Sample records for vana-hiina veri uhkus

  1. Eestlased viivad Läti uhkuse Lauma riigist minema / Hetlin Villak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Villak, Hetlin


    AS-ile Silvano Fashion Group kuuluva kaubamärgi Lauma tootmine plaanitakse 2009. aastaks üle viia odavamate tootmiskulude tõttu Ukrainasse ja Valgevenesse, osaliselt jätkatakse tegevusega Lätis. Lisa: Lätlaste au ja uhkus Lauma

  2. Tähistaeval põhinevatest uskumustest III Vana-Hiina


    Enn Kasak


    The article concerns Chinese astral myths, calendar and astrology. Chinese creation myths concern also the creation of the Sun, Moon and stars. The heavenly bodies are constantly endangered by the sky dragon that now and then catches them, probably a reference to eclipses. Cosmology existed in Ancient China in the same sense as in Ancient Greede, though many ancient books were burned on the emperor's orders in 213 BC. Teaching of the endless sky emerged in the Han era, while in 1 century AD t...

  3. Suure uhkuse aasta / Marko Mihkelson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mihkelson, Marko, 1969-


    Ilmunud ka: Meie Maa, 6. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Põhjarannik, 6. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Severnoje Poberezhje, 6. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Pärnu Postimees, 7. jaan. 2004, lk. 11; Valgamaalane, 8. jaan. 2004, lk. 2; Nädaline, 8. jaan. 2004, lk. 4; Koit, 10. jaan. 2004, lk. 6; Hiiu Leht, 13. jaan. 2004, lk. 2. Liitumine Euroopa Liidu ja NATO-ga on autori arvates Eesti jaoks suur võit ja väljakutse

  4. Raamat sõja seadustest / Linnart Mäll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mäll, Linnart


    Vana-Hiina sõjateoreetikute Sun Zi ja Sun Bini raamatust: Sun, Zi ; Sun, Bin. Sõja seadused / klassikalisest hiina keelest tõlkinud ja kommenteerinud Märt Läänemets. Tln. : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2001. (Sõjandusvaramu. Klassika)

  5. Very heavy dark Skyrmions (United States)

    Dick, Rainer


    A dark sector with a solitonic component provides a means to circumvent the problem of generically low annihilation cross sections of very heavy dark matter particles. At the same time, enhanced annihilation cross sections are necessary for indirect detection of very heavy dark matter components beyond 100 TeV. Non-thermally produced dark matter in this mass range could therefore contribute to the cosmic γ -ray and neutrino flux above 100 TeV, and massive Skyrmions provide an interesting framework for the discussion of these scenarios. Therefore a Higgs portal and a neutrino portal for very heavy Skyrmion dark matter are discussed. The Higgs portal model demonstrates a dark mediator bottleneck, where limitations on particle annihilation cross sections will prevent a signal from the potentially large soliton annihilation cross sections. This problem can be avoided in models where the dark mediator decays. This is illustrated by the neutrino portal for Skyrmion dark matter.

  6. Very special relativity. (United States)

    Cohen, Andrew G; Glashow, Sheldon L


    By very special relativity (VSR) we mean descriptions of nature whose space-time symmetries are certain proper subgroups of the Poincaré group. These subgroups contain space-time translations together with at least a two-parameter subgroup of the Lorentz group isomorphic to that generated by K(x) + J(y) and K(y)- J(x). We find that VSR implies special relativity (SR) in the context of local quantum field theory or of conservation. Absent both of these added hypotheses, VSR provides a simulacrum of SR for which most of the consequences of Lorentz invariance remain wholly or essentially intact, and for which many sensitive searches for departures from Lorentz invariance must fail. Several feasible experiments are discussed for which Lorentz-violating effects in VSR may be detectable.

  7. Very Small Interstellar Spacecraft (United States)

    Peck, Mason A.


    This paper considers lower limits of length scale in spacecraft: interstellar vehicles consisting of little more material than found in a typical integrated-circuit chip. Some fundamental scaling principles are introduced to show how the dynamics of the very small can be used to realize interstellar travel with minimal advancements in technology. Our recent study for the NASA Institute for Advanced Concepts provides an example: the use of the Lorentz force that acts on electrically charged spacecraft traveling through planetary and stellar magnetospheres. Schaffer and Burns, among others, have used Cassini and Voyager imagery to show that this interaction is responsible for some of the resonances in the orbital dynamics of dust in Jupiter's and Saturn's rings. The Lorentz force turns out to vary in inverse proportion to the square of this characteristic length scale, making it a more effective means of propelling tiny spacecraft than solar sailing. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. Performance estimates, some insight into plasma interactions, and some hardware concepts are offered. The mission architectures considered here involve the use of these propellantless propulsion techniques for acceleration within our solar system and deceleration near the destination. We might envision a large number of such satellites with intermittent, bursty communications set up as a one-dimensional network to relay signals across great distances using only the power likely from such small spacecraft. Conveying imagery in this fashion may require a long time because of limited power, but the prospect of imaging another star system close-up ought to be worth the wait.

  8. Ida-igatsuse põhjapiir / Raivo Paltser

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paltser, Raivo


    Hiina traditsiooni järgija R. Paltseri nägemus Lääne inimese ihalusest Vana-Hiina kultuuri järele, kung-fust. Toodud mõningaid näiteid Soome ja Hiina mütoloogiat ühendavast fantaasiafilmist "Igavese armastuse sõdalane - Jade Warrior"

  9. Progress Toward A Very High Angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) (United States)

    Korendyke, Clarence M.; Vourlidas, A.; Landi, E.; Seely, J.; Klimchuck, J.


    Recent imaging at arcsecond (TRACE) and sub-arcsecond (VAULT) spatial resolution clearly show that structures with fine spatial scales play a key role in the physics of the upper solar atmosphere. Both theoretical and observational considerations point to the importance of small spatial scales, impulsive energy release, strong dynamics, and extreme plasma nonuniformity. Fundamental questions regarding the nature, structure, properties and dynamics of loops and filamentary structures in the upper atmosphere have been raised. To address these questions, we are developing a next generation, VEry high angular Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (VERIS) as a sounding rocket instrument. VERIS will obtain the necessary high spatial resolution, high fidelity measurements of plasma temperatures, densities and velocities. With broad simultaneous temperature coverage, the VERIS observations will directly address unresolved issues relating to interconnections of various temperature solar plasmas. VERIS will provide the first ever subarcsecond spectra of transition region and coronal structures. It will do so with a sufficient spectral resolution of to allow centroided Doppler velocity determinations to better than 3 km/s. VERIS uses a novel two element, normal incidence optical design with highly reflective EUV coatings to access a spectral range with broad temperature coverage (0.03-15 MK) and density-sensitive line ratios. Finally, in addition to the spectra, VERIS will simultaneously obtain spectrally pure slot images (10x150 arcsec) in the +/-1 grating orders, which can be combined to make instantaneous line-of-sight velocity maps with 8km/s accuracy over an unprecedented field of view. The VERIS program is beginning the second year of its three year development cycle. All design activities and reviews are complete. Fabrication of all major components has begun. Brassboard electronics cards have been fabricated, assembled and tested. The paper presents the essential scientific

  10. Nothing a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank


    What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research

  11. Structuring very large domain models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Störrle, Harald


    at a lower level of detail have not been dealt with. This paper aims at filling this gap by reporting personal experiences from a very large scale industrial domain modeling project. There, structuring the logical view turned out to be a critical success factor. We explain the project and its setting......, analyze the role and repercussions of model structuring, and examine the implications model structuring decisions have on other parts of the project. We then explain the model structure abstracted from a very large scale industrial modeling project. Finally, we discuss lessons learned....

  12. Stars a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    King, Andrew


    Stars: A Very Short Introduction looks at how stars live, producing all the chemical elements beyond helium, and how they die, leaving remnants such as black holes. Every atom of our bodies has been part of a star. Our very own star, the Sun, is crucial to the development and sustainability of life on Earth. Understanding stars is key to understanding the galaxies they inhabit, the existence of planets, and the history of our entire Universe. This VSI explores the science of stars, the mechanisms that allow them to form, the processes that allow them to shine, and the results of their death.

  13. Chaos a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Leonard


    Chaos: A Very Short Introduction shows that we all have an intuitive understanding of chaotic systems. It uses accessible maths and physics (replacing complex equations with simple examples like pendulums, railway lines, and tossing coins) to explain the theory, and points to numerous examples in philosophy and literature (Edgar Allen Poe, Chang-Tzu, and Arthur Conan Doyle) that illuminate the problems. The beauty of fractal patterns and their relation to chaos, as well as the history of chaos, and its uses in the real world and implications for the philosophy of science are all discussed in this Very Short Introduction.

  14. Statistics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hand, David J


    Statistics has evolved into an exciting discipline which uses deep theory and powerful software to shed light on the world around us: from clinical trials in medicine, to economics, sociology, and countless other subjects vital to understanding modern life. This Very Short Introduction explores and explains how statistics works today. - ;Modern statistics is very different from the dry and dusty discipline of the popular imagination. In its place is an exciting subject which uses deep theory and powerful software tools to shed light and enable understanding. And it sheds this light on all aspe

  15. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  16. The very large hadron collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper reviews the purposes to be served by a very large hadron collider and the organization and coordination of efforts to bring it about. There is some discussion of magnet requirements and R&D and the suitability of the Fermilab site.

  17. " Odd, Watson–Very Odd!

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Odd, Watson – Very Odd!" S Mahadevan. Book Review Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 114-117. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Author Affiliations.

  18. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H


    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  19. Moons a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A


    Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.

  20. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio


    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  1. Superconductivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen


    Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics

  2. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike


    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  3. Magnetism a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J


    Magnetism: A Very Short Introduction explains the mysteries and importance of magnetism. For centuries magnetism has been used for various exploits: as a great healer, a navigation aid through compasses, and through motors, generators, and turbines it has given us power. Our understanding of electricity and magnetism, from the work of Galvani, Ampère, Faraday, and Tesla is explored, and how Maxwell and Faraday's work led to the unification of electricity and magnetism is explained. With a discussion of the relationship between magnetism and relativity, quantum magnetism, and its impact on computers and information storage, how magnetism has changed our fundamental understanding of the Universe is shown.

  4. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell


    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  5. Planets a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A


    Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?

  6. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob


    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  7. Very Degenerate Higgsino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Eung Jin [Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Sunghoon [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory,Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics,Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Park, Jong-Chul [Department of Physics, Chungnam National University,Daejeon 34134 (Korea, Republic of)


    We present a study of the Very Degenerate Higgsino Dark Matter (DM), whose mass splitting between the lightest neutral and charged components is O(1) MeV, much smaller than radiative splitting of 355 MeV. The scenario is realized in the minimal supersymmetric standard model by small gaugino mixings. In contrast to the pure Higgsino DM with the radiative splitting only, various observable signatures with distinct features are induced. First of all, the very small mass splitting makes (a) sizable Sommerfeld enhancement and Ramsauer-Townsend (RT) suppression relevant to ∼1 TeV Higgsino DM, and (b) Sommerfeld-Ramsauer-Townsend effect saturate at lower velocities v/c≲10{sup −3}. As a result, annihilation signals can be large enough to be observed from the galactic center and/or dwarf galaxies, while the relative signal sizes can vary depending on the locations of Sommerfeld peaks and RT dips. In addition, at collider experiments, stable chargino signatures can be searched for to probe the model in the future. DM direct detection signals, however, depend on the Wino mass; even no detectable signals can be induced if the Wino is heavier than about 10 TeV.

  8. Astrophysics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James


    Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...

  9. Copernicus a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gingerich, Owen


    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was the astronomer whose shocking vision of a sun-centered universe turned out to be the essential blueprint for a physical understanding of celestial motions. Copernicus: A Very Short Introduction offers a fascinating portrayal of the man who launched the modern vision of the universe. It sets Copernicus in the context of a rapidly changing world, where the recent invention of printing with movable type not only made sources more readily available to him, but also fueled Martin Luther’s transformation of the religious landscape. Copernicus’s heliocentric revolution is revealed as an aesthetic achievement not dictated by observational “proofs,” but another new way of looking at the ancient cosmos.

  10. Infinity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian


    Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) is intimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas of mathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights ...

  11. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klages, R [School of Mathematical Sciences, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)


    This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is 'no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and 'phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes 'real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this

  12. Light a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Walmsley, Ian


    Light enables us to see the world around us. Our sense of sight provides us with direct information about space and time, the physical arrangement of the world, and how it changes. This almost universal shared sensation of vision has led to a fascination with the nature and properties of light across the ages. But the light we see is just a small part of the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from radio waves to gamma rays. In this Very Short Introduction Ian Walmsley discusses early attempts to explain light, and the development of apparently opposing particulate and wave theories by scientists such as Isaac Newton and Christiaan Huygens. He shows how light was recognized as an electromagnetic wave in the 19th century, and the development of the quantum mechanics view of wave-particle duality in the 20th century. He also describes the many applications of light, domestic and scientific, such as microwaves, DVDs, and lasers. We now use the whole range of electromagnetic radiation to peer bot...

  13. Gravity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, Timothy


    Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...

  14. The Very Large Ecological Array (United States)

    Hamilton, M. P.; Dawson, T. E.; Thompson, S. E.


    Regional climatic change and variability is expected to alter the boundary conditions to which ecosystems and landscapes are subject. Unambiguously identifying how these changes alter the biophysics of ecosystems or the phenology or behavior of individual organisms, however, remains challenging due to the complexity and heterogeneity of real landscapes. One of the aims of the Very Large Ecological Array (VeLEA) - a landscape-scale distributed wireless environmental monitoring system under deployment at the University of California, Blue Oak Ranch Reserve (Mount Hamilton Range, Santa Clara County, California) - is to allow a sufficiently fine-resolution understanding of spatial and temporal variability in the landscape that such changes can be reliably quantified. The VeLEA is structured around two wireless mesh radio networks, with solar-powered nodes spaced by up to 2 miles. This allows widely distributed arrays of instrumentation to be deployed over hundreds to thousands of hectares. The first network supports ten weather stations (recording barometric pressure, temperature, humidity, wind, rainfall, total solar radiation and leaf wetness), along with sixty nodes measuring humidity and air temperature at 1m above ground. Future deployments will extend the network to include soil moisture, soil temperature, piezometric head and streamflow across the site. The second network supports an array of 10 networked cameras providing real-time viewing and time-lapse recording of animal behavior, vegetation phenology and aquatic variability. An important goal of the VeLEA project is to optimize the deployment of wireless nodes with respect to spatial and temporal variation at the site. Preliminary data obtained from the initial deployments are being used to characterize spatial and temporal variability across the site and to investigate mechanistic and statistical methods for interpolating and up-scaling that data. Observing and characterizing such spatio

  15. IBS and IBD: Two Very Different Disorders (United States)

    ... an Advocate CCFA Partners National Council of College Leaders Campus Connection Connect with Our Community IBD Help Center Home > Resources > IBS and IBD: Two Very Different Disorders Go Back IBS and IBD: Two Very ...

  16. Very true operators on MTL-algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Jun Tao


    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to investigate very true MTL-algebras and prove the completeness of the very true MTL-logic. In this paper, the concept of very true operators on MTL-algebras is introduced and some related properties are investigated. Also, conditions for an MTL-algebra to be an MV-algebra and a Gödel algebra are given via this operator. Moreover, very true filters on very true MTL-algebras are studied. In particular, subdirectly irreducible very true MTL-algebras are characterized and an analogous of representation theorem for very true MTL-algebras is proved. Then, the left and right stabilizers of very true MTL-algebras are introduced and some related properties are given. As applications of stabilizer of very true MTL-algebras, we produce a basis for a topology on very true MTL-algebras and show that the generated topology by this basis is Baire, connected, locally connected and separable. Finally, the corresponding logic very true MTL-logic is constructed and the soundness and completeness of this logic are proved based on very true MTL-algebras.

  17. Towards Very Large Aperture Massive MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum


    Massive MIMO is a new technique for wireless communications that claims to offer very high system throughput and energy efficiency in multi-user scenarios. The cost is to add a very large number of antennas at the base station. Theoretical research has probed these benefits, but very few measurem......Massive MIMO is a new technique for wireless communications that claims to offer very high system throughput and energy efficiency in multi-user scenarios. The cost is to add a very large number of antennas at the base station. Theoretical research has probed these benefits, but very few...... measurements have showed the potential of Massive MIMO in practice. We investigate the properties of measured Massive MIMO channels in a large indoor venue. We describe a measurement campaign using 3 arrays having different shape and aperture, with 64 antennas and 8 users with 2 antennas each. We focus...

  18. LMC Microlensing and Very Thick Disks


    Gyuk, Geza; Gates, Evalyn


    We investigate the implications of a very thick (scale height 1.5 - 3.0 kpc) disk population of MACHOs. Such a population represents a reasonable alternative to standard halo configurations of a lensing population. We find that very thick disk distributions can lower the lens mass estimate derived from the microlensing data toward the LMC, although an average lens mass substantially below $0.3\\Msol$ is unlikely. Constraints from direct searches for such lenses imply very low luminosity object...

  19. Very High Temperature Sound Absorption Coating Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase I demonstrated experimentally a very high temperature acoustically absorbing coating for ducted acoustics applications. High temperature survivability at 3500...

  20. Muhu uhkus - Pädaste Mõis sai esimeseks viietärni-hotell väljaspool Tallinna / Riina Luik

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Luik, Riina, 1962-


    Augustis 2009 tunnustas Eesti Hotellide ja Restornide Liit Pädaste Mõisa neljanda hotellina Eestis ja esimesena väljaspool Tallinna asuvaks viietärni-hotelliks. Pädaste mõisa rajatud spa-hotelli ja restorani tootearendusest

  1. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 113; Issue 1 ... We show that when the space of compact operators is an -ideal in the space of bounded operators, a very smooth operator attains its norm at a unique vector (up to a constant multiple) and ( ) is a very smooth point of the range space.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe


    Sep 1, 1984 ... VERY SLOW SPEED AXIAL MOTION RELUCTANCE MOTOR by. L. A. Agu. Electrical Engineering Department. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ABSTRACT. This paper presents the scheme for a very slow speed linear machine which uses conventional laminations and with which speeds of the same low.

  3. Very Happy Youths: Benefits of Very High Life Satisfaction among Adolescents (United States)

    Proctor, Carmel; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John


    This study investigated the characteristics of adolescents reporting very high levels of life satisfaction. Participants (N = 410) were divided into three life satisfaction groups: very high (top 10%), average (middle 25%), and very low (lowest 10%). Results revealed that very happy youths had significantly higher mean scores on all included…

  4. Very Complicated, indeed! / Jürgen Rooste

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rooste, Jürgen, 1979-


    Marco Laimre ja Killu Sukmiti näitus "Very Complicated Rock'n'Roll" Kunstihoone galeriis kuni 22. V. Heli: Indrek Pinsel, Andres Lõo, Riho Sibul, Erkki-Sven Tüür, Rainer Jancis (heliinstallatsiooni seadmine)

  5. Very massive stars in the local universe

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the status of research on very massive stars in the Universe. While it has been claimed that stars with over 100 solar masses existed in the very early Universe, recent studies have also discussed the existence and deaths of stars up to 300 solar masses in the local Universe. This represents a paradigm shift for the stellar upper-mass limit, which may have major implications far beyond the field of stellar physics. The book comprises 7 chapters, which describe this discipline and provide sufficient background and introductory content for graduate (PhD) students and researchers from different branches of astronomy to be able to enter this exciting new field of very massive stars.

  6. Purpose in life among very old men


    Hedberg, Pia; Gustafson, Yngve; Brulin, Christine; Aléx, Lena


    The aim of the study was to illuminate very old men’s experiences and reflections of purpose in life. The participants were 23 men who were interviewed and answered a specific question about purpose in life. The answers were analyzed according to qualitative content analysis, which revealed three content areas: the purpose of one’s life as a whole; purpose in everyday life; and reflections on purpose in life. Our findings showed that very old men experience purpose in life most strongly when ...

  7. Very Massive Stars in the local Universe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.S.; Heger, A.; Krumholz, M.R.; Puls, J.; Banerjee, S.; Castro, N.; Chen, K.J.; Chenè, A.N.; Crowther, P.A.; Daminelli, A.; Gräfener, G.; Groh, J.H.; Hamann, W.R.; Heap, S.; Herrero, A.; Kaper, L.; Najarro, F.; Oskinova, L.M.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Rosen, A.; Sander, A.; Shirazi, M.; Sugawara, Y.; Tramper, F.; Vanbeveren, D.; Voss, R.; Wofford, A.; Zhang, Y.


    Recent studies have claimed the existence of very massive stars (VMS) up to 300 M⊙ in the local Universe. As this finding may represent a paradigm shift for the canonical stellar upper-mass limit of 150 M⊙, it is timely to discuss the status of the data, as well as the far-reaching implications of

  8. Very Good Medicine: Indigenous Humor and Laughter (United States)

    Mala, Cynthia Lindquist


    Humor is not only instinctive and a basic human need, but it also is very good medicine. Laughter boosts the immune system, lowers blood pressure, reduces stress hormones, and is linked to healthy functioning organs. [This article was written with Mylo Redwater Smith.

  9. Genre Identification of Very Brief Musical Excerpts (United States)

    Mace, Sandra T.; Wagoner, Cynthia L.; Teachout, David J.; Hodges, Donald A.


    The purpose of this study was to examine how well individuals were able to identify different music genres from very brief excerpts and whether musical training, gender and preference played a role in genre identification. Listeners were asked to identify genre from classical, jazz, country, metal, and rap/hip hop excerpts that were 125, 250, 500,…

  10. Emergence of Lying in Very Young Children (United States)

    Evans, Angela D.; Lee, Kang


    Lying is a pervasive human behavior. Evidence to date suggests that from the age of 42 months onward, children become increasingly capable of telling lies in various social situations. However, there is limited experimental evidence regarding whether very young children will tell lies spontaneously. The present study investigated the emergence of…

  11. Very smooth points of spaces of operators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    or Y has the compact metric approximation property (CMAP), then it is easy to see that K (X, Y ) ⊂ L(X, Y ) satisfies the above condition (see [R6]). Thus for a compact operator that is a very smooth point, directional derivatives exist in the direction of all bounded operators. Smooth points of operator spaces has been ...

  12. The relevance of Very Light Dark Matter


    Yajnik Urjit A.


    A concordant model of Dark Matter and Dark Energy is presented. Dark Energy arises out of magnetic condensation of very light fermions of micro-eV mass charged under an unbroken gauge group U(1)X. The Dark Matter candidate is an oppositely charged fermionic species which is then shown to be naturally in the MeV to keV range.

  13. Virtual Teamwork in Very Large Undergraduate Classes (United States)

    Alexander, P. M.


    Collaborative work is an important part of tertiary education but it is very difficult to arrange and supervise for extremely large classes of students in their first year. The possibility that computer-mediated communication can be used to facilitate this type of learning is appealing from a pragmatic organisational point of view. This paper…

  14. Particle physics in the very early universe (United States)

    Schramm, D. N.


    Events in the very early big bang universe in which elementary particle physics effects may have been dominant are discussed, with attention to the generation of a net baryon number by way of grand unification theory, and emphasis on the possible role of massive neutrinos in increasing current understanding of various cosmological properties and of the constraints placed on neutrino properties by cosmology. It is noted that when grand unification theories are used to describe very early universe interactions, an initially baryon-symmetrical universe can evolve a net baryon excess of 10 to the -9th to 10 to the -11th per photon, given reasonable parameters. If neutrinos have mass, the bulk of the mass of the universe may be in the form of leptons, implying that the form of matter most familiar to physical science may not be the dominant form of matter in the universe.

  15. Advances in Very High Frequency Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Milovan

    . Excellent performance and small size of magnetic components and capacitors at very high frequencies, along with constant advances in performance of power semiconductor devices, suggests a sizable shift in consumer power supplies market into this area in the near future. To operate dc-dc converter power...... devices at very high frequencies, switching loss needs to reduced or eliminated, as it would become prohibitively large. In addition, as the frequency increases, hard-switched gate driving becomes less and less of an option, as it embodies the same loss mechanism. A low-loss gate drive methods may need...... drive solution, which is applicable in cases when there are at least two power stages, and with minimal additional hardware requirements. It is experimentally confirmed that the method is suitable for both parallel and serial input configurations. Compared to state-of-the-art solutions, the proposed...

  16. Parallel motif extraction from very long sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sahli, Majed


    Motifs are frequent patterns used to identify biological functionality in genomic sequences, periodicity in time series, or user trends in web logs. In contrast to a lot of existing work that focuses on collections of many short sequences, modern applications require mining of motifs in one very long sequence (i.e., in the order of several gigabytes). For this case, there exist statistical approaches that are fast but inaccurate; or combinatorial methods that are sound and complete. Unfortunately, existing combinatorial methods are serial and very slow. Consequently, they are limited to very short sequences (i.e., a few megabytes), small alphabets (typically 4 symbols for DNA sequences), and restricted types of motifs. This paper presents ACME, a combinatorial method for extracting motifs from a single very long sequence. ACME arranges the search space in contiguous blocks that take advantage of the cache hierarchy in modern architectures, and achieves almost an order of magnitude performance gain in serial execution. It also decomposes the search space in a smart way that allows scalability to thousands of processors with more than 90% speedup. ACME is the only method that: (i) scales to gigabyte-long sequences; (ii) handles large alphabets; (iii) supports interesting types of motifs with minimal additional cost; and (iv) is optimized for a variety of architectures such as multi-core systems, clusters in the cloud, and supercomputers. ACME reduces the extraction time for an exact-length query from 4 hours to 7 minutes on a typical workstation; handles 3 orders of magnitude longer sequences; and scales up to 16, 384 cores on a supercomputer. Copyright is held by the owner/author(s).

  17. A Very Short Self-Interpreter


    Mazonka, Oleg; Cristofani, Daniel B.


    In this paper we would like to present a very short (possibly the shortest) self-interpreter, based on a simplistic Turing-complete imperative language. This interpreter explicitly processes the statements of the language, which means the interpreter constitutes a description of the language inside that same language. The paper does not require any specific knowledge; however, experience in programming and a vivid imagination are beneficial.

  18. Very Large Aperture Diffractive Space Telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyde, Roderick Allen


    A very large (10's of meters) aperture space telescope including two separate spacecraft--an optical primary functioning as a magnifying glass and an optical secondary functioning as an eyepiece. The spacecraft are spaced up to several kilometers apart with the eyepiece directly behind the magnifying glass ''aiming'' at an intended target with their relative orientation determining the optical axis of the telescope and hence the targets being observed. The magnifying glass includes a very large-aperture, very-thin-membrane, diffractive lens, e.g., a Fresnel lens, which intercepts incoming light over its full aperture and focuses it towards the eyepiece. The eyepiece has a much smaller, meter-scale aperture and is designed to move along the focal surface of the magnifying glass, gathering up the incoming light and converting it to high quality images. The positions of the two space craft are controlled both to maintain a good optical focus and to point at desired targets.

  19. Discovery Mondays: The very early Universe

    CERN Multimedia


    Copyright NASARetracing the very early Universe to understand why there is "something rather than nothing" is one of the challenges facing astrophysics today. It is also the theme of the third Discovery Monday, to be held in the Microcosm on 7 July, where you will be welcomed by a number of scientists. A professional astronomer will allow you to look through his telescope and explain how it works. A cosmologist will talk to you about the very early Universe and a CERN physicist will show you how it's possible to trap antimatter. The mirror of matter, antimatter should have existed in the same quantities as matter in the very early stages of the Universe but today it seems to have virtually disappeared. Perhaps the research being done at CERN will one day explain how an infinitesimal predominance of matter over antimatter resulted in such a richly structured Universe. Come along to the Microcosm on Monday, 7 July between 7.30 p.m. and 9.00 p.m. Entrance is free N.B.: The Discove...

  20. Very forward measurements at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, Mirko


    In this talk we present a selection of forward physics results recently obtained with the run-1 and run-2 LHC data by the CMS, LHCf and TOTEM experiments. The status of the very forward LHC proton spectrometer, CT-PPS, is discussed: emphasis is given to the physics potential of CT-PPS and to the analyses that are currently ongoing with the data collected in 2016. Very recent forward measurements obtained with the LHCf and the CMS-CASTOR calorimeter are then addressed. In particular, CMS measured the inclusive energy spectrum in the very forward direction for proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV and the jet cross sections for p+Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. The LHCf experiment has instead recently published the inclusive energy spectra of forward photons for pp collisions at 13 TeV. Finally, the new measurements of the total, elastic and inelastic cross sections obtained by the TOTEM collaboration at 2.76 and 13 TeV center of mass energy are presented.

  1. Very-Low-Cost, Rugged Vacuum System (United States)

    Kline-Schoder, Robert; Sorensen, Paul; Passow, Christian; Bilski, Steve


    NASA, DoD, DHS, and commercial industry have a need for miniaturized, rugged, low-cost vacuum systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have led to the development of very small mass spectrometer detectors as well as other miniature analytical instruments. However, the vacuum systems to support these sensors remain large, heavy, and power-hungry. To meet this need, a miniaturized vacuum system was created based on a very small, rugged, and inexpensive- to-manufacture molecular drag pump (MDP). The MDP is enabled by the development of a miniature, veryhigh- speed, rugged, low-power, brushless DC motor optimized for wide temperature operation and long life. Such a pump represents an order-of-magnitude reduction in mass, volume, and cost over current, commercially available, state-ofthe- art vacuum pumps. The vacuum system consists of the MDP coupled to a ruggedized rough pump (for terrestrial applications or for planets with substantial atmospheres). The rotor in the MDP consists of a simple smooth cylinder of aluminum spinning at approximately 200,000 RPM inside an outer stator housing. The pump stator comprises a cylindrical aluminum housing with one or more specially designed grooves that serve as flow channels. To minimize the length of the pump, the gas is forced down the flow channels of the outer stator to the base of the pump. The gas is then turned and pulled toward the top through a second set of channels cut into an inner stator housing that surrounds the motor. The compressed gas then flows down channels in the motor housing to the exhaust port of the pump. The exhaust port of the pump is connected to a diaphragm or scroll pump. This pump delivers very high performance in a very small envelope. The design was simplified so that a smaller compression ratio, easier manufacturing process, and enhanced ruggedness can be achieved at the lowest possible cost. The machining of the rotor and stators is very simple compared to that necessary to fabricate TMP


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Витальевна Батырева


    Full Text Available The aim of the research – assess risk factors for very preterm delivery in the Omsk region. Materials and methods. The main group comprised women with very preterm delivery (n = 64; сomparison group – pregnant women with a threat of interruption in terms of 22-27 weeks and successful preserving therapy (n = 63; control group – pregnant women in whom this pregnancy was taking place without the threat of interruption (n = 62. Results. Risk factors for very preterm delivery were bacterial vaginosis, specific vaginitis, kidney disease and the threat of interruption. There was a significant lead in streptococci (32.3 ± 5.8 %, especially group B (19.0 ± 4.9 % in the main group. The risk factor for very preterm delivery was infectious viral diseases transferred during pregnancy, observed in 12.7 ± 4.2 % of women in the main group, in 7.8 ± 3.3 % in the comparison group (p < 0.01 and in 4.8 ± 2,7 % – control (p < 0,001. In the main group, placental insufficiency was 2 times more common than in the comparison group and 13 times than in the control group. Every sixth pregnant of the main group had manifestations of gestosis. Such complications of gestation as the premature detachment of the normally inserted placenta (7.8 ± 3.3 % and inborn malformations of a fruit (1.6 ± 1.6 % were observed only in the main group. Conclusion. The results of the research and literature data showed that the significant influence on the level of very early premature births is due to: the age of the parents, the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, drugs, abortion, preterm birth, urinary tract and genital tract infections, severe somatic diseases, multiple pregnancies. In the structure of complications of gestation during miscarriages, placental insufficiency predominates, the threat of abortion, fetal growth retardation, and polyhydramnios.

  3. Preferences for Very Low and Very High Voice Pitch in Humans


    Daniel E Re; Jillian J M O'Connor; Bennett, Patrick J.; Feinberg, David R.


    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. N...

  4. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, 208016, Kanpur (India)


    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb–Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin–Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR.

  5. Reducible gauge theories in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker [Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Department of Physics, Kanpur (India)


    In this paper we analyze the tensor field (reducible gauge) theories in the context of very special relativity (VSR). Particularly, we study the VSR gauge symmetry as well as VSR BRST symmetry of Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields involving a fixed null vector. We observe that the Kalb-Ramond and Abelian 3-form fields and corresponding ghosts get masses in the VSR framework. The effective action in VSR-type axial gauge is greatly simplified compared with the VSR-type Lorenz gauge. Further, we quantize these models using a Batalin-Vilkovisy (BV) formulation in VSR. (orig.)

  6. Quantum gauge freedom in very special relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhaker Upadhyay


    Full Text Available We demonstrate Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for the Abelian one-form gauge (Maxwell as well as for Abelian two-form gauge theory in the very special relativity (VSR framework. In VSR scenario, the extended action due to introduction of gaugeon fields also possesses form invariance under quantum gauge transformations. It is observed that the gaugeon field together with gauge field naturally acquire mass, which is different from the conventional Higgs mechanism. The quantum gauge transformation implements a shift in gauge parameter. Further, we analyze the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism in VSR which embeds only one subsidiary condition rather than two.

  7. Quantum gauge freedom in very special relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker, E-mail: [Centre for Theoretical Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, Kharagpur-721302, West Bengal (India); Panigrahi, Prasanta K., E-mail: [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Mohanpur 741246, West Bengal (India)


    We demonstrate Yokoyama gaugeon formalism for the Abelian one-form gauge (Maxwell) as well as for Abelian two-form gauge theory in the very special relativity (VSR) framework. In VSR scenario, the extended action due to introduction of gaugeon fields also possesses form invariance under quantum gauge transformations. It is observed that the gaugeon field together with gauge field naturally acquire mass, which is different from the conventional Higgs mechanism. The quantum gauge transformation implements a shift in gauge parameter. Further, we analyze the BRST symmetric gaugeon formalism in VSR which embeds only one subsidiary condition rather than two.

  8. Frequency selectivity at very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Marquardt, Torsten


    measurements based on OAE suppression techniques and notched-noise masking data psychophysically measured for centre frequencies in the range 50-125 Hz, this study examines how individual differences in frequency selectivity, as well as in masking, may occur at very low CFs due to individual differences...... in the shape of the METFs, thought to be affected by the helicotrema impedance. Preliminary analysis indicates that individual differences in the METFs might underlay the observed individual differences in frequency selectivity. Main effects predicted by the calculations are a pronounced flattening off...

  9. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Re

    Full Text Available Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25 participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  10. Preferences for very low and very high voice pitch in humans. (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; O'Connor, Jillian J M; Bennett, Patrick J; Feinberg, David R


    Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20-25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.

  11. EMS pilots: selecting the very best. (United States)

    Coffey, M; Cauthorne-Lindstrom, C


    This article has reviewed factors that should be taken into account when screening prospective pilots for EMS flight programs. While all may not apply directly to all programs, assessing the elements relevant to a particular program will enhance the quality of the selection process. Additionally, the orientation process can be shortened considerably when pilots who already have the necessary skills and experience are hired. This can prove more cost-effective, by shortening the time it takes for a pilot to meet the program's requirements. Safety is also impacted positively, as pilots with experience and skills in all elements are less likely to make potentially life-threatening mistakes through lack of knowledge. If pilots truly are the most critical factor in maintaining the safety of flight operations, it makes sense to choose the very best available. Hospital program managers should determine who is responsible for pilot selection, and take steps to ensure that the most qualified pilots are being recruited. Consideration of the factors mentioned here in the selection process will give managers a better shot at choosing the very best.

  12. Modeling Clustered Data with Very Few Clusters. (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M


    Small-sample inference with clustered data has received increased attention recently in the methodological literature, with several simulation studies being presented on the small-sample behavior of many methods. However, nearly all previous studies focus on a single class of methods (e.g., only multilevel models, only corrections to sandwich estimators), and the differential performance of various methods that can be implemented to accommodate clustered data with very few clusters is largely unknown, potentially due to the rigid disciplinary preferences. Furthermore, a majority of these studies focus on scenarios with 15 or more clusters and feature unrealistically simple data-generation models with very few predictors. This article, motivated by an applied educational psychology cluster randomized trial, presents a simulation study that simultaneously addresses the extreme small sample and differential performance (estimation bias, Type I error rates, and relative power) of 12 methods to account for clustered data with a model that features a more realistic number of predictors. The motivating data are then modeled with each method, and results are compared. Results show that generalized estimating equations perform poorly; the choice of Bayesian prior distributions affects performance; and fixed effect models perform quite well. Limitations and implications for applications are also discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerzendorf, W. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 Saint George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Taubenberger, S.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Ruiter, A. J., E-mail: [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    The Type Ia supernova SN 2011fe is one of the closest supernovae of the past decades. Due to its proximity and low dust extinction, this object provides a very rare opportunity to study the extremely late time evolution (>900 days) of thermonuclear supernovae. In this Letter, we present our photometric data of SN 2011fe taken at an unprecedented late epoch of ≈930 days with GMOS-N mounted on the Gemini North telescope (g = 23.43 ± 0.28, r = 24.14 ± 0.14, i = 23.91 ± 0.18, and z = 23.90 ± 0.17) to study the energy production and retention in the ejecta of SN 2011fe. Together with previous measurements by other groups, our result suggests that the optical supernova light curve can still be explained by the full thermalization of the decay positrons of {sup 56}Co. This is in spite of theoretical predicted effects (e.g., infrared catastrophe, positron escape, and dust) that advocate a substantial energy redistribution and/or loss via various processes that result in a more rapid dimming at these very late epochs.

  14. Laparoscopic Surgery in Very Acute Cholecystitis (United States)

    Invernizzi, Rocco; Prezzati, Francesco


    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in empyematous or gangrenous cholecystitis. During the period from August 1998 to April 2000, we operated laparoscopically on 64 patients, without any selection, in which we established, preoperatively or intraoperatively, the diagnosis of empyematous or gangrenous cholecystitis using clinical criteria (fever, leukocytosis, persistent pain, abdominal tenderness or guarding), echographic findings and intraoperative or pathological aspects of the gallbladder. The operations were performed by experienced surgeons skillful in advanced laparoscopic procedure. We concluded successfully 59 operations. The five conversions were due to dense adhesions because of previous gastric surgery in 3 cases, to the lack of recognizing the anatomy of the biliary tree in one case and to a choledoco-duodenal fistula in the last case. No mortality and a very low morbidity with a short hospital stay, were noted in our study. We consider patients with very acute cholecystitis to be candidates for a laparoscopic approach. PMID:12113421

  15. Nuclear physics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank


    Nuclear physics began long before the identification of fundamental particles, with J. J. Thomson's discovery of the electron at the end of the 19th century, which implied the existence of a positive charge in the atom to make it neutral. In this Very Short Introduction Frank Close gives an account of how this area of physics has progressed, including the recognition of how heavy nuclei are built up in the cores of stars and in supernovae, the identification of quarks and gluons, and the development of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Exploring key concepts such as the stability of different configurations of protons and neutrons in nuclei, Frank Close shows how nuclear physics brings the physics of the stars to Earth and provides us with important applications, particularly in medicine. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our...

  16. Neutron elastic scattering at very small angles

    CERN Multimedia


    This experiment will measure neutron-proton elastic scattering at very small angles and hence very small four-momentum transfer, |t|. The range of |t| depends on the incident neutron momentum of the events but the geometrical acceptance will cover the angular range 0.025 < $\\Theta_{lab}$ < 1.9 mrad. The higher figure could be extended to 8.4 mrad by changing the geometry of the experiment in a later phase. \\\\ \\\\ The neutron beam will be highly collimated and will be derived from a 400 GeV external proton beam of up to $4 \\times 10^{10}$ protons per pulse in the SPS North Area Hall 1. The hydrogen target will be gaseous, operating at 40 atm. pressure and acts as a multiwire proportional chamber to detect the recoil protons. The forward neutron will be detected and located by interaction in a neutron vertex detector and its energy measured by a conventional steel plate calorimeter. \\\\ \\\\ The experiment will cover the angular region of nucleon-nucleon scattering which is dominated by Coulomb scattering ...

  17. Extracting very early time airborne electromagnetic data (United States)

    Macnae, J. C.


    Many helicopter EM systems stream data during both the on- and off-time, and in theory should be able to extract responses at either zero delay (simultaneous with the transmitter changes) and/or at discrete delays determined by the sample rate. In practice, this has not been the case. Historically, VTEM data, have only been ';usable' at delays longer than say 70 to 100 us. Systems such as mini-Skytem (Schamper & Auken, EAGE 2012) have been able to make quantitative measurements at very early delays through reducing transmitter power (and necessarily signal/noise levels). Recent developments now permit extraction of quantitative data from high power streamed VTEM data at delays as short as 5 us. Such quantitative very early time data is the key to extracting near-surface conductivities. Macnae & Baron-Hay (ASEG, 2008) improved early time data through subtraction of a constant 'parasitic' response caused by capacitive current leakage in the transmitter loop wiring. This permitted useful data to be extracted from about 20 or 25 us. More recently, further improvements have been made using high altitude data as a reference, and time-domain deconvolution as discussed by Stolz & Macnae (Geophysics 1998). The procedure successfully 1) subtracts the coupling-dependent primary and 2) then corrects the observed secondary for bandwidth limitations and the parasitic effects. The parasitic correction uses both static and bucking dependent components derived from the residual on-time response of the transmitter. Complications in the process derive from problems in exactly measuring primary fields: with very low noise levels in the VTEM system, extensive conductors may be detected to distances (depths) of up to 3 km. It is uncommon for helicopters to collect data at this height, and as a result it is necessary to predict the primary from measurements at lower altitude. Such a prediction can be obtained from repeat measurements at different heights over a 'relatively uniform' area

  18. Developing very hard nanostructured bainitic steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amel-Farzad, H., E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faridi, H.R., E-mail: [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Hamedan University of Technology, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rajabpour, F.; Abolhasani, A.; Kazemi, Sh.; Khaledzadeh, Y. [Department of Materials Engineering and Metallurgy, Faculty of Engineering, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    Novel nanostructured high carbon high silicon, carbide-free bainitic steels with very high strength and good ductility have been developed in the recent decade. In this work, an alloy with a high carbon content and no manganese was designed and cast. The prepared samples were heat treated through an austempering process in the range 200-350 Degree-Sign C. Optical and scanning electron microscopes and XRD were used to analyze the microstructures precisely. Bainitic ferrite plates of just a few tens of nanometer thickness were obtained with the hardness of 697{+-}6 HV. It is reasonable to say that the unprecedented hardness values obtained in this work are mostly caused by the extraordinary carbon content of the alloy.

  19. Very Massive Stars in the Local Universe (United States)

    Smith, Linda


    The upper mass limit for stars is unknown. Recent UV observations of young (5 x10^4 M_sun) suggest that stars substantially more massive than 100 M_sun exist. These very massive stars (VMS) are not properly accounted for in current stellar population synthesis (SPS) codes, even though they will dominate the ionization and mechanical feedback in star-forming regions for the first few Myr. VMS have been detected as resolved stars in the nearby LMC cluster R136 and in the integrated light of two young super star clusters in two nearby starburst galaxies. Since JWST will obtain numerous UV rest-frame spectra of young high redshift galaxies, it is essential that we investigate whether VMS are common in local, low metallicity analogs, while we still have access to the UV domain. We propose to obtain FUV STIS spectroscopy of young (frame UV spectra of high-z galaxies to be obtained with JWST.

  20. Parametric nanomechanical amplification at very high frequency. (United States)

    Karabalin, R B; Feng, X L; Roukes, M L


    Parametric resonance and amplification are important in both fundamental physics and technological applications. Here we report very high frequency (VHF) parametric resonators and mechanical-domain amplifiers based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). Compound mechanical nanostructures patterned by multilayer, top-down nanofabrication are read out by a novel scheme that parametrically modulates longitudinal stress in doubly clamped beam NEMS resonators. Parametric pumping and signal amplification are demonstrated for VHF resonators up to approximately 130 MHz and provide useful enhancement of both resonance signal amplitude and quality factor. We find that Joule heating and reduced thermal conductance in these nanostructures ultimately impose an upper limit to device performance. We develop a theoretical model to account for both the parametric response and nonequilibrium thermal transport in these composite nanostructures. The results closely conform to our experimental observations, elucidate the frequency and threshold-voltage scaling in parametric VHF NEMS resonators and sensors, and establish the ultimate sensitivity limits of this approach.

  1. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such process are decays of K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu} {sup {+-}}e{sup -+}, K{sup +} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {mu}{sup +} e{sup -}, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +} {mu}{sup -}, and K{sup +} {yields} {pi} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to one part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.


    Kennedy, P.B.; Smith, H.R. Jr.


    A refrigeration system for producing very low temperatures is described. The system of the invention employs a binary mixture refrigerant in a closed constant volume, e.g., Freon and ethylene. Such mixture is compressed in the gaseous state and is then separated in a fractionating column element of the system. Thenceforth, the first liquid to separate is employed stagewise to cool and liq uefy successive portions of the refrigerant at successively lower temperatures by means of heat exchangers coupled between the successive stages. When shut down, all of the volumes of the system are interconnected and a portion of the refrigerant remains liquid at ambient temperatures so that no dangerous overpressures develop. The system is therefore rugged, simple and dependable in operation.

  3. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.


    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  4. Axion mass bound in very special relativity (United States)

    Bufalo, R.; Upadhyay, S.


    In this paper we propose a very special relativity (VSR)-inspired description of the axion electrodynamics. This proposal is based upon the construction of a proper study of the SIM(2)-VSR gauge-symmetry. It is shown that the VSR nonlocal effects give a health departure from the usual axion field theory. The axionic classical dynamics is analyzed in full detail, first by a discussion of its solution in the presence of an external magnetic field. Next, we compute photon-axion transition in VSR scenario by means of Primakoff interaction, showing the change of a linearly polarized light to a circular one. Afterwards, duality symmetry is discussed in the VSR framework.

  5. Physical chemistry a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter


    With the development of a variety of exciting new areas of research involving computational chemistry, nano- and smart materials, and applications of the recently discovered graphene, there can be no doubt that physical chemistry is a vitally important field. It is also perceived as the most daunting branch of chemistry, being necessarily grounded in physics and mathematics and drawing as it does on quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical thermodynamics. With his typical clarity and hardly a formula in sight, Peter Atkins' Very Short Introduction explores the contributions physical chemistry has made to all branches of chemistry. Providing insight into its central concepts Atkins reveals the cultural contributions physical chemistry has made to our understanding of the natural world.

  6. A Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Acconcia, T V; Barile, F; Barnafoldi, G G; Bellwied, R; Bencedi, G; Bencze, G; Berenyi, D; Boldizsar, L; Chattopadhyay, S; Cindolo, F; Chinellato, D D; D'Ambrosio, S; Das, D; Das-Bose, L; Dash, A K; De Cataldo, G; De Pasquale, S; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Futo, E; Garcia, E; Hamar, G; Harton, A; Iannone, G; Jimenez, R T; Kim, D W; Kim, J S; Knospe, A; Kovacs, L; Levai, P; Nappi, E; Markert, C; Martinengo, P; Mayani, D; Molnar, L; Olah, L; Paic, G; Pastore, C; Patimo, G; Patino, M E; Peskov, V; Pinsky, L; Piuz F; Pochybova, S; Sgura, I; Sinha, T; Song, J; Takahashi, J; Timmins, A; Van Beelen, J B; Varga, D; Volpe, G; Weber, M; Xaplanteris, L; Yi, J; Yoo, I K


    The construction of a new detector is proposed to extend the capabilities of ALICE in the high transverse momentum (pT) region. This Very High Momentum Particle Identification Detector (VHMPID) performs charged hadron identification on a track-by-track basis in the 5 GeV/c < p < 25 GeV/c momentum range and provides ALICE with new opportunities to study parton-medium interactions at LHC energies. The VHMPID covers up to 30% of the ALICE central barrel and presents sufficient acceptance for triggered- and tagged-jet studies, allowing for the first time identified charged hadron measurements in jets. This Letter of Intent summarizes the physics motivations for such a detector as well as its layout and integration into ALICE.

  7. ATOTA-a very promising green fluorophore (United States)

    Doan, Hung The

    Despite the fact that fluorescence community nowadays has invested in developing near-infrared probes, green fluorescence dyes like fluorescein and substitutes are still among the most widely used fluorophores for labeling in cellular imaging and biomedical research. Trioxatriangulenium dye ATOTA + is a very promising green fluorophore with high extinction coefficient and outstanding fluorescence quantum yield. This study focuses on characterizing ATOTA+'s fundamental spectroscopic properties, including fluorescence and orientation of the transition moments. ATOTA's aggregation in aqueous solution and lipid bilayer membrane are also investigated. ATOTA+ has absorption maxima between 470 nm and 476 nm and emission maxima between 496 nm and 511 nm depending on the solvent. The molar extinction coefficient varies from 135,000 mol-1cm-1 in nonpolar dichloromethane to above 90,000 mol-1cm-1 in polar solvents such as methanol. The quantum yield of ATOTA+ is close to 1 in nonpolar DCM and decreases to 0.44 in polar DMF. ATOTA+'s fluorescence lifetimes vary between 3.25 ns in aprotic low polarity triacetin to 1.66 ns in polar DMF. Furthermore, both radiative and non-radiative rates are affected by solvent polarity. ATOTA+ has very low water solubility due to the presence of 6 diethyl substitutions, and forms H-aggregates with a blue-shifted absorption maxima around 450 nm and red-shifted emission maxima of 580 nm respectively with fluorescence lifetime above 20 ns. The excitation anisotropy approaches 0.35 at red edge of the absorption spectrum and shape of polarization spectrum suggests the presence of overlapping transition moments in a S0-S1 band which is confirmed by linear dichroism in stretched PVA film. In DMPC lipid vesicles, ATOTA + forms a tight ion pair with a counter anion and localizes in the hydrocarbon interior. Overall we conclude that ATOTA+ will be a highly useful and superior member of the green fluorophore family.

  8. Selections from 2016: A Very Dark Galaxy (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.A High Stellar Velocity Dispersion and 100 Globular Clusters for the Ultra-Diffuse Galaxy Dragonfly 44Published August2016Main takeaway:Using the Keck Observatory and the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, a team led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) discovered the very dim galaxy Dragonfly 44, located in the Coma cluster. The team estimated the center of this galaxys disk to be a whopping 98% dark matter.Why its interesting:Dragonfly 44, though dim, was discovered to host around 100 globular clusters. Measuring the dynamics of these clusters allowed van Dokkum and collaborators to estimate the mass of Dragonfly 44: roughly a trillion times the mass of the Sun. This is similar to the mass of the Milky Way, and yet the Milky Way has over a hundred times more stars than this intriguing galaxy. Its very unexpected to find a galaxy this massive that has a dark-matter fraction this high.What we can learn from this:How do ultra-faint galaxies like these form? One theory is that theyre failed normal galaxies: they have the sizes, dark-matter content, and globular cluster systems of much more luminous galaxies, but they were prevented from building up a normal stellar population. So far, Dragonfly 44s properties seem consistent with this picture.CitationPieter van Dokkum et al 2016 ApJL 828 L6. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/828/1/L6

  9. Survival Prognosis in Very Old Adults (United States)

    Thinggaard, Mikael; McGue, Matt; Jeune, Bernard; Osler, Merete; Vaupel, James W.; Christensen, Kaare


    OBJECTIVES To determine whether simple functional indicators are predictors of survival prognosis in very old adults. DESIGN In-person survey conducted over a 3-month period in 1998; assessment of survival over a 15-year follow-up period. SETTING Denmark. PARTICIPANTS All 3,600 Danes born in 1905 and living in Denmark in 1998, were invited to participate regardless of residence and health; 2,262 (63%) participated in the survey: 1,814 (80.2%) in person and 448 (19.8%) through a proxy. MEASUREMENTS Socioeconomic factors, medications and diseases, activities of daily living, physical performance, cognition, depression symptomatology, self-rated health, and all-cause mortality, evaluated as average remaining lifespan and chance of surviving to 100 years. RESULTS Men aged 92 to 93 had an overall 6.0% chance of surviving to 100 years, whereas the chance for women was 11.4%. Being able to rise without use of hands increased the chance for men to 11.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.7–14.7) and for women to 22.0% (95% CI = 18.9–25.1). When combining this with a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores from 28 to 30, the chances were 21.7% (95% CI = 11.5–31.9) for men and 34.2% (95% CI = 24.8–43.5) for women. CONCLUSION Chair stand score combined with MMSE score is a quick and easy way to estimate overall chance of survival in very old adults, which is particularly relevant when treatment with potential side effects for nonacute diseases is considered. J Am Geriatr Soc 64:81–88, 2016. PMID:26782855

  10. Nuclide production in (very) small meteorites (United States)

    Arnold, J. R.; Nishiizumi, K.


    One of the most interesting open questions in the study of cosmic-ray effects in meteorites is the expected behavior of objects which are very small compared to the mean interaction length of primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. A reasonable limit might be a pre-atmospheric radius of 5 gram/cm(2), or 1.5 cm for chondrites. These are interesting for at least three reasons: (1) this is a limiting case for large objects, and can help us make better models; (2) this size is intermediate between usual meteorites and irradiated grams (spherules); and (3) these are the most likely objects to show solar cosmic ray (SCR) effects. Reedy (1984) has recently proposed a model for production by GCR of radioactive and stable nuclides in spherical meteorites. Very small objects are expected to deviate from this model in the direction of fewer secondary particles (larger spectral shape parameter), at all depths. The net effect will be significantly lower production of such low-energy products as Mn-53 and Al-26. The SCR production of these and other nuclides will be lower, too, because meteorite orbits extend typically out into the asteroid belt, and the mean SCR flux must fall off approximately as r(-2) with distance from the Sun. Kepler's laws insure that for such orbits most of the exposure time is spent near aphelion. None the less the equivalent mean exposure distance, R(exp), is slightly less than the semimajor axis A because of the weighting by R(-2). For the three meteorite orbits we have, R(exp) has a narrow range, from about 1.6 to 2.1 a.u. This is probably true for the great majority of meteorites.

  11. Early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting for very preterm or very low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Morgan, Jessie; Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William


    The introduction of enteral feeds for very preterm (milk to promote intestinal maturation, may enhance feeding tolerance and decrease the time taken to reach full enteral feeding independently of parenteral nutrition. To determine the effect of early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting on feed tolerance, growth and development, and the incidence of neonatal morbidity (including necrotising enterocolitis and invasive infection) and mortality in very preterm or VLBW infants. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2012, Issue 12), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL (1980 until December 2012), conference proceedings and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of early trophic feeding (milk volumes up to 24 ml/kg/day introduced before 96 hours postnatal age and continued until at least one week after birth) versus a comparable period of enteral fasting in very preterm or very low birth weight infants. We extracted data using the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two authors and synthesis of data using risk ratio, risk difference and mean difference. Nine trials in which a total of 754 very preterm or very low birth weight infants participated were eligible for inclusion. Few participants were extremely preterm (harmful effects of early trophic feeding for very preterm or very low birth weight infants. The applicability of these findings to extremely preterm, extremely low birth weight or growth restricted infants is limited. Further randomised controlled trials would be needed to determine how trophic feeding compared with enteral fasting affects important outcomes in this population.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osten, Rachel A. [Space Telescope Science Institute (United States); Kowalski, Adam [U. Md/GSFC (United States); Drake, Stephen A. [USRA/CRESST and NASA/GSFC (United States); Krimm, Hans [USRA/CRESST (United States); Page, Kim [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gazeas, Kosmas [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR-15784 Zografos, Athens (Greece); Kennea, Jamie [Penn State (United States); Oates, Samantha [Instituto de Astrofsica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Page, Mathew [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); De Miguel, Enrique [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Universidad de Huelva, E-21071 Huelva (Spain); Novák, Rudolf [Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kamenice 3, 625 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Apeltauer, Tomas [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Veveri 331/95, 602 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Gehrels, Neil, E-mail: [NASA/GSFC (United States)


    On 2014 April 23, the Swift satellite responded to a hard X-ray transient detected by its Burst Alert Telescope, which turned out to be a stellar flare from a nearby, young M dwarf binary DG CVn. We utilize observations at X-ray, UV, optical, and radio wavelengths to infer the properties of two large flares. The X-ray spectrum of the primary outburst can be described over the 0.3–100 keV bandpass by either a single very high-temperature plasma or a nonthermal thick-target bremsstrahlung model, and we rule out the nonthermal model based on energetic grounds. The temperatures were the highest seen spectroscopically in a stellar flare, at T{sub X} of 290 MK. The first event was followed by a comparably energetic event almost a day later. We constrain the photospheric area involved in each of the two flares to be >10{sup 20} cm{sup 2}, and find evidence from flux ratios in the second event of contributions to the white light flare emission in addition to the usual hot, T  ∼ 10{sup 4} K blackbody emission seen in the impulsive phase of flares. The radiated energy in X-rays and white light reveal these events to be the two most energetic X-ray flares observed from an M dwarf, with X-ray radiated energies in the 0.3–10 keV bandpass of 4 × 10{sup 35} and 9 × 10{sup 35} erg, and optical flare energies at E{sub V} of 2.8 × 10{sup 34} and 5.2 × 10{sup 34} erg, respectively. The results presented here should be integrated into updated modeling of the astrophysical impact of large stellar flares on close-in exoplanetary atmospheres.

  13. Doublet method for very fast autocoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Jules J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autocoding (or automatic concept indexing occurs when a software program extracts terms contained within text and maps them to a standard list of concepts contained in a nomenclature. The purpose of autocoding is to provide a way of organizing large documents by the concepts represented in the text. Because textual data accumulates rapidly in biomedical institutions, the computational methods used to autocode text must be very fast. The purpose of this paper is to describe the doublet method, a new algorithm for very fast autocoding. Methods An autocoder was written that transforms plain-text into intercalated word doublets (e.g. "The ciliary body produces aqueous humor" becomes "The ciliary, ciliary body, body produces, produces aqueous, aqueous humor". Each doublet is checked against an index of doublets extracted from a standard nomenclature. Matching doublets are assigned a numeric code specific for each doublet found in the nomenclature. Text doublets that do not match the index of doublets extracted from the nomenclature are not part of valid nomenclature terms. Runs of matching doublets from text are concatenated and matched against nomenclature terms (also represented as runs of doublets. Results The doublet autocoder was compared for speed and performance against a previously published phrase autocoder. Both autocoders are Perl scripts, and both autocoders used an identical text (a 170+ Megabyte collection of abstracts collected through a PubMed search and the same nomenclature (neocl.xml, containing over 102,271 unique names of neoplasms. In side-by-side comparison on the same computer, the doublet method autocoder was 8.4 times faster than the phrase autocoder (211 seconds versus 1,776 seconds. The doublet method codes 0.8 Megabytes of text per second on a desktop computer with a 1.6 GHz processor. In addition, the doublet autocoder successfully matched terms that were missed by the phrase autocoder, while the

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction (United States)

    Klages, R.


    This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is `no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and `phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes `real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this field. I feel that occasionally the book

  15. Mass loss from very young massive stars (United States)

    Henning, Th.

    The physics of mass loss from very young massive stars is reviewed, and mass-loss rates are determined for several objects on the basis of published observational data. The observational evidence for mass loss of 0.0001-0.001 solar mass/yr with velocity 10-60 km/s, dynamical timescale 1000-100,000 yr, and kinetic energy (1-100) x 10 to the 38th W from these objects is chracterized; techniques for estimating mass-loss rates from H recombination lines, CO line profiles maser data, and IR-continuum observations are described; rates for molecular outflows and ionized winds are presented in tabels; and theoretical models developed to explain the mechanism driving bipolar mass loss are examined critically. It is found that neither radiation pressure on dust grins nor the ionized winds can drive the molecular outflow. The models considered most probable are those involving production of holes by original spherical stellar winds (Canto, 1980, rotationally driven magnetic pressure (Draine, 1983), and infall from an accretion disk (Torbett, 1984).

  16. Theory Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Subir


    Full Text Available This is a summary of ISVHECRI 2012 from a theorist’s perspective. A hundred years after their discovery, there is renewed interest in very high energy cosmic raysand their interactions which can provide unique information on new physics well beyond the Standard Model if only we knew how to unambiguously decipher the experimental data. While the observational situation has improved dramatically on the past decade with regard to both improved statistics and better understood systematics, the long standing questions regarding the origin of cosmic rays remain only partially answered, while further questions have been raised by new data. A recent development discussed at this Symposium is the advent of forward physics data from several experiments at the LHC, which have broadly vindicated the air shower simulation Monte Carlos currently in use and reduced their uncertainties further. Nevertheless there is still a major extrapolation required to interpret the highest energy air showers observed which appear to be undergoing a puzzling change in their elemental composition, even casting doubt on whether the much vaunted GZK cutoff has indeedbeen observed. The situation is further compounded by the apparent disagreement between Auger and Telescope Array data. A crucial diagnostic will be provided by the detection of the accompanying ultra-high energy cosmic neutrinos — two intriguing events have recently been recorded by IceCube.

  17. Entropy estimation of very short symbolic sequences (United States)

    Lesne, Annick; Blanc, Jean-Luc; Pezard, Laurent


    While entropy per unit time is a meaningful index to quantify the dynamic features of experimental time series, its estimation is often hampered in practice by the finite length of the data. We here investigate the performance of entropy estimation procedures, relying either on block entropies or Lempel-Ziv complexity, when only very short symbolic sequences are available. Heuristic analytical arguments point at the influence of temporal correlations on the bias and statistical fluctuations, and put forward a reduced effective sequence length suitable for error estimation. Numerical studies are conducted using, as benchmarks, the wealth of different dynamic regimes generated by the family of logistic maps and stochastic evolutions generated by a Markov chain of tunable correlation time. Practical guidelines and validity criteria are proposed. For instance, block entropy leads to a dramatic overestimation for sequences of low entropy, whereas it outperforms Lempel-Ziv complexity at high entropy. As a general result, the quality of entropy estimation is sensitive to the sequence temporal correlation hence self-consistently depends on the entropy value itself, thus promoting a two-step procedure. Lempel-Ziv complexity is to be preferred in the first step and remains the best estimator for highly correlated sequences.

  18. Searches for very rare decays of kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, K.


    The physics motivation for searches for very rare kaon decays, either forbidden or suppressed within the Standard Model, is briefly discussed. Simple arguments conclude that such searches probe possible new forces at a 200 TeV mass scale or constitute a precision test of the electroweak model. The examples of such processes are decays of K{sub L}{sup O}{yields}{mu}{sup {plus_minus}}e{sup {minus_plus}}, K{sup {plus}}{yields}{pi}{sup {plus}}{mu}{sup {plus}}e{sup {minus}}, K{sub L}{sup O}{yields}{mu}{sup {minus}}, and K{sup {plus}}{yields}{pi}{sup {plus}}{nu}{bar {nu}}. We present the current experimental status and describe the new efforts to reach sensitivities down to 1 part in 10{sup 12}. The discussion is focused on the experimental program at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory, where intense beams make such studies possible.

  19. A very special visit from India

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin


    From India to Europe with a single destination in mind: CERN. This was the dream of five young students who convinced their parents to fund their travel costs and their school to organise the trip. Now, of course, they all plan to come back here as physicists. We have no doubt that they'll succeed!   Students, parents and teachers from Varanasi (India) are photographed here with CERN's Mick Storr and John Ellis. Everything was triggered by an electrical engineering course that some of the students were following at their school in Varanasi (India). Eeshan Jaiswal and his friend were involved in a project on electric charges and kept asking me about fundamental particles and how the subatomic world works,” says Dr. Raka Ray Mondal, a physics teacher at the Rajghat Besant High School, who organised the trip. “They were very keen on the project and we all started to get enthusiastic.” The next step was to find a contact person here at CERN but this ...

  20. Very Early Carotid Endarterectomy After Intravenous Thrombolysis. (United States)

    Azzini, C; Gentile, M; De Vito, A; Traina, L; Sette, E; Fainardi, E; Mascoli, F; Casetta, I


    The timing of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) after thrombolysis is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to analyse a cohort of patients undergoing urgent endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. This was an observational study. Prospective databases were reviewed and matched to identify patients who underwent CEA early after intravenous thrombolysis (2009-14). The focus was carotid surgery performed within 12 hours of stroke onset in patients with a high grade (≥70%) symptomatic carotid stenosis, associated with vulnerable plaques or stroke in evolution, and evidence of a significant salvageable ischaemic penumbra on perfusion computed tomography scan. Demographic and clinical information, as well as data on relevant outcomes were extracted. Thirty four consecutive stroke patients who underwent CEA within 2 weeks of thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke and ipsilateral high grade carotid stenosis were identified. In 11 patients the surgical procedure was performed within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms. All patients showed a clinical improvement after combined treatment. The 3 month outcome was favourable (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) in 10 patients. No haemorrhagic complications were registered. There was neither peri-operative stroke nor stroke within 3 months of surgery. One patient died from acute myocardial infarction 3 days after intervention. This experience suggests that very early CEA after thrombolysis, aimed at removing the source of potential embolisation and restoring blood flow, may be safe and can lead to a favourable outcome. Copyright © 2015 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Very low bit rate video coding standards (United States)

    Zhang, Ya-Qin


    Very low bit rate video coding has received considerable attention in academia and industry in terms of both coding algorithms and standards activities. In addition to the earlier ITU-T efforts on H.320 standardization for video conferencing from 64 kbps to 1.544 Mbps in ISDN environment, the ITU-T/SG15 has formed an expert group on low bit coding (LBC) for visual telephone below 64 kbps. The ITU-T/SG15/LBC work consists of two phases: the near-term and long-term. The near-term standard H.32P/N, based on existing compression technologies, mainly addresses the issues related to visual telephony at below 28.8 kbps, the V.34 modem rate used in the existing Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). H.32P/N will be technically frozen in January '95. The long-term standard H.32P/L, relying on fundamentally new compression technologies with much improved performance, will address video telephony in both PSTN and mobile environment. The ISO/SG29/WG11, after its highly visible and successful MPEG 1/2 work, is starting to focus on the next- generation audiovisual multimedia coding standard MPEG 4. With the recent change of direction, MPEG 4 intends to provide an audio visual coding standard allowing for interactivity, high compression, and/or universal accessibility, with high degree of flexibility and extensibility. This paper briefly summarizes these on-going standards activities undertaken by ITU-T/LBC and ISO/MPEG 4 as of December 1994.

  2. Phenomenological implications of very special relativity (United States)

    Nayak, Alekha C.; Jain, Pankaj


    We discuss several phenomenological implications of very special relativity (VSR). It is assumed that there is a small violation of Lorentz invariance, and the true symmetry group of nature is a subgroup called SIM(2). This symmetry group postulates the existence of a fundamental or preferred direction in space-time. We study its implications by using an effective action which violates Lorentz invariance but respects VSR. We find that the problem of finding the masses of fundamental fermions is, in general, intractable in the presence of a VSR term. The problem can be solved only in special cases, which we pursue. We next determine the signal of VSR in a torsion pendulum experiment as well as a clock comparison experiment. We find that VSR predicts a signal which is different from other Lorentz violating theories, and hence a dedicated data analysis is needed in order to impose reliable limits. Assuming that a signal is absent in the data, we determine the limits that can be imposed on the VSR parameters. We also study the implications of VSR in particle decay experiments taking the charged pion and kaon decay as an example. The effective interaction between the charged pion and the final state leptons is related to the fundamental VSR mass terms through a loop calculation. We also predict a shift in the angular dependence of the decay products due to VSR. Specifically, we find that these no longer display azimuthal symmetry with respect to the momentum of the pion. Furthermore, the azimuthal and polar angle distributions show time dependence with a period of a sidereal day. This time dependence provides us with a novel method to test VSR in future experiments.

  3. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.


    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  4. The Very Large Array Data Processing Pipeline (United States)

    Kent, Brian R.; Masters, Joseph S.; Chandler, Claire J.; Davis, Lindsey E.; Kern, Jeffrey S.; Ott, Juergen; Schinzel, Frank K.; Medlin, Drew; Muders, Dirk; Williams, Stewart; Geers, Vincent C.; Momjian, Emmanuel; Butler, Bryan J.; Nakazato, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Kanako


    We present the VLA Pipeline, software that is part of the larger pipeline processing framework used for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), and Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) for both interferometric and single dish observations.Through a collection of base code jointly used by the VLA and ALMA, the pipeline builds a hierarchy of classes to execute individual atomic pipeline tasks within the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package. Each pipeline task contains heuristics designed by the team to actively decide the best processing path and execution parameters for calibration and imaging. The pipeline code is developed and written in Python and uses a "context" structure for tracking the heuristic decisions and processing results. The pipeline "weblog" acts as the user interface in verifying the quality assurance of each calibration and imaging stage. The majority of VLA scheduling blocks above 1 GHz are now processed with the standard continuum recipe of the pipeline and offer a calibrated measurement set as a basic data product to observatory users. In addition, the pipeline is used for processing data from the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), a seven year community-driven endeavor started in September 2017 to survey the entire sky down to a declination of -40 degrees at S-band (2-4 GHz). This 5500 hour next-generation large radio survey will explore the time and spectral domains, relying on pipeline processing to generate calibrated measurement sets, polarimetry, and imaging data products that are available to the astronomical community with no proprietary period. Here we present an overview of the pipeline design philosophy, heuristics, and calibration and imaging results produced by the pipeline. Future development will include the testing of spectral line recipes, low signal-to-noise heuristics, and serving as a testing platform for science ready data products.The pipeline is developed as part of the CASA software package by an

  5. Exploring Intrinsic and Extrinsic Reading Motivation among Very Good and Very Poor Readers (United States)

    McGeown, Sarah P.; Norgate, Roger; Warhurst, Amy


    Background: Research examining the relationship between reading skill and reading motivation has typically been carried out among children with a wide range of reading abilities. There is less research focusing on children who excel in reading or who are attaining very low reading scores. Purpose: To examine whether there were differences between…

  6. FOREWORD: Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas" (United States)

    Koch-Miramond, Lydie; Montemerie, Thierry


    A Workshop on "Very Hot Astrophysical Plasmas" was held in Nice, France, on 8-10 November 1982. Dedicated mostly to theoretical, observational, and experimental aspects of X-ray astronomy and related atomic physics, it was the first of its kind to be held in France. The Workshop was "European" in the sense that one of its goals (apart from pure science) was to gather the European astronomical community in view of the forthcoming presentation of the "X-80" project for final selection to be the next scientific satellite of the European Space Agency. We now know that the Infrared Space Observatory has been chosen instead, but the recent successful launch of EXOSAT still keeps X-ray astronomy alive, and should be able to transfer, at least for a time, the leadership in this field from the U.S. to Europe, keeping in mind the competitive level of our Japanese colleagues. (With respect to the selection of ISO, one should also keep in mind that observations in the infrared often bring material relevant to the study of X-ray sources!) On a longer time scale, the Workshop also put emphasis on several interesting projects for the late eighties-early nineties, showing the vitality of the field in Europe. Some proposals have already taken a good start, like XMM, the X-ray Multi-Mirror project, selected by ESA last December for an assessment study in 1983. The present proceedings contain most of the papers that were presented at the Workshop. Only the invited papers were presented orally, contributed papers being presented in the form of posters but summarized orally by rapporteurs. To make up this volume, the written versions of these papers were either cross-reviewed by the Invited Speakers, or refereed by the Rapporteurs (for contributed papers) and edited by us, when necessary. Note, however, that the conclusions of the Workshop, which were kindly presented by Richard McCray, have already appeared in the "News and Views" section of Nature (301, 372, 1983). Altogether, the

  7. Very early stages of massive stars (United States)

    Vasyunina, Tatiana


    06058+2138. We perform an analysis of all the available data, covering the near- and mid-infrared as well as the centimeter and millimeter wavelength range. In particular new VLT/SINFONI integral- field spectroscopy data have played a pivotal role. We identify three star-forming clusters at different evolutionary stages. Comparing the relative ages of these clusters and their relative locations, we conclude that triggering could not have led to the cluster con guration we see in the region. Thus, we assume a merely sequential star-formation scenario for this region. With this study, we also demonstrate the importance of a multi-wavelength approach. Combining data at different wavelengths allows us to investigate both the more evolved stellar population, as well as very young embedded objects, and hence, to reconstruct the star-forming history of structured cluster environments.

  8. Very similar spacing-effect patterns in very different learning/practice domains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Kornmeier

    Full Text Available Temporally distributed ("spaced" learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This "spacing effect" occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work ("generality". Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this "spacing effect" ("nonlinearity" with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level.

  9. Very Similar Spacing-Effect Patterns in Very Different Learning/Practice Domains (United States)

    Kornmeier, Jürgen; Spitzer, Manfred; Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka


    Temporally distributed (“spaced”) learning can be twice as efficient as massed learning. This “spacing effect” occurs with a broad spectrum of learning materials, with humans of different ages, with non-human vertebrates and also invertebrates. This indicates, that very basic learning mechanisms are at work (“generality”). Although most studies so far focused on very narrow spacing interval ranges, there is some evidence for a non-monotonic behavior of this “spacing effect” (“nonlinearity”) with optimal spacing intervals at different time scales. In the current study we focused both the nonlinearity aspect by using a broad range of spacing intervals and the generality aspect by using very different learning/practice domains: Participants learned German-Japanese word pairs and performed visual acuity tests. For each of six groups we used a different spacing interval between learning/practice units from 7 min to 24 h in logarithmic steps. Memory retention was studied in three consecutive final tests, one, seven and 28 days after the final learning unit. For both the vocabulary learning and visual acuity performance we found a highly significant effect of the factor spacing interval on the final test performance. In the 12 h-spacing-group about 85% of the learned words stayed in memory and nearly all of the visual acuity gain was preserved. In the 24 h-spacing-group, in contrast, only about 33% of the learned words were retained and the visual acuity gain dropped to zero. The very similar patterns of results from the two very different learning/practice domains point to similar underlying mechanisms. Further, our results indicate spacing in the range of 12 hours as optimal. A second peak may be around a spacing interval of 20 min but here the data are less clear. We discuss relations between our results and basic learning at the neuronal level. PMID:24609081

  10. Mapping cation exchange capacity using a Veris-3100 instrument and invVERIS modelling software. (United States)

    Koganti, T; Moral, F J; Rebollo, F J; Huang, J; Triantafilis, J


    The cation exchange capacity (CEC) is one of the most important soil properties as it influences soil's ability to hold essential nutrients. It also acts as an index of structural resilience. In this study, we demonstrate a method for 3-dimensional mapping of CEC across a study field in south-west Spain. We do this by establishing a linear regression (LR) between the calculated true electrical conductivity (σ - mS/m) and measured CEC (cmol(+)/kg) at various depths. We estimate σ by inverting Veris-3100 data (ECa - mS/m) collected along 47 parallel transects spaced 12m apart. We invert the ECa data acquired from both shallow (0-0.3m) and deep (0-0.9m) array configurations, using a quasi-three-dimensional inversion algorithm (invVeris V1.1). The CEC data was acquired at 40 locations and from the topsoil (0-0.3m), subsurface (0.3-0.6m) and subsoil (0.6-0.9m). The best LR between σ and CEC was achieved using S2 inversion algorithm using a damping factor (λ)=18. The LR (CEC=1.77+0.33×σ) had a large coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.89). To determine the predictive capability of the LR, we validated the model using a cross-validation. Given the high accuracy (root-mean-square-error [RMSE]=1.69 cmol(+)/kg), small bias (mean-error [ME]=-0.00cmol(+)/kg) and large coefficient of determination (R(2)=0.88) and Lin's concordance (0.94), between measured and predicted CEC and at various depths, we conclude we were well able to predict the CEC distribution in topsoil and the subsurface. However, the predictions made in the subsoil were poor due to limited data availability in areas where ECa changed rapidly from small to large values. In this regard, improvements in prediction accuracy can be achieved by collection of ECa in more closely spaced transects, particularly in areas where ECa varies over short spatial scales. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Perinatal regionalization for very low-birth-weight and very preterm infants: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Lasswell, Sarah Marie; Barfield, Wanda Denise; Rochat, Roger William; Blackmon, Lillian


    For more than 30 years, guidelines for perinatal regionalization have recommended that very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants be born at highly specialized hospitals, most commonly designated as level III hospitals. Despite these recommendations, some regions continue to have large percentages of VLBW infants born in lower-level hospitals. To evaluate published data on associations between hospital level at birth and neonatal or predischarge mortality for VLBW and very preterm (VPT) infants. Systematic search of published literature (1976-May 2010) in MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, and PubMed databases and manual searches of reference lists. Forty-one publications met a priori inclusion criteria (randomized controlled trial, cohort, and case-control studies measuring neonatal or predischarge mortality among live-born infants < or = 1500 g or < or = 32 weeks' gestation delivered at a level III vs lower-level facility). Paired reviewers independently assessed publications for inclusion and extracted data using standardized forms. Discrepancies were decided by a third reviewer. Publications were reviewed for quality by 3 authors based on 2 content areas: adjustment for confounding and description of hospital levels. We calculated weighted, combined odds ratios (ORs) using a random-effects model and comparative unadjusted pooled mortality rates. We observed increased odds of death for VLBW infants (38% vs 23%; adjusted OR, 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.44-1.83) and VPT infants (15% vs 17%; adjusted OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.21-1.98) born outside of level III hospitals. Consistent results were obtained when restricted to higher-quality evidence (mortality in VLBW infants, 36% vs 21%; adjusted OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.33-1.92 and in VPT infants, 7% vs 12%; adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.06-1.88) and infants weighing less than 1000 g (59% vs 32%; adjusted OR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.31-2.46). No significant differences were found through subgroup analysis of study characteristics. Meta

  12. Psychiatric hospitalisation and suicide among the very old in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner


    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old......: The association between suicide and psychiatric hospitalisation is much weaker for the very old than for the old. Psychiatric disorders among very old people may be interacting with other disorders, may be underdiagnosed or treated in other healthcare settings....

  13. 7 CFR 51.481 - Very good internal quality. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Very good internal quality. 51.481 Section 51.481... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Cantaloups 1 Definitions § 51.481 Very good internal quality. Very good internal quality means that the combined juice from the edible portion of a sample of...

  14. Traces of life on Mars are likely to be very small and very challenging to find (United States)

    Westall, F.; Foucher, F.; Cavalazzi, B.


    The volcanic materials at the surface of Mars provide an ideal potential habitat for chemolithotrophic microorganisms that obtain their energy from chemical reactions at the surfaces of minerals and their carbon from inorganic sources in the environment. If life ever appeared on Mars, hydrated environments in the Noachian period (1,2) could have hosted such life forms (3). Other types of microorganisms that could possibly have lived at the surface during the Noachian include heterotrophic microorganisms that obtain their carbon source form organic carbon (either the degraded remains of pre-existing organisms or abiogenic sources (e.g. meteoritic materials). The rapid degradation in the environmental conditions at the surface of Mars imply an initially frozen and then dry surface that is unfavourable to the development of more sophisticated microorganisms, such as photosynthesisers. Whereas the latter produce readily recognisable macroscopic to microscopic structures, such as stromatolites and microbial mats, the former do not and their traces are very subtle and challenging to reveal. Fossilised chemolithotrophic microorganisms in littoral volcanic sands from the Early Archaean epoch (the Kitty's Gap Chert in the Pilbara of Australia, ~3.45 Ga) represent ideal analogues for eventual Noachian life in martian shallow water sediments (3,4). Surficial materials from this period, e.g. sediments and igneous rocks, have been largely silicified because of high seawater silica saturation and extensive hydrothermal flushing of the environments (5) and the Kitty's Gap sediments as well as their microorganisms have been silicified. Investigations of the morphological and geochemical biosignatures of the early Archaean microfossils provide valuable information about the methods necessary to identify the fossils (4). The bulk carbon contents of the Kitty's Gap Chert is revelations of amorphous hydrothermal silica (6) suggest that Noachian volcanic lithologies may have been

  15. The security implications of VeriChip cloning. (United States)

    Halamka, John; Juels, Ari; Stubblefield, Adam; Westhues, Jonathan


    The VeriChip is a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) tag produced commercially for implantation in human beings. Its proposed uses include identification of medical patients, physical access control, contactless retail payment, and even the tracing of kidnapping victims. As the authors explain, the VeriChip is vulnerable to simple, over-the-air spoofing attacks. In particular, an attacker capable of scanning a VeriChip, eavesdropping on its signal, or simply learning its serial number can create a spoof device whose radio appearance is indistinguishable from the original. We explore the practical implications of this security vulnerability. The authors argue that:1 The VeriChip should serve exclusively for identification, and not authentication or access control. 2 Paradoxically, for bearer safety, a VeriChip should be easy to spoof; an attacker then has less incentive to coerce victims or extract VeriChips from victims' bodies.

  16. EDITORIAL: Very little is new in nanoscience Very little is new in nanoscience (United States)

    Andrews, David L.


    science can only be applauded. Nanoscience affords a particularly fertile ground for cultivating student engagement with the broader societal implications of their studies. It embraces topics that invite reflection and debate—and where such debate moves into the public arena, it very much needs participation by properly informed individuals. Here is an opportunity not only to impress upon the next generation of scientists the need to be involved in public awareness, but also to equip them with a sound understanding of the scientific principles involved in nanotechnology. It is a great pleasure to have found, amongst the rapidly escalating number who work in this area, highly esteemed authors willing to produce papers especially for this special section of European Journal of Physics. My thanks are due to them for delivering almost on time, which is as much as one can reasonably ask. I trust they and many other readers will find the result of their endeavours thoroughly worthwhile. References [1] Piner R D, Zhu J, Xu F, Hong S and Mirkin C A 1999 Science 283 661-3 [2] Noy A (ed) 2008 Handbook of Molecular Spectroscopy (New York: Springer) [3] Dienerowitz M, Mazilu M and Dholakia K 2008 J. Nanophoton. 2 021875 [4] Kroto H 1988 Science 242 1139-45 [5] Freestone I, Meeks N, Sax M and Higgett C 2007 Gold Bull. 40 270-7 [6] Ball P 2009 Chem. World 6 58-62 [7] Andrews D L and Gaburro Z (ed) 2007 Frontiers in Surface Nanophotonics (New York: Springer) [8] Munshi D, Kurian P, Bartlett R V and Lakhtakia A 2007 Futures 39 432-52

  17. Storytelling to teach English vocabulary to very young learners


    Sirmais Hrešková, Jaroslava


    The Diploma Paper was written in order to explore how storytelling can be used to teach English vocabulary to very young learners (under 7). Teaching a foreign language to very young learners (VYL) has become more and more popular, but it is necessary to search for the appropriate ways how to teach them as this learners’ category is specific because of their peculiarities and abilities. Studying literature sources on teaching very young learners, the author of the Diploma Paper came to the...

  18. Preliminary criteria for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avouac, J; Fransen, Julie Munk; Walker, U A


    To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc).......To identify a core set of preliminary items considered as important for the very early diagnosis of systemic sclerosis (SSc)....

  19. Some characteristics of very heavy rainfall over Orissa during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Orissa is one of the most flood prone states of India. The floods in Orissa mostly occur during monsoon season due to very heavy rainfall caused by synoptic scale monsoon disturbances. Hence a study is undertaken to find out the characteristic features of very heavy rainfall (24 hours rainfall ≥ 125mm) over Orissa during ...

  20. Very high resolution satellite data: New challenges in image analysis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sathe, P.V.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    Early years of coming century will see a large number of satellites with very high spatial resolution reaching beyond 1 m in the visible range of electromagnetic spectrum. Such images will come very close to giving a ground-based view of a terrain...

  1. Empirical evaluation of very large treatment effects of medical interventions. (United States)

    Pereira, Tiago V; Horwitz, Ralph I; Ioannidis, John P A


    Most medical interventions have modest effects, but occasionally some clinical trials may find very large effects for benefits or harms. To evaluate the frequency and features of very large effects in medicine. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR, 2010, issue 7). We separated all binary-outcome CDSR forest plots with comparisons of interventions according to whether the first published trial, a subsequent trial (not the first), or no trial had a nominally statistically significant (P 8239 (9.7%) had a significant very large effect in the first published trial, 5158 (6.1%) only after the first published trial, and 71,605 (84.2%) had no trials with significant very large effects. Nominally significant very large effects typically appeared in small trials with median number of events: 18 in first trials and 15 in subsequent trials. Topics with very large effects were less likely than other topics to address mortality (3.6% in first trials, 3.2% in subsequent trials, and 11.6% in no trials with significant very large effects) and were more likely to address laboratory-defined efficacy (10% in first trials,10.8% in subsequent, and 3.2% in no trials with significant very large effects). First trials with very large effects were as likely as trials with no very large effects to have subsequent published trials. Ninety percent and 98% of the very large effects observed in first and subsequently published trials, respectively, became smaller in meta-analyses that included other trials; the median odds ratio decreased from 11.88 to 4.20 for first trials, and from 10.02 to 2.60 for subsequent trials. For 46 of the 500 selected topics (9.2%; first and subsequent trials) with a very large-effect trial, the meta-analysis maintained very large effects with P < .001 when additional trials were included, but none pertained to mortality-related outcomes. Across the whole CDSR, there was only 1 intervention with large beneficial effects on mortality, P < .001, and no major

  2. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)


    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however,

  3. Brain Development of Very Preterm and Very Low-Birthweight Children in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…

  4. Social Lifestyle, Risk-taking Behavior, and Psychopathology in Young Adults Born Very Preterm or with a Very Low Birthweight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Dorrepaal, C.; Perenboom, R.; Gravenhorst, J.B.; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Objective: To assess social lifestyle, risk-taking behavior, and psychopathology in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birthweight. Study design: This study was part of the 19-year follow-up in a large ongoing collaborative study in the Netherlands (the POPS study) on the long-term

  5. Very low energy electron microscopy of graphene flakes. (United States)

    Mikmeková, E; Bouyanfif, H; Lejeune, M; Müllerová, I; Hovorka, M; Unčovský, M; Frank, L


    Commercially available graphene samples are examined by Raman spectroscopy and very low energy scanning transmission electron microscopy. Limited lateral resolution of Raman spectroscopy may produce a Raman spectrum corresponding to a single graphene layer even for flakes that can be identified by very low energy electron microscopy as an aggregate of smaller flakes of various thicknesses. In addition to diagnostics of graphene samples at larger dimensions, their electron transmittance can also be measured at very low energies. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2013 Royal Microscopical Society.

  6. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  7. Getting the Very Best Care for Your Diabetes (United States)

    ... the Very Best Care for Your Diabetes Regular diabetes care can help you prevent heart disease, stroke, and ... health care team helps by teaching you about diabetes care and checking your A1C (average blood glucose), blood ...

  8. Very Large Ultra-Lightweight Affordable Smart Solar Array Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft for NASA, DoD and commercial missions need higher power, higher voltage, and much lower cost solar arrays to enable a variety of very high power missions....

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired) (United States)

    ... ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Fatigue (Feeling weak and very tired) Why do I feel ... level. Some people write down how they are feeling each day in a notebook to share with ...

  10. Rational Suicide, Euthanasia, and the Very Old: Two Case Reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anne Pamela Frances Wand; Carmelle Peisah; Brian Draper; Carolyn Jones; Henry Brodaty


      Suicide amongst the very old is an important public health issue. Little is known about why older people may express a wish to die or request euthanasia and how such thoughts may intersect with suicide attempts...

  11. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  12. Very-High Efficiency, High Power Laser Diodes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AdTech Photonics, in collaboration with the Center for Advanced Studies in Photonics Research (CASPR) at UMBC, is pleased to submit this proposal entitled ?Very-High...

  13. Very low energy electron microscopy of graphene flakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    .... Limited lateral resolution of Raman spectroscopy may produce a Raman spectrum corresponding to a single graphene layer even for flakes that can be identified by very low energy electron microscopy...

  14. Research at Very High Pressures and High Temperatures (United States)

    Bundy, Francis P.


    Reviews research and apparatus utilized in the study of the states and characteristics of materials at very high temperatures and pressures. Includes three examples of the research being conducted. (SL)

  15. Very Massive Stars in the Primitive Galaxy, IZw 18 (United States)

    Heap, Sara


    IZw 18 is a local blue, compact dwarf galaxy that meets the requirements for a primitive galaxy: low halo mass greater than 10(exp 9) Msun, strong photoionizing radiation, no galactic outflow, and very low metallicity,log(O/H)+12=7.2. We will describe the properties and evolutionary status of very massive stars in IZw 18, based on UV photometry of individual stars in I Zw 18 and analysis of unresolved ultraviolet spectra of IZw 18-NW obtained with HST.

  16. A not so massive cluster hosting a very massive star


    Ramírez Alegría, S.; Chené, A. -N.; Borissova, J.; Kurtev, R.; Navarro, C.; Kuhn, M; Carballo-Bello, J. A.


    We present the first physical characterization of the young open cluster VVV CL041. We spectroscopically observed the cluster main-sequence stellar population and a very-massive star candidate: WR62-2. CMFGEN modeling to our near-infrared spectra indicates that WR62-2 is a very luminous (10$^{6.4\\pm0.2} L_{\\odot}$) and massive ($\\sim80 M_{\\odot}$) star.

  17. Health Behaviours during Pregnancy in Women with Very Severe Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor A. Mohd-Shukri


    Full Text Available The health behaviours of pregnant women with very severe obesity are not known, though these women are at high risk of pregnancy complications. We carried out a prospective case-control study including 148 very severely obese (BMI >40 kg/m2 and 93 lean (BMI <25 kg/m2 pregnant women. Diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol and folic acid consumption were assessed by questionnaire in early and late (16 and 28 weeks gestation pregnancy. Circulating levels of iron, vitamin B12 and folate and other essential trace elements and minerals were measured in a subset at each time point. The findings biochemically confirmed that very severely obese women consumed diets that were energy-rich but poor in essential micronutrients. A third of all women met physical activity recommendations for pregnancy. A third of very severely obese women and two thirds of lean women took folic acid supplements prior to pregnancy. Very severely obese women were more likely to smoke but less likely to drink alcohol than lean women (all p < 0.05. Women with very severe obesity have low self-reported intakes and circulating levels of essential micronutrients in pregnancy and few follow current recommendations for pregnancy nutrition and lifestyle. These high-risk women represent a group to target for education about health behaviours prior to and during pregnancy.

  18. Outcome of Very Late Relapse in Patients with Hodgkin's Lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gaudio


    Full Text Available Recurrences of Hodgkin's Lymphoma (HL 5 years after the initial therapy are rare. The aim of this study is to report a single centre experience of the clinical characteristics, outcome, and toxicity of pts who experienced very late relapses, defined as relapses that occurred 5 or more years after the achievement of first complete remission. Of 532 consecutive pts with classical HL treated at our Institute from 1985 to 1999, 452 pts (85% achieved a complete remission. Relapse occurred in 151 pts: 135 (29.8% within 5 years and 16 over 5 years (3.5%, very late relapses. Very late relapses occurred after a median disease-free interval of 7 years (range: 5–18. Salvage treatment induced complete remission in 14 pts (87.5%. At a median of 4 years after therapy for very late relapse, 10 pts (63% are still alive and free of disease and 6 (37% died (1 from progressive HL, 1 from cardiac disease, 1 from thromboembolic disease, 1 from HCV reactivation, and 2 from bacterial infection. The probability of failure-free survival at 5 years was 75%. The majority of deaths are due to treatment-related complications. Therapy regimens for very late relapse HL are warranted to minimize complications.

  19. Nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. (United States)

    Dunn-Emke, Stacey R; Weidner, Gerdi; Pettengill, Elaine B; Marlin, Ruth O; Chi, Christine; Ornish, Dean M


    This study assessed the nutrient adequacy of a very low-fat vegan diet. Thirty-nine men (mean age=65 years) with early stage prostate cancer who chose the "watchful waiting" approach to disease management, were instructed by a registered dietitian and a chef on following a very low-fat (10%) vegan diet with the addition of a fortified soy protein powdered beverage. Three-day food diaries, excluding vitamin and mineral supplements, were analyzed and nutrient values were compared against Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Mean dietary intake met the recommended DRIs. On the basis of the Adequate Intake standard, a less than adequate intake was observed for vitamin D. This demonstrates that a very low-fat vegan diet with comprehensive nutrition education emphasizing nutrient-fortified plant foods is nutritionally adequate, with the exception of vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation, especially for those with limited sun exposure, can help assure nutritional adequacy.

  20. Postponed pregnancies and risks of very advanced maternal age. (United States)

    Haslinger, Christian; Stoiber, Bernhard; Capanna, Federica; Schäffer, Marie-Kristin; Zimmermann, Roland; Schäffer, Leonhard


    To evaluate pregnancy outcome in pregnant women aged ≥45 years, termed very advanced maternal age (VAMA). We retrospectively compared the outcome of pregnancies in VAMA patients with controls aged 30 years at time of delivery. Subgroups of singleton and multiple pregnancies were also analysed. Incidences of maternal and fetal adverse outcomes were measured. Statistical significance was set at p 7 days (37.8% vs 15.1%; OR 3.42) was found. Infant complications such as prematurity (44.9% vs 16.2%; OR 4.2) and low birthweight <5th percentile (11.0% vs 5.6%; OR 2.1) were also increased. Pregnant women of very advanced maternal age (≥45 years) have significantly increased maternal and fetal risks. Women postponing pregnancy or planning a pregnancy in very advanced age should be informed about these risks, in particular before artificial reproductive technologies are applied or "social freezing".

  1. Anxiety in adolescents born preterm or with very low birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Hansen, Bo Mølholm; Brok, Jesper Sune


    Aim To determine if adolescents who are born very preterm (anxiety problems. Method We used a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched the databases ISI Web...... of identified articles. We selected casecontrol studies of adolescents 11 to 20 years old who were very preterm/VLBW and had a matched reference group born at term with normal birthweight that reported a validated anxiety outcome measure. For data extraction, two authors independently reviewed titles, abstracts......, and full articles identified through the searches. Subsequently two authors independently extracted data. Results We included six studies with 1519 adolescents (787 very preterm/VLBW, 732 comparisons). The general risk of developing clinically significant anxiety problems was nearly doubled (p

  2. Intermittent Turbulence in the Very Stable Ekman Layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, James C [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    This study describes a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of a very stable Ekman layer in which a constant downward heat flux is applied at the lower boundary, thus cooling the fluid above. Numerical experiments were performed in which the strength of the imposed heat flux was varied. For downward heat fluxes above a certain critical value the turbulence becomes intermittent and, as the heat flux increases beyond this value, the flow tends to relaminarize because of the very strong ambient stratification. We adopt Mahrt?s (1999) definition of the very stable boundary layer as a boundary layer in which intermittent, rather than continuous turbulence, is observed. Numerical experiments were used to test various hypothesis of where in ?stability parameter space? the very stable boundary layer is found. These experiments support the findings of Howell and Sun (1999) that the boundary layer will exhibit intermittency and therefore be categorized as ?very stable?, when the stability parameter, z/L, exceeds unity. Another marker for the very stable boundary layer, Derbyshire?s (1990) maximum heat flux criterion, was also examined. Using a case study drawn from the simulations where turbulence intermittency was observed, the mechanism that causes the intermittence was investigated. It was found that patchy turbulence originates from a vigorous inflectional, Ekman-like instability -- a roll cell -- that lifts colder air over warmer air. The resulting convective instability causes an intense burst of turbulence. This turbulence is short-lived because the lifting motion of the roll cell, as well as the roll cell itself, is partially destroyed after the patchy turbulence is generated. Examples of intermittent turbulence obtained from the simulations appear to be consistent with observations of intermittency even though the Reynolds number of the DNS is relatively low (400).

  3. Spirometry quality in adults with very severe lung function impairment. (United States)

    Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Velázquez-Uncal, Mónica; García-Torrentera, Rogelio; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Enright, Paul; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio


    Some technologists worry that patients with very severe lung disease are unable to complete several spirometry maneuvers, which require considerable effort. We retrospectively selected all spirometry tests with an FEV1 30,000 subjects tested during the 3-y period) had adequate quality spirometry. Subjects with airway obstruction were less likely to meet FVC repeatability goals. A poor spirometry quality grade was associated with a very low FVC and a low body mass index, but not older age. Severe lung disease should not be used as an excuse for not meeting spirometry quality goals. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. Very Compact and Broadband Active Antenna for VHF Band Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Taachouche


    Full Text Available An active receiving antenna with small size consisting of a monopole loaded with a transistor bipolar is presented in this paper. A transistor is used in order to miniaturize the receiving active antenna size in VHF band. The vertical size of the structure is equal to λ/175, where λ is the wavelength at the lower frequency of the bandwidth. Despite the very small size of the antenna, the frequency bandwidth is very wide and the gain is suitable for FM application with sensitive receivers.

  5. Spectroscopic ellipsometry of very thin tantalum pentoxide on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmakov, I., E-mail: [Sofia University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, 5, J. Bourchier Boulevard, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Konova, A. [Sofia University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Condensed Matter Physics, 5, J. Bourchier Boulevard, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Atanassova, E.; Paskaleva, A. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72, Tzarigradsko Chaussee Boulevard, Sofia 1184 (Bulgaria)


    Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry of very thin T{sub 2}O{sub 5} layers on Si and the previously published appropriate algorithm for data interpretation have been successfully applied in terms of accurate characterization of very thin T{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Si systems. The simulation procedure following a simple three and four layered model was used assuming an existence of inhomogeneous interfacial layers. Quantitative determination of the thicknesses and composition identification were achieved, both for the top T{sub 2}O{sub 5} layer and for an interfacial layer. The constituents in the interfacial layer and its depth profiles were recognized.

  6. R&D with very forward detectors at linear colliders (United States)

    Ghenescu, Veta; FCAL Collaboration


    The very forward region of the detector at a future linear collider will be instrumented with two sampling calorimeters - BeamCal and LumiCal - for fast beam parameter estimates, precise luminosity measurements, as well as for the improvement of the hermeticity of the detector at small angles. These very forward calorimeters are designed to sustain high radiation doses and deliver precise and valuable data for the machine- and physics-related measurements. Sensor and ASIC prototypes were developed and tested. Here we report on sensor characteristics and test-beam results obtained from a sensor plane assembled with front-end and ADC ASICs.

  7. Growth in very young children undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rees, Lesley; Azocar, Marta; Borzych, Dagmara; Watson, Alan R.; Büscher, Anja; Edefonti, Alberto; Bilge, Ilmay; Askenazi, David; Leozappa, Giovanna; Gonzales, Claudia; van Hoeck, Koen; Secker, Donna; Zurowska, Aleksandra; Rönnholm, Kai; Bouts, Antonia H. M.; Stewart, Heather; Ariceta, Gema; Ranchin, Bruno; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz; Sojo, E.; Coccia, P. A.; Suarez, A.; Valles, P. G.; Salim, R.; van Hoeck, K.; Koch, V.; Feber, J.; Geary, D. A.; White, C.; Valenzuela, M.; Villagra, J.; Cano, F.; Contreras, M. A.; Vogel, A.; Zambrano, P.; Berrocal, P.; Chiu, M. C.; Xu, H.; Vondrak, K.; Rönnholm, K.; Ranchin, B.; Ulinski, T.; Fischbach, M.; Büscher, R.; Kemper, M.; Pape, L.; Schaefer, F.; Borzych, D.; Misselwitz, J.; Klaus, G.; Haffner, D.; Papachristou, F.; Bagga, A.; Kanitkar, M.; Verrina, E.; Edefonti, A.; Leozappa, G.; Landau, D.; Ha, I. S.; Paik, K. H.; Sahpazova, E.; Groothoff, J. W.; Silva, Y.; Zurowska, A. M.; Drozdz, D.; Lipka, M.; Sczepanska, M.; Brumariu, O.; Yap, H. K.; Ariceta, G.; Bakkaloglu, A. S.; Bakkaloglu, S.; Bilge, I.; Serdaroglu, E.; Bal, A.; Mir, S.; Rees, L.; Watson, A. R.; Grünberg, J.; Greenbaum, L.; Neu, A.; Askenazi, D.; Gipson, D.; Patel, H.; Pottoore, S.; Dharnidharka, V.; Bunchman, T.; Chua, A.; Warady, B. A.; Zaritsky, J.


    Very young children with chronic kidney disease often have difficulty maintaining adequate nutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of short stature in this population. Characteristics of the dialysis prescription and supplemental feeding via a nasogastric (NG) tube or gastrostomy may

  8. Very High Energy γ- rays from Galactic Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    found (main pulse region for Crab and around 0.6 for Geminga) displayed features expected from gamma ray events. 3. Recent PACT observations on galactic sources. A new atmospheric Cerenkov array to study cosmic sources of Very High Energy. (VHE) Gamma rays has been set up in Pachmarhi in central India.

  9. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators (United States)

    Johannesen, Nina


    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  10. Hyponatraemia in very low birth weight infants | Ndwiga | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. Design: Comparative cohort study. Setting: Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. Subjects: Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during ...

  11. Path to Smoking Addiction Starts at Very Young Ages (United States)

    THE PATH TO TOBACCO ADDICTION STARTS AT VERY YOUNG AGES Lifetime smoking and other tobacco use almost always begins by the time kids graduate from high school. 1 Young kids’ naïve experimentation frequently develops into regular smoking, which typically turns into a strong addiction— ...

  12. Gaze Shift as an Interactional Resource for Very Young Children (United States)

    Kidwell, Mardi


    This article examines how very young children in a day care center make use of their peers' gaze shifts to differentially locate and prepare for the possibility of a caregiver intervention during situations of their biting, hitting, pushing, and the like. At issue is how the visible character of a gaze shift--that is, the manner in which it is…

  13. Inspiring Philosophical Thinking in the Very Young Child (United States)

    Willis, Mariam


    Even very young children can show an interest in the humanities. Although they may not be pursuing degrees in the arts or languages, they often pursue answers to profound questions about human existence in casual conversation. Supporting a young child in his or her quest to discover more about these questions may lead to new insights for parents,…

  14. Television for Very Young Children and Their Parents. (United States)


    This summary of the reports and papers presented at a seminar organized by the ABU in collaboration with the Prix Jeunesse Foundation and with the assistance of UNESCO includes reports on television programming for very young children in Europe, Japan, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Iran, Korea, New Zealand, Pakistan, Singapore,…

  15. Designing the Very Small: Micro and Nanotechnology. Resources in Technology. (United States)

    Jacobs, James A.


    This learning activity is designed to increase knowledge of materials science; engineering; and technology design and the manufacture of the very small devices used in watches, computers, and calculators. It looks at possible innovations to come from micro- and nanotechnology. Includes a student quiz. (Author/JOW)

  16. Tracking of Individuals in Very Long Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Corlin, Rasmus; Park, Sangho


    In this paper we present an approach for automatically detecting and tracking humans in very long video sequences. The detection is based on background subtraction using a multi-mode Codeword method. We enhance this method both in terms of representation and in terms of automatically updating the...

  17. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INCOIS is issuing high wave alerts during extreme weather events, as forecasted by numerical models. The alerts give information about signifi- cant wave height, swell wave height, wave period, ..... Cyclone Warning Division, India Meteorological Depart- ment, New Delhi. IMD report 2014 Very Severe Cyclonic Storm, ...

  18. Very Slow Speed Axial Motion Reluctance Motor | Agu | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the scheme for a very slow speed linear machine which uses conventional laminations and with which speeds of the same low order as that of the screw-thread motor can be obtained. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  19. Very short functionalized carbon nanotubes for membrane applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fonseca, A.; Reijerkerk, Sander; Potreck, Jens; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Mekhalif, Z.; Delhalle, J.


    The cutting and functionalization of carbon nanotubes is described, applying a single-step ball-mill based process. Very short carbon nanotubes bearing primary amine functions were produced, characterized and incorporated in polymeric membranes. The gas separation performance of the composite

  20. Fatigue experiments on connections made of very high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.; Kolstein, H.; Bijlaard, F.


    An effective application of Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) can be expected in truss-like structures, typically made of hollow sections. Improved design of VHSS truss structures could incorporate the application of cast joints, since an appropriate design of cast joints limits the stress

  1. Numerical simulation and observations of very severe cyclone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 124; Issue 8. Numerical ... The present work evaluates the performance of a wave forecasting system under very severe cyclonic conditions for the Indian Ocean. ... Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services, Pragathi Nagar, Hyderabad 500 090, India.

  2. Development of macronutrient composition of very preterm human milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, YGH; Gerritsen, J; Hart, AAM; Hadders-Algra, M; Tamminga, P; Mirmiran, M; Spekreijse, H; Ruijters, J.M.

    The effects of gestational age at delivery (GA), postnatal age (PNA) and post-menstrual age (PMA=PNA+ GA, an indicator of autonomous developmental processes not affected by the moment of birth) on macronutrient composition of very preterm milk were studied. Total N, fat, lactose and carbohydrate

  3. Mood changes at very high altitudes in Pakistan (United States)

    Ahmad, Sabih; Hussain, Sadiq


    Objective: To screen out psychiatric ‘cases’ and find the frequency of anxiety and depression symptoms in military volunteers performing duties at very high altitudes in the Karakoram ranges of Pakistan. Methods: This was a descriptive study lasting from Jan 2015 to June 2015, on volunteers serving at very high altitude, using General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Urdu versions. Analysis involved descriptive, inferential techniques and Bonferroni test. Demographic variables were compared to the scores. Results: A high percentage of the military volunteers screened positive for psychiatric ‘caseness’ and symptoms of anxiety and depression; mostly in the mild to moderate range, while very few of them reported severe symptoms. Demographic variables such as marital status, number of children, positive family psychiatric history, past medical history, duration at high altitude and educational levels were found to be significant risk factors for developing symptoms of anxiety and depression. Conclusions: Individuals performing duties at very high altitude, experience symptoms of anxiety and depression, their demographics are important in understanding their emotional problems. PMID:28367206

  4. Development and applications of very high flux microfiltration membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, S.; van Rijn, C.J.M.; Nijdam, W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt


    Inorganic microfiltration membranes with a pore size down to 0.1 µm have been made using laser interference lithography and silicon micro machining technology. The membranes have an extremely small flow resistance due to a thickness smaller than the pore size, a high porosity and a very narrow pore

  5. Quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Olsen, Jesper V


    Technical limitations have prevented proteomic analyses of events occurring less than 30 s after signal initiation. We developed an automated, continuous quench-flow system allowing quantitative proteomic assessment of very early cellular signaling events (qPACE) with a time resolution of 1 s...

  6. FMC cameras, high resolution films and very large scale mapping (United States)

    Tachibana, Kikuo; Hasegawa, Hiroyuki


    Very large scale mapping (1/250) was experimented on the basis of FMC camera, high resolution film and total station surveying. The future attractive combination of precision photogrammetry and personal computer assisted terrestrial surveying was investigated from the point of view of accuracy, time effectiveness and total procedures control.

  7. Can NATO's new Very High Readiness Joint Task Force deter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rynning, Sten; Ringsmose, Jens


    ” a distinct strategic rival – Russia. Chief among the Welsh summit initiatives was the decision to set up a new multinational spearhead force – the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force (VJTF) – as part of an enhanced NATO Response Force (NRF) and within the framework of a so-called Readiness Action Plan (RAP...

  8. Daniel Day-Lewis - veri peab voolama / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-


    Iiri-juudi näitleja Daniel Day-Lewis, kes võitis oma rolliga P.T. Andersoni filmis "Veri hakkab voolama" parima meespeaosatäitja Oscari. Tema põhjalikust tööst rollidega läbi tema filmiloomingu

  9. How Google Web Search copes with very similar documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Mettrop (Wouter); P. Nieuwenhuysen; H. Smulders


    textabstractA significant portion of the computer files that carry documents, multimedia, programs etc. on the Web are identical or very similar to other files on the Web. How do search engines cope with this? Do they perform some kind of “deduplication”? How should users take into account that

  10. Low Temperature Gaseous Helium and very High Turbulence Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Pietropinto, S; Castaing, B; Chabaud, B; Gagne, Y; Hébral, B; Ladam, Y; Lebrun, P; Pirotte, O; Poulain, C; Roche, P E


    Cryogenic gaseous helium gives access to extreme turbulent experimental conditions. The very high cooling helium flow rates available at CERN have been used to reach Reynolds numbers up to Re ~ 10**7 in a round jet experiment. First results are discussed.

  11. Effects of very low frequency electromagnetic method (VLFEM) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the impact of livestock dung on ground water status in the study area. To achieve this, a very low frequency EM survey was conducted; the aim and objective was to detect fractures in the subsurface. VLF data were acquired at 5m intervals along two profiles, with maximum length of 60m in the ...

  12. Sacrificial wafer bonding for planarization after very deep etching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, V.L.; Spiering, Vincent L.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Fluitman, J.H.J.

    A new technique is presented that provides planarization after a very deep etching step in silicon. This offers the possibility for as well resist spinning and layer patterning as realization of bridges or cantilevers across deep holes or grooves. The sacrificial wafer bonding technique contains a

  13. Markers of subsyndromal depression in very old persons. (United States)

    Ludvigsson, Mikael; Marcusson, Jan; Wressle, Ewa; Milberg, Anna


    To investigate factors associated with subsyndromal depression (SSD) in very old persons, and to develop a model for prediction of SSD among very old persons. A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken on 85-year-old persons in Sweden. Data were collected from a postal questionnaire, assessments in the participants' homes and at reception visits. Depressiveness was screened with GDS-15 (Geriatric Depression Scale), and the results were classified into three outcome categories: non-depression (ND), SSD and syndromal depression. Data were analysed with binary logistic, ordinal logistic and linear regression. With univariate logistic regression 20 factors associated with SSD were identified in very old persons, and the four hypothesized domains--sociodemographic factors, declining physical functioning, neuropsychiatric factors and existential factors--significantly related to SSD. The multivariate logistic model included seven independent factors that increase the likelihood of SSD instead of ND (lower self-perceived health, life not meaningful, problems with self-care, use of tranquilizing medication, no contact with neighbours, history of affective disorder and history of stroke). The ordinal logistic and the linear regression models resulted in seven partly different factors for predicting SSD and depressiveness, in the very old. The identified markers may help clinicians with the detection, prevention and treatment of SSD in very old persons. The findings indicate the importance of a comprehensive functional approach to diagnosing and treating depressiveness in this population, and the findings might be interpreted as offering support for the coexistence of a dimensional and a categorical view on depressive disorders. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Very high energy emission sources beyond the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinitsyna V.G.


    Full Text Available Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN are considered as potential extragalactic sources of very and ultra high energy cosmic rays. According to theoretical predictions cosmic ray acceleration can take place at the shock created by the expanding cocoons around active galactic nuclei as well as at AGN jets. The measurements of AGN TeV spectra, the variability time scale of TeV emission can provide essential information on the dynamics of AGN jets, the localization of acceleration region and an estimation of its size. SHALON observations yielded data on extragalactic sources of different AGN types in the energy range of 800 GeV–100 TeV. The data from SHALON observations are compared with those from other experiments at high and very high energies.

  15. Modal instabilities in very large mode area rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann; Laurila, Marko

    large core fiber areas are highly desirable to mitigate various nonlinear processes, such as Kerr, four-wave mixing, Raman, and Brillouin effects. It is difficult to scale up the core area without going into a multi-moded regime. Microstructured fiber technology has allowed core diameters of 60......-100 microns, by reducing all index contrasts to very low values, and possibly utilizing advanced photonic-band gap cladding designs to filter out higher-order modes [2], see Fig. 1. The guided modes of such cores are very sensitive to perturbations. An unavoidable perturbation at large average power...... is the formation of thermal gradients across the core, which induces a power dependent transverse index modification due to the thermo-optic effect. A phase shift between the thermally induced index grating and the signal intensity causes power transfer from the fundamental mode to a higher order mode leading...

  16. [Very late drug-eluting stent thrombosis by stent fracture]. (United States)

    Cheaito, R; Tritar, A; Scemama, A; Ferrag, W; Goy, P; Haziza, F; Benamer, H


    The superiority of drug-eluting stents in reducing the risk of in-stent restenosis compared to bare-metal stents is no longer challenged. Nevertheless, the drug-eluting stents may carry long-term risk of late and very late stent thrombosis. The promoting factors of this complication are usually divided into three chapters depending on the patient, the procedure and the stent. Indeed, the literature has reported several parameters related to the stent itself, such as its length, the malapposition, its diameter, but also more rarely the occurrence of stent fracture. We present the case of a patient admitted for myocardial infarction after a very late thrombosis of Cypher drug-eluting stent four years after its implantation and related to stent fracture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. European national strategies to move towards very low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund

    of official subsidies or via private investment organisations. Another possibility is lower taxes for low energy buildings or the introduction of CO2 taxes. Furthermore mandatory certification schemes are expected to promote very low energy buildings by introduction of grades restricted to buildings with very....... A strategy for improved energy efficiency of existing buildings is a necessity if the energy consumption is to be reduced significantly over a limited period of time. The life time of buildings ranges from 50 to 100 years and improvement of the existing building stock will thus have much higher impact than...... is an effective instrument to achieve highly energy efficient buildings, as well as a valuable tool and guideline for the construction sector....

  18. BRIEF: Computing a Local Binary Descriptor Very Fast. (United States)

    Calonder, Michael; Lepetit, Vincent; Özuysal, Mustafa; Trzcinski, Tomasz; Strecha, Christoph; Fua, Pascal


    Binary descriptors are becoming increasingly popular as a means to compare feature points very fast while requiring comparatively small amounts of memory. The typical approach to creating them is to first compute floating-point ones, using an algorithm such as SIFT, and then to binarize them. In this paper, we show that we can directly compute a binary descriptor, which we call BRIEF, on the basis of simple intensity difference tests. As a result, BRIEF is very fast both to build and to match. We compare it against SURF and SIFT on standard benchmarks and show that it yields comparable recognition accuracy, while running in an almost vanishing fraction of the time required by either.

  19. Spectrum sensing by cognitive radios at very low SNR

    CERN Document Server

    Quan, Zhi; Zhang, Wenyi; Sayed, Ali H


    Spectrum sensing is one of the enabling functionalities for cognitive radio (CR) systems to operate in the spectrum white space. To protect the primary incumbent users from interference, the CR is required to detect incumbent signals at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing technique based on correlating spectra for detection of television (TV) broadcasting signals. The basic strategy is to correlate the periodogram of the received signal with the a priori known spectral features of the primary signal. We show that according to the Neyman-Pearson criterion, this spectral correlation-based sensing technique is asymptotically optimal at very low SNR and with a large sensing time. From the system design perspective, we analyze the effect of the spectral features on the spectrum sensing performance. Through the optimization analysis, we obtain useful insights on how to choose effective spectral features to achieve reliable sensing. Simulation results show that the prop...

  20. Cognitive Development Trajectories of Very Preterm and Typically Developing Children (United States)

    Mangin, Kathryn S.; Horwood, L. J.; Woodward, Lianne J.


    Cognitive impairment is common among children born very preterm (VPT), yet little is known about how this risk changes over time. To examine this issue, a regional cohort of 110 VPT (= 32 weeks gestation) and 113 full-term (FT) born children was prospectively assessed at ages 4, 6, 9, and 12 years using the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  1. Megagray Dosimetry (or Monitoring of Very Large Radiation Doses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Uribe, R.M.; Miller, Arne


    A number of suitably calibrated plastic and dyed films and solid-state systems can provide mapping of very intense radiation fields with high spatial resolution and reasonable limits of uncertainty of absorbed dose assessment. Although most systems of this type suffer from rate dependence and tem.......g., polyhalostyrenes), some dyed cellulosics, radiochromic dye films (e.g., Nylonbase “Trogamid” films) and pure LiF crystals....

  2. Observation of Beam Instabilities with very tight Collimation

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, H; Pieloni, T


    We report about the observation of instabilities in the LHC in special runs with high beta* and very tight collimation down to 2 sigma which increases the transverse impedance significantly. The losses appeared primarily on the highest intensity, non-colliding bunches which can be interpreted as evidence for insufficient Landau damping. We describe the beam conditions, observations and possible explanations for the observed effects.

  3. Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.


    The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

  4. Propulsion options for very low Earth orbit microsatellites (United States)

    Leomanni, Mirko; Garulli, Andrea; Giannitrapani, Antonio; Scortecci, Fabrizio


    The growing competitiveness in the commercial space market has raised the interest in operating small spacecraft at very low altitudes. To make this feasible, the space industry has started developing propulsion options tailored specifically to these platforms. This paper presents a review of emerging micropropulsion technologies and evaluates their applicability to microsatellite missions in the altitude range 250-500 km. The results of the proposed analysis are demonstrated on two different remote sensing applications.

  5. Renal Calcification in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Yang Chang


    Conclusion: The incidence of renal calcification in very low birth weight infants in this study was relatively low, and the calcification was transient in one-half of the infants. Extremely premature, sick infants requiring long-term ventilation, and those receiving furosemide or dexamethasone were more likely to have renal calcification. Clinicians should be aware that renal calcification may develop beyond the neonatal stage.

  6. On the photosynthetic potential in the very Early Archean oceans. (United States)

    Avila, Daile; Cardenas, Rolando; Martin, Osmel


    In this work we apply a mathematical model of photosynthesis to quantify the potential for photosynthetic life in the very Early Archean oceans. We assume the presence of oceanic blockers of ultraviolet radiation, specifically ferrous ions. For this scenario, our results suggest a potential for photosynthetic life greater than or similar to that in later eras/eons, such as the Late Archean and the current Phanerozoic eon.

  7. Isomonodromic Deformations and Very Stable Vector Bundles of Rank Two (United States)

    Biswas, Indranil; Heu, Viktoria; Hurtubise, Jacques


    For the universal isomonodromic deformation of an irreducible logarithmic rank two connection over a smooth complex projective curve of genus at least two, consider the family of holomorphic vector bundles over curves underlying this universal deformation. In a previous work we proved that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter of this family is stable. Here we prove that the vector bundle corresponding to a general parameter is in fact very stable, meaning it does not admit any nonzero nilpotent Higgs field.

  8. Ship manoeuvring at very small and negative under keel clearance


    Vantorre, M.; Delefortrie, G.; Laforce, E.; De Vlieger, H.; Claeys, S.


    A selection of results of systematic captive manoeuvring test series with a container carrier model above a solid bottom as well as above and in simulated mud layers is presented. The effect of under keel clearance - with emphasis on very small and even negative values referred to the water-mud interface - on linear manoeuvring coefficients and dynamic stability parameters is discussed. Controllability and manoeuvrability appear to be affected particularly by the influence of water depth on t...

  9. Capacity of very noisy communication channels based on Fisher information


    Fabing Duan; François Chapeau-Blondeau; Derek Abbott


    We generalize the asymptotic capacity expression for very noisy communication channels to now include coloured noise. For the practical scenario of a non-optimal receiver, we consider the common case of a correlation receiver. Due to the central limit theorem and the cumulative characteristic of a correlation receiver, we model this channel noise as additive Gaussian noise. Then, the channel capacity proves to be directly related to the Fisher information of the noise distribution and the wea...

  10. Spectrum sensing by cognitive radios at very low SNR


    Quan, Zhi; Shellhammer, Stephen J.; Wenyi ZHANG; Sayed, Ali H.


    Spectrum sensing is one of the enabling functionalities for cognitive radio (CR) systems to operate in the spectrum white space. To protect the primary incumbent users from interference, the CR is required to detect incumbent signals at very low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In this paper, we present a spectrum sensing technique based on correlating spectra for detection of television (TV) broadcasting signals. The basic strategy is to correlate the periodogram of the received signal with the ...

  11. Ventriculomegaly in very-low-birthweight infants with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Movsas, Tammy Z; Spitzer, Alan R; Gewolb, Ira H


    The prevalence of Down syndrome in infants with fetal ventriculomegaly is 5% to 10%; however, the converse, the prevalence of cerebral ventriculomegaly in live-born infants with Down syndrome, is not well established. Because cranial ultrasounds are performed on most very-low-birthweight (VLBW) infants (birthweight Down syndrome, and whether VLBW infants with Down syndrome are at higher risk for cranial ultrasound abnormalities, compared with the already elevated risk in other VLBW infants. This study comprised retrospective analysis of data from Pediatrix BabySteps Clinical Data Warehouse. The study population consisted of 121 736 VLBW infants (61 869 males, 59 867 females), born between 1996 and 2013, of whom 441 had Down syndrome (233 males, 208 females; mean gestational age 30wks, standard deviation [SD] 2.8wks). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds of ventriculomegaly and IVH for Down syndrome. Prevalence of ventriculomegaly in Down syndrome was 5.2% compared with 0.8% in other VLBW infants. Multivariate analysis indicated 5.8× odds (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4-9.7) of ventriculomegaly in Down syndrome and 0.9× odds (95% CI 0.7-1.1) of IVH for Down syndrome. Very preterm infants with Down syndrome are at increased risk for ventriculomegaly (but not for IVH) compared with other infants born very preterm. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Very small pediatric donor kidney transplantation in pediatric recipients. (United States)

    Yaffe, H C; Friedmann, P; Kayler, L K


    Kidneys from very small pediatric donors (age <5 years, weight <21 kg) may be a means to increase the donor pool for pediatric recipients. Transplantation of small pediatric kidneys is more commonly performed in adult recipients due to the increased risks of technical complications, thrombosis, and early graft failure. While these risks are abrogated in adult recipients by limiting the donor weight to ≥10 kg and using the EB technique, it is unknown whether pediatric recipients achieve comparable results. US national data were assessed for all first-time, deceased-donor, kidney-only pediatric recipients, 1/1996-10/2013, who received very small pediatric donor grafts or grafts from ideal adult donors. We identified 57 pediatric EB, 110 pediatric SK, and 2350 adult transplants. The primary outcome was 3-year all-cause graft survival. Kaplan-Meier curves showed worse outcomes for pediatric grafts compared to adult ideal grafts (P=.042). On multivariate analysis, pediatric recipients of SK grafts had significantly higher HRs (aHR 2.01, 95% CI 1.34-3.00) and pediatric recipients of EB grafts had somewhat higher non-significant HRs (1.57; 95% CI 0.88-2.79) for graft survival. These results suggest cautionary use of very small pediatric donors as a source to expand the donor pool for pediatric candidates. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Penning sputter ion source with very low energy spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, Z., E-mail: znouri@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Li, R., E-mail: ruohong@triumf.c [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Holt, R.A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada); Rosner, S.D., E-mail: rosner@uwo.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London ON, N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    We have developed a version of the Frankfurt Penning ion source that produces ion beams with very low energy spreads of approx3 eV, while operating in a new discharge mode characterized by very high pressure, low voltage, and high current. The extracted ions also comprise substantial metastable and doubly charged species. Detailed studies of the operating parameters of the source showed that careful adjustment of the magnetic field and gas pressure is critical to achieving optimum performance. We used a laser-fluorescence method of energy analysis to characterize the properties of the extracted ion beam with a resolving power of 1x10{sup 4}, and to measure the absolute ion beam energy to an accuracy of 4 eV in order to provide some insight into the distribution of plasma potential within the ion source. This characterization method is widely applicable to accelerator beams, though not universal. The low energy spread, coupled with the ability to produce intense ion beams from almost any gas or conducting solid, make this source very useful for high-resolution spectroscopic measurements on fast-ion beams.

  14. Very high flux research reactors based on particle fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, J.R.; Takahashi, H.


    A new approach to high flux research reactors is described, the VHFR (Very High Flux Reactor). The VHFR fuel region(s) are packed beds of HTGR-type fuel particles through which coolant (e.g., D/sub 2/O) flows directly. The small particle diameter (typically on the order of 500 microns) results in very large surface areas for heat transfer (approx. 100 cm/sup 2//cm/sup 3/ of bed), high power densities (approx. 10 megawatts per liter), and minimal between fuel and coolant (approx. 10 K) VHFR designs are presented which achieve steady-state fluxes of approx. 2x10/sup 16/ n/cm/sup 2/sec. Deuterium/beryllium combinations give the highest flux levels. Critical mass is low, approx. 2 kg /sup 235/U for 20% enriched fuel. Refueling can be carried out continuously on-line, or in a batch process with a short daily shutdown. Fission product inventory is very low, approx. 100 to 300 grams, depending on design.

  15. Human Mobility Monitoring in Very Low Resolution Visual Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyan Bo Bo


    Full Text Available This paper proposes an automated system for monitoring mobility patterns using a network of very low resolution visual sensors (30 × 30 pixels. The use of very low resolution sensors reduces privacy concern, cost, computation requirement and power consumption. The core of our proposed system is a robust people tracker that uses low resolution videos provided by the visual sensor network. The distributed processing architecture of our tracking system allows all image processing tasks to be done on the digital signal controller in each visual sensor. In this paper, we experimentally show that reliable tracking of people is possible using very low resolution imagery. We also compare the performance of our tracker against a state-of-the-art tracking method and show that our method outperforms. Moreover, the mobility statistics of tracks such as total distance traveled and average speed derived from trajectories are compared with those derived from ground truth given by Ultra-Wide Band sensors. The results of this comparison show that the trajectories from our system are accurate enough to obtain useful mobility statistics.

  16. Chaotic Traversal (CHAT): Very Large Graphs Traversal Using Chaotic Dynamics (United States)

    Changaival, Boonyarit; Rosalie, Martin; Danoy, Grégoire; Lavangnananda, Kittichai; Bouvry, Pascal


    Graph Traversal algorithms can find their applications in various fields such as routing problems, natural language processing or even database querying. The exploration can be considered as a first stepping stone into knowledge extraction from the graph which is now a popular topic. Classical solutions such as Breadth First Search (BFS) and Depth First Search (DFS) require huge amounts of memory for exploring very large graphs. In this research, we present a novel memoryless graph traversal algorithm, Chaotic Traversal (CHAT) which integrates chaotic dynamics to traverse large unknown graphs via the Lozi map and the Rössler system. To compare various dynamics effects on our algorithm, we present an original way to perform the exploration of a parameter space using a bifurcation diagram with respect to the topological structure of attractors. The resulting algorithm is an efficient and nonresource demanding algorithm, and is therefore very suitable for partial traversal of very large and/or unknown environment graphs. CHAT performance using Lozi map is proven superior than the, commonly known, Random Walk, in terms of number of nodes visited (coverage percentage) and computation time where the environment is unknown and memory usage is restricted.

  17. Respiratory morbidity in very preterm and very low birth weight infants: the first 2 years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Ferreira


    Full Text Available Respiratory morbidity in the first two years of life, including recurrent symptoms and frequent hospitalizations, is a common problem in very preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW infants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study aiming to describe the respiratory morbidity at 2 years of corrected age for very preterm and VLBW infants and to identify potential risk factors for its development in a Portuguese based population born in a tertiary referral center between 2009 and 2011. Data were collected from patient’s clinical files and using a standardized questionnaire-based clinical interview for parents. A total 59 children were included. Thirteen (22.0% had recurrent respiratory symptoms and 12 (20.3% were using chronic respiratory medication. Health care utilization for respiratory causes was frequent (57.6%, particularly emergency department attendance (50.8%. Twenty seven (45.8% had additional outpatient visits for respiratory causes and hospital admission was necessary for 8 (13.6% patients. Factors associated with increased recurrent respiratory symptoms included maternal hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, umbilical artery flow disturbances, being small for gestational age, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage and a weight percentile below 3 at 6, 12 and 24 months of corrected age. Premature rupture of membranes was negatively associated with respiratory morbidity. Respiratory morbidity at 2 years of age is a common problem in very preterm and VLBW children from our population. Several perinatal and developmental risk factors were identified for respiratory morbidity. Further studies are needed to clarify the importance of these factors, as they can lead to changes in healthcare guidelines.

  18. [Gaussian distribution of intelligence in VLBW preterm infants at age 5: very low correlation with very low birth weight]. (United States)

    van Baalen, A; Ross, C; Kewitz, G; Mildenberger, E; Berns, M; Bartsch, M; Kössel, H; Kruppa, E; Bohn, R; Versmold, H


    Preterm infants with very low birth weight intelligence values, we studied the distribution of intelligence at preschool age in VLBW infants and the risk factors influencing this distribution. A prospective cohort study of 277 VLBW infants intelligence (Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children) at age 5. Statistical methods employed were: explorative data analysis, correlation, chi (2)- and t-tests; the tested variables were: small for gestational age ( 0.21 > or = 36 weeks), intraventricular hemorrhage, ventricular dilation, periventricular leukomalacia, seizures, abnormal acoustic evoked potentials, and hyperexcitability at discharge. The distribution of intelligence in 137 VLBW infants intelligence increased very slightly with birth weight (Pearson correlation: 0.172; p = 0.045) and was significantly lower in children with hypoglycemia after the first day of life (- 13.35; 95 % confidence interval: - 20.08 to - 6.63; p = 0.002), hyperexcitability at discharge (- 16.28; 95 % confidence interval: - 25.26 to - 7.31; p = 0.005), and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (- 7.00; 95 % confidence interval - 11.71 to - 2.29; p = 0.039). At preschool age, the intelligence of VLBW infants is normally distributed and correlates only slightly with the very low birth weight. Hypoglycemia after the first day of life and bronchopulmonary dysplasia are risk factors for lower intelligence. Hyperexcitability at discharge seemed to represent a promising prognostic factor for a later intelligence reduction.

  19. Meconium passage in very-low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Meetze, W H; Palazzolo, V L; Bowling, D; Behnke, M; Burchfield, D J; Neu, J


    The timing of the first meconium stool has been considered a marker for proper gastrointestinal functioning in the term infant. There is limited information on the meconium passage patterns of very-low-birth-weight infants of less than 32 weeks' gestation. It is unknown whether feeding practices influence the timing of the first stool in these infants. We retrospectively studied 47 very-low-birth-weight infants with birth weights of 1250 g or less who were previously enrolled in a study of gastrointestinal (GI) priming. Infants whose mothers desired to breast feed (n = 7) were given GI priming with their own mother's milk. The remaining infants had been randomly assigned to receive total parenteral nutrition alone (n = 21) or GI priming with infant formula (n = 19) during the first 14 days of life. We attempted to advance all infants to full enteral nutrition by 21 days of age. There was no statistically significant difference in timing of the first stool among the three groups. The overall median age at first stool was 43 hours, and the 75th percentile was 10 days. The range was 1/2 hour to 27 days. There was no concordance between time of first stool and birth weight within the range studied. There was no concordance between time of first stool and necrotizing enterocolitis, although there was little statistical power to detect this. There was also very little concordance with feeding tolerance. Other than necrotizing enterocolitis, no significant GI disease developed in any of the infants studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Arthroscopic Treatment of Septic Arthritis in Very Young Children. (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Gourineni, Prasad


    Arthroscopic lavage is a well-established, minimally invasive treatment for septic arthritis (SA) in adults, but the use of arthroscopy in the pediatric population is typically restricted to sports injuries and deformity. Previous research on arthroscopic lavage of septic joints in the pediatric population has been limited to case reports and small case series of older children. As such, we aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of arthroscopic treatment of SA in various joints in very young children. Between 2011 and 2015, 24 children (aged 3 wk to 6 y) were treated for SA with arthroscopic lavage. A single portal was adequate for both inflow and outflow in most cases. A second portal was used in all knees and in other joints for synovectomy, when indicated. Drains were placed through the portal site and remained in place for 2 to 3 days. Antibiotics were managed by the infectious disease service. Nine hips, 9 knees, 4 ankles, and 2 shoulders were included. Portal placement, visualization, and adequate lavage were straight forward in all joints. There was 1 transient femoral nerve palsy and no other arthroscopy-associated complications (iatrogenic damage, difficult drain placement, or conversion to open). Two patients required repeat arthroscopic lavage for disease eradication, one of which required a second admission. A third patient underwent open irrigation following arthroscopic lavage with a resultant 1.125 average procedures per subject. At final follow-up (2 to 49 mo, average 16 mo), no recurrence of infection or decreased range of motion was noted. Arthroscopic lavage appears to be a safe, quick, and effective alternative to open arthrotomy for the treatment of SA in very young children. It is feasible in any large joint even in the infantile population, allowing for improved visualization and irrigation with little soft-tissue dissection and morbidity. Our relatively simple technique and positive results should encourage regular use of arthroscopic

  1. The history of astronomy a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael


    The History of Astronomy: A Very Short Introduction traces the history of Western astronomy, from prehistoric times to the origins of astrophysics in the mid-nineteenth century and the technical developments since the Second World War. Astronomy, perhaps the first of the sciences, was already well developed by the time of Christ — the arithmetical astronomy of the Babylonians was merged with the Greek geometrical approach. This legacy was transmitted to the West via Islam and led to the Copernican revolution, which in turn led to Kepler and Newton, who provided the principles on which the exploration of the solar system and the stars continued in the eighteenth- and nineteenth centuries.

  2. The laws of thermodynamics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter


    From the sudden expansion of a cloud of gas or the cooling of a hot metal, to the unfolding of a thought in our minds and even the course of life itself, everything is governed by the four Laws of Thermodynamics. These laws specify the nature of 'energy' and 'temperature', and are soon revealed to reach out and define the arrow of time itself: why things change and why death must come. In this Very Short Introduction Peter Atkins explains the basis and deeper implications of each law, highlighting their relevance in everyday examples. Using the minimum of mathematics, he introduces concepts su

  3. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey


    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.


    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large volumes. Here we present a novel analysis of the metal-poor star sample in the complete Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 5 catalog with the goal of identifying and characterizing all very me...

  4. Very metal-poor stars observed by the RAVE survey (United States)

    Matijevič, G.; Chiappini, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Kordopatis, G.; Kunder, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J. F.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Watson, F.


    Metal-poor stars trace the earliest phases in the chemical enrichment of the Universe. They give clues about the early assembly of the Galaxy as well as on the nature of the first stellar generations. Multi-object spectroscopic surveys play a key role in finding these fossil records in large volumes. Here we present a novel analysis of the metal-poor star sample in the complete Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) Data Release 5 catalog with the goal of identifying and characterizing all very metal-poor stars observed by the survey. Using a three-stage method, we first identified the candidate stars using only their spectra as input information. We employed an algorithm called t-SNE to construct a low-dimensional projection of the spectrum space and isolate the region containing metal-poor stars. Following this step, we measured the equivalent widths of the near-infrared Ca II triplet lines with a method based on flexible Gaussian processes to model the correlated noise present in the spectra. In the last step, we constructed a calibration relation that converts the measured equivalent widths and the color information coming from the 2MASS and WISE surveys into metallicity and temperature estimates. We identified 877 stars with at least a 50% probability of being very metal-poor ([Fe/H] stars with literature metallicity values shows that our method works reliably and correctly estimates the uncertainties, which typically have valuesσ[Fe/H] ≈ 0.2 dex. In addition, when compared to the metallicity results derived using the RAVE DR5 pipeline, it is evident that we achieve better accuracy than the pipeline and therefore more reliably evaluate the very metal-poor subsample. Based on the repeated observations of the same stars, our method gives very consistent results. We intend to study the identified sample further by acquiring high-resolution spectroscopic follow-up observations. The method used in this work can also easily be extended to other large-scale data sets

  5. Very High Frequency Half Bridge DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper presents the first, off chip, class DE (resonant half bridge) converter working in the Very High Frequency (VHF) range. The benefits of using half bridge circuits both in the inverter and rectifier part of a VHF resonant dc/dc converter are analyzed and design equations for all...... components in the power stage are given. The circuit has been simulated to verify the accuracy of the presented equations and an efficiency of 89% has been shown. A prototype has been implemented with self-oscillating resonant gate drives driving the switches. The prototype has been used to drive an LED...

  6. Capgras syndrome in a very late onset, treatment resistant schizophrenia. (United States)

    Ain, M K Nurul; Rosdinom, R; Raynuha, M


    We report a Malay man, with underlying chronic medical illnesses, presenting with positive symptoms of schizophrenia, including Capgras syndrome (CS) at the age of 73. Physical examination and blood investigations were normal and brain CT scan showed age-related cerebral atrophy. Neuropsychological assessment showed probable right hemisphere lesions but relatively intact memory and intellectual functions. Several neuroleptics including depot injections were tried but ineffective. Positive symptoms including CS eventually improved with clozapine before his death from myocardial infarction. This case report highlights the uncommon occurrence of CS in treatment resistant schizophrenia (TRS) of very late onset and its treatment challenges.

  7. A Very Long Foreign Body in the Bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Imai


    Full Text Available In the urinary tract, foreign body is most commonly found in the urinary bladder. But it is anatomically very difficult for a man to self-insert a long object into the urinary bladder. Here we report a case of a 49-year-old Japanese man who has inserted a 140-cm vinyl tube in the bladder for masturbation. He could not retrieve it, and the bladder foreign body remained in this position for about two years. He was referred to our hospital and open surgery was performed.

  8. Psychophysical tuning curves for very low centre frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Moore, Brian C.J.; Pedersen, Christian Sejer


    Prediction and assessment of problems produced by low-frequency noise requires information about frequency selectivity in the low-frequency range. However, there are few data on frequency selectivity for centre frequencies below 100 Hz. To estimate the characteristics of auditory tuning for very...... low frequencies, psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were obtained for centre frequencies of 31.5, 40, and 50 Hz. An equal-loudness-level contour was also obtained using closely spaced frequencies. This was used as a rough estimate of the shape of the individual middle-ear transfer function...

  9. Flexible riser global analysis for very shallow water


    Karegar, Sadjad


    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Flexible risers are widely used for a range of water depths and can accommodate large floater motions when using a buoyant system. A wide range of buoyancy solutions have been developed for very shallow water (e.g. 30-50 m), shallow water (e.g. 90-110 m) and semi-deep water (e.g. 300-400 m) and in the ranges between these depths. Flexible risers can have different configurations. These different solutions have different characteristics which influe...

  10. VSAT networks - An overview. [Very Small Aperture Terminals (United States)

    Maggenti, Mark; Ha, Tri T.; Pratt, Timothy


    This paper examines the technology and constraints of very small aperture terminals (VSAT) networks, a special type of wide-area thin-route satellite network that represents a recent innovation in the field of satellite communications. VSAT network architectures suitable for both data and voice communications are studied in this paper. Several issues concerning the frequency of operations, that is, C-band versus Ku-band are examined, and trade-offs between nonspread spectrum and spread spectrum techniques, as well as modulation and multiple access schemes, are considered in detail. Link design examples are given to illustrate the performance of various types of VSAT networks.

  11. Improvement in long-term breastfeeding for very preterm infants. (United States)

    Sharp, Mary; Campbell, Catherine; Chiffings, Debbie; Simmer, Karen; French, Noel


    The extensive health benefits of breastfeeding preterm infants for both mother and infant have been widely reported. However, establishing and maintaining breastfeeding for very preterm (VP) infants remain challenging. The aim of this study was to examine changes in breastfeeding of VP infants over time. Breastfeeding questionnaires were administered to two cohorts of parents of VP infants (breastfeeding in C2 compared with those in C1 (65.6%) (pbenefits of breastfeeding were endorsed by more women in C2 (45.8%) compared with C1 (11.4%) (pbreastfeeding of the VP infant over time. This improvement was associated with attitudinal shifts in mothers about the benefits of breastfeeding.

  12. Mapping Mars water vapor with the Very Large Array (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Grossman, Arie W.; Muhleman, Duane O.


    This paper presents the first radio measurements of Mars atmospheric water, retrieved from interferometric spectral line observations with the NRAO VLA. Large atmospheric path lengths on the limb of Mars lead to an annulus of H2O line emission which provides a measure of the diurnal and latitudinal variability of atmospheric water on Mars. The measured line shapes of the observed H2O emission yield the first direct measurements of the vertical mixing profile of H2O in the Mars atmosphere. The observations indicate a very dry Mars atmosphere in which the globally averaged water column is approximately 3 pr micron.

  13. IT Project Management in Very Small Software Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shakir, Shahid Nadeem; Nørbjerg, Jacob


    In developing countries very small software companies (VSSCs) with only 1-10 employees play an important role both in the local economy and as providers of software and services to customers in other parts of the world. Understanding and improving their IT project management (ITPM) practices...... study of seven Pakistani VSSCs. We find that some Pakistani ITPM practices are similar to what is reported from VSSCs in other parts of the world, while others seem to be related to the companies' position in the global software development chain. This paper is part of a larger research project aiming...

  14. Online POMDP Algorithms for Very Large Observation Spaces (United States)


    currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY)      06-06-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 May 2015 to 13 May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Online POMDP Algorithms for Very Large Observation Spaces 5a...approach. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Data Mining 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES    8       19a.  NAME OF

  15. Very High Frequency Interleaved Self-Oscillating Resonant SEPIC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacevic, Milovan; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper describes analysis and design procedure of an interleaved, self-oscillating resonant SEPIC converter, suitable for operation at very high frequencies (VHF) ranging from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. The presented circuit consists of two resonant SEPIC DC-DC converters, and a capacitive...... interconnection network between the switches which provides self-oscillating and interleaved operation. A design approach to ensure zero voltage switching (ZVS) condition of the MOSFET devices is provided. To verify the proposed method, an 11 W, 50 MHz prototype was built using low-cost VDMOS devices...

  16. Energy detection using very large antenna array receivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveras Martínez, Àlex; De Carvalho, Elisabeth; Popovski, Petar


    and millimeter wave communications are limited to short ranges due respectively to noise sensitivity and propagation attenuation, processing by a large number of receive antennas overcomes those shortcomings to provide significant reach extension. This processing is solely based on long-term statistics......We propose the use of energy detection for single stream transmission and reception by a very large number of antennas, with primary application to millimeter wave communications. The reason for applying energy detection is low complexity, cost and power efficiency. While both energy detection...

  17. Batched Triangular DLA for Very Small Matrices on GPUs

    KAUST Repository

    Charara, Ali


    In several scientific applications, like tensor contractions in deep learning computation or data compression in hierarchical low rank matrix approximation, the bulk of computation typically resides in performing thousands of independent dense linear algebra operations on very small matrix sizes (usually less than 100). Batched dense linear algebra kernels are becoming ubiquitous for such scientific computations. Within a single API call, these kernels are capable of simultaneously launching a large number of similar matrix computations, removing the expensive overhead of multiple API calls while increasing the utilization of the underlying hardware.

  18. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L


    In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA <28 weeks, n = 20) and infants of GA 28 - 32 weeks; the gro......In a prospective investigation, 99 very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) 24 32 weeks, birthweight 560-2,255 g) were studied during the first 4 weeks of life. The infants were divided into two groups: infants born extremely early (GA .../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... in extremely preterm, critically ill infants. Udgivelsesdato: 2000-Apr...

  19. The Next-Generation Very Large Array: Technical Overview (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark; Selina, Rob


    As part of its mandate as a national observatory, the NRAO is looking toward the long range future of radio astronomy and fostering the long term growth of the US astronomical community. NRAO has sponsored a series of science and technical community meetings to consider the science mission and design of a next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA), building on the legacies of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Very Large Array (VLA).The basic ngVLA design emerging from these discussions is an interferometric array with approximately ten times the sensitivity and ten times higher spatial resolution than the VLA and ALMA radio telescopes, optimized for operation in the wavelength range 0.3cm to 3cm. The ngVLA would open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milli-arcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broadband continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. The specifications and concepts for major ngVLA system elements are rapidly converging.We will provide an overview of the current system design of the ngVLA. The concepts for major system elements such as the antenna, receiving electronics, and central signal processing will be presented. We will also describe the major development activities that are presently underway to advance the design.

  20. Relationship quality for mothers of very preterm infants. (United States)

    Edwards, Dawn M; Gibbons, Kristen; Gray, Peter H


    There is a paucity of information on couple relationship quality in mothers of preterm infants during the first year of life. To determine couple relationship quality in mothers of very preterm infants in comparison to mothers of term infants and to examine maternal and infant factors associated with impaired couple relationship for the preterm mothers. At 4 and 12 months (corrected for prematurity for the preterm cohort), the mothers completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Parenting Stress Index and the Short Temperament Scale. At 12 months, the infants had a neurodevelopmental assessment. 86 mothers of preterm infants and 97 term mothers participated at 4 months, with 101 mothers of the preterm infants and 98 term mothers participating at 12 months. Comparisons of the two groups revealed no differences in Dyadic Adjustment or for any of the subscales. For the preterm mothers at 4 months, the independent variables associated with poor dyadic adjustment were ethnicity and higher levels of parenting stress. At 12 months, parenting stress was also an independent variable associated with impaired couple relationship. No differences in the incidence of poor quality couple relationship was found between mothers of very preterm and term infants. For preterm mothers, impaired couple relationship was associated with parenting stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Glacial lake mapping with very high resolution satellite SAR data (United States)

    Strozzi, T.; Wiesmann, A.; Kääb, A.; Joshi, S.; Mool, P.


    Floods resulting from the outbursts of glacial lakes are among the most far-reaching disasters in high mountain regions. Glacial lakes are typically located in remote areas and space-borne remote sensing data are an important source of information about the occurrence and development of such lakes. Here we show that very high resolution satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data can be employed for reliably mapping glacial lakes. Results in the Alps, Pamir and Himalaya using TerraSAR-X and Radarsat-2 data are discussed in comparison to in-situ information, and high-resolution satellite optical and radar imagery. The performance of the satellite SAR data is best during the snow- and ice-free season. In the broader perspective of hazard management, the detection of glacial lakes and the monitoring of their changes from very high-resolution satellite SAR intensity images contributes to the initial assessment of hazards related to glacial lakes, but a more integrated, multi-level approach needs also to include other relevant information such as glacier outlines and outline changes or the identification of unstable slopes above the lake and the surrounding area, information types to which SAR analysis techniques can also contribute.

  2. Theoretically optimal turbine resistance in very large wind farms (United States)

    Zapata, Alejandro; Nishino, Takafumi; Delafin, Pierre-Luc


    In this paper we further investigate and validate the novel theoretical model of very large wind farms proposed recently by Nishino (J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 753, 032054, 2016). One of the key features of the Nishino model is that a theoretically optimal turbine resistance (as well as optimal ‘turbine-scale’ and ‘farm-scale’ wind speed reduction rates) can be predicted analytically as a function of the farm density and the natural bottom friction observed before constructing the farm. To validate this theoretical model, a new set of 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed of a fully developed wind farm boundary layer over an aligned and staggered array of actuator discs with various disc resistance, inter-disc spacing and bottom roughness values. The results show that the theoretical model, which employs only one empirical model parameter, can be easily calibrated to predict very well the performance of various staggered arrays of actuator discs. This suggests the usefulness of the theoretical model not only for providing an upper limit to the performance of ideal large arrays but also for predicting the performance of realistic large arrays. The results also highlight the important fact that the optimal turbine resistance can be significantly smaller in a dense wind farm than in a sparse wind farm.

  3. Spectral Properties of AGN with Very Weak [O III] Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacevic, J.


    Full Text Available The spectral properties of a sample of 58 Active GalacticNuclei (AGN spectra, in which emission [O~III] $lambdalambda$4959, 5007 AA lines are weak or totally absent, are analyzed. In order to investigate thephysical reason for the [O~III] emission suppression, the spectral propertiesof the weak [O~III] spectra sample are compared with the same properties of asample of 269 spectra with the strong [O~III] lines. The spectra are obtainedfrom Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS Database. It is found that the objectswith the weak or absent [O~III] $lambdalambda$4959, 5007 AA linesgenerally have the high continuum luminosities (log($lambda$L$_{5100}$ $>$45, that they are very rare at smaller redshifts ($z <$ 0.3 and that theyusually have strong starburst influence. From the sample with weak or absent[O~III] lines, two boundary subgroups may be distinguished: the subgroup witha strong H$beta$ narrow component and subgroup with a very weak or negligibleH$beta$ narrow component. The physical causes for the [O~III] linessuppressing are probably different in these two subgroups: the [O~III] linesare absent in objects with strong narrow H$beta$ probably because of strongstarburst (SB activity, which produces high density of the gas, while in theobjects with the negligible narrow H$beta$, the reason for [O~III] and narrowH$beta$ suppression may be a low covering factor.

  4. Very Long Time Scales and Black Hole Thermal Equilibrium

    CERN Document Server

    Barbón, José L F


    We estimate the very long time behaviour of correlation functions in the presence of eternal black holes. It was pointed out by Maldacena (hep-th 0106112) that their vanishing would lead to a violation of a unitarity-based bound. The value of the bound is obtained from the holographic dual field theory. The correlators indeed vanish in a semiclassical bulk approximation. We trace the origin of their vanishing to the continuum energy spectrum in the presence of event horizons. We elaborate on the two very long time scales involved: one associated with the black hole and the other with a thermal gas in the vacuum background. We find that assigning a role to the thermal gas background, as suggested in the above work, does restore the compliance with a time-averaged unitarity bound. We also find that additional configurations are needed to explain the expected time dependence of the Poincar\\'e recurrences and their magnitude. It is suggested that, while a semiclassical black hole does reproduce faithfully ``coars...

  5. Very high cycle fatigue testing of concrete using ultrasonic cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, Ulrike; Schuller, Reinhard; Fitzka, Michael; Mayer, Herwig [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Physics and Materials Science; Denk, Andreas; Strauss, Alfred [Univ. of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (Austria)


    The ultrasonic fatigue testing method has been further developed to perform cyclic compression tests with concrete. Cylindrical specimens vibrate in resonance at a frequency of approximately 20 kHz with superimposed compressive static loads. The high testing frequency allows time-saving investigations in the very high cycle fatigue regime. Fatigue tests were carried out on ''Concrete 1'' (compressive strength f{sub c} = 80 MPa) and ''Concrete 2'' (f{sub c} = 107 MPa) under purely compressive loading conditions. Experiments at maximum compressive stresses of 0.44 f{sub c} (Concrete 1) and 0.38 f{sub c} (Concrete 2) delivered specimen failures above 109 cycles, indicating that no fatigue limit exists for concrete below one billion load cycles. Resonance frequency, power required to resonate the specimen and second order harmonics of the vibration are used to monitor fatigue damage in situ. Specimens were scanned by X-ray computed tomography prior to and after testing. Fatigue cracks were produced by ultrasonic cycling in the very high cycle fatigue regime at interfaces of grains as well as in cement. The possibilities as well as limitations of ultrasonic fatigue testing of concrete are discussed.

  6. [Healthcare preferences of the very elderly: A review]. (United States)

    Herrera-Tejedor, Juan

    The preferences of the very elderly are not taken into account in healthcare planning. For this reason, a medical literature review was performed in order to fill the gap in appropriate information on this issue. The majority of them think that they receive good healthcare. They favour building a trusting relationship, with the physician handling their decision-making. They also maximise their quality of life at the expense of quantity, and give great importance to comfort and safety. Most of them express the wish to be cared for and die at home. But when an acute event occurs, they want to be transferred to hospital. More explicit communication must be encouraged between very elderly patients, providers, and families to meet their subjective needs, through on-going discussions, focused on expected outcomes and patient care goals. A healthcare system designed to look after them should be based on individual and flexible care, with coordination between healthcare services. Such a healthcare system could enable a growing number of them to die in their preferred conditions. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Very High Energy Neutrinos from nearby long GRB Afterglows (United States)

    Thomas, Jessymol K.; Moharana, Reetanjali; Razzaque, Soebur


    Long duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are well-motivated sources of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) and neutrinos. During the afterglow phase these particles can be produced as a result of acceleration and interaction there in. We have modeled afterglow spectra and light curves from synchrotron cooling of accelerated electrons. We have fitted data of 17 long GRBs detected within redshift 0.5 in case of the GRB blastwave evolving in a wind and constant density interstellar medium. The afterglow photons can interact with the shock accelerated protons to produce very high energy neutrinos. We have calculated the neutrino flux for photo-pion interactions for all these GRBs. As IceCube have been detecting very high energy neutrinos for the last four years and a larger future extension called Gen 2 is planned, this calculation will help in understanding more about GRB neutrino production. Calculation of flux and estimation of events for Northern Hemisphere GRBs are done for the upcoming neutrino observatory KM3NeT.

  8. A probabilistic consequence assessment for a very high temperature reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joeun; Kim, Jintae; Jae, Moosung [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering


    Currently, fossil fuel is globally running out. If current trends continue, crude oil will be depleted in 20 years and natural gas in 40 years. In addition, the use of fossil resource has increased emissions of green gas such as carbon dioxide. Therefore, there has been a strong demand in recent years for producing large amounts of hydrogen as an alternative energy [1]. To generate hydrogen energy, very high temperature more than 900 C is required but this level is not easy to reach. Because a Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), one of next generation reactor, is able to make the temperature, it is regarded as a solution of the problem. Also, VHTR has an excellent safety in comparison with existing and other next generation reactors. Especially, a passive system, Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS), is adopted to get rid of radiant heat in case of accidents. To achieve variety requirements of new designed-reactors, however, it needs to develop new methodologies and definitions different with existing method. At the same time, an application of probability safety assessment (PSA) has been proposed to ensure the safety of next generation NPPs. For this, risk-informed designs of structures have to be developed and verified. Particularly, the passive system requires to be evaluated for its reliability. The objective of this study is to improve safety of VIITR by conducting risk profile.

  9. The Structure of Shocks in the Very Local Interstellar Medium (United States)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.


    The Voyager 1 magnetometer has detected several shock waves in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM). Interplanetary shock waves can be transmitted across the heliopause (HP) into the VLISM. The first in situ shock observed by Voyager 1 inside the VLISM was remarkably broad and had properties different than those of shocks inside the heliosphere. We present a model of the 2012 VLISM shock, which was observed to be a weak, quasi-perpendicular, low magnetosonic Mach number, low beta, and subcritical shock. Although the heliosphere is a collisionless environment, we show that the VLISM is collisional with respect to the thermal plasma, and that the thermal collisions introduce dissipative terms such as heat conduction and viscosity. The structure of the VLISM shock is determined by thermal proton–proton collisions. VLISM pickup ions (PUIs) do not introduce a significant pressure or dissipation through the shock transition, meaning that the VLISM shock is not mediated by PUIs but only by the thermal gas and magnetic field. Therefore, VLISM shocks are controlled by particle collisions and not by wave–particle interactions. We find that the weak VLISM shock is very broad with a thickness of about 0.12 au, corresponding to the characteristic thermal heat conduction scale length.

  10. Isotonic versus Hypotonic Parenteral Maintenance Fluids in Very Severe Pneumonia. (United States)

    Ramanathan, Subramaniam; Kumar, Praveen; Mishra, Kirtisudha; Dutta, Ashok Kumar


    To compare the risk of hyponatremia between hypotonic and isotonic parenteral maintenance solutions (PMS) administered to children with very severe pneumonia, admitted in the general pediatric ward. A randomized controlled open label trial was conducted in the pediatrics department of a tertiary care medical college hospital including euvolemic children 2 mo to 5 y of age, fulfilling the WHO clinical definition of very severe pneumonia and requiring PMS. They were randomized to receive either isotonic PMS (0.9% saline in 5% dextrose and potassium chloride 20 meq/L) or hypotonic PMS (0.18% saline in 5% dextrose and potassium chloride 20 meq/L) at standard rates for next 24 h. A total of 119 children were randomized (59: Isotonic; 60: Hypototonic PMS). Nine (15%) children in the isotonic PMS group and 29 (48%) in the hypotonic PMS group developed hyponatremia during the study period, (p hypotonic group compared to the isotonic group (p < 0.001 each at 6, 12 and 24 h). The difference in mean change in serum sodium from baseline was also significant at 12 and 24 h (5.4 and 5.8 meq/L respectively; p < 0.001 each). This study demonstrates the rationality of the use of isotonic PMS in children with respiratory infections, a condition regularly encountered by most pediatricians.

  11. Neonatal morbidity and early outcome of very preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada


    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions. The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most frequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm infants remain very vulnerable group of population, and interventions to reduce the morbidity and mortality of preterm babies include tertiary interventions such as regionalized care, transportation in uterus, and treatment with antenatal steroids.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Barnard College, Columbia University, NY 10027 (United States); Aune, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Barnacka, A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Berger, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and the Bartol Research Institute, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Biteau, J. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, 14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connaughton, V. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Cui, W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Falcone, A., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others


    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst.

  13. Strongly Interacting Matter at Very High Energy Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLerran, L.


    The authors discuss the study of matter at very high energy density. In particular: what are the scientific questions; what are the opportunities to makes significant progress in the study of such matter and what facilities are now or might be available in the future to answer the scientific questions? The theoretical and experimental study of new forms of high energy density matter is still very much a 'wild west' field. There is much freedom for developing new concepts which can have order one effects on the way we think about such matter. It is also a largely 'lawless' field, in that concepts and methods are being developed as new information is generated. There is also great possibility for new experimental discovery. Most of the exciting results from RHIC experiments were unanticipated. The methods used for studying various effects like flow, jet quenching, the ridge, two particle correlations etc. were developed as experiments evolved. I believe this will continue to be the case at LHC and as we use existing and proposed accelerators to turn theoretical conjecture into tangible reality. At some point this will no doubt evolve into a precision science, and that will make the field more respectable, but for my taste, the 'wild west' times are the most fun.

  14. Is salivary estriol detectable in very early pregnancy? (United States)

    Wingeier, Manuela; La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike


    Estriol (E3) is produced by the placenta and is important for early pregnancy maintenance. In blood, E3 can be detected from the 8th week of pregnancy. Under the influence of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hormone ACTH, E3 levels increase sharply after the 10th week. Although E3 can be reliably analyzed in saliva, till now information about the concentrations during the first trimester is missing. The aim of this study was to verify whether the sensitivity of a newly developed enzyme immunoassay is sufficient for the determination of salivary E3 (sE3) in very early pregnancy. Saliva samples were collected at home, once weekly in 25 healthy pregnant women from the 6th week of gestation to the end of the first trimester. sE3 was detectable from the beginning of the 6th pregnancy week (M = 3.17 pg/ml, SD = 2.13). A steep significant increase between the 7th and the 8th week (p = 0.029) and again between the 10th and the 11th week (p = 0.001) was apparent. Low concentrations of sE3 can be measured during very early pregnancy and may serve as a promising, easily assessable marker for future research on the mechanisms of healthy pregnancy.

  15. Volume Based DTM Generation from Very High Resolution Photogrammetric Dsms (United States)

    Piltz, B.; Bayer, S.; Poznanska, A. M.


    In this paper we propose a new algorithm for digital terrain (DTM) model reconstruction from very high spatial resolution digital surface models (DSMs). It represents a combination of multi-directional filtering with a new metric which we call normalized volume above ground to create an above-ground mask containing buildings and elevated vegetation. This mask can be used to interpolate a ground-only DTM. The presented algorithm works fully automatically, requiring only the processing parameters minimum height and maximum width in metric units. Since slope and breaklines are not decisive criteria, low and smooth and even very extensive flat objects are recognized and masked. The algorithm was developed with the goal to generate the normalized DSM for automatic 3D building reconstruction and works reliably also in environments with distinct hillsides or terrace-shaped terrain where conventional methods would fail. A quantitative comparison with the ISPRS data sets Potsdam and Vaihingen show that 98-99% of all building data points are identified and can be removed, while enough ground data points (~66%) are kept to be able to reconstruct the ground surface. Additionally, we discuss the concept of size dependent height thresholds and present an efficient scheme for pyramidal processing of data sets reducing time complexity to linear to the number of pixels, O(WH).

  16. Radio variability survey of very low luminosity protostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Minho; Kang, Miju [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeokdaero, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)


    Ten very low luminosity objects were observed multiple times in the 8.5 GHz continuum in search of protostellar magnetic activities. A radio outburst of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS was detected, and the variability timescale was about 20 days or shorter. The results of this survey and archival observations suggest that IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is in active states about half the time. Archival data show that L1014 IRS and L1148 IRS were detectable previously and suggest that at least 20%-30% of very low luminosity protostars are radio variables. Considering the variability timescale and flux level of IRAM 04191+1522 IRS and the previous detection of the circular polarization of L1014 IRS, the radio outbursts of these protostars are probably caused by magnetic flares. However, IRAM 04191+1522 IRS is too young and small to develop an internal convective dynamo. If the detected radio emission is indeed coming from magnetic flares, the discovery implies that the flares may be caused by the fossil magnetic fields of interstellar origin.

  17. Prediction of Torsional Strength for Very High Early Strength Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woraphot PRACHASAREE


    Full Text Available Very early high strength geopolymers are gaining acceptance as alternative repair materials for highways and other infrastructure. In this study, a very rapid geopolymer binder based on Metakaolin (MK and Parawood ash (PWA, developed by the authors, was experimentally tested and a prediction model for its torsional strength is proposed. The geopolymer samples were subjected to uniaxial compression, flexural beam, and torsion tests. The modulus of rupture and torsional strength in terms of compression strength were found to be well approximated by 0.7(f’c1/2 and 1/7(x2y (f’c1/2, respectively. Also an interaction relation to describe combined bending and torsion was developed in this study. In addition, the effects of aspect ratio (y/x were studied on both torsional strength and combined bending and torsion. It was found that an aspect ratio of y/x = 3 significantly reduced the torsional resistance, to about 50 % of the torsional strength of a square section.DOI:

  18. Very Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Morphologic Classification of Erythrocytes. (United States)

    Durant, Thomas J S; Olson, Eben M; Schulz, Wade L; Torres, Richard


    Morphologic profiling of the erythrocyte population is a widely used and clinically valuable diagnostic modality, but one that relies on a slow manual process associated with significant labor cost and limited reproducibility. Automated profiling of erythrocytes from digital images by capable machine learning approaches would augment the throughput and value of morphologic analysis. To this end, we sought to evaluate the performance of leading implementation strategies for convolutional neural networks (CNNs) when applied to classification of erythrocytes based on morphology. Erythrocytes were manually classified into 1 of 10 classes using a custom-developed Web application. Using recent literature to guide architectural considerations for neural network design, we implemented a "very deep" CNN, consisting of >150 layers, with dense shortcut connections. The final database comprised 3737 labeled cells. Ensemble model predictions on unseen data demonstrated a harmonic mean of recall and precision metrics of 92.70% and 89.39%, respectively. Of the 748 cells in the test set, 23 misclassification errors were made, with a correct classification frequency of 90.60%, represented as a harmonic mean across the 10 morphologic classes. These findings indicate that erythrocyte morphology profiles could be measured with a high degree of accuracy with "very deep" CNNs. Further, these data support future efforts to expand classes and optimize practical performance in a clinical environment as a prelude to full implementation as a clinical tool. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B. [Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030 (China); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Menten, K. M. [Max-Plank-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Zheng, X. W., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)


    We report astrometric results of phase-referencing very long baseline interferometry observations of 43 GHz SiO maser emission toward the red hypergiant VY Canis Majoris (VY CMa) using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). We measured a trigonometric parallax of 0.83 {+-} 0.08 mas, corresponding to a distance of 1.20{sup +0.13}{sub -0.10} kpc. Compared to previous studies, the spatial distribution of SiO masers has changed dramatically, while its total extent remains similar. The internal motions of the maser spots are up to 1.4 mas yr{sup -1}, corresponding to 8 km s{sup -1}, and show a tendency for expansion. After modeling the expansion of maser spots, we derived an absolute proper motion for the central star of {mu}{sub x} = -2.8 {+-} 0.2 and {mu}{sub y} = 2.6 {+-} 0.2 mas yr{sup -1} eastward and northward, respectively. Based on the maser distribution from the VLBA observations, and the relative position between the radio photosphere and the SiO maser emission at 43 GHz from the complementary Very Large Array observations, we estimate the absolute position of VY CMa at mean epoch 2006.53 to be {alpha}{sub J2000} = 07{sup h}22{sup m}58.{sup s}3259 {+-} 0.{sup s}0007, {delta}{sub J2000} = -25 Degree-Sign 46'03.''063 {+-} 0.''010. The position and proper motion of VY CMa from the VLBA observations differ significantly with values measured by the Hipparcos satellite. These discrepancies are most likely associated with inhomogeneities and dust scattering the optical light in the circumstellar envelope. The absolute proper motion measured with VLBA suggests that VY CMa may be drifting out of the giant molecular cloud to the east of it.

  20. Impaired language abilities and white matter abnormalities in children born very preterm and/or very low birth weight (United States)

    Reidy, Natalie; Morgan, Angela; Thompson, Deanne K; Inder, Terrie E.; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    Objectives To investigate language abilities in children born very preterm (VPT; pragmatics. A mediation effect was tested between birth group, white matter abnormality, and language sub-domains. Results The VPT/VLBW group performed significantly worse than controls on all language sub-domains (all p pragmatics (p = .13). Conclusions Language is an important area of concern in children born VPT/VLBW. Neonatal white matter abnormality is an important predictor of outcome; however, different language abilities are differentially associated with neonatal white matter abnormality. PMID:23158026

  1. Veri Madenciliği ve Bilgi Merkezleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Arslantekin


    Full Text Available Günümüzde bir çok kurum ve kuruluş işlem ve hizmetlerini otomasyona geçirmiş­tir. Bu kurum ve kuruluşlar kullanıcı odaklı olarak faaliyetlerini Internet üzerin­den de sürdürmeye çalışırken, daha büyük kazanımlar elde etme amacındadır. Elde etmek istedikleri kazanımlar kalitelerini arttırmalarının yanında, kullanıcı memnuniyetine de dayanmaktadır. Kullanıcılarının ürün ve hizmetlerinden ne ka­dar yararlandıkları, memnun kalıp kalmadıkları ancak, onların davranışları iz­lenerek ortaya konabilir. Bilgi merkezleri de kullanıcı davranışlarını izleyen ve elde ettiği bilgilere göre işlem ve hizmetlerini geliştiren kurumlardandır. Bilgisa­yara dayalı işler sürecinde otomatik olarak oluşan verinin işlenip analiz edilme­si, bilgi merkezlerine çalışanları ve kullanıcıları hakkında anlamlı bilgiler suna­caktır. İşlemler ve kullanım sırasında oluşan veri büyük bir yığın halinde olup, bu yığından anlamlı veri elde edilmesi bazı özel yöntem ve tekniklerin kullanıl­masını gerektirmektedir. Veri madenciliği oluşan verilerin toplanması, bir yapay zeka aracılığıyla analiz edilmesi ve yorumlanarak amaç ve hedeflere ulaşmada gerekli adımları önermesi sürecidir.

  2. Veri Madenciliği ve Bilgi Merkezleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacit Arslantekin


    Full Text Available Günümüzde bir çok kurum ve kuruluş işlem ve hizmetlerini otomasyona geçirmiştir. Bu kurum ve kuruluşlar kullanıcı odaklı olarak faaliyetlerini Internet üzerinden de sürdürmeye çalışırken, daha büyük kazanımlar elde etme amacındadır. Elde etmek istedikleri kazanımlar kalitelerini arttırmalarının yanında, kullanıcı memnuniyetine de dayanmaktadır. Kullanıcılarının ürün ve hizmetlerinden ne kadar yararlandıkları, memnun kalıp kalmadıkları ancak, onların davranışları izlenerek ortaya konabilir. Bilgi merkezleri de kullanıcı davranışlarını izleyen ve elde ettiği bilgilere göre işlem ve hizmetlerini geliştiren kurumlardandır. Bilgisayara dayalı işler sürecinde otomatik olarak oluşan verinin işlenip analiz edilmesi, bilgi merkezlerine çalışanları ve kullanıcıları hakkında anlamlı bilgiler sunacaktır. İşlemler ve kullanım sırasında oluşan veri büyük bir yığın halinde olup, bu yığından anlamlı veri elde edilmesi bazı özel yöntem ve tekniklerin kullanılmasını gerektirmektedir. Veri madenciliği oluşan verilerin toplanması, bir yapay zeka aracılığıyla analiz edilmesi ve yorumlanarak amaç ve hedeflere ulaşmada gerekli adımları önermesi sürecidir.

  3. Hard, infrared black coating with very low outgassing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Behne, D M; Casserly, T; Boardman, W; Upadhyaya, D; Boinapally, K; Gupta, M; Cao, Y


    Infrared astronomical instruments require absorptive coatings on internal surfaces to trap scattered and stray photons. This is typically accomplished with any one of a number of black paints. Although inexpensive and simple to apply, paint has several disadvantages. Painted surfaces can be fragile, prone to shedding particles, and difficult to clean. Most importantly, the vacuum performance is poor. Recently a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process was developed to apply thick (30 {micro}m) diamond-like carbon (DLC) based protective coatings to the interior of oil pipelines. These DLC coatings show much promise as an infrared black for an ultra high vacuum environment. The coatings are very robust with excellent cryogenic adhesion. Their total infrared reflectivity of < 10% at normal incidence approaches that of black paints. We measured outgas rates of <10{sup -12} Torr liter/sec cm{sup 2}, comparable to bare stainless steel.

  4. Plastic film materials for dosimetry of very large absorbed doses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaughlin, W.L.; Miller, Arne; Abdel-Rahim, F.


    Most plastic films have limited response ranges for dosimetry because of radiation-induced brittleness, degradation, or saturation of the signal used for analysis (e.g. spectrophotometry) at high doses. There are, however, a few types of thin plastic films showing linearity of response even up......, the dyed polychlorostyrenes show essentially the same response to radiation-processing gamma-ray fields and to very high-intensity electron beams, and a relatively stable absorption spectrum at wavelengths for dosimetry analysis in the visible spectral region of ≈430 nm....... to doses as high as 2 × 106 Gy (200 Mrad) without severe loss of mechanical properties. Among many candidate film types tested, those showing such resistance to radiation damage and continued response at such high doses are polyethylene terephthalate, high-density polyethylene, dyed polyvinylchloride...

  5. A very simple technique to repair Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia. (United States)

    Solaini, Leonardo; di Francesco, F; Gourgiotis, S; Solaini, Luciano


    A very simple technique to repair a superior lumbar hernia is described. The location of this type of hernia, also known as the Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia, is defined by a triangle placed in the lumbar region. An unusual case of a 67-year-old woman with a superior lumbar hernia is reported. The diagnosis was made by physical examination. The defect of the posterior abdominal wall was repaired with a polypropylene dart mesh. The patient had no evidence of recurrence at 11 months follow up. The surgical approach described in this paper is simple and easy to perform, and its result is comparable with other techniques that are much more sophisticated. No cases on the use of dart mesh to repair Grynfeltt-Lesshaft hernia have been reported by surgical journals indexed in PubMed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Rimmer


    Steady development in SRF accelerator technology combined with the success of large scale installations such as CEBAF at Jefferson Laboratory and the SNS Linac at ORNL gives credibility to the concept of very high average power CW machines for light sources or Proton drivers. Such machines would be powerful tools for discovery science in themselves but could also pave the way to reliable cost effective drivers for such applications as neutrino factories, an energy-frontier muon collider, nuclear waste transmutation or accelerator driven subcritical reactors for energy production. In contrast to machines such as ILC that need maximum accelerating gradient, the challenges in these machines are mainly in efficiency, reliability, beam stability, beam loss and of course cost. In this paper the present state of the art is briefly reviewed and options for a multi-GeV, multi-MW CW linac are discussed.

  7. Structure of liquid oxides at very high temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Landron, C; Thiaudiere, D; Price, D L; Greaves, G N


    The structural characterization of condensed matter by synchrotron radiation combined with neutron data constitutes a powerful structural tool in material science. In order to investigate refractory liquids at very high temperatures, we have developed a new analysis chamber for performing combined X-ray absorption and diffraction measurements by using laser heating and aerodynamic levitation. A similar system has been designed for neutron experiments. This high temperature equipment presents several advantages: the container does not physically or chemically perturb the sample, heterogeneous nucleation during cooling is suppressed and pollution by the container is removed. This cell can operate under various gas conditions from room temperature up to 3000 deg. C obtained by means of a sealed 125 W CO sub 2 laser. Experiments have been performed at LURE, ESRF and at ISIS. We have studied the local structure around the cations in several liquid and solid oxides. We have shown that high temperature synchrotron d...

  8. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot


    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  9. Roles of Pel and Psl in very early biofilm development (United States)

    Cooley, B. J.; Thatcher, Travis; L'Her, Guillaume; Reed, Erin; Stuart, Jamie; Kissinger, April; Gordon, Vernita


    Biofilms are dynamic, multicellular communities of unicellular organisms. Biofilms cause many chronic infections; an important case is the opportunistic human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bacteria in biofilms produce an extracellular matrix that binds bacteria to each other and to a surface. The two primary extracellular matrix components produced by P. aeruginosa are the polysaccharides Pel and Psl. Here we examine the roles of Pel and Psl in the very early stages of biofilm development, just after initial surface attachment. We use high-throughput automated tracking and analysis to compare wild-type bacteria with mutants incapable of producing Pel, Psl, or both. We examine motion on a surface as well as inter-bacterial interactions. These results quantify the unique roles played by Pel and Psl and show an unexpected relationship between Pel expression and adhesion to a surface.

  10. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Dutta


    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  11. Micromapping of very rare anemias: the model of CDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann Heimpel


    Full Text Available The congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, first described in 1966 and classified into four distinct types in 1968, are still very rare. However, many cases were described in recent years, mainly in European Countries. The detection of mutations of the CDAN1-gene (Tamary et al. from Israel in all cases of CDA I and of the SEC23B-gene in almost all cases of CDA II (Schwarz, Iolascon, Heimpel et al. from Germany and Italy, Zanella, Bianchi et al. from Italy stimulated greater awarness of the CDAs and resulted in many recent reports from all continents. Period prevalance of the the last 50 years in the European countries collated in the German Registry on CDAs were calculated in 2009 and published in 2010. The cumulated incidence of both types combined variedwidely between European regions, with minimal values of 0.08 cases⁄million in Scandinavia and 2.60 cases⁄million in Italy...

  12. Turbulent kinetic energy spectrum in very anisothermal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Sylvain, E-mail: [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Toutant, Adrien, E-mail: [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Bataille, Françoise, E-mail: [PROcedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire, UPR CNRS 8521, Rambla de la thermodynamique, Tecnosud, 66100 Perpignan (France); Zhou, Ye, E-mail: [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)


    In this Letter, we find that the Kolmogorov scaling law is no longer valid when the flow is submitted to strong dilatational effects caused by high temperature gradients. As a result, in addition to the nonlinear time scale, there is a much shorter “temperature gradients” time scale. We propose a model that estimates the time scale of the triple decorrelation incorporating the influences of the temperature gradient. The model agrees with the results from the thermal large-eddy simulations of different Reynolds numbers and temperature gradients. This Letter provides a better understanding of the very anisothermal turbulent flow. -- Highlights: ► Turbulent flows subject to high temperature gradients are considered. ► The new “temperature gradients” time scale is determined. ► A generalized energy spectrum is developed to incorporate the effects of temperature gradient.

  13. Visualising very large phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liberles David A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common existing phylogenetic tree visualisation tools are not able to display readable trees with more than a few thousand nodes. These existing methodologies are based in two dimensional space. Results We introduce the idea of visualising phylogenetic trees in three dimensional hyperbolic space with the Walrus graph visualisation tool and have developed a conversion tool that enables the conversion of standard phylogenetic tree formats to Walrus' format. With Walrus, it becomes possible to visualise and navigate phylogenetic trees with more than 100,000 nodes. Conclusion Walrus enables desktop visualisation of very large phylogenetic trees in 3 dimensional hyperbolic space. This application is potentially useful for visualisation of the tree of life and for functional genomics derivatives, like The Adaptive Evolution Database (TAED.

  14. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings. (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen


    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors.

  15. Very high Mach number shocks - Theory. [in space plasmas (United States)

    Quest, Kevin B.


    The theory and simulation of collisionless perpendicular supercritical shock structure is reviewed, with major emphasis on recent research results. The primary tool of investigation is the hybrid simulation method, in which the Newtonian orbits of a large number of ion macroparticles are followed numerically, and in which the electrons are treated as a charge neutralizing fluid. The principal results include the following: (1) electron resistivity is not required to explain the observed quasi-stationarity of the earth's bow shock, (2) the structure of the perpendicular shock at very high Mach numbers depends sensitively on the upstream value of beta (the ratio of the thermal to magnetic pressure) and electron resistivity, (3) two-dimensional turbulence will become increasingly important as the Mach number is increased, and (4) nonadiabatic bulk electron heating will result when a thermal electron cannot complete a gyrorbit while transiting the shock.

  16. Clustering of very luminous infrared galaxies and their environment (United States)

    Gao, YU


    The IRAS survey reveals a class of ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (ULIRG's) with IR luminosities comparable to the bolometric luminosities of quasars. The nature, origin, and evolution of ULIRG's are attracting more and more attention recently. Since galaxy morphology is certainly a function of environment, morphological observations show that ULIRG's are interacting/merging galaxies, and some ULIRG's might be the dust-enshrouded quasars (S88) or giant ellipticals, the study of ULIRG's environment and large scale clustering effects should be worthwhile. ULIRG's and very luminous IR galaxies have been selected from the 2Jy IRAS redshift survey. Meanwhile, a catalog of IRAS groups of galaxies has been constructed using a percolation-like algorithm. Therefore, whether ULIRG's and/or VLIRG's have a group environment can be checked immediately. Other aspects of the survey are discussed.

  17. A 43-level filterless CMLI with very low harmonics values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud El-Bakry


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 43-level asymmetric uniform step cascaded multilevel inverter (CMLI that consists of four H-bridges per phase, with different dc sources of values E, 2E, 7E and 11E. A mixed integer linear programming (MILP optimization model is applied to determine the switching angles of the CMLI power switches that can minimize the values of any undesired harmonics. Single phase and three phase cases are considered. The results show very low values of all the undesired harmonics over wide voltage ranges, which agree with the IEEE standards 519-1992 for voltage distortion limits for both the values of %THDE and %VHmax so that no output filters are needed.

  18. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre

    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply...... band gap semiconductors and integrated power supplies. Afterwards a wide range of topologies suited for operation at very high frequencies is investigated and the most promising ones are tested experimentally. Through a comparison of these topologies the class DE inverter is found to be superior...... to the other alternatives, at least for converters with hundreds of volts as input and a few tens of watts output power. A class DE inverter does however require a high side gate drive, which have never been presented before for these frequencies and voltages. This thesis presents the worlds first high side...

  19. Patent Ductus Arteriosus Treatment in Very Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin; Gudmundsdottir, Anna; Maier, Rolf F


    conducted during 2011 and 2012. A total of 6,896 infants with data on PDA treatment were included. The differences in infant characteristics were studied across regions using a propensity score derived from perinatal risk factors for PDA treatment. The primary outcomes were a composite of BPD or death...... in very preterm infants (≤31 weeks of gestation), its relation to differences in perinatal characteristics, and associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and survival without major neonatal morbidity. METHODS: This was a population-based cohort study in 19 regions in 11 European countries...... before 36 weeks postmenstrual age, or survival without major neonatal morbidity. RESULTS: The proportion of PDA treatment varied from 10 to 39% between regions (p perinatal characteristics. The regions were categorized according...

  20. Preschool temperament of very-low-birth-weight infants. (United States)

    Schraeder, B D; Tobey, G Y


    This longitudinal study examined the toddler and preschool behavioral characteristics of children who were born with very low birth weights (VLBW; less than or equal to 1,500 grams). The subjects were 40 VLBW children (average birth weight, 1,203 grams) who at birth were appropriate for gestational age and free from congenital anomalies. Data were gathered during home visits when the children were 12, 24, 36 and 48 months and were analyzed using Pearson product moment correlation and z tests. Arrhythmicity, low adaptability, and low persistence during the toddler and preschool years characterized the behavioral styles of VLBW children. The temperament dimensions of rhythmicity, adaptability, intensity, mood, and threshold were related to the quality of the child's environment. Clinicians need to be alert to the impact of temperament on the interpersonal milieu of VLBW children and their families.

  1. Dirac equation in very special relativity for hydrogen atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V. Maluf


    Full Text Available In this work, we study the modified Dirac equation in the framework of very special relativity (VSR. The low-energy regime is accessed and the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is obtained. It turns out that this Hamiltonian is similar to that achieved from the Standard Model Extension (SME via coupling of the spinor field to a Lorentz-violating term, but new features arise inherited from the non-local character of the VSR. In addition, the implications of the VSR-modified Lorentz symmetry on the spectrum of a hydrogen atom are determined by calculating the first-order energy corrections in the context of standard quantum mechanics. Among the results, we highlight that the modified Hamiltonian provides non-vanishing corrections which lift the degeneracy of the energy levels and allow us to find an upper bound upon the VSR-parameter.

  2. In Vivo Mutagenic Effect of Very Low Dose Radiation (United States)

    Sykes, Pamela J.; Day, Tanya K.; Swinburne, Sarah J.; Lane, Joanne M.; Morley, Alexander A.; Hooker, Antony M.; Bhat, Madhava


    Almost all of our knowledge about the mutational effect of radiation has come from high dose studies which are generally not relevant to public exposure. The pKZ1 mouse recombination mutagenesis assay enables study of the mutational effect of very low doses of low LET radiation (μGy to cGy range) in a whole animal model. The mutational end-point studied is chromosomal inversion which is a common mutation in cancer. We have observed 1) a non-linear dose response of induced inversions in pKZ1 mice exposed to a wide dose range of low LET radiation, 2) the ability of low priming doses to cause an adaptive response to subsequent higher test doses and 3) the effect of genetic susceptibility where animals that are heterozygous for the Ataxia Telangiectasia gene (Atm) exhibit different responses to low dose radiation compared to their normal litter-mates. PMID:18648587

  3. The quest for very low-mass planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, M; Udry, S [Geneva Observatory, Geneva University, 51 ch des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland)], E-mail:


    The statistical results gathered on exoplanet properties over the past decade provide strong constraints for planet-formation models. They now prove to be especially important for the new category of very low-mass solid planets recently revealed by improved radial velocities, obtained mainly with the HARPS spectrograph. We review here the emerging properties of this newly discovered population, in the light of results from state-of-the-art planet-formation models. We also discuss the limitations of the radial-velocity method and the associated optimistic perspectives for the future detection of Earth-like planets in the Habitable Zone of solar-type stars, with radial velocities alone or in complement to space photometry.

  4. Born–Infeld electrodynamics in very special relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bufalo


    Full Text Available In this work we discuss the properties of a modified Born–Infeld electrodynamics in the framework of very special relativity (VSR. This proposal allows us to study VSR mass effects in a gauge-invariant context of nonlinear electrodynamics. It is analyzed in detail the electrostatic solutions for two different cases, as well as the VSR dispersion relations are found to be of a massive particle with nonlinear modifications. Afterwards, the field energy and static potential are computed, in the latter we find from the VSR contribution a novel long-range 1/L3 correction to the Coulomb potential, in contrast to the 1/L5 correction of the usual Born–Infeld theory.

  5. Gas film lubrication equations for very small clearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobehart, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reyna, L.G. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center


    In the hard disk magnetic recording technology, the slider carrying the magnetic elements is supported above the magnetic disk by a self-acting air bearing, which produces the load support. A lubricating film must support a required load with suitably small frictional energy losses and without introducing undesirable instabilities. Under submicron clearance conditions, gas film flow can not be described with continuum models since the molecular mean free path is not negligible compared with the clearance. Accurate results for the load-carrying capacity of gas films for arbitrary Knudsen number are very important since they strongly influence the design of the flying head slider and, consequently, the performance of the magnetic disk storage unit. Here we generalize the previous lubrication equations for arbitrary Knudsen number, accommodation coefficient and a small inclination of the slider relative to the magnetic disk surface.

  6. Mass Measurement of Very Short Half-Lived Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    Duma, M; Iacob, V E; Thibault, C


    The MISTRAL (Mass measurements at ISolde with a Transmission RAdiofrequency spectrometer on-Line) experiment exploits a rapid measurement technique to make accurate mass determinations of very short-lived nuclei. The physics goals are to elucidate new nuclear structure effects and constrain nuclear mass models in regions of interest to nuclear astrophysics.\\\\ \\\\The spectrometer, installed in May 97, performed as promised in the proposal with mass resolution exceeding 100,000. In its first experiment in July 1998, neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms were measured. A second experiment in November 1998 enabled us to improve the measurement precision of the isotopes $^{26-30}$Na to about 20 keV. The measurement program continues as experiment IS 373.

  7. Morphological development of coasts at very oblique wave incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dorthe Pia; Deigaard, Rolf; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    that such a spit grows without changing its shape i.e. an equilibrium form emerge if the coast is exposed to a constant wave climate. During experiments conducted in a wave tank where a uniform stretch of coast was exposed to waves approaching at a very oblique angle an accumulating spit was formed at the down...... stretch of coast, along the spit as the coast curves away from the approaching waves towards the tip of the spit. A one-line model for the coastline development predicts that accumulating spits can exist on coasts exposed to waves approaching at angles larger than 45 degree only. It is suggested......-drift end of the coast. The spits approached equilibrium forms when constant wave climates were applied. The sediment transport around the spit has been investigated by two-dimensional models. The characteristic length scale for the equilibrium form depends linearly on the width of the surf zone...

  8. CERN in FP7: very successful participation so far

    CERN Document Server


    The first two years of the seventh Framework Programme were very successful for CERN – 27 EU projects were selected for funding in 2007 and 2008, with the total EC contribution exceeding 33 million euros.The seventh European Union Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration activities (FP7) started on 1 January 2007 and will cover the period from 2007 to 2013. With a total budget of 50.5 billion euros, FP7 is the largest Framework Programme in the history of the EU. FP7 consists of four major sub-programmes, referred to as "Specific Programmes": "Cooperation" is focused on collaborative research projects and is divided into 10 thematic areas. "Ideas" is a new EU programme for funding frontier research in all fields of science. "Capacities" aims at strengthening the research capacities in Europe, including research infrastructures and e-infrastructures. Finally, "People" succeeds the p...

  9. Interaction of very small voids with larger voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    For a very small void in the material between much larger voids the influence of local stress increases induced by the larger voids is studied numerically. The point of interest is whether or not such local stress increases result in a cavitation instability at the tiny void, even if the average ...... an important role. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....... the full 3D numerical problem. For overall stress levels as large as those reached ahead of a blunting crack tip, a cavitation instability at the small void, induced by interaction with the large voids, is not found here. But the results show that localization of plastic how in the unit cell plays...

  10. International data transfer for space very long baseline interferometry (United States)

    Wiercigroch, Alexandria B.


    Space very long baseline interferometry (SVLBI) experiments using a TDRSS satellite have successfully demonstrated the capability of using spacecraft to extend the effective baseline length of VLBI observations beyond the diameter of the Earth, thereby improving the resolution for imaging of active galactic nuclei at centimeter wavelengths. As a result, two spacecraft dedicated to SVLBI, VSOP (Japan) and RadioAstron (Russia), are scheduled to be launched into high Earth orbit in 1996 and 1997. The success of these missions depends on the cooperation of the international community in providing support from ground tracking stations, ground radio telescopes, and correlation facilities. The timely exchange and monitoring of data among the participants requires a well-designed and automated international data transfer system. In this paper, we will discuss the design requirements, data types and flows, and the operational responsibilities associated with the SVLBI data transfer system.

  11. On non-linear very large sea wave groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, F. [University ' Mediterranea' of Reggio Calabria (Italy). Department of Mechanics and Materials


    The paper deals with the non-linear effects for sea wave groups. Boccotti's quasi-determinism theory, which is exact to the first-order in a Stokes expansion, gives the mechanics of sea wave groups when either a very high crest (first formulation of the theory - 'New Wave'), or a large crest-to-trough wave height (second formulation of the theory) occurs. In this paper, quasi-determinism theory, in both formulations, is extended to the second-order, by obtaining the expressions of free surface displacement and velocity potential, as a function of wave spectrum. Finally it is shown that analytical predictions are in good agreement with both field data and data of Monte Carlo simulations of non-linear random waves. (author)

  12. Rational Suicide, Euthanasia, and the Very Old: Two Case Reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Pamela Frances Wand


    Full Text Available Suicide amongst the very old is an important public health issue. Little is known about why older people may express a wish to die or request euthanasia and how such thoughts may intersect with suicide attempts. Palliative care models promote best care as holistic and relieving suffering without hastening death in severely ill patients; but what of those old people who are tired of living and may have chronic symptoms, disability, and reduced quality of life? Two cases of older people who attempted suicide but expressed a preference for euthanasia were it legal are presented in order to illustrate the complexity underlying such requests. The absence of a mood or anxiety disorder underpinning their wishes to die further emphasises the importance of understanding the individual’s narrative and the role of a formulation in guiding broad biopsychosocial approaches to management.

  13. Very long-term incision dynamics of big rivers (United States)

    Grimaud, Jean-Louis; Chardon, Dominique; Beauvais, Anicet


    Constraining large-scale incision dynamics of shield and post-rift margin domains is key to understanding the sediment routing system over the overwhelming part of the continental surface. Based on dated and regionally correlated incision markers from West Africa, we reconstruct for the first time the entire paleo-long profiles of big rivers such as the Niger at ca. 24, 11 and 6 Ma, as well as the Eocene topography those rivers have dissected. The results provide boundary conditions and calibration for surface process models and paleodrainage dynamics. Though spatially and temporally variable, incision remained mostly below 10m /my with a mean around 5m /my. The spatial stability of both the river outlets and divides imposed maintenance or increasing concavity of the river long profiles through time, resulting from spatially contrasted adjustment of river segments bounded by recurrent lithogenic knickzones that persisted since 24 Ma. Drainages evolved preferentially by very slow slope decrease or uniform incision in between the stationary knickzones of evolving amplitude, with apparently no relation to base level change. Therefore, knickzone height or position may not simply reflect the transient response of big rivers to base level fall as predicted by stream-power incision river models. This may also challenge uplift histories of deep continental interiors retrieved from river long profiles inversion relying on such models. Very slow incision allowed amplification of the Hoggar hot spot swell and flexural uplift of the continental margin to be recorded by river long profiles, emphasizing the potential of big non-orogenic rivers as gauges of dynamic topography.

  14. ST-elevation myocardial infarction risk in the very elderly. (United States)

    Campos, Alessandra M; Placido-Sposito, Andrea; Freitas, Wladimir M; Moura, Filipe A; Guariento, Maria Elena; Nadruz, Wilson; Moriguchi, Emilio H; Sposito, Andrei C


    Despite the high incidence and mortality of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) among the very elderly, risk markers for this condition remain poorly defined. This study was designed to identify independent markers of STEMI among individuals carefully selected for being healthy or manifesting STEMI in Ratio (OR) and attributed risk (AR) were obtained by multivariate regression models using STEMI as dependent variable. Low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) [OR:4.41 (1.78-10.95); p = 0.001], reduced levels of HDL-C [OR:10.70 (3.88-29.46); p = 0.001], male gender [OR:12.08 (5.82-25.08); p = 0.001], moderate to severe depressive symptoms [OR:10.00 (2.82-35.50); p = 0.001], prior smoking [OR:2.00 (1.05-3.80); p = 0.034] and current smoking [OR:6.58 (1.99-21.70); p = 0.002] were significantly associated with STEMI. No association was found between STEMI and age, diabetes, hypertension, mild depressive symptoms, triglyceride or LDL-C. This is the first case-control study carried out with very elderlies to assess STEMI risk. Our findings indicate that reduced HDL-C, GFR, male gender, smoking habits and moderate to severe depressive symptoms are markers of STEMI in this age group. In Individuals aged 80 or more years, a greater attention must be paid to low HDL-C and GFR at the expense of conventional STEMI risk factors for younger adults such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension and high LDL-C or triglyceride.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kornienko


    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis has a tendency to manifest at earlier age. In childhood (< 6 years of age it has an especially severe course and is characterized by high grade inflammation, predominantly in the colon, by complication and extra-intestinal autoimmune injury. At younger age, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis require more aggressive treatment with frequently poor results. From genetic point of view, monogenic mutations controlling the immune response are characteristic for these diseases with an early onset; therefore, they are frequently associated with primary immunodeficiency. This implies various immunologic deficits, such as breakdown of the epithelial barrier, phagocytic dysfunction and dysfunction of Т and В lymphocytes and regulatory Т cells. Depending on this, a number of primary immunodeficiencies are identified associated with monogenic mutations of more than 50 genes. There some age-related specific features at manifestation. Thus, defects in interleukin 10 and FOXP3 manifest in the first months of life, whereas severe combined immunodeficiencies and phagocytosis defects become evident somewhat later. Virtually all 24 children with very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease, whom we examined, had immunologic defects and one child had a XIAP gene mutation. After identification of a specific immunologic defect, one can understand the mechanism of the disease and suspect one or another genetic defect with subsequent reasonable assessment of mutations in candidate genes. Detection of immunologic and genetic defects in children with a very early onset of inflammatory bowel disease allows for choosing an adequate strategy of non-conventional treatment that may differ depending on the mechanism of the disease.

  16. Automated external defibrillation by very young, untrained children. (United States)

    Lawson, Luan; March, Juan


    For patients with sudden cardiac death (SCD), the time interval to defibrillation is the main determinant of survival. As such, the American Heart Association has attempted to promote public-access defibrillation (PAD). Previous studies have shown that automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can be used successfully by untrained adults. To determine whether very young, untrained children could use AEDs. Third-grade students from an elementary school participated in this study representing a convenience sample of volunteers. They were given no formal training, but were shown how to peel off the backing from the electrode pads, like a sticker. Students were then given a mock code situation using a training manikin. The time to delivery of first shock was recorded. Students were then trained during a 2-minute review of the process, one on one with an instructor, and the study was then repeated. Data were analyzed using a paired Student's t-test comparing pre- and post-training. Thirty-one children participated in the study, with a median age of 9 years. For untrained children, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 59.3 +/- 13.6 seconds, 95% CI = 54.3 to 64.3. Following training, the mean time for delivery of the first shock was 35.2 +/- 6.0 seconds, 95% CI = 33.0 to 37.4, p = 0.001. Although this study suggests that even very young, untrained children can successfully perform automated external defibrillation, training does significantly decrease the time to delivery of first shock.

  17. Players' Doctors: The Roles Should Be Very Clear. (United States)

    Caplan, Arthur L; Parent, Brendan; Igel, Lee H


    Years ago, one of us had the opportunity to talk with a starting guard in the National Basketball Association about his health care. The player, then a rookie, did not have his own personal doctor. Instead, he received his health care from the team doctor. This athlete was very well paid and could have received care anywhere he wished in the area. But he came from a very poor neighborhood. Growing up, he said, he had no health care other than hearing and eye tests done at his school and maybe (he was not sure) vaccinations given by the school nurse. The player said he now felt fine and trusted his team to look out for his health since they were paying him a lot of money and obviously wanted him on the court. While it might seem obvious that conflicts of role could arise for doctors working simultaneously for a team and for an athlete-wanting to please coaches, owners, and maybe fans while looking out for the athletes on the team-that is not how this young player saw things. He trusted his team and those who worked for them, and he figured that their interest in keeping him healthy overlapped nicely with his interest in staying healthy. As someone who did not get much access to health care as a child and had little need for it, he did not have concerns about conflicts of interest and second opinions foremost in his mind. But as is clear from a recent scandal involving the National Football League and concussion research, there are reasons for concern when athletes deal with health care workers paid by their teams. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  18. Giat Industries selected for construction of the "Very Large Telescope" (United States)


    Versailles-Satory (France) May 31, 1995 - Giat Industries has just obtained a contract from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) for the construction of the primary and tertiary mirror supports and the positioning apparatus of the world's largest optical telescope. This contract, worth almost 140 million francs, represents over 100,000 hours of work. It was won by Gitech, a division of Giat Industries, in collaboration with the Sfim group, following an international competition between the largest European groups in the space field. Gitech is charged with the development of civil and military industrial equipment for the Giat Industries group, in particular in high technology fields. The VLT (Very Large Telescope) will be installed in Chile before the year 2000; the delivery schedule provides for reception of the first assembly in May 1997. It will consist of four telescopes of 8.2m diameter, providing, in its most powerful configuration, a close-up view of an object measuring one meter on the surface of the moon. The cell, built by Gitech, is one of the key parts of the telescope. It mainly consists of a very rigid metal structure and an electro-hydraulic system of more that 200 hydraulic jacks and 150 electrically-controlled jacks linking the metallic structure to the mirror. This structure, produced to an original design of laser-welded steel chambers, weighs less than 10 tonnes and will support over 37 tonnes of mirror and equipment, while guaranteeing precise positioning to within a micron. The electro-hydraulic jack system, manufactured in collaboration with the Sfim group, will support and position the mirror, and correct its geometry by applying a precise distribution of forces to its rear. The assembly is designed to meet the requirements of para-seismic safety. Gitech is also producing the computerised control system to ensure the operation and the reliability of the assembly.

  19. Identifying gamma-ray bursts at very high redshifts (United States)

    Tanvir, Nial


    Gamma-ray bursts are bright enough to be seen to very great distances and their afterglows can provide redshifts and positions for their host galaxies, and in some cases details of the ISM and the IGM close to the burst, irrespective of the host magnitude itself. Thus GRBs, despite their small numbers, offer a unique and powerful tracer of early star formation and the galaxy populations in the era of reionization. Our efforts to identify high-z GRBs have been rewarded with the discoveries of GRB 090423 and GRB 120923A at spectroscopic redshifts of 8.2 and 7.8 respectively. However, it remains the case that some good candidate high-z GRBs cannot be followed up quickly or deeply enough with ground-based IR spectroscopy, and indeed for others the Ly-alpha break may fall in regions of the IR spectrum difficult to access from the ground. GRB 090429B is an example, which had a photo-z of 9.4, but for which spectroscopy was curtailed due to bad weather. WFC3/IR on HST can obtain redshifts based on the location of the Ly-alpha break via slitless grism spectroscopy to considerably deeper limits (and hence later times) than is possible from the ground, thus offering a solution to this problem. This proposal aims to continue to build the sample of z>7 GRBs by obtaining spectroscopy for up to two candidates for which photometry suggests a very high redshift, but where the redshift could not be secured from the ground. This will provide an important legacy of host galaxy targets with known redshifts for future studies with JWST. The low rate of z>7 GRBs leads us to request a long-term ToO program, spanning cycles 25 and 26.

  20. Early trophic feeding for very low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Bombell, Sarah; McGuire, William


    The introduction of enteral feeds for very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is often delayed due to concern that early introduction may not be tolerated and may increase the risk of necrotising enterocolitis. However, enteral fasting may diminish the functional adaptation of the immature gastrointestinal tract and prolong the need for parenteral nutrition with its attendant infectious and metabolic risks. Early trophic feeding, giving infants very small volumes of milk during the first week after birth, may promote intestinal maturation, enhance feeding tolerance and decrease time to reach full enteral feeding independently of parenteral nutrition. To determine the effect of early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting on feed tolerance, growth, and the incidence of necrotising enterocolitis, mortality and other morbidities in VLBW infants. The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Group was used. Searches were made of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 1, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 - February 2009), EMBASE (1980 - February 2009), CINAHL (1982 - February 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that assessed the effects of early trophic feeding (milk volumes up to 24 ml/kg/day introduced before 96 hours postnatal age and continued until at least one week after birth) versus a comparable period of enteral fasting in VLBW infants. The standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Group were used, with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. Data were synthesised using a fixed effects model and reported using typical relative risk, typical risk difference and weighted mean difference. Nine trials, in which a total of 754 VLBW infants participated, were eligible for inclusion. These trials did not provide any evidence that early trophic feeding affected feed tolerance or growth rates in VLBW infants. Meta

  1. Binning sequences using very sparse labels within a metagenome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halgamuge Saman K


    the methods tested. Most importantly, the proposed method does not require knowledge from known genomes and uses only very few labels (one per species is sufficient in most cases, which are extracted from the metagenome itself. These advantages make it a very attractive binning method. S-GSOM outperformed the binning methods that depend on already-sequenced genomes, and compares well to the current most advanced binning method, PhyloPythia.

  2. The Southwest Configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array (United States)

    Irwin Kellermann, Kenneth; Carilli, Chris; Condon, James; Cotton, William; Murphy, Eric Joseph; Nyland, Kristina


    We discuss the planned array configuration for the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA). The configuration, termed the "Southwest Array," consists of 214 antennas each 18 m in diameter, distributed over the Southwest United States and Northern Mexico. The antenna locations have been set applying rough real-world constraints, such as road, fiber, and power access. The antenna locations will be fixed, with roughly 50% of the antennas in a "core" of 2 km diameter, located at the site of the JVLA. Another 30% of the antennas will be distributed over the Plains of San Augustin to a diameter of 30 km, possibly along, or near, the current JVLA arms. The remaining 20% of the antennas will be distributed in a rough two-arm spiral pattern to the South and East, out to a maximum distance of 500 km, into Texas, Arizona, and Chihuahua. Years of experience with the VLA up to 50 GHz, plus intensive antenna testing up to 250 GHz for the ALMA prototype antennas, verify the VLA site as having very good observing conditions (opacity, phase stability), up to 115 GHz (ngVLA Memo No. 1). Using a suite of tools implemented in CASA, we have made extensive imaging simulations with this configuration. We find that good imaging performance can be obtained through appropriate weighting of the visibilities, for resolutions ranging from that of the core of the array (1" at 30 GHz), out to the longest baselines (10 mas at 30 GHz), with a loss of roughly a factor of two in sensitivity relative to natural weighting (ngVLA Memo No. 16). The off-set core, located on the northern edge of the long baseline configuration, provides excellent sensitivity even on the longest baselines. We are considering, in addition, a compact configuration of 16 close-packed 6 m antennas to obtain uv-coverage down to baselines ~ 10 m for imaging large scale structure, as well as a configuration including 9 stations distributed to continental scales.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heljić Suada


    Full Text Available Background: Although the mortality rate for preterm infants and the gestational age-specific mortality rate have dramatically improved over the last 3 to 4 decades, infants born preterm remain vulnerable to many complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, chronic lung disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, a compromised immune system, cardiovascular disorders, hearing and vision problems, and brain lesions.The aim is to determine mortality and morbidity rates and selected outcome variables for preterm infant’s < 30 weeks’ gestation, who were admitted to the NICU. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 102 infants with gestational age less than 30 weeks’ gestation, hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Pediatric Hospital, Clinical University Center Sarajevo, from Jan. 2010 to Dec. 2010. Parameters taken at admission were: birth weight, gestational age, Apgar score, excess base and CRIB score. Early outcome is considered as a survival at discharge or common preterm morbidities presented during hospitalizationResults: The mean BW of evaluated preterm infants was 1086 ± 250 g, the mean GA27.89 ± 1.97, Apgar score 5.41 ± 1.76, excess base at admission 6.39 ± 1.74 and mean CRIB score 3.72 ± 3.16. The overall survival rate was 70.5%. Selected outcomes at discharge were: RDS with 70.5% infants treated with natural surfactant, PDA treated with NSAIDS (23.5%, brain injury ( ≥ grade 3 IVH or PVL 16.6%, NEC Bell stages II or III 9.8%, BPD 25/72 (33.3% of infants who survived to 36 weeks postmenstrual age. In 38 (37.2% infants, episodes of infections were noticed (one or more episodes in 25 infants, half of them were caused by Gram positive bacteria, most frequent coagulasa negative staphylococci. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the mostfrequent organism among Gram negative bacteria. One patient had invasive candidiasis caused by Candida albicans. In 5 infants (4.9% early onset of sepsis was documented. Conclusion: Very preterm

  4. Prognostic Factors for Poor Cognitive Development in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil


    Cognitive delay is the most common form of impairment among children born very preterm (VPT) at 32 weeks or less or with very low birth weight (VLBW) of 1250 g or less. It is important to identify factors that are robust predictors of long-term outcome because the ability to predict future prognosis will assist in health care and educational service planning and provision. To identify prognostic factors for poor cognitive development in children born VPT or with VLBW. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PyscINFO databases to identify studies published between January 1, 1990, and June 1, 2014, reporting multivariable prediction models for neurodevelopment in VPT or VLBW children. Thirty-one studies comprising 98 risk factor models for cognitive outcome were identified. Two independent reviewers extracted key information on study design, outcome definition, risk factor selection, model development, and reporting and conducted a risk-of-bias assessment. There was evidence that male sex, nonwhite race/ethnicity, lower level of parental education, and lower birth weight were predictive of global cognitive impairment in children younger than 5 years. In older children, only the influence of parental education was sustained. Male sex was also predictive of language impairment in early infancy, but not in middle childhood. Gestational age was a poor predictor of cognitive outcome, probably because of a reduced discriminatory power in cohorts restricted to a narrow gestational age range. The prognostic value of neonatal brain injury was unclear; however, studies adopted mixed strategies for managing children with physical or neurosensory disability. The influence of perinatal risk factors on cognitive development of VPT or VLBW children appears to diminish over time as environmental factors become more important. It is difficult to isolate cognitive outcomes from motor and neurosensory impairment, and the strategy for dealing with untestable

  5. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Herfurth, F; Ames, F; Audi, G; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Bollen, G; Engels, O; Kluge, H J; Lunney, M D; Moores, R B; Oinonen, M; Sauvan, E; Bolle, C A; Scheidenberger, C; Schwarz, S; Sikler, G; Weber, C


    Mass measurements of /sup 34/Ar, /sup 73-78/Kr, and /sup 74,76/Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q/sub EC/-values are needed for the investigations of the F /sub t/-value of 0/sup +/ to 0/sup +/ nuclear beta -decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q/sub EC/-value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with delta m/m

  6. Aerospace medicine in Germany: from the very beginnings. (United States)

    Harsch, V


    The roots of German Aerospace Medicine are in Berlin. High altitude research was performed by physiologists like Nathan Zuntz and the very first Army flight surgeons, Koschel and Flemming. With the founding of the Scientific Society for Aeronautics in 1912, a medical committee was established to determine guidelines for the physical examination of flyers. In World War I aviation medicine became a military science, which came to an end with the Treaty of Versailles. In 1927, with the establishment of the first Aeromedical Institute in Hamburg, Ludolph Brauer restarted the civilian academic aeromedical research effort, which, thereafter, fell more and more under military influence. At the end of World War II, German scientists were invited to work at the USAAF Aero Medical Center (AMC) in Heidelberg (1945-47), to gather the results of German aeromedical research performed before and during the war. Some of this group of German scientists were invited to work in the USA. In Germany, on the other hand, the effect of this "brain drain" was a period of stagnation. In the 1950's, a new civilian institute of aviation medicine was established in Bonn. It grew to be the nucleus of the DLR Institute of Aviation Medicine in Cologne. The German Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine was founded in Fuerstenfeldruck in 1959, and in the GDR the Institute of Aviation Medicine was established in 1961: the first East German cosmonaut S. Jaehn 1978 (Soyuz-31), was succeeded by the first West German astronaut, U. Merbold in 1983 (Spacelab).

  7. Neurologic Outcomes in Very Preterm Infants Undergoing Surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between surgery in very preterm infants and brain structure at term equivalent and 2-year neurodevelopmental outcome. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 227 infants born at <30 weeks gestation or at a birth weight of <1250 g were prospectively enrolled into a longitudinal observational cohort for magnetic resonance imaging and developmental follow-up. The infants were categorized retrospectively into either a nonsurgical group (n=178) or a surgical group (n=30). Nineteen infants were excluded because of incomplete or unsuitable data. The surgical and nonsurgical groups were compared in terms of clinical demographic data, white matter injury, and brain volume at term. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed at age 2 years. RESULTS: Compared with the nonsurgical group, the infants in the surgical group were smaller and more growth-restricted at birth, received more respiratory support and oxygen therapy, and had longer hospital stays. They also had smaller brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Infants who underwent bowel surgery had greater white matter injury. Mental Developmental Index scores were lower in the surgical group, whereas Psychomotor Developmental Index scores did not differ between the groups. The Mental Developmental Index difference became nonsignificant after adjustment for confounding variables. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants exposed to surgery and anesthesia had greater white matter injury and smaller total brain volumes, particularly smaller deep nuclear gray matter volumes. Surgical exposure in the preterm infant should alert the clinician to an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcome.

  8. Significant contribution to total mass from very small glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. B. Bahr


    Full Text Available A single large glacier can contain tens of millions of times the mass of a small glacier. Nevertheless, very small glaciers (with area ≤1 km2 are so numerous that their contribution to the world's total ice volume is significant and may be a notable source of error if excluded. With current glacier inventories, total global volume errors on the order of 10% are possible. However, to reduce errors to below 1% requires the inclusion of glaciers that are smaller than those recorded in most inventories. At the global scale, 1% accuracy requires a list of all glaciers and ice caps (GIC, exclusive of the ice sheets larger than 1 km2, and for regional estimates requires a complete list of all glaciers down to the smallest possible size. For this reason, sea-level rise estimates and other total mass and total volume analyses should not omit the world's smallest glaciers. In particular, upscaling GIC inventories has been common practice in sea level estimates, but downscaling may also be necessary to include the smallest glaciers.

  9. Very Forward proton-proton interactions with the LHCf detector

    CERN Document Server

    Tricomi, Alessia


    The LHCf experiment has been designed to precisely measure very forward neutral particle spectra produced in proton-proton collisions at LHC up to an energy of 14 TeV in the center of mass system. These measurements are of fundamental importance to calibrate the Monte Carlo models widely used in the high energy cosmic ray (HECR) field, up to an equivalent laboratory energy of the order of 1017 eV. In 2009-2010 the experiment has completed the p-p data taking at sqrt{s} = 0.9 TeV and sqrt{s}=7 TeV and the detectors have later on been removed from the tunnel region, when the LHC luminosity increased above 1030 cm-2s-1. In this paper the most up-to-date results on the inclusive photon spectra and the pi0 spectra measured by LHCf are reported. Comparison of these spectra with the model expectations and the impact on high energy cosmic ray (HECR) Physics are discussed. In addition, perspectives for future analyses as well as the program for the next data taking period, in particular the foreseen data taking in p-P...

  10. Bubble nucleation and growth in very strong cosmological phase transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mégevand, Ariel, E-mail:; Ramírez, Santiago


    Strongly first-order phase transitions, i.e., those with a large order parameter, are characterized by a considerable supercooling and high velocities of phase transition fronts. A very strong phase transition may have important cosmological consequences due to the departures from equilibrium caused in the plasma. In general, there is a limit to the strength, since the metastability of the old phase may prevent the transition to complete. Near this limit, the bubble nucleation rate achieves a maximum and thus departs from the widely assumed behavior in which it grows exponentially with time. We study the dynamics of this kind of phase transitions. We show that in some cases a gaussian approximation for the nucleation rate is more suitable, and in such a case we solve analytically the evolution of the phase transition. We compare the gaussian and exponential approximations with realistic cases and we determine their ranges of validity. We also discuss the implications for cosmic remnants such as gravitational waves.

  11. Very High Frequency Galvanic Isolated Offline Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf

    inverters with a single combined rectifier. The converter designed to deliver 9 W to a 60 V LED load and is achieving an efficiency of 89.4% and a power density of 2.14 W3 . The development of this converter proof that offline VHF converter can be implemented with high efficiencies even for low power applications...... converters. During this Ph.D. thesis, different areas of an offline VHF converters are described, dur-ing the project different areas have been investigated such as, gate drive, synchronous rectifiers, PCB transformers, control of a resonant converter, galvanic isolation, EMC performance, power factor......During the last decades many researchers have turned their attention to raising the operation frequency of power converters to the very high frequency (VHF) range going from 30 MHz to 300 MHz. Increasing the operating frequency of a power converter leads to smaller energy storing components...

  12. That very interesting dance in the Baltimore Canyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, A.


    Pointing out that offshore oil and gas has been a marginal proposition until now--the only consistent moneymaker being the Federal government as leaser--it is hard to understand the feverish spasms that have swept the stock market for months, at the slightest hint of a discovery in Baltimore Canyon. Despite the dismal returns vs. risks up to the present, most of the oil industry believes it must continue offshore if it wants to stay in the oil and gas business. Most of these oil men widely share the belief that most of the large fields that remain to be discovered are in frontier areas of the continential shelf; and one ''big elephant'' discovered can easily erase a string of losses. Still another reason to keep playing is an astonishing advance in exploration technology known as ''bright spots''. Finally, oil men are lured into the offshore arena by a subtle mixture of perceived necessity, an innate if somewhat battered spirit of optimism, and an unabashed fascination with the game itself--the latter, little understood outside the industry according to Dick Palmer, Texaco's top exploration man, but ''a very interesting dance''.

  13. The Silicon Ministrip Detector of the DELPHI Very Forward Tracker

    CERN Document Server



    The subject of this work is the design, test and construction of a new silicon tracking detector for the extreme forward region of the DELPHI experiment at LEP. I joined the Very Forward Tracker (VFT) Ministrip group in 1993, at a time when the upgrade of the DELPHI tracking system was proposed. My first task was to participate in the design of the ministrip detector for the VFT. This included the optimisation of the detector layout in simulations and the study of prototype detectors in the testbeam. In 1994 I became responsible for the tests and assembly' of the VFT ministrip detector at CERN. The main focus of my work was the study of the performance of a large variety of detectors in beam tests. This included the preparation of the test setup, the tests of different detectors and the analysis of the measurements. With these measurements it is possible to compare the advantages and disadvantages of various new layouts for large pitch silicon strip detectors. In particular the signal response and spatial res...

  14. Very-large-scale coherent motions in open channel flows (United States)

    Zhong, Qiang; Hussain, Fazle; Li, Dan-Xun


    Very-large-scale coherent structures (VLSSs) - whose characteristic length is of the order of 10 h (h is the water depth) - are found to exist in the log and outer layers near the bed of open channel flows. For decades researchers have speculated that large coherent structures may exist in open channel flows. However, conclusive evidence is still lacking. The present study employed pre-multiplied velocity power spectral and co-spectral analyses of time-resolved PIV data obtained in open channel flows. In all cases, two modes - large-scale structures (of the order of h) and VLSSs - dominate the log and outer layers of the turbulent boundary layer. More than half of TKE and 40% of the Reynolds shear stress in the log and outer layers are contributed by VLSSs. The strength difference of VLSSs between open and closed channel flows leads to pronounced redistribution of TKE near the free surface of open channel flows, which is a unique phenomenon that sets the open channel flows apart from other wall-bounded turbulent flows. Funded by China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No.2015M580105), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No.51127006).

  15. Homogenous BSCCO-2212 Round Wires for Very High Field Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Scott Campbell


    the very significant advantage of an extremely high H{sub c2}. For this reason, Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub y} (Bi-2212, or 2212) in the form of a multifilamentary Ag alloy matrix composite is beginning to attract the interest of the magnet community for future extremely high-field magnets or magnet-insert coils for 4.2K operation. Fig. 1 shows an example of excellent JE (engineering current density) in Bi-2212 round wire at fields up to 45 T, demonstrating the potential for high field applications of this material. For comparison, the Nb{sub 3}Sn wires used in magnets in the 16-18 T range typically perform with J{sub E} in the range 200-500 A/mm{sup 2}; the Bi-2212 wire retains this level of performance to fields at least as high as 45 T, and probably significantly higher. Bi-2212 conductors have in fact been used to generate a 25 T field in a superconducting insert magnet. These two factors- the very high field critical current performance of Bi-2212, and the already demonstrated capability of this material for high field magnets up to 25 T, strongly suggest this material as a leading contender for the next generation high field superconducting (HFS) wire. This potential was recognized by the US Academy of Science's Committee on Opportunities in High Magnetic Field Science. Their report of the same name specifically calls out the high field potential for this material, and suggests that 30 T magnets appear feasible based on the performance of 2212. There are several requirements for HFS conductors. The most obvious is J{sub E} (B, T), the engineering current density at the field and temperature of operation. As shown in Fig. 1, Bi-2212 excels in this regard. Stability requirements for magnets dictate that the effective filament diameter should be less than 30 micrometers, something that Bi-2212 multifilamentary wire can uniquely satisfy among the HFS superconducting wire technologies. Additional requirements include mechanical properties that prevent

  16. Design Study for a Staged Very Large Hadron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.


    Particle physics makes its greatest advances with experiments at the highest energy. The only sure way to advance to a higher-energy regime is through hadron colliders--the Tevatron, the LHC, and then, beyond that, a Very Large Hadron Collider. At Snowmass-1996 [1], investigators explored the best way to build a VLHC, which they defined as a 100 TeV collider. The goals in this study are different. The current study seeks to identify the best and cheapest way to arrive at frontier-energy physics, while simultaneously starting down a path that will eventually lead to the highest-energy collisions technologically possible in any accelerator using presently conceivable technology. This study takes the first steps toward understanding the accelerator physics issues, the technological possibilities and the approximate cost of a particular model of the VLHC. It describes a staged approach that offers exciting physics at each stage for the least cost, and finally reaches an energy one-hundred times the highest energy currently achievable.

  17. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavromatos Nick E.


    Full Text Available In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV. The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems, of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

  18. Models & Searches of CPT Violation: a personal, very partial, list (United States)

    Mavromatos, Nick E.


    In this talk, first I motivate theoretically, and then I review the phenomenology of, some models entailing CPT Violation (CPTV). The latter is argued to be responsible for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in the Cosmos, and may owe its origin to either Lorentz-violating background geometries, whose effects are strong in early epochs of the Universe but very weak today, being temperature dependent in general, or to an ill-defined CPT generator in some quantum gravity models entailing decoherence of quantum matter as a result of quantum degrees of freedom in the gravity sector that are inaccessible to the low-energy observers. In particular, for the latter category of CPTV, I argue that entangled states of neutral mesons (Kaons or B-systems), of central relevance to KLOE-2 experiment, can provide smoking-gun sensitive tests or even falsify some of these models. If CPT is ill-defined one may also encounter violations of the spin-statistics theorem, with possible consequences for the Pauli Exclusion Principle, which I only briefly touch upon.

  19. Luminous blue variables and the fates of very massive stars. (United States)

    Smith, Nathan


    Luminous blue variables (LBVs) had long been considered massive stars in transition to the Wolf-Rayet (WR) phase, so their identification as progenitors of some peculiar supernovae (SNe) was surprising. More recently, environment statistics of LBVs show that most of them cannot be in transition to the WR phase after all, because LBVs are more isolated than allowed in this scenario. Additionally, the high-mass H shells around luminous SNe IIn require that some very massive stars above 40  M ⊙ die without shedding their H envelopes, and the precursor outbursts are a challenge for understanding the final burning sequences leading to core collapse. Recent evidence suggests a clear continuum in pre-SN mass loss from super-luminous SNe IIn, to regular SNe IIn, to SNe II-L and II-P, whereas most stripped-envelope SNe seem to arise from a separate channel of lower-mass binary stars rather than massive WR stars.This article is part of the themed issue 'Bridging the gap: from massive stars to supernovae'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xu


    Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006

  1. Graphene ballistic nano-rectifier with very high responsivity. (United States)

    Auton, Gregory; Zhang, Jiawei; Kumar, Roshan Krishna; Wang, Hanbin; Zhang, Xijian; Wang, Qingpu; Hill, Ernie; Song, Aimin


    Although graphene has the longest mean free path of carriers of any known electronic material, very few novel devices have been reported to harness this extraordinary property. Here we demonstrate a ballistic nano-rectifier fabricated by creating an asymmetric cross-junction in single-layer graphene sandwiched between boron nitride flakes. A mobility ∼200,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) is achieved at room temperature, well beyond that required for ballistic transport. This enables a voltage responsivity as high as 23,000 mV mW(-1) with a low-frequency input signal. Taking advantage of the output channels being orthogonal to the input terminals, the noise is found to be not strongly influenced by the input. Hence, the corresponding noise-equivalent power is as low as 0.64 pW Hz(-1/2). Such performance is even comparable to superconducting bolometers, which however need to operate at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, output oscillations are observed at low temperatures, the period of which agrees with the lateral size quantization.

  2. Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of TA11 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Zehui


    Full Text Available The conventional fatigue test method was used to obtain the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF limits of 3×107 and 1×108 cycles for TA11 titanium alloy in different temperatures and stress ratios. Three parameter power function method was used to obtain the VHCF median S-N curves and equations. The results show that the VHCF strength of 3×107 and 1×108 cycles presented a continue reducing trend compared with the traditional 1 x 107 fatigue limit. This trend is not obvious in negative stress ratio (R=-1, but significant in normal stress ratio (R=0.1 and 0.5, and the reduction amplitude of room temperature tests was greater than that of elevated temperature tests. The fracture morphologies showed that the VHCF cracks initiat at the specimen surface of TA11 alloy in room temperature tests, and the VHCF cracks initiation ways in elevated temperature tests relate to the stress ratio. The cracks initiate at the specimen surface when R=0.1 and 0.5 but in the internal when R=0.5; The surface state of TA11 alloy specimens is the main cause of its fatigue life dispersion.

  3. Implant-supported Mandibular Overdentures in Very Old Adults (United States)

    Müller, F.; Duvernay, E.; Loup, A.; Vazquez, L.; Herrmann, F.R.; Schimmel, M.


    The purpose of this study was (1) to investigate denture satisfaction following the conversion of existing mandibular complete dentures to implant overdentures (IOD) in very old edentulous patients who depend on help for activities of daily living and (2) to evaluate secondary end points, such as functional, structural, nutritional, and patient-centered aspects. For this randomized clinical trial, 2 interforaminal short implants were placed in the intervention group (n = 16, 85.0 ± 6.19 yrs) to retain mandibular IODs; the control group (n = 18, 84.1 ± 5.55 yrs) received conventional relines. During the first year, no implant was lost; however, 2 patients died. IODs proved more stable, and participants in the intervention group demonstrated significantly higher denture satisfaction as well as an increased oral health–related quality of life compared to the control group. Maximum voluntary bite force improved significantly with IODs, yet the chewing efficiency was not different between groups. Masseter muscle thickness increased with IODs, mainly on the preferred chewing side. Body mass index decreased in both groups, but the decline tended to be smaller in the intervention group; blood markers and the Mini Nutritional Assessment did not confirm this tendency. These results indicate that edentulous patients who depend on help for activities of daily living may benefit from IODs even late in life ( NCT01928004). PMID:24158342

  4. Growth and development in children born very low birthweight. (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Stroustrup, Annemarie; Conaway, Mark R; DeBoer, Mark D


    To examine the relationships between growth (birth to age 2 years) and developmental outcomes in children born with very low birthweight (VLBW). Motor and mental development in children born with VLBW were regressed on anthropometric measurements at birth, 9 months and 2 years using multivariable regression. The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a longitudinal cohort, community sample, designed to be representative of children born across the USA. 950 children born with VLBW (growth, with length-for-age z-scores -2, children with growth shortfalls in head circumference, length and weight had a higher adjusted OR (aOR) of low Bayley motor scores at 9 months and 2 years (aOR ranging from 1.8 to 3.3, all pgrowth were linked to current and future neurodevelopmental outcomes in children born with VLBW. While careful length measures may be a particularly useful marker, deficits in all anthropometric measures were risk factors for developmental delays. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  5. The genetics of very early onset Alzheimer disease. (United States)

    Filley, Christopher M; Rollins, Yvonne D; Anderson, C Alan; Arciniegas, David B; Howard, Katherine L; Murrell, Jill R; Boyer, Philip J; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, Belte K; Ghetti, Bernardino


    This study was undertaken to clarify the genetics of very early onset Alzheimer disease (VEOAD), defined as AD beginning before age 35. Early onset AD (EOAD) is defined by onset of symptoms before age 65, and affected individuals may harbor a mutation in presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2), or amyloid precursor protein. VEOAD is exceedingly rare, and PSEN1 mutations have been implicated. We encountered a man with phenotypic frontotemporal dementia beginning at age 32 and a strong family history of an autosomal dominant dementia who was found at autopsy to have AD. Histologic and genetic analyses of the patient's brain were undertaken, and a review of all published VEOAD cases was performed. Histologic findings were diagnostic of advanced stage AD. Genetic evaluation of brain tissue identified an intronic PSEN1 polymorphism; no known pathogenic mutation was found. Literature review (1934 to 2007) disclosed 101 cases of VEOAD; the youngest age of dementia onset was 24 years. In all cases in which definitive genetic analysis was available, either a PSEN1 mutation or linkage to chromosome 14 was found. VEOAD can present with atypical clinical features, including findings suggestive of frontotemporal dementia. All reported cases of VEOAD with conclusive genetic analysis seem to be associated with PSEN1 mutations. Genetic testing in adults younger than 35 with dementia can identify the genetic defect and assist in diagnosis and family counseling.

  6. Experimental Summary: Very High Energy Cosmic Rays and their Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampert Karl-Heinz


    Full Text Available The XVII International Symposium on Very High Energy Cosmic Ray Interactions, held in August of 2012 in Berlin, was the first one in the history of the Symposium,where a plethora of high precision LHC data with relevance for cosmic ray physics was presented. This report aims at giving a brief summary of those measurements andit discusses their relevance for observations of high energy cosmic rays. Enormous progress has been made also in air shower observations and in direct measurements of cosmic rays, exhibiting many more structure in the cosmic ray energy spectrum than just a simple power law with a knee and an ankle. At the highest energy, the flux suppression may not be dominated by the GZK-effect but by the limiting energy of a nearby source or source population. New projects and application of new technologies promise further advances also in the near future. We shall discuss the experimental and theoretical progress in the field and its prospects for coming years.

  7. Rainbows with a tilted <111> Si very thin crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neskovic, N.; Petrovic, S.; Borka, D.; Kossionides, S


    The angular distributions of protons channeled in a tilted <111> Si very thin crystal together with the corresponding rainbow patterns are considered. The proton energy is 10 MeV while the crystal thickness is 121.1 nm, corresponding to the reduced crystal thickness of 0.15. The tilt angle of the crystal is varied from zero up to the critical angle for channeling. The angular distributions were obtained using the numerical solution of the proton equations of motion and the computer simulation method. The rainbow lines were determined by applying the theory of crystal rainbows. The analysis has shown that the evolution of the angular distribution with the tilt angle can be fully explained by the evolution of the crystal rainbow. We have discovered that the crystal rainbow effect turns into the well-know doughnut effect in ion channeling for the larger values of the tilt angle. The interior of the doughnut is the analogue of the Alexander's dark band, which occurs in between the primary and secondary meteorological rainbows.

  8. Strong environmental tolerance of moss Venturiella under very high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, F; Mori, Y; Takarabe, K [Department of Applied Science, Okayama University of Science, 1-1 Ridaicho, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Nishihira, N; Shindo, A [Okayama Ichinomiya High School, Okayama 700-0005 (Japan); Saigusa, M [Department of Biology, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Matsushima, Y [Department of Physics, Okayama University, 3-1-1 Tsushima-Naka, Okayama 700-8530 (Japan); Saini, N L [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Yamashita, M, E-mail: [Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)


    It was shown by the present authors group that tardigrade can survive under high pressure of 7.5 GPa. In the case of land plants, however, no result of such experiment has been reported. We have extended our experiments to moss searching for lives under very high pressure. Spore placentas of moss Venturiella were sealed in a small Teflon capsule together with a liquid pressure medium. The capsule was put in the center of a pyrophillite cube, and the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa was applied using a two-stage cubic anvil press. The pressure was kept constant at the maximum pressure for12, 24, 72 and 144 hours. After the pressure was released, the spores were seeded on a ager medium, and incubated for one week and more longer at 25{sup 0}C with white light of 2000 lux. It was proved that 70-90% of the spores were alive and germinated after exposed to the maximum pressure of 7.5 GPa for up to 72 hours. However, after exposed to 7.5 GPa for 6 days, only 4 individuals in a hundred were germinated. The pressure tolerance of moss Venturiella is found to be stronger than a small animal, tardigrade.

  9. Quantum Monte Carlo with very large multideterminant wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Scemama, Anthony; Giner, Emmanuel; Caffarel, Michel


    An algorithm to compute efficiently the first two derivatives of (very) large multideterminant wavefunctions for quantum Monte Carlo calculations is presented. The trial wavefunction being written as a sum of determinants, the computational time needed at each Monte Carlo step is expected to scale linearly in the number of determinants. In this work, we express the multideterminant expansion as a bilinear form in terms of the spin-specific determinants and show that the cost of the leading O$(N_{\\rm det})$ contribution ($N_{\\rm det}$, total number of determinants) can be greatly reduced. In practical applications, it is so reduced that it has been found to have a marginal impact in the total computational cost, at least up to one million of determinants. The practical scaling is thus proportional to the number of spin-specific determinants of order $O(\\sqrt{N_{\\rm det}})$. The calculation of determinants is performed by using the Sherman-Morrison formula. Introducing a suitably chosen encoding and ordering of...

  10. Respiratory Support for Very Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Dexamethasone. (United States)

    Virkud, Yamini V; Hornik, Christoph P; Benjamin, Daniel K; Laughon, Matthew M; Clark, Reese H; Greenberg, Rachel G; Smith, P Brian


    To assess how neonatal intensive care units followed the American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines for use of dexamethasone in preterm infants by evaluating respiratory support at the time of dexamethasone administration. This is an observational study of infants discharged from one of 290 neonatal intensive care units from 2003 to 2010. The cohort included very low birth weight (dexamethasone. Significant respiratory support was defined as invasive respiratory support (conventional or high-frequency ventilation) with a fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) > 0.3. Of 81 292 infants; 7093 (9%) received dexamethasone. At the time that dexamethasone was initiated, 4604 (65%) of infants were on significant respiratory support. In accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations, a majority of infants were on significant respiratory support when receiving dexamethasone, yet a substantial number of infants still received dexamethasone on less than significant respiratory support. Further research on reducing dexamethasone use in premature infants is required to decrease the risk of neurodevelopmental impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative source models of very low frequency events (United States)

    Gomberg, Joan S.; Agnew, D.C.; Schwartz, S.Y.


    We present alternative source models for very low frequency (VLF) events, previously inferred to be radiation from individual slow earthquakes that partly fill the period range between slow slip events lasting thousands of seconds and low-frequency earthquakes (LFE) with durations of tenths of a second. We show that VLF events may emerge from bandpass filtering a sum of clustered, shorter duration, LFE signals, believed to be the components of tectonic tremor. Most published studies show VLF events occurring concurrently with tremor bursts and LFE signals. Our analysis of continuous data from Costa Rica detected VLF events only when tremor was also occurring, which was only 7% of the total time examined. Using analytic and synthetic models, we show that a cluster of LFE signals produces the distinguishing characteristics of VLF events, which may be determined by the cluster envelope. The envelope may be diagnostic of a single, dynamic, slowly slipping event that propagates coherently over kilometers or represents a narrowly band-passed version of nearly simultaneous arrivals of radiation from slip on multiple higher stress drop and/or faster propagating slip patches with dimensions of tens of meters (i.e., LFE sources). Temporally clustered LFE sources may be triggered by single or multiple distinct aseismic slip events or represent the nearly simultaneous chance occurrence of background LFEs. Given the nonuniqueness in possible source durations, we suggest it is premature to draw conclusions about VLF event sources or how they scale.

  12. Narrow head-tail radio galaxies at very high resolution (United States)

    Terni de Gregory, B.; Feretti, L.; Giovannini, G.; Govoni, F.; Murgia, M.; Perley, R. A.; Vacca, V.


    Aims: Narrow-angle tailed (NAT) sources in clusters of galaxies can show on the large scale very narrow tails that are unresolved even at arcsecond resolution. These sources could therefore be classified as one-sided jets. The aim of this paper is to gain new insight into the structure of these sources, and establish whether they are genuine one-sided objects, or if they are two-sided sources. Methods: We observed a sample of apparently one-sided NAT sources at subarcsecond resolution to obtain detailed information on their structure in the nuclear regions of radio galaxies. Results: Most radio galaxies are found to show two-sided jets with sharp bends, and therefore the sources are similar to the more classical NATs, which are affected by strong projection effects. The reduced images (FITS) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via

  13. Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab


    This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.

  14. Metabolic effects of fasting and very low calorie diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, L.C.


    To examine the mechanism of nitrogen sparing in obese subjects on very low calorie diets (VLC-PS), effects of total fasting (TF) and VLC-PS (380 Kcal/day) supplying protein without carbohydrate on metabolites, hormones, urea nitrogen excretion, and plasma (3-/sup 3/H)glucose turnover, (U-/sup 14/C)lysine flux, and (1-/sup 14/C)leucine flux and oxidation were compared. Subjects with a wide range of relative obesity were studied during a control period and after one week of TF. Urea excretion and lysine flux decreased in all subjects, while 3-methylhistidine excretion was unchanged. Glucagon:insulin ratio and cortisol increased, while triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) decreased and would be expected to be nitrogen-sparing. In a separate study, groups of obese women were studied during a control period and during 14 days of TF or VLC-PS supplying either 80 g (80G) or 40 g (40G) high-quality protein. Increases in branched chain amino acids, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate, and glucagon:insulin ratio and decrease in T/sub 3/ did not differ among groups. Glucose production decreased to the same extent in all groups. Serum and urinary urea nitrogen were maintained at control values throughout the diet in 80G but decreased to the same extent in TF and 40G. Nitrogen balance estimated from urea nitrogen appearance was negative in all groups.

  15. A uniquely specialized ear in a very early tetrapod. (United States)

    Clack, J A; Ahlberg, P E; Finney, S M; Dominguez Alonso, P; Robinson, J; Ketcham, R A


    The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its apparent specializations led it to be considered as a "blind offshoot" or "sidebranch" off the tetrapod family tree, and recent cladistic analyses have disagreed about its exact phylogenetic position within the tetrapod stem group. In particular, its braincase and ear region defied interpretation, such that conventional anatomical terms seemed inapplicable. Using new material collected in 1998 (ref. 9), preparation of earlier-collected material, and high-resolution computed tomography scanning, here we identify and interpret these problematic anatomical structures. They can now be seen to form part of a highly specialized ear, probably a hearing device for use in water. This represents a structurally and functionally unique modification of the tetrapod otic region, unlike anything seen in subsequent tetrapod evolution. The presence of deeply grooved gill bars as in its contemporary Acanthostega suggest that Ichthyostega may have been more aquatically adapted than previously believed.

  16. High Sensitivity Very Low Frequency Receiver for Earthquake Data Acquisition. (United States)

    Munir, A.; Najmurrokhman, A.


    high sensitivity very low frequency (VLF) receiver is developed based on AD744 monolithic operational amplifier (Op-Amp) for earthquake data acquisition. In research related natural phenomena such as atmospheric noise, lightning and earthquake, a VLF receiver particularly with high sensitivity is utterly required due to the low power of VLF wave signals received by the antenna. The developed receiver is intended to have high sensitivity reception for the signals in frequency range of 10-30kHz allocated for earthquake observation. The VLF receiver which is portably designed is also equipped with an output port connectable to the soundcard of personal computer for further data acquisition. After obtaining the optimum design, the hardware realization is implemented on a printed circuit board (PCB) for experimental characterization. It shows that the sensitivity of realized VLF receiver is almost linear in the predefined frequency range for the input signals lower than -12dBm and to be quadratic for the higher level input signals.

  17. CARMENES ultra-stable cooling system: very promising results (United States)

    Mirabet, E.; Carvas, P.; Lizon, J.-L.; Becerril, S.; Rodríguez, E.; Abril, M.; Cárdenas, M. C.; Morales, R.; Pérez, D.; Sánchez Carrasco, M. A.; Amado, P. J.; Seifert, W.; Quirrenbach, A.; Caballero, J. A.; Ribas, I.; Reiners, A.; Dreizler, S.


    CARMENES is a high resolution spectrograph to detect planets through the variation of radial velocity, destined for the Calar Alto Observatory in Almeria, Spain. The optical bench has a working temperature of 140K with a 24 hours stability of ±0,1K; goal ±0,01K. It is enclosed with a radiation shield actively cooled with thermalized nitrogen gas that flows through strategically positioned heat exchangers to remove its radiative load. The cooling system has an external preparation unit (N2GPU), which provides the nitrogen gas through actively vaporizing liquid nitrogen with heating resistances and a three stage circuit flow, each one controlled by an independent PID. Since CARMENES is still in the construction phase, a dedicated test facility has been built in order to simulate the instrument and correctly establish the N2GPU parameters. Furthermore, the test facility allows a wide range of configurations set-ups, which enables a full characterization of the N2GPU and the cooling system. The N2GPU has been designed to offer a wide temperature range of thermally stabilized nitrogen gas flow, which apart from CARMENES could also be used to provide ultra-high thermal stability in other cryogenic instruments. The present paper shows the testing of the cooling performance, the hardware used and the very promising results obtained.

  18. Linguistic features in children born very preterm at preschool age. (United States)

    Guarini, Annalisa; Marini, Andrea; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra


    This cross-sectional study focused on the effect of very preterm (VPT) birth on language development by analysing phonological, lexical, grammatical, and pragmatic skills and assessing the role of cognitive and memory skills. Sixty children (29 males, 31 females) born VPT (linguistic assessment was performed by administering a battery of Italian tests for the evaluation of language; cognitive and memory skills were assessed by Raven's coloured progressive matrices and digit span subtest (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children [WISC-III]). Children born VPT showed delays in lexical (comprehension: z-score difference -1.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.60 to -0.77; naming: -0.88; 95% CI -1.19 to -0.58) and pragmatic skills (comprehension: -0.76; 95% CI -1.02 to -0.49; narrative production: -0.47; 95% CI -0.72 to -0.23). Delays in phonology and grammar were less diffuse, involving productive skills (-1.09; 95% CI -1.64 to -0.54; -0.48; 95% CI -0.85 to -0.12, respectively), and were dependent by cognitive and memory skills. Lexical delays were more specific. The linguistic profile of children born preterm is characterized by some abilities more impaired than others. This highlights the need of a linguistic assessment at the end of preschool age in order to plan a focused intervention aimed at improving lexical and pragmatic skills. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  19. UVES Investigates the Environment of a Very Remote Galaxy (United States)


    Surplus of Intergalactic Material May Be Young Supercluster Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to study in unprecedented detail the surroundings of a very remote galaxy, almost 12 billion light-years distant [2]. The corresponding light travel time means that it is seen at a moment only about 3 billion years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is designated MS 1512-cB58 and is the brightest known at such a large distance and such an early time. This is due to a lucky circumstance: a massive cluster of galaxies ( MS 1512+36 ) is located about halfway along the line-of-sight, at a distance of about 7 billion light-years, and acts as a gravitational "magnifying glass". Thanks to this lensing effect, the image of MS1512-cB58 appears 50 times brighter . Nevertheless, the apparent brightness is still as faint as magnitude 20.6 (i.e., nearly 1 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). Moreover, MS 1512-cB58 is located 36° north of the celestial equator and never rises more than 29° above the horizon at Paranal. It was therefore a great challenge to secure the present observational data with the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope . The extremely detailed UVES-spectrum of MS 1512-cB58 displays numerous signatures (absorption lines) of intergalactic gas clouds along the line-of-sight . Some of the clouds are quite close to the galaxy and the astronomers have therefore been able to investigate the distribution of matter in its immediate surroundings. They found an excess of material near MS 1512-cB58, possible evidence of a young supercluster of galaxies , already at this very early epoch. The new observations thus provide an invaluable contribution to current studies of the birth and evolution of structures in the early Universe. This is the first time this kind of observation has ever been done of a galaxy at such a large distance . All

  20. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy. (United States)

    Duley, Lelia; Meher, Shireen; Jones, Leanne


    Very high blood pressure during pregnancy poses a serious threat to women and their babies. The aim of antihypertensive therapy is to lower blood pressure quickly but safety, to avoid complications. Antihypertensive drugs lower blood pressure but their comparative effectiveness and safety, and impact on other substantive outcomes is uncertain. To compare different antihypertensive drugs for very high blood pressure during pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group Trials Register (9 January 2013). Studies were randomised trials. Participants were women with severe hypertension during pregnancy. Interventions were comparisons of one antihypertensive drug with another. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and assessed trial quality. Two review authors extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Thirty-five trials (3573 women) with 15 comparisons were included. Women allocated calcium channel blockers were less likely to have persistent high blood pressure compared to those allocated hydralazine (six trials, 313 women; 8% versus 22%; risk ratio (RR) 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21 to 0.66). Ketanserin was associated with more persistent high blood pressure than hydralazine (three trials, 180 women; 27% versus 6%; RR 4.79, 95% CI 1.95 to 11.73), but fewer side-effects (three trials, 120 women; RR 0.32, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.53) and a lower risk of HELLP (haemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and lowered platelets) syndrome (one trial, 44 women; RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.81).Labetalol was associated with a lower risk of hypotension compared to diazoxide (one trial 90 women; RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.99) and a lower risk of caesarean section (RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.02), although both were borderline for statistical significance.Both nimodipine and magnesium sulphate were associated with a high incidence of persistent high blood pressure, but this risk was lower for nimodipine compared to magnesium sulphate (one trial

  1. Relevance of axionlike particles for very-high-energy astrophysics (United States)

    de Angelis, Alessandro; Galanti, Giorgio; Roncadelli, Marco


    Several extensions of the standard model and, in particular, superstring theories suggest the existence of axionlike particles (ALPs), which are very light spin-zero bosons with a two-photon coupling. As a consequence, photon-ALP oscillations occur in the presence of an external magnetic field, and ALPs can lead to observable effects on the measured photon spectrum of astrophysical sources. An intriguing situation arises when blazars are observed in the very-high-energy (VHE) band—namely, above 100 GeV—as it is the case with the presently operating Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes H.E.S.S, Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov telescope, Collaboration of Australia and Nippon for a Gamma Ray Observatory in the Outback III, and VERITAS. The extragalactic background light produced by galaxies during cosmic evolution gives rise to a source dimming which becomes important in the VHE band and increases with energy, since hard photons from a blazar scatter off soft extragalactic background light photons thereby disappearing into e+e- pairs. This dimming can be considerably reduced by photon-ALP oscillations, and since they are energy independent the resulting blazar spectra become harder than expected. We consider throughout a scenario first proposed by De Angelis, Roncadelli, and Mansutti in which the above strategy is implemented with photon-ALP oscillations triggered by large-scale magnetic fields, and we systematically investigate its implications for VHE blazars. We find that for ALPs lighter than 5·10-10eV the photon survival probability is larger than predicted by conventional physics above a few hundred GeV. Specifically, a boost factor of 10 can easily occur for sources at large distance and large energy, e.g. at 8 TeV for the blazar 1ES 0347-121 at redshift z=0.188. This is a clear-cut prediction which can be tested with the planned Cherenkov Telescope Array and the High Altitude Water Cherenkov Experiment (HAWC) water Cherenkov

  2. Evidence for Very Recent Positive Selection in Mongolians. (United States)

    Nakayama, Kazuhiro; Ohashi, Jun; Watanabe, Kazuhisa; Munkhtulga, Lkagvasuren; Iwamoto, Sadahiko


    Mongols, the founders of the largest continental empire in history, successfully adapted to the harsh environments of Inner Asia through nomadic pastoralism. Considerable interest exists in ascertaining whether genetic adaptation also contributed to the Mongols' success, and dissecting the genome diversity of present-day populations in Mongolia can help address this question. To this end, we determined the genotypes of nearly 2.4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 96 unrelated Mongolian individuals in Ulaanbaatar city, and performed genome-wide scans for population-specific positive selection. We discovered signatures of Mongolian-specific positive selection at the chromosomal region 3p12.1, in which hits in genome-wide association studies were reported for medical and biological traits related to energy metabolism and reproduction. The top SNP, rs117799927, showed a distinctive geographic distribution: the frequency of the derived allele, rs117799927 G, was extremely low among worldwide populations (0.005) but exceptionally high in Mongolians (0.247). Approximate Bayesian computation-based age estimation showed that the rs117799927 G allele emerged or positive selection began to operate 50 generations before the present, near the age of the climate anomaly named Late Antique Little Ice Age. Furthermore, rs117799927 showed significant associations with multiple adiposity-related traits in Mongolians and allelic difference in enhancer activity in cells of adipocyte lineage, suggesting that positive selection at 3p12.1 might be related to adaptation in the energy metabolism system. These findings provide novel evidence for a very recent positive-selection event in Homo sapiens and offer insights into the roles of genes in 3p12.1 in the adaptive evolution of our species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Mathematics ability and related skills in preschoolers born very preterm. (United States)

    Hasler, Holly M; Akshoomoff, Natacha


    Children born very preterm (VPT) are at risk for academic, behavioral, and/or emotional problems. Mathematics is a particular weakness and better understanding of the relationship between preterm birth and early mathematics ability is needed, particularly as early as possible to aid in early intervention. Preschoolers born VPT (n = 58) and those born full term (FT; n = 29) were administered a large battery of measures within 6 months of beginning kindergarten. A multiple-mediation model was utilized to characterize the difference in skills underlying mathematics ability between groups. Children born VPT performed significantly worse than FT-born children on a measure of mathematics ability as well as full-scale IQ, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, phonological working memory, motor skills, and executive functioning. Mathematics was significantly correlated with verbal skills, visual-motor integration, phonological processing, and motor skills across both groups. When entered into the mediation model, verbal skills, visual-motor integration, and phonological awareness were significant mediators of the group differences. This analysis provides insights into the pre-academic skills that are weak in preschoolers born VPT and their relationship to mathematics. It is important to identify children who will have difficulties as early as possible, particularly for VPT children who are at higher risk for academic difficulties. Therefore, this model may be used in evaluating VPT children for emerging difficulties as well as an indicator that if other weaknesses are found, an assessment of mathematics should be conducted.

  4. Very high energy emission from passive supermassive black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedaletti, Giovanna


    The H.E.S.S. experiment, an array of four Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, widened the horizon of Very High Energy (VHE) astronomy. Its unprecedented sensitivity is well suited for the study of new classes of expected VHE emitters, such as passive galactic nuclei that are the main focus of the work presented in this thesis. Acceleration of particles up to Ultra High Energies is expected in the magnetosphere of supermassive black holes (SMBH). The radiation losses of these accelerated particles are expected to reach the VHE regime in which H.E.S.S. operates. Predicted fluxes exceed the sensitivity of the array. However, strong photon fields in the surrounding of the acceleration region might absorb the produced radiation. Therefore observations focus on those galactic nuclei that are underluminous at lower photon energies. This work presents data collected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes on the test candidate NGC 1399 and their interpretation. While no detection has been achieved, important constraints can be derived from the obtained upper limits on the maximum energy attainable by the accelerated particles and on the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region. A limit on the magnetic field of B < 74 Gauss is given. The limit is model dependent and a scaling of the result with the assumptions is given. This is the tightest empirical constraint to date. Because of the lack of signal from the test candidate, a stacking analysis has been performed on similar sources in three cluster fields. A search for signal from classes of active galactic nuclei has also been made in the same three fields. None of the analyzed samples revealed a significant signal. Also presented are the expectations for the next generation of Cherenkov Telescopes and an outlook on the relativistic effects expected on the VHE emission close to SMBH. (orig.)

  5. Description and validation of the OMI very fast delivery products (United States)

    Hassinen, S.; Tamminen, J.; Tanskanen, A.; Leppelmeier, G.; MäLkki, A.; Koskela, T.; Karhu, J. M.; Lakkala, K.; Veefkind, P.; Krotkov, N.; Aulamo, O.


    The Dutch-Finnish Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) is on board the NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite. The Aura satellite has a so-called direct broadcast (DB) capability to broadcast the measurements to ground stations at the same time as the measurements are being stored in the spacecraft's memory for later transmission to Earth. The Finnish Meteorological Institute's very fast delivery (VFD) processing system utilizes this direct broadcast to produces maps of total ozone and ultraviolet radiation over Europe within 15 min after the satellite overpass Sodankylä ground station in northern Finland. The VFD products include maps of total ozone, ultraviolet index, and ultraviolet daily dose. The aim of this service is to provide up-to-date information on the ozone and ultraviolet situation for the general public and snapshots of the current situation for scientists. The accuracy of the VFD products compares well with standard off-line OMI ozone products as well as ground-based Brewer measurements. After the VFD update in May 2006, the differences with Brewer measurements are -1.0 ± 7.2 DU for Sodankylä and -0.6 ± 8.0 DU for Jokioinen. Differences to OMDOAO3 and OMTO3 products are 2.1 ± 3.3 DU and 1.6 ± 6.6 DU for Sodankylä and 1.7 ± 2.0 DU and 0.0 ± 6.1 DU for Jokioinen, respectively. Between the VFD and Brewer measured UV daily dose products the relative error is generally less than 30%, which compares well to the global off-line OMUVB product.

  6. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable.

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    Vincent Isnard

    Full Text Available Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs. This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition.

  7. Auditory Sketches: Very Sparse Representations of Sounds Are Still Recognizable. (United States)

    Isnard, Vincent; Taffou, Marine; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle; Suied, Clara


    Sounds in our environment like voices, animal calls or musical instruments are easily recognized by human listeners. Understanding the key features underlying this robust sound recognition is an important question in auditory science. Here, we studied the recognition by human listeners of new classes of sounds: acoustic and auditory sketches, sounds that are severely impoverished but still recognizable. Starting from a time-frequency representation, a sketch is obtained by keeping only sparse elements of the original signal, here, by means of a simple peak-picking algorithm. Two time-frequency representations were compared: a biologically grounded one, the auditory spectrogram, which simulates peripheral auditory filtering, and a simple acoustic spectrogram, based on a Fourier transform. Three degrees of sparsity were also investigated. Listeners were asked to recognize the category to which a sketch sound belongs: singing voices, bird calls, musical instruments, and vehicle engine noises. Results showed that, with the exception of voice sounds, very sparse representations of sounds (10 features, or energy peaks, per second) could be recognized above chance. No clear differences could be observed between the acoustic and the auditory sketches. For the voice sounds, however, a completely different pattern of results emerged, with at-chance or even below-chance recognition performances, suggesting that the important features of the voice, whatever they are, were removed by the sketch process. Overall, these perceptual results were well correlated with a model of auditory distances, based on spectro-temporal excitation patterns (STEPs). This study confirms the potential of these new classes of sounds, acoustic and auditory sketches, to study sound recognition.

  8. The Thymus: A Forgotten, But Very Important Organ. (United States)

    Zdrojewicz, Zygmunt; Pachura, Ewelina; Pachura, Paulina


    Medical science seems to be on the threshold of a revolution: It seems possible that in twenty years, doctors will be able to replace organs in the human body like parts in a car. This is thanks to the recent achievement of a team from the Medical Research Council Center for Regenerative Medicine in Edinburgh, Scotland - the group of researchers tried to regenerate the thymus gland in mice. The thymus gland is an essential organ for the development of the immune system, but very few people have any idea that it exists. In the literature and also in people's awareness, the fact is often that the thymus controls and harmonizes the entire immune system and the immune functioning of the organism. It is the primary donor of cells for the lymphatic system, much as bone marrow is the cell donor for the cardiovascular system. It is within the thymus that progenitor cells are created and then undergo maturation and differentiation into mature T cells. The thymus gland is located in the mediastinum, behind the sternum. It is composed of two identical lobes. Each lobe is divided into a central medulla and a peripheral cortex. The thymus is at its largest and most active during the neonatal and pre-adolescent periods. After this period the organ gradually disappears and is replaced by fat. In elderly individuals the thymus weighs 5 g. The aim of this work is to shed new light on this important immune defense organ, whose function is not confined to the destruction of nonfunctional T cells.

  9. A very rare, petro-clival, neurothekeoma tumor. Case Report

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    Iacob G.


    Full Text Available Known as nerve sheath myxoma too, neurothekeoma are benign tumors, usually arise in the skin of the head, neck region and upper extremities, in young females. Cerebral neurothekeoma are very rare, a few cases were already described in the parasellar area, in the middle cranial and posterior fossa. We present a petro-clival neurotekoma. A 78-year-old male was admitted for two years left fronto-temporal headache completed in the last 6 months with left trigeminal V1 neuralgia, left facial hypoesthesia, diplopia, swallowing disorders for liquid foods, balance disorders. From his medical records we noticed: stage 2 chronic kidney disease, hypertension, prostate adenoma, dyslipidemia hypercholesterolemia. The MRI showed a macronodular petroclival mass in hiper T2, hipo T1, flair iso signal; normal cerebral angiography. The patient was operated on using a left retrosigmoid, retromastoidian approach. A 4/3/3 cm tumor, gray, encapsulated, soft consistency, partially cystic, less bleeding, attached to the dura, displacing the basilar artery and brain stem controlateral, encasing the trigeminal nerve. The tumor was totally removed with a good postop evolution. Six months follow up he had no more facial pain, but only persistant left facial hypoesthesia. Histologically the tumor had lobular appearance with spindle or stellate cells embedded in abundant myxoid background. The tumor cells were diffusely positive for S100, PGP9.5’, CD 34” positive in vessels, Ki67’positive in 5%. Cranial MRI performed one month after surgery did not show any residual tumor. Also known as nerve sheath myxomas, neurothekoma are rare benign tumors. For intracranial neurothekoma surgical indication is mandatory

  10. Borehole strain observations of very low frequency earthquakes (United States)

    Hawthorne, J. C.; Ghosh, A.; Hutchinson, A. A.


    We examine the signals of very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) in PBO borehole strain data in central Cascadia. These MW 3.3 - 4.1 earthquakes are best observed in seismograms at periods of 20 to 50 seconds. We look for the strain they produce on timescales from about 1 to 30 minutes. First, we stack the strain produced by 13 VLFEs identified by a grid search moment tensor inversion algorithm by Ghosh et. al. (2015) and Hutchinson and Ghosh (2016), as well as several thousand VLFEs detected through template matching these events. The VLFEs are located beneath southernmost Vancouver Island and the eastern Olympic Peninsula, and are best recorded at co-located stations B005 and B007. However, even at these stations, the signal to noise in the stack is often low, and the records are difficult to interpret. Therefore we also combine data from multiple stations and VLFE locations, and simply look for increases in the strain rate at the VLFE times, as increases in strain rate would suggest an increase in the moment rate. We compare the background strain rate in the 12 hours centered on the VLFEs with the strain rate in the 10 minutes centered on the VLFEs. The 10-minute duration is chosen as a compromise that averages out some instrumental noise without introducing too much longer-period random walk noise. Our results suggest a factor of 2 increase in strain rate--and thus moment rate--during the 10-minute VLFE intervals. The increase gives an average VLFE magnitude around M 3.5, within the range of magnitudes obtained with seismology. Further analyses are currently being carried out to better understand the evolution of moment release before, during, and after the VLFEs.

  11. How Very Massive Metal-Free Stars Start Cosmological Reionization (United States)

    Wise, John H.; Abel, Tom


    The initial conditions and relevant physics for the formation of the earliest galaxies are well specified in the concordance cosmology. Using ab initio cosmological Eulerian adaptive mesh refinement radiation hydrodynamical calculations, we discuss how very massive stars start the process of cosmological reionization. The models include nonequilibrium primordial gas chemistry and cooling processes and accurate radiation transport in the case B approximation using adaptively ray-traced photon packages, retaining the time derivative in the transport equation. Supernova feedback is modeled by thermal explosions triggered at parsec scales. All calculations resolve the local Jeans length by at least 16 grid cells at all times and as such cover a spatial dynamic range of approx.10(exp 6). These first sources of reionization are highly intermittent and anisotropic and first photoionize the small-scale voids surrounding the halos they form in, rather than the dense filaments they are embedded in. As the merging objects form larger, dwarf-sized galaxies, the escape fraction of UV radiation decreases and the H II regions only break out on some sides of the galaxies, making them even more anisotropic. In three cases, SN blast waves induce star formation in overdense regions that were formed earlier from ionization front instabilities. These stars form tens of parsecs away from the center of their parent DM halo. Approximately five ionizing photons are needed per sustained ionization when star formation in 10(exp 6) stellar Mass halos is dominant in the calculation. As the halos become larger than approx.10(exp 7) Stellar Mass, the ionizing photon escape fraction decreases, which in turn increases the number of photons per ionization to 15-50, in calculations with stellar feedback only. Radiative feedback decreases clumping factors by 25% when compared to simulations without star formation and increases the average temperature of ionized gas to values between 3000 and 10,000 K.

  12. Duodenal injuries in the very young: child abuse? (United States)

    Sowrey, Lauren; Lawson, Karla A; Garcia-Filion, Pamela; Notrica, David; Tuggle, David; Eubanks, James W; Maxson, Robert Todd; Recicar, John; Megison, Stephen M; Garcia, Nilda M


    Duodenal injuries in children are uncommon but have been specifically linked with child abuse in case reports. Owing to the rarity of the diagnosis, few studies to date have looked at the association between duodenal injuries and mechanism in younger child. We hypothesize that duodenal injuries in the very young are significantly associated with child abuse. This investigation is a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with duodenal injuries at one of six Level I pediatric trauma centers. All institutions had institutional review board approval. The trauma registries were used to identify children aged 0 year to 5 years from 1991 to 2011. Multiple variables were collected and included age, mechanism of injury, type of duodenal injury, additional injuries, mortality, and results of abuse investigation if available. Relationships were analyzed using Fischer's exact test. We identified 32 patients with duodenal injuries with a mean age of 3 years. Duodenal injuries included duodenal hematomas (44%) and perforations/transections (56%). Of all duodenal injuries, 53% resulted in operation, 53% had additional injuries, and 12.5% resulted in death. Of the 32 children presenting with duodenal injuries, 20 were child abuse patients (62.5%). All duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years were caused by child abuse (6 of 6, p = 0.06) and more than half of the duodenal injuries in children older than 2 years were caused by child abuse (14 of 26). Child abuse-related duodenal injuries were associated with delayed presentation (p = 0.004). There was a significant increase in child abuse-related duodenal injuries during the time frame of the study (p = 0.002). Duodenal injuries are extremely rare in the pediatric population. This multi-institutional investigation found that child abuse consistently associated with duodenal injuries in children younger than 2 years. The evidence supports a child abuse investigation on children younger than 2 years with duodenal

  13. Rare and very rare adverse effects of clozapine

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    De Fazio P


    Full Text Available Pasquale De Fazio,1 Raffaele Gaetano,1 Mariarita Caroleo,1 Gregorio Cerminara,1 Francesca Maida,2 Antonio Bruno,3 Maria Rosaria Muscatello,3 Maria Jose Jaén Moreno,4 Emilio Russo,2 Cristina Segura-García1 1Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, 2Department of Health Sciences, School of Specialization in Pharmacology, University “Magna Graecia”, Catanzaro, 3Department of Neurosciences, School of Specialization in Psychiatry, University of Messina, Messina, Italy; 4Department of Social Health Sciences, Radiology and Physical Medicine, University of Cordoba, Cordoba, Spain Abstract: Clozapine (CLZ is the drug of choice for the treatment of resistant schizophrenia; however, its suitable use is limited by the complex adverse effects’ profile. The best-described adverse effects in the literature are represented by agranulocytosis, myocarditis, sedation, weight gain, hypotension, and drooling; nevertheless, there are other known adverse effects that psychiatrists should readily recognize and manage. This review covers the “rare” and “very rare” known adverse effects of CLZ, which have been accurately described in literature. An extensive search on the basis of predefined criteria was made using CLZ and its combination with adverse effects as keywords in electronic databases. Data show the association between the use of CLZ and uncommon adverse effects, including ischemic colitis, paralytic ileus, hematemesis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, priapism, urinary incontinence, pityriasis rosea, intertriginous erythema, pulmonary thromboembolism, pseudo-pheochromocytoma, periorbital edema, and parotitis, which are influenced by other variables including age, early diagnosis, and previous/current pharmacological therapies. Some of these adverse effects, although unpredictable, are often manageable if promptly recognized and treated. Others are serious and potentially life-threatening. However, an adequate

  14. Very high frequency plasma reactant for atomic layer deposition

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    Oh, Il-Kwon; Yoo, Gilsang; Yoon, Chang Mo [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Hyung; Yeom, Geun Young [Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kangsik; Lee, Zonghoon [School Materials Science and Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan 44919 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hanearl; Lee, Chang Wan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyungjun, E-mail: [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Han-Bo-Ram, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Incheon National University, 406-840 Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Fundamental research plasma process for thin film deposition is presented. • VHF plasma source for PE-ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was employed to reduce plasma damage. • The use of VHF plasma improved all of the film qualities and growth characteristics. - Abstract: Although plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) results in several benefits in the formation of high-k dielectrics, including a low processing temperature and improved film properties compared to conventional thermal ALD, energetic radicals and ions in the plasma cause damage to layer stacks, leading to the deterioration of electrical properties. In this study, the growth characteristics and film properties of PE-ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated using a very-high-frequency (VHF) plasma reactant. Because VHF plasma features a lower electron temperature and higher plasma density than conventional radio frequency (RF) plasma, it has a larger number of less energetic reaction species, such as radicals and ions. VHF PE-ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows superior physical and electrical properties over RF PE-ALD Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, including high growth per cycle, excellent conformality, low roughness, high dielectric constant, low leakage current, and low interface trap density. In addition, interlayer-free Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on Si was achieved in VHF PE-ALD via a significant reduction in plasma damage. VHF PE-ALD will be an essential process to realize nanoscale devices that require precise control of interfaces and electrical properties.

  15. Occurrence of polar mesosphere summer echoes at very high latitudes

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    M. Zecha


    Full Text Available Observations of polar mesosphere summer echoes (PMSE have been carried out during the summer periodes 1999–2001 and 2003–2004 at the very high latitude of 78° N using the SOUSY Svalbard Radar (53.5 MHz at Longyearbyen. Although the measurements could not be done continuously in these seasons, PMSE have been detected over more than 6600 h of 9300 h of observation time overall. Using this data base, particular PMSE occurrence characteristics have been determined. PMSE at Svalbard appear from the middle of May to the end of August with an almost permanent total occurrence in June and July. Diurnal variations are observable in the height-depend occurrence rates and in PMSE thickness, they show a maximum around 09:00–10:00 UTC and a minimum around 21:00–22:00 UTC. PMSE occur nearly exclusively between a height of 80 km and 92 km with a maximum near 85 km. However, PMSE appear not simultaneously over the entire height range, the mean vertical PMSE extension is around 4–6 km in June and July. Furthermore, typically PMSE are separated into several layers, and only 30% of all PMSE are single layers. The probability of multiple layers is greater in June and July than at the beginning and the end of the PMSE season and shows a marked 5-day-variation. The same variation is noticeable in the seasonal dependence of the PMSE occurrence and the PMSE thickness. We finally discuss potential geophysical processes to explain our observational results.

  16. Antenna Concepts for the Next-Generation Very Large Array (United States)

    Beasley, Anthony; Jackson, James; Selina, Rob


    The Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) has proven to be one of the most productive radio telescopes at centimeter wavelengths. The NRAO is now investigating the future of centimeter wavelength astronomy in the northern hemisphere, spanning the gap between thermal and non-thermal emission mechanisms, and bridging the capabilities of ALMA and SKA.The scientific mission, specifications and technical concept of a next-generation VLA (ngVLA) are presently being developed. Preliminary goals for the ngVLA are to increase both the system sensitivity and angular resolution of the VLA and ALMA tenfold for frequencies spanning 1.2 GHz to 116 GHz. Specifications and costing for the ngVLA system, and major components such as the antennas, are in development in anticipation of the Astro2020 Decadal Survey and a facility design and construction proposal to the NSF.The design of the antenna will be a major construction and operations cost driver for the facility. The antennas must have acceptable aperture efficiency and pointing for operation up to 116 GHz, with five to ten times the total collecting area of the VLA. Unblocked apertures are preferred, with wide subreflector subtended angles for compact feed and receiver packages. Improved reliability, and ease of access to the receiver and servo electronics packages, will be required to meet the operations cost requirement.We present the high-level requirements for the antenna, the proposed antenna specifications and concept, and studies and design work under way towards a baseline design. The presentation will also discuss areas of technical risk, where technical advances may be required for successful antenna production and assembly.

  17. A Very Neutral Voice: Teaching about the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Clements


    Full Text Available Contextualisation The Holocaust is a significant event in the history of twentieth century Europe and, as such, is an important topic for pupils to encounter in classroom lessons. Aside from the acquisition of skills helpful for historical enquiry and evaluation, some teachers and educationalists, as well as those outside the educational world, make claims for the topic in terms of its promoting anti-racism or Citizenship. However, this paper suggests that a particular learning experience is to be found in the dynamics of the relationship between teacher and pupil. Abstract: This paper is concerned to address the question of ‘What are The Lessons To Be Learnt in the study of the Holocaust?’ Very little research has been done in this field, although both the literature and classroom teachers tend to cite rationales from countering racism to promoting engagement with Citizenship issues. Research in related areas, together with the experience of the teachers themselves, indicates that such grand outcomes are unlikely. This paper suggests that the main outcome of Holocaust Education is the enabling of a re-examination of pupil discourses about humanity and society. The relationship between teacher and pupil in the course of these lessons, issues of shared language and a lowering of the barrier of emotional restraint all contribute to produce this outcome. This paper further suggests that, while the facts of the events themselves are important in terms of historical understanding, the main value of the lessons comes not from these but from an experience of empowerment as both teachers and pupils engage with the concept of ‘difficult knowledge’.

  18. Rapid separation of very low concentrations of bacteria from blood. (United States)

    Buchanan, Clara M; Wood, Ryan L; Hoj, Taalin R; Alizadeh, Mahsa; Bledsoe, Colin G; Wood, Madison E; McClellan, Daniel S; Blanco, Rae; Hickey, Caroline L; Ravsten, Tanner V; Husseini, Ghaleb A; Robison, Richard A; Pitt, William G


    A rapid and accurate diagnosis of the species and antibiotic resistance of bacteria in septic blood is vital to increase survival rates of patients with bloodstream infections, particularly those with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. The extremely low levels in blood (1 to 100CFU/ml) make rapid diagnosis difficult. In this study, very low concentrations of bacteria (6 to 200CFU/ml) were separated from 7ml of whole blood using rapid sedimentation in a spinning hollow disk that separated plasma from red and white cells, leaving most of the bacteria suspended in the plasma. Following less than a minute of spinning, the disk was slowed, the plasma was recovered, and the bacteria were isolated by vacuum filtration. The filters were grown on nutrient plates to determine the number of bacteria recovered from the blood. Experiments were done without red blood cell (RBC) lysis and with RBC lysis in the recovered plasma. While there was scatter in the data from blood with low bacterial concentrations, the mean average recovery was 69%. The gender of the blood donor made no statistical difference in bacterial recovery. These results show that this rapid technique recovers a significant amount of bacteria from blood containing clinically relevant low levels of bacteria, producing the bacteria in minutes. These bacteria could subsequently be identified by molecular techniques to quickly identify the infectious organism and its resistance profile, thus greatly reducing the time needed to correctly diagnose and treat a blood infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Population based trends in mortality, morbidity and treatment for very preterm- and very low birth weight infants over 12 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüegger Christoph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, improvements in medical care have been associated with a significant increase and better outcome of very preterm (VP, Methods Our population-based observational cohort study used the Minimal Neonatal Data Set, a database maintained by the Swiss Society of Neonatology including information of all VP- and VLBW infants. Perinatal characteristics, mortality and morbidity rates and the survival free of major complications were analysed and their temporal trends evaluated. Results In 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008, a total number of 3090 infants were enrolled in the Network Database. At the same time the rate of VP- and VLBW neonates increased significantly from 0.87% in 1996 to 1.10% in 2008 (p Conclusions Over the 12-year observation period, the number of VP- and VLBW infants increased significantly. An unchanged overall mortality rate and an increase of survivors free of major complication resulted in a considerable net gain in infants with potentially good outcome.

  20. Baseline Receiver Concept for a Next Generation Very Large Array (United States)

    Srikanth, Sivasankaran; Wes Grammer, Silver Sturgis, Rob Selina


    The Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) is envisioned to be an interferometric array with 10 times the effective collecting area and spatial resolution as the current VLA, operating over a frequency range of 1.2-116 GHz. Achieving these goals will require 214 antennas of nominal 18m diameter, on baselines of 300km. Maximizing sensitivity for each receiver band, while also minimizing the overall operating cost are the primary design goals. Therefore, receivers and feeds will be cryogenically cooled, with multiple bands integrated into a common cryostat to the greatest extent possible. Using feed designs that yield broad bandwidths and high aperture efficiencies are key to meeting these goals.The proposed receiver configuration will be implemented as six independent bands, each with its own feed. The upper five bands will be integrated into a single compact cryostat, while the lowest-frequency band occupies a second cryostat of similar volume and mass. The lowest-band feed is cooled to 80K, while all other feeds are cooled to 20K.For optimum performance at the higher frequencies, waveguide-bandwidth (~1.66:1) receivers are proposed to cover 12.6 – 50.5 GHz and 70 – 116 GHz in four separate bands, integrated into a single cryostat. Excellent LNA noise performance is readily achievable, and using waveguide throughout the signal chain reduces losses and their associated noise contributions, without adding undue size or weight. An axially-corrugated conical feed horn with wide flare angle (~50degree half-angle), based on a design by G. Cortes and L. Baker, is being considered for these receivers.For continuous coverage between 1.2 – 12.6 GHz, waveguide or even octave-bandwidth receivers are not cost-effective, given the > 10:1 frequency range. For these bands, wideband (3.25:1) receivers mated to a Caltech-designed quad-ridge feed horn (QRFH) are proposed. These feeds are highly compact, and cryogenically cooled to reduce losses ahead of the LNAs. Aperture


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, 116 Church Street, S.E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon Company, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Cannon, John M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Macalester College, 1600 Grand Avenue, Saint Paul, MN 55105 (United States); Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L. [Department of Astronomy, Indiana University, 727 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [ASTRON, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Girardi, Léo, E-mail: [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, INAF, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy)


    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  2. The Very Large Array: Pioneering New Directions in Radio Astronomy (United States)

    McKinnon, Mark


    The Very Large Array (VLA) started science operations in 1980 and was rechristened the Jansky VLA after a major upgrade to its electronics system was completed in 2012. The VLA plays a prominent role in scientific discovery through studies of the Solar System, star and planet formation, galaxy formation, and time domain astronomy. It has attained iconic status as one of the most scientifically productive telescopes on EarthIn 2017, three major initiatives were launched at the VLA with the goal of maintaining its leadership role and impact in radio astronomy in the near and long term future:1. In September, the VLA embarked upon the VLA Sky Survey (VLASS), the highest resolution survey ever undertaken at radio wavelengths. The survey was planned in consultation with the astronomy community and will be used to search for transients, study the polarization properties of extragalactic radio sources, and study highly obscured sources in our Galaxy.2. Detailed planning for a next generation VLA (ngVLA) began in earnest in 2017. The ngVLA will open a new window on the Universe through ultra-sensitive imaging of thermal line and continuum emission down to milliarcsecond resolution, as well as unprecedented broad-band continuum polarimetric imaging of non-thermal processes. A proposal for the instrument will be submitted to the 2020 Decadal Survey.3. A multi-year program to replace the 40+ year old infrastructure at the VLA site was initiated in 2017. The program includes the replacement of the VLA’s electrical infrastructure in 2018, improvements to the VLA rail system, and the replacement of heavy maintenance equipment.The VLA continued to play a major role in discovering and explaining the physics of transient phenomena in 2017, to include fast transients, such as fast radio bursts, and long time scale transients, such as novae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts.More thorough descriptions of the VLASS and ngVLA, along with the science that can be done with

  3. Stagnation Region Heat Transfer Augmentation at Very High Turbulence Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ames, Forrest [University of North Dakota; Kingery, Joseph E. [University of North Dakota


    A database for stagnation region heat transfer has been extended to include heat transfer measurements acquired downstream from a new high intensity turbulence generator. This work was motivated by gas turbine industry heat transfer designers who deal with heat transfer environments with increasing Reynolds numbers and very high turbulence levels. The new mock aero-combustor turbulence generator produces turbulence levels which average 17.4%, which is 37% higher than the older turbulence generator. The increased level of turbulence is caused by the reduced contraction ratio from the liner to the exit. Heat transfer measurements were acquired on two large cylindrical leading edge test surfaces having a four to one range in leading edge diameter (40.64 cm and 10.16 cm). Gandvarapu and Ames [1] previously acquired heat transfer measurements for six turbulence conditions including three grid conditions, two lower turbulence aero-combustor conditions, and a low turbulence condition. The data are documented and tabulated for an eight to one range in Reynolds numbers for each test surface with Reynolds numbers ranging from 62,500 to 500,000 for the large leading edge and 15,625 to 125,000 for the smaller leading edge. The data show augmentation levels of up to 136% in the stagnation region for the large leading edge. This heat transfer rate is an increase over the previous aero-combustor turbulence generator which had augmentation levels up to 110%. Note, the rate of increase in heat transfer augmentation decreases for the large cylindrical leading edge inferring only a limited level of turbulence intensification in the stagnation region. The smaller cylindrical leading edge shows more consistency with earlier stagnation region heat transfer results correlated on the TRL (Turbulence, Reynolds number, Length scale) parameter. The downstream regions of both test surfaces continue to accelerate the flow but at a much lower rate than the leading edge. Bypass transition occurs

  4. A very low-cost and adaptable DIY seismic station (United States)

    Mendez Chazara, Nahum; Castiñeiras, Pedro


    With the advent of prototyping platforms and low-cost computers, geological do-it-yourself components and sensors can be quickly and inexpensively built. The design of the prototype can also be improved over several iterations, from high-resolution magnetometers to vertical electrical sounding instruments, opening new opportunities to gather data in the field or in the lab. One of the possibilities in the field of DIY geology is seismological research, because the availability and diversity of the parts used can come in handy when developing an instrument. Also, they are really easy to build without a very deep electronics background. Although the range in low-cost seismometers is usually restricted to local seismology, induced seismology or human activities, our approach is able to record data with sampling rates up to 500 Hz. It can record and analyze data with a resolution of 16-bit, but it can be regulated to reach 24-bit if needed. Data transfer can operate all-day with low power consumption, using around 1-Amp per hour, or even less, depending on the final setup chosen. Our first seismograph (Raspberry Pi, gathers the data from the geophone using a Python script, slices it in 1-hour intervals and draws waveform and frequency spectrum graph for quick analysis with Matplotlib, a common graphing library in Python. The data can be gathered using several methods: If a Wi-Fi network is available, the instrument can be directly connected to the Internet and the data uploaded in real time. If there is no such connection available, a GSM shield can be used to upload the data, and in the worst-case scenario, the data can be accessed directly on the field via Wi-Fi or Ethernet connection if the location of the sensor make unable to connect via WiFi or GSM. Obviously, there can be also different configurations to fit different needs: From horizontal geophones, to the use of accelerometers to substitute the geophone and miniaturize even less the size of the seismic

  5. A Glimpse of the Very Early Universal Web (United States)


    The VLT Maps Extremely Distant Galaxies Summary New, trailblazing observations with the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) at Paranal lend strong support to current computer models of the early universe: It is "spongy", with galaxies forming along filaments, like droplets along the strands of a spiders web. A group of astronomers at ESO and in Denmark [1] determined the distances to some very faint galaxies in the neighbourhood of a distant quasar. Plotting their positions in a three-dimensional map, they found that these objects are located within a narrow "filament", exactly as predicted by the present theories for the development of the first structures in the young universe . The objects are most likely "building blocks" from which galaxies and clusters of galaxies assemble. This observation shows a very useful way forward for the study of the early evolution of the universe and the emergence of structures soon after the Big Bang. At the same time, it provides yet another proof of the great power of the new class of giant optical telescopes for cosmological studies. PR Photo 19a/01 : Web-like structures in the young Universe (computer model). PR Photo 19b/01 : A group of objects at redshift 3.04 . PR Photo 19c/01 : Animated view of sky field and distant filament . PR Photo 19d/01 : The shape of the filament . PR Photo 19e/01 : Artist's impression of the very distant filament. PR Video Clip 04/01 : Video animation of the very distant filament. The computers are ahead of the telescopes For the past two decades cosmologists have been in the somewhat odd situation that their computers were "ahead" of their telescopes. The rapid evolution of powerful computer hardware and sophisticated software has provided theorists with the ability to build almost any sort of virtual universe they can imagine. Starting with different initial conditions just after the Big Bang, they can watch such fictional worlds evolve over billions of years in their supercomputers - and do so in a

  6. [Postnatal growth of very low birth weight infants during hospitalization]. (United States)


    To study the postnatal growth of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) and its relevant influencing factors during hospitalization. Clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI), who were discharged from July 1(st), 2010 to June 30(th), 2011, were collected retrospectively from 9 NICUs of 9 cities in Pearl River Delta, Guangdong province. A total of 183 cases of VLBW premature infants were enrolled in this research. The incidence of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) at birth and extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) on discharge were assessed. According to IUGR at birth, they were assigned into two groups: IUGR group (n = 63) and non-IUGR group (n = 120). And non-IUGR group were further assigned into EUGR group (n = 71) and non-EUGR group (n = 49). The mean daily growth rate during hospitalization and the incidence of EUGR on discharge were studied comparatively to IUGR group and non-IUGR group. The nutrition intake, mean growth rate and relevant illnesses were studied comparatively to IUGR group and non-IUGR group, EUGR group and non-EUGR group. (1) The incidence of IUGR at birth was 34.4%, while the incidence of EUGR on discharge was 72.1%. The mean daily growth rate to body weight of IUGR group was higher than that of non-IUGR group [(12.5 ± 2.7) g/kg vs (11.3 ± 2.5) g/kg, P = 0.002]. The increasing incidence from IUGR to EUGR, IUGR group was higher than non-IUGR group (96.8% vs 59.2%, P = 0.000). (2) The mean daily energy and protein intake in postnatal time of 1 week [62 (51, 69) kcal/kg vs 56 (45, 64) kcal/kg (1 kcal = 4.1840 kJ), 1.7 (1.3, 2.0) g/kg vs 1.6 (1.2, 1.8) g/kg], 2 weeks [83 (71, 94) kcal/kg vs 76 (66, 88) kcal/kg, 2.6 (2.1, 2.9) g/kg vs 2.3 (1.9, 2.7) g/kg], 4 weeks [107 (94, 120) kcal/kg vs 95 (85, 108) kcal/kg, 3.3 (2.7, 3.6) g/kg vs 2.7 (2.4, 3.2) g/kg], before total enteral nutrition [103 (96, 110) kcal/kg vs 97 (89, 106) kcal/kg, 3.1 (2.6, 3.4) g/kg vs 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) g/kg] and the whole hospitalization [121 (111, 131) kcal

  7. Very Large Array and Jansky Very Large Array observations of the compact radio sources in M8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masqué, Josep M.; Rodríguez, Luis F. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Morelia 58089 (Mexico); Dzib, Sergio [Max-Plank-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)


    We analyze high-resolution Very Large Array continuum observations of the M8 region carried out at several epochs that span a period of 30 yr. Our maps reveal two compact sources. One is associated with Her 36 SE, a possible companion of the O7 luminous massive star Her 36, and the other is associated with G5.97–1.17, whose proplyd nature was previously established. Using the analyzed data, we do not find significant time variability in any of these sources. The derived spectral index of ≥0.1 for Her 36 SE, the marginal offset of the radio emission with the previous infrared detection, and the associated X-ray emission previously reported suggest the presence of an unresolved interaction region between the strong winds of Her 36 and Her 36 SE. This region would contribute non-thermal contamination to the global wind emission of Her 36, flattening its spectral index. On the other hand, the emission of G5.97–1.17 can also be explained by a mixture of thermal and non-thermal emission components, with different relative contributions of both emission mechanisms along the proplyd. We argue that the shock created by the photo-evaporation flow of the proplyd with the collimated stellar wind of Her 36 accelerates charged particles in G5.97–1.17, producing considerable synchrotron emission. On the contrary, an electron density enhancement at the southwest of G5.97–1.17 makes the thermal emission dominant over this region.

  8. Building identification from very high-resolution satellite images (United States)

    Lhomme, Stephane

    Urbanisation still remains one of the main problems worldwide. The extent and rapidity of the urban growth induce a number of socio-economic and environmental conflicts everywhere. In order to reduce these problems, urban planners need to integrate spatial information in planning tools. Actually high expectations are made on Very High Spatial Resolution imagery (VHSR). These high-spatial resolution images are available at a reasonable price and due to short revisit periods, they offer a high degree of actuality. However, interpretation methods seem not to be adapted to this new type of images. The aim of our study is to develop a new method for semi-automatic building extraction with VHSR. The different steps performed to achieve our objective are each presented in a chapter. In the first chapter, the general context of our research is described with the definition of our objective. After a short historical review of urbanisation, we focus on urban growth and associated problems. In the following we discuss the possible contributions of geography to reduce these problems. After discussing concepts, theories and methodologies of geographical analysis in urban areas, we present existing general urban planning tools. Finally, we show the special interest of our study that is due to a growing need to integrate spatial information in these decision support tools. In the second chapter we verify the possibility of reaching our objective by analysing the technical characteristics of the images, the noise and the distortions which affect the images. Quality and interpretability of the studied image is analysed in order to show the capacity of these image to represent urban objects as close to reality as possible. The results confirm the potential of VHSR Imagery for urban objects analysis. The third chapter deal with the preliminary steps necessary for the elaboration of our method of building extraction. First, we evaluate the quality of the Sherbrooke Ikonos image

  9. [Recommendations for cardiovascular rehabilitation in the very elderly]. (United States)

    Vigorito, Carlo; Incalzi, Raffaele Antonelli; Acanfora, Domenico; Marchionni, Niccolò; Fattirolli, Francesco


    Cardiac rehabilitation has gained widespread acceptance as an integral component in the management of patients with several forms of cardiac disease. Nevertheless, the benefits deriving from cardiac rehabilitation, and the most appropriate modalities of delivering this treatment, are still uncertain in patients older than 75 years who, beyond a high morbidity and mortality from ischemic heart disease, are characterized by frequent comorbidities, disability, psychological and emotional abnormalities, and cognitive impairment. All these conditions may concur to limit physical exercise capacity, are frequent causes of physical disability and deteriorated quality of life, and are a barrier to enrolling older patients into standardized rehabilitation programs. On the other hand, available evidence on cardiac rehabilitation in older patients derive from non homogeneous patient series, which are not fully representative of the average patient older than 75 years, whose peculiar clinical characteristics are largely different from those of subjects in 65-75 years age range. Therefore, the scientific community should design new strategies to promote recruitment of older individuals into cardiac rehabilitation programs. This can be attained by both spreading the results of beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation in advanced age and by precisely identifying the goals, as well as by defining assessment, rehabilitation and follow-up protocols targeting the peculiar characteristics of old and very old patients. This article offers a concise review of available evidence on cardiac rehabilitation in older patients, and a series of recommendations that may be useful in the clinical practice. In the first, introductory section, we describe the main components of comprehensive, cardiac rehabilitation programs of older patients (namely: physical exercise based on both endurance and muscle strength training; the role of multidisciplinary approach integrated into a secondary

  10. Steady-state emission of blazars at very high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne-Moench, Daniel


    One key scientific program of the MAGIC telescope project is the discovery and detection of blazars. They constitute the most prominent extragalactic source class in the very high energy (VHE) {gamma}-ray regime with 29 out of 34 known objects. Therefore a major part of the available observation time was spent in the last years on high-frequency peaked blazars. The selection criteria were chosen to increase the detection probability. As the X-ray flux is believed to be correlated to the VHE {gamma}-ray flux, only X-ray selected sources with a flux F{sub X}>2 {mu}Jy at 1 keV were considered. To avoid strong attenuation of the -rays in the extragalactic infrared background, the redshift was restricted to values between z<0.15 and z<0.4, depending on the declination of the objects. The latter determines the zenith distance during culmination which should not exceed 30 (for z<0.4) and 45 (for z<0.15), respectively. Between August 2005 and April 2009, a sample of 24 X-ray selected high-frequency peaked blazars has been observed with the MAGIC telescope. Three of them were detected including 1ES 1218+304 being the first high-frequency peaked BL Lacertae object (HBL) to be discovered with MAGIC in VHE {gamma}-rays. One previously detected object was not confirmed as VHE emitter in this campaign by MAGIC. A set of 20 blazars previously not detected is treated more closely in this work. In this campaign, during almost four years {proportional_to}450 hrs or {proportional_to}22% of the available observation time for extragalactic objects were dedicated to investigate the baseline emission of blazars and their broadband spectral properties in this emission state. For the sample of 20 objects in a redshift range of 0.018

  11. Very large array faraday rotation studies of the coronal plasma (United States)

    Kooi, Jason Earl

    Knowledge of the coronal magnetic field is crucial for understanding (1) the heating mechanism(s) of the solar corona, (2) the acceleration of the fast solar wind, and (3) the structure and dynamics of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Observation of Faraday rotation (FR) is one of the best remote-sensing techniques for determining plasma properties in the corona and can provide information on the plasma structure of a CME shortly after launch, shedding light on the initiation process. I used the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to make sensitive Faraday rotation measurements to investigate the general plasma structure of the corona, properties of coronal plasma inhomogeneities and waves, and transients associated with coronal mass ejections. To enhance my measurements of FR transients, I also developed an algorithm in the Common Astronomy Software Applications (CASA) package to mitigate ionospheric Faraday rotation. In August, 2011, I made FR observations at 5.0 and 6.1 GHz of the radio galaxy 3C 228 through the solar corona at heliocentric distances of 4.6-5.0 solar radii using the VLA. Observations at 5.0 GHz permit measurements deeper in the corona than previous VLA observations at 1.4 and 1.7 GHz. These FR observations provided unique information on the magnetic field in this region of the corona. My data on 3C 228 provide two lines of sight (separated by 46 arcseconds, 33,000 km in the corona). I detected three periods during which there appeared to be a difference in the Faraday rotation measure between these two closely spaced lines of sight, which I used to estimate coronal currents; these values (ranging from 2.6 to 4.1 GA) are several orders of magnitude below that which is necessary for significant coronal heating (assuming the Spitzer resistivity). I also used the data to determine upper limits (3.3 and 6.4 rad/m2 along the two lines of sight) on FR fluctuations caused by coronal waves. These upper limits are comparable to and, thus, not inconsistent

  12. Very Large Array Retooling for 21st-Century Science (United States)


    An international project to make the world's most productive ground-based telescope 10 times more capable has reached its halfway mark and is on schedule to provide astronomers with an extremely powerful new tool for exploring the Universe. The National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope now has half of its giant, 230-ton dish antennas converted to use new, state-of-the-art digital electronics to replace analog equipment that has served since the facility's construction during the 1970s. VLA and Radio Galaxy VLA Antennas Getting Modern Electronics To Meet New Scientific Challenges CREDIT: NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more information, higher-resolution files "We're taking a facility that has made landmark discoveries in astronomy for three decades and making it 10 times more powerful, at a cost that's a fraction of its total value, by replacing outdated technology with modern equipment," said Mark McKinnon, project manager for the Expanded VLA (EVLA). Rick Perley, EVLA project scientist, added: "When completed in 2012, the EVLA will be 10 times more sensitive, cover more frequencies, and provide far greater analysis capabilities than the current VLA. In addition, it will be much simpler to use, making its power available to a wider range of scientists." The EVLA will give scientists new power and flexibility to meet the numerous challenges of 21st-Century astrophysics. The increased sensitivity will reveal the earliest epochs of galaxy formation, back to within a billion years of the Big Bang, or 93 percent of the look-back time to the beginning of the Universe. It will have the resolution to peer deep into the dustiest star-forming clouds, imaging protoplanetary disks around young stars on scales approaching that of the formation of terrestrial planets. The EVLA will provide unique capabilities to study magnetic fields in the Universe, to image regions near massive black holes, and to systematically track changes in transient objects

  13. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kieviet, J.F.; Oosterlaan, J.; van Zwol, A.; Boehm, G.; Lafeber, H.N.; van Elburg, R.M.


    In very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal

  14. School performance at nine years of age in very premature and very low birth weight infants : Perinatal risk factors and predictors at five years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Bauer, L.; Oudenrijn, C. van den; Brand, R.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    To assess the impact of both perinatal disorders and developmental problems identified at preschool age on school performance, we followed a virtually complete birth cohort of very premature (<32 completed weeks of gestation) and very low birth weight infants until they were 9 years of age. In 84%

  15. Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    Geldof, C. J. A.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; de Kieviet, J. F.; Kok, J. H.; Oosterlaan, J.


    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual…

  16. Long term follow-up of health-related quality of life in young adults born very preterm or with a very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verrips, Gijsbert; Brouwer, Leonoor; Vogels, Ton; Taal, Erik; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Feeny, David; Verheijden, Marieke; Verloove-Vanhorick, Pauline


    Background The purpose was, first, to evaluate changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g.) or very preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) children between ages 14 and 19, and second, to identify correlates of HRQL at age 19. Methods HRQL was

  17. Reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm and/or with a very low birth weight in 1983 : a longitudinal cohort study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gendt, A.W. van; Pal, S.M. van der; Hermes, W.; Walther, F.J.; Pal-de Bruin, K.M. van der; Groot, C.J.M. de


    The aims of this study were to analyze reproductive outcomes of women and men born very preterm (gestational age <32 weeks) or with a very low birth weight (<1500 g) in 1983 in the Netherlands and to compare their reproductive outcomes with the total population at a similar age of 28 years. Young

  18. Very Large Array Plus Pie Town Astrometry of 46 Radio Stars

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boboltz, D. A; Fey, A. L; Puatua, W. K; Zacharias, N; Claussen, M; Johnston, K. J; Gaume, R. A


    We have used the Very Large Array, linked with the Pie Town Very Long Baseline Array antenna, to determine astrometric positions of 46 radio stars in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF...

  19. Associations Among Perinatal Factors and Age of Achievement of Full Oral Feeding in Very Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yea-Shwu Hwang


    Conclusion: A regression model incorporating significant predictors to estimate the PMA of full oral feeding in very preterm infants was suggested. It could enhance communication between health professionals and parents about the feeding progress of infants born very prematurely.

  20. Parental mental health and early social-emotional development of children born very preterm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Lee, Katherine J; Woodward, Lianne J; Newnham, Carol; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    The aims of this study were to describe the mental health of parents of children born very preterm and examine relations between parental mental health and early social-emotional development in very...

  1. Delay in Retinal Photoreceptor Development in Very Preterm Compared to Term Infants


    Vajzovic, Lejla; Rothman, Adam L.; Tran-Viet, Du; Cabrera, Michelle T.; Freedman, Sharon F.; Toth, Cynthia A.


    Photoreceptor development in very preterm infants appears delayed when compared to term infants, suggesting photoreceptor immaturity in premature infants. Delayed maturation of photoreceptors could contribute to differences in visual function in some very preterm infants.

  2. Psychiatric hospitalization and suicide among the very old in Denmark: population-based register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlangsen, Annette; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Vach, Werner


    BACKGROUND: Very old people have higher suicide rates than the younger elderly population. Psychiatric disorders are known to have a strong association with suicide among elderly people. AIMS: To analyse the analyse the suicide risk associated with psychiatric hospitalisation among the very old......: The association between suicide and psychiatric hospitalisation is much weaker for the very old than for the old. Psychiatric disorders among very old people may be interacting with other disorders, may be underdiagnosed or treated in other healthcare settings....

  3. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wit Jan-Maarten


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of these children and aim to identify factors associated with postnatal catch-up growth. Methods 1338 children born with a gestational age Results At 10 years the AGA children had attained normal height, whereas the SGA group demonstrated stunting, even after correction for target height (AGA: 0.0 SDS; SGA Conclusion At 10 years of age, children born very preterm AGA show no stunting. However, many children born SGA, especially the very preterm, show persistent stunting. Early weight gain seems an important prognostic factor in predicting childhood growth.

  4. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm\\ud and/or very low birth weight


    Ford, Ruth M.; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H. K.; Gray, Peter H.


    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP)or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks)and/or VLBW (< 1500 g) and matches full-term children for comparison(n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, e...

  5. Lung Maturation: The Survival Miracle of Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. Jobe


    Full Text Available The increased survival of very preterm infants is generally attributed to improved care strategies. This review develops the thesis that the features of abnormal pregnancies responsible for very preterm deliveries also provide an explanation of why very preterm infants often survive. A normal fetus born at 24 weeks is very unlikely to survive. However, pregnancies that result in deliveries at 24 weeks are generally highly abnormal, and may have been so for prolonged periods prior to the preterm deliveries. Inflammatory or vascular developmental abnormalities resulting in very preterm birth can alter fetal development in such a way that organ system maturation is induced. This is supported clinically by the relative lack of very preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Interventions such as antenatal corticosteroid treatment and postnatal surfactant treatment for infants with respiratory distress syndrome and gentle ventilation strategies maximize fetal adaptations to the abnormal fetal environment and improve outcomes.

  6. Parental mental health and early social-emotional development of children born very preterm. (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Anderson, Vicki A; Lee, Katherine J; Woodward, Lianne J; Newnham, Carol; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    The aims of this study were to describe the mental health of parents of children born very preterm and examine relations between parental mental health and early social-emotional development in very preterm and term born children. Participants were 177 children born very preterm and 69 children term born and their parents. At 2 year's corrected age for the children, parental mental health was assessed using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), and child social-emotional development assessed using the Infant-Toddler Social-Emotional Assessment (ITSEA) and a structured parent-child interaction paradigm. Twenty-six per cent of parents of children born very preterm and 12% of parents of term born children reported clinically significant mental health problems. Parental mental health problems were associated with increased risk for dysregulation in very preterm and term children. Findings highlight the need to identify and support parents of children born very preterm with mental health difficulties.

  7. A systems process lifecycle standard for very small entities: development and pilot trials


    Laporte, Claude Y.; O'Connor, Rory V.


    peer-reviewed Very small entities, organizations with up to 25 people, are very important to the worldwide economy. The products they develop are either developed specifically for a customer or are integrated into products made by larger enterprises. To address the needs of Very small entities, a set of standards and guides have been developed using the systems engineering lifecycle standard ISO/IEC/IEEE 15288 as the main framework. The systems engineering handbook, devel...

  8. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.


    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of

  9. Impaired neural conduction in the auditory brainstem of high-risk very preterm infants. (United States)

    Jiang, Ze D; Chen, Chao


    To test the hypothesis that neural conduction in the auditory brainstem is impaired in high-risk very preterm infants. Eighty-two very preterm infants (gestation 28-32 weeks) with various perinatal problems or complications were studied at term using maximum length sequence (MLS) brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) with click rates 91-910/s. The data were compared with those in 31 age-matched low-risk very preterm infants and 44 normal gestation (term) infants. High-risk very preterm infants showed a general increase in MLS BAER wave latencies and interpeak intervals. Wave V latency, and III-V and I-V intervals in high-risk very preterm infants were significantly longer than in normal term infants at all click rates, particularly higher rates. I-III interval was significantly longer, and III-V/I-III interval ratio was significantly greater at higher rates. These latency and intervals in high-risk very preterm infants were also longer, though relatively less significantly, than in low-risk very preterm infants. Click rate-related changes in major MLS BAER variables in high-risk infants were more significant than in the two groups of controls. There were major abnormalities in MLS BAER variables that mainly reflect central neural conduction in high-risk very preterm infants. The abnormalities were relatively less significant when compared with low-risk very preterm infants than with normal term infants. Neural conduction in the auditory brainstem, mainly the more central regions, is impaired in high-risk very preterm infants. The impairment is largely attributed to the associated perinatal problems, and partially related to very preterm birth. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  10. Early vs delayed clamping of the umbilical cord in full term, preterm and very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, N.K.; Weber, T.


    Randomized studies from 2006 and two meta-analyses published in 2007 agree that clamping of the umbilical cord can be delayed. For the preterm and very preterm infant benefits include less need for blood transfusion and less morbidity, especially for the very preterm male infant. For the term...

  11. Climate and very large wildland fires in the contiguous western USA (United States)

    E. Natasha Stavros; John Abatzoglou; Narasimhan K. Larkin; Donald McKenzie; E. Ashley Steel


    Very large wildfires can cause significant economic and environmental damage, including destruction of homes, adverse air quality, firefighting costs and even loss of life. We examine how climate is associated with very large wildland fires (VLWFs >=50 000 acres, or ~20234 ha) in the western contiguous USA. We used composite records of climate and fire to...

  12. Rickets in very-Iow-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported to occur frequently in very-10w-birth- weight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-Iow-birth-weight popu- lation at ... phorus and/or vitamin D;,,<,5 dietary supplementation with calcium ...

  13. Classroom Friends and Very Best Friends: A Short-Term Longitudinal Analysis of Relationship Quality (United States)

    McChristian, Chrystal L.; Ray, Glen E.; Tidwell, Pamela S.; LoBello, Steven G.


    Second-, third-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children evaluated relationship qualities of a self-nominated friend and a self-nominated very best friend over a 6-month school year period. Results demonstrated that 76% of the friend relationships and 50% of the very best friend relationships were maintained over the course of the study. Children in…

  14. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, C.S.H.; Oosterlaan, J.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; van Goudoever, J.B.; Weisglas-Kuperus, N.


    Objective: To examine performance in preschool and academic skills in very preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) and term-born comparison children aged 4 to 12 years. Study design: Very preterm children (n = 200; mean age, 8.2 ± 2.5 years) born between 1996 and 2004 were compared with 230 term-born

  15. Evidence for catch-up in cognition and receptive vocabulary among adolescents born very preterm. (United States)

    Luu, Thuy Mai; Vohr, Betty R; Allan, Walter; Schneider, Karen C; Ment, Laura R


    Very preterm adolescents display persistent deficits in neuropsychological functions. To compare cognitive and language outcomes at 16 years and cognitive and receptive vocabulary trajectories throughout school years between very preterm and term children and to determine child and family factors associated with better developmental trajectories. At 8, 12, and 16 years, 322 very preterm children with birth weights of 1250 g or less and 41 term children had cognitive and language testing. Hierarchical growth-curve modeling was used to delineate the differences in cognitive and receptive vocabulary development between participants. Cluster analyses allowed for the characterization of very preterm children with different patterns of cognitive and receptive vocabulary development. At 16 years, very preterm adolescents had deficits in general cognition and higher-order language skills (phonological awareness and phonemic decoding) compared with term peers. Although the between-group difference in cognitive scores remained stable from 8 to 16 years, very preterm children demonstrated catch-up gains in receptive vocabulary during the same period. Moreover, subgroups of very preterm children displayed developmental trajectories in cognition similar to term children (55% on the vocabulary and 46% on the block-design subtests). These children had lower rates of neurosensory impairment and mothers with higher education and were from an ethnic nonminority. Significant catch-up in receptive vocabulary is observed by the age of 16 years among very preterm children compared to term peers. The absence of neurosensory impairment and residing in a favorable socioeconomic milieu are associated with the most optimal developmental trajectories.

  16. A Comparison of Aphasia Therapy Outcomes before and after a Very Early Rehabilitation Programme Following Stroke (United States)

    Godecke, Erin; Ciccone, Natalie A.; Granger, Andrew S.; Rai, Tapan; West, Deborah; Cream, Angela; Cartwright, Jade; Hankey, Graeme J.


    Background: Very early aphasia rehabilitation studies have shown mixed results. Differences in therapy intensity and therapy type contribute significantly to the equivocal results. Aims: To compare a standardized, prescribed very early aphasia therapy regimen with a historical usual care control group at therapy completion (4-5 weeks post-stroke)…

  17. Measurement of very low alpha activity in water; Medida de muy baja actividad alfa en aguas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo, M. T.; Acena, M. L.


    Measurement of very low levels of alpha-emitting nuclides in water needs substantial improvements. A system based on the adsorbing properties manganese dioxide eliminates the need for transporting very large volumes of water and increases the sensitivity of the measurement. (Author) 21 refs.

  18. Irradiation of a very forward calorimeter in the LHC environment: Some consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.; Salicio, J. M.


    We have computed the level of irradiation in the very forward region (2.5 < | {eta} | < 4.7) 4.7) of an LHC experiment, using the proposed CMS (Compact Solenoidal Detector for LHC) setup. Information about the induced radioactivity in the absorber of a proposed iron/gas Very Forward Calorimeter has been extracted. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Variations in breastfeeding rates for very preterm infants between regions and neonatal units in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonet, Mercedes; Blondel, Béatrice; Agostino, Rocco


    To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models.......To compare breastfeeding rates at discharge for very preterm infants between European regions and neonatal units, and to identify characteristics associated with breast feeding using multilevel models....

  20. Factors associated with successful establishment of breastfeeding in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G; Faerk, J; Grytter, C


    To describe feeding practices at hospital discharge in relation to characteristics of the very preterm infants (VPI) and their mothers.......To describe feeding practices at hospital discharge in relation to characteristics of the very preterm infants (VPI) and their mothers....

  1. Neonatal Predictors of Cognitive Ability in Adults Born Very Preterm : A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breeman, L.D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    Aim To identify neonatal predictors to allow a developmental prognosis of very preterm / very-low birthweight (VP/VLBW) survivors' cognitive abilities into adult life. Method The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective whole population study that followed 260 VP/VLBW infants from birth to

  2. Neonatal White Matter Abnormality Predicts Childhood Motor Impairment in Very Preterm Children (United States)

    Spittle, Alicia J.; Cheong, Jeanie; Doyle, Lex W.; Roberts, Gehan; Lee, Katherine J.; Lim, Jeremy; Hunt, Rod W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.


    Aim: Children born very preterm are at risk for impaired motor performance ranging from cerebral palsy (CP) to milder abnormalities, such as developmental coordination disorder. White matter abnormalities (WMA) at term have been associated with CP in very preterm children; however, little is known about the impact of WMA on the range of motor…

  3. Unilateral Lymphangiomatous Polyp of the Palatine Tonsil in a Very Young Child: A Clinicopathologic Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Park


    Full Text Available Childhood lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil is a very unusual lesion found in the head and neck. Tonsillectomy has been reported to be the curative procedure of choice for this lesion. We report a case of a very young child with unilateral lymphangiomatous polyp of the palatine tonsil.

  4. Increased insulin requirements during exercise at very high altitude in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, P. De; Vries, S.T. de; Koning, E.J. de; Gans, R.O.; Tack, C.J.J.; Bilo, H.J.


    OBJECTIVE: Safe, very high altitude trekking in subjects with type 1 diabetes requires understanding of glucose regulation at high altitude. We investigated insulin requirements, energy expenditure, and glucose levels at very high altitude in relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms in

  5. Increased insulin requirements during exercise at very high altitude in type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T.; de Koning, Eelco J. P.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Tack, Cees J.; Bilo, Henk J. G.

    OBJECTIVE-Safe, very high altitude trekking in subjects with type 1 diabetes requires understanding of glucose regulation at high altitude. We investigated insulin requirements, energy expenditure, and glucose levels at very high altitude in relation to acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms in

  6. Nursing Home Residents with Dementia and Very Frequent Agitation : A Particular Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldwijk-Rouwenhorst, Annelies E.; Smalbrugge, Martin; Wetzels, Roland; Bor, Hans; Zuidema, Sytse U.; Koopmans, Raymond T. C. M.; Gerritsen, Debby L.


    Objective: Although many nursing home residents with dementia show agitation, hardly any literature is published about very frequent agitation. The WAALBED-III study focuses on the 2-week prevalence and correlates of very frequent agitation in these residents.  Design: Cross-sectional study using

  7. Outphasing control of gallium nitride based very high frequency resonant converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    In this paper an outphasing modulation control method suitable for line regulation of very high frequency resonant converters is described. The pros and cons of several control methods suitable for very high frequency resonant converters are described and compared to outphasing modulation...

  8. Executive Function and IQ Predict Mathematical and Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)


    textabstractObjective of this study was to examine the impact of executive function (EF) on mathematical and attention problems in very preterm (gestational age ≤ 30 weeks) children. Participants were 200 very preterm (mean age 8.2 ± 2.5 years) and 230 term children (mean age 8.3 ± 2.3 years)

  9. Rickets in very-low-birth-weight infants born at Baragwanath Hospital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disturbed mineral and bone metabolism has been reported to occur frequently in very-low-birthweight infants fed breast-milk during the first 3 months of life. This study was designed to assess the prevalence of disturbed mineral homeostasis in a breast-milk-fed very-low-birth-weight population at Baragwanath Hospital and ...

  10. The profile of executive function in very preterm children at 4 to 12 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    Aim To examine executive functioning in very preterm (gestational age =30wks) children at 4 to 12 years of age. METHOD Two-hundred very preterm (106 males, 94 females; mean gestational age 28.1 wks, SD 1.4; mean age 8y 2mo, SD 2y 6mo) and 230 term children (106 males, 124 females; mean gestational

  11. Neonatal brain abnormalities and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm. (United States)

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Thompson, Deanne K; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Neil, Jeffrey; Inder, Terrie E; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    Using prospective longitudinal data from 198 very preterm and 70 full term children, this study characterised the memory and learning abilities of very preterm children at 7 years of age in both verbal and visual domains. The relationship between the extent of brain abnormalities on neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years of age in very preterm children was also investigated. Neonatal MRI scans were qualitatively assessed for global, white-matter, cortical grey-matter, deep grey-matter, and cerebellar abnormalities. Very preterm children performed less well on measures of immediate memory, working memory, long-term memory, and learning compared with term-born controls. Neonatal brain abnormalities, and in particular deep grey-matter abnormality, were associated with poorer memory and learning performance at 7 years in very preterm children. Findings support the importance of cerebral neonatal pathology for predicting later memory and learning function.

  12. Sensory processing difficulties in school-age children born very preterm: An exploratory study. (United States)

    Bröring, Tinka; Königs, Marsh; Oostrom, Kim J; Lafeber, Harrie N; Brugman, Anniek; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    Very preterm birth has a detrimental impact on the developing brain, including widespread white matter brain abnormalities that threaten efficient sensory processing. Yet, sensory processing difficulties in very preterm children are scarcely studied, especially at school age. To investigate somatosensory registration, multisensory integration and sensory modulation. 57 very preterm school-age children (mean age=9.2years) were compared to 56 gender and age matched full-term children. Group differences on somatosensory registration tasks (Registration of Light Touch, Sensory Discrimination of Touch, Position Sense, Graphestesia), a computerized multisensory integration task, and the parent-reported Sensory Profile were investigated using t-tests and Mann-Whitney U tests. In comparison to full-term children, very preterm children are less accurate on somatosensory registration tasks, including Registration of Light Touch (d=0.34), Position Sense (d=0.31) and Graphestesia (d=0.42) and show more sensory modulation difficulties (d=0.41), including both behavioral hyporesponsivity (d=0.52) and hyperresponsivity (d=0.56) to sensory stimuli. Tactile discrimination and multisensory integration efficiency were not affected in very preterm children. Aspects of sensory processing were only modestly related. Very preterm children show sensory processing difficulties regarding somatosensory registration and sensory modulation, and preserved multisensory (audio-visual) integration. Follow-up care for very preterm children should involve screening of sensory processing difficulties at least up to school age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cortical morphometry and cognition in very preterm and term-born children at early school age. (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Rummel, Christian; Steinlin, Maja; Everts, Regula


    Very preterm birth influences brain development and may result in alterations of cortical morphometry. These structural alterations may interact with cognitive development. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structure-function relationship in school-aged very preterm and term-born control children. A comprehensive neuropsychological test battery was administered to 41 very preterm (preterm children>controls). No group differences occurred for cortical surface area. The relationship between cortical morphometry and cognition differed between very preterm and control children. In very preterm children, some cognitive domains correlated positively and others negatively with regional cortical thickness and cortical surface area. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship in very preterm children and their term-born peers. They add to the notion that this relationship varies depending on the brain region and the cognitive function in question and suggest developmental differences between very preterm and term-born children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children: a different etiology than developmental dyscalculia. (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Gilmore, Camilla; Cragg, Lucy; Clayton, Sarah; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha


    Children born very preterm (mathematics learning difficulties that are out of proportion to other academic and cognitive deficits. However, the etiology of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children is unknown. We sought to identify the nature and origins of preterm children's mathematics difficulties. One hundred and fifteen very preterm children aged 8-10 y were assessed in school with a control group of 77 term-born classmates. Achievement in mathematics, working memory, visuospatial processing, inhibition, and processing speed were assessed using standardized tests. Numerical representations and specific mathematics skills were assessed using experimental tests. Very preterm children had significantly poorer mathematics achievement, working memory, and visuospatial skills than term-born controls. Although preterm children had poorer performance in specific mathematics skills, there was no evidence of imprecise numerical representations. Difficulties in mathematics were associated with deficits in visuospatial processing and working memory. Mathematics difficulties in very preterm children are associated with deficits in working memory and visuospatial processing not numerical representations. Thus, very preterm children's mathematics difficulties are different in nature from those of children with developmental dyscalculia. Interventions targeting general cognitive problems, rather than numerical representations, may improve very preterm children's mathematics achievement.

  15. Development of low-cost photoacoustic imaging systems using very low-energy pulsed laser diodes (United States)

    Hariri, Ali; Fatima, Afreen; Mohammadian, Nafiseh; Mahmoodkalayeh, Sadreddin; Ansari, Mohammad Ali; Bely, Nicholas; Avanaki, Mohammad R. N.


    With the growing application of photoacoustic imaging (PAI) in medical fields, there is a need to make them more compact, portable, and affordable. Therefore, we designed very low-cost PAI systems by replacing the expensive and sophisticated laser with a very low-energy laser diode. We implemented photoacoustic (PA) microscopy, both reflection and transmission modes, as well as PA computed tomography systems. The images obtained from tissue-mimicking phantoms and biological samples determine the feasibility of using a very low-energy laser diode in these configurations.

  16. Mathematics difficulties in children born very preterm: current research and future directions. (United States)

    Simms, Victoria; Cragg, Lucy; Gilmore, Camilla; Marlow, Neil; Johnson, Samantha


    Children born very preterm have poorer attainment in all school subjects, and a markedly greater reliance on special educational support than their term-born peers. In particular, difficulties with mathematics are especially common and account for the vast majority of learning difficulties in this population. In this paper, we review research relating to the causes of mathematics learning difficulties in typically developing children, and the impact of very preterm birth on attainment in mathematics. Research is needed to understand the specific nature and origins of mathematics difficulties in very preterm children to target the development of effective intervention strategies.

  17. Rates of Very Preterm Birth in Europe and Neonatal Mortality Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David John; Draper, Elizabeth S; Fenton, Alan


    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of variation in the rate of very preterm delivery on the reported rate of neonatal death in ten European regions. DESIGN: Comparison of 10 separate geographically defined European populations, from nine European countries, over a one year period (seven months......) a standardised rate of very preterm delivery and b) the existing death rate for babies born at this gestation in the individual region. This produced much greater homogeneity in terms of neonatal mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Variation in the rate of very preterm delivery has a major influence on reported neonatal...

  18. Very High Load Capacity Air Bearing Spindle for Large Diamond Turning Machines Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Diamond turning is able to produce highly aspheric visible quality optics which can be easily aligned. Very large optical systems such as OWL and EUSO are impossible...

  19. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J


    stroke onset. By way of multiple logistic regression and survival analyses very old age was independently related to short- and long-term mortality and nursing home placement independent of other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: 16% of patients were 85 years or older at the time of stroke onset. More...... old had hypertension (25% versus 34%, P = 0.02) and diabetes (14% versus 22%, P = 0.01). In adjusted multiple regression models, very old age predicted short-term mortality (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.5-4.2), and discharge to nursing home or in-hospital mortality (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.7-4.4). Five years after...... after stroke. CONCLUSIONS: In this study very old age per se was a strong predictor of outcome and mortality after stroke. Apart from very old age, factors such as prestroke medical and functional status, and onset stroke severity should be taken into consideration when planning treatment...

  20. Very deep learning for ship discrimination in synthetic aperture radar imagery

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schwegmann, Colin P


    Full Text Available using machine learning. Newer, advanced deep learning techniques offer a unique solution but traditionally require a large dataset to train effectively. Highway Networks allow for very deep networks that can be trained using the smaller datasets typical...

  1. Regulation of very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis by acyl-CoA-binding protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Natalia Santos; Engelsby, Hanne; Neess, Ditte


    and cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders. Here we show that acyl-coenzyme A-binding protein (ACBP) potently facilitates very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis. ACBP increases the activity of ceramide synthase 2 (CerS2) by more than 2-fold and CerS3 activity by 7-fold. ACBP binds very...... of ACBP(-/-) mice, concomitant with a significant reduction in long- and very-long-chain ceramide levels. Importantly, we show that ACBP interacts with CerS2 and CerS3. Our data uncover a novel mode of regulation of very-long acyl chain ceramide synthesis by ACBP, which we anticipate is of crucial...

  2. Echolocation in two very small bats from Thailand Craseonycteris thonglongyai and Myotis siligorensis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surlykke, Annemarie; Miller, Lee A.; Møhl, Bertel


    The echolocation and hunting behavior of two very small bats, Craseonycteris thonglongyai (Hill) and Myotis siligorensis (Horsfield), from Thailand, were investigated using multiflash photographs, video, and high-speed tape recordings with a microphone array that allowed determination of distance...... in frequency in the buzz. The video recordings of C. thonglongyai indicated that it seizes insects directly with the mouth (Fig. 1). M. siligorensis produced 5.4 ms long CF search signals at 66 kHz. The repetition rate was around 13 Hz. In the approach phase an initial broad band FM sweep was added. The buzz...... explained by physiological limitations in sound production. However, C. thonglongyai produced very short signals at very high repetition rates without any frequency drop. The drop may be of adaptive value since it enables M. siligorensis to produce very short signals with high sweep rates. The drop moves...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Annual Climatology (VHRAC) dataset consists of gridded annual climatologies of total lightning flash rates...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Full Climatology (VHRFC) dataset consists of gridded full climatologies of total lightning flash rates seen...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Monthly Climatology (VHRMC) dataset consists of gridded monthly climatologies of total lightning flash...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Diurnal Climatology (VHRDC) dataset consists of gridded diurnal climatologies of total lightning flash...


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LIS 0.1 Degree Very High Resolution Gridded Lightning Seasonal Climatology (VHRSC) dataset consists of gridded seasonal climatologies of total lightning flash...

  8. Very Long Wavelength InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector (United States)

    Gunapala, S.


    There has been much interest in very long-wavelength quantum well infrared photodetectors and associated intersubband absorption due to their mature technology and the possibility of producing high performance large area two-dimensional imaging arrays.

  9. AVHRR Orbital Segment = NOAA's Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Files: 1992 - 2000 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data set is comprised of data collected by the AVHRR sensor and held in the archives of the USGS Earth Resources...

  10. Short- and long-term prognosis for very old stroke patients. The Copenhagen Stroke Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Lars Peter; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J


    stroke onset. By way of multiple logistic regression and survival analyses very old age was independently related to short- and long-term mortality and nursing home placement independent of other clinical characteristics. RESULTS: 16% of patients were 85 years or older at the time of stroke onset. More...... stroke very old age predicted mortality or nursing home placement (OR 3.9; 95% CI 2.1-7.3), and long-term mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.6-2.5). However, other factors such as onset stroke severity, pre-existing disability and atrial fibrillation were also significant independent predictors of prognosis......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The very old are expected to become a growing part of the stroke population in the industrialised part of the world. The aims of this study were to evaluate clinical characteristics of patients aged 85 years or more at stroke onset and to investigate very old age...

  11. Advanced Materials and Production Technology for Very Large Solar Sail Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Solar sails are an attractive means for propulsion of future spacecraft. One potential device for deploying and supporting very large solar sails is the CoilAble...

  12. Experiences of purpose in life when becoming and being a very old woman. (United States)

    Hedberg, Pia; Brulin, Christine; Aléx, Lena


    The aim of the study was to illuminate how very old women describe their experiences of purpose in life (PIL) in narratives about becoming and being very old. The participants comprised 30 women selected from 120 women who had answered the PIL test and had been interviewed about their experiences of being very old. The interviews were analyzed with qualitative content analysis, which revealed four themes: having a positive view of life, living in relation to God, having meaningful activities, and simply existing. Our findings show that very old women experience purpose in life both in their daily activities and in their contact with a spiritual world. It seems to be facilitated by a positive view of life. Although the results were dominated by a positive view of life, some of the participants saw their lives in terms of simply existing, and did not experience purpose in life.

  13. Nutrition in infants and very young children with chronic kidney disease. (United States)

    Foster, Bethany J; McCauley, Lynn; Mak, Robert H


    Provision of adequate nutrition is a cornerstone of the management of infants and very young children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Very young children with CKD frequently have poor spontaneous nutritional intake. Because growth depends strongly on nutrition during early childhood, growth in very young children with CKD is often suboptimal. In this review we will consider the mechanisms and manifestations of inadequate nutritional status in very young children with CKD, mechanisms mediating inadequate nutritional intake, and the optimal nutritional management of this special population. In addition, we suggest an approach to the assessment of nutritional status, including the use of body mass index in infants. Five major nutritional components are considered: energy, macronutrients, fluids and electrolytes, micronutrients, and calcium/phosphorus/vitamin D. The use of adjunctive therapies, including appetite stimulants, treatment of gastroesophageal reflux and gastric dysmotility, enhanced dialytic clearance, and growth hormone, is also briefly discussed.

  14. AVHRR Composites = Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer U.S. Alaska: 1989 - Present (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Composites are produced from multiple Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) daily observations that have...

  15. Hippocampal volume and memory and learning outcomes at 7 years in children born very preterm. (United States)

    Omizzolo, Cristina; Thompson, Deanne K; Scratch, Shannon E; Stargatt, Robyn; Lee, Katherine J; Cheong, Jeanie; Roberts, Gehan; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    Using magnetic resonance imaging, this study compared hippocampal volume between 145 very preterm children and 34 children born full-term at 7 years of age. The relationship between hippocampal volume and memory and learning impairments at 7 years was also investigated. Manual hippocampal segmentation and subsequent three-dimensional volumetric analysis revealed reduced hippocampal volumes in very preterm children compared with term peers. However, this relationship did not remain after correcting for whole brain volume and neonatal brain abnormality. Contrary to expectations, hippocampal volume in the very preterm cohort was not related to memory and learning outcomes. Further research investigating the effects of very preterm birth on more extensive networks in the brain that support memory and learning in middle childhood is needed.

  16. Attention Problems in Very Preterm Children from Childhood to Adulthood: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study (United States)

    Breeman, Linda D.; Jaekel, Julia; Baumann, Nicole; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter


    Background: Very preterm (VP; gestational age adulthood. The stability of these problems into adulthood is not known. Methods: The Bavarian Longitudinal Study is a prospective cohort study that followed 260 VP/VLBW and 229 term-born…

  17. Mechanisms of Very Late Drug-Eluting Stent Thrombosis Assessed by Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taniwaki, Masanori; Radu, Maria D; Zaugg, Serge


    BACKGROUND: The pathomechanisms underlying very late stent thrombosis (VLST) after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) are incompletely understood. Using optical coherence tomography, we investigated potential causes of this adverse event. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between August 2010 and Decemb...

  18. Measured deformations and calculated stresses of high-density polyethylene pipes under very deep burial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krushelnitzky, R. P; Brachman, R. W.I


    .... These pressures greatly exceed typical pressures for conventional sewer and culvert applications, but may be encountered in special applications, such as very deep tailing dams, heap-leach mining pads, and landfills...

  19. A Frame‐Based Video Signature Method for Very Quick Video Identification and Location

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Na, Sang‐il; Oh, Weon‐Geun; Jeong, Dong‐Seok


    .... The proposed two‐stage matching method is fast and works very well in finding locations. In addition, the proposed matching structure and strategy can distinguish a case in which a part of the query video matches a part...

  20. Percolation and nucleation approaches to nuclear fragmentation: criticality in very small systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, A.J. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Chung, K.C.


    Different criteria for criticality in very small systems are discussed in the context of percolation and nucleation approaches to nuclear fragmentation. It is shown that the probability threshold in percolation and interaction radius threshold in nucleation are very strongly dependent upon the adopted criterion. By using Monte Carlo method, similarities and dissimilarities between nucleation and percolation pictures are also pointed out. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  1. Impact of fetal growth restriction on mortality and morbidity in a very preterm birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeitlin, Jennifer; El Ayoubi, Mayass; Jarreau, Pierre-Henri


    To assess the impact of being small for gestational age (SGA) on very preterm mortality and morbidity rates by using different birthweight percentile thresholds and whether these effects differ by the cause of the preterm birth.......To assess the impact of being small for gestational age (SGA) on very preterm mortality and morbidity rates by using different birthweight percentile thresholds and whether these effects differ by the cause of the preterm birth....

  2. The content of macronutrients in milk from mothers of very preterm infants is highly variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Hviid, Mette Vogn


    The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics.......The objective of this study was to determine the content of macronutrients in human milk (HM) from mothers who gave birth very prematurely, and to investigate possible associations between macronutrients and certain maternal and infant characteristics....

  3. X-shooter, the new wide band intermediate resolution spectrograph at the ESO Very Large Telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, J.; Dekker, H.; D'Odorico, S.


    X-shooter is the first 2nd generation instrument of the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). It is a very efficient, single-target, intermediate-resolution spectrograph that was installed at the Cassegrain focus of UT2 in 2009. The instrument covers, in a single exposure, the spectral range from 300...... characteristics of the instrument and present its performance as measured during commissioning, science verification and the first months of science operations. © ESO, 2011....

  4. Smart Energy Cryo-refrigerator Technology for the next generation Very Large Array (United States)

    Spagna, Stefano


    We describe a “smart energy” cryocooler technology architecture for the next generation Very Large Array that makes use of multiple variable frequency cold heads driven from a single variable speed air cooled compressor. Preliminary experiments indicate that the compressor variable flow control, advanced diagnostics, and the cryo-refrigerator low vibration, provide a unique energy efficient capability for the very large number of antennas that will be employed in this array.

  5. Initial determination of DNA polymorphism of some Primula veris L. populations from Kosovo and Austria


    Berisha, Naim; Millaku, Fadil; Gashi, Bekim; Krasniqi, Elez; Novak, Johannes


    Primula veris L. (Primulaceae) is a long lived perennial and well known pharmaceutical plant, widely collected for these reasons in almost all SE Europe and particularly in Kosovo. The aim of the study is to determine molecular polymorphism of cowslip (P. veris L.) populations from Kosovo. DNA extracted from leaves were  investigated in details for presence of polymorphism. RAPD analyses were conducted using 20 different short primers. Genomic DNA amplification profiles were analyzed and proc...

  6. Postaerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Reduction in Very Old Persons With Hypertension.


    Oliveira, J.; Mesquita-Bastos, J.; Melo,Cristina; Ribeiro, F.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A single bout of aerobic exercise acutely decreases blood pressure, even in older adults with hypertension. Nonetheless, blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise in very old adults with hypertension have not yet been documented. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on postexercise blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension. METHODS: Eighteen older adults with essential hypertension were randomize...

  7. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.


    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  8. Association of Radical Local Treatment with Mortality in Men with Very High-risk Prostate Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stattin, Pär; Sandin, Fredrik; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk


    BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend androgen deprivation therapy only for men with very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but there is little evidence to support this stance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between radical local treatment and mortality in men with very high-risk PCa...... in men with very high-risk PCa for whom such treatment has been considered ineffective. PATIENT SUMMARY: Men with very high-risk prostate cancer diagnosed and treated in units with the highest exposure to surgery or radiotherapy had a substantially lower mortality.......BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend androgen deprivation therapy only for men with very high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), but there is little evidence to support this stance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between radical local treatment and mortality in men with very high-risk PCa....... DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Semiecologic study of men aged high-risk PCa (local clinical stage T4 and/or prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level 50-200ng/ml, any N, and M0). Men with locally advanced PCa (local...

  9. [Application of LVIS stents in very small 
intracranial aneurysms]. (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Ouyang, Yian; Huang, Hao; Jiang, Yugang; Yu, Mengqiang


    To investigate the safety and short-term efficacy of stent on 17 patients with very small intracranial aneurysms.
 A total of 17 patients with very small intracranial aneurysms were treated by LVIS stent from October 2014 to November 2015. The location, size of the aneurysms and the branch around aneurysms were evaluated by digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The metal coverage for aneurysms was enhanced by using deployment technology ("compression" mode). The safety and efficacy were assessed after operation.
 LVIS stents-assisted treatments for very small aneurysms were carried out in 17 cases, including 7 cases of paraclinoid aneurysms, 4 cases of posterior communicating artery aneurysms, 3 cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysms, 2 cases of carotid bifurcation aneurysms, 1 case of the superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. The stents for 17 patients with very small intracranial aneurysms were released completely (100%); Raymond grade I embolization was seen in 13 cases (76.5%); Raymond grade II embolization was seen in 4 cases (23.5%); during the follow up from a month to a year, 16 patients showed good curative effect (with the mRS score at 0-2), 1 showed poor effect (with the mRS score at 3-6), and the efficacy rate was 94.1%; no perioperative hemorrhagic and ischemic complications happened.
 LVIS stent-assisted therapy for very small intracranial aneurysms by using deployment technology was safe and feasible, which can significantly improve the embolization rate for very small aneurysms.

  10. Very preterm birth influences parental mental health and family outcomes seven years after birth. (United States)

    Treyvaud, Karli; Lee, Katherine J; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J


    To evaluate the long-term influence of very preterm birth on parental mental health, family functioning, and parenting stress at age 2 and 7 years. Participants were 183 children born very preterm (parents were assessed based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Family Assessment Device, the Parenting Stress Index, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Similar measures were evaluated at age 2 years. When the children were age 7 years, parents of the very preterm-born children were more likely to report moderate to severe anxiety symptoms (P = .03), higher levels of depression symptoms (P = .03), poorer family functioning (P parenting stress (P parents of the children born at term. Group differences in parenting stress and family functioning persisted after adjustment for social risk and child neurodevelopmental disability. There was strong evidence of a relationship between family functioning and parent-related stress at age 2 and 7 years (P parental mental health problems at 2 years were predictive of anxiety (P = .15) or depression (P = .28) at 7 years for parents of very preterm children. These findings demonstrate that very preterm birth has a negative influence on parent and family functioning at 7 years after birth, which for some families is consistent with their functioning at 2 years. These results have implications for the support required by parents of very preterm children. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A practical and theoretical definition of very small field size for radiotherapy output factor measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P. H., E-mail:; Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001 (Australia); Cranmer-Sargison, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, 20 Campus Dr., Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L 3P6, Canada and Academic Unit of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, University of Leeds, 8.001 Worsley Building, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, QLD 4001, Australia and Premion, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower, Brisbane, QLD 4066 (Australia); Knight, R. T. [Premion, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely St, Auchenflower, Brisbane, QLD 4066 (Australia); Kenny, J. [The Australian Clinical Dosimetry Service, Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency, 619 Lower Plenty Road, Yallambie, VIC 3085, Australia and Radiation Oncology Queensland, St Andrew' s Toowoomba Hospital, Toowoomba, QLD 4350 (Australia)


    Purpose: This work introduces the concept of very small field size. Output factor (OPF) measurements at these field sizes require extremely careful experimental methodology including the measurement of dosimetric field size at the same time as each OPF measurement. Two quantifiable scientific definitions of the threshold of very small field size are presented. Methods: A practical definition was established by quantifying the effect that a 1 mm error in field size or detector position had on OPFs and setting acceptable uncertainties on OPF at 1%. Alternatively, for a theoretical definition of very small field size, the OPFs were separated into additional factors to investigate the specific effects of lateral electronic disequilibrium, photon scatter in the phantom, and source occlusion. The dominant effect was established and formed the basis of a theoretical definition of very small fields. Each factor was obtained using Monte Carlo simulations of a Varian iX linear accelerator for various square field sizes of side length from 4 to 100 mm, using a nominal photon energy of 6 MV. Results: According to the practical definition established in this project, field sizes ≤15 mm were considered to be very small for 6 MV beams for maximal field size uncertainties of 1 mm. If the acceptable uncertainty in the OPF was increased from 1.0% to 2.0%, or field size uncertainties are 0.5 mm, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be very small. Lateral electronic disequilibrium in the phantom was the dominant cause of change in OPF at very small field sizes. Thus the theoretical definition of very small field size coincided to the field size at which lateral electronic disequilibrium clearly caused a greater change in OPF than any other effects. This was found to occur at field sizes ≤12 mm. Source occlusion also caused a large change in OPF for field sizes ≤8 mm. Based on the results of this study, field sizes ≤12 mm were considered to be theoretically very small for 6

  12. Impaired prospective memory but intact episodic memory in intellectually average 7- to 9-year-olds born very preterm and/or very low birth weight. (United States)

    Ford, Ruth M; Griffiths, Sarah; Neulinger, Kerryn; Andrews, Glenda; Shum, David H K; Gray, Peter H


    Relatively little is known about episodic memory (EM: memory for personally-experienced events) and prospective memory (PM: memory for intended actions) in children born very preterm (VP) or with very low birth weight (VLBW). This study evaluates EM and PM in mainstream-schooled 7- to 9-year-olds born VP (≤ 32 weeks) and/or VLBW (children for comparison (n = 35 and n = 37, respectively). Additionally, participants were assessed for verbal and non-verbal ability, executive function (EF), and theory of mind (ToM). The results show that the VP/VLBW children were outperformed by the full-term children on the memory tests overall, with a significant univariate group difference in PM. Moreover, within the VP/VLBW group, the measures of PM, verbal ability and working memory all displayed reliable negative correlations with severity of neonatal illness. PM was found to be independent of EM and cognitive functioning, suggesting that this form of memory might constitute a domain of specific vulnerability for VP/VLBW children.

  13. Risk Factor Models for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Reporting. (United States)

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Marlow, Neil


    The prediction of long-term outcomes in surviving infants born very preterm (VPT) or with very low birth weight (VLBW) is necessary to guide clinical management, provide information to parents, and help target and evaluate interventions. There is a large body of literature describing risk factor models for neurodevelopmental outcomes in VPT/VLBW children, yet few, if any, have been developed for use in routine clinical practice or adopted for use in research studies or policy evaluation. We sought to systematically review the methods and reporting of studies that have developed a multivariable risk factor model for neurodevelopment in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We searched the MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO databases from January 1, 1990, to June 1, 2014, and identified 78 studies reporting 222 risk factor models. Most studies presented risk factor analyses that were not intended to be used for prediction, confirming that there is a dearth of specifically designed prognostic modeling studies for long-term outcomes in surviving VPT/VLBW children. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of the research methodology and reporting to date, and provide recommendations for the design and analysis of future studies seeking to analyze risk prediction or develop prognostic models for VPT/VLBW children. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  14. A dimensional approach to assessing psychiatric risk in adults born very preterm. (United States)

    Kroll, Jasmin; Froudist-Walsh, Sean; Brittain, Philip J; Tseng, Chieh-En J; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Murray, Robin M; Nosarti, Chiara


    Individuals who were born very preterm have higher rates of psychiatric diagnoses compared with term-born controls; however, it remains unclear whether they also display increased sub-clinical psychiatric symptomatology. Hence, our objective was to utilize a dimensional approach to assess psychiatric symptomatology in adult life following very preterm birth. We studied 152 adults who were born very preterm (before 33 weeks' gestation; gestational range 24-32 weeks) and 96 term-born controls. Participants' clinical profile was examined using the Comprehensive Assessment of At-Risk Mental States (CAARMS), a measure of sub-clinical symptomatology that yields seven subscales including general psychopathology, positive, negative, cognitive, behavioural, motor and emotional symptoms, in addition to a total psychopathology score. Intellectual abilities were examined using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence. Between-group differences on the CAARMS showed elevated symptomatology in very preterm participants compared with controls in positive, negative, cognitive and behavioural symptoms. Total psychopathology scores were significantly correlated with IQ in the very preterm group only. In order to examine the characteristics of participants' clinical profile, a principal component analysis was conducted. This revealed two components, one reflecting a non-specific psychopathology dimension, and the other indicating a variance in symptomatology along a positive-to-negative symptom axis. K-means (k = 4) were used to further separate the study sample into clusters. Very preterm adults were more likely to belong to a high non-specific psychopathology cluster compared with controls. Conclusion and Relevance Very preterm individuals demonstrated elevated psychopathology compared with full-term controls. Their psychiatric risk was characterized by a non-specific clinical profile and was associated with lower IQ.

  15. [Pathogen distribution, risk factors, and outcomes of nosocomial infection in very premature infants]. (United States)

    Zhang, De-Shuang; Xie, Dong-Ke; He, Na; Dong, Wen-Bin; Lei, Xiao-Ping


    To study the pathogen distribution and risk factors of nosocomial infection in very preterm infants, as well as the risk of adverse outcomes. A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 111 very preterm infants who were born between January and December, 2016 and had a gestational age of nosocomial infection after 72 hours of hospitalization, the infants were divided into infection group and non-infection group. The infection group was analyzed in terms of pathogenic bacteria which caused infection and their drug sensitivity. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the potential risk factors and risk of adverse outcomes of nosocomial infection in very preterm infants. Gram-negative bacteria were the main pathogens for nosocomial infection in very preterm infants and accounted for 54%, among which Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common one; the following pathogens were fungi (41%), among which Candida albicans was the most common one. The drug sensitivity test showed that Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant to β-lactam and carbapenems and highly sensitive to quinolones, while fungi had low sensitivity to itraconazole and high sensitivity to 5-fluorocytosine and amphotericin B. Early-onset sepsis, duration of peripherally inserted central catheter, steroid exposure, and duration of parenteral nutrition were risk factors for nosocomial infection in very preterm infants (Pinfection group, the infection group had significantly higher risks of pulmonary complications (PNosocomial infection in very preterm infants is affected by various factors and may increase the risk of adverse outcomes. In clinical practice, reasonable preventive and treatment measures should be taken with reference to drug sensitivity, in order to improve the prognosis of very premature infants.

  16. Focused training programmes for solving growth problems of very small businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perks


    Full Text Available Purpose and objectives: The purpose of the study is to investigate the various types of focused training programmes that should be designed for eliminating or preventing small business growth problems. To help achieve this main objective, the following secondary goals are identified : To highlight the role and nature of entrepreneurial training. To identify possible focused training programmes for solving very small business problems. To determine how training programmes should be structured to target very small business growth problems. To explore which other method(s, besides training programmes could be uitilised for solving very small black business entrepreneurs' growth problems. To provide trainers with guidelines in designing focused training programmes for solving very small business problems.Problem investigated: South African entrepreneurs have a poor skills record, which inhibits small business growth. The needs of a business changes as the business grows, resulting in growing pains for the very small business entrepreneur. Successful entrepreneurs are not necessarily academically inclined and often learn in a more dynamic, non-linear environment, therefore various specific focused training programmes need to be designed that can assist very small business entrepreneurs in eliminating or preventing small business growth problems.Methodology: A qualitative study was done, in which an empirical survey was conducted by means of a series of in-depth interviews with ten very small black business entrepreneurs.Findings: The empirical results identified seven types of training programmes focusing on financial management computer training, operations management, people management, marketing management, management and investment management. Other training programmes indicated were stress management, time management and security management. Within each of these types of training programmes specific focus areas were identified.Value of the

  17. How to create a very-low cost, very-low-power, credit-card-sized and real-time ready datalogger (United States)

    Bès de Berc, Maxime; Grunberg, Marc; Engels, Fabien


    In some cases a field instrumentalist could have to add some extra sensors in a remote station. Additional ADCs (Analogic Digital Converters) are not always implemented on commercial dataloggers, or may already be used. Adding more ADCs often implies an expensive development, or buy a new datalogger. We present here a very simple way to deploy an embedded ARM computer, use its features and embedded ADCs to create datas in a seismological standard format and integrating it within the real-time data stream from the station. In the past few years, because of the market growth of telephony and mobile applications, the ARM processor from ARM Ltd has become very common and available at a reasonable price. This processor has the particularity to be an excellent compromise between its frequency and its power consumption. That's why most of smartphones and tablets feature nowadays that kind of processor. It is also available on the market as Soc (System on Chip) or complete embedded computer. The most known is probably the Raspberry Pi, but many ohers exist like the BeagleBone or BeagleBoard. This kind of computer can be bought between 35€ for Raspberry Pi and several hundred Euro for more industrial products. Each model often embed some ADCs on its chip or some special buses, allowing additional ADCs to be easily used. Our experiment has been made on a BeagleBone platform, available at 78€. We chose it because its a more mature product than Raspberry Pi, it has all connectors and options needed: seven ADCs, an USB port for local backup, an Ethernet port for real-time streams, and some useful things like GPIO and I2C buses. Our goal was to plug temperature and humidity sensors on the ADCs, read datas, record them in mini-SEED format (Standard for the Exchange of the Earthquake Data), and transmit those datas to a central server as a secondary source for a remote station, by using Seedlink, which is a standard for seismology. Seedlink is a real-time data acquisition

  18. Monopicolinate cross-bridged cyclam combining very fast complexation with very high stability and inertness of its copper(II) complex. (United States)

    Lima, Luís M P; Halime, Zakaria; Marion, Ronan; Camus, Nathalie; Delgado, Rita; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Tripier, Raphaël


    The synthesis of a new cross-bridged 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cb-cyclam) derivative bearing a picolinate arm (Hcb-te1pa) was achieved by taking advantage of the proton sponge properties of the starting constrained macrocycle. The structure of the reinforced ligand as well as its acid-base properties and coordination properties with Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) was investigated. The X-ray structure of the free ligand showed a completely preorganized conformation that lead to very fast copper(II) complexation under mild conditions (instantaneous at pH 7.4) or even in acidic pH (3 min at pH 5) at room temperature and that demonstrated high thermodynamic stability, which was measured by potentiometry (at 25 °C and 0.10 M in KNO3). The results also revealed that the complex exists as a monopositive copper(II) species in the intermediate pH range. A comparative study highlighted the important selectivity for Cu(2+) over Zn(2+). The copper(II) complex was synthesized and investigated in solution using different spectroscopic techniques and DFT calculations. The kinetic inertness of the copper(II) complex in acidic medium was evaluated by spectrophotometry, revealing the very slow dissociation of the complex. The half-life of 96 days, in 5 M HClO4, and 465 min, in 5 M HCl at 25 °C, show the high kinetic stability of the copper(II) chelate compared to that of the corresponding complexes of other macrocyclic ligands. Additionally, cyclic voltammetry experiments underlined the perfect electrochemical inertness of the complex as well as the quasi-reversible Cu(2+)/Cu(+) redox system. The coordination geometry of the copper center in the complex was established in aqueous solution from UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies.

  19. The predictive validity of neonatal MRI for neurodevelopmental outcome in very preterm children. (United States)

    Anderson, Peter J; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Thompson, Deanne K


    Very preterm children are at a high risk for neurodevelopmental impairments, but there is variability in the pattern and severity of outcome. Neonatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhances the capacity to detect brain injury and altered brain development and assists in the prediction of high-risk children who warrant surveillance and early intervention. This review describes the application of conventional and advanced MRI with very preterm neonates, specifically focusing on the relationship between neonatal MRI findings and later neurodevelopmental outcome. Research demonstrates that conventional MRI is strongly associated with neurodevelopmental outcome in childhood. Further studies are needed to examine the role of advanced MRI techniques in predicting outcome in very preterm children, but early research findings are promising. In conclusion, neonatal MRI is predictive of later neurodevelopment but is dependent on appropriately trained specialists and should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and social information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. High Current Planar Transformer for Very High Efficiency Isolated Boost DC-DC Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pittini, Riccardo; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper presents a design and optimization of a high current planar transformer for very high efficiency dc-dc isolated boost converters. The analysis considers different winding arrangements, including very high copper thickness windings. The analysis is focused on the winding ac......-resistance and transformer leakage inductance. Design and optimization procedures are validated based on an experimental prototype of a 6 kW dcdc isolated full bridge boost converter developed on fully planar magnetics. The prototype is rated at 30-80 V 0-80 A on the low voltage side and 700-800 V on the high voltage side...... with a peak efficiency of 97.8% at 80 V 3.5 kW. Results highlights that thick copper windings can provide good performance at low switching frequencies due to the high transformer filling factor. PCB windings can also provide very high efficiency if stacked in parallel utilizing the transformer winding window...

  1. Design and Measurement of Planar Toroidal Transformers for Very High Frequency Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pejtersen, Jens


    -core toroidal transformer configuration for use in very high frequency power conversion applications. Two prototype transformers (10:10 and 12:12) have been implemented using conventional four layer printed circuit board technology. The transformers have been characterized by two port Z-parameters, which have...... power converters for very high frequencies. The magnetic coupling factor of both transformers is approx. 60 % and the mutual coupling inductance is dominant up to a frequency of 50 MHz.......The quest for higher power density has led to research of very high frequency (30-300 MHz) power converters. Magnetic components based on ferrite cores have limited application within this frequency range due to increased core loss. Air-core magnetics is a viable alternative as they do not exhibit...

  2. Effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis. (United States)

    McDougall, John; Bruce, Bonnie; Spiller, Gene; Westerdahl, John; McDougall, Mary


    To demonstrate the effects of a very low-fat, vegan diet on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single-blind dietary intervention study. SUBJECTS AND STUDY INTERVENTIONS: This study evaluated the influence of a 4-week, very low-fat (approximately 10%), vegan diet on 24 free-living subjects with RA, average age, 56 +/- 11 years old. Prestudy and poststudy assessment of RA symptomatology was performed by a rheumatologist blind to the study design. Biochemical measures and 4-day diet data were also collected. Subjects met weekly for diet instruction, compliance monitoring, and progress assessments. There were significant (p 0.05). Weight also decreased significantly (p 0.05), RA factor decreased 10% (ns, p > 0.05), while erythrocyte sedimentation rate was unchanged (p > 0.05). This study showed that patients with moderate-to-severe RA, who switch to a very low-fat, vegan diet can experience significant reductions in RA symptoms.

  3. The study of early intravenous nutrition therapy in very low birth weight infants. (United States)

    Dongming, Lang; Fengran, Zhou; Zhaojun, Zhang


    To analyze the clinical effect of early intravenous nutrition therapy for very low birth weight infants. 80 cases of very low birth weight infants referred to our hospital from June 2013 to June 2015 were randomly and evenly divided into two groups. The infants in group A were treated with early intravenous nutrition, while with late parenteral nutrition for those in group B. The intravenous nutrition time, proportion of body weight loss, time consumption for recovery to birth weight and full enteral nutrition and complication rate between the two groups were compared. We found that there were significant differences in the intravenous nutrition time, proportion of body weight loss, and time consumption for recovery to birth weight and full enteral nutrition between the two groups (Pintravenous nutrition therapy in very low birth weight infants is effective and safe and further promotion and application of this therapy is worthy.

  4. Elastic precursor shock waves in tantalum at very high strain rates (United States)

    Crowhurst, Jonathan; Armstrong, Michael; Gates, Sean; Radousky, Harry; Zaug, Joseph


    We have obtained data from micron-thick tantalum films using our ultrafast laser shock platform. By measuring free surface velocity time histories at breakout, and shock wave arrival times at different film thicknesses, we have been able to estimate the dependence of particle and shock velocities on propagation distances and strain rates. We will show how elastic precursor shock waves depend on strain rate in the regime up to and above 109 s-1. We find that while elastic amplitudes are very large at very early times decay occurs rapidly as propagation distance increases. Finally we will consider the prospects for using these data to obtain the dynamic strength of tantalum at these very high strain rates. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 with Laboratory directed Research and Development funding (12ERD042).

  5. Nutrition, growth, and allergic diseases among very preterm infants after hospital discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte


    with breastfeeding among very preterm infants at hospital discharge. 3. To describe possible feeding-problems during the intervention-period, and allergic diseases during the first year of life, among very preterm infants related to their nutrition after hospital discharge. 4. To describe the content......The aims of this PhD thesis were: 1. Primarily to investigate the effect, of adding human milk fortifier to mother's milk while breastfeeding very preterm infants after hospital discharge, on growth until 1 year corrected age (CA) 2. Secondarily to describe breastfeeding rate and factors associated...... of whom 157 were excluded due to diseases or circumstances influencing nutrition. Further 156 refused participation in the interventional part of the study, but data on breastfeeding, weight, and some epidemiological data until discharge were available. Results on breastfeeding rate at discharge were...

  6. Member State approach towards a strategy for passive/very low-energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbøl, Susanne; Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne


    . The survey shows that many European countries already have taken national actions towards implementing requirements at the level of very low-energy buildings within a time frame of 5-12 years but only a few European Member States (MS) have plans for strengthening the requirements to the existing buildings...... of the current national approach in this area EuroACE has initiated a survey. The scope was to create an overview of current and planned strategies in the European countries regarding the implementation of requirements towards very low-energy buildings (on passive level or similar) in their national legislation...... by introducing a request to MS to: define very low-energy buildings at national level, to draw up a national strategy towards this level of energy performance, and to put focus on upgrading energy performance of the existing building stock....

  7. IVF results in patients with very low serum AMH are significantly affected by chronological age. (United States)

    Revelli, Alberto; Biasoni, Valentina; Gennarelli, Gianluca; Canosa, Stefano; Dalmasso, Paola; Benedetto, Chiara


    The aims of this study were to assess the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in women with very low circulating anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) and to investigate factors affecting their probability of pregnancy. The outcome of 448 IVF cycles in 361 women with circulating AMH IVF results were observed stratifying patients for AMH levels in the range 0.14-0.49 ng/ml. Multivariable logistic regression analysis confirmed that the probability of pregnancy was significantly affected by age, but not by small differences in AMH level. Women with very low (IVF still have reasonable chances of achieving a pregnancy, but their prognosis is significantly affected by chronological age. Very low AMH levels are associated with a relevant risk of cycle cancellation but should not be considered a reason to exclude a couple from IVF.

  8. Very preterm adolescents show impaired performance with increasing demands in executive function tasks. (United States)

    Wehrle, Flavia M; Kaufmann, Liane; Benz, Laura D; Huber, Reto; O'Gorman, Ruth L; Latal, Beatrice; Hagmann, Cornelia F


    Very preterm birth is often associated with executive function deficits later in life. The transition to adolescence increases personal autonomy, independence and, in parallel, the demands placed on executive functions at home and in school. To assess the impact of increasing demands on executive function performance in very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions. Forty-one very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions and 43 healthy term-born peers were assessed at a mean age of 13.0 years (SD: 1.9; range: 10.0-16.9). A comprehensive battery of performance-based executive function measures with different demand levels as well as a parent-rating questionnaire evaluating executive functions relevant for everyday life was applied. Standardized mean differences between groups of d ≥ .41 were regarded as clinically relevant. No group differences were found at the lowest demand levels of working memory (d=.09), planning (d=-.01), cognitive flexibility (d=-.21) and verbal fluency (d=-.14) tasks, but very preterm participants scored significantly below their term-born peers in the most demanding levels (d=-.50, -.59, -.43 and -.55, respectively). These differences were clinically relevant. Executive functions relevant for everyday life were strongly impaired in very preterm participants, e.g., global executive composite (d=-.66). Very preterm children and adolescents with normal intellectual and motor functions are at high risk for executive function deficits that may only become apparent with increasing demands, potentially leading to academic and other deficits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Very preterm birth: should we be interested in maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index?]. (United States)

    Hacini Afroukh, N; Burguet, A; Thiriez, G; Mulin, B; Bouthet, M F; Abraham, L; Boisselier, P; Villemonteix, P; Bauer, V; Lathelize, J; Pierre, F


    Link between maternal body mass index (BMI) and pregnancy outcome is not clear. To appreciate the impact of prepregnancy maternal BMI on very preterm birth (22-32 gestation's weeks). To assess how maternal BMI does explain the mechanism of very preterm birth among live births. Population-based study, including each mother with a live or stillborn baby was included in a geographically defined (Poitou-Charentes and Franche-comté, France) case-control study in 2004 to 2006. Leanness (BMI or =25kg/m(2)) were defined according to World Health Organization's standards. Statistical analysis consisted in a polynomial regression on 832 mothers of very preterm babies and 431 mothers of full-term babies, taking account for confounders as maternal age, birth country, educational level, maternal work and smoking during the pregnancy. Leanness is a risk factor for very preterm live birth (aOR=1.73 [1.12-2.68]), overweight is a risk factor for stillbirth. (aOR=1.71 [1.03-2.84]). Among mothers of live born babies, leanness is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth (aOR=2.12 [1.20-3.74]), whereas overweight is a risk factor for very preterm birth on medical decision due to gestational hypertension (aOR=2.85 [1.80-4.52]). Morbid maternal stoutness before pregnancy is a complex risk factor for very preterm delivery. Women and couples should be informed and practitioners should be aware in order to prevent and manage this pathological status.

  10. Visuospatial working memory in very preterm and term born children--impact of age and performance.


    Mürner-Lavanchy I; Ritter B C; Spencer-Smith M M; Perrig W J; Schroth G.; Steinlin M; Everts R


    Working memory is crucial for meeting the challenges of daily life and performing academic tasks such as reading or arithmetic. Very preterm born children are at risk of low working memory capacity. The aim of this study was to examine the visuospatial working memory network of school aged preterm children and to determine the effect of age and performance on the neural working memory network. Working memory was assessed in 41 very preterm born children and 36 term born controls (aged 7 12 ye...

  11. Very high-accuracy calibration of radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund; Breinbjerg, Olav


    In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission of the Europ......In this paper, very high-accuracy calibration of the radiation pattern and gain of a near-field probe is described. An open-ended waveguide near-field probe has been used in a recent measurement of the C-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Antenna Subsystem for the Sentinel 1 mission...

  12. [Attachment in very low birthweight infants (< 1500 g) and their mothers]. (United States)

    Schiltz, Paul; Walger, Petra; Krischer, Maya; von Gontard, Alexander; Wendrich, Daniela; Kribs, Angela; Roth, Bernhard; Lehmkuhl, Gerd


    A long hospital stay, along with the worries about the survival and the possible disabilities the child might suffer from, mark the start into life of very low birth weight premature infants (VLBW). The goal of this trial was to study the stability of the attachment representations of very low birthweight infants (birthweight Bindung (GEV-B) and for the mothers the Adult Attachment Projective (AAP) to determine the attachment representation. The attachment representations first corresponded to a normal distribution pattern and shifted over time to a more insecure attachment. We could not determine a significant link between the attachment patterns of the child and their mother.

  13. Security Optimization for Distributed Applications Oriented on Very Large Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai DOINEA


    Full Text Available The paper presents the main characteristics of applications which are working with very large data sets and the issues related to security. First section addresses the optimization process and how it is approached when dealing with security. The second section describes the concept of very large datasets management while in the third section the risks related are identified and classified. Finally, a security optimization schema is presented with a cost-efficiency analysis upon its feasibility. Conclusions are drawn and future approaches are identified.

  14. In their own words: Life at adulthood after very premature birth. (United States)

    Saigal, Saroj


    Very premature infants born in the last century following the early days of post-neonatal intensive care have demonstrated an array of physical, emotional, and mental health problems as they approach their third and fourth decades. These outcomes have been well documented by several international investigators. However, there is a paucity of information on the personal perspectives of these individuals with regard to their own quality of life, their hopes and their fears. This article will focus on the objective information from the published literature and how it differs from the personal perspectives of former very premature infants. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Very-short-term wind power probabilistic forecasts by sparse vector autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowell, Jethro; Pinson, Pierre


    A spatio-temporal method for producing very-shortterm parametric probabilistic wind power forecasts at a large number of locations is presented. Smart grids containing tens, or hundreds, of wind generators require skilled very-short-term forecasts to operate effectively, and spatial information....... The location parameter for multiple wind farms is modelled as a vector-valued spatiotemporal process, and the scale parameter is tracked by modified exponential smoothing. A state-of-the-art technique for fitting sparse vector autoregressive models is employed to model the location parameter and demonstrates...

  16. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in microsomes from epidermal cells of Allium porrum L. (United States)

    Agrawal, V P; Lessire, R; Stumpf, P K


    The elongation system present in leek epidermal cells functions to synthesize very long chain fatty acids which, in turn, are the precursors to alkanes. The elongation system is microsomal, employs only saturated acyl components of the endogenous lipid pool as acceptors, utilizes malonyl-CoA as the C2 donor, has an absolute requirement for ATP, and is markedly inhibited by acetyl-ACP. Only saturated acyl-CoAs are readily elongated to very long chain fatty acids by malonyl-CoA in the absence of ATP. ACP is not required by the microsomal system.

  17. L3 (sponge) phase in the very dilute regime : spontaneous tearing of the membrane ? (United States)

    Filali, M.; Porte, G.; Appell, J.; Pfeuty, P.


    We use light scattering and conductimetry to investigate the very dilute range of the domain of existence of the sponge (L3) phase in the quaternary OBS/pentanol/brine system. In this part of the phase diagram we find a line of maximum turbidity where the scattered intensity shows a very sharp maximum and has a pure Ornstein Zernicke q-dependence. These features are not consistent with what is expected close to the symmetric asymmetric transition line. We question the possibility of the spontaneous tearing of the membrane first considered on theoretical grounds by Huse and Leibler (Phys.~Rev.~Lett. 66 (1991) 437).

  18. Sporadic Endolymphatic Sac Tumor-A Very Rare Cause of Hearing Loss, Tinnitus, and Dizziness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnack, Didde Trærup; Kiss, Katalin; Hansen, Søren


    Sporadic endolymphatic sac tumor is a very rare neoplasm. It is low malignant, locally destructive and expansive, but non-metastasizing. The tumor is very rare in the sporadic form, but more often associated with Von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 65-year old man with left sided tinnitus and hearing loss......-operative freeze-microscopy showed inflammation tissue, whereas subsequent microscopy showed papillary-cystic endolymphatic sac tumor. Endolymphatic sac tumor is a rare neoplasm. The tumor may present with asymmetrically sensory neural hearing loss with or without tinnitus, dizziness and facial nerve paresis...

  19. Delayed development of neural language organization in very preterm born children. (United States)

    Mürner-Lavanchy, Ines; Steinlin, Maja; Kiefer, Claus; Weisstanner, Christian; Ritter, Barbara Catherine; Perrig, Walter; Everts, Regula


    This study investigates neural language organization in very preterm born children compared to control children and examines the relationship between language organization, age, and language performance. Fifty-six preterms and 38 controls (7-12 y) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging language task. Lateralization and signal change were computed for language-relevant brain regions. Younger preterms showed a bilateral language network whereas older preterms revealed left-sided language organization. No age-related differences in language organization were observed in controls. Results indicate that preterms maintain atypical bilateral language organization longer than term born controls. This might reflect a delay of neural language organization due to very premature birth.

  20. Epoprostenol for very low birth weight (VLBW infants: a novel dilution protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rugolotto


    Full Text Available Epoprostenol has been the first effective treatment for severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Epoprostenol is provided in vials for adult therapy. To our knowledge there are no reports on specific dilution protocols for epoprostenol in VLBW infants, when very small infusion rates are required. We describe the dilution protocol we applied to a preterm infant who was born at 30 weeks of gestational age with a weight of 1.000 g. Our dilution protocol keeps the recommended dilution ratios, and the required solution pH, for very small dosages of epoprostenol, using the same diluent vial. Our method allows a correct and safe administration of epoprostenol in VLBW infants.

  1. Digitally Controlled Point of Load Converter with Very Fast Transient Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lars Tønnes; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    three clock cycles from the time the A/D converter result is read by the control algorithm to the time the duty cycle command is updated. A typical POL converter has been built and the experimental results show that the transient response of the converter is very fast. The output voltage overshoot...... voltage mode control and very fast transient response. The DiSOM modulator is combined with a digital PID compensator algorithm is implemented in a hybrid CPLD/FPGA and is used to control a synchronous Buck converter, which is used in typical Point of Load applications. The computational time is only...

  2. Self-oscillating Galvanic Isolated Bidirectional Very High Frequency DC-DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold


    This paper describes a galvanic isolated bidirectional Very High Frequency (VHF = 30 MHz - 300MHz) ClassE converter. The reason for increasing the switching frequency is to minimize the passive components in the converter. To make the converter topology bidirectional the rectifier has to be synch......This paper describes a galvanic isolated bidirectional Very High Frequency (VHF = 30 MHz - 300MHz) ClassE converter. The reason for increasing the switching frequency is to minimize the passive components in the converter. To make the converter topology bidirectional the rectifier has...

  3. Transgressive segregation for very low and high levels of basal resistance to powdery mildew in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghnoum, R.; Niks, R.E.


    Basal resistance of barley to powdery mildew is a quantitatively inherited trait that limits the growth and sporulation of barley powdery mildew pathogen by a non-hypersensitive mechanism of defense. Two experimental barley lines were developed with a very high (ErBgh) and low (EsBgh) level of basal

  4. 47 CFR 101.1107 - Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs. (United States)


    ..., small businesses and entrepreneurs. 101.1107 Section 101.1107 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... Procedures for LMDS § 101.1107 Bidding credits for very small businesses, small businesses and entrepreneurs.... (c) A winning bidder that qualifies as an entrepreneur, as defined in § 101.1112, or a consortium of...

  5. Deformation of a layered half-space due to a very long tensile fault

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The problem of the coseismic deformation of an earth model consisting of an elastic layer of uniform thickness overlying an elastic half-space due to a very long tensile fault in the layer is solved analytically. Integral expressions for the surface displacements are obtained for a vertical tensile fault and a horizontal tensile fault.

  6. Assembly of rat hepatic very low density lipoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusiñol, A; Verkade, H; Vance, J E


    The intracellular site of assembly of hepatic very low density lipoproteins has been investigated. Two endoplasmic reticulum fractions and Golgi vesicles (relatively free from endosomal contamination) were isolated from rat liver and the luminal contents were released. The apoB-containing entities

  7. The nature of very faint X-ray binaries: hints from light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinke, C.O.; Bahramian, A.; Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.


    Very faint X-ray binaries (VFXBs), defined as having peak luminosities LX of 1034-1036 erg s−1, have been uncovered in significant numbers, but remain poorly understood. We analyse three published outburst light curves of two transient VFXBs using the exponential and linear decay formalism of King &

  8. Efficient Disk-Based Techniques for Manipulating Very Large String Databases

    KAUST Repository

    Allam, Amin


    Indexing and processing strings are very important topics in database management. Strings can be database records, DNA sequences, protein sequences, or plain text. Various string operations are required for several application categories, such as bioinformatics and entity resolution. When the string count or sizes become very large, several state-of-the-art techniques for indexing and processing such strings may fail or behave very inefficiently. Modifying an existing technique to overcome these issues is not usually straightforward or even possible. A category of string operations can be facilitated by the suffix tree data structure, which basically indexes a long string to enable efficient finding of any substring of the indexed string, and can be used in other operations as well, such as approximate string matching. In this document, we introduce a novel efficient method to construct the suffix tree index for very long strings using parallel architectures, which is a major challenge in this category. Another category of string operations require clustering similar strings in order to perform application-specific processing on the resulting possibly-overlapping clusters. In this document, based on clustering similar strings, we introduce a novel efficient technique for record linkage and entity resolution, and a novel method for correcting errors in a large number of small strings (read sequences) generated by the DNA sequencing machines.

  9. The Effects of Background Television on the Toy Play Behavior of Very Young Children (United States)

    Schmidt, Marie Evans; Pempek, Tiffany A.; Kirkorian, Heather L.; Lund, Anne Frankenfield; Anderson, Daniel R.


    This experiment tests the hypothesis that background, adult television is a disruptive influence on very young children's behavior. Fifty 12-, 24-, and 36-month-olds played with a variety of toys for 1 hr. For half of the hour, a game show played in the background on a monaural TV set. During the other half hour, the TV was off. The children…

  10. Symptomatic heterotopic ossification after very severe traumatic brain injury in 114 patients: incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Louise Lau; Sonne-Holm, Stig; Krasheninnikoff, Michael


    The incidence of heterotopic ossification (HO) among patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) varies in the literature from 11 to 73.3%. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HO among patients with very severe TBI treated in a new established intensive rehabilitation Brain...

  11. Discrimination between sedimentary rocks from close-range visible and very-near-infrared images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozo, Susana Del; Lindenbergh, R.C.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Blom, J.C.; González-Aguilera, Diego


    Variation in the mineral composition of rocks results in a change of their spectral response capable of being studied by imaging spectroscopy. This paper proposes the use of a low-cost handy sensor, a calibrated visible-very near infrared (VIS-VNIR) multispectral camera for the recognition of

  12. Lee-side flow structures of very low aspect ratio cruciform wing–body configurations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tuling, S


    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental investigation was performed to study the dominant flow structures in the lee side of a cruciform wing–body configuration at supersonic speeds in the + orientation. The wings or strakes are of very low aspect ratio...

  13. Treatment of Obesity by Behavior Therapy and Very Low Calorie Diet: A Pilot Investigation. (United States)

    Wadden, Thomas A.; And Others


    Explored the effectiveness of a very low calorie diet to induce rapid weight loss, combined with behavioral techniques to maintain this loss in 17 obese women. Results showed a substantial and sustained weight loss. Subjects did not experience increased anxiety or depression. (JAC)

  14. Psychosocial Treatment Efficacy for Disruptive Behavior Problems in Very Young Children: A Meta-Analytic Examination (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S.; Chow, Candice; Chan, Priscilla T.; Cooper-Vince, Christine; Wilson, Lianna A. S.


    Objective: Service use trends showing increased off-label prescribing in very young children and reduced psychotherapy use raise concerns about quality of care for early disruptive behavior problems. Meta-analysis can empirically clarify best practices and guide clinical decision making by providing a quantitative synthesis of a body of…

  15. Sensitivity of very small glaciers in the Swiss Alps to future climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eHuss


    Full Text Available Very small glaciers (<0.5 km2 account for more than 80% of the total number of glaciers in mid- to low-latitude mountain ranges. Although their total area and volume is small compared to larger glaciers, they are a relevant component of the cryosphere, contributing to landscape formation, local hydrology and sea-level rise. Worldwide glacier monitoring mostly focuses on medium-sized to large glaciers leaving us with a limited understanding of the response of dwarf glaciers to climate change. In this study, we present a comprehensive modeling framework to assess past and future changes of very small glaciers at the mountain-range scale. Among other processes our model accounts for snow redistribution, changes in glacier geometry and the time-varying effect of supraglacial debris. It computes the mass balance distribution, the englacial temperature regime and proglacial runoff. The evolution of 1,133 individual glaciers in the Swiss Alps is modeled in detail until 2060 based on new distributed data sets. Our results indicate that 52% of all very small glaciers in Switzerland will completely disappear within the next 25 years. However, a few avalanche-fed glaciers at low elevation might be able to survive even substantial atmospheric warming. We find highly variable sensitivities of very small glaciers to air temperature change, with gently-sloping, low-elevation, and debris-covered glaciers being most sensitive.

  16. Yeast sphingolipids do not need to contain very long chain fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerantola, Vanessa; Vionnet, Christine; Aebischer, Olivier F


    , the very long chain fatty acids (C26 and C24) account for 97%. Notwithstanding, IPCs incorporated into glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors of 4Delta.Lass5 show normal mobility on TLC and the ceramide- and raft-dependent traffic of Gas1p (glycophospholipid-anchored surface...

  17. Urine gonadotropin and testosterone levels in male very-low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Rotteveel, J.; Heijboer, A. C.; Cranendonk, A.; Twisk, J. W. R.; van Weissenbruch, M. M.


    The postnatal activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is more exaggerated in preterm than in full-term-born infants, and may be important for reproductive function. Our objective was to investigate this activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in male very-low-birthweight

  18. Visual scanning in very young children with autism and their unaffected parents.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, W.B.; Rommelse, N.N.; Wit, T.C.J. de; Zwiers, M.P.; Meerendonck, D. van; Gaag, R.J. van der; Buitelaar, J.K.


    This study of gaze patterns in very young children with autism and their parents included 23 cases (with 16 fathers and 19 mothers) and 46 controls (with 14 fathers and 28 mothers). Children (mean age 3.3 +/- 1.5 years) with autism met DSM-IV and ADOS-G diagnostic criteria. The participants' gaze

  19. EMC Investigation of a Very High Frequency Self-oscillating Resonant Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper focuses on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance of a Very High Frequency (VHF) converter and how to lower the emissions. To test the EMC performance a VHF converter is implemented with a Class-E inverter and a Class-DE rectifier. The converter is designed to deliver 3 W...

  20. Heart rate variability and salivary cortisol in very preterm children during school age. (United States)

    Urfer-Maurer, Natalie; Ludyga, Sebastian; Stalder, Tobias; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Gerber, Markus; Grob, Alexander; Weber, Peter; Lemola, Sakari


    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays a major role in the human stress response and reflects physical and psychological adaptability to a changing environment. Long-term exposure to early life stressors may alter the function of the ANS. The present study examines differences in the ANS between children born very preterm and full-term as well as the association between the ANS and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the other main branch of the human stress system. Fifty-four healthy children born very preterm (position at rest (wake) and during different sleep stages (stage 2 sleep, slow wave sleep, rapid-eye-movement sleep). Autonomic function was assessed by use of heart rate variability, specifically low frequency power (LF), high frequency power (HF), total spectral power (Tot Pow), and the LF/HF ratio. HPA axis activity was measured using salivary cortisol the next morning at awakening, 10, 20, and 30min later. Children born very preterm had lower LF/HF ratio during wake and stage 2 sleep compared to full-term children. Moreover, higher LF, Tot Pow, and LF/HF ratio during wake, stage 2 sleep, and REM sleep were related to more post-awakening cortisol secretion. The present study provides evidence on long-term ANS alterations after very preterm birth. Moreover, findings suggest a relation between the ANS and the HPA axis and therefore support the notion of mutual feedback between the two human stress systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Wind Farm Large-Eddy Simulations on Very Coarse Grid Resolutions using an Actuator Line Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez, L.A.; Meneveau, C.; Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria


    In this work the accuracy of the Actuator Line Model (ALM) in Large Eddy Simula- tions of wind turbine flow is studied under the speci c conditions of very coarse spatial resolutions. For finely-resolved conditions, it is known that ALM provides better accuracy compared to the standard Actuator Disk

  2. Very high resolution time-lapse photography for plant and ecosystems research (United States)

    Very high resolution gigapixel photography increasingly is being used to support a broad range of ecosystem and physical process research because it offers an inexpensive means of simultaneously collecting information at a range of spatial scales. Recently, methods have been developed to incorporate...

  3. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.


    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  4. Fuel utilization in patients with very long-chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ØRngreen, Mette C; Nørgaard, Mette; Sacchetti, Massimo


    Fuel utilization in two adult patients with the myopathic form of very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) deficiency and five healthy subjects was investigated with stable isotopes during exercise at 50% of VO2max. The findings indicate that residual VLCAD activity in the patients...

  5. RD50 Status Report 2008 - Radiation hard semiconductor devices for very high luminosity colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Balbuena, Juan Pablo; Campabadal, Francesca; Díez, Sergio; Fleta, Celeste; Lozano, Manuel; Pellegrini, Giulio; Rafí, Joan Marc; Ullán, Miguel; Creanza, Donato; De Palma, Mauro; Fedele, Francesca; Manna, Norman; Kierstead, Jim; Li, Zheng; Buda, Manuela; Lazanu, Sorina; Pintilie, Lucian; Pintilie, Ioana; Popa, Andreia-Ioana; Lazanu, Ionel; Collins, Paula; Fahrer, Manuel; Glaser, Maurice; Joram, Christian; Kaska, Katharina; La Rosa, Alessandro; Mekki, Julien; Moll, Michael; Pacifico, Nicola; Pernegger, Heinz; Goessling, Claus; Klingenberg, Reiner; Weber, Jens; Wunstorf, Renate; Roeder, Ralf; Stolze, Dieter; Uebersee, Hartmut; Cihangir, Selcuk; Kwan, Simon; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Bruzzi, Mara; Focardi, Ettore; Menichelli, David; Scaringella, Monica; Breindl, Michael; Eckert, Simon; Köhler, Michael; Kuehn, Susanne; Parzefall, Ulrich; Wiik, Liv; Bates, Richard; Blue, Andrew; Buttar, Craig; Doherty, Freddie; Eklund, Lars; Bates, Alison G; Haddad, Lina; Houston, Sarah; James, Grant; Mathieson, Keith; Melone, J; OShea, Val; Parkes, Chris; Pennicard, David; Buhmann, Peter; Eckstein, Doris; Fretwurst, Eckhart; Hönniger, Frank; Khomenkov, Vladimir; Klanner, Robert; Lindström, Gunnar; Pein, Uwe; Srivastava, Ajay; Härkönen, Jaakko; Lassila-Perini, Katri; Luukka, Panja; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuovinen, Esa; Eremin, Vladimir; Ilyashenko, Igor; Ivanov, Alexandr; Kalinina, Evgenia; Lebedev, Alexander; Strokan, Nikita; Verbitskaya, Elena; Barcz, Adam; Brzozowski, Andrzej; Kaminski, Pawel; Kozlowski, Roman; Kozubal, Michal; Luczynski, Zygmunt; Pawlowski, Marius; Surma, Barbara; Zelazko, Jaroslaw; de Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Frey, Martin; Hartmann, Frank; Zhukov, Valery; Barabash, L; Dolgolenko, A; Groza, A; Karpenko, A; Khivrich, V; Lastovetsky, V; Litovchenko, P; Polivtsev, L; Campbell, Duncan; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Fox, Harald; Hughes, Gareth; Jones, Brian Keith; Sloan, Terence; Samadashvili, Nino; Tuuva, Tuure; Affolder, Anthony; Allport, Phillip; Bowcock, Themis; Casse, Gianluigi; Vossebeld, Joost; Cindro, Vladimir; Dolenc, Irena; Kramberger, Gregor; Mandic, Igor; Mikuž, Marko; Zavrtanik, Marko; Zontar, Dejan; Gil, Eduardo Cortina; Grégoire, Ghislain; Lemaitre, Vincent; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Kazuchits, Nikolai; Makarenko, Leonid; Charron, Sébastien; Genest, Marie-Helene; Houdayer, Alain; Lebel, Celine; Leroy, Claude; Aleev, Andrey; Golubev, Alexander; Grigoriev, Eugene; Karpov, Aleksey; Martemianov, Alxander; Rogozhkin, Sergey; Zaluzhny, Alexandre; Andricek, Ladislav; Beimforde, Michael; Macchiolo, Anna; Moser, Hans-Günther; Nisius, Richard; Richter, Rainer; Gorelov, Igor; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Metcalfe, Jessica; Seidel, Sally; Toms, Konstantin; Hartjes, Fred; Koffeman, Els; van der Graaf, Harry; Visschers, Jan; Kuznetsov, Andrej; Sundnes Løvlie, Lars; Monakhov, Edouard; Svensson, Bengt G; Bisello, Dario; Candelori, Andrea; Litovchenko, Alexei; Pantano, Devis; Rando, Riccardo; Bilei, Gian Mario; Passeri, Daniele; Petasecca, Marco; Pignatel, Giorgio Umberto; Bernardini, Jacopo; Borrello, Laura; Dutta, Suchandra; Fiori, Francesco; Messineo, Alberto; Bohm, Jan; Mikestikova, Marcela; Popule, Jiri; Sicho, Petr; Tomasek, Michal; Vrba, Vaclav; Broz, Jan; Dolezal, Zdenek; Kodys, Peter; Tsvetkov, Alexej; Wilhelm, Ivan; Chren, Dominik; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Kohout, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Solar, Michael; Sopko, Vít; Sopko, Bruno; Uher, Josef; Horisberger, Roland; Radicci, Valeria; Rohe, Tilman; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; Giolo, Kim; Miyamoto, Jun; Rott, Carsten; Roy, Amitava; Shipsey, Ian; Son, SeungHee; Demina, Regina; Korjenevski, Sergey; Grillo, Alexander; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Schumm, Bruce; Seiden, Abraham; Spence, Ned; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Artuso, Marina; Borgia, Alessandra; Lefeuvre, Gwenaelle; Guskov, J; Marunko, Sergey; Ruzin, Arie; Tylchin, Tamir; Boscardin, Maurizio; Dalla Betta, Gian - Franco; Gregori, Paolo; Piemonte, Claudio; Ronchin, Sabina; Zen, Mario; Zorzi, Nicola; Garcia, Carmen; Lacasta, Carlos; Marco, Ricardo; Marti i Garcia, Salvador; Minano, Mercedes; Soldevila-Serrano, Urmila; Gaubas, Eugenijus; Kadys, Arunas; Kazukauskas, Vaidotas; Sakalauskas, Stanislavas; Storasta, Jurgis; Vidmantis Vaitkus, Juozas; CERN. Geneva. The LHC experiments Committee; LHCC


    The objective of the CERN RD50 Collaboration is the development of radiation hard semiconductor detectors for very high luminosity colliders, particularly to face the requirements of a possible upgrade scenario of the LHC.This document reports the status of research and main results obtained after the sixth year of activity of the collaboration.

  6. Neurodevelopment and the effects of a neurobehavioral intervention in very preterm-born children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hus, J.W.P.


    The aim of this thesis was to expand the knowledge on neurodevelopment of very preterm-born children and on an early intervention program , that provides optimal neurodevelopmental care and support for these children and their parents. The effects of the Infant Behavioral Assessment and Intervention

  7. Training Course for Producers of TV Programmes for Very Young Children. (United States)

    Prix Jeunesse Foundation, Munich (Germany).

    A four week course in television programming and production for very young children was attended by 13 representatives from ten countries in the Asian-Pacific area. The first part of the course was devoted to presentations by the participants describing the television programs in their countries and the presentation and discussion of about 80…

  8. On the small-signal capacitance of RF MEMS switches at very low frequencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Bielen, Jeroen; Salm, Cora; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan


    This paper presents on-wafer capacitance measurements of silicon-based RF MEMS capacitive switches down to frequencies below 1 Hz. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve measured at very-low frequency (0.01-10 Hz) deviates from the commonly measured and well-understood high-frequency C-V curve,

  9. 76 FR 22667 - Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small Meat and Poultry... (United States)


    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Availability of Salmonella Compliance Guide for Small and Very Small... establishments on the safe production of ready-to-eat (RTE) meat and poultry products with respect to Salmonella... these products with respect to Salmonella and other pathogens. This document also provides information...

  10. Socioeconomic status of very small areas and stroke incidence in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Westert, G.P.; Bos, G.A.M. van den


    Objectives: To examine whether characteristics of very small living areas can be used to predict disease incidence and to use these characteristics to assess socioeconomic differences in stroke incidence in the Netherlands. Design: Characteristics of postcode areas of stroke patients are compared

  11. Socioeconomic status of very small areas and stroke incidence in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.; Westert, G. P.; van den Bos, G. A. M.


    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether characteristics of very small living areas can be used to predict disease incidence and to use these characteristics to assess socioeconomic differences in stroke incidence in the Netherlands. DESIGN: Characteristics of postcode areas of stroke patients are compared

  12. Very High Frequency Resonant DC/DC Converters for LED Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper presents a very high frequency DC/DC converter for LED lighting. Several resonant topologies are compared and their usability discussed. At the end the resonant SEPIC converter is chosen based on the achievable power density and total bill of material. Simulations of a 51 MHz converter...

  13. Contributing Factors to Older Teen Mothers' Academic Success as Very Young Mothers (United States)

    Hernandez, Jennifer; Abu Rabia, Hazza M.


    This qualitative study explores the factors contributed to 13 older teen mothers' academic success as very young mothers. The participants were older teen mothers who were pregnant and gave birth at the age of 16 years old or younger, and who have achieved a college degree from an accredited college or university while they raised their…

  14. Learning disabilities in children with very low birthweight: prevalence, neuropsychological correlates, and educational interventions. (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan; Taylor, H Gerry; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen


    This study examined achievement, neuropsychological, and intervention outcomes at a mean age of 11 years in children with very low birthweight (VLBW, learning disabilities (LD), the sample was limited to children without neurosensory disorders who had at least low average IQ. Participants included 31 children with learning problems.

  15. A very simple dynamic soil acidification model for scenario analyses and target load calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posch, M.; Reinds, G.J.


    A very simple dynamic soil acidification model, VSD, is described, which has been developed as the simplest extension of steady-state models for critical load calculations and with an eye on regional applications. The model requires only a minimum set of inputs (compared to more detailed models) and

  16. Fatigue experiments on very high strength steel base material and transverse butt welds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.; Romeijn, A.; Bijlaard, F.S.K.


    Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years. However, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon, due to lack of design and fabrication knowledge and therefore limited inclusion in codes.

  17. Kas Graali veri võtab võimu Euroopas? / Jaakko Hallas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hallas, Jaakko


    Templirüütlite saladustest ja Jeesuse järglastest. Martin Baueri raamatust "Templirüütlid. Müüt ja tõde" : Tartu, 2001 ja Michael Baigenti, Richard Leigh', Henry Lincolni raamatust "Püha veri ja Püha Graal" : Tallinn, 2001

  18. Fatigue strength of truss girders made of very high strength steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijpers, R.J.M.; Kolstein, M.H.


    An effective application of Very High Strength Steel (VHSS) in civil engineering structures is expected in stiff, truss like structures, typically made of Circular Hollow Sections (CHS). Use of castings in combination with CHS could be promising for the design of highly fatigue resistant joints.

  19. Tuition Trends at High and Very High Public Research Universities, 1999-2009 (United States)

    Micceri, Theodore


    Historically, Florida has emphasized access for citizens in setting undergraduate resident tuition for the State University System (SUS). Figure 3 and Figure 6 depict the long-term effects of this, as Florida's undergraduate resident tuition and required fees, among high (RUH) and very high (RUVH) public research universities, have remained second…

  20. Variability of the autoregulation index decreases after removing the effect of the very low frequency band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elting, J. W.; Maurits, N. M.; Aries, M. J. H.

    Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (dCA) estimates show large between and within subject variability. Sources of variability include low coherence and influence of CO2 in the very low frequency (VLF) band, where dCA is active. This may lead to unreliable transfer function and autoregulation index (ARI)