed and applied to prepare chiral stationary phases (CSPs) for enantioselective chromatography. The immobilization was achieved by simple irradiation of the polysaccharide derivative with ultraviolet light after coating on a silica gel support. The influence of parameters such as irradiation time and solvent on immobilization effectiveness were investigated. The performance of the prepared immobilized phases were evaluated by injection of a series of racemic compounds onto the packed columns and determination of their chiral recognition ability. By contrast to the classical coated phase, the immobilized CSP can be used under various chromatographic conditions without limitation of organic solvent types as the mobile phase. This extended applicability permits to improve selectivity and to resolve chiral compounds which are not or only poorly soluble in the mobile phases which are compatible with the non-immobilized PMBC stationary phase.

  16. Fluorous l-Carbidopa Precursors: Highly Enantioselective Synthesis and Computational Prediction of Bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Albert; Olmo, Anna Del; Peccati, Francesca; Billard, Thierry; Sodupe, Mariona; Vallribera, Adelina

    2018-01-05

    New fluorous enantiopure (S)-α-aminated β-keto esters were prepared through a highly enantioselective electrophilic α-amination step in the presence of europium triflate and (R,R)-phenyl-pybox. These compounds are precursors of fluorinated analogues of l-carbidopa, which is known to inhibit DOPA decarboxylase (DDC), a key protein in Parkinson's disease. Fluorination provides better stability for biological applications, which could possibly lead to DDC inhibitors better than l-carbidopa itself. Induced fit docking computational simulations performed on the new structures interacting with DDC highlight that for an efficient binding at the DDC site, at least one hydroxyl substituent must be present at the aromatic ring of the l-carbidopa analogues and show that the presence of fluorine can further fix the position of the ligand in the active site.

  17. Enantioselective Diels-Alder-lactamization organocascades employing a furan-based diene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasov, Mikail E; Hudson, Brandi M; Kong, Weixu; Tantillo, Dean J; Romo, Daniel

    2017-04-11

    α,β-Unsaturated acylammonium salts are useful dienophiles enabling highly enantioselective and stereodivergent Diels-Alder-initiated organocascades with furan-based dienes. Complex polycyclic systems can thus be obtained from readily prepared dienes, commodity acid chlorides, and a chiral isothiourea organocatalyst under mild conditions. We describe the use of furan-based dienes bearing pendant sulfonamides leading to the generation of oxa-bridged, trans-fused tricyclic γ-lactams. This process constitutes the first highly enantio- and diastereoselective, organocatalytic Diels-Alder cycloadditions with these typically problematic dienes due to their reversibility. Computational studies suggest that the high diastereoselectivity with these furan dienes may be due to a reversible Diels-Alder cycloaddition for the endo adducts. In addition, the utility of this methodology is demonstrated through a concise approach to a core structure with similarity to the natural product isatisine A and a nonpeptidyl ghrelin-receptor inverse agonist.

  18. Enantioselective Organocatalytic Diels-Alder Trapping of Photochemically Generated Hydroxy-o-Quinodimethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Amico, Luca; Vega-Peñaloza, Alberto; Cuadros, Sara; Melchiorre, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    The photoenolization/Diels-Alder strategy offers straightforward access to synthetically valuable benzannulated carbocyclic products. This historical light-triggered process has never before succumbed to efforts to develop an enantioselective catalytic approach. Herein, we demonstrate how asymmetric organocatalysis provides simple yet effective catalytic tools to intercept photochemically generated hydroxy-o-quinodimethanes with high stereoselectivity. We used a chiral organic catalyst, derived from natural cinchona alkaloids, to activate maleimides toward highly stereoselective Diels-Alder reactions. An unconventional mechanism of stereocontrol is operative, wherein the organocatalyst is actively involved in both the photochemical pathway, by leveraging the formation of the reactive photoenol, and the stereoselectivity-defining event. © 2016 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  19. Robust, Chiral, and Porous BINAP-Based Metal–Organic Frameworks for Highly Enantioselective Cyclization Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawano, Takahiro; Thacker, Nathan C.; Lin, Zekai; McIsaac, Alexandra R.; Lin, Wenbin (UC)

    2016-05-06

    We report here the design of BINAP-based metal–organic frameworks and their postsynthetic metalation with Rh complexes to afford highly active and enantioselective single-site solid catalysts for the asymmetric cyclization reactions of 1,6-enynes. Robust, chiral, and porous Zr-MOFs of UiO topology, BINAP-MOF (I) or BINAP-dMOF (II), were prepared using purely BINAP-derived dicarboxylate linkers or by mixing BINAP-derived linkers with unfunctionalized dicarboxylate linkers, respectively. Upon metalation with Rh(nbd)2BF4 and [Rh(nbd)Cl]2/AgSbF6, the MOF precatalysts I·Rh(BF4) and I·Rh(SbF6) efficiently catalyzed highly enantioselective (up to 99% ee) reductive cyclization and Alder-ene cycloisomerization of 1,6-enynes, respectively. I·Rh catalysts afforded cyclization products at comparable enantiomeric excesses (ee’s) and 4–7 times higher catalytic activity than the homogeneous controls, likely a result of catalytic site isolation in the MOF which prevents bimolecular catalyst deactivation pathways. However, I·Rh is inactive in the more sterically encumbered Pauson–Khand reactions between 1,6-enynes and carbon monoxide. In contrast, with a more open structure, Rh-functionalized BINAP-dMOF, II·Rh, effectively catalyzed Pauson–Khand cyclization reactions between 1,6-enynes and carbon monoxide at 10 times higher activity than the homogeneous control. II·Rh was readily recovered and used three times in Pauson–Khand cyclization reactions without deterioration of yields or ee’s. Our work has expanded the scope of MOF-catalyzed asymmetric reactions and showed that the mixed linker strategy can effectively enlarge the open space around the catalytic active site to accommodate highly sterically demanding polycyclic metallocycle transition states/intermediates in asymmetric intramolecular cyclization reactions.

  20. Enantioselective toxicities of chiral ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate on Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Dong, Ying; Chen, Caidong; Zhu, Shimin; Ma, Xiangjuan

    2015-12-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are being used in various industries during the last few decades, while the good solubility and high stability of ILs may pose a potential threat to the aquatic environment. Effect of chiral ionic liquids (CILs) 1-alkyl-3-methyl imidazolium tartrate (RMIM T) on Scenedesmus obliquus (S.obliquus) was studied. The growth rate inhibition and cell membrane permeability increased with increasing RMIM T concentration and increasing alkyl chain lengths. The IC50 values of D-(-)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (D-(-)-HMIM T) were 28.30, 12.23,10.15 and 14.41 mg/L, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96h. While that of L-(+)-tartrate 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium (L-(+)-HMIM T) were 15.97, 7.91, 9.43 and 12.04 mg/L respectively. The concentration of chl a, chl b and chl (a+b) decreased with increasing RMIM T concentration. The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F0, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Y(II), ETR and NPQ) were affected by RMIM T, indicating that the RMIM T will damage the PSII, inhibit the transmission of excitation energy, decrease the efficiency of photosynthesis. The results showed that there were enantioselective toxicity of RMIM T to algae, and the toxicity of L-(+)-RMIM T was greater than that of D-(-)-RMIM T, but the enantioselective difference becomes smaller with increasing exposure time, and with the increasing carbon chain length of cation, indicating that cation properties may have a larger effect on toxicity than anion properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Enantioselective Degradation and Chiral Stability of Metalaxyl-M in Tomato Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xu; Yao, Guojun; Wang, Peng; Liu, Donghui; Qi, Yanli; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    Metalaxyl is an important chiral acetanilide fungicide, and the activity almost entirely originates from the R-enantiomer. Racemic metalaxyl has been gradually replaced by the enantiopure R-enantiomer (metalaxyl-M). In this study a chiral residue analysis method for metalaxyl and the metabolite metalaxyl acid was set up based on high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS/MS). The enantioselective degradation and chiral stability of metalaxyl-M in tomato fruits in two geographically distinct regions of China (Heilongjiang and Hunan Province) were evaluated and the enantioselectivity of metalaxyl acid was also investigated. Tomato plants grew under field conditions with a one-time spray application of metalaxyl-M wettable powder. It was found that R-metalaxyl was not chirally stable and the inactive S-metalaxyl was detected in tomato fruits. At day 40, S-metalaxyl derived from R-metalaxyl accounted for 32% and 26% of the total amount of metalaxyl, respectively. The metabolites R-metalaxyl acid and S-metalaxyl acid were both observed in tomato, and the ratio of S-metalaxyl acid to the sum of S- and R-metalaxyl acid was 36% and 28% at day 40, respectively. For both metalaxyl and metalaxyl acid, the half-life of the S-enantiomer was longer than the R-enantiomer. The results indicated that the enantiomeric conversion should be considered in the bioactivity evaluation and environmental pollution assessment. Chirality 28:382-386, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Enantioselective Determination of Polycyclic Musks in River and Wastewater by GC/MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Injung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The separation of chiral compounds is an interesting and challenging topic in analytical chemistry, especially in environmental fields. Enantioselective degradation or bioaccumulation has been observed for several chiral pollutants. Polycyclic musks are chiral and are widely used as fragrances in a variety of personal care products such as soaps, shampoos, cosmetics and perfumes. In this study, the gas chromatographic separation of chiral polycyclic musks, 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclo-penta-γ-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydronaphthalene (AHTN, 6-acetyl-1,1,2,3,3,5-hexamethylindane (AHDI, 5-acetyl-1,1,2,6-tetramethyl-3-iso-propylindane (ATII, and 6,7-dihydro-1,1,2,3,3-pentamethyl-4(5H-indanone (DPMI was achieved on modified cyclodextrin stationary phase (heptakis (2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tert-butyl-dimethylsilyl-β-CD in DV-1701. Separation techniques are coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS, as it provides the sensitivity and selectivity needed. River and wastewaters (influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs in the Nakdong River were investigated with regard to the concentrations and the enantiomeric ratios of polycyclic musks. HHCB was most frequently detected in river and wastewaters, and an enantiomeric enrichment was observed in the effluents of one of the investigated wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs. We reported the contamination of river and wastewaters in Korea by chiral polycyclic musks. The results of this investigation suggest that enantioselective transformation may occur during wastewater treatment.

  4. Enantioselective assay for therapeutic drug monitoring of eslicarbazepine acetate: no interference with carbamazepine and its metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto; Fortuna, Ana; Sousa, Joana; Direito, Rosa; Almeida, Anabela; Rocha, Marília; Falcão, Amílcar; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    As add-on therapy, phase III clinical trials of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) conducted in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures have shown good efficacy, safety, and tolerability, even in patients taking carbamazepine (CBZ) at baseline (approximately 60% of the enrolled patients). Thus, considering the pharmacological disadvantages of CBZ and the similar efficacy spectrum of CBZ and ESL, switching to ESL may be successful in many patients. As ESL is a prodrug almost instantaneously converted to S-licarbazepine (S-Lic; approximately 95%), an interest in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of S-Lic is likely to develop in the future. This study investigated the plasma concentrations of S-Lic and R-licarbazepine (R-Lic) enantiomers in patients under CBZ long-term treatment to assess the potential interference of CBZ or its metabolites in the enantioselective TDM of ESL (using S-Lic concentrations). A chiral high-performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) previously developed and validated by our research group was used. Twenty-four patients admitted to the Coimbra University Hospital and supposedly receiving CBZ long-term treatment were identified. Blood samples were collected from patients and serum CBZ concentrations were measured by the usual TDM protocol. Aliquots of plasma from such patients were also submitted to a chiral HPLC-UV analysis. The bioanalytical data indicated that S-Lic and R-Lic were not present at detectable concentrations in plasma samples of the CBZ-treated patients. The chromatograms generated by the analysis of patient plasma samples, when compared with those obtained from blank plasma samples spiked with S-Lic and R-Lic, clearly showed the absence of interferences at the retention times of both Lic enantiomers. These data support the usefulness of the chiral HPLC-UV method used for the enantioselective TDM of ESL (using S-Lic) for programs in which switching from CBZ to ESL is implemented.

  5. Helical Oligourea Foldamers as Powerful Hydrogen Bonding Catalysts for Enantioselective C-C Bond-Forming Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bécart, Diane; Diemer, Vincent; Salaün, Arnaud; Oiarbide, Mikel; Nelli, Yella Reddy; Kauffmann, Brice; Fischer, Lucile; Palomo, Claudio; Guichard, Gilles

    2017-09-13

    Substantial progress has been made toward the development of metal-free catalysts of enantioselective transformations, yet the discovery of organic catalysts effective at low catalyst loadings remains a major challenge. Here we report a novel synergistic catalyst combination system consisting of a peptide-inspired chiral helical (thio)urea oligomer and a simple tertiary amine that is able to promote the Michael reaction between enolizable carbonyl compounds and nitroolefins with excellent enantioselectivities at exceptionally low (1/10 000) chiral catalyst/substrate molar ratios. In addition to high selectivity, which correlates strongly with helix folding, the system we report here is also highly amenable to optimization, as each of its components can be fine-tuned separately to increase reaction rates and/or selectivities. The predictability of the foldamer secondary structure coupled to the high level of control over the primary sequence results in a system with significant potential for future catalyst design.

  6. Combined experimental and theoretical study of the mechanism and enantioselectivity of palladium-catalyzed intermolecular Heck coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Norrby, Per-Ola; Kaukoranta, Päivi

    2008-01-01

    . The steric interactions in this transition state fully account for the enantioselectivity observed with the ligands studied. The calculations also predict relative reactivity and nonlinear mixing effects for the investigated ligands; these predictions are fully validated by experimental testing. Finally......The asymmetric Heck reaction using P,N-ligands has been studied by a combination of theoretical and experimental methods. The reaction follows Halpern-style selectivity; that is, the major isomer is produced from the least favored form of the pre-insertion intermediate. The initially formed Ph......, the low conversion observed with some catalysts was found to be caused by inactivation due to weak binding of the ligand to Pd(0). Adding monodentate PPh3 alleviated the precipitation problem without deteriorating the enantioselectivity and led to one of the most effective catalytic systems to date....

  7. The Significance of Degenerate Processes to Enantioselective Olefin Metathesis Reactions Promoted by Stereogenic-at-Mo Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Simon J.; Malcolmson, Steven J.; Li, Bo; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2009-01-01

    The present study provides spectroscopic and experimental evidence demonstrating that degenerate metathesis is critical to the effectiveness of this emerging class of chiral catalysts. Isolation and characterization (X-ray) of both diastereomeric complexes, as well as examination of the reactivity and enantioselectivity patterns exhibited by such initiating neophylidenes in promoting RCM processes, are disclosed. Only when sufficient amounts of ethylene are generated and inversion at Mo through degenerate processes occurs at a sufficiently rapid rate, is high enantioselectivity achieved, irrespective of the stereochemical identity of the initiating alkylidene (Curtin-Hammett kinetics). With diastereomeric metal complexes that undergo rapid interconversion, stereomutation at the metal center becomes inconsequential and stereoselective synthesis of a chiral catalyst is not required. PMID:19842640

  8. Mechanism of Amido-Thiourea Catalyzed Enantioselective Imine Hydrocyanation: Transition State Stabilization via Multiple Non-Covalent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuend, Stephan J.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental and computational investigation of amido-thiourea promoted imine hydrocyanation has revealed a new and unexpected mechanism of catalysis. Rather than direct activation of the imine by the thiourea, as had been proposed previously in related systems, the data are consistent with a mechanism involving catalyst-promoted proton transfer from hydrogen isocyanide to imine to generate diastereomeric iminium/cyanide ion pairs that are bound to catalyst through multiple non-covalent interactions; these ion pairs collapse to form the enantiomeric α-aminonitrile products. This mechanistic proposal is supported by the observation of a statistically significant correlation between experimental and calculated enantioselectivities induced by eight different catalysts (P ≪ 0.01). The computed models reveal a basis for enantioselectivity that involves multiple stabilizing and destabilizing interactions between substrate and catalyst, including thiourea-cyanide and amide-iminium interactions. PMID:19778044

  9. Enantioselective Synthesis of Biphenols from 1,4-Diketones by Traceless Central-to-Axial Chirality Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fenghai; Konkol, Leah C.; Thomson, Regan J.

    2010-01-01

    A method for the enantioselective synthesis of biphenols from readily prepared 1,4-diketones is reported. Key to the success of this method is the highly selective transfer of central to axial chirality during a double aromatization event triggered by BF3•OEt2. Based upon X-ray crystallographic data, a stereochemical model for this chirality exchange process is put forth. PMID:21141997

  10. Enantioselective binding of a lanthanide(III) complex to human serum albumin studied by 1H STD NMR techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, David M; Teixeira, João M C; Kuprov, Ilya; New, Elizabeth J; Parker, David; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2011-07-21

    The enantioselective binding of the (SSS)-Δ isomer of an yttrium(III) tetraazatriphenylene complex to 'drug-site II' of human serum albumin (HSA) was detected by the intensity differences of its STD (1)H NMR spectrum relative to the (RRR)-Λ isomer, by the effect of the competitive binder to that site, N-dansyl sarcosine, upon the STD spectrum of each isomer, in the presence of HSA and by 3D docking simulations.

  11. Enhanced anti-Diastereo- and Enantioselectivity in Alcohol Mediated Carbonyl Crotylation Using an Isolable Single Component Iridium Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xin; Townsend, Ian A.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclometallated iridium complex (S)-I derived from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, 4-cyano-3-nitrobenzoic acid, allyl acetate and (S)-SEGPHOS is conveniently isolated by precipitation or through conventional silica gel flash chromatography. This single component precatalyst allows alcohol mediated carbonyl crotylations to be performed at significantly lower temperature, resulting in enhanced levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Most significantly, the chromatographically isolated precatalyst (...

  12. Enantioselective Direct Mannich-Type Reactions Catalyzed by Frustrated Lewis Acid/Brønsted Base Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ming; Cao, Min; Wang, Qifan; Wasa, Masayuki

    2017-10-16

    An enantioselective direct Mannich-type reaction catalyzed by a sterically frustrated Lewis acid/Brønsted base complex is disclosed. Cooperative functioning of the chiral Lewis acid and achiral Brønsted base components gives rise to in situ enolate generation from monocarbonyl compounds. Subsequent reaction with hydrogen-bond-activated aldimines delivers β-aminocarbonyl compounds with high enantiomeric purity. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Transition State Charge Stabilization Through Multiple Non-Covalent Interactions in the Guanidinium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Claisen Rearrangement

    OpenAIRE

    Uyeda, Christopher; Jacobsen, Eric N.

    2011-01-01

    The mechanism by which chiral arylpyrrole-substituted guanidinium ions promote the Claisen rearrangement of O-allyl α-ketoesters and induce enantioselectivity was investigated by experimental and computational methods. In addition to stabilization of the developing negative charge on the oxallyl fragment of the rearrangement transition state by hydrogen-bond donation, evidence was obtained for a secondary attractive interaction between the π-system of a catalyst aromatic substituent and the c...

  14. Sequential rhodium/palladium catalysis: enantioselective formation of dihydroquinolinones in the presence of achiral and chiral ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Qureshi, Zafar; Sonaglia, Lorenzo; Lautens, Mark

    2014-12-08

    Compatible combinations of achiral and chiral ligands can be used in rhodium/palladium catalysis to achieve highly enantioselective domino reactions. The difference in rates of catalysis and minimal effects of ligand interference confer control in the domino sequence. The "all-in-one" 1,4-conjugate arylation and C-N cross-coupling through sequential Rh/Pd catalysis provides access to enantioenriched dihydroquinolinone building blocks. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enantioselective Collision-Activated Dissociation of Gas-Phase Tryptophan Induced by Chiral Recognition of Protonated l-Alanine Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Tajiri, Michiko; Wada, Yoshinao; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2017-06-01

    Enantioselective dissociation in the gas phase is important for enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes in molecular clouds regarding the origin of homochirality in biomolecules. Enantioselective collision-activated dissociation (CAD) of tryptophan (Trp) and the chiral recognition ability of l-alanine peptides ( l-Ala n ; n = 2-4) were examined using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer. CAD spectra of gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala n ) and homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala n ) noncovalent complexes were obtained as a function of the peptide size n. The H2O-elimination product was observed in CAD spectra of both heterochiral and homochiral complexes for n = 2 and 4, and in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3), indicating that the proton is attached to the l-alanine peptide, and H2O loss occurs from H+( l-Ala n ) in the noncovalent complexes. H2O loss did not occur in heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), where NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss were the primary dissociation pathways. In heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3), the protonation site is the amino group of d-Trp, and NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss occur from H+( d-Trp). l-Ala peptides recognize d-Trp through protonation of the amino group for peptide size n = 3. NH3 loss and (H2O + CO) loss from H+( d-Trp) proceeds via enantioselective CAD in gas-phase heterochiral H+( d-Trp)( l-Ala3) at room temperature, whereas l-Trp dissociation was not observed in homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Ala3). These results suggest that enantioselective dissociation induced by chiral recognition of l-Ala peptides through protonation could play an important role in enantiomeric enrichment and chiral transmission processes of amino acids.

  16. Kinetic resolution of allyl fluorides by enantioselective allylic trifluoromethylation based on silicon-assisted C-F bond cleavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimine, Takayuki; Fukushi, Kazunobu; Shibata, Naoyuki; Taira, Hiromi; Tokunaga, Etsuko; Yamano, Akihito; Shiro, Motoo; Shibata, Norio

    2014-01-07

    Two birds, one stone! The first kinetic resolution of allyl fluorides was achieved by the development of an organocatalyzed enantioselective allylic trifluoromethylation. Two kinds of chiral fluorinated compounds, which incorporate C*F and C*CF3 units, respectively, can thus be accessed by a single transformation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7-104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7-8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R(2)≥0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L(-1). The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg(-1) in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg(-1) in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t1/2=11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(-)-ethiprole (t1/2=34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Enantioselective Cu-Catalyzed Arylation of Secondary Phosphine Oxides with Diaryliodonium Salts toward the Synthesis of P-Chiral Phosphines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaud, Rodolphe; Phipps, Robert J; Gaunt, Matthew J

    2016-10-12

    Catalytic synthesis of nonracemic P-chiral phosphine derivatives remains a significant challenge. Here we report Cu-catalyzed enantioselective arylation of secondary phosphine oxides with diaryliodonium salts for the synthesis of tertiary phosphine oxides with high enantiomeric excess. The new process is demonstrated on a wide range of substrates and leads to products that are well-established P-chiral catalysts and ligands.

  19. Synthesis of CuPF6-(S)-BINAP loaded resin and its enantioselectivity toward phenylalanine enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiong; Zhou, Wenqi; Xu, Longqi

    2017-09-01

    A type of resin-anchored CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP was synthesized and identified. The PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin was used to adsorb the phenylalanine enantiomers. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin toward L-phenylalanine was higher than that of resin toward D-phenylalanine. PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin exhibited good enantioselectivity toward L-phenylalanine and D-phenylalanine. The influence of phenylalanine concentration, pH, adsorption time, and temperature on the enantioselectivity of the resin were investigated. The results showed that the enantioselectivity of the resin increased with increasing the phenylalanine concentration, pH, and adsorption time, while it decreased with an increase in temperature. The causes for these influences are discussed. The highest enantioselectivity (α = 2.81) was obtained when the condition of phenylalanine concentration was 0.05 mmol/mL, pH was 8, adsorption time was 12 h, and temperature 5°C. The desorption test for removing D/L-phenylalanine on PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin was also investigated. The desorption ratios of D-phenylalanine and L-phenylalanine at pH of 1 were 95.7% and 94.3%, respectively. This result indicated that the PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin could be regenerated by shaking with an acidic solution. The reusability of the PS-CuPF 6 -(S)-BINAP resin was also assessed and the resin exhibited considerable reusability. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Highly efficient enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 1,2-amino-alcohols using SPINOL based phosphoric acid hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxterhuis, Erik B; Gualtierotti, Jean-Baptiste; Heeres, Hero J; de Vries, Johannes G; Feringa, Ben L

    2017-09-01

    Access to enantiopure compounds on large scale in an environmentally friendly and cost-efficient manner remains one of the greatest challenges in chemistry. Resolution of racemates using enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction has great potential to meet that challenge. However, a relatively feeble understanding of the chemical principles and physical properties behind this technique has hampered the development of hosts possessing sufficient resolving power for their application to large scale processes. Herein we present, employing the previously untested SPINOL based phosphoric acids host family, an in depths study of the parameters affecting the efficiency of the resolution of amino-alcohols in the optic of further understanding the core principles behind ELLE. We have systematically investigated the dependencies of the enantioselection by parameters such as the choice of solvent, the temperature, as well as the pH and bring to light many previously unsuspected and highly intriguing interactions. Furthermore, utilizing these new insights to our advantage, we developed novel, highly efficient, extraction and resolving protocols which provide remarkable levels of enantioselectivity. It was shown that the extraction is catalytic in host by demonstrating transport in a U-tube and finally it was demonstrated how the solvent dependency could be exploited in an unprecedented triphasic resolution system.

  1. Enhanced activity and enantioselectivity of a hyperthermophilic esterase from archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 by acetone treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Fangdi; Xing, Kezhi; Gao, Renjun; Cao, Shugui; Zhang, Guirong

    2011-10-01

    To improve the activity and enantioselectivity of hyperthermophilic archaeon Aeropyrum pernix K1 esterase (APE1547) and its mutants, they were purified by acetone-treated method. It was found that the acetone treatment not only caused APE1547 and its mutants to display higher activity and enantioselectivity but also saved more than 90% of time spent in purifying them by Ni-chelating column. In hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl caprylate, the acetone-treated APE1547 and mutant A containing the following substitutions R11G, L36P, V225A, I551L, and A564T showed 5.7- and 6.9-fold active increase, respectively. In the resolution of 2-octanol acetate, the acetone-treated mutant A had a 9-fold enantioselective increase relative to that purified by Ni-chelating column. In addition, the impact of pH, temperature, and chemical reagents on activity of APE1547 and mutant A was discussed in this paper.

  2. The chiral herbicide beflubutamid (II): Enantioselective degradation and enantiomerization in soil, and formation/degradation of chiral metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2013-07-02

    Beflubutamid is a chiral soil herbicide currently marketed as racemate against dicotyledonous weeds in cereals. Biotests have shown that (-)-beflubutamid is at least 1000× more active than (+)-beflubutamid. Potential substitution of the racemate by (-)-beflubutamid should therefore be further considered. Here, we investigated the degradation behavior in soils and formation and degradation of two chiral metabolites. Laboratory incubation experiments were performed with an alkaline and an acidic soil. The compounds were analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS. Degradation rate constants were determined by kinetic modeling. In the alkaline soil, degradation of beflubutamid was slightly enantioselective, with slower degradation of the herbicidally active (-)-enantiomer. In the acidic soil, however, both enantiomers were degraded at similar rates. In contrast, degradation of a phenoxybutanamide metabolite was highly enantioselective. Chiral stability of beflubutamid and its metabolites was studied in separate incubations with the pure enantiomers in the same soils. In these experiments, (-)-beflubutamid was not converted to the nonactive (+)-enantiomer and vice versa. Significant enantiomerization was, however, observed for the major metabolite, a phenoxybutanoic acid. With regard to biological activity and behavior in soils, enantiopure (-)-beflubutamid definitively has the potential to substitute for the racemic herbicide.

  3. Enantioseparation and determination of the chiral phenylpyrazole insecticide ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples and its enantioselective degradation in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qing; Shi, Haiyan; Gao, Beibei; Tian, Mingming; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua, E-mail: wangmha@njau.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    An effective method for the enantioselective determination of ethiprole enantiomers in agricultural and environmental samples was developed. The effects of solvent extraction, mobile phase and thermodynamic parameters for chiral recognition were fully investigated. Complete enantioseparation of the ethiprole enantiomers was achieved on a Lux Cellulose-2 column. The stereochemical structures of ethiprole enantiomers were also determined, and (R)-(+)-ethiprole was first eluted. The average recoveries were 82.7–104.9% with intra-day RSD of 1.7–8.2% in soil, cucumber, spinach, tomato, apple and peach under optimal conditions. Good linearity (R{sup 2} ≥ 0.9991) was obtained for all the matrix calibration curves within a range of 0.1 to 10 mg L{sup −1}. The limits of detection for both enantiomers were estimated to be 0.008 mg kg{sup −1} in soil, cucumber, spinach and tomato and 0.012 mg kg{sup −1} in apple and peach, which were lower than the maximum residue levels established in Japan. The results indicate that the proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective detection of ethiprole in agricultural and environmental samples. The behavior of ethiprole in soil was studied under field conditions and the enantioselective degradation was observed with enantiomer fraction values varying from 0.494 to 0.884 during the experiment. The (R)-(+)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 11.6 d) degraded faster than (S)-(−)-ethiprole (t{sub 1/2} = 34.7 d). This report is the first describe a chiral analytical method and enantioselective behavior of ethiprole, and these results should be extremely useful for the risk evaluation of ethiprole in food and environmental safety. - Highlights: • The ethiprole enantiomers were completely separated. • A novel method for enantioselective determination of ethiprole was developed. • The absolute configurations of ethiprole enantiomers were firstly determined. • The (R)-(+)-ethiprole was preferentially degraded in

  4. Chiral quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid in soils: Enantioselective degradation, enzymes interaction and toxicity to Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lin; Liu, Hui; Qu, Han; Xu, Yangguang; Wang, Peng; Sun, Mingjing; Zhou, Zhiqiang; Liu, Donghui

    2016-06-01

    An enantioselective chromatographic method to analyze enantiomers of quizalofop-ethyl and its metabolite quizalofop-acid was established using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on (R, R) Whelk-O 1 column. The enantioselective degradation kinetics of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid in three soils were investigated. Moreover, the interaction with urease and catalase in the soils and the acute toxicity to Eisenia foetida of quizalofop-ethyl were also determined in order to assess their metabolism mechanism and environmental risk. From the results, quizalofop-ethyl was configurationally stable and was hydrolyzed rapidly to quizalofop-acid, which also degraded enantioselectively but slowly, and the inversion of the S-(-)-quizalofop-acid into the R-(+)-quizalofop-acid was observed in Xinxiang soil. In addition, quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid enantioselectively affected urease activity but not catalase. The acute toxicity assays to earthworm indicated that the racemic quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid were more toxic than quizalofop-p-ethyl and quizalofop-p-acid respectively, dramatically, the toxicity of the metabolite was much higher than the parent compound. These results revealed the enantioselective degradation of quizalofop-ethyl and quizalofop-acid, and the differences of toxicity among the enantiomers of the parent compound and the metabolite, which should be considered in future environmental risk evaluation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enantioselective separation of azole compounds by EKC. Reversal of migration order of enantiomers with CD concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Puyana, María; Crego, Antonio L; Marina, Maria Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2007-08-01

    The enantioselective separation of a group of six weak base azole compounds was achieved in this work using EKC with three neutral beta-CDs as chiral selectors. The native beta-CD and two other beta-CD derivatives with different types and positions of the substituents on the CD rim ((2-hydroxy)propyl-beta-CD (HP-beta-CD) and heptakis-2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-beta-CD (TM-beta-CD)) were employed. Apparent binding constants for each pair compound-CD were determined in order to study analyte-CD interactions. The best enantiomeric resolutions for miconazole, econazole, and sulconazole were observed with HP-beta-CD whereas for the separation of the enantiomers of ketoconazole, terconazole, and bifonazole, TM-beta-CD was the best chiral selector. The enantioseparations obtained were discussed on the basis of the structure of the compounds taking into account that inclusion into the hydrophobic CD cavity occurred through the phenyl ring closer to the azole group. In addition, a change in the migration order for the enantiomers of two of the compounds studied (ketoconazole and terconazole) with the concentration of HP-beta-CD was observed for the first time.

  6. Catalytic enantioselective synthesis of atropisomeric biaryls by a cation-directed O-alkylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, John D.; Armstrong, Roly J.; Smith, Martin D.

    2017-06-01

    Axially chiral biaryls, as exemplified by 1,1‧-bi-2-naphthol (BINOL), are key components of catalysts, natural products and medicines. These materials are synthesized conventionally in enantioenriched form through metal-mediated cross coupling, de novo construction of an aromatic ring, point-to-axial chirality transfer or an atropselective transformation of an existing biaryl. Here, we report a highly enantioselective organocatalytic method for the synthesis of atropisomeric biaryls by a cation-directed O-alkylation. Treatment of racemic 1-aryl-2-tetralones with a chiral quinidine-derived ammonium salt under basic conditions in the presence of an alkylating agent leads to atropselective O-alkylation with e.r. up to 98:2. Oxidation with DDQ gives access to C2-symmetric and non-symmetric BINOL derivatives without compromising e.r. We propose that the chiral ammonium counterion differentiates between rapidly equilibrating atropisomeric enolates, leading to highly atropselective O-alkylation. This dynamic kinetic resolution process offers a general approach to the synthesis of enantioenriched atropisomeric materials.

  7. Enantioselective silyl protection of alcohols promoted by a combination of chiral and achiral Lewis basic catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manville, Nathan; Alite, Hekla; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H.; Snapper, Marc L.

    2013-09-01

    Catalytic enantioselective monosilylations of diols and polyols furnish valuable alcohol-containing molecules in high enantiomeric purity. These transformations, however, require high catalyst loadings (20-30 mol%) and long reaction times (2-5 days). Here, we report that a counterintuitive strategy involving the use of an achiral co-catalyst structurally similar to the chiral catalyst provides an effective solution to this problem. A combination of seemingly competitive Lewis basic molecules can function in concert such that one serves as an achiral nucleophilic promoter and the other performs as a chiral Brønsted base. On the addition of 7.5-20 mol% of a commercially available N-heterocycle (5-ethylthiotetrazole), reactions typically proceed within one hour, and deliver the desired products in high yields and enantiomeric ratios. In some instances, there is no reaction in the absence of the achiral base, yet the presence of the achiral co-catalyst gives rise to facile formation of products in high enantiomeric purity.

  8. Enantioselective analysis of fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary zone electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melania Cârcu-Dobrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine is an antidepressant, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI used primarily in the treatment of major depression, panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. Chiral separation of racemic fluoxetine is necessary due to its enantioselective metabolism. In order to develop a suitable method for chiral separation of fluoxetine, cyclodextrin (CD modified capillary electrophoresis (CE was employed. A large number of native and derivatized, neutral and ionized CD derivatives were screened to find the optimal chiral selector. As a result of this process, heptakis(2,3,6-tri-O-methyl-β-CD (TRIMEB was selected for enantiomeric discrimination. A factorial analysis study was performed by orthogonal experimental design in which several factors are varied at the same time to optimize the separation method. The optimized method (50 mM phosphate buffer, pH = 5.0, 10 mM TRIMEB, 15 °C, + 20 kV, 50 mbar/1 s, detection at 230 nm was successful for baseline separation of fluoxetine enantiomers within 5 min. Our method was validated according to ICH guidelines and proved to be sensitive, linear, accurate and precise for the chiral separation of fluoxetine.

  9. Contrasting enantioselective DNA preference: chiral helical macrocyclic lanthanide complex binding to DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuanqi; Ren, Jinsong; Gregoliński, Janusz; Lisowski, Jerzy; Qu, Xiaogang

    2012-01-01

    There is great interest in design and synthesis of small molecules which selectively target specific genes to inhibit biological functions in which particular DNA structures participate. Among these studies, chiral recognition has been received much attention because more evidences have shown that conversions of the chirality and diverse conformations of DNA are involved in a series of important life events. Here, we report that a pair of chiral helical macrocyclic lanthanide (III) complexes, (M)-Yb[LSSSSSS]3+ and (P)-Yb[LRRRRRR]3+, can enantioselectively bind to B-form DNA and show remarkably contrasting effects on GC-rich and AT-rich DNA. Neither of them can influence non-B-form DNA, nor quadruplex DNA stability. Our results clearly show that P-enantiomer stabilizes both poly(dG-dC)2 and poly(dA-dT)2 while M-enantiomer stabilizes poly(dA-dT)2, however, destabilizes poly(dG-dC)2. To our knowledge, this is the best example of chiral metal compounds with such contrasting preference on GC- and AT-DNA. Ligand selectively stabilizing or destabilizing DNA can interfere with protein–DNA interactions and potentially affect many crucial biological processes, such as DNA replication, transcription and repair. As such, bearing these unique capabilities, the chiral compounds reported here may shed light on the design of novel enantiomers targeting specific DNA with both sequence and conformation preference. PMID:22675072

  10. Enantioselective degradation of amphetamine-like environmental micropollutants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA and MDA) in urban water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sian E; Bagnall, John; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    This paper aims to understand enantioselective transformation of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) and MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine) during wastewater treatment and in receiving waters. In order to undertake a comprehensive evaluation of the processes occurring, stereoselective transformation of amphetamine-like compounds was studied, for the first time, in controlled laboratory experiments: receiving water and activated sludge simulating microcosm systems. The results demonstrated that stereoselective degradation, via microbial metabolic processes favouring S-(+)-enantiomer, occurred in all studied amphetamine-based compounds in activated sludge simulating microcosms. R-(-)-enantiomers were not degraded (or their degradation was limited) which proves their more recalcitrant nature. Out of all four amphetamine-like compounds studied, amphetamine was the most susceptible to biodegradation. It was followed by MDMA and methamphetamine. Photochemical processes facilitated degradation of MDMA and methamphetamine but they were not, as expected, stereoselective. Preferential biodegradation of S-(+)-methamphetamine led to the formation of S-(+)-amphetamine. Racemic MDMA was stereoselectively biodegraded by activated sludge which led to its enrichment with R-(-)-enantiomer and formation of S-(+)-MDA. Interestingly, there was only mild stereoselectivity observed during MDMA degradation in rivers. This might be due to different microbial communities utilised during activated sludge treatment and those present in the environment. Kinetic studies confirmed the recalcitrant nature of MDMA. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. BCL::EMAS — Enantioselective Molecular Asymmetry Descriptor for 3D-QSAR

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    Mariusz Butkiewicz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Stereochemistry is an important determinant of a molecule’s biological activity. Stereoisomers can have different degrees of efficacy or even opposing effects when interacting with a target protein. Stereochemistry is a molecular property difficult to represent in 2D-QSAR as it is an inherently three-dimensional phenomenon. A major drawback of most proposed descriptors for 3D-QSAR that encode stereochemistry is that they require a heuristic for defining all stereocenters and rank-ordering its substituents. Here we propose a novel 3D-QSAR descriptor termed Enantioselective Molecular ASymmetry (EMAS that is capable of distinguishing between enantiomers in the absence of such heuristics. The descriptor aims to measure the deviation from an overall symmetric shape of the molecule. A radial-distribution function (RDF determines a signed volume of tetrahedrons of all triplets of atoms and the molecule center. The descriptor can be enriched with atom-centric properties such as partial charge. This descriptor showed good predictability when tested with a dataset of thirty-one steroids commonly used to benchmark stereochemistry descriptors (r2 = 0.89, q2 = 0.78. Additionally, EMAS improved enrichment of 4.38 versus 3.94 without EMAS in a simulated virtual high-throughput screening (vHTS for inhibitors and substrates of cytochrome P450 (PUBCHEM AID891.

  12. Simple Organic Molecules as Catalysts for Enantioselective Synthesis of Amines and Alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Pilyugina, Tatiana; Vieira, Erika M.; Snapper, Marc L.; Haeffner, Fredrik; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of new catalysts that can generate complex organic compounds via enantioselective transformations is central to advances in the life sciences;i for this reason, many chemists try to discover catalysts that can be used to produce chiral molecules with a strong preference for one mirror image isomer.ii The ideal catalyst should be devoid of precious elementsiii and should bring reactions to completion in a few hours using operationally simple procedures. In this manuscript, we introduce a set of small organic molecules that can catalyze reactions of unsaturated organoboron reagents with imines and carbonyls; the products of the reactions are enantiomerically pure amines and alcohols, which can be used to synthesize more complex, biologically active molecules. A distinguishing feature of this new catalyst class is the presence of a 'key' proton embedded within their structure. The catalyst is derived from the abundant amino acid valine and was prepared in large quantities in four steps using inexpensive reagents. Reactions are scalable, do not demand stringent conditions, and can be performed with as little as 0.25 mol % catalyst in less than six hours at room temperature to generate products in >85% yield and ≥97:3 enantiomeric ratio. The efficiency, selectivity and operational simplicity of the transformations and the range of boron-based reagents render this advance vital to future progress in chemistry, biology and medicine. PMID:23407537

  13. Enantioselective synthesis of tatanans A-C and reinvestigation of their glucokinase-activating properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Basak, Ashok; Bowler, Joseph M.; Miller, Brian G.; Zakarian, Armen

    2013-05-01

    The tatanans are members of a novel class of complex sesquilignan natural products recently isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott plants. Tatanans A, B and C have previously been reported to have potent glucokinase-activating properties that exceed the in vitro activity of known synthetic antidiabetic agents. Here, using a series of sequential [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, we report the total synthesis of tatanan A in 13 steps and 13% overall yield. We also complete a concise enantioselective total synthesis of more complex, atropisomeric tatanans B and C via a distinct convergent strategy based on a palladium-catalysed diastereotopic aromatic group differentiation (12 steps, 4% and 8% overall yield, respectively). A plausible biosynthetic relationship between acyclic tatanan A and spirocyclic tatanans B and C is proposed and probed experimentally. With sufficient quantities of the natural products in hand, we undertake a detailed functional characterization of the biological activities of tatanans A-C. Contrary to previous reports, our assays utilizing pure recombinant human enzyme demonstrate that tatanans do not function as allosteric activators of glucokinase.

  14. Enantioselective synthesis of tatanans A–C and reinvestigation of their glucokinase-activating properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qing; Jackson, Jeffrey J.; Basak, Ashok; Bowler, Joseph M.; Miller, Brian G.; Zakarian, Armen

    2014-01-01

    The tatanans are members of a novel class of complex sesquilignan natural products recently isolated from the rhizomes of Acorus tatarinowii Schott plants. Tatanans A, B and C have previously been reported to have potent glucokinase-activating properties that exceed the in vitro activity of known synthetic antidiabetic agents. Here, using a series of sequential [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangements, we report the total synthesis of tatanan A in 13 steps and 13% overall yield. We also complete a concise enantioselective total synthesis of more complex, atropisomeric tatanans B and C via a distinct convergent strategy based on a palladium-catalysed diastereotopic aromatic group differentiation (12 steps, 4% and 8% overall yield, respectively). A plausible biosynthetic relationship between acyclic tatanan A and spirocyclic tatanans B and C is proposed and probed experimentally. With sufficient quantities of the natural products in hand, we undertake a detailed functional characterization of the biological activities of tatanans A–C. Contrary to previous reports, our assays utilizing pure recombinant human enzyme demonstrate that tatanans do not function as allosteric activators of glucokinase. PMID:23609092

  15. Chiral metallohelices enantioselectively target hybrid human telomeric G-quadruplex DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Andong; Howson, Suzanne E.; Ren, Jinsong; Scott, Peter; Wang, Chunyu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The design and synthesis of metal complexes that can specifically target DNA secondary structure has attracted considerable attention. Chiral metallosupramolecular complexes (e.g. helicates) in particular display unique DNA-binding behavior, however until recently few examples which are both water-compatible and enantiomerically pure have been reported. Herein we report that one metallohelix enantiomer Δ1a, available from a diastereoselective synthesis with no need for resolution, can enantioselectively stabilize human telomeric hybrid G-quadruplex and strongly inhibit telomerase activity with IC50 of 600 nM. In contrast, no such a preference is observed for the mirror image complex Λ1a. More intriguingly, neither of the two enantiomers binds specifically to human telomeric antiparallel G-quadruplex. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of one pair of enantiomers with contrasting selectivity for human telomeric hybrid G-quadruplex. Further studies show that Δ1a can discriminate human telomeric G-quadruplex from other telomeric G-quadruplexes. PMID:28398500

  16. Enantioselective Biosynthesis of l-Phenyllactic Acid by Whole Cells of Recombinant Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yibo; Wang, Ying; Xu, Jiayuzi; Chen, Jiahao; Wang, Limei; Qi, Bin

    2017-11-15

    l-Phenyllactic acid (l-PLA)-a valuable building block in the pharmaceutical and chemical industry-has recently emerged as an important monomer in the composition of the novel degradable biocompatible material of polyphenyllactic acid. However, both normally chemically synthesized and naturally occurring phenyllactic acid are racemic, and the product yields of reported l-PLA synthesis processes remain unsatisfactory. We developed a novel recombinant Escherichia coli strain, co-expressing l-lactate dehydrogenase (l-LDH) from Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) from Bacillus megaterium, to construct a recombinant oxidation/reduction cycle for whole-cell biotransformation of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) into chiral l-PLA in an enantioselective and continuous manner. During fed-batch bioconversion with intermittent PPA feeding, l-PLA yield reached 103.8 mM, with an excellent enantiomeric excess of 99.7%. The productivity of l-PLA was as high as 5.2 mM·h-1 per OD600 (optical density at 600 nm) of whole cells. These results demonstrate the efficient production of l-PLA by the one-pot biotransformation system. Therefore, this stereoselective biocatalytic process might be a promising alternative for l-PLA production.

  17. Organocatalysts for enantioselective synthesis of fine chemicals: definitions, trends and developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Palumbo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organocatalysis, that is the use of small organic molecules to catalyze organic transformations, has been included among the most successful concepts in asymmetric catalysis, and it has been used for the enantioselective construction of C–C, C–N, C–O, C–S, C–P and C–halide bonds. Since the seminal works in early 2000, the scientific community has been paying an ever-growing attention to the use of organocatalysts for the synthesis, with high yields and remarkable stereoselectivities, of optically active fine chemicals of interest for the pharmaceutical industry. A brief overview is here presented about the two main classes of substrate activation by the catalyst: covalent organocatalysis and non-covalent organocatalysis, with a more stringent focus on some recent outcomes in the field of the latter and of hydrogen bond-based catalysis. Finally, some successful examples of heterogenization of organocatalysts are also discussed, in the view of a potential industrial exploitation.

  18. Enantioselective Degradation Mechanism of Beta-Cypermethrin in Soil From the Perspective of Functional Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-01

    The behavior and mechanisms of the enantioselective degradation of beta-cypermethrin were studied in soil. The four isomers were degraded at different rates, and the enantiomer fractions of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin exceeded 0.5. Moreover, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, phenol, and protocatechuic acid were detected; based on the presence of these metabolites, we predicted the degradation pathway and identified the functional genes that are related to this degradation process. We established quantitative relationships between the data on degradation kinetics and functional genes; we found that the quantitative relationships between different enantiomers differed even under the same conditions, and the genes pobA and pytH played key roles in limiting the degradation rate. Data obtained using path analysis revealed that the same gene had different direct and indirect effects on the degradation of different isomers. A mechanism was successfully proposed to explain the selective degradation of chiral compounds based on the perspective of functional genes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Copper(II)-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of halo-substituted alkyl aryl and heteroaryl ketones: asymmetric synthesis of (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ji-Ning; Fang, Qiang; Hu, Yi-Hu; Yang, Li-Yao; Wu, Fei-Fei; Xie, Lin-Jie; Wu, Jing; Li, Shijun

    2014-02-14

    A set of reaction conditions has been established to facilitate the non-precious copper-catalyzed enantioselective hydrosilylation of a number of structurally diverse β-, γ- or ε-halo-substituted alkyl aryl ketones and α-, β- or γ-halo-substituted alkyl heteroaryl ketones under air to afford a broad spectrum of halo alcohols in high yields and good to excellent enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee). The developed procedure has been successfully applied to the asymmetric synthesis of antidepressant drugs (R)-fluoxetine and (S)-duloxetine, which highlighted its synthetic utility.

  20. Catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reactions of unactivated acyclic 1,3-dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yasuo; Nantaku, Shuuto; Nishimura, Yuhki; Otsuka, Tomoyuki; Sekikaw, Tohru

    2017-08-08

    A catalytic enantioselective aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes with aryl-, alkenyl-, and alkyl-substituted imines is described. With 5-10 mol% loadings of a new Brønsted acid catalyst, the aza-Diels-Alder reaction of unactivated acyclic dienes proceeded to give the corresponding aza-Diels-Alder adducts in high yields (up to 98%) with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 98% ee). Preliminary DFT calculations suggest that the reaction proceeds through a chiral ion pair intermediate.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of aziridines using asymmetric transfer hydrogenation as a precursor for chiral derivatives used as bonding agent for rocket solid propellants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparecida M. Kawamoto

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A rapid, expedient and enantioselective method for the synthesis of beta-hydroxy amines and monosubstituted aziridines in up to 99% e.e., via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of a-amino ketones and cyclisation through treatment with tosyl chloride and base, is described. (1R,2R-N-(para-toluenesulfonyl-1,2-ethylenediamine with formic acid has been utilised as a ligand for the Ruthenium (II catalysed enantioselective transfer hydrogenation of the ketones.The chiral 2-methyl aziridine, which is a potentially more efficient bonding agent for Rocket Solid Propellant has been successfully achieved.

  2. Covalently immobilized lipase on aminoalkyl-, carboxy- and hydroxy-multi-wall carbon nanotubes in the enantioselective synthesis of Solketal esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zniszczoł, Aurelia; Herman, Artur P; Szymańska, Katarzyna; Mrowiec-Białoń, Julita; Walczak, Krzysztof Z; Jarzębski, Andrzej; Boncel, Sławomir

    2016-06-01

    Aiming at the preparation of efficient, stable on storage and recyclable nanobiocatalysts for enantioselective transesterification, alkaline lipase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was covalently immobilized (up to 8.5wt.%) on functionalized multi-wall carbon nanotubes (f-MWCNTs). f-MWCNTs were synthesized via: (a) (2+1)-cycloaddition of a nitrene to the C-sp(2) nanotube walls (3.2mmolg(-1), a novel synthetic approach) and, (b) oxidative treatments, i.e. Fenton reagent (3.5mmolg(-1)) and nitrating mixture (2.5mmolg(-1)), yielding aminoalkyl-, hydroxyl- and carboxyl-MWCNTs, respectively. Amino- and epoxy- functionalized mesoporous silica (f-SBA-15) were used as the reference supports. Transesterification of vinyl n-butyrate by racemic Solketal with a chromatographically (GC) traced kinetics was selected as the model reaction. The studies revealed that different chemical functionalization of morphologically identical nanotube supports led to various enzyme loadings, catalytic activities and enantioselectivities. MWCNT-NH2-based nanobiocatalyst was found to be the most active composite among all of the tested systems (yield 20%, t=0.5h, 1321Ug(-1)), i.e. 12 times more active than the native enzyme. In turn, lipase immobilized on MWCNT-COOH emerged as the most enantioselective system (ex aequo with SBA-NH2) (eeR=74%, t=0.5h at yield of 3-5%). The activity of the MWCNT-NH2-based nanobiocatalyst after 8 cycles of transesterification dropped to 60% of its initial value, whereas for SBA-NH2-based composite remained unchanged. Importantly, stability on storage was fully maintained for all MWCNT-based nanobiocatalysts or even 'extra-enhanced' for MWCNT-OH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole studied in the H295R cell assay and by molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Amalie Møller; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Bonomo, Silvia; Olsen, Lars; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Kretschmann, Andreas Christopher; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2016-08-01

    Enantiomers possess different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and this may not only influence the therapeutic effect of a drug but also its toxicological effects. In the present work we investigated the potential enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole (OME) and its two enantiomers on the human steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line. Differences in production of 16 steroid hormones were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Additionally, to evaluate the differences in binding modes of these enantiomers, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of S-omeprazole (S-OME) and R-omeprazole (R-OME) in CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2 were carried out. Exposing H295R cells to OME and its enantiomers resulted in an increase of progesterone (PRO) and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-PRO) levels. At the same time, a decrease in the corticosteroid and androgen synthesis was observed, indicating inhibition of CYP21A2 and CYP17A1. In both cases, the effect of R-OME was smaller compared to that of the S-OME and a certain degree of enantioselectivity of CYP17A1 and CYP21A2 was suggested. Docking indicated that the N-containing rings of OME possibly could interact with the iron atom of the heme for S-OME in CYP17A1 and S- and R-OME in CYP21A2. However, density functional theory calculations suggest that the direct N-Fe interaction is weak. The study demonstrates enantioselective differences in the endocrine disrupting potential of chiral drugs such as omeprazole. These findings may have potential implications for drug safety and drug design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective changes in oxidative stress and toxin release in Microcystis aeruginosa exposed to chiral herbicide diclofop acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Jing [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Natural Research and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang, Ying [Department of Environmental Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241 (China); Chen, Shengwen [School of Urban Development and Environment Engineering, Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China); Liu, Chaonan; Zhu, Yongqiang [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Shanghai Institute of Technology, Shanghai 201418 (China); Liu, Weiping, E-mail: wliu@zju.edu.cn [MOE Key Lab of Environmental Remediation and Ecosystem Health, College of Natural Research and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: •The first study on enantioselective oxidative stress and toxin release from Microcystis aeruginosa. •Provide information for the R-enantiomer poses more oxidative stress than the S-enantiomer. •Lifecycle analysis of chiral pollutants needs more attention in environmental assessment. -- Abstract: Enantioselective oxidative stress and toxin release from Microcystis aeruginosa after exposure to the chiral herbicide diclofop acid were investigated. Racemic diclofop acid, R-diclofop acid and S-diclofop acid induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), enhanced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and triggered toxin release in M. aeruginosa to varying degrees. The increase in MDA concentration and SOD activity in M. aeruginosa occurred sooner after exposure to diclofop acid than when the cyanobacteria was exposed to either the R- and the S-enantiomer. In addition, enantioselective toxicity of the enantiomers was observed. The R-enantiomer trigged more ROS generation, more SOD activity and more toxin synthesis and release in M. aeruginosa cells than the S-enantiomer. Diclofop acid and its R-enantiomer may collapse the transmembrane proton gradient and destroy the cell membrane through lipid peroxidation and free radical oxidation, whereas the S-enantiomer did not demonstrate such action. R-diclofop acid inhibits the growth of M. aeruginosa in the early stage, but ultimately induced greater toxin release, which has a deleterious effect on the water column. These results indicate that more comprehensive study is needed to determine the environmental safety of the enantiomers, and application of chiral pesticides requires more direct supervision and training. Additionally, lifecycle analysis of chiral pollutants in aquatic system needs more attention to aide in the environmental assessment of chiral pesticides.

  5. Predicting CYP2C19 catalytic parameters for enantioselective oxidations using artificial neural networks and a chirality code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Jessica H; Cothren, Steven D; Park, Sun-Ha; Yun, Chul-Ho; Darsey, Jerry A; Miller, Grover P

    2013-07-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYP for isoforms) play a central role in biological processes especially metabolism of chiral molecules; thus, development of computational methods to predict parameters for chiral reactions is important for advancing this field. In this study, we identified the most optimal artificial neural networks using conformation-independent chirality codes to predict CYP2C19 catalytic parameters for enantioselective reactions. Optimization of the neural networks required identifying the most suitable representation of structure among a diverse array of training substrates, normalizing distribution of the corresponding catalytic parameters (k(cat), K(m), and k(cat)/K(m)), and determining the best topology for networks to make predictions. Among different structural descriptors, the use of partial atomic charges according to the CHelpG scheme and inclusion of hydrogens yielded the most optimal artificial neural networks. Their training also required resolution of poorly distributed output catalytic parameters using a Box-Cox transformation. End point leave-one-out cross correlations of the best neural networks revealed that predictions for individual catalytic parameters (k(cat) and K(m)) were more consistent with experimental values than those for catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)). Lastly, neural networks predicted correctly enantioselectivity and comparable catalytic parameters measured in this study for previously uncharacterized CYP2C19 substrates, R- and S-propranolol. Taken together, these seminal computational studies for CYP2C19 are the first to predict all catalytic parameters for enantioselective reactions using artificial neural networks and thus provide a foundation for expanding the prediction of cytochrome P450 reactions to chiral drugs, pollutants, and other biologically active compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhanced anti-Diastereo- and Enantioselectivity in Alcohol Mediated Carbonyl Crotylation Using an Isolable Single Component Iridium Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Townsend, Ian A.; Krische, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The cyclometallated iridium complex (S)-I derived from [Ir(cod)Cl]2, 4-cyano-3-nitrobenzoic acid, allyl acetate and (S)-SEGPHOS is conveniently isolated by precipitation or through conventional silica gel flash chromatography. This single component precatalyst allows alcohol mediated carbonyl crotylations to be performed at significantly lower temperature, resulting in enhanced levels of anti-diastereo- and enantioselectivity. Most significantly, the chromatographically isolated precatalyst (S)-I enables carbonyl crotylations that are not possible under previously reported conditions involving in situ generation of (S)-I. PMID:21375283

  7. Enantioselective semi-preparative HPLC separation of PCB metabolites and their absolute structures determined by electronic and vibrational circular dichroism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuan, H.P.; Larsson, C.; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie; Hoffmann, F.; Froeba, M. [Giessen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Bergmann, Aa. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Chemistry

    2004-09-15

    The present paper represents a first result of an ongoing systematic study of atropisomeric methylsulfonyl, methylthionyl, hydroxy, and methoxy metabolites of environmentally most relevant PCBs. This involves semi-preparative enantioselective HPLC separation to obtain pure atropisomers from synthesized PCB metabolite standards, their configuration estimation using the electronic circular dichroism (UV-CD) method and the determination / confirmation of these absolute configurations applying the combined vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) / ab initio approach. The following substances have been investigated: 4-HO-, 4-MeO-, 4-MeS-, 4-MeSO2-, 3-MeS- and 3-MeSO{sub 2}-CB149.

  8. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Cyclic β-Diones to α,β-Unsaturated Enones Catalyzed by Quinine-Based Organocatalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingqing Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An enantioselective (52–98% ee Michael addition between cyclic β-diones and α,β-unsaturated enones was established in the presence of quinine-based primary amine or squaramide. A variety of cinnamones were smoothly converted into the desired 3,4-dihydropyrans in moderate to high yields (63–99%. Chalcones were also suitable acceptors and gave rise to the expected adducts in satisfactory yields (31–99%. The resulting adducts readily underwent further modification to form fused 4H-pyran or 2,3-dihydrofuran.

  9. Concise Approach to (ent)-14 β-Hydroxysteroids through Highly Diastereo-/Enantioselective Diels-Alder Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Clovis; Ressault, Blandine; Geoffroy, Philippe; Miesch, Michel

    2016-07-25

    14β-Hydroxysteroids, especially 14β-hydroxyandrostane derivatives are closely related to the cardenolide skeletons. The latter were readily available through highly diastero/enantioselective Diels-Alder (DA) reactions requiring high pressure or Lewis acid activation. Moreover, in the presence of (R)- or (S)-carvone as a chiral dienophile, the DA-reaction takes place under chemodivergent parallel kinetic resolution control affording highly enantiomerically enriched 14β-hydroxysteroid derivatives or the corresponding (ent)-14β-hydroxysteroid derivatives. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. 2,2',3,3',6,6'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 136) is Enantioselectively Oxidized to Hydroxylated Metabolites by Rat Liver Microsomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianai; Pramanik, Ananya; Duffel, Michael W.; Hrycay, Eugene G.; Bandiera, Stelvio M.; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Kania-Korwel, Izabela

    2011-01-01

    Developmental exposure to multiple-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) causes adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in laboratory animals and humans by mechanisms involving the sensitization of Ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In the case of PCB 136, the sensitization of RyR is enantiospecific, with only (-)-PCB 136 being active. However, the role of enantioselective metabolism in the developmental neurotoxicity of PCB 136 is poorly understood. The present study employed hepatic microsomes from phenobarbital (PB-), dexamethasone (DEX-) and corn oil (VEH-)treated male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the hypothesis that PCB 136 atropisomers are enantioselectively metabolized by P450 enzymes to potentially neurotoxic, hydroxylated PCB 136 metabolites. The results demonstrated the time- and isoform-dependent formation of three metabolites, with 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) being the major metabolite. The formation of 5-OH-PCB 136 increased with the activity of P450 2B enzymes in the microsomal preparation, which is consistent with PCB 136 metabolism by rat P450 2B1. The minor metabolite 4-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-4-ol) was produced by a currently unidentified P450 enzymes. An enantiomeric enrichment of (-)-PCB 136 was observed in microsomal incubations due to the preferential metabolism of (+)-PCB 136 to the corresponding 5-OH-PCB 136 (2,2',3,3',6,6'-hexachlorobiphenyl-5-ol) atropisomer. 4-OH-PCB 136 displayed an enrichment of the atropisomer formed from (-)-PCB 136; however, the enrichment of this metabolite atropisomer didn't affect the enantiomeric enrichment of the parent PCB because 4-OH-PCB 136 is only a minor metabolite. Although the formation of 5- and 4-OH-PCB 136 atropisomers increased with time, the enantioselective formation of the OH-PCB metabolites resulted in constant enantiomeric enrichment, especially at later incubation times. These observations not only demonstrate that the chiral signatures of

  11. Effect of Bi2O3 addition on electron paramagnetic resonance, optical absorption, and conductivity in vanadyl-doped Li2O-K2O-Bi2O3-B2O3 glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhadra, M; Kistaiah, P

    2011-02-17

    Glasses with composition 15Li(2)O-15K(2)O-xBi(2)O(3)-(65 - x)-B(2)O(3)/5V(2)O(5) (3 ≤ x ≤ 15) have been prepared by the conventional melt quench technique. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of VO(2+) in these glasses have been recorded in the X-band frequency (≈9.3 GHz) at room temperature. The spin Hamiltonian parameters and covalency rates were evaluated. It was found that the V(4+) ions exist as vanadyl (VO(2+)) ions and are in an octahedral coordination with a tetragonal compression. The covalency rates (1 - α(2)) and (1 - γ(2)) indicate moderate covalency for the σ- and π-bonds. It was observed that the spin-Hamiltonian parameters depend slightly on the relative concentration of Bi(2)O(3). The optical properties of this glass system are studied from the optical absorption spectra recorded in the wavelength range 200-800 nm. The fundamental absorption edge has been identified from the optical absorption spectra. The values of optical band gap for indirect allowed transitions have been determined using available theories. The direct current electrical conductivity, σ, has been measured in the temperature range 373-573 K. The conductivity decreases with the increase in Bi(2)O(3) concentration. This has been discussed in terms of the decrease in the number of mobile ions and their mobility. An attempt is made to correlate the EPR, optical, and electrical results and to find the effect of Bi(2)O(3) content on these parameters.

  12. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic amino acids in cerebrospinal fluid by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Amir; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Sastre-Toraño, Javier; Marina, Maria Luisa; de Jong, Gerhardus J; Somsen, Govert W

    2016-09-01

    d-Amino acids (AAs) are increasingly being recognized as essential molecules in biological systems. Enantioselective analysis of proteinogenic AAs in biological samples was accomplished by CE-MS employing β-CD as chiral selector and ESI via sheath-liquid (SL) interfacing. Prior to analysis, AAs were fully derivatized with FMOC, improving AA-enantiomer separation and ESI efficiency. In order to optimize the separation and MS detection of FMOC-AAs, the effects of type and concentration of CD in the BGE, the composition of the SL, and MS-interfacing parameters were evaluated. Using a BGE of 10 mM β-CD in 50 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8) containing 15% v/v isopropanol, a SL of isopropanol-water-1 M ammonium bicarbonate (50:50:1, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 3 μL/min, and a nebulizer gas pressure of 2 psi, 15 proteinogenic AAs could be detected with enantioresolutions up to 3.5 and detection limits down to 0.9 μM (equivalent to less than 3 pg AA injected). The selectivity of the method was demonstrated by the analysis of spiked cerebrospinal fluid, allowing specific detection of d-AAs. Repeatability and linearity obtained for cerebrospinal fluid were similar to standard solutions, with peak area and migration-time RSDs (n = 5) below 16.2 and 1.6%, respectively, and a linear response (R(2) ≥ 0.977) in the 3-90 μM range. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Evaluating the robustness of the enantioselective stationary phases on the Rosetta mission against space vacuum vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.; Cason, Julie R. L.; Szopa, Cyril; Sternberg, Robert; Raulin, François; Thiemann, Wolfram H.-P.; Goesmann, Fred

    2013-12-01

    The European Space Agency's Rosetta mission was launched in March 2004 in order to reach comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by August 2014. The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) onboard the Rosetta mission's lander "Philae" has been designed for the cometary in situ detection and quantification of organic molecules using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC unit of COSAC is equipped with eight capillary columns that will each provide a specific stationary phase for molecular separation. Three of these stationary phases will be used to chromatographically resolve enantiomers, as they are composed of liquid polymers of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to which chiral valine or cyclodextrin units are attached. Throughout the ten years of Rosetta's journey through space to reach comet 67P, these liquid stationary phases have been exposed to space vacuum, as the capillary columns within the COSAC unit were not sealed or filled with carrier gas. Long term exposures to space vacuum can cause damage to such liquid stationary phases as key monomers, volatiles, and chiral selectors can be vaporized and lost in transit. We have therefore exposed identical spare units of COSAC's chiral stationary phases over eight years to vacuum conditions mimicking those experienced in space and we have now investigated their resolution capabilities towards different enantiomers both before and after exposure to space vacuum environments. We have observed that enantiomeric resolution capabilities of these chiral liquid enantioselective stationary phases has not been affected by exposure to space vacuum conditions. Thus we conclude that the three chiral stationary phases of the COSAC experiment onboard the Rosetta mission lander "Philae" can be considered to have maintained their resolution capacities throughout their journey prior to cometary landing in November 2014.

  14. Enantioselective transesterification by Candida antarctica Lipase B immobilized on fumed silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Martin; Cruz, Juan C; Pfromm, Peter H; Rezac, Mary E; Czermak, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Enzymatic catalysis to produce molecules such as perfumes, flavors, and fragrances has the advantage of allowing the products to be labeled "natural" for marketing in the U.S., in addition to the exquisite selectivity and stereoselectivity of enzymes that can be an advantage over chemical catalysis. Enzymatic catalysis in organic solvents is attractive if solubility issues of reactants or products, or thermodynamic issues (water as a product in esterification) complicate or prevent aqueous enzymatic catalysis. Immobilization of the enzyme on a solid support can address the generally poor solubility of enzymes in most solvents. We have recently reported on a novel immobilization method for Candida antarctica Lipase B on fumed silica to improve the enzymatic activity in hexane. This research is extended here to study the enantioselective transesterification of (RS)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate. The maximum catalytic activity for this preparation exceeded the activity (on an equal enzyme amount basis) of the commercial Novozyme 435(®) significantly. The steady-state conversion for (R)-1-phenylethanol was about 75% as confirmed via forward and reverse reaction. The catalytic activity steeply increases with increasing nominal surface coverage of the support until a maximum is reached at a nominal surface coverage of 230%. We hypothesize that the physical state of the enzyme molecules at a low surface coverage is dominated in this case by detrimental strong enzyme-substrate interactions. Enzyme-enzyme interactions may stabilize the active form of the enzyme as surface coverage increases while diffusion limitations reduce the apparent catalytic performance again at multi-layer coverage. The temperature-, solvent-, and long-term stability for CALB/fumed silica preparations showed that these preparations can tolerate temperatures up to 70°C, continuous exposure to solvents, and long-term storage. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Enantioselective determination of arotinolol in human plasma by HPLC using teicoplanin chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y; Hefnawy, Mohamed M

    2003-10-01

    A sensitive enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to determine S-(+)- and R-(-)-arotinolol in human plasma. Baseline resolution was achieved by using teicoplanin macrocyclic antibiotic chiral stationary phase (CSP) known as Chirobiotic T with a polar organic mobile phase consisting of methanol:glacial acetic acid:triethylamine, 100:0.1:0.1, (v/v/v) at a fl ow rate of 0.8 mL/min and UV detection set at 317 nm. Human plasma was spiked with stock solution of arotinolol enantiomers and labetalol as the internal standard. The assay involved the use of liquid-liquid extraction procedure with ethyl ether under alkaline condition for human plasma sample prior to HPLC analysis. Recoveries for S-(+)- and R-(-)-arotinolol enantiomers were in the range 93-103% at 200-1400 ng/mL level. Intra-day and inter-day precision calculated as %RSD was in the ranges 1.3-3.4 and 1.9-4.5% for both enantiomers, respectively. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies calculated as percentage error were in the ranges 1.2-3.5 and 1.5-6.2% for both enantiomers, respectively. Linear calibration curves in the concentration range 100-1500 ng/mL for each enantiomer showed a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) for each enantiomer in human plasma were 100 and 50 ng/mL (S/N = 3), respectively. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Learning epistatic interactions from sequence-activity data to predict enantioselectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaugg, Julian; Gumulya, Yosephine; Malde, Alpeshkumar K.; Bodén, Mikael

    2017-12-01

    Enzymes with a high selectivity are desirable for improving economics of chemical synthesis of enantiopure compounds. To improve enzyme selectivity mutations are often introduced near the catalytic active site. In this compact environment epistatic interactions between residues, where contributions to selectivity are non-additive, play a significant role in determining the degree of selectivity. Using support vector machine regression models we map mutations to the experimentally characterised enantioselectivities for a set of 136 variants of the epoxide hydrolase from the fungus Aspergillus niger (AnEH). We investigate whether the influence a mutation has on enzyme selectivity can be accurately predicted through linear models, and whether prediction accuracy can be improved using higher-order counterparts. Comparing linear and polynomial degree = 2 models, mean Pearson coefficients (r) from 50 {× } 5 -fold cross-validation increase from 0.84 to 0.91 respectively. Equivalent models tested on interaction-minimised sequences achieve values of r=0.90 and r=0.93 . As expected, testing on a simulated control data set with no interactions results in no significant improvements from higher-order models. Additional experimentally derived AnEH mutants are tested with linear and polynomial degree = 2 models, with values increasing from r=0.51 to r=0.87 respectively. The study demonstrates that linear models perform well, however the representation of epistatic interactions in predictive models improves identification of selectivity-enhancing mutations. The improvement is attributed to higher-order kernel functions that represent epistatic interactions between residues.

  17. Enantiomerization and enantioselective bioaccumulation of benalaxyl in Tenebrio molitor larvae from wheat bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongxin; Chen, Jinhui; Wang, Huili; Liu, Chen; Lv, Xiaotian; Li, Jianzhong; Guo, Baoyuan

    2013-09-25

    The enantiomerization and enatioselecive bioaccumulation of benalaxyl by dietary exposure to Tenebrio molitor larvae under laboratory conditions were studied by HPLC-MS/MS. Exposure of enantiopure R-benalaxyl and S-benalaxyl in T. molitor larvae revealed significant enantiomerization with formation of the R enantiomers from the S enantiomers, and vice versa. Enantiomerization was not observed in wheat bran during the period of 21 days. For the bioaccumulation experiment, the enantiomer fraction in T. molitor larvae was maintained approximately at 0.6, whereas the enantiomer fraction in wheat bran was maintained at 0.5; in other words, the bioaccumulation of benalaxyl was enantioselective in T. molitor larvae. Mathematical models for a process of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization were developed, and the rates of uptake, degradation, and enantiomerization of R-benealaxyl and S-benealaxyl were estimated, respectively. The results were that the rate of uptake of R-benalaxyl (kRa = 0.052 h(-1)) was slightly lower than that of S-benalaxyl (kSa = 0.061 h(-1)) from wheat bran; the rate of degradation of R-benalaxyl (kRd = 0.285 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSd = 0.114 h(-1)); and the rate of enantiomerization of R-benalaxyl (kRS = 0.126 h(-1)) was higher than that of S-benalaxyl (kSR = 0.116 h(-1)). It was suggested that enantioselectivtiy was caused not only by actual degradation and metabolism but also by enantiomerization, which was an important process in the environmental fate and behavior of chiral pesticides.

  18. Enantioselective analysis of chiral anteiso fatty acids in the polar and neutral lipids of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauff, Simone; Hottinger, Georg; Vetter, Walter

    2010-04-01

    Anteiso fatty acids (aFA) are substituted with a methyl group on the antepenultimate carbon of the straight acyl chain. This feature leads to a stereogenic center. The 12-methyltetradecanoic acid (a15:0) and the 14-methylhexadecanoic acid (a17:0) are the most common aFA found in food, although they occur only in very small quantities. In this study we used gas chromatography in combination with a chiral stationary phase to determine the enantiomeric distribution of both a15:0 and a17:0 in the neutral and polar lipids of aquatic food samples and cheese. The best suited column was selected out of four custom-made combinations of heptakis(6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-2,3-di-O-methyl)-beta-cyclodextrin (beta-TBDM) with different amount and polarity of an achiral polysiloxane. After separation of polar and neutral lipids of the food samples by solid phase extraction, fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and the fatty acid methyl esters were fractionated by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography. Measurements of fractions high in aFA by enantioselective GC/MS in the selected ion monitoring mode verified the dominance of the (S)-enantiomers of a15:0 and a17:0 in both lipid fractions. However (R)-enantiomers were detectable in all samples. The relative proportion of the (R)-enantiomers was up to fivefold higher in the polar lipids than in the neutral lipids. The higher proportions in the polar lipids indicate that microorganisms might be involved in the formation of (R)-aFA.

  19. Lipase AKG mediated resolutions of alpha,alpha-disubstituted 1,2-diols in organic solvents; Remarkably high regio- and enantio-selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, RP; Kellogg, RM

    1996-01-01

    Diols 1, which contain adjacent tertiary and primary hydroxy groups, can be selectively mono-acylated at the primary hydroxy group by many lipases in organic solvents, Since the reaction does not take place at the chiral tertiary centre itself, observed enantioselectivities are usually low. Only the

  20. Efficient Improving the Activity and Enantioselectivity of Candida rugosa Lipase for the Resolution of Naproxen by Enzyme Immobilization on MCM-41 Mesoporous Molecular Sieve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipase from Candida rogusa was immobilized on MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieves in a trapped aqueous-organic biphase system for the resolution of racemic naproxen methyl ester. It was interesting that the activity and enantioselectivity of the immobilized lipase were improved significantly relative to the free enzyme. The proportion of water (ml/support (g has a dramatic influence on the activity and enantioselectivity of lipase immobilized onto MCM-41 molecular sieves. It was also found that the activity of immobilized lipase was more sensitive to pH value and temperature than the free one. Higher pH value will increase the activity but decrease the enantioselectivity of the immobilized lipase. The enantioselectivity of the immobilized lipase was not altered significantly within the range of tested temperature. The immobilized lipase can be reused for at least 8 batches without significant lose of activity with the aid of methanotrophic bacteria to eliminate the methanol produced during the resolution process.

  1. Lipase AKG mediated resolutions of α,α-disubstituted 1,2-diols in organic solvents; remarkably high regio- and enantio-selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, Robert P.; Kellogg, Richard M.

    1996-01-01

    Diols 1, which contain adjacent tertiary and primary hydroxy groups, can be selectively mono-acylated at the primary hydroxy group by many lipases in organic solvents. Since the reaction does not take place at the chiral tertiary centre itself, observed enantioselectivities are usually low. Only the

  2. Influence of degree of sulfonation of BDPP upon enantioselectivity in rhodium-BDPP catalyzed hydrogenation reactions in a two phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Cornelis; Rijnberg, Evelien; Vries, Johannes G. de

    1997-01-01

    Asymmetric hydrogenation experiments were carried out with catalysts prepared in situ from [Rh(COD)Cl]2 and 2 eq. of a sulfonated (2S,4S)-bis-2,4-(diphenylphosphino)pentane carrying 0-4 sulfonate groups, in a two phase aqueous organic system. The effect of degree of sulfonation on enantioselectivity

  3. On the mechanism of the copper-catalyzed enantioselective 1,4-addition of grignard reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harutyunyan, Syuzanna R.; Lopez, Fernando; Browne, Wesley R.; Correa, Arkaitz; Pena, Diego; Badorrey, Ramon; Meetsma, Auke; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Ben L.; Lo´pez, F.; Pen~a, D.

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of the enantioselective 1,4-addition of Grignard reagents to alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds promoted by copper complexes of chiral ferrocenyl diphosphines is explored through kinetic, spectroscopic, and electrochemical analysis. On the basis of these studies, a structure of

  4. Co(salen)-mediated enantioselective radiofluorination of epoxides. Radiosynthesis of enantiomerically enriched [18F]F-MISO via kinetic resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revunov, Evgeny V.; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2013-01-01

    The first example of transition metal mediated enantioselective radiofluorination of epoxides is reported. The procedure utilizes gaseous [18F]HF in a combination with (−)tetramisole and (R,R)-Co(salen), giving the corresponding (S,S)-18F-fluorohydrines in 78–93% radiochemical yield (RCY) and 20–...

  5. Palladium-Catalysed Enantioselective Conjugate Addition of Aromatic Amines to α,β-Unsaturated N-Imides. Effect of the Chelating Moiety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phua, Pim Huat; Vries, Johannes G. de; Hii, King Kuok

    2005-01-01

    Palladium-catalysed enantioselective additions of aromatic amines to α,β-unsaturated N-imides are reported. The N-substituent of the Michael acceptor appears to have an unusual modulating effect on the amine activity. The effects of introducing different substituents are examined. Overall, the yield

  6. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and escitalopram in postmortem blood together with genotyping for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Björn; Holmgren, Anita; Ahlner, Johan; Bengtsson, Finn

    2009-03-01

    Citalopram is marketed as a racemate (50:50) mixture of the S(+)-enantiomer and R(-)-enantiomer and the active S(+)-enantiomer (escitalopram) that possess inhibitory effects. Citalopram was introduced in Sweden in 1992 and is the most frequently used antidepressant to date in Sweden. In 2002, escitalopram was introduced onto the Swedish market for treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. The main objective of this study was to investigate S(+)-citalopram [i.e., the racemic drug (citalopram) or the enantiomer (escitalopram)] present in forensic autopsy cases positive for the presence of citalopram in routine screening using a non-enantioselective bioanalytical method. Fifty out of the 270 samples found positive by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection were further analyzed using enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography. The 50 cases were genotyped for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19, as these isoenzymes are implicated in the metabolism of citalopram and escitalopram. In samples positive for racemic citalopram using the screening method for forensic autopsy cases, up to 20% would have been misinterpreted in the absence of an enantioselective method. An enantioselective method is thus necessary for correct interpretation of autopsy cases, after the enantiomer has been introduced onto the market. The percentage of poor metabolizers was 6% for CYP2D6 and 8% for CYP2C19.

  7. An enantioselective catalytic approach to syn deoxypropionate units combining asymmetric Cu-catalyzed 1,6- and 1,4-conjugate addition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Tim den; Dijken, Derk Jan van; Minnaard, Adriaan J.; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    A novel iterative approach to the synthesis of the naturally ubiquitous syn deoxypropionate motif is reported. The route comprises a new Horner–Wadsworth–Emmons reagent to prepare α,β,γ,δ-bisunsaturated thioesters. Next, two Me-substituents are introduced in high yield, regio- and enantioselectivity

  8. Highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction catalyzed by rosin-derived tertiary amine-thiourea: synthesis of modified chromanes with anticancer potency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianxing; Wu, Lipeng; Xing, Yanhong; Wang, Long; Wang, Shoulei; Chen, Zongyao; Wang, Rui

    2012-01-11

    We present herein for the first time the synthesis and preliminary biological evaluation of various modified chromanes via a rosin-derived tertiary amine-thiourea-catalyzed highly enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  9. Enantioselective Reduction of Citral Isomers in NCR Ene Reductase: Analysis of an Active-Site Mutant Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Nico; Rapp, Johanna; Hauer, Bernhard

    2017-04-18

    A deeper understanding of the >99 % S-selective reduction of both isomers of citral catalyzed by NCR ene reductase was achieved by active-site mutational studies and docking simulation. Though structurally similar, the E/Z isomers of citral showed a significantly varying selectivity response to introduced mutations. Although it was possible to invert (E)-citral reduction enantioselectivity to ee 46 % (R) by introducing mutation W66A, for (Z)-citral it remained ≥88 % (S) for all single-residue variants. Residue 66 seems to act as a lever for opposite binding modes. This was underlined by a W66A-based double-mutant library that enhanced the (E)-citral derived enantioselectivity to 63 % (R) and significantly lowered the S selectivity for (Z)-citral to 44 % (S). Formation of (R)-citronellal from an (E/Z)-citral mixture is a desire in industrial (-)-menthol synthesis. Our findings pave the way for a rational enzyme engineering solution. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Boosting Chemical Stability, Catalytic Activity, and Enantioselectivity of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Batch and Flow Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Jiang, Hong; Hou, Bang; Gong, Wei; Liu, Yan; Cui, Yong

    2017-09-27

    A key challenge in heterogeneous catalysis is the design and synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts featuring high catalytic activity, selectivity, and recyclability. Here we demonstrate that high-performance heterogeneous asymmetric catalysts can be engineered from a metal-organic framework (MOF) platform by using a ligand design strategy. Three porous chiral MOFs with the framework formula [Mn2L(H2O)2] are prepared from enantiopure phosphono-carboxylate ligands of 1,1'-biphenol that are functionalized with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-, bismethyl-, and bisfluoro-phenyl substituents at the 3,3'-position. For the first time, we show that not only chemical stability but also catalytic activity and stereoselectivity of the MOFs can be tuned by modifying the ligand structures. Particularly, the MOF incorporated with -CF3 groups on the pore walls exhibits enhanced tolerance to water, weak acid, and base compared with the MOFs with -F and -Me groups. Under both batch and flow reaction systems, the CF3-containing MOF demonstrated excellent reactivity, selectivity, and recyclability, affording high yields and enantioselectivities for alkylations of indoles and pyrrole with a range of ketoesters or nitroalkenes. In contrast, the corresponding homogeneous catalysts gave low enantioselectivity in catalyzing the tested reactions.

  11. Potencial de biocatálise enantiosseletiva de lipases microbianas Potential of enantioselective biocatalysis by microbial lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de O. Carvalho

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial lipases have a great potential for commercial applications due to their stability, selectivity and broad substrate specificity because many non-natural acids, alcohols or amines can be used as the substrate. Three microbial lipases isolated from Brazilian soil samples (Aspergillus niger; Geotrichum candidum; Penicillium solitum were compared in terms of their stability and as biocatalysts in the enantioselective esterification using racemic substrates in organic medium. The lipase from Aspergillus niger showed the highest activity (18.2 U/mL and was highly thermostable, retaining 90% and 60% activity at 50 ºC and 60 ºC after 1 hour, respectively. In organic medium, this lipase provided the best results in terms of enantiomeric excess of the (S-active acid (ee = 6.1% and conversion value (c = 20% in the esterification of (R,S-ibuprofen with 1-propanol in isooctane. The esterification reaction of the racemic mixture of (R,S-2-octanol with decanoic acid proceeded with high enantioselectivity when lipase from Aspergillus niger (E = 13.2 and commercial lipase from Candida antarctica (E = 20 were employed.

  12. Enantioselective Crystallization of Sodium Chlorate in the Presence of Racemic Hydrophobic Amino Acids and Static Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzano, María-Paz; Osuna-Esteban, Susana; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Menor-Salván, Cesar; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2014-06-01

    We study the bias induced by a weak (200 mT) external magnetic field on the preferred handedness of sodium chlorate crystals obtained by slow evaporation at ambient conditions of its saturated saline solution with 20 ppm of added racemic (dl) hydrophobic amino acids. By applying the Fisher test to pairs of experiments with opposing magnetic field orientation we conclude, with a confidence level of 99.7%, that at the water-air interface of this saline solution there is an enantioselective magnetic interaction that acts upon racemic mixtures of hydrophobic chiral amino acids. This interaction has been observed with the three tested racemic hydrophobic amino acids: dl-Phe, dl-Try and dl-Trp, at ambient conditions and in spite of the ubiquitous chiral organic contamination. This enantioselective magnetic dependence is not observed when there is only one handedness of added chiral amino-acid, if the added amino acid is not chiral or if there is no additive. This effect has been confirmed with a double blind test. This novel experimental observation may have implications for our view of plausible initial prebiotic scenarios and of the roles of the geomagnetic field in homochirality in the biosphere.

  13. Continuous enantioselective esterification of trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclohexanol using a new Candida rugosa lipase in a packed bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, A; del Río, J L; Valero, F; Lafuente, J; Faus, I; Solà, C

    2001-11-17

    Enantioselective resolution of trans-2-phenyl-1-cyclohexanol (TPCH) by a Candida rugosa lipase, obtained by fermentation in the laboratory, and immobilised on EP100 polypropylene powder has been carried out using isooctane as solvent and propionic acid as esterifying agent. The study have included the utilisation of this biocatalyst in a batch process and the optimisation of the esterification conditions by means of a Box-Hunter-based experimental design. The main variables controlling the process, concentration of acid and alcohol, have been numerically optimised using initial esterification rate as objective function. The optimal concentrations for the batch process were 50 mM for the alcohol and 71 mM for the acid. This esterification reaction kinetics corresponded to a reversible Michaelis-Menten kinetic law for the optimal conditions, which has permitted to select a plug-flow packed bed bioreactor as the most appropriate configuration to minimise the residence time and to avoid shear stress effect on the biocatalyst. The behaviour of the continuous packed bed bioreactor at two different residence times (302 and 582 min) was in accordance with predictions from batch experiments, with slightly deviations (less than 10%). Continuous experiments maintained high values of enantioselectivity (enantiomeric factor was practically 1) and conversion near equilibrium value (35%) when long-time operation was carried out. Besides, long-time stability of biocatalyst has permitted to scale-up the production of enantioenriched (1R,2S)-TPCH propionate to yield gram quantities.

  14. R-enantioselective hydrolysis of 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxamide by amidase from a newly isolated strain Brevibacterium epidermidis ZJB-07021.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S-J; Zheng, R-C; Zheng, Y-G; Shen, Y-C

    2008-10-01

    To isolate new micro-organisms with R-stereospecific amidase activity and to examine their potential as biocatalysts in enantioselective hydrolysis of 2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxamide (1). A novel R-stereospecific amidase-producing strain ZJB-07021 was isolated through a sophisticated colorimetric screening method. Based on morphology, physiological tests, Biolog system (GP2) and 16S rRNA sequence, the new isolate was identified as Brevibacterium epidermidis. After 70 min of bioconversion at 35 degrees C, kinetic resolution of (R,S)-1 by the amidase afforded (S)-1 in 41.1% yield (>99% ee) and (R)-2 in 49.9% yield (69.7% ee) with an average E-value of 23. The enantioselectivity was found to be temperature dependent and enhanced from 12.6 at 45 degrees C to 65.9 at 14 degrees C. A novel bacterial strain of B. epidermidis ZJB-07021 producing R-stereospecific amidase was isolated and characterized. The isolate exhibited high E values for kinetic resolution of racemic-1 to (S)-1. To our knowledge, this was the first report on the species B. epidermidis that harboured R-stereospecific amidase. Strain ZJB-07021 could be further improved as a suitable biocatalyst for the stereoselective bioconversion of racemic-1 after optimization of culture and biotransformation process.

  15. Enantioselective Crystallization of Sodium Chlorate in the Presence of Racemic Hydrophobic Amino Acids and Static Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Paz Zorzano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We study the bias induced by a weak (200 mT external magnetic field on the preferred handedness of sodium chlorate crystals obtained by slow evaporation at ambient conditions of its saturated saline solution with 20 ppm of added racemic (dl hydrophobic amino acids. By applying the Fisher test to pairs of experiments with opposing magnetic field orientation we conclude, with a confidence level of 99.7%, that at the water-air interface of this saline solution there is an enantioselective magnetic interaction that acts upon racemic mixtures of hydrophobic chiral amino acids. This interaction has been observed with the three tested racemic hydrophobic amino acids: dl-Phe, dl-Try and dl-Trp, at ambient conditions and in spite of the ubiquitous chiral organic contamination. This enantioselective magnetic dependence is not observed when there is only one handedness of added chiral amino-acid, if the added amino acid is not chiral or if there is no additive. This effect has been confirmed with a double blind test. This novel experimental observation may have implications for our view of plausible initial prebiotic scenarios and of the roles of the geomagnetic field in homochirality in the biosphere.

  16. Heterogeneous versus homogeneous copper(II) catalysis in enantioselective conjugate-addition reactions of boron in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanosono, Taku; Xu, Pengyu; Kobayashi, Shū

    2014-01-01

    We have developed Cu(II)-catalyzed enantioselective conjugate-addition reactions of boron to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds in water. In contrast to the previously reported Cu(I) catalysis that required organic solvents, chiral Cu(II) catalysis was found to proceed efficiently in water. Three catalyst systems have been exploited: cat. 1: Cu(OH)2 with chiral ligand L1; cat. 2: Cu(OH)2 and acetic acid with ligand L1; and cat. 3: Cu(OAc)2 with ligand L1. Whereas cat. 1 is a heterogeneous system, cat. 2 and cat. 3 are homogeneous systems. We tested 27 α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and an α,β-unsaturated nitrile compound, including acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones, acyclic and cyclic β,β-disubstituted enones, acyclic and cyclic α,β-unsaturated esters (including their β,β-disubstituted forms), and acyclic α,β-unsaturated amides (including their β,β-disubstituted forms). We found that cat. 2 and cat. 3 showed high yields and enantioselectivities for almost all substrates. Notably, no catalysts that can tolerate all of these substrates with high yields and high enantioselectivities have been reported for the conjugate addition of boron. Heterogeneous cat. 1 also gave high yields and enantioselectivities with some substrates and also gave the highest TOF (43,200 h(-1) ) for an asymmetric conjugate-addition reaction of boron. In addition, the catalyst systems were also applicable to the conjugate addition of boron to α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, although such reactions have previously been very limited in the literature, even in organic solvents. 1,4-Addition products were obtained in high yields and enantioselectivities in the reactions of acyclic α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with diboron 2 by using cat. 1, cat. 2, or cat. 3. On the other hand, in the reactions of cyclic α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with compound 2, whereas 1,4-addition products

  17. Immobilization and Characterization of a New Regioselective and Enantioselective Lipase Obtained from a Metagenomic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Martini, Viviane Paula; Glogauer, Arnaldo; Costa, Allen Carolina dos Santos; Piovan, Leandro; Muller-Santos, Marcelo; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi; de Oliveira Pedrosa, Fábio; Mitchell, David Alexander; Krieger, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000). We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9) in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50°C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0) for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23) and acetone (log P -0.31), maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30°C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h) were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16), with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16). Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S)-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S)-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200), giving an enantiomeric excess (ee) of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis. PMID:25706996

  18. Immobilization and characterization of a new regioselective and enantioselective lipase obtained from a metagenomic library.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Carlos Alnoch

    Full Text Available In previous work, a new lipase and its cognate foldase were identified and isolated from a metagenomic library constructed from soil samples contaminated with fat. This new lipase, called LipG9, is a true lipase that shows specific activities that are comparable to those of well-known industrially-used lipases with high activity against long-chain triglycerides. In the present work, LipG9 was co-expressed and co-immobilized with its foldase, on an inert hydrophobic support (Accurel MP1000. We studied the performance of this immobilized LipG9 (Im-LipG9 in organic media, in order to evaluate its potential for use in biocatalysis. Im-LipG9 showed good stability, maintaining a residual activity of more than 70% at 50 °C after incubation in n-heptane (log P 4.0 for 8 h. It was also stable in polar organic solvents such as ethanol (log P -0.23 and acetone (log P -0.31, maintaining more than 80% of its original activity after 8 h incubation at 30 °C. The synthesis of ethyl esters was tested with fatty acids of different chain lengths in n-heptane at 30 °C. The best conversions (90% in 3 h were obtained for medium and long chain saturated fatty acids (C8, C14 and C16, with the maximum specific activity, 29 U per gram of immobilized preparation, being obtained with palmitic acid (C16. Im-LipG9 was sn-1,3-specific. In the transesterification of the alcohol (R,S-1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate and the hydrolysis of the analogous ester, (R,S-1-phenylethyl acetate, Im-LipG9 showed excellent enantioselectivity for the R-isomer of both substrates (E> 200, giving an enantiomeric excess (ee of higher than 95% for the products at 49% conversion. The results obtained in this work provide the basis for the development of applications of LipG9 in biocatalysis.

  19. Improvement for enantioselectivity of esterification by the change of alcohol concentration in supercritical CO{sub 2}; Arukoru nodo henka ni yoru chorinkai CO{sub 2} nai esuteruka hanno kyozotai sentakusei no kojo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Tau-yann; Liang, Ming-tsai

    1999-07-05

    This work used Candid rugosa lipase to resolve racemic Naproxen by esterification with ethanol, n-butanol, n-hexanol, or n-decanol in supercritical CO{sub 2}. It was found that the lipase enantioselectively esterified S-Naproxen within all systems. The enantiomeric ratio increased four folds by slightly decreasing the alcohol concentration. The effect of the alcohol concentration on the enantioselectivity was greater than that of changing acyl acceptors. (author)

  20. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-07

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC andfree enantiomer separation. The suitability of using these two enantioselective multidimensional approaches for the routine assessment of chiral monoterpenes in TTO was evaluated and discussed. Exact enantiomeric composition of chiral markers for authentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over eGC, especially in terms of analysis times and selectivity

  1. Enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole studied in the H295R cell assay and by molecular modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Amalie Møller; Hansen, Cecilie Hurup; Bonomo, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Enantiomers possess different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and this may not only influence the therapeutic effect of a drug but also its toxicological effects. In the present work we investigated the potential enantioselective endocrine disrupting effects of omeprazole (OME......) and its two enantiomers on the human steroidogenesis using the H295R cell line. Differences in production of 16 steroid hormones were analyzed using LC-MS/MS. Additionally, to evaluate the differences in binding modes of these enantiomers, docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of S-omeprazole (S......-OME) and R-omeprazole (R-OME) in CYP17A1, CYP19A1 and CYP21A2 were carried out. Exposing H295R cells to OME and its enantiomers resulted in an increase of progesterone (PRO) and 17α-hydroxy-progesterone (OH-PRO) levels. At the same time, a decrease in the corticosteroid and androgen synthesis was observed...

  2. Lithium Enolates in the Enantioselective Construction of Tetrasubstituted Carbon Centers with Chiral Lithium Amides as Noncovalent Stereodirecting Auxiliaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Lu, Ping; Jackson, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Thuy-Ai D; Alvarado, Joseph; Stivala, Craig E; Ma, Yun; Mack, Kyle A; Hayton, Trevor W; Collum, David B; Zakarian, Armen

    2017-01-11

    Lithium enolates derived from carboxylic acids are ubiquitous intermediates in organic synthesis. Asymmetric transformations with these intermediates, a central goal of organic synthesis, are typically carried out with covalently attached chiral auxiliaries. An alternative approach is to utilize chiral reagents that form discrete, well-defined aggregates with lithium enolates, providing a chiral environment conducive of asymmetric bond formation. These reagents effectively act as noncovalent, or traceless, chiral auxiliaries. Lithium amides are an obvious choice for such reagents as they are known to form mixed aggregates with lithium enolates. We demonstrate here that mixed aggregates can effect highly enantioselective transformations of lithium enolates in several classes of reactions, most notably in transformations forming tetrasubstituted and quaternary carbon centers. Easy recovery of the chiral reagent by aqueous extraction is another practical advantage of this one-step protocol. Crystallographic, spectroscopic, and computational studies of the central reactive aggregate, which provide insight into the origins of selectivity, are also reported.

  3. Determination of levamisole and tetramisole in seized cocaine samples by enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography and circular dichroism detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Carlo; Tedesco, Daniele; Fabini, Edoardo; Di Pietra, Anna Maria; Rossi, Francesca; Garagnani, Marco; Del Borrello, Elia; Andrisano, Vincenza

    2014-10-10

    Levamisole, an anthelmintic drug, has been increasingly employed as an adulterant of illicit street cocaine over the last decade; recently, the use of tetramisole, the racemic mixture of levamisole and its enantiomer dexamisole, was also occasionally observed. A new enantioselective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method, performed on cellulose tris(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate) chiral stationary phases in normal-phase mode, was validated to determine the enantiomeric composition of tetramisole enantiomers in seized cocaine samples. Furthermore, the hyphenation of the validated HPLC method with a circular dichroism (CD) detection system allowed the direct determination of elution order and a selective monitoring of levamisole and dexamisole in the presence of possible interferences. The method was applied to the identification and quantitation of the two enantiomers of tetramisole in seized street cocaine samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Enantioselective GC-MS analysis of volatile components from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oils and hydrosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomi, Kenichi; Kitao, Makiko; Konishi, Norihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasuki; Hayashi, Takahiro

    2016-05-01

    Essential oils and hydrosols were extracted from rosemary harvested in different seasons, and the chemical compositions of volatile components in the two fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Enantiomers of some volatile components were also analyzed by enantioselective GC-MS. Classification of aroma components based on chemical groups revealed that essential oils contained high levels of monoterpene hydrocarbons but hydrosols did not. Furthermore, the enantiomeric ratios within some volatile components were different from each other; for example, only the (S)-form was observed for limonene and the (R)-form was dominant for verbenone. These indicate the importance of determining the enantiomer composition of volatile components for investigating the physiological and psychological effects on humans. Overall, enantiomeric ratios were determined by volatile components, with no difference between essential oils and hydrosols or between seasons.

  5. Design, Synthesis and Biological Activity of Novel Reversible Peptidyl FVIIa Inhibitors Rh-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis of Diaryl Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storgaard, Morten

    complicated by antibodies. FVIIa is a serine protease and hence liquid formulations are not stable due to autoproteolysis. A reversible inhibitor would stabilize FVIIa making a liquid formulation possible, representing an important follow-up product for Novo Nordisk. Peptidyl benzyl ketones was chosen...... solubility in aqueous media. A SAR study revealed that especially a bulky aromatic Cbz-terminal was crucial for potency. In the view of potency and selectivity, 3.50 seems to be a promising candidate for future development of liquid formulations of NovoSeven R . The second project deals with the rhodium...... catalyst is air-stable, commercially available and inexpensive. [RhCl(cod)]2 and (R,R)-deguPHOS was preincubated prior to use to secure excellent enantioselectivity. A cannulation technique was implemented for application outside the glovebox. A low content of boroxine in the batch of arylboronic acid...

  6. Biphenyl-derived phosphepines as chiral nucleophilic catalysts: enantioselective [4+1] annulations to form functionalized cyclopentenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Daniel T; Riesgo, Lorena; Ikeda, Takuya; Fujiwara, Yuji; Fu, Gregory C

    2014-11-24

    Because of the frequent occurrence of cyclopentane subunits in bioactive compounds, the development of efficient catalytic asymmetric methods for their synthesis is an important objective. Introduced herein is a new family of chiral nucleophilic catalysts, biphenyl-derived phosphepines, and we apply them to an enantioselective variant of a useful [4+1] annulation. A range of one-carbon coupling partners can be employed, thereby generating cyclopentenes which bear a fully substituted stereocenter [either all-carbon or heteroatom-substituted (sulfur and phosphorus)]. Stereocenters at the other four positions of the cyclopentane ring can also be introduced with good stereoselectivity. An initial mechanistic study indicates that phosphine addition to the electrophilic four-carbon coupling partner is not the turnover-limiting step of the catalytic cycle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Enantioselective total syntheses of the proposed structures of prevezol B and evaluation of anti-cancer activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Anna E; Rubbiani, Riccardo; Gasser, Gilles; Tuck, Kellie L

    2014-11-07

    The first enantioselective total syntheses of the proposed structures of the natural product prevezol B are reported. The reported syntheses complement the previously-reported syntheses of the proposed structures of prevezol C, a stereoisomer of prevezol B. It was previously shown that the structure of the naturally occurring prevezol C had been incorrectly assigned. This work has led us to conclude that the proposed structures of prevezol B are also incorrect and major revision of both of the structures of the prevezols B and C is required. Cytotoxicity studies on the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa revealed that the synthesized prevezol B and C compounds were not active even at the highest concentration used (100 μM). However, one of the synthetic precursors was shown to have modest potency against HeLa cells (IC50 = 23.5 ± 1.8 μM).

  8. Highly enantioselective epoxidation of 2-methylnaphthoquinone (vitamin K3) mediated by new cinchona alkaloid phase-transfer catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkessel, Albrecht; Guixà, Maria; Schmidt, Friederike; Neudörfl, Jörg M; Lex, Johann

    2007-01-01

    In the area of catalytic asymmetric epoxidation, the highly enantioselective transformation of cyclic enones and quinones is an extremely challenging target. With the aim to develop new and highly effective phase-transfer catalysts for this purpose, we conducted a systematic structural variation of PTCs based on quinine and quinidine. In the total of 15 new quaternary ammonium PTCs, modifications included, for example, the exchange of the quinine methoxy group for a free hydroxyl or other alkoxy substituents, and the introduction of additional elements of chirality through alkylation of the alkaloid quinuclidine nitrogen atom by chiral electrophiles. For example, the well-established 9- anthracenylmethyl group was exchanged for a "chiral" anthracene in the form of 9-chloromethyl-[(1,8-S;4,5-R)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethanoanthracene. The asymmetric epoxidation of vitamin K(3) was used as the test reaction for our novel PTCs. The readily available PTC 10 (derived from quinine in three convenient and high-yielding steps) proved to be the most enantioselective catalyst for this purpose known to date: At a catalyst loading of only 2.50 mol %, the quinone epoxide was obtained in 76 % yield and with 85 % ee (previously: bleach (aqueous sodium hypochlorite) as the oxidant. To rationalize the sense of induction effected by our novel phase-transfer catalysts, a computational analysis of steric interactions in the intermediate chlorooxy enolate-PTC ion pair was conducted. Based on this analysis, the sense of induction for all 15 novel PTCs could be consistently explained.

  9. Structural basis for high substrate-binding affinity and enantioselectivity of 3-quinuclidinone reductase AtQR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Feng; Miyakawa, Takuya [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kataoka, Michihiko [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 559-8531 (Japan); Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takeshita, Daijiro [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Kumashiro, Shoko [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Uzura, Atsuko [Research and Development Center, Nagase and Co., Ltd., 2-2-3 Muratani, Nishi-ku, Kobe 651-2241 (Japan); Urano, Nobuyuki [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai 559-8531 (Japan); Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Nagata, Koji [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan); Shimizu, Sakayu [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Faculty of Bioenvironmental Science, Kyoto Gakuen University, Sogabe-cho, Kameoka 621-8555 (Japan); Tanokura, Masaru, E-mail: amtanok@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8657 (Japan)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Crystal structure of AtQR has been determined at 1.72 Å. • NADH binding induces the formation of substrate binding site. • AtQR possesses a conserved hydrophobic wall for stereospecific binding of substrate. • Additional Glu197 residue is critical to the high binding affinity. - Abstract: (R)-3-Quinuclidinol, a useful compound for the synthesis of various pharmaceuticals, can be enantioselectively produced from 3-quinuclidinone by 3-quinuclidinone reductase. Recently, a novel NADH-dependent 3-quinuclidionone reductase (AtQR) was isolated from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and showed much higher substrate-binding affinity (>100 fold) than the reported 3-quinuclidionone reductase (RrQR) from Rhodotorula rubra. Here, we report the crystal structure of AtQR at 1.72 Å. Three NADH-bound protomers and one NADH-free protomer form a tetrameric structure in an asymmetric unit of crystals. NADH not only acts as a proton donor, but also contributes to the stability of the α7 helix. This helix is a unique and functionally significant part of AtQR and is related to form a deep catalytic cavity. AtQR has all three catalytic residues of the short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases family and the hydrophobic wall for the enantioselective reduction of 3-quinuclidinone as well as RrQR. An additional residue on the α7 helix, Glu197, exists near the active site of AtQR. This acidic residue is considered to form a direct interaction with the amine part of 3-quinuclidinone, which contributes to substrate orientation and enhancement of substrate-binding affinity. Mutational analyses also support that Glu197 is an indispensable residue for the activity.

  10. Molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix nanocomposite for enantioselective electrochemical sensing of D- and L-aspartic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Bhim Bali, E-mail: prof.bbpd@yahoo.com; Srivastava, Amrita; Tiwari, Mahavir Prasad

    2013-10-15

    A new molecularly imprinted polymer-matrix (titanium dioxide nanoparticle/multiwalled carbon nanotubes) nanocomposite was developed for the modification of pencil graphite electrode as an enantioselective sensing probe for aspartic acid isomers, prevalent at ultra trace level in aqueous and real samples. The nanocomposite having many shape complementary cavities was synthesized adopting surface initiated-activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. The proposed sensor has high stability, nanocomposite uniformity, good reproducibility, and enhanced electrocatalytic activity to respond oxidative peak current of L-aspartic acid quantitatively by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry, without any cross-reactivity in real samples. Under the optimized operating conditions, the L-aspartic acid imprinted modified electrode showed a wide linear response for L-aspartic acid within the concentration range 9.98–532.72 ng mL{sup −1}, with the minimum detection limit of 1.73–1.79 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3) in aqueous and real samples. Almost similar stringent limit (1.79 ng mL{sup −1}) was obtained with cerebrospinal fluid which is typical for the primitive diagnosis of neurological disorders, caused by an acute depletion of L-aspartic acid biomarker, in clinical settings. Highlights: • We have adopted surface initiated-activators regenerated by electron transfer for atom transfer radical polymerization. • This approach takes advantage of the nanostructured ultrathin imprinted film. • Successful enantioselective sensing and ultratrace analysis of D- and L-aspartic acid. • Stringent detection limit without any non-specific false-positive contribution.

  11. Enantioselective determination of triazole fungicide tebuconazole in vegetables, fruits, soil and water by chiral liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Li, Jing; Kong, Zhiqiang; Chen, Xiu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2012-01-01

    A novel and sensitive method was developed for the determination of tebuconazole enantioselectively using reversed-phase LC-MS/MS. The separation and determination were performed using on an amylose-based chiral stationary phase, a Lux 3u Amylose-2 column (150 mm×2.0 mm), under isocratic conditions at 0.3 mL/min flow rate. A series of chiral stationary phases were investigated and the effect of mobile phase composition on the enantioseparation was discussed. Parameters including the matrix effect, linearity, precision, accuracy and stability were evaluated. Under optimal conditions, the overall mean recoveries for two enantiomers from the soil, tomato, cucumber, pear and apple samples were 79.3-101.1% with 2.8-11.5% intra-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) and 4.1-8.6% inter-day RSDs at 5, 25 and 50 μg/kg levels; the mean enantiomer recoveries from the water samples were 89.6-101.9% with 3.3-10.2% intra-day RSDs and 5.1-7.7% inter-day RSDs at 0.25, 0.5 and 2.5 μg/kg levels. The limits of detection (LODs) for all enantiomers in tomato, cucumber, pear, apple, soil and water were less than 0.6 μg/kg, whereas the limit of quantification (LOQ) did not exceed 2.0 μg/kg. The results indicate that this proposed method is convenient and reliable for the enantioselective determination of tebuconazole enantiomers in foods and environment samples. Copyright © 2012 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Visualization of enzyme-catalyzed reactions using pH indicators: rapid screening of hydrolase libraries and estimation of the enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morís-Varas, F; Shah, A; Aikens, J; Nadkarni, N P; Rozzell, J D; Demirjian, D C

    1999-10-01

    The use of pH indicators to monitor hydrolase-catalyzed reactions is described. The formation of acid following an enzyme-mediated hydrolysis causes a drop in the pH that can be visualized by a change in the color of the indicator-containing solution. The best indicators are those showing a color transition within the operational pH range of the hydrolases, like bromothymol blue and phenol red. The enantioselectivity of lipases and esterases can be estimated using single isomers under the same conditions and comparing the color turnover for each one. The method has been tested to quickly evaluate the enantioselectivity of a lipase towards a set of ester substrates and applied to the hierarchical screening of a library of thermophilic esterases.

  13. Chiral gold(I vs chiral silver complexes as catalysts for the enantioselective synthesis of the second generation GSK-hepatitis C virus inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martín-Rodríguez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of a GSK 2nd generation inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, by enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between a leucine derived iminoester and tert-butyl acrylate, was studied. The comparison between silver(I and gold(I catalysts in this reaction was established by working with chiral phosphoramidites or with chiral BINAP. The best reaction conditions were used for the total synthesis of the hepatitis C virus inhibitor by a four step procedure affording this product in 99% ee and in 63% overall yield. The origin of the enantioselectivity of the chiral gold(I catalyst was justified according to DFT calculations, the stabilizing coulombic interaction between the nitrogen atom of the thiazole moiety and one of the gold atoms being crucial.

  14. Expression of a lipase on the cell-surface of Escherichia coli using the OmpW anchoring motif and its application to enantioselective reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk; Park, Si Jae; Han, Mee-Jung; Eom, Gyeong Tae; Choi, Min-Jung; Kim, Seong Ho; Oh, Young Hoon; Song, Bong Keun; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2013-10-01

    Microbial-surface display is the expression of proteins or peptides on the surface of cells by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Here, the outer membrane protein W (OmpW) was selected as a fusion partner for functional expression of Pseudomonas fluorescence SIK W1 lipase (TliA) on the cell-surface of Escherichia coli. Localization of the truncated OmpW-TliA fusion protein on the cell-surface was confirmed by immunoblotting and functional assay of lipase activity. Enantioselective hydrolysis of rac-phenylethyl butanoate by the displayed lipase resulted in optically active (R)-phenyl ethanol with 96% enantiomeric excess and 44% of conversion in 5 days. Thus, a small outer membrane protein OmpW, is a useful anchoring motif for displaying an active enzyme of ~50 kDa on the cell-surface and the surface-displayed lipase can be employed as an enantioselective biocatalyst in organic synthesis.

  15. Theoretical Mechanism Studies on the Enantioselectivity of aza-MBH-type Reaction of Nitroalkene to N-tosylimine Catalyzed by Thiourea-tertiary Amine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Nan; Wang, Huatian; Wang, Yangping [Shandong Agricultural Univ., Taian (China)

    2013-12-15

    The enantioselective aza-Morita Baylis Hillman reaction of nitroalkene and N-tosylimine catalyzed by thiourea-tertiary amine has been investigated using density functional theory. Enantioselectivity is dominated by the cooperative effect of non-covalent and weak covalent interactions imposed by different units of catalyst. As Lewis base, the tertiary amine unit activates nitroalkene via weak covalent bond. The weak covalent interaction orients the reaction in a major path with smaller variations of this bond. The aromatic ring unit activates N-tosylimine via π-π stacking. The non-covalent interaction selects the major path with smaller changes of the efficient packing areas. Thiourea unit donates more compact H-bonded network for species of the major path. The calculated ee value in xylene solution phase (97.6%) is much higher than that in N,N-Dimethylformamide (27.2%). Our conclusion is also supported by NBO analysis.

  16. Enantioselective synthesis of all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers via copper-catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of (Z)-allyl bromides with organolithium reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Vitale, Romina; Pérez, Manuel; Feringa, Ben L

    2015-03-09

    A copper/phosphoramidite catalyzed asymmetric allylic alkylation of Z trisubstituted allyl bromides with organolithium reagents is reported. The reaction affords all-carbon quaternary stereogenic centers in high yields and very good regio- and enantioselectivity. This systematic study illustrates the crucial role of the olefin geometry of the allyl substrate on the outcome of the reaction and provides a viable alternative to access these important structural motifs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Enantioselective syntheses of lignin models: an efficient synthesis of B-O-4 dimers and trimers by using the Evans chiral auxiliary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costyl N. Njiojob; Joseph J. Bozell; Brian K. Long; Thomas Elder; Rebecca E. Key; William T. Hartwig

    2016-01-01

    We describe an efficient five-step, enantioselective synthesis of (R,R)- and (S,S)-lignin dimer models possessing a B-O-4 linkage, by using the Evans chiral aldol reaction as a key step. Mitsunobu inversion of the (R,R)- or (S,S)-isomers generates the corresponding (R,S)- and (S,R)-diastereomers. We further extend this approach to the...

  18. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using a Brønsted base/thiourea bifunctional catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios Antúnez, Diego-Javier; Greenhalgh, Mark D; Fallan, Charlene; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-07-26

    The diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (15 examples, up to 96 : 4 dr, 95 : 5 er) via intramolecular Michael addition has been developed using keto-enone substrates and a bifunctional tertiary amine-thiourea catalyst. This methodology was extended to include non-activated ketone pro-nucleophiles for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indane and 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives.

  19. S-equol enantioselectively activates cAMP-protein kinase A signaling and reduces alloxan-induced cell death in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Hiroko; Harada, Naoki; Adachi, Tetsuya; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Inui, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    S-Equol is enantioselectively produced from the isoflavone daidzein by gut microflora and is absorbed by the body. An increase of pancreatic β-cell death is directly associated with defects in insulin secretion and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we demonstrate that only the S-enantiomer has suppressive effects against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in INS-1 pancreatic β-cells. S-Equol reduced alloxan-induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner, whereas R-equol had no effects. In contrast, no significant differences were observed between the enantiomers in estrogenic activity. The cytoprotective effects of S-equol were stronger than those of its precursor daidzein and were blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide. The cytoprotection was diminished when cells were incubated with a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), but not an estrogen receptor inhibitor. S-Equol increased intracellular cAMP levels in an enantioselective manner. S-Equol, but not R-equol, induced phosphorylation of cAMP-response element-binding protein at Ser 133, and induced cAMP-response element-mediated transcription, both of which were diminished in the presence of H89. Taken together, these results show that S-equol enantioselectively increases the survival of INS-1 cells presumably through activating PKA signaling. Thus, S-equol might have applications as an anti-type 2 diabetic agent.

  20. Enantioselective extraction of phenylsuccinic acid in aqueous two-phase systems based on acetone and β-cyclodextrin derivative: Modeling and optimization through response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Liu, Qi; Rong, Liya; Yang, Hua; Jiao, Feipeng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2016-10-07

    A novel aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) composed of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) derivative and acetone was developed for enantioselective extraction of racemic phenylsuccinic acid (PSA). Binodal curves, tie-lines, and critical points for the investigated ATPS were determined and the experimental tie-lines data were successfully correlated by Othmer-Tobias, Bancroft, and Setschenow-type equations. ATPS containing sulfobutyl ether-β-CD (SBE-β-CD) exhibited better enantioselectivity than that using carboxymethyl-β-CD (CM-β-CD). To optimize enantioselective partitioning conditions of PSA in acetone/SBE-β-CD ATPS, three factors (PSA concentration, pH, and equilibrium temperature) were analyzed by using central composite design in response surface methodology. The calculated equilibrium constants of inclusion complexation are 1638.64M(-1) for SBE-β-CD-(R)-PSA and 835.84M(-1) for SBE-β-CD-(S)-PSA, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, the separation factor of 3.14 and high enrichment efficiency (ER=98.06%, ES=99.25%) were simultaneously achieved in a single step. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Enantioselective recognition of an isomeric ligand by a biomolecule: mechanistic insights into static and dynamic enantiomeric behavior and structural flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Ding, Fei

    2017-10-24

    Chirality is a ubiquitous basic attribute of nature, which inseparably relates to the life activity of living organisms. However, enantiomeric differences have still failed to arouse enough attention during the biological evaluation and practical application of chiral substances, and this poses a large threat to human health. In the current study, we explore the enantioselective biorecognition of a chiral compound by an asymmetric biomolecule, and then decipher the molecular basis of such a biological phenomenon on the static and, in particular, the dynamic scale. In light of the wet experiments, in silico docking results revealed that the orientation of the latter part of the optical isomer structures in the recognition domain can be greatly affected by the chiral carbon center in a model ligand molecule, and this event may induce large disparities between the static chiral bioreaction modes and noncovalent interactions (especially hydrogen bonding). Dynamic stereoselective biorecognition assays indicated that the conformational stability of the protein-(S)-diclofop system is clearly greater than the protein-(R)-diclofop adduct; and moreover, the conformational alterations of the diclofop enantiomers in the dynamic process will directly influence the conformational flexibility of the key residues found in the biorecognition region. These points enable the changing trends of biopolymer structural flexibility and free energy to exhibit significant distinctions when proteins sterically recognize the (R)-/(S)-stereoisomers. The outcomes of the energy decomposition further showed that the van der Waals' energy has roughly the same contribution to the chiral recognition biosystems, whereas the contribution of electrostatic energy to the protein-(R)-diclofop complex is notably smaller than to the protein-(S)-diclofop bioconjugate. This proves that differences in the noncovalent bonds would have a serious impact on the stereoselective biorecognition between a

  2. Enantioselective Solvent-Free Synthesis of 3-Alkyl-3-hydroxy-2-oxoindoles Catalyzed by Binam-Prolinamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Bañn-Caballero

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BINAM-prolinamides are very efficient catalyst for the synthesis of non-protected and N-benzyl isatin derivatives by using an aldol reaction between ketones and isatins under solvent-free conditions. The results in terms of diastereo- and enantioselectivities are good, up to 99% de and 97% ee, and higher to those previously reported in the literature under similar reaction conditions. A high variation of the results is observed depending on the structure of the isatin and the ketone used in the process. While 90% of ee and 97% ee, respectively, is obtained by using (Ra-BINAM-l-(bisprolinamide as catalyst in the addition of cyclohexanone and α-methoxyacetone to free isatin, 90% ee is achieved for the reaction between N-benzyl isatin and acetone using N-tosyl BINAM-l-prolinamide as catalyst. This reaction is also carried out using a silica BINAM-l-prolinamide supported catalyst under solvent-free conditions, which can be reused up to five times giving similar results.

  3. Synergistic effects on enantioselectivity of zwitterionic chiral stationary phases for separations of chiral acids, bases, and amino acids by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christian V; Pell, Reinhard; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2008-11-15

    In an attempt to overcome the limited applicability scope of earlier proposed Cinchona alkaloid-based chiral weak anion exchangers (WAX) and recently reported aminosulfonic acid-based chiral strong cation exchangers (SCX), which are conceptionally restricted to oppositely charged solutes, their individual chiral selector (SO) subunits have been fused in a combinatorial synthesis approach into single, now zwitterionic, chiral SO motifs. The corresponding zwitterionic ion-exchange-type chiral stationary phases (CSPs) in fact combined the applicability spectra of the parent chiral ion exchangers allowing for enantioseparations of chiral acids and amine-type solutes in liquid chromatography using polar organic mode with largely rivaling separation factors as compared to the parent WAX and SCX CSPs. Furthermore, the application spectrum could be remarkably expanded to various zwitterionic analytes such as alpha- and beta-amino acids and peptides. A set of structurally related yet different CSPs consisting of either a quinine or quinidine alkaloid moiety as anion-exchange subunit and various chiral or achiral amino acids as cation-exchange subunits enabled us to derive structure-enantioselectivity relationships, which clearly provided strong unequivocal evidence for synergistic effects of the two oppositely charged ion-exchange subunits being involved in molecular recognition of zwitterionic analytes by zwitterionic SOs driven by double ionic coordination.

  4. Enantioselective microbial synthesis of the indigenous natural product (-)-α-bisabolol by a sesquiterpene synthase from chamomile (Matricaria recutita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Young-Jin; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Kim, Soo-Un

    2014-10-15

    (-)-α-Bisabolol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, is a major ingredient in the essential oil of chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and is used in many health products. The current supply of (-)-α-bisabolol is mainly dependent on the Brazilian candeia tree (Eremanthus erythropappus) by distillation or by chemical synthesis. However, the distillation method using the candeia tree is not sustainable, and chemical synthesis suffers from impurities arising from undesirable α-bisabolol isomers. Therefore enzymatic synthesis of (-)-α-bisabolol is a viable alternative. In the present study, a cDNA encoding (-)-α-bisabolol synthase (MrBBS) was identified from chamomile and used for enantioselective (-)-α-bisabolol synthesis in yeast. Chamomile MrBBS was identified by Illumina and 454 sequencing, followed by activity screening in yeast. When MrBBS was expressed in yeast, 8 mg of α-bisabolol was synthesized de novo per litre of culture. The structure of purified α-bisabolol was elucidated as (S,S)-α-bisabolol [or (-)-α-bisabolol]. Although MrBBS possesses a putative chloroplast-targeting peptide, it was localized in the cytosol, and a deletion of its N-terminal 23 amino acids significantly reduced its stability and activity. Recombinant MrBBS showed kinetic properties comparable with those of other sesquiterpene synthases. These data provide compelling evidence that chamomile MrBBS synthesizes enantiopure (-)-α-bisabolol as a single sesquiterpene product, opening a biotechnological opportunity to produce (-)-α-bisabolol.

  5. Screening of Microorganisms Producing Cold-Active Oxidoreductases to Be Applied in Enantioselective Alcohol Oxidation. An Antarctic Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro H. Andrade

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Several microorganisms were isolated from soil/sediment samples of Antarctic Peninsula. The enrichment technique using (RS-1-(phenylethanol as a carbon source allowed us to isolate 232 psychrophile/psychrotroph microorganisms. We also evaluated the enzyme activity (oxidoreductases for enantioselective oxidation reactions, by using derivatives of (RS-1-(phenylethanol as substrates. Among the studied microorganisms, 15 psychrophile/psychrotroph strains contain oxidoreductases that catalyze the (S-enantiomer oxidation from racemic alcohols to their corresponding ketones. Among the identified microorganisms, Flavobacterium sp. and Arthrobacter sp. showed excellent enzymatic activity. These new bacteria strains were selected for optimization study, in which the (RS-1-(4-methyl-phenylethanol oxidation was evaluated in several reaction conditions. From these studies, it was observed that Flavobacterium sp. has an excellent enzymatic activity at 10 °C and Arthrobacter sp. at 15 and 25 °C. We have also determined the growth curves of these bacteria, and both strains showed optimum growth at 25 °C, indicating that these bacteria are psychrotroph.

  6. Enantioselective Potentiometric Membrane Electrodes Based on Antibiotics for the Determination of L- and D-Glyceric Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca-Ioana Stefan-van Staden

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Glyceric acid (GA is a human metabolite existing in L- and D-configurations, which are considered the markers for the diseases L- and D-glyceric aciduria/academia, respectively. Enantioselective, potentiometric membrane electrodes based on carbon paste modified with antibiotics as chiral selectors, vancomycin, and teicoplanin were designed for the assay of L- and D-GA, respectively, in the concentration ranges of 10−9–10−7 and 10−4–10−2 moL/L with very low detection limits (1.5 × 10−10 moL/L for L-GA and 1.6 × 10−4  moL/L for D-GA, resp.. The surface of the electrodes can be regenerated simply by polishing in order to obtain a fresh surface ready to be used in a new assay. The proposed electrodes can be successfully applied for the enantioanalysis of L- and D-glyceric acids in serum samples.

  7. Comparative study of the complex forming ability and enantioselectivity of cyclodextrin polymers by CE and 1H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danel, Cécile; Azaroual, Nathalie; Chavaria, Cédric; Odou, Pascal; Martel, Bernard; Vaccher, Claude

    2013-02-15

    The interactions between nine drugs (baclofen, bupivacaine, chlorpheniramine, ketoconazole, paliperidone, promethazine, propranolol, risperidone and verapamil) and six cyclodextrins (α-CD, β-CD, γ-CD, HP-β-CD, HP-γ-CD and Me-β-CD) or six polymers of cyclodextrins (polyα-CD, polyβ-CD, polyγ-CD, polyHP-β-CD, polyHP-γ-CD and polyMe-β-CD) were studied by affinity capillary electrophoresis and/or (1)H NMR at pH 2.5. An exhaustive qualitative study was performed through the determination of the retardation factor. Then, four compounds and both β-CD and polyβ-CD were selected for the quantitative study of the interactions at pH 2.5 and 7.0. By comparing the results obtained with the β-CD and polyβ-CD, it appears that the apparent binding constants are up to five times higher with the polymer. The 2D-NMR results seem to indicate that the structure of the polymeric network favours the inclusion of the guest in the hydrophobic cavity of the CD units. Moreover, the poly-CDs have shown very high enantioselective abilities at both pH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-walled carbon nanotube-based polymer monoliths for the enantioselective nano-liquid chromatographic separation of racemic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Marwa; Yajadda, Mir Massoud Aghili; Han, Zhao Jun; Su, Dawei; Wang, Guoxiu; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2014-09-19

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes were encapsulated into different polymer-based monolithic backbones. The polymer monoliths were prepared via the copolymerization of 20% monomers, glycidyl methacrylate, 20% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol) or 16.4% monomers (16% butyl methacrylate, 0.4% sulfopropyl methacrylate), 23.6% ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and 60% porogens (36% 1-propanol, 18% 1,4-butanediol) along with 6% single-walled carbon nanotubes aqueous suspension. The effect of single-walled carbon nanotubes on the chiral separation of twelve classes of pharmaceutical racemates namely; α- and β-blockers, antiinflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, dopamine antagonists, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, diuretics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs and antiarrhythmic drugs was investigated. The enantioselective separation was carried out under multimodal elution to explore the chiral recognition capabilities of single-walled carbon nanotubes using reversed phase, polar organic and normal phase chromatographic conditions using nano-liquid chromatography. Baseline separation was achieved for celiprolol, chlorpheniramine, etozoline, nomifensine and sulconazole under multimodal elution conditions. Satisfactory repeatability was achieved through run-to-run, column-to-column and batch-to-batch investigations. Our findings demonstrate that single-walled carbon nanotubes represent a promising stationary phase for the chiral separation and may open the field for a new class of chiral selectors. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Probing competitive enantioselective approach vectors operating in the Jacobsen-Katsuki epoxidation: a kinetic study of methyl-substituted styrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristrup, Peter; Dideriksen, Brian B; Tanner, David; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2005-10-05

    This paper describes a study of reactivity and enantioselectivity for a series of methyl-substituted styrenes in the Jacobsen-Katsuki (Mn(salen)-catalyzed) epoxidation reaction. Competition experiments provided kinetic data for the reactivity of the seven possible methyl-substituted styrenes (mono-, di- and trisubstituted) relative to styrene itself, ee values were measured by chiral GC, and absolute configurations were secured by chemical correlation. Of particular interest was the switch in absolute configuration at the benzylic position of the epoxides derived from (Z)- and (E)-alpha,beta-dimethylstyrene, respectively. The results could be rationalized in terms of an approach vector with the phenyl substituent proximal to the salen. As opposed to alkyl groups, a proximal phenyl group has very little effect on the rate of the reaction. Consideration of distal vs proximal approach allows prediction of absolute stereochemistry as a function of alkene substitution pattern. Trisubstituted alkenes with one phenyl group cis to the alkene hydrogen can be identified as a favored substrate class in the title reaction, with both rate and selectivity close to the classic (Z)-beta-substituted styrene substrates.

  10. Enantioselective S-oxygenation of para-methoxyphenyl-1,3-dithiolane by various tissue preparations: effect of estradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, J R; Olsen, L D; Lambert, C E; Presas, M J

    1990-02-01

    Liver, kidney, and lung microsomes prepared from nonpretreated female Sprague-Dawley rats catalyze the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent S-oxygenation of para-methoxyphenyl-1,3-dithiolane. Studies on the biochemical mechanism of dithiolane S-oxygenation in liver, kidney, and lung microsomes suggest that this reaction is catalyzed in a diastereoselective and enantioselective fashion by the flavin-containing monooxygenase and, to a lesser extent, the cytochromes P-450. This conclusion is based on results examining the effects of selective cytochrome P-450 inhibitors and positive effectors, microsome heat-inactivation treatment, and alternate substrates for the flavin-containing monooxygenase. Liver and kidney microsomes prepared from ovarectomized female rats tended to have decreased S-oxygenase activity, compared with nonpretreated female rats, whereas ovarectomized rats pretreated with estradiol had markedly lower S-oxygenase activity. In contrast, lung microsomal S-oxygenase activity, which is low in pulmonary microsomes from nonpretreated female rats, increases 2-4-fold after ovariectomization and estradiol pretreatment. In female Sprague-Dawley rats, estradiol pretreatment is mainly responsible for the large decrease (or increase) in S-oxygenase activity observed in the tissues examined, although it is unlikely that estradiol alone controls flavin-containing monooxygenase S-oxygenase activity.

  11. Cloning of an epoxide hydrolase-encoding gene from Aspergillus niger M200, overexpression in E. coli, and modification of activity and enantioselectivity of the enzyme by protein engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, Michael; Stepánek, Václav; Kyslík, Pavel; Maresová, Helena

    2007-10-15

    The gene encoding an epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been cloned and its sequence determined. The gene is interrupted by seven introns, one exon being only nine nucleotides long. The non-coding 5'- and 3'-regions of the mRNA are composed of 47 and 76 nucleotides, respectively. Overexpression of the fungal epoxide hydrolase in E. coli TOP10 has led to a 15-fold increase in specific activity (compared to the wild-type strain). Saturation mutagenesis at codon 217 resulted in the discovery of nine enzyme variants showing in several cases profound differences in activity and enantioselectivity towards various epoxides when compared to the data of the wild-type enzyme. The site 217 is located at the entrance of the tunnel that provides the substrate with access to the active site. The exchange of Ala at this position for Cys has led to a doubled enantioselectivity (E-value of 5.0) towards benzyl glycidyl ether. The same substitution resulted in a threefold-enhanced activity of the enzyme towards allyl glycidyl ether and styrene oxide without affecting enantioselectivity. The variant A217L showed an enhanced enantioselectivity towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether reaching an E-value of 100 (from 60 for the wild-type enzyme). Replacement of A217 by Val has led to higher activity towards allyl glycidyl ether by a factor of six. The substitutions Ala-->Glu and Ala-->Gln increased the enantioselectivity towards allyl glycidyl ether and styrene oxide by over 50% to E-values of 10 and 16, respectively. The study underlines that single amino acid exchanges in the substrate tunnel region can lead to significant improvements in enantioselectivity and activity of the epoxide hydrolase from A. niger M200.

  12. Efeito do sulfato de vanadil sobre o comprometimento metabólico muscular induzido pela imobilização de membro posterior de ratos Efecto del sulfato de vanadil sobre comprometimiento metabólico muscular inducido por la inmovilización del miembro posterior en ratones Effect of the vanadyl sulphate on the muscular metabolic compromising induced by immobilization of posterior limb of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borges Delfino

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A proposta deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do sulfato de vanadil (SV no perfil metabólico muscular de membro posterior imobilizado de ratos. Ratos Wistar foram divididos nos grupos (n = 6: controle (C, imobilizado em posição neutra do tornozelo (I, tratado com sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e imobilizado tratado com SV (I + SV durante sete dias. Após o período experimental, foram avaliadas as reservas de glicogênio (RG dos músculos sóleo (S, gastrocnêmio branco (GB e vermelho (GV, tibial anterior (TA e extensor longo dos dedos (ELD, além do peso do S e ELD. A análise estatística foi realizada pela ANOVA seguida pelo teste de Tukey (p La propuesta de este trabajo ha sido la de evaluar el efecto del sulfato de vanadil (SV en el perfil metabólico muscular de miembro posterior inmovilizado de ratones. Ratones Wistar fueron divididos en grupos (n = 6: control (C, inmovilizado en posición neutra de tobillo (I, tratado con sulfato de vanadil (SV, 0,25mM, VO e inmovilizado tratado con SV (I + SV durante 7 días. Después del periodo experimental, fueron evaluadas las reservas de glicógeno (RG de los músculos soleo (S, gastrocnemio blanco (GB y colorado (GV, tibial anterior (TA y extensor largo de los dedos (ELD, además del peso de S y ELD. El análisis estadístico fue realizado por ANOVA seguido del test de Tukey (p The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metabolic performance of immobilized skeletal muscle in rats treated with vanadyl sulphate. Male Wistar rats were divided in groups (n = 6: control (C, immobilized (I, treated with vanadyl sulphate (VS, 0,25 mM and immobilized treated with vanadyl sulphate (I + VS during seven days. The concentration of vanadyl sulphate diluted in water was 0,25 mM. After experimental stage, the glycogen content (GC was evaluated in soleus (S, white gastrocnemius (WG, red gastrocnemius (RG, tibialis anterior (TA and extensor digitorum longus (EDL muscles, besides S and EDL weight. The

  13. Enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of (R,S)-mandelonitrile for production of (R)-(-)-mandelic acid by a newly isolated mutant strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ya-Ping; Xu, Sai-Zhen; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2011-02-01

    (R)-(-)-Mandelic acid (R-MA) is an important intermediate with broad uses. Recently, R-MA production using nitrilase has been gaining more and more attention due to its higher productivity and enantioselectivity. In this work, a new bacterium WT10, which exhibited favorable nitrilase activity and excellent enantioselectivity for production of R-MA by enantioselective biocatalytic hydrolysis of (R,S)-mandelonitrile, was isolated and identified as a strain of Alcaligenes faecalis. In order to improve its nitrilase activity for industrial application, the wild-type strain WT10 was further subjected to mutagenesis using a combined LiCl-ultraviolet irradiation and low energy N(+) ion beams implantation technique. A valuable mutant strain A. faecalis ZJUTB10 was obtained. The nitrilase specific activity of the mutant strain was greatly improved up to 350.8 U g(-1), in comparison with wild-type strain WT10 of 53.09 U g(-1). The reaction conditions for R-MA production by mutant strain A. faecalis ZJUTB10 were also optimized. Nitrilase activity in mutant strain showed a broad pH optimum at pH 7.7-8.5. The optimal temperature was 35°C. The highest production rate reached 9.3 mmol h(-1) g(-1). The results showed that mutant strain A. faecalis ZJUTB10 was a new candidate for efficient R-MA production from (R,S)-mandelonitrile and could potentially be used in industrial production.

  14. Role of substituents in cyclodextrin derivatives for enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of chiral terpenoids in the essential oils of Mentha spicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragadheesh, V S; Yadav, Anju; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh

    2015-10-01

    Enantioselective GC-FID and enantioselective GC-MS have been utilized under temperature gradient mode with differently substituted heptakis- and octakis-cyclodextrins to achieve the resolution of chiral terpenoids in the essential oil of indigenously grown cultivars of Mentha spicata. Modified cyclodextrins were derivatized in GC column for the separation of chiral terpenoids. A 2,3-diethyl-6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin doped into 14% cyanopropylphenyl/86%dimethylpolysiloxane (TBDE-β-CD) showed good enantioselectivity for all the studied chiral compounds excluding carvone. Carvone enantiomers were well resolved in 2,3-diacetoxy-6-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin column (TBDA-β-CD) with enantioseparation (Es) of 1.006. A TBDE-β-CD provides maximum enantiomeric separation for β-pinene (Es 1.038), sabinene (Es 1.051), limonene (Es 1.045), isomenthone (Es 1.029) and α-terpineol (Es 1.014). Furthermore, enantiomer elution order reversal was observed for sabinene, menthone, terpinen-4-ol and menthol while changing from β- to γ-cyclodextrin phase. Carvone exhibits enantiomer elution order reversal by changing substituents i.e., methyl to acetyl at 2- & 3- position of the cyclodextrin derivative. Chiral constituents such as (+)-isomenthone, (-)-menthone, (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol and (4S)-(+)-piperitone exist as a single enantiomer with >99% excess. Existence of (R)-(+)-limonene and (S)-(+)-carvone enantiomers has been proven first time in M. spicata essential oils and can be used as the marker for Indian origin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Mediated, Enantioselective and Multicatalytic Strategy to Access Dihydropyranones in a Sequential Three-Component One-Pot Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Patrick J W; Zeitler, Kirsten

    2017-11-17

    The multicatalytic generation of 3,5,6-trisubstituted 3,4-dihydropyranones with high enantioselectivity using a highly convergent strategy starting from commercially available precursors is reported. The operationally simple three-step, one-pot protocol merges H-bond and NHC catalysis to provide crucial, reactive β-unsubstituted enones from nitroalkenes as latent 1,2-biselectrophiles. These intermediates are directly funneled into a further NHC-catalyzed formal hetero-Diels-Alder reaction to deliver manifold chiral C(4)-unsubstituted dihydropyranones (typical ee >98%), allowing aliphatic and heteroaromatic substituents and hence expanding the scope of this Michael addition/lactonization.

  16. Enantioselective Total Synthesis of Antibiotic CJ-16,264, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Designed Analogues, and Discovery of Highly Potent and Simpler Antibacterial Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaou, K C; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Buchman, Marek; Shah, Akshay A; Cen, Nicholas; McCurry, Megan D; Beabout, Kathryn; Shamoo, Yousif

    2017-11-08

    An improved and enantioselective total synthesis of antibiotic CJ-16,264 through a practical kinetic resolution and an iodolactonization reaction to form the iodo pyrrolizidinone fragment of the molecule is described. A series of racemic and enantiopure analogues of CJ-16,264 was designed and synthesized through the developed synthetic technologies and tested against drug-resistant bacterial strains. These studies led to interesting structure-activity relationships and the identification of a number of simpler, and yet equipotent, or even more potent, antibacterial agents than the natural product, thereby setting the foundation for further investigations in the quest for new anti-infective drugs.

  17. Enantioselective resolution of racemic styrene oxide at high concentration using recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing epoxide hydrolase of Rhodotorula glutinis in the presence of surfactant and glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung Sik; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2008-10-01

    The reaction medium was optimized to accomplish epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed, batch enantioselective hydrolysis of racemic styrene oxide at high initial substrate concentrations. The recombinant Pichia pastoris containing the epoxide hydrolase gene of Rhodotorula glutinis was used as the biocatalyst. Enantiopure (S)-styrene oxide with 98% ee was obtained with 41% yield (maximum yield = 50%) from 1.8 M racemic styrene oxide at pH 8.0, 4 degrees C in the presence of 40% (v/v) Tween 20 and 5% (v/v) glycerol.

  18. The upside of downsizing: asymmetric trifunctional organocatalysts as small enzyme mimics for cooperative enhancement of both rate and enantioselectivity with regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei

    2013-11-01

    Small molecule organic catalysts (organocatalysts) are widely used in asymmetric catalysis and synthesis. Compared to their enzymatic and transition-metal counterparts, organocatalysts have advantages in catalytic scope and efficiency but are more limited in proficiency. Chiral trifunctional organocatalysts, in which multiple catalytic motifs act cooperatively on a chiral scaffold, are an emerging class of organocatalysts with improved proficiency. Cooperativity design that enables both enantioselectivity and rate enhancement is essential to developing future generations of organocatalysts in biomimetic asymmetric catalysis. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An enantioselective synthesis of S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride, an important metabolite of fluoxetine hydrochloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, W.J. (Lilly (Eli) and Co., Indianapolis, IN (United States). Lilly Research Labs.)

    1992-06-01

    The S-enantiomer of [gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride has been prepared in eight steps from acetophenone-[carbonyl-[sup 14]C]. The key step in the synthesis involved the enantioselective reduction of R-2-chloroacetophenone-[1-[sup 14]C]with (-)-diisopinocampheyl-chloroborane in an 86.5% yield. The chlorohydrin was converted to R-phenyloxirane-[1-[sup 14]C], which was subsequently converted to the corresponding R-cyanohydrin by reaction with TMS-CN/CaO. Borane reduction and arylation, followed by salt formation yielded S-[gamma]-[(4-trifluoromethyl)phenoxy]benzenepropanamine-[3-[sup 14]C] hydrochloride. (author).

  20. New approach to the preparation of bicyclo octane derivatives via the enantioselective cascade reaction catalyzed by chiral diamine-Ni(OAc)2 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyi; Liu, Xiaodong; Mao, Zhifeng; Chen, Qiao; Wang, Rui

    2012-06-28

    A highly efficient catalyst system assembled from enantiomerically pure diaminocyclohexane and Ni(OAc)(2) is, for the first time, used to catalyze the cascade Michael-Henry reaction of various diones and substituted nitroalkenes. A series of polyfunctionalized bicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivatives containing four stereogenic centers are prepared with excellent enantioselectivities (up to >99% ee) and diastereoselectivities (up to 50 : 1 dr) with high yields. In addition, via this chiral diamine-Ni(OAc)(2) catalyst system, the base-induced epimerization leading to the decrease of stereoselectivity can be prevented.

  1. An exceptional P-H phosphonite: Biphenyl-2,2'-bisfenchylchlorophosphite and derived ligands (BIFOPs in enantioselective copper-catalyzed 1,4-additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neudörfl J-M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biphenyl-2,2'-bisfenchol (BIFOL based chlorophosphite, BIFOP-Cl, exhibits surprisingly high stabilities against hydrolysis as well as hydridic and organometallic nucleophiles. Chloride substitution in BIFOP-Cl proceeds only under drastic conditions. New enantiopure, sterically demanding phosphorus ligands such as a phosphoramidite, a phosphite and a P-H phosphonite (BIFOP-H are hereby accessible. In enantioselective Cu-catalyzed 1,4-additions of ZnEt2 to 2-cyclohexen-1-one, this P-H phosphonite (yielding 65% ee exceeds even the corresponding phosphite and phosphoramidite.

  2. Engineering Homochiral Metal-Organic Frameworks by Spatially Separating 1D Chiral Metal-Peptide Ladders: Tuning the Pore Size for Enantioselective Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Kyriakos C; Gómez, Laura; Imaz, Inhar; Verdugo-Escamilla, Cristóbal; Ribas, Xavi; Maspoch, Daniel

    2015-07-06

    The reaction of the chiral dipeptide glycyl-L(S)-glutamate with Co(II) ions produces chiral ladders that can be used as rigid 1D building units. Spatial separation of these building units with linkers of different lengths allows the engineering of homochiral porous MOFs with enhanced pore sizes, pore volumes, and surface areas. This strategy enables the synthesis of a family of isoreticular MOFs, in which the pore size dictates the enantioselective adsorption of chiral molecules (in terms of their size and enantiomeric excess). © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. One-Pot Synthesis of Novel Chiral β-Amino Acid Derivatives by Enantioselective Mannich Reactions Catalyzed by Squaramide Cinchona Alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankan Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An efficient one-pot synthesis of novel β-amino acid derivatives containing a thiadiazole moiety was developed using a chiral squaramide cinchona alkaloid as organocatalyst. The reactions afforded chiral β-amino acid derivatives in moderate yields and with moderate to excellent enantioselectivities. The present study demonstrated for the first time the use of a Mannich reaction catalyzed by a chiral bifunctional organocatalyst for the one-pot synthesis of novel β-amino acid derivatives bearing a 1,3,4-thiadiazole moiety on nitrogen.

  4. Enantioselective/anion-selective incorporation of tris(ethylenediamine) complexes into 2D coordination spaces between tripalladium(II) supramolecular layers with D-penicillaminate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yusuke; Nagao, Yoshinori; Igashira-Kamiyama, Asako; Konno, Takumi

    2011-03-21

    The formation of a cocrystallized coordination compound, [Pd(3)(D-pen)(3)](2)·[M(en)(3)](ClO(4))(3) (D-H(2)pen = D-penicillamine; M = Co(III) or Rh(III)), from [Pd(3)(D-pen)(3)] and [M(en)(3)](ClO(4))(3) is reported. In this compound, only the Δ-configurational [M(en)(3)](3+) cations were incorporated when its racemic (Δ/Λ) isomer was employed. Besides this enantioselective incorporation of complex cations, this compound was found to show the selective incorporation of ClO(4)(-) as the anion species.

  5. Conventional and enantioselective gas chromatography with microfabricated planar columns for analysis of real-world samples of plant volatile fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliero, C; Galli, S; Galli, M; Elmi, I; Belluce, M; Zampolli, S; Sgorbini, B; Rubiolo, P; Bicchi, C

    2016-01-15

    Within a project exploring the application of lab-on-chip GC to in-field analysis of the plant volatile fraction, this study evaluated the performance of a set of planar columns (also known as microchannels, MEMS columns, or microfabricated columns) of different dimensions installed in a conventional GC unit. Circular double-spiral-shaped-channel planar columns with different square/rectangular sections up to 2m long were applied to the analysis of both essential oils and headspace samples of a group of medicinal and aromatic plants (chamomile, peppermint, sage, rosemary, lavender and bergamot) and of standard mixtures of related compounds; the results were compared to those obtained with reference narrow-bore columns (l:5m, dc:0.1mm, df:0.1 μm). The above essential oils and headspaces were first analyzed quali-and quantitatively with planar columns statically coated with conventional stationary phases (5%-phenyl-polymethylsiloxane and auto-bondable nitroterephthalic-acid-modified polyethylene glycol), and then submitted to chiral recognition of their diagnostic markers, by enantioselective GC with a planar columns coated with a cyclodextrin derivative (30% 6(I-VII)-O-TBDMS-3(I-VII)-O-ethyl-2(I-VII)-O-ethyl-β-cyclodextrin in PS-086). Column characteristics and analysis conditions were first optimized to obtain suitable retention and efficiency for the samples investigated. The planar columns tested showed performances close to the reference conventional narrow-bore columns, with theoretical plate numbers per meter (N/m) ranging from 6100 to 7200 for those coated with the conventional stationary phases, and above 5600 for those with the chiral selector. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Enantioselective oxidative stress and oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor to Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huijun; Xia, YiLu; Cai, Weidan; Zhang, Yina; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Du, Shaoting

    2017-04-01

    The rational use and environmental security of chiral pesticides has gained the interest of many researchers. The enantioselective effects of Rac- and S-metolachlor on oxidative stress in Scenedesmus obliquus were determined in this study. Stronger green fluorescence was observed in response to S-metolachlor treatment than to Rac-metolachlor treatment, suggesting that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were stimulated by S-metolachlor. ROS levels following S-metolachlor treatment were 1.92-, 8.31-, and 1.08-times higher than those observed following Rac-metolachlor treatment at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L, respectively. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were stimulated with increasing herbicide concentrations, with S-metolachlor exhibiting a greater effect. Oxidative damage in terms of chlorophyll (Chl) content, cellular membrane permeability, and cellular ultrastructures of S. obliquus were investigated. Chla and Chlb contents in algae treated with Rac-metolachlor were 2-6-fold higher than those in algae treated with S-metolachlor at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/L. The cellular membrane permeability of algae exposed to 0.3 mg/L Rac- and S-metolachlor was 6.19- and 42.5-times that of the control. Correlation analysis implied that ROS are the major factor responsible for the oxidative damage caused by Rac- and S-metolachlor. Damage to the chloroplasts and cell membrane of S. obliquus, low production of starch granules, and an increased number of vacuoles were observed upon ultrastructural morphology analysis by transmission electron microscope. These results indicate that S-metolachlor has a greater effect on S. obliquus than Rac-metolachlor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Immobilized Burkholderia cepacia Lipase on pH-Responsive Pullulan Derivatives with Improved Enantioselectivity in Chiral Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of pH-responsive particle was synthesized using modified pullulan polysaccharide. The synthesized particle possessed a series of merits, such as good dispersity, chemical stability and variability of particle size, making it a suitable carrier for enzyme immobilization. Then, Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL, a promising biocatalyst in transesterification reaction, was immobilized on the synthesized particle. The highest catalytic activity and immobilization efficiency were achieved at pH 6.5 because the particle size was obviously enlarged and correspondingly the adsorption surface for BCL was significantly increased. The immobilization enzyme loading was further optimized, and the derivative lipase was applied in chiral resolution. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the immobilized BCL showed a very good performance and significantly shortened the reaction equilibrium time from 30 h of the free lipase to 2 h with a conversion rate of 50.0% and ees at 99.2%. The immobilized lipase also exhibited good operational stability; after being used for 10 cycles, it still retained over 80% of its original activity. Moreover, it could keep more than 80% activity after storage for 20 days at room temperature in a dry environment. In addition, to learn the potential mechanism, the morphology of the particles and the immobilized lipase were both characterized with a scanning electron microscope and confocal laser scanning microscopy. It was found that the enlarged spherical surface of the particle in low pH values probably led to high immobilized efficiency, resulting in the improvement of enantioselectivity activity in chiral resolution.

  8. Chiral enantioresolution of cathinone derivatives present in "legal highs", and enantioselectivity evaluation on cytotoxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bárbara; Fernandes, Carla; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Pinto, Madalena M M; Valente, Maria João; Carvalho, Márcia; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Remião, Fernando

    Recently, great interest has been focused on synthetic cathinones since their consumption has increased exponentially. All synthetic cathinones exist as chiral molecules; the biological and/or toxicological properties of cathinones generally differ according to the enantiomers in human body. In this study, a chiral liquid chromatography method was developed to separate and determine the enantiomeric ratio of synthetic cathinones present in "legal highs" acquired in old smart shops or over the Internet. All the synthetic cathinones were efficiently enantio-separated with α and Rs ranging from 1.24 to 3.62 and from 1.24 to 10.52, respectively, using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases. All synthetic cathinones, with the exception of 4-methylethcathinone (4-MEC), were present in the commercialized "legal highs" in an enantiomeric proportion of 50:50. One of the studied chiral compounds was 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), one of the most consumed cathinone derivative worldwide. Our research group has recently reported its hepatotoxicity in the racemic form. Thus, the analytical enantioresolution of the MDPV was scaled up to multi-milligram using a semi-preparative amylose tris -3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate column (20 cm × 7.0 mm ID, 7 µm particle size). Both enantiomers were isolated with high enantiomeric purity (enantiomeric excess > 99 %). The toxicity of S -(-)-MDPV and R -(+)-MDPV was evaluated, for the first time, using primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. It was also possible to verify that MDPV enantiomers showed hepatotoxicity in a concentration-dependent manner, but displayed no enantioselective toxicity in this cell culture model.

  9. Design and stereoselective preparation of a new class of chiral olefin metathesis catalysts and application to enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine: catalyst development inspired by natural product synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattely, Elizabeth S; Meek, Simon J; Malcolmson, Steven J; Schrock, Richard R; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2009-01-28

    A total synthesis of the Aspidosperma alkaloid quebrachamine in racemic form is first described. A key catalytic ring-closing metathesis of an achiral triene is used to establish the all-carbon quaternary stereogenic center and the tetracyclic structure of the natural product; the catalytic transformation proceeds with reasonable efficiency through the use of existing achiral Ru or Mo catalysts. Ru- or Mo-based chiral olefin metathesis catalysts have proven to be inefficient and entirely nonselective in cases where the desired product is observed. In the present study, the synthesis route thus serves as a platform for the discovery of new olefin metathesis catalysts that allow for efficient completion of an enantioselective synthesis of quebrachamine. Accordingly, on the basis of mechanistic principles, stereogenic-at-Mo complexes bearing only monodentate ligands have been designed. The new catalysts provide significantly higher levels of activity than observed with the previously reported Ru- or Mo-based complexes. Enantiomerically enriched chiral alkylidenes are generated through diastereoselective reactions involving achiral Mo-based bispyrrolides and enantiomerically pure silyl-protected binaphthols. Such chiral catalysts initiate the key enantioselective ring-closing metathesis step in the total synthesis of quebrachamine efficiently (1 mol % loading, 22 degrees C, 1 h, >98% conversion, 84% yield) and with high selectivity (98:2 er, 96% ee).

  10. Highly Efficient and Robust Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction of 1,2-Amino Alcohols utilizing VAPOL- and VANOL-based Phosphoric Acid Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinxterhuis, Erik B; Gualtierotti, Jean-Baptiste; Wezenberg, Sander J; de Vries, Johannes G; Feringa, Ben L

    2018-01-10

    The large-scale production of enantiopure compounds in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner remains one of the major challenges of modern-day chemistry. The resolution of racemates through enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction was developed as a suitable solution but has remained largely underused, owing to a lack of highly efficient and robust chiral hosts to mediate the process. This paucity of hosts can in part be attributed to a poor understanding of the underlying principles behind these processes hindering the design of more efficient selectors. A previously untested class of hosts, VAPOL and VANOL derived phosphoric acids, has been studied in depth for the efficient enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of 1,2-amino alcohols. A systematic investigation of extraction parameters was conducted, revealing many key interactions and DFT calculations illustrate the binding modes for the 1:1 complexes that are involved in chiral recognition. The resulting, now-optimized, procedures are highly robust and easy to implement. They are also easily scalable, as demonstrated by U-tube experiments. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Purification and gene cloning of an enantioselective thioesterification enzyme from Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum KU1073, a deracemization bacterium of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propanoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Dai-ichiro; Yoshida, Hiromitsu; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2010-01-01

    We succeeded in the purification and gene cloning of a new enzyme, α-methyl carboxylic acid deracemizing enzyme 1 (MCAD1) from Brevibacterium ketoglutamicum KU1073, which catalyzes the (S)-enantioselective thioesterification reaction of 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propanoic acid (CPPA). The cloned gene of MCAD1 contained an ORF of 1,623 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 540 amino acids. In combination with cofactors ATP, coenzyme A (CoASH), and Mg(2+), MCAD1 demonstrated perfect enantioselectivity toward CPPA. The optimal pH and temperature for reaction were found to be 7.25 and 30 °C. Under these conditions, the K(m) and k(cat) values for (S)-CPPA were 0.92 ± 0.17 mM and 0.28 ± 0.026 s(-1) respectively. The results for substrate specificity revealed that MCAD1 had highest activity toward fatty acid tails with a medium chain-length (C(8)). This result indicates that MCAD1 should be classified into a family of medium-chain acyl-CoA synthetase. This novel activity has never been reported for this family.

  12. Comparison of reversed-phase enantioselective HPLC methods for determining the enantiomeric purity of (S-omeprazole in the presence of its related substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Gallinella

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was applied for the enantiomeric excess determination of esomeprazole ((S-OME, the enantiopure active ingredient contained in drug products, in the presence of its potential organic impurities A-E. The enantioselective separation was accomplished on the immobilized-type Chiralpak ID-3 chiral stationary phase (CSP under reversed-phase conditions. The results were evaluated and compared with those obtained by the official enantioselective method of European Pharmacopoeia used as the reference for checking the enantiomeric excess of (S-OME. It has been established that the use of the Chiralpak ID-3 CSP allows the determination of the enantiomeric purity of (S-OME without any interference coming from its chiral and achiral related substances. The analytical procedure of the drug regulatory agencies based on the AGP CSP suffered instead from poor specificity due to overlap of the peaks pertinent to the achiral impurity A and the chiral impurity (R-OME (impurity F.

  13. Investigation of the enantioselectivity of tetramethylammonium L-hydroxyproline ionic liquid as a novel chiral ligand in ligand-exchange CE and ligand-exchange MEKC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruijuan; Du, Yingxiang; Chen, Jiaquan; Zhang, Qi; Du, Shuaijing; Feng, Zijie

    2015-01-01

    Chiral ionic liquids (ILs) have drawn more and more attention in separation science; however, only a few papers focused on the application of chiral ILs as chiral ligands in LE-CE. In this article, a novel amino acid ionic liquid (AAIL), tetramethylammonium L-hydroxyproline ([TMA][L-OH-Pro]), was first applied as a chiral ligand to evaluate its enantioselectivity towards several aromatic amino acids in ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis (LE-CE) and ligand-exchange micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (LE-MEKC). In the LE-CE system, excellent separations were achieved for tryptophan (Rs = 3.03) and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) (Rs = 4.35). Several parameters affecting the enantioseparation were systematically investigated, including AAIL concentration, type and concentration of central metal ion, buffer pH, as well as applied voltage. The optimum separation was obtained with 60 mM AAIL containing 30 mM Cu (II) at pH 4.5. Additionally, an LE-MEKC system was established to further study the enantioselectivity of [TMA][L-OH-Pro] towards selected analytes. As observed, the separations of the enantiomers of tryptophan, phenylalanine, and histidine were all improved compared to the LE-CE system. The results indicated that the application of AAILs as chiral ligands is a promising method in chiral separation science. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Efficicent (R-phenylethanol production with enantioselectivity-alerted (S-carbonyl reductase II and NADPH regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongzhen Zhang

    Full Text Available The NADPH-dependent (S-carbonyl reductaseII from Candida parapsilosis catalyzes acetophenone to chiral phenylethanol in a very low yield of 3.2%. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to design two mutants Ala220Asp and Glu228Ser, inside or adjacent to the substrate-binding pocket. Both mutations caused a significant enantioselectivity shift toward (R-phenylethanol in the reduction of acetophenone. The variant E228S produced (R-phenylethanol with an optical purity above 99%, in 80.2% yield. The E228S mutation resulted in a 4.6-fold decrease in the K M value, but nearly 5-fold and 21-fold increases in the k cat and k cat/K M values with respect to the wild type. For NADPH regeneration, Bacillus sp. YX-1 glucose dehydrogenase was introduced into the (R-phenylethanol pathway. A coexpression system containing E228S and glucose dehydrogenase was constructed. The system was optimized by altering the coding gene order on the plasmid and using the Shine-Dalgarno sequence and the aligned spacing sequence as a linker between them. The presence of glucose dehydrogenase increased the NADPH concentration slightly and decreased NADP(+ pool 2- to 4-fold; the NADPH/NADP(+ ratio was improved 2- to 5-fold. The recombinant Escherichia coli/pET-MS-SD-AS-G, with E228S located upstream and glucose dehydrogenase downstream, showed excellent performance, giving (R-phenylethanol of an optical purity of 99.5 % in 92.2% yield in 12 h in the absence of an external cofactor. When 0.06 mM NADP(+ was added at the beginning of the reaction, the reaction duration was reduced to 1 h. Optimization of the coexpression system stimulated an over 30-fold increase in the yield of (R-phenylethanol, and simultaneously reduced the reaction time 48-fold compared with the wild-type enzyme. This report describes possible mechanisms for alteration of the enantiopreferences of carbonyl reductases by site mutation, and cofactor rebalancing pathways for efficient chiral alcohols production.

  15. Efficient anti-Prelog enantioselective reduction of acetyltrimethylsilane to (R-1-trimethylsilylethanol by immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells in ionic liquid-based biphasic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Bo-Bo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biocatalytic asymmetric reductions with whole cells can offer high enantioselectivity, environmentally benign processes and energy-effective operations and thus are of great interest. The application of whole cell-mediated bioreduction is often restricted if substrate and product have low water solubility and/or high toxicity to the biocatalyst. Many studies have shown that a biphasic system is often useful in this instance. Hence, we developed efficient biphasic reaction systems with biocompatible water-immiscible ionic liquids (ILs, to improve the biocatalytic anti-Prelog enantioselective reduction of acetyltrimethylsilane (ATMS to (R-1-trimethylsilylethanol {(R-1-TMSE}, which is key synthon for a large number of silicon-containing drugs, using immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells as the biocatalyst. Results It was found that the substrate ATMS and the product 1-TMSE exerted pronounced toxicity to immobilized Candida parapsilosis CCTCC M203011 cells. The biocompatible water-immiscible ILs can be applied as a substrate reservoir and in situ extractant for the product, thus greatly enhancing the efficiency of the biocatalytic process and the operational stability of the cells as compared to the IL-free aqueous system. Various ILs exerted significant but different effects on the bioreduction and the performances of biocatalysts were closely related to the kinds and combination of cation and anion of ILs. Among all the water-immiscible ILs investigated, the best results were observed in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (C4mim·PF6/buffer biphasic system. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimum substrate concentration, volume ratio of buffer to IL, buffer pH, reaction temperature and shaking rate for the bioreduction were 120 mM, 8/1 (v/v, 6.0, 30°C and 180 r/min, respectively. Under these optimized conditions, the initial reaction rate, the maximum yield and the product e.e. were 8.1

  16. Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana

    2013-10-01

    The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions.

  17. Enantioselective Recognition of Chiral Carboxylic Acids by a β-Amino Acid and 1,10-Phenanthroline Based Chiral Fluorescent Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghong Zhang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel chiral 1,10-phenanthroline-based fluorescent sensor was designed and synthesized from optical active β-amino acids. It used 1,10-phenanthroline moiety as a fluorescent signaling site and binding site, with optically active β-amino acids as a chiral barrier site. Notably, the optically active β-amino acids were obtained by a Lewis base catalyzed hydrosilylation of β-enamino esters according to our former work. The chiral sensor has been used to conduct the enantioselective recognition of chiral mono and dicarboxylic acids derivatives. Using this fluorescent sensor, a moderate “turn-off” fluorescence-diminishment response towards enantiomer of tartaric acids, and proline was observed. It found that l-enantiomers quench the chiral fluorescence sensor more efficiently than d-enantiomers due to the absolute configuration of the β-amino acid.

  18. A Quantum-Chemical DFT Approach to Elucidation of the Chirality Transfer Mechanism of the Enantioselective Suzuki–Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomir Jasiński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The DFT calculations of the simplified model of the asymmetric Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction were performed at the M062x/LANL2DZ theory level at first. It was found that enantioselective reactions mediated by the palladium complexes of chiral C,P-ligands follow a four-stage mechanism similar to that proposed previously as one of the most credible mechanisms. It should be underlined that the presence of substituents in the substrates and the chiral ligand at ortho positions determines the energies of possible diastereoisomeric transition states and intermediates in initial reaction steps. This suggests that, in practice, a sharp selection of theoretically possible paths of chirality transfer from the catalyst to the product should have a place and, therefore, the absolute configuration of the formed atropisomeric product is defined and can be predicted.

  19. The Enantioselective α-Arylation of Aldehydes via Organo-SOMO Catalysis. An Ortho-Selective Arylation Reaction Based on an Open-Shell Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jay C.; Kong, Jongrock; Laforteza, Brian N.

    2009-01-01

    The intramolecular α-arylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) catalysis. Selective oxidation of chiral enamines (formed by the condensation of an aldehyde and a secondary amine catalyst) leads to the formation of a 3π-electron radical species. These chiral SOMO-activated radical cations undergo enantioselective reaction with an array of pendent electron-rich aromatics and heterocycles thus efficiently providing cyclic α-aryl aldehyde products (10 examples: ≥70% yield and ≥90% ee). In accordance with our radical mechanism, when there is a choice between arylation at the ortho or para position of anisole substrates, we find that arylation proceeds selectively at the ortho position. PMID:19639997

  20. Highly enantioselective oxidation of racemic phenyl-1,2-ethanediol to optically pure (R)-(-)-mandelic acid by a newly isolated Brevibacterium lutescens CCZU12-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yu-Cai; Ma, Cui-Luan; Zhang, Xian; Li, Liang; Xu, Jian-He; Wu, Miao-Xin

    2013-08-01

    Enantioselective oxidation of racemic phenyl-1,2-ethanediol into (R)-(-)-mandelic acid by a newly isolated Brevibacterium lutescens CCZU12-1 was demonstrated. It was found that optically active (R)-(-)-mandelic acid (e.e.p > 99.9 %) is produced leaving the other enantiomer (S)-(+)-phenyl-1,2-ethanediol intact. Using fed-batch method, a total of 172.9 mM (R)-(-)-mandelic acid accumulated in the reaction mixture after the seventh feed. Moreover, oxidation of phenyl-1,2-ethanediol using calcium alginate-entrapped resting cells was carried out in the aqueous system, and efficient biocatalyst recycling was achieved as a result of cell immobilization in calcium alginate, with a product-to-biocatalyst ratio of 27.94 g (R)-(-)-mandelic acid g⁻¹ dry cell weight cell after 16 cycles of repeated use.

  1. Enantioselective synthesis of tricyclic amino acid derivatives based on a rigid 4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decane skeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Breuning

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An enantioselective route to four tricyclic amino acids and N-tosylamides, composed of a central norbornane framework with a 2-endo,3-endo-annelated pyrrolidine ring and a 5-endo-C1 or -C2 side chain, has been developed. A key intermediate was the chiral, N-Boc-protected ketone (1R,2S,6S,7R-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]decan-8-one, available from inexpensive endo-carbic anhydride in five steps and 47% yield. The rigid scaffold makes these amino acid derivatives promising candidates for β-turn-inducing building blocks in peptidomimetics and for chiral auxiliaries in asymmetric organocatalysis.

  2. Enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography. A route to elucidate the authenticity and origin of Rosa damascena Miller essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupčík, Ján; Gorovenko, Roman; Špánik, Ivan; Sandra, Pat; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2015-10-01

    The analysis of Bulgarian and Turkish Rosa damascena Miller essential oils was performed by flow-modulated comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography using simultaneous detection of the second column effluent by flame ionization and quadrupole mass spectrometric detection. Enantioselective separations were obtained by running the samples on 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-β-cyclodextrin column as the first column and on polyethylene glycol as the second column. The determination of enantiomeric or diastereomeric excess of some terpenoic solutes is a possible route for quality or authenticity control as well as for the elucidation of the country of origin. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Cinchona Alkaloid Derivative-Catalyzed Enantioselective Synthesis via a Mannich-Type Reaction and Antifungal Activity of β-Amino Esters Bearing Benzoheterocycle Moieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of highly functionalized chiral β-amino ester derivatives containing benzothiophene and benzothiazole moieties is developed by a Mannich-type reaction using a cinchona alkaloid-derived thiourea catalyst. The desired products were obtained in good yields and high enantioselectivities (~86% yield, >99% ee using to the optimized reaction conditions. The synthesized compounds were characterized by 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, IR, and HREI-MS analyses. The bioassays identified that compound 5dr has excellent antifungal activity, with a 60.53% inhibition rate against F. oxysporum, higher than that of the commercial agricultural fungicide hymexazol, whose inhibition rate was 56.12%.

  4. Functionalized polymer monoliths with carbamylated amylose for the enantioselective reversed phase nano-liquid chromatographic separation of a set of racemic pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Ali; Marzouk, Adel A; Ibrahim, Samy M; El-Adl, Sobhy M; Ghanem, Ashraf

    2017-09-15

    Here we report the first encapsulation of three carbamylated amylose namely R-, S- and R/S-amylose 2,3(3,5-dimethylphenylcarbamate)-6-ethylphenylcarbamate in organic polymer monolith in situ capillary columns. The columns were investigated for the enantioselective nano-liquid chromatographic separation of a set of racemic pharmaceuticals, namely, α- and β-blockers, anti-inflammatory drugs, antifungal drugs, norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors, catecholamines, sedative hypnotics, antihistaminics, anticancer drugs, and antiarrhythmic drugs. Baseline separation was achieved for several drugs under reversed phase chromatographic conditions and only few drugs were separated under normal phase conditions. The developed columns provide more economical analysis under environmentally benign conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Simultaneous enantioselective determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhoulin; Li, Xiaoge; Miao, Yelong; Lin, Mei; Xu, Mingfei; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hu

    2015-11-01

    A novel, sensitive, and efficient enantioselective method for the determination of triadimefon and its metabolite triadimenol in edible vegetable oil, was developed by gel permeation chromatography and ultraperformance convergence chromatography/tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. After the vegetable oil samples were prepared using gel permeation chromatography, the eluent was collected, evaporated, and dried with nitrogen gas. The residue was redissolved by adding methanol up to a final volume of 1 mL. The analytes of six enantiomers were analyzed on Chiralpak IA-3 column (150 × 4.6 mm) using compressed liquid CO2-mixed 14 % co-solvents, comprising methanol/acetonitrile/isopropanol = 20/20/60 (v/v/v) in the mobile phase at 30 °C, and the total separation time was less than 4 min at a flow rate of 2 mL/min. Quantification was achieved using matrix-matched standard calibration curves. The overall mean recoveries for six enantiomers from vegetable oil were 90.1-97.3 %, with relative standard deviations of 0.8-5.4 % intra-day and 2.3-5.0 % inter-day at 0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg levels. The limits of quantification were 0.5 μg/kg for all enantiomers based on five replicate extractions at the lowest fortified level in vegetable oil. Moreover, the absolute configuration of six enantiomers had been determined based on comparisons of the vibrational circular dichroism experimental spectra with the theoretical curve obtained by density functional theory calculations. Application of the proposed method to the 40 authentic vegetable oil samples from local markets suggests its potential use in enantioselective determination of triadimefon and triadimenol enantiomers. Graphical Abstract Chemical structures and UPC(2)-MS/MS separation chromatograms of triadimefon and triadimenol.

  6. P212A Mutant of Dihydrodaidzein Reductase Enhances (S)-Equol Production and Enantioselectivity in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Whole-Cell Reaction System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyung-Gang; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, EunOk; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad; Kim, Byung-Gee

    2016-01-22

    (S)-Equol, a gut bacterial isoflavone derivative, has drawn great attention because of its potent use for relieving female postmenopausal symptoms and preventing prostate cancer. Previous studies have reported on the dietary isoflavone metabolism of several human gut bacteria and the involved enzymes for conversion of daidzein to (S)-equol. However, the anaerobic growth conditions required by the gut bacteria and the low productivity and yield of (S)-equol limit its efficient production using only natural gut bacteria. In this study, the low (S)-equol biosynthesis of gut microorganisms was overcome by cloning the four enzymes involved in the biosynthesis from Slackia isoflavoniconvertens into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The reaction conditions were optimized for (S)-equol production from the recombinant strain, and this recombinant system enabled the efficient conversion of 200 μM and 1 mM daidzein to (S)-equol under aerobic conditions, achieving yields of 95% and 85%, respectively. Since the biosynthesis of trans-tetrahydrodaidzein was found to be a rate-determining step for (S)-equol production, dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR) was subjected to rational site-directed mutagenesis. The introduction of the DHDR P212A mutation increased the (S)-equol productivity from 59.0 mg/liter/h to 69.8 mg/liter/h in the whole-cell reaction. The P212A mutation caused an increase in the (S)-dihydrodaidzein enantioselectivity by decreasing the overall activity of DHDR, resulting in undetectable activity for (R)-dihydrodaidzein, such that a combination of the DHDR P212A mutant with dihydrodaidzein racemase enabled the production of (3S,4R)-tetrahydrodaidzein with an enantioselectivity of >99%. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Investigation of storage time-dependent alterations of enantioselective amino acid profiles in kimchi using liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Moyu; Konya, Yutaka; Nakano, Yosuke; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2017-10-01

    Although naturally abundant amino acids are represented mainly by l-enantiomers, fermented foods are known to contain various d-amino acids. Enantiospecific profiles of food products can vary due to fermentation by bacteria, and such alterations may contribute to changes in food properties that would not be dependent exclusively on l-amino acids. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the study of temporal alterations of d-amino acid profiles during fermentation process. However, there have been very few studies reporting time-dependent profiling of d-amino acids because enantioseparation of widely targeted d-amino acids is technically difficult. This study aimed to achieve high throughput profiling of amino acids enantiomers. Enantioselective profiling of amino acids using CROWNPAK CR-I(+) column, liquid chromatography, time of flight mass spectrometry, and principle component analysis was performed to investigate time-dependent alterations in concentrations of free d- and l-amino acids in kimchi stored at 4°C or 25°C. We demonstrated significant changes in d- and l-amino acid profiles in kimchi stored at 25°C. In particular, concentrations of the amino acids d-Ala, d-Ser, d-allo-Ile, d-Leu, d-Asp, d-Glu, and d-Met became higher in kimchi with storage time. This is the first report of time-dependent alterations of d- and l-amino acid contents in kimchi. This study showed that our analytical method of enantioselective detection of amino acids using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOFMS) with CROWNPAK CR-I(+) enables high throughput food screening and can be recommended for advanced studies of the relationship between d-amino acid content and food properties. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cobalt(III) Werner Complexes with 1,2-Diphenylethylenediamine Ligands: Readily Available, Inexpensive, and Modular Chiral Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalysts for Enantioselective Organic Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kyle G; Ghosh, Subrata K; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai; Gladysz, John A

    2015-03-25

    In the quest for new catalysts that can deliver single enantiomer pharmaceuticals and agricultural chemicals, chemists have extensively mined the "chiral pool", with little in the way of inexpensive, readily available building blocks now remaining. It is found that Werner complexes based upon the D3 symmetric chiral trication [Co(en)3](3+) (en = 1,2-ethylenediamine), which features an earth abundant metal and cheap ligand type, and was among the first inorganic compounds resolved into enantiomers 103 years ago, catalyze a valuable carbon-carbon bond forming reaction, the Michael addition of malonate esters to nitroalkenes, in high enantioselectivities and without requiring inert atmosphere conditions. The title catalysts, [Co((S,S)-dpen)3](3+) ((S,S)-3 (3+)) 3X(-), employ a commercially available chiral ligand, (S,S)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine. The rates and ee values are functions of the configuration of the cobalt center (Λ/Δ) and the counteranions, which must be lipophilic to solubilize the trication in nonaqueous media. The highest enantioselectivities are obtained with Λ and 2Cl(-)BArf (-), 2BF4 (-)BArf (-), or 3BF4 (-) salts (BArf (-) = B(3,5-C6H3(CF3)2)4 (-)). The substrates are not activated by metal coordination, but rather by second coordination sphere hydrogen bonding involving the ligating NH2 groups. Crystal structures and NMR data indicate enthalpically stronger interactions with the NH moieties related by the C3 symmetry axis, as opposed to those related by the C2 symmetry axes; rate trends and other observations suggest this to be the catalytically active site. Both Λ- and Δ-(S,S)-3 (3+) 2Cl(-)BArf (-) are effective catalysts for additions of β-ketoesters to RO2CN=NCO2R species (99-86% yields, 81-76% ee), which provide carbon-nitrogen bonds and valuable precursors to α-amino acids.

  9. P212A Mutant of Dihydrodaidzein Reductase Enhances (S)-Equol Production and Enantioselectivity in a Recombinant Escherichia coli Whole-Cell Reaction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pyung-Gang; Kim, Joonwon; Kim, Eun-Jung; Jung, EunOk; Pandey, Bishnu Prasad

    2016-01-01

    (S)-Equol, a gut bacterial isoflavone derivative, has drawn great attention because of its potent use for relieving female postmenopausal symptoms and preventing prostate cancer. Previous studies have reported on the dietary isoflavone metabolism of several human gut bacteria and the involved enzymes for conversion of daidzein to (S)-equol. However, the anaerobic growth conditions required by the gut bacteria and the low productivity and yield of (S)-equol limit its efficient production using only natural gut bacteria. In this study, the low (S)-equol biosynthesis of gut microorganisms was overcome by cloning the four enzymes involved in the biosynthesis from Slackia isoflavoniconvertens into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The reaction conditions were optimized for (S)-equol production from the recombinant strain, and this recombinant system enabled the efficient conversion of 200 μM and 1 mM daidzein to (S)-equol under aerobic conditions, achieving yields of 95% and 85%, respectively. Since the biosynthesis of trans-tetrahydrodaidzein was found to be a rate-determining step for (S)-equol production, dihydrodaidzein reductase (DHDR) was subjected to rational site-directed mutagenesis. The introduction of the DHDR P212A mutation increased the (S)-equol productivity from 59.0 mg/liter/h to 69.8 mg/liter/h in the whole-cell reaction. The P212A mutation caused an increase in the (S)-dihydrodaidzein enantioselectivity by decreasing the overall activity of DHDR, resulting in undetectable activity for (R)-dihydrodaidzein, such that a combination of the DHDR P212A mutant with dihydrodaidzein racemase enabled the production of (3S,4R)-tetrahydrodaidzein with an enantioselectivity of >99%. PMID:26801575

  10. A molecular model of the enantioselective liquid chromatographic separation of (R,S)-ifosfamide and its N-dechloroethylated metabolites on a teicoplanin aglycon chiral stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandran, Sarangan; Collins, Jack R; Singh, Nagendra; W Wainer, Irving

    2012-12-21

    The enantioselective separations of the chiral oxazaphosphorines (R,S)-ifosfamide (IF), (R,S)-2-N-dechloroethyl-IF (2-DCE-IF) and (R,S)-3-N-dechloroethyl-IF (3-DCE-IF) were achieved on teicoplanin-based chiral stationary phase using isopropanol:methanol (60:40, v/v) as the mobile phase. Computational models of the teicoplanin and teicoplanin aglycon (TAG) chiral selectors were constructed and used in docking experiments to examine the chiral recognition mechanism associated with the observed resolutions. Initial data showed no significant differences between the simulated selector-selectand complexes using teicoplanin and TAG, and the full study was conducted using TAG. The data from the study indicate that hydrophobic interactions arise between the chlorine atom present in the cholorethyl moieties of the oxazaphosphorine molecules and hydrophobic pockets within the TAG basket and that these interactions anchored and positioned the selectands within the selector-selectand complexes. The complexes were stabilized through the formation of a network of hydrogen bond and cation-π interactions, in which the latter involved the phosphorous atom of the phosphoramide moiety and aromatic components of the TAG aglycon basket. The chirality of the oxazaphosphorine molecule determined the number and strength of the stabilizing interactions which resulted in significant differences in the relative mean binding energies between the complexes formed by the (R) and (S) enantiomers of the selectands. These differences were consistent with the observed chromatographic enantioselectivity and suggest a multi-step chrial recognition mechanism involving the tethering of the selectand to the selector followed by conformational adjustments and stabilization of the selectand-selector complex. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Cooperative catalysis of metal and O-H···O/sp3-C-H···O two-point hydrogen bonds in alcoholic solvents: Cu-catalyzed enantioselective direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Takaoki; Watanabe, Ryo; Moriya, Toshimitsu; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Mori, Seiji; Sawamura, Masaya

    2013-09-27

    Catalyst-substrate hydrogen bonds in artificial catalysts usually occur in aprotic solvents, but not in protic solvents, in contrast to enzymatic catalysis. We report a case in which ligand-substrate hydrogen-bonding interactions cooperate with a transition-metal center in alcoholic solvents for enantioselective catalysis. Copper(I) complexes with prolinol-based hydroxy amino phosphane chiral ligands catalytically promoted the direct alkynylation of aldehydes with terminal alkynes in alcoholic solvents to afford nonracemic secondary propargylic alcohols with high enantioselectivities. Quantum-mechanical calculations of enantiodiscriminating transition states show the occurrence of a nonclassical sp(3)-C-H···O hydrogen bond as a secondary interaction between the ligand and substrate, which results in highly directional catalyst-substrate two-point hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Highly Enantioselective Construction of Tertiary Thioethers and Alcohols via Phosphine-Catalyzed Asymmetric γ-Addition reactions of 5H-Thiazol-4-ones and 5H-Oxazol-4-ones: Scope and Mechanistic Understandings

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Tianli

    2015-06-02

    Phosphine-catalyzed highly enantioselective γ-additions of 5H-thiazol-4-ones and 5H-oxazol-4-ones to allenoates have been developed for the first time. With the employment of amino-acid derived bifunctional phosphines, a wide range of substituted 5H-thiazol-4-one and 5H-oxazol-4-one derivatives bearing heteroarom (S or O)-containing tertiary chiral centers were constructed in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. The reported method provides a facile access to enantioenriched tertiary thioether/alcohols. The mechanism of γ-addition reaction was investigated by performing DFT calculations, and the hydrogen bonding interactions between the Brønsted acid moiety of the phosphine catalysts and the “C=O” unit of donor molecules were shown to be crucial in asymmetric induction.

  13. Purification, characterisation and expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of LipG7 an enantioselective, cold-adapted lipase from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 with unusual thermostability characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florczak, Tomasz; Daroch, Maurycy; Wilkinson, Mark Charles; Białkowska, Aneta; Bates, Andrew Derek; Turkiewicz, Marianna; Iwanejko, Lesley Ann

    2013-06-10

    A lipase, LipG7, has been purified from the Antarctic filamentous fungus Geomyces sp. P7 which was found to be cold-adapted and able to retain/regain its activity after heat denaturation. The LipG7 exhibits 100% residual activity following 1h incubation at 100°C whilst simultaneously showing kinetic adaptations to cold temperatures. LipG7 was also found to have industrial potential as an enantioselective biocatalyst as it is able to effectively catalyse the enantioselective transesterification of a secondary alcohol. The LipG7 coding sequence has been identified and cloned using 454 pyrosequencing of the transcriptome and inverse PCR. The LipG7 protein has been heterologously expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BJ5465 and shown to exhibit the same characteristics as the native protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase catalyzing the enantioselective oxidation of 2,2',3,5',6-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Haruna; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Kajimura, Keiji; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-10-17

    2,2',3,5',6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 95) and 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptachlorobiphenyl (PCB 183) possess axial chirality and form the aS and aR enantiomers. The enantiomers of these congeners have been reported to accumulate in the human body enantioselectively via unknown mechanisms. In this study, we determined the cytochrome P450 (CYP) monooxygenase responsible for the enantioselective oxidization of PCB 95 and PCB 183, using a recombinant human CYP monooxygenase. We evaluated 13 CYP monooxygenases, namely CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2E1, CYP2J2, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP4F2, and aromatase (CYP19), and revealed that CYP2A6 preferably oxidizes aS-PCB 95 enantioselectively; however, it did not oxidize PCB 183. The enantiomer composition was elevated from 0.5 (racemate) to 0.54. In addition, following incubation with CYP2A6, the enantiomer fraction (EF) of PCB 95 demonstrated a time-dependent increase.

  15. Synthesis and studies of polypeptide materials: Enantioselective polymerization of gamma-benzyl glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride and synthesis of optically active poly(beta-peptides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun

    A class of zero-valent transition metal complexes have been developed by Deming et al for the controlled polymerization of alpha-aminoacid-N-carboxyanhydrides (alpha-NCAs). This discovery provided a superior starting point for the development of enantioselective polymerizations of racemic alpha-NCAs. Bidentate chiral ligands were synthesized and tested for their abilities to induce enantioselective polymerization of gamma-benzyl-glutamate NCA (Glu NCA) when they were coordinated to zero-valent nickel complexes. When optically active 2-pyridinyl oxazoline ligands were mixed with bis(1,5-cyclooctadiene)nickel in THF, chiral nickel complexes were formed that selectively polymerized one enantiomer of Glu NCA over the other. The highest selectivity was observed with the nickel complex of (S)-4-tert-butyl-2-pyridinyl oxazoline, which gave a ratio of enantiomeric polymerization rate constants (kD/kL) of 5.2. It was found that subtle modification of this ligand by incorporation of additional substituents had a substantial impact on initiator enantioselectivities. In separate efforts, methodology was developed for the general synthesis of optically active beta-aminoacid-N-carboxyanhydrides (beta-NCAs) via cyclization of Nbeta-Boc- or Nbeta-Cbz-beta-amino acids using phosphorus tribromide. The beta-NCA molecules could be polymerized in good yields using strong bases or transition metal complexes to give optically active poly(beta-peptides) bearing proteinogenic side chains. The resulting poly(beta-peptides), which have moderate molecular weights, adopt stable helical conformations in solution. Poly(beta-homoglutamate and poly(beta-homolysine), the side-chain deprotected polymers, were found to display pH dependent helix-coil conformation transitions in aqueous solution, similar to their alpha-analogs. A novel method for poly(beta-aspartate) synthesis was developed via the polymerization of L-aspartate alkyl ester beta lactams using metal-amido complexes. Poly

  16. A new and fast DLLME-CE method for the enantioselective analysis of zopiclone and its active metabolite after fungal biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque, Nayara Cristina Perez; de Gaitani, Cristiane Masetto; de Oliveira, Anderson Rodrigo Moraes

    2015-05-10

    Zopiclone (ZO) is a chiral drug that undergoes extensive metabolism to N-desmethylzopiclone (N-Des-ZO) and zopiclone-N-oxide (N-Ox-ZO). Pharmacological studies have shown (S)-N-Des-ZO metabolite presents anxiolytic activity and a patent for this metabolite was requested for anxiety treatment and related disorders. In this context, biotransformation employing fungi may be a promising strategy to obtain N-Des-ZO. To perform the biotransformation study in this work, an enantioselective method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed. CE analyses were carried out in sodium phosphate buffer (pH 2.5; 50mmolL(-1)) containing 0.5% (w/v) carboxymethyl-β-CD, at a constant voltage of +25kV. DLLME was conducted using 2mL of liquid culture medium pH 9.5. Chloroform (100μL) and methanol (300μL) were employed as extraction and disperser solvent, respectively. After CE and DLLME optimization, the analytical method was fully validated. The method was linear over a concentration range of 90-6000ngmL(-1) for each ZO enantiomer (r>0.999) and 50-1000ngmL(-1) for each N-Des-ZO enantiomer (r>0.998). Absolute recovery of 51 and 82% was achieved for N-Des-ZO and ZO, respectively. The accuracy and precision results agreed with the EMA (European Medicines Agency) guideline, and so did the stability study. Application of the developed method in a biotransformation study was conducted in order to investigate the ability of fungi, belonging to the genus Cunninghamella, in metabolizing ZO chiral drug. Fungi Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028B and Cunninghamella echinulata var elegans ATCC 8688A demonstrated to be able to enantioselectively biotransform ZO to its active metabolite, N-Des-ZO. Therefore, the proposed goals of this work, i.e. a fast DLLME-CE method and an outstanding strategy to obtain N-Des-ZO, were successfully attained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Experimental and Model Studies on Continuous Separation of 2-Phenylpropionic Acid Enantiomers by Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Centrifugal Contactor Separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaofeng; Tang, Kewen; Zhang, Pangliang; Yin, Shuangfeng

    2016-03-01

    Multistage enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction (ELLE) of 2-phenylpropionic acid (2-PPA) enantiomers using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) as extractant was studied experimentally in a counter-current cascade of centrifugal contactor separators (CCSs). Performance of the process was evaluated by purity (enantiomeric excess, ee) and yield (Y). A multistage equilibrium model was established on the basis of single-stage model for chiral extraction of 2-PPA enantiomers and the law of mass conservation. A series of experiments on the extract phase/washing phase ratio (W/O ratio), extractant concentration, the pH value of aqueous phase, and the number of stages was conducted to verify the multistage equilibrium model. It was found that model predictions were in good agreement with the experimental results. The model was applied to predict and optimize the symmetrical separation of 2-PPA enantiomers. The optimal conditions for symmetric separation involves a W/O ratio of 0.6, pH of 2.5, and HP-β-CD concentration of 0.1 mol L(-1) at a temperature of 278 K, where eeeq (equal enantiomeric excess) can reach up to 37% and Yeq (equal yield) to 69%. By simulation and optimization, the minimum number of stages was evaluated at 98 and 106 for eeeq > 95% and eeeq > 97%. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Conformation and Catalytic Properties Studies of Candida rugosa Lip7 via Enantioselective Esterification of Ibuprofen in Organic Solvents and Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Enantioselective esterification of ibuprofen was conducted to evaluate the enzyme activity and ees of lipase from Candida rugosa (CRL7 in ten conventional organic solvents and three ionic liquids. Different alcohols were tested for selecting the most suitable acyl acceptor due to the fact that the structure of alcohols (branch and length of carbon chains; location of –OH functional group could affect the enzyme activity and ees. The results of alcohol and solvent selection revealed that 1-isooctanol and isooctane were the best substrate and reaction medium, respectively, because of the highest enzyme activity and ees. Compared with the control, conformational studies via FT-IR indicate that the variations of CRL7’s secondary structure elements are probably responsible for the differences of enzyme activity and ees in the organic solvents and ionic liquids. Moreover, the effects of reaction parameters, such as molar ratio, water content, temperature, and reaction time, in the selected reaction medium, were also examined.

  19. Enantioseparation of Imazalil and Monitoring of Its Enantioselective Degradation in Apples and Soils Using Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Runan; Dong, Fengshou; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Pan, Xinglu; Tao, Yan; Chen, Zenglong; Zheng, Yongquan

    2017-04-26

    Imazalil is a widely used systemic chiral fungicide that is still being employed as a racemic mixture without distinguishing the difference between enantiomers, which often leads to its inaccurate risk assessment. In this study, a robust and highly sensitive chiral separation method was developed for imazalil enantiomers by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and was further applied to study the degradation dynamics of imazalil enantiomers in apples and field soils at three sites in China. The baseline enantioseparation for imazalil was achieved within 3.5 min on a Lux Cellulose-2 (CCMPC) column with acetonitrile (ACN)/water (65:35, v/v) with a mobile phase at 0.5 mL/min flow rate and a column temperature of 20 °C. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for each enantiomer was degraded more rapidly than (R)-(-)-imazalil in Gala apples, whereas (R)-(-)-imazalil preferentially degraded in Golden Delicious apples. No significant enantioselectivity was observed in OBIR-2T-47 apples and field soils from the three sites. Results of this study provide useful references for risk assessment and the rational use of imazalil in further agricultural produce practice.

  20. Improving activity and enantioselectivity of lipase via immobilization on macroporous resin for resolution of racemic 1- phenylethanol in non-aqueous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Burkholderia cepacia lipase (BCL) has been proved to be capable of resolution reactions. However, its free form usually exhibits low stability, bad resistance and no reusability, which restrict its further industrial applications. Therefore, it is of great importance to improve the catalytic performance of free lipase in non-aqueous medium. Results In this work, macroporous resin NKA (MPR-NKA) was utilized as support for lipase immobilization. Racemic transesterification of 1-phenylethanol with vinyl acetate was chosen as model reaction. Compared with its free form, the enzyme activity and enantioselectivity (ees) of the immobilized lipase have been significantly enhanced. The immobilized BCL exhibited a satisfactory thermostability over a wide range of temperature (from 10 to 65°C) and an excellent catalytic efficiency. After being used for more than 30 successive batches, the immobilized lipase still kept most of its activity. In comparison with other immobilized lipases, the immobilized BCL also exhibits better catalytic efficiency, which indicates a significant potential in industrial applications. Conclusion The results of this study have proved that MPR-NKA was an excellent support for immobilization of lipase via the methods of N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The improvement of enzyme activity and ees for the immobilized lipase was closely correlated with the alteration of its secondary structure. This information may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of immobilization and enzymatic biotransformation in non-aqueous medium. PMID:24168516