Full Text Available This paper discusses the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, more specifically, its enormous popularity in the United States, Western Europe and Australia, and the absence of any reaction to the series in Serbia. By comparing themes regarded as important in western societies to the current situation in Serbia, the analysis shows that Buffy the Vampire Slayer is a series that could not have gained popularity in Serbia because it uses the language of fantasy to speak about reality and pose unpleasant questions, which the Serbian public does not wish to hear.
Lord, R D
Studies of pregnancy and lactation in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in northern Argentina over a 4 yr period showed an inverse relationship between prevalence of pregnancy and lactation, the consequence of birth and onset of lactation, which was correlated with the wet season. The seasonal influx of young susceptibles into the vampire population in the wet season coincided with the well known increase in vampire transmitted rabies in that season.
Full Text Available This work presents in (and especially on one detail what it means to practice gender analysis as formal image analysis in the context of television shows. The chosen example for that is the closing scene of “Buffy the Vampire Slayer” (USA 1997-2003. This television show engages in a highly self-reflexive manner with common pop cultural representations of gender, which becomes particularly prevalent and radically condensed in the series finale.
Collier, Noelle R; Lumadue, Christine A; Wooten, H Ray
This qualitative study of television reception examined the ways in which a sample of lesbian fans of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and Xena: Warrior Princess incorporated their experiences as viewers, fans, and Internet users with relation to their sexual identity as lesbians. Specifically, this study examined the ways in which participants used these television programs to inform their sexual identity development. Results indicated that participants used television and the Internet to normalize and affirm lesbian experience, to decrease negative feelings regarding their lesbian identities, and to decrease social isolation.
M. B. Freitas
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of seasonal variation and fasting on fat reserves of the common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA, along with lipid content of the liver and muscles, and fatty acids from the carcass were obtained from bats fed bovine blood and from whom food was subsequently withheld for 24 and 48 h. Animals were caught during both dry and rainy seasons. In general, fat tissue stores were not significantly influenced by seasonal variation. Lipid content of liver, muscles, and carcass decreased during some food deprivation periods, although the concomitant increase expected in plasma FFA was not observed. Lipid metabolism is hypothesized as being continued by the tissues themselves. In addition, free access to food sources (e.g., domestic livestock throughout the year is believed to contribute to the low seasonal variations in fat reserves observed in the common vampire bat.
Delpietro, H. A.; Russo, R. G.; Lord, R. D.; Delpietro, G. L.
Common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969–2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5–54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations. PMID:28484615
Delpietro, H A; Russo, R G; Carter, G G; Lord, R D; Delpietro, G L
Common vampire bats ( Desmodus rotundus ) are a key rabies vector in South America. Improved management of this species requires long-term, region-specific information. To investigate patterns of demography and dispersal, we analysed 13 642 captures of common vampire bats in Northern Argentina from the period 1969-2004. In contrast with findings from more tropical regions, we found reproductive seasonality with peak pregnancy in September and peak lactation in February. Curiously, sex ratios were consistently male-biased both in maternity roosts and at foraging sites. Males comprised 57% of 9509 adults caught at night, 57% of 1078 juveniles caught at night, 57% of 603 juveniles caught in roosts during the day, and 55% of 103 newborns and mature fetuses. Most observed roosts were in man-made structures. Movements of 1.5-54 km were most frequent in adult males, followed by young males, adult females and young females. At night, males visited maternity roosts, and non-pregnant, non-lactating females visited bachelor roosts. Males fed earlier in the night. Finally, we report new longevity records for free-ranging vampire bats: 16 and 17 years of age for a female and male, respectively. Our results are consistent with model predictions that sex-biased movements might play a key role in rabies transmission between vampire bat populations.
form in most religions that hold a belief in a corporate existence ... moved west through Romania and Hungary. The word vampire, of Turkish or Magyar origin, was first used in English in 1734.2 ... ing period of prison sentences and the war.
Erfgen, Carsten; Zenker, Sebastian; Sattler, Henrik
Although many brand managers favor the use of celebrities in advertisements, others worry that celebrities overshadow the brand and thus impair brand recall. Practitioners refer to this overshadowing as the vampire effect, defined as a decrease in brand recall for an advertising stimulus...... that features a celebrity endorser versus the same stimulus with an unknown but equally attractive endorser. Because there is no agreement about whether this overshadowing really exists, this research analyzes the existence of the vampire effect and its moderators in a series of experiments with a total of 4...
Hansen, Kim Toft
popular vampire phenomenon excessive violence and softcore pornography has become popularized mainstream TV-fiction. This paper is a very short version of the article “Batailles godnathistorie – Jean Rollin, True Blood og den erotiske vampyr” [Bataille’s bedtime story – Jean Rollin, True Blood...
Castel, O; Bourry, A; Thévenot, S; Burucoa, C
A vampire is a non-dead and non-alive chimerical creature, which, according to various folklores and popular superstitions, feeds on blood of the living to draw vital force. Vampires do not reproduce by copulation, but by bite. Vampirism is thus similar to a contagious disease contracted by intravascular inoculation with a suspected microbial origin. In several vampire films, two real bacteria were staged, better integrated than others in popular imagination: Yersinia pestis and Treponema pallidum. Bacillus vampiris was created for science-fiction. These films are attempts to better define humans through one of their greatest fears: infectious disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This paper is the result of original fieldwork performed in the village of Strelac, in southeast Serbia during August 2003. All Slavs believed in the existence of a vampire; still today, this belief is widespread among Serbs. According to the folk stories, a man can become a vampire during his life or after death. It is believed that certain persons have a predisposition to become vampires: informants argued that the condition could descend by inheritance, or if an animal steps over a deceased person. A man can also become a vampire during his lifetime if he suffers from certain illness, but does not take medications, or if, when ill, he is left alone or abandoned by his family. In most cases a vampire hunts his relatives or neighbors, or disturbs their cattle. A vampire makes noise, troubles its relatives, jumps on their back, and sometimes sucks their blood. There are two ways of protection against a vampire: to scold and push a vampire away, and to face the creature in order to "speak out". The "speak-out" method means that a vampire needs to be told about everything it did as a vampire. If a vampire is a vampire-deceased, it is possible to "lure" it with round bread, and banish it from the village. The villagers here use "vampire's bone" for this purpose. These beliefs encourage people to take care of their sick - the ones who do not do so get frequent visits from a vampire.
AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0161 S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers Dietmar Pum ZENTRUM FUER NANOBIOTECHNOLOGIE Final Report 07/09...COVERED (From - To) 01-06-2012 to 31-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S-Layer Based Bio- Imprinting - Synthetic S-Layer Polymers 5a. CONTRACT...technology for the fabrication of nano patterned thin film imprints by using functional S-layer protein arrays as templates. The unique feature of
Vampires and a Moco Jumbie is a narrative-essay about teaching Basic Composition in New York City in the early 1990s. To the surprise and delight of the teacher, the students describe in class discussions and in their writings their beliefs in the supernatural. Contains one note.
Pum, Dietmar; Sleytr, Uwe B
Crystalline bacterial cell surface layers (S-layers) represent the outermost cell envelope component in a broad range of bacteria and archaea. They are monomolecular arrays composed of a single protein or glycoprotein species and represent the simplest biological membranes developed during evolution. They are highly porous protein mesh works with unit cell sizes in the range of 3 to 30 nm, and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. S-layers are usually 5 to 20 nm thick (in archaea, up to 70 nm). S-layer proteins are one of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. One of their key features, and the focus of this review, is the intrinsic capability of isolated native and recombinant S-layer proteins to form self-assembled mono- or double layers in suspension, at solid supports, the air-water interface, planar lipid films, liposomes, nanocapsules, and nanoparticles. The reassembly is entropy-driven and a fascinating example of matrix assembly following a multistage, non-classical pathway in which the process of S-layer protein folding is directly linked with assembly into extended clusters. Moreover, basic research on the structure, synthesis, genetics, assembly, and function of S-layer proteins laid the foundation for their application in novel approaches in biotechnology, biomimetics, synthetic biology, and nanotechnology. (topical review)
This paper is the result of original fieldwork performed in the village of Strelac, in southeast Serbia during August 2003. All Slavs believed in the existence of a vampire; still today, this belief is widespread among Serbs. According to the folk stories, a man can become a vampire during his life or after death. It is believed that certain persons have a predisposition to become vampires: informants argued that the condition could descend by inheritance, or if an animal steps over a decease...
Johnson, Nicholas; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Aguilar-Setien, Alvaro
Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control. PMID:24784570
Full Text Available Extensive surveillance in bat populations in response to recent emerging diseases has revealed that this group of mammals acts as a reservoir for a large range of viruses. However, the oldest known association between a zoonotic virus and a bat is that between rabies virus and the vampire bat. Vampire bats are only found in Latin America and their unique method of obtaining nutrition, blood-feeding or haematophagy, has only evolved in the New World. The adaptations that enable blood-feeding also make the vampire bat highly effective at transmitting rabies virus. Whether the virus was present in pre-Columbian America or was introduced is much disputed, however, the introduction of Old World livestock and associated landscape modification, which continues to the present day, has enabled vampire bat populations to increase. This in turn has provided the conditions for rabies re-emergence to threaten both livestock and human populations as vampire bats target large mammals. This review considers the ecology of the vampire bat that make it such an efficient vector for rabies, the current status of vampire-transmitted rabies and the future prospects for spread by this virus and its control.
Full Text Available The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S- layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.
The present paper highlights the application of bacterial surface (S-) layer proteins as versatile components for the fabrication of biosensors. One technologically relevant feature of S-layer proteins is their ability to self-assemble on many surfaces and interfaces to form a crystalline two-dimensional (2D) protein lattice. The S-layer lattice on the surface of a biosensor becomes part of the interface architecture linking the bioreceptor to the transducer interface, which may cause signal amplification. The S-layer lattice as ultrathin, highly porous structure with functional groups in a well-defined special distribution and orientation and an overall anti-fouling characteristics can significantly raise the limit in terms of variety and the ease of bioreceptor immobilization, compactness of bioreceptor molecule arrangement, sensitivity, specificity, and detection limit for many types of biosensors. The present paper discusses and summarizes examples for the successful implementation of S-layer lattices on biosensor surfaces in order to give a comprehensive overview on the application potential of these bioinspired S-layer protein-based biosensors.
Self-assembly of molecular building blocks is a common principle for bottom up based building principles in nature. One example are crystalline bacterial surface layers, termed S-layers, which are the most commonly observed cell surface structures in prokaryotic organisms. They recrystallize into highly ordered, porous protein meshworks with unit cell sizes of 3 to 30 nm and pore sizes of 2 to 8 nm. In this work, S-layers were self-assembled on various three dimensional scaffolds in order to fabricate novel S-layer architectures. Exploiting the stabilizing effect of silica deposited on the S-layer protein meshwork led to the construction of hollow S-layer nano-containers derived from coated liposomes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques and release experiments with fluorescent dyes confirmed the dissolution of the supporting lipids. Silica deposition on different spherical particles in solution, as well as on planar S-layer coated surfaces, could be monitored by measuring the ζ-potential, the decline of monosilicic acid in solution, by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis or by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Both, ζ-potential and release experiments showed differences between silicified plain liposomes and silicified S-layer coated liposomes. In addition, nanocapsules with calcium carbonate cores served as another template for the construction of silica supported S-layer architectures. These were investigated by SEM and fluorescence microscopy after fluorescence labeling. Additional coating with polyelectrolytes increased the stability of the nanocapsules. Their mechanical properties were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The influence of silica deposition was investigated by AFM and SEM. Further on, emulsomes and gas filled lipid supported microbubbles may serve as other templates for the design of spherical protein constructs although extraction of the
This work describes the construction and characterisation of fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins used as building blocks for the fabrication of nanostructured monomolecular biocoatings on silica particles with defined fluorescence properties. The S-layer protein SgsE of Geobacillus stearothermophilus NRS 2004/3a was fused with the pH-dependant cyan, green and yellow variant of the green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the red fluorescent protein mRFP1. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins, acting as scaffold and optical sensing element simultaneously, were able to reassemble in solution and on silica particles forming 2D nanostructures with p2 lattice symmetry (a=11 ±0.5 nm, b=14 ±0.4 nm, g=80 ±1 o ). The pH-dependant fluorescence behaviour was studied with fluorimetry, confocal microscopy and flow cytometry. These fluorescent S-layer fusion proteins can be used as pH-sensor. 50% of the fluorescence intensity decreases at their calculated pKa values (pH6 - pH5). The fluorescence intensity of the GFP variants vanished completely between pH4 and pH3 whereas the chromophore of the red protein mRFP1 was only slightly affected in acidic conditions. At the isoelectric point of the S-layer coated silica particles (pH4.6 ±0.2) an increase in particle aggregation was detected by flow cytometry. The cyan and yellow fluorescent proteins were chosen to create a bi-fluorescent S-layer tandem fusion protein with the possibility for resonance energy transfer (FRET). A transfer efficiency of 20% and a molecular distance between the donor (ECFP) and acceptor (YFP) chromophores of around 6.2 nm could be shown. This bi-fluorescent ECFP-SgsE-YFP tandem fusion protein was able to reassemble on solid surfaces. The remarkable combination of fluorescence and self-assembly and the design of bi-functional S-layer tandem fusion protein matrices makes them to a promising tool in nanobiotechnology. (author) [de
Anne Ricen The Vampire Chronicles -kirjasarjaa voidaan pitää vampyyrinarratiivien uutena aaltona 1970-luvulta lähtien. Ricen romaaneissa vampyyrit itse nousivat pääosaan kirjojen päähenkilöinä, ja romaanit tietyssä määrin irtautuivat vanhemman vampyyrikirjallisuuden kaavoista. Tutkimukseni aiheena ovat Anne Ricen romaanisarjan kolme ensimmäistä teosta, Interview with the Vampire (1976), The Vampire Lestat (1985) ja The Queen of the Damned (1988). Tutkielmani keskittyy siihen, kuinka kyseiset ...
10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.
Bradshaw, William J; Roberts, April K; Shone, Clifford C; Acharya, K Ravi
The nosocomially acquired pathogen Clostridium difficile is the primary causative agent of antibiotic associated diarrhoea and causes tens of thousands of deaths globally each year. C. difficile presents a paracrystalline protein array on the surface of the cell known as an S-layer. S-layers have been demonstrated to possess a wide range of important functions, which, combined with their inherent accessibility, makes them a promising drug target. The unusually complex S-layer of C. difficile is primarily comprised of the high- and low- molecular weight S-layer proteins, HMW SLP and LMW SLP, formed from the cleavage of the S-layer precursor protein, SlpA, but may also contain up to 28 SlpA paralogues. A model of how the S-layer functions as a whole is required if it is to be exploited in fighting the bacterium. Here, we provide a summary of what is known about the S-layer of C. difficile and each of the paralogues and, considering some of the domains present, suggest potential roles for them.
Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko
Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.
Abdul Aziz Turhan Kariko
Full Text Available Article presents an animated film related to ideological development in Cuba. This effort brings an understanding of ideology and cultural policy of Cuba as a communist state. Presentation begins with summary of the story, history and background, ideological concepts, and the movie Vampires in Havana itself. It is concluded that the film represents ideological disputes between capitalism and Marxism in Cuba, as well as giving an ideal perspective on how the world should work.
... and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs... Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion.'' Copies of comments received will be available...) (slayer's rule ``is undoubtedly an implicit provision of the Servicemen's Group Life Insurance Act of 1965...
Günther, Tobias J.; Raff, Johannes; Pollmann, Katrin
Genomic analyses of Viridibacillus arvi JG-B58 that was previously isolated from heavy metal contaminated environment identified three different putative surface layer (S-layer) protein genes namely slp1, slp2, and slp3. All three genes are expressed during cultivation. At least two of the V. arvi JG-B58 S-layer proteins were visualized on the surface of living cells via atomic force microscopy (AFM). These S-layer proteins form a double layer with p4 symmetry. The S-layer proteins were isolated from the cells using two different methods. Purified S-layer proteins were recrystallized on SiO2 substrates in order to study the structure of the arrays and self-assembling properties. The primary structure of all examined S-layer proteins lack some features that are typical for Bacillus or Lysinibacillus S-layers. For example, they possess no SLH domains that are usually responsible for the anchoring of the proteins to the cell wall. Further, the pI values are relatively high ranging from 7.84 to 9.25 for the matured proteins. Such features are typical for S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus species although sequence comparisons indicate a close relationship to S-layer proteins of Lysinibacillus and Bacillus strains. In comparison to the numerous descriptions of S-layers, there are only a few studies reporting the concomitant existence of two different S-layer proteins on cell surfaces. Together with the genomic data, this is the first description of a novel type of S-layer proteins showing features of Lactobacillus as well as of Bacillus-type S-layer proteins and the first study of the cell envelope of Viridibacillus arvi. PMID:27285458
Missiakas, Dominique; Schneewind, Olaf
Bacillus anthracis, the anthrax agent, is a member of the Bacillus cereus sensu lato group, which includes invasive pathogens of mammals or insects as well as nonpathogenic environmental strains. The genes for anthrax pathogenesis are located on two large virulence plasmids. Similar virulence plasmids have been acquired by other B. cereus strains and enable the pathogenesis of anthrax-like diseases. Among the virulence factors of B. anthracis is the S-layer-associated protein BslA, which endows bacilli with invasive attributes for mammalian hosts. BslA surface display and function are dependent on the bacterial S-layer, whose constituents assemble by binding to the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) via S-layer homology (SLH) domains. B. anthracis and other pathogenic B. cereus isolates harbor genes for the secretion of S-layer proteins, for S-layer assembly, and for synthesis of the SCWP. We review here recent insights into the assembly and function of the S-layer and the SCWP.
Fernanda Sousa Carvalho
xxx In this thesis, I provide an analysis of Angela Carter's and Anne Rice's works based on their depiction of vampires. My corpus is composed by Carter's short stories 'The Loves of Lady Purple' and 'The Lady of the House of Love' and by Rice's novels The Vampire Lestat and The Queen of the Damned. My analysis of this corpus is based on four approaches: a comparison between Carter's and Rice's works, supported by their common use of vampire characters; an investigation of how this use con...
Streicker, Daniel G.; Cabezas-Sanchez, Cesar; Velasco-Villa, Andres
During the past decade, incidence of human infection with rabies virus (RABV) spread by the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) increased considerably in South America, especially in remote areas of the Amazon rainforest, where these bats commonly feed on humans. To better understand the epizootiology of rabies associated with vampire bats, we used complete sequences of the nucleoprotein gene to infer phylogenetic relationships among 157 RABV isolates collected from humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, including bats, in Peru during 2002–2007. This analysis revealed distinct geographic structuring that indicates that RABVs spread gradually and involve different vampire bat subpopulations with different transmission cycles. Three putative new RABV lineages were found in 3 non–vampire bat species that may represent new virus reservoirs. Detection of novel RABV variants and accurate identification of reservoir hosts are critically important for the prevention and control of potential virus transmission, especially to humans.
Full Text Available Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%, whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Carter, Gerald; Leffer, Lauren
Evidence for long-term cooperative relationships comes from several social birds and mammals. Vampire bats demonstrate cooperative social bonds, and like primates, they maintain these bonds through social grooming. It is unclear, however, to what extent vampires are special among bats in this regard. We compared social grooming rates of common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and four other group-living bats, Artibeus jamaicensis, Carollia perspicillata, Eidolon helvum and Rousettus aegyptiacus, under the same captive conditions of fixed association and no ectoparasites. We conducted 13 focal sampling sessions for each combination of sex and species, for a total of 1560 presence/absence observations per species. We observed evidence for social grooming in all species, but social grooming rates were on average 14 times higher in vampire bats than in other species. Self-grooming rates did not differ. Vampire bats spent 3.7% of their awake time social grooming (95% CI = 1.5-6.3%), whereas bats of the other species spent 0.1-0.5% of their awake time social grooming. Together with past data, this result supports the hypothesis that the elevated social grooming rate in the vampire bat is an adaptive trait, linked to their social bonding and unique regurgitated food sharing behavior.
Schneider, David S
Speculative fiction examines the leading edge of science and can be used to introduce ideas into the classroom. For example, most students are already familiar with the fictional infectious diseases responsible for vampire and zombie outbreaks. The disease dynamics of these imaginary ailments follow the same rules we see for real diseases and can be used to remind students that they already understand the basic rules of disease ecology and immunology. By engaging writers of this sort of fiction in an effort to solve problems in immunology we may be able to perform a directed evolution experiment where we follow the evolution of plots rather than genetic traits. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Hollmann, Axel; Delfederico, Lucrecia; Santos, Nuno C; Disalvo, E Anibal; Semorile, Liliana
In previous works, it was shown that S-layer proteins from Lactobacillus kefir were able to recrystallize and stabilize liposomes, this feature reveling a great potential for developing liposomal-based carriers. Despite previous studies on this subject are important milestones, a number of questions remain unanswered. In this context, the feasibility of S-layer proteins as a biomaterial for drug delivery was evaluated in this work. First, S-layer proteins were fully characterized by electron microscopy, 2D-electrophoresis, and anionic exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Afterward, interactions of S-layer proteins with model lipid membranes were evaluated, showing that proteins adsorb to the lipid surface following a non-fickean or anomalous diffusion, when positively charged lipid were employed, suggesting that electrostatic interaction is a key factor in the recrystallization process on these proteins. Finally, the interaction of S-layer coated liposomes with Caco-2 cell line was assessed: First, cytotoxicity of formulations was tested showing no cytotoxic effects in S-layer coated vesicles. Second, by flow cytometry, it was observed an increased ability to transfer cargo molecules into Caco-2 cells from S-layer coated liposomes in comparison to control ones. All data put together, supports the idea that a combination of adhesive properties of S-layer proteins concomitant with higher stability of S-layer coated liposomes represents an exciting starting point in the development of new drug carriers.
by the many websites, books and films dedicated to it.8-10. Psychic vampirism ... 1940's and there is a paucity of research on the condition.4,16. The authors were ..... Thought content was of ..... Psycho-Analysis 1946; 27: 30 – 37. 23. Lemma A ...
Full Text Available In the race to get the attention of the target audience, advertisers often use special attention-getting devices. This in turn exposes them to a higher risk of creating a vampire effect when the core message about the brand or a product is “eaten up” by such devices. The concept of a vampire effect in advertising appears to be under-researched in the current literature. Therefore, this paper provides deeper insights into the vampire effect occurrences in printed advertisements using celebrity endorsement. The paper is based on a qualitative study with an eye-tracking device with 12 participants and on the following experiment with 60 university students. The research found that a significantly higher risk of creating a vampire effect exists when using an unrelated celebrity as an attention-getting device than when using a related celebrity or no celebrity at all. Marketers are advised to use related celebrities if choosing to stick to this attention-getting approach. However, the concept of “relatedness” should be pre-tested prior to launching an advertising campaign.
Full Text Available In contrast to bacteria, all archaea possess cell walls lacking peptidoglycan and a number of different cell envelope components have also been described. A paracrystalline protein surface layer, commonly referred to as S-layer, is present in nearly all archaea described to date. S-layers are composed of only one or two proteins and form different lattice structures. In this review, we summarize current understanding of archaeal S-layer proteins, discussing topics such as structure, lattice type distribution among archaeal phyla and glycosylation. The hexagonal lattice type is dominant within the phylum Euryarchaeota, while in the Crenarchaeota this feature is mainly associated with specific orders. S-layers exclusive to the Crenarchaeota have also been described, which are composed of two proteins. Information regarding S-layers in the remaining archaeal phyla is limited, mainly due to organism description through only culture-independent methods. Despite the numerous applied studies using bacterial S-layers, few reports have employed archaea as a study model. As such, archaeal S-layers represent an area for exploration in both basic and applied research.
Lighezan, Liliana; Georgieva, Ralitsa; Neagu, Adrian
Surface layer (S-layer) proteins display an intrinsic self-assembly property, forming monomolecular crystalline arrays, identified in outermost structures of the cell envelope in many organisms, such as bacteria and archaea. Isolated S-layer proteins also possess the ability to recrystallize into regular lattices, being used in biotechnological applications, such as controlling the architecture of biomimetic surfaces. To this end, the stability of the S-layer proteins under high-temperature conditions is very important. In this study, the S-layer protein has been isolated from Lactobacillus salivarius 16 strain of human origin, and purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, we have investigated the thermal denaturation of the S-layer protein. The far- and near-UV CD spectra have been collected, and the temperature dependence of the CD signal in these spectral domains has been analyzed. The variable temperature results show that the secondary and tertiary structures of the S-layer protein change irreversibly due to the heating of the sample. After the cooling of the heated protein, the secondary and tertiary structures are partially recovered. The denaturation curves show that the protein unfolding depends on the sample concentration and on the heating rate. The secondary and tertiary structures of the protein suffer changes in the same temperature range. We have also detected an intermediate state in the protein denaturation pathway. Our results on the thermal behavior of the S-layer protein may be important for the use of S-layer proteins in biotechnological applications, as well as for a better understanding of the structure and function of S-layer proteins.
Hong, Wei; Zhao, Huabin
The bitter taste serves as an important natural defence against the ingestion of poisonous foods and is thus believed to be indispensable in animals. However, vampire bats are obligate blood feeders that show a reduced behavioural response towards bitter-tasting compounds. To test whether bitter taste receptor genes (T2Rs) have been relaxed from selective constraint in vampire bats, we sampled all three vampire bat species and 11 non-vampire bats, and sequenced nine one-to-one orthologous T2Rs that are assumed to be functionally conserved in all bats. We generated 85 T2R sequences and found that vampire bats have a significantly greater percentage of pseudogenes than other bats. These results strongly suggest a relaxation of selective constraint and a reduction of bitter taste function in vampire bats. We also found that vampire bats retain many intact T2Rs, and that the taste signalling pathway gene Calhm1 remains complete and intact with strong functional constraint. These results suggest the presence of some bitter taste function in vampire bats, although it is not likely to play a major role in food selection. Together, our study suggests that the evolutionary reduction of bitter taste function in animals is more pervasive than previously believed, and highlights the importance of extra-oral functions of taste receptor genes. PMID:24966321
Mark Rein•Hagen’s role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, set in the World of Darkness shared universe, is foundational to the 21st Century vampire. We aim to, through the cultural analysis of how ideas have been transferred from this role-playing game to other media, clearly demonstrate Mark...... Rein•Hagen’s cultural historical significance....
Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.
Full Text Available The worldwide popular series Twilight is the mixed genre phenomenon in literature, media and cinema. After monstrous cinema interpretations of vampires, Edward Cullen becomes a vampire that women fall in love with. Narrative draws on the legend of vampires as well as on the fairy tales archetype of the love between The Lady and the Beast. Sexual connotation in the stories of vampires are not new, but the global identification of the audience with the main characters in the romantic-horror plot in this series needs to be analyzed through the evolution of the vampire genre and psychology related issues. The popularity of this series and blossoming hybrid genre is related to the artificial catharsis and fulfillment of the market demand. Contemporary audience demands “to be special” and these profitable narratives are the fulfilled promise to the audience.
Low, Dolyce H W; Sunagar, Kartik; Undheim, Eivind A B; Ali, Syed A; Alagon, Alejandro C; Ruder, Tim; Jackson, Timothy N W; Pineda Gonzalez, Sandy; King, Glenn F; Jones, Alun; Antunes, Agostinho; Fry, Bryan G
While vampire bat oral secretions have been the subject of intense research, efforts have concentrated only on two components: DSPA (Desmodus rotundus salivary plasminogen activator) and Draculin. The molecular evolutionary history of DSPA has been elucidated, while conversely draculin has long been known from only a very small fragment and thus even the basic protein class was not even established. Despite the fact that vampire bat venom has a multitude of effects unaccounted by the documented bioactivities of DSPA and draculin, efforts have not been made to establish what other bioactive proteins are secreted by their submaxillary gland. In addition, it has remained unclear whether the anatomically distinct anterior and posterior lobes of the submaxillary gland are evolving on separate gene expression trajectories or if they remain under the shared genetic control. Using a combined proteomic and transcriptomic approach, we show that identical proteins are simultaneously expressed in both lobes. In addition to recovering the known structural classes of DSPA, we recovered a novel DSPA isoform as well as obtained a very large sequence stretch of draculin and thus established that it is a mutated version of the lactotransferrin scaffold. This study reveals a much more complex secretion profile than previously recognised. In addition to obtaining novel versions of scaffolds convergently recruited into other venoms (allergen-like, CRiSP, kallikrein, Kunitz, lysozyme), we also documented novel expression of small peptides related to calcitonin, PACAP, and statherin. Other overexpressed protein types included BPI-fold, lacritin, and secretoglobin. Further, we investigate the molecular evolution of various vampire bat venom-components and highlight the dominant role of positive selection in the evolution of these proteins. Conspicuously many of the proteins identified in the proteome were found to be homologous to proteins with known activities affecting vasodilation and
Full Text Available The amazing repertoire of glycoconjugates present on bacterial cell surfaces includes lipopolysaccharides, capsular polysaccharides, lipooligosaccharides, exopolysaccharides, and glycoproteins. While the former are constituents of Gram-negative cells, we review here the cell surface S-layer glycoproteins of Gram-positive bacteria. S-layer glycoproteins have the unique feature of self-assembling into 2D lattices providing a display matrix for glycans with periodicity at the nanometer scale. Typically, bacterial S-layer glycans are O-glycosidically linked to serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues, and they rely on a much wider variety of constituents, glycosidic linkage types, and structures than their eukaryotic counterparts. As the S-layer glycome of several bacteria is unravelling, a picture of how S-layer glycoproteins are biosynthesized is evolving. X-ray crystallography experiments allowed first insights into the catalysis mechanism of selected enzymes. In the future, it will be exciting to fully exploit the S-layer glycome for glycoengineering purposes and to link it to the bacterial interactome.
Weygand, M.; Wetzer, B.; Pum, D.
structure before and after protein recrystallization shows minimal reorganization of the lipid chains. By contrast, the lipid headgroups show major rearrangements. For the B. sphaericus CCM2177 protein underneath DPPE monolayers, x-ray reflectivity data suggest that amino acid side chains intercalate......The coupling of bacterial surface (S)-layer proteins to lipid membranes is studied in molecular detail for proteins from Bacillus sphaericus CCM2177 and B. coagulans E38-66 recrystallized at dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE) monolayers on aqueous buffer. A comparison of the monolayer...... the lipid headgroups at least to the phosphate moieties, and probably further beyond. The number of electrons in the headgroup region increases by more than four per lipid. Analysis of the changes of the deduced electron density profiles in terms of a molecular interpretation shows...
Sumarti, Novriana; Nurrizky, Insan; Nuraini, Nuning
In every country there are many fictional creatures depicting evil. In the western world, fictional creatures who often appear in horror stories are vampires and werewolves. Many released movies expose the conflict between humans with one or both creatures. In this paper, the interaction among humans, vampires and werewolves is modeled using a system of differential equations. We consider the stability of equilibrium points of the system that represent four situations; only humans remain or a disease-free condition, either vampires or werewolves are going to extinction, and no population goes extinct. The derived model is implemented for depicting some scenarios in the movie series of Underworld. The model can describe the fluctuation of vampires and werewolves population from the beginning to their extinction at 1500 years since the story started.
Bohmann, Kristine; Gopalakrishnan, Shyam; Nielsen, Martin; Nielsen, Luisa Dos Santos Bay; Jones, Gareth; Streicker, Daniel G; Gilbert, M Thomas P
Metabarcoding diet analysis has become a valuable tool in animal ecology; however, co-amplified predator sequences are not generally used for anything other than to validate predator identity. Exemplified by the common vampire bat, we demonstrate the use of metabarcoding to infer predator population structure alongside diet assessments. Growing populations of common vampire bats impact human, livestock and wildlife health in Latin America through transmission of pathogens, such as lethal rabies viruses. Techniques to determine large-scale variation in vampire bat diet and bat population structure would empower locality- and species-specific projections of disease transmission risks. However, previously used methods are not cost-effective and efficient for large-scale applications. Using bloodmeal and faecal samples from common vampire bats from coastal, Andean and Amazonian regions of Peru, we showcase metabarcoding as a scalable tool to assess vampire bat population structure and feeding preferences. Dietary metabarcoding was highly effective, detecting vertebrate prey in 93.2% of the samples. Bats predominantly preyed on domestic animals, but fed on tapirs at one Amazonian site. In addition, we identified arthropods in 9.3% of samples, likely reflecting consumption of ectoparasites. Using the same data, we document mitochondrial geographic population structure in the common vampire bat in Peru. Such simultaneous inference of vampire bat diet and population structure can enable new insights into the interplay between vampire bat ecology and disease transmission risks. Importantly, the methodology can be incorporated into metabarcoding diet studies of other animals to couple information on diet and population structure. © 2018 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Volokhov, D V; Becker, D J; Bergner, L M; Camus, M S; Orton, R J; Chizhikov, V E; Altizer, S M; Streicker, D G
Bats (Order: Chiroptera) have been widely studied as reservoir hosts for viruses of concern for human and animal health. However, whether bats are equally competent hosts of non-viral pathogens such as bacteria remains an important open question. Here, we surveyed blood and saliva samples of vampire bats from Peru and Belize for hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (hemoplasmas), bacteria that can cause inapparent infection or anemia in hosts. 16S rRNA gene amplification of blood showed 67% (150/223) of common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) were infected by hemoplasmas. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons revealed three novel genotypes that were phylogenetically related but not identical to hemoplasmas described from other (non-vampire) bat species, rodents, humans, and non-human primates. Hemoplasma prevalence in vampire bats was highest in non-reproductive and young individuals, did not differ by country, and was relatively stable over time (i.e., endemic). Metagenomics from pooled D. rotundus saliva from Peru detected non-hemotropic Mycoplasma species and hemoplasma genotypes phylogenetically similar to those identified in blood, providing indirect evidence for potential direct transmission of hemoplasmas through biting or social contacts. This study demonstrates vampire bats host several novel hemoplasmas and sheds light on risk factors for infection and basic transmission routes. Given the high frequency of direct contacts that arise when vampire bats feed on humans, domestic animals, and wildlife, the potential of these bacteria to be transmitted between species should be investigated in future work.
Drobot, Bjoern; Raff, Johannes [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biogeochemistry; Fahmy, Karim [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Div. Biophysics
Many bacteria are covered by a surface layer (S-layer), i.e., a para-crystalline two-dimensional array of proteins which control cell shape, act as molecular sieves and have potential applications as radionuclide-binding material for bioremediation of polluted areas. Knowledge and control of the metal-dependent stability of the purified proteins is required for their technical application. Here, we have explored by differential scanning calorimetry the thermal stability of the S-layer protein slp-B53 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, a Gram-positive bacterium isolated from a uranium mining waste pile .
Hausmann, Jennifer C; Manasse, Jorden; Churgin, Sarah; Steinberg, Howard; Clyde, Victoria L; Wallace, Roberta
A 15-yr-old sexually intact female vampire bat ( Desmodus rotundus ) was diagnosed with myositis ossificans traumatica of the abdominal wall. The bat presented with a large ulcerated firm mass along the abdomen. Radiographs and cytology were performed, followed by surgical exploration. The mass was determined to be nonresectable and the bat was euthanized. Histopathology showed severe necrotizing, degenerative, and pyogranulomatous myositis with osseous and cartilaginous metaplasia, fibrosis, and ulceration, which were consistent with myositis ossificans traumatica. Myositis ossificans traumatica is commonly associated with previous trauma to skeletal muscle. Two years prior, this bat had an emergency Caesarian section at this site, which was postulated to elicit a marked tissue response leading to this condition. Myositis ossificans traumatica is infrequently reported in humans, dogs, cats, pigs, and horses. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of this condition in a bat.
Julio A Benavides
Full Text Available Knowledge of infectious disease burden is necessary to appropriately allocate resources for prevention and control. In Latin America, rabies is among the most important zoonoses for human health and agriculture, but the burden of disease attributed to its main reservoir, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus, remains uncertain.We used questionnaires to quantify under-reporting of livestock deaths across 40 agricultural communities with differing access to health resources and epidemiological histories of vampire bat rabies (VBR in the regions of Apurimac, Ayacucho and Cusco in southern Peru. Farmers who believed VBR was absent from their communities were one third as likely to report livestock deaths from disease as those who believed VBR was present, and under-reporting increased with distance from reporting offices. Using generalized mixed-effect models that captured spatial autocorrelation in reporting, we project 4.6 (95% CI: 4.4-8.2 rabies cases per reported case and identify geographic areas with potentially greater VBR burden than indicated by official reports. Spatially-corrected models estimate 505-724 cattle deaths from VBR in our study area during 2014 (421-444 deaths/100,000 cattle, costing US$121,797-171,992. Cost benefit analysis favoured vaccinating all cattle over the current practice of partial vaccination or halting vaccination all together.Our study represents the first estimate of the burden of VBR in Latin America to incorporate data on reporting rates. We confirm the long-suspected cost of VBR to small-scale farmers and show that vaccinating livestock is a cost-effective solution to mitigate the burden of VBR. More generally, results highlight that ignoring geographic variation in access to health resources can bias estimates of disease burden and risk.
... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 9 RIN 2900-AN40 Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance and Veterans' Group Life Insurance--Slayer's Rule Exclusion AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is amending its regulations...
Roč. 55, č. 1 (2007), s. 28-39 ISSN 0049-5123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : Gothic bronze sculpture * St George the dragon -slayer * Martin and George of Cluj * Prague Castle Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.umeni-art.cz/cz/soubory/benesovska.pdf
Gerbino, E.; Mobili, P.; Tymczyszyn, E.; Fausto, R.; Gómez-Zavaglia, A.
FTIR spectroscopy was used to structurally characterize the interaction of S-layer proteins extracted from two strains of Lactobacillus kefir (the aggregating CIDCA 8348 and the non-aggregating JCM 5818) with metal ions (Cd +2, Zn +2, Pb +2 and Ni +2). The infrared spectra indicate that the metal/protein interaction occurs mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of Asp and Glut residues, with some contribution of the NH groups belonging to the peptide backbone. The frequency separation between the νCOO - anti-symmetric and symmetric stretching vibrations in the spectra of the S-layers in presence of the metal ions was found to be ca. 190 cm -1 for S-layer CIDCA 8348 and ca. 170 cm -1 for JCM 5818, denoting an unidentate coordination in both cases. Changes in the secondary structures of the S-layers induced by the interaction with the metal ions were also noticed: a general trend to increase the amount of β-sheet structures and to reduce the amount of α-helices was observed. These changes allow the proteins to adjust their structure to the presence of the metal ions at minimum energy expense, and accordingly, these adjustments were found to be more important for the bigger ions.
Boot, H.J.; Pouwels, P.H.
The function of the S-layer, a regularly arranged structure on the outside of numerous bacteria, appears to be different for bacteria living in different environments. Almost no similarity exists between the primary sequences of S-proteins, although their amino acid composition is comparable.
Panda-hugger and dragon-slayer are phrases used to describe two different kinds of China-watchers, and increasingly, two different types of people in the general public. A panda-hugger is someone who says that almost everything going on in China is good, that China's progress is a great thing for the world, and that any problems are peripheral. A…
Gabriel, Shira; Young, Ariana F
We propose the narrative collective-assimilation hypothesis--that experiencing a narrative leads one to psychologically become a part of the collective described within the narrative. In a test of this hypothesis, participants read passages from either a book about wizards (from the Harry Potter series) or a book about vampires (from the Twilight series). Both implicit and explicit measures revealed that participants who read about wizards psychologically became wizards, whereas those who read about vampires psychologically became vampires. The results also suggested that narrative collective assimilation is psychologically meaningful and relates to the basic human need for connection. Specifically, the tendency to fulfill belongingness needs through group affiliation moderated the extent to which narrative collective assimilation occurred, and narrative collective assimilation led to increases in life satisfaction and positive mood, two primary outcomes of belonging. The implications for the importance of narratives, the need to belong to groups, and social surrogacy are discussed.
Full Text Available The recombinant bacterial surface layer (S-layer protein rSbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 is an ideal model system to study non-classical nucleation and growth of protein crystals at surfaces since the recrystallization process may be separated into two distinct steps: (i adsorption of S-layer protein monomers on silicon surfaces is completed within 5 min and the amount of bound S-layer protein sufficient for the subsequent formation of a closed crystalline monolayer; (ii the recrystallization process is triggered—after washing away the unbound S-layer protein—by the addition of a CaCl2 containing buffer solution, and completed after approximately 2 h. The entire self-assembly process including the formation of amorphous clusters, the subsequent transformation into crystalline monomolecular arrays, and finally crystal growth into extended lattices was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Moreover, contact angle measurements showed that the surface properties of S-layers change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as the crystallization proceeds. This two-step approach is new in basic and application driven S-layer research and, most likely, will have advantages for functionalizing surfaces (e.g., by spray-coating with tailor-made biological sensing layers.
Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats. Our analyses showed a particular common vampire bat genomic landscape regarding...
A huge step in the development of life was most certainly the formation of lipid membranes and the resulting possibility for generating confined volumes, structurally discrete from the environment. Yet, communication had to be maintained with the outside world, so these membrane borders were populated with functional units, like membrane receptors and transporters, enabling the exchange of material, energy and information. Therefore, from a scientific point of view, the requirement for analysis platforms for membrane proteins incorporated into model membrane scaffolds emerged. The membrane systems hosting arbitrary membrane proteins are desired to unite the features of stability and fluidity and to provide a quasi natural environment for the membrane proteins in order to maintain their structure and function. In the current state of the art there are hardly any relevant fluid membrane models, which is why in this project a prokaryotic protein-lipid architecture was mimicked as a promising supportive system for biological membranes. A large number of bacteria and archaea envelope their outer cell membrane with a proteinaceous lattice, the so-called surface- or S-layer. The present work deals with S-layer protein lattices as a support for anchored lipid bilayers. S-layer proteins show the intrinsic ability to self-assemble into periodically structured, two-dimensional patterns with a porous character. Genetic or chemical modification of the proteinaceous crystal layers can provide regularly spread binding moieties for functionalised lipids as components of a lipid membrane. In this project, a wildtype S-layer (SbpA from L. sphaericus exhibiting p4 lattice symmetry) was chemically activated to provide anchors for amino-functionalised lipids; and in a genetic approach a recombinant, HIS-tagged derivative was used for attracting Ni-functionalised lipids. The latter method seemed a more elegant way of lipid binding, since the anchoring regions were more regularly spread
Carter, Gerald G; Forss, Sofia; Page, Rachel A; Ratcliffe, John M
The effects of age on neophobia and exploration are best described in birds and primates, and broader comparisons require reports from other taxa. Here we present data showing age-dependent exploration in a long-lived social species, the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). A previous study found that vampire bats regurgitated food to partners trapped in a cage. Interestingly, while only a few adult bats visited the trapped bat, in every trial all or most of the eight young males in the colony would visit the trapped bat without feeding it. To test whether this behavioral difference resulted from age class differences in exploration, we compared responses of the bats to a trapped conspecific versus an inanimate novel object. Some adults and young showed interest in trapped conspecifics, but only the young males explored the novel objects. Additional novel object tests in a second captive colony showed that higher rates of novel object exploration were shown by young of both sexes. Our results corroborate past findings from other mammals and birds that age predicts exploration. If age-dependent exploration is indeed adaptive, then the role of age as a predictor of exploration tendency should depend on species-specific life history traits. Finally, because younger vampire bats also appear to have higher exposure to pathogens such as rabies virus, there may be implications for pathogen transmission if younger and more exploratory vampire bats are more likely to feed on novel hosts.
Williams, D J
Historically, reported cases of self-identified vampirism typically have been associated with psychopathology and sometimes a propensity for violence. However, scholars recently have noted a wide range of diverse practices and meanings that all fall under the general description of self-identified vampirism. This brief report focuses on a homicide case (male and female partnered offenders), wherein a single victim was murdered and dismembered. Due to specific case evidence, there was controversy regarding whether or not the homicide was motivated by ritualistic self-identified vampirism. Court documents were reviewed and assessed, and findings suggest that the evidence used to support assertions that homicidal motivations occurred due to ritualistic vampirism was misinterpreted due to the omission of a growing multidisciplinary literature on self-identified vampirism. It is important for forensic experts to be aware of emerging research on alternative identities, including vampirism, that challenge traditional theories and assumptions. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Prado Acosta, Mariano; Ruzal, Sandra M; Cordo, Sandra M
Many species of Lactobacillus sp. possess Surface(s) layer proteins in their envelope. Among other important characteristics S-layer from Lactobacillus acidophilus binds to the cellular receptor DC-SIGN (Dendritic Cell-Specific Intercellular adhesion molecule-3-Grabbing Non-integrin; CD209), which is involved in adhesion and infection of several families of bacteria. In this report we investigate the activity of new S-layer proteins from the Lactobacillus family (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus kefiri) over the infection of representative microorganisms important to human health. After the treatment of DC-SIGN expressing cells with these proteins, we were able to diminish bacterial infection by up to 79% in both gram negative and mycobacterial models. We discovered that pre-treatment of the bacteria with S-layers from Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus brevis reduced bacteria viability but also prevent infection by the pathogenic bacteria. We also proved the importance of the glycosylation of the S-layer from Lactobacillus kefiri in the binding to the receptor and thus inhibition of infection. This novel characteristic of the S-layers proteins may contribute to the already reported pathogen exclusion activity for these Lactobacillus probiotic strains; and might be also considered as a novel enzymatic antimicrobial agents to inhibit bacterial infection and entry to host cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Juan Antonio RODRÍGUEZ SÁNCHEZ
Full Text Available The use of several substances, commonly known as drugs, increased considerably from the fiftiesonwards. Use, habit and dependence were linked as cause and effect to economic, health-related andpolitical implications, which contributed to the emergence of the “drug problem” and addiction. Themedia played an important part in the origin, in the decade of the seventies, of the stereotype of the drugaddict as an individual who injected heroine. This stereotype was also assumed by cinema, especially byhorror films in their postmodern tendencies in the eighties. Thus, the traditional vampire becomes acreature who is addicted to blood and whose dependence, and mainly withdrawal symptoms, are recreatedwith the same iconography and interpretations with which the most traditionalist society perceiveddrug addicts. The development of the vampire metaphor not only reflects social fears of the threateningtemptation of addiction and the fear of transgressors who use forbidden substances, but it influences theviewers in a thought-provoking way that reinforces social stereotypes.
Full Text Available Probiotics are essential for the prevention of virus invasion and the maintenance of the immune balance. However, the mechanism of competition between probiotics and virus are unknown. The objectives of this study were to isolate the surface layer (S-layer protein from L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 as a new antiviral material, to evaluate the stimulatory effects of the S-layer protein on mouse dendritic cells (DCs and to verify its ability to inhibit the invasion of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV in DCs. We found that the S-layer protein induced DCs activation and up-regulated the IL-10 secretion. The invasion and replication of the H9N2 virus in mouse DCs was successfully demonstrated. However, the invasion of H9N2 virus into DCs could be inhibited by treatment with the S-layer protein prior to infection, which was verified by the reduced hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA mRNA expression, and nucleoprotein (NP protein expression in the DCs. Furthermore, treatment with the S-layer protein increases the Mx1, Isg15, and Ddx58 mRNA expressions, and remits the inflammatory process to inhibit H9N2 AIV infection. In conclusion, the S-layer protein stimulates the activation of mouse DCs, inhibits H9N2 virus invasion of DCs, and stimulates the IFN-I signalling pathway. Thus, the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is a promising biological antiviral material for AIV prevention.
Sotero-Caio, C G; Pieczarka, J C; Nagamachi, C Y; Gomes, A J B; Lira, T C; O'Brien, P C M; Ferguson-Smith, M A; Souza, M J; Santos, N
Substantial effort has been made to elucidate karyotypic evolution of phyllostomid bats, mostly through comparisons of G-banding patterns. However, due to the limited number of G-bands in respective karyotypes and to the similarity of non-homologous bands, an accurate evolutionary history of chromosome segments remains questionable. This is the case for vampire bats (Desmodontinae). Despite several proposed homologies, banding data have not yet provided a detailed understanding of the chromosomal changes within vampire genera. We examined karyotype differentiation of the 3 species within this subfamily using whole chromosomal probes from Phyllostomus hastatus (Phyllostominae) and Carollia brevicauda (Carolliinae). Painting probes of P. hastatus respectively detected 22, 21 and 23 conserved segments in Diphylla ecaudata, Diaemus youngi, and Desmodus rotundus karyotypes, whereas 27, 27 and 28 were respectively detectedwith C. brevicauda paints. Based on the evolutionary relationships proposed by morphological and molecular data, we present probable chromosomal synapomorphies for vampire bats and propose chromosomes that were present in the common ancestor of the 5 genera analyzed. Karyotype comparisons allowed us to relate a number of conserved chromosomal segments among the 5 species, providing a broader database for understanding karyotype evolution in the family. 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Romero-Nava, Claudia; León-Paniagua, Livia; Ortega, Jorge
A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmous rotundus) in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting) and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North) to Quintana Roo (Southeast). Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise (ST) and R(ST) detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site.
Full Text Available A limited number of studies have focused on the population genetic structure of vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus in America. This medium-sized bat is distributed in tropical areas of the continent with high prevalence in forested livestock areas. The aim of this work was to characterize the vampire population structure and their genetic differentiation. For this, we followed standard methods by which live vampires (caught by mist-netting and preserved material from scientific collections, were obtained for a total of 15 different locations, ranging from Chihuahua (North to Quintana Roo (Southeast. Tissue samples were obtained from both live and collected animals, and the genetic differentiation, within and among localities, was assessed by the use of seven microsatellite loci. Our results showed that all loci were polymorphic and no private alleles were detected. High levels of heterozygosis were detected when the proportion of alleles in each locus were compared. Pairwise F ST and R ST detected significant genetic differentiation among individuals from different localities. Our population structure results indicate the presence of eleven clusters, with a high percentage of assigned individuals to some specific collecting site. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (2: 659-669. Epub 2014 June 01.
Obregón-Morales, Cirani; Aguilar-Setién, Álvaro; Perea Martínez, Leonardo; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Flor Olivia; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia
Experimental infection of Artibeus intermedius, the great fruit-eating bat, was performed with vampire bat rabies isolates. Bats (n=35) were captured in the wild and quarantined prior to experimental infection. No rabies antibodies were detected by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) prior to infection. Three doses of rabies virus (RV) and three different routes of infection were used. One out of 35 bats died without showing any clinical signs at day 14 and was positive for rabies. None of the 34 other bats showed clinical signs for rabies, but high antibody titers were detected post-inoculation, suggesting either innate immune response to the vampire bat rabies virus or possible pre-exposure to RV and inoculation leading to a booster effect. Rabies virus was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR (hnRT-PCR) in the brain (n=3), stomach (n=1) of bats that were negative by immunofluorescence and that survived rabies infection. The bat that died on day 14 was positive by hnRT-PCR on the brain, heart and liver. These results suggest that either previous non-lethal exposure to RV or natural low susceptibility to vampire bat viruses somehow protected Artibeus intermedius from clinical rabies infection leading to a marginal lethality effect on this bats species population in the wild. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danielle Barbosa Morais
Full Text Available Among all bat species, Desmodus rotundus stands out as one of the most intriguing due to its exclusively haematophagous feeding habits. However, little is known about their spermatogenic cycle. This study aimed at describing the spermatogenic process of common vampire bats through testicular histomorphometric characterization of adult specimens, spermatogenic production indexes, description of stages of the seminiferous epithelium cycle and estimative of the spermatogenic process duration. Morphometrical and immunohistochemical analyzes for bromodeoxiuridine were conducted under light microscopy and ultrastructural analyzes were performed under transmission electron microscopy. Vampire bats showed higher investment in gonadal tissue (gonadosomatic index of 0.54% and in seminiferous tubules (tubulesomatic index of 0.49% when compared to larger mammals. They also showed a high tubular length per gram of testis (34.70 m. Approximately half of the intertubular compartment was found to be comprised by Leydig cells (51.20%, and an average of 23.77x106 of these cells was found per gram of testis. The germline cells showed 16.93% of mitotic index and 2.51% of meiotic index. The overall yield of spermatogenesis was 60% and the testicular spermatic reserve was 71.44x107 spermatozoa per gram of testis. With a total spermatogenesis duration estimated at 37.02 days, vampire bats showed a daily sperm production of 86.80x106 gametes per gram of testis. These findings demonstrate a high sperm production, which is commonly observed in species with promiscuous mating system.
Full Text Available The common idea of typical cell wall architecture in archaea consists of a pseudo-crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer, situated upon the cytoplasmic membrane. This is true for the majority of described archaea, hitherto. Within the crenarchaea, the S-layer often represents the only cell wall component, but there are various exceptions from this wall architecture. Beside (glycosylated S-layers in (hyperthermophilic cren- and euryarchaea as well as halophilic archaea, one can find a great variety of other cell wall structures like proteoglycan-like S-layers (Halobacteria, glutaminylglycan (Natronococci, methanochondroitin (Methanosarcina or double layered cell walls with pseudomurein (Methanothermus and Methanopyrus. The presence of an outermost cellular membrane in the crenarchaeal species Ignicoccus hospitalis already gave indications for an outer membrane similar to Gram-negative bacteria. Although there is just limited data concerning their biochemistry and ultrastructure, recent studies on the euryarchaeal methanogen Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis, cells of the ARMAN group, and the SM1 euryarchaeon delivered further examples for this exceptional cell envelope type consisting of two membranes.
Lighezan, Liliana; Georgieva, Ralitsa; Neagu, Adrian
Surface layer (S-layer) proteins have been identified in the cell envelope of many organisms, such as bacteria and archaea. They self-assemble, forming monomolecular crystalline arrays. Isolated S-layer proteins are able to recrystallize into regular lattices, which proved useful in biotechnology. Here we investigate the structure and thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein isolated from Lactobacillus salivarius 16 strain of human origin. Using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the software CDSSTR from DICHROWEB, CONTINLL from CDPro, as well as CDNN, we assess the fractions of the protein's secondary structural elements at temperatures ranging between 10 and 90 °C, and predict the tertiary class of the protein. To study the thermal unfolding of the protein, we analyze the temperature dependence of the CD signal in the far- and near-UV domains. Fitting the experimental data by two- and three-state models of thermal unfolding, we infer the midpoint temperatures, the temperature dependence of the changes in Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the unfolding transitions in standard conditions, and the temperature dependence of the equilibrium constant. We also estimate the changes in heat capacity at constant pressure in standard conditions. The results indicate that the thermal unfolding of the S-layer protein from L. salivarius is highly cooperative, since changes in the secondary and tertiary structures occur simultaneously. The thermodynamic analysis predicts a "cold" transition, at about -3 °C, of both the secondary and tertiary structures. Our findings may be important for the use of S-layer proteins in biotechnology and in biomedical applications.
Oviedo, Mirna C; Ramallo, Geraldine; Claps, Lucía E; Miotti, M Daniela
A new species of Biacantha Wolfgang, 1954 (Nematoda: Molineidae), is described from the common vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus Geoffroy and St. Hilaire, 1810, from northwest Argentina. Biacantha normaliae n. sp. Oviedo, Ramallo, and Claps, is characterized by the disposition and number of ridges of the synlophe, the excretory pore located on a knob, 2 lateral processes on the tail of females, the male caudal bursa morphology, and lack of gubernaculum. This is the first species of nematode described in a vampire bat from Argentina.
Babolmorad, Ghazal; Emtiazi, Giti; Emamzadeh, Rahman
S-layer is a self-assemble regularly crystalline surface that covers major cell wall component of many bacteria and archaea and exhibits a high metal-binding capacity. We have studied the effect of the calcium ions and type of solid support (glass or mica) on the structure of the S-layers from Bacillus coagulans HN-68 and Bacillus thuringiensis MH14 upon simple methods based on light microscopy and AFM. Furthermore, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study is indicated that the calcium-S-layer interaction occurred mainly through the carboxylate groups of the side chains of aspartic acid (Asp) and glutamic acid (Glu) and nitrogen atoms of Lys, Asn, and histidine (His) amino acids and N-H groups of the peptide backbone. Studied FTIR revealed that inner faces of S-layer are mainly negative, and outer faces of S-layer are mainly positive. Probably, calcium ions with positive charges bound to the carboxyl groups of Glu and Asp. Accordingly, calcium ions are anchored in the space between the inner faces of S-layer with negative charge and the surface of mica with negative charge. This leads to regular arrangement of the S-layer subunits.
Thorgersen, Michael P. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Lancaster, W. Andrew [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Rajeev, Lara [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Ge, Xiaoxuan [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Vaccaro, Brian J. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Poole, Farris L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Arkin, Adam P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Adams, Michael W. W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Cell suspensions of Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1 were previously shown, using spectroscopic analysis, to sequester uranium as U(IV) complexed with carboxyl and phosphoryl group ligands on proteins. The goal of our present study was to characterize the proteins involved in uranium binding. Virtually all of the uranium in UFO1 cells was associated with a heterodimeric protein, which was termed the uranium-binding complex (UBC). The UBC was composed of two S-layer domain proteins encoded by UFO1_4202 and UFO1_4203. Samples of UBC purified from the membrane fraction contained 3.3 U atoms/heterodimer, but significant amounts of phosphate were not detected. The UBC had an estimated molecular mass by gel filtration chromatography of 15 MDa, and it was proposed to contain 150 heterodimers (UFO1_4203 and UFO1_4202) and about 500 uranium atoms. The UBC was also the dominant extracellular protein, but when purified from the growth medium, it contained only 0.3 U atoms/heterodimer. The two genes encoding the UBC were among the most highly expressed genes within the UFO1 genome, and their expressions were unchanged by the presence or absence of uranium. Therefore, the UBC appears to be constitutively expressed and is the first line of defense against uranium, including by secretion into the extracellular medium. Although S-layer proteins were previously shown to bind U(VI), here we showed that U(IV) binds to S-layer proteins, we identified the proteins involved, and we quantitated the amount of uranium bound. Widespread uranium contamination from industrial sources poses hazards to human health and to the environment. Here in this paper, we identified a highly abundant uranium-binding complex (UBC) from Pelosinus sp. strain UFO1. The complex makes up the primary protein component of the S-layer of strain UFO1 and binds 3.3 atoms of U(IV) per heterodimer. Finally, while other bacteria have been shown to bind U(VI) on their S-layer, we demonstrate here an example of U(IV) bound by
Zmijarevic, I.; Petrovic, I.
VAMPIR is a computer code which simulates the burnup within a reactor coe. It computes the neutron flux, power distribution and burnup taking into account spatial variations of temperature and xenon poisoning. Its overall reactor calculation uses diffusion theory with finite differences approximation in X-Y or R-Z geometry. Two-group macroscopic cross section data are prepared by the lattice cell code WIMS-D4 and stored in the library form of multi entry tabulation against the various parameters that significantly affect the physical conditions in the reactor core. herein, the main features of the program are presented. (author)
Zepeda Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Xiong, Zijun; Escalera-Zamudio, Marina
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary...... integrated viral elements, a dietary and phylogenetic influence on gut microbiome taxonomic and functional profiles, and that both genetic elements harbour key traits related to the nutritional (for example, vitamin and lipid shortage) and non-nutritional (for example, nitrogen waste and osmotic homeostasis...
Esta dissertação tem por objetivo analisar o romance Interview with the Vampire de Anne Rice que é o primeiro livro dos dez que constituem suas Crônicas Vampirescas . Pretende-se com esta pesquisa demonstrar como os vampiros apresentados por Rice são humanizados. Inicia-se com um estudo histórico sobre os vampiros, tanto lendários quanto literários, depois há um estudo sobre a vida e obra da escritora norte-americana bem como um levantamento das diferenças entre os vampiros de Rice e outros ...
Lakatos, Mathias; Matys, Sabine; Raff, Johannes; Pompe, Wolfgang
Herein, we present simple and rapid colorimetric and UV/VIS spectroscopic methods for detecting anionic arsenic (V) complexes in aqueous media. The methods exploit the aggregation of S-layer-functionalized spherical gold nanoparticles of sizes between 20 and 50 nm in the presence of arsenic species. The gold nanoparticles were functionalized with oligomers of the S-layer protein of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12. The aggregation of the nanoparticles results in a color change from burgundy-red for widely dispersed nanoparticles to blue for aggregated nanoparticles. A detailed signal analysis was achieved by measuring the shift of the particle plasmon resonance signal with UV/VIS spectroscopy. To further improve signal sensitivity, the influence of larger nanoparticles was tested. In the case of 50 nm gold nanoparticles, a concentration of the anionic arsenic (V) complex lower than 24 ppb was detectable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ucisik, Mehmet H; Küpcü, Seta; Breitwieser, Andreas; Gelbmann, Nicola; Schuster, Bernhard; Sleytr, Uwe B
Selective targeting of tumor cells by nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems is highly desirable because it maximizes the drug concentration at the desired target while simultaneously protecting the surrounding healthy tissues. Here, we show a design for smart nanocarriers based on a biomimetic approach that utilizes the building principle of virus envelope structures. Emulsomes and CurcuEmulsomes comprising a tripalmitin solid core surrounded by phospholipid layers are modified by S-layer proteins that self-assemble into a two-dimensional array to form a surface layer. One significant advantage of this nanoformulation is that it increases the solubility of the lipophilic anti-cancer agent curcumin in the CurcuEmulsomes by a factor of 2700. In order to make the emulsomes specific for IgG, the S-layer protein is fused with two protein G domains. This S-layer fusion protein preserves its recrystallization characteristics, forming an ordered surface layer (square lattice with 13 nm unit-by-unit distance). The GG domains are presented in a predicted orientation and exhibit a selective binding affinity for IgG. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Overton, K. Wesley; Park, Dan M.; Yung, Mimi C.; Dohnalkova, Alice; Smit, John; Jiao, Yongqin
Surface layers, or S-layers, are two-dimensional protein arrays that form the outermost layer of many bacteria and archaea. They serve several functions, including physical protection of the cell from environmental threats. The high abundance of S-layer proteins necessitates a highly efficient export mechanism to transport the S-layer protein from the cytoplasm to the cell exterior.
Full Text Available This article is an analysis of Dance of the vampires by Cameroonian playwright, Bole Butake. It looked at how the play projects itself as a narrative of the nation and, conversely, how the nation in the play functions as a narrative text on which ideologies of power are inscribed or expunged. Butake’s vision of the nation encompasses various discourses of power that are explored against the backdrop of the grotesque in systems of domination, as enunciated by Achille Mbembe. This article argues that whilst the play hinges on the ambivalence in power relations, the writer’s vision is un-ambivalent in its utopian conception of political change and its gendered representation of women within nationalist discourses.
Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is ’n ontleding vanDance of the vampires deur die Kameroense dramaturg, Bole Butake. Dit het die maniere ondersoek waarop die toneelstuk homself projekteer as verhaal van ’n nasie en omgekeerd, hoe die nasie in die toneelstuk as ’n narratiewe teks funksioneer waarin magsideologieë ingeskryf of uitgewis word. Butake se visie van die nasie omvat verskeie magsdiskoerse wat ondersoek word teen die agtergrond van die groteske in sisteme van dominasie, soos uiteengesit deur Achille Mbembe. Die artikel voer aan dat, terwyl die stuk van die ambivalensie in magsverhoudings afhang, die skrywer se visie onambivilant is in sy Utopiese konsepsie van politiese verandering en sy geslagtelike uitbeelding van vrouens binne nasionalistiese diskoerse.
In this article, I argue that Richard Matheson's (1954) vampire novella, I Am Legend, encodes the protagonist's, Robert Neville, traumatic recognition of his queer sexuality in its monstrosity (the unspeakability of male penetrability). Neville's identification with and desire for his undead neighbor, Ben Cortman, are symbolically codified through three different registers: intertextual references to vampiric conventions and codes, the semiotics of queer subculture, and a structure of doubling that links Neville to the queer vampire. Although Neville avoids encountering his unspeakable queer desire, which could be represented only at the level of the Lacanian Real, he must still confront Cortman's obsessive exhortations for him to come out. Only when he symbolically codifies his abnormality in its own monstrosity, by viewing himself through mutant vampires' eyes, can Neville reconfigure the ethical relationship between self and other, humans and mutant humans-vampires. However progressive Matheson's novella is in its advocacy of minority sexual rights, it still renders capitalism's problematic relationship with queer subjectivity invisible. Although capitalism overdetermines every aspect of the social field and makes Neville's daily life possible in its surplus enjoyment, the fundamental antagonism (class struggle) in capitalism is obscured by the assertion of identity politics.
, cultural ecology, and authorial identity as my main analytical tools for understanding the appeal, the power, and the significance of Matheson's classic novel, which is basically an extrapolation on peculiar yet common anxieties and a meditation on what happens when basic adaptive needs are frustrated....
Gerbino, Esteban; Carasi, Paula; Araujo-Andrade, Cuauhtémoc; Tymczyszyn, E Elizabeth; Gómez-Zavaglia, Andrea
The role of S-layer proteins (SLP) on the Pb(2+) sequestrant capacity by Lactobacillus kefir CIDCA 8348 and JCM 5818 was investigated. Cultures in the stationary phase were treated with proteinase K. A dot blot assay was carried out to assess the removal of SLP. Strains with and without SLP were exposed to 0-0.5 mM Pb(NO3)2. The maximum binding capacity (q max ) and the affinity coefficient (b) were calculated using the Langmuir equation. The structural effect of Pb(2+) on microorganisms with and without SLP was determined using Raman spectroscopy. The bacterial interaction with Pb(2+) led to a broadening in the phosphate bands (1,300-1,200 cm(-1) region) and strong alterations on amide and carboxylate-related bands (νCOO(-) as and νCOO(-) s). Microorganisms without SLP removed higher percentages of Pb(2+) and had higher q max than those bearing SLP. Isolated SLP had much lower q max and also removed lower percentages of Pb(2+) than the corresponding whole microorganisms. The hydrofobicity of both strains dramatically dropped when removing SLP. When bearing SLP, strains do not expose a large amount of charged groups on their surfaces, thus making less efficient the Pb(2+) removal. On the contrary, the extremely low hydrofobicity of microorganisms without SLP (and consequently, their higher capacity to remove Pb(2+)) can be explained on the basis of a greater exposure of charged chemical groups for the interaction with Pb(2+). The viability of bacteria without SLP was not significantly lower than that of bacteria bearing SLP. However, microorganisms without SLP were more prone to the detrimental effect of Pb(2+), thus suggesting that SLP acts as a protective rather than as a sequestrant layer.
Brant R. Johnson
Full Text Available Health-promoting aspects attributed to probiotic microorganisms, including adhesion to intestinal epithelia and modulation of the host mucosal immune system, are mediated by proteins found on the bacterial cell surface. Notably, certain probiotic and commensal bacteria contain a surface (S- layer as the outermost stratum of the cell wall. S-layers are non-covalently bound semi-porous, crystalline arrays of self-assembling, proteinaceous subunits called S-layer proteins (SLPs. Recent evidence has shown that multiple proteins are non-covalently co-localized within the S-layer, designated S-layer associated proteins (SLAPs. In Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM, SLP and SLAPs have been implicated in both mucosal immunomodulation and adhesion to the host intestinal epithelium. In this study, a S-layer associated serine protease homolog, PrtX (prtX, lba1578, was deleted from the chromosome of L. acidophilus NCFM. Compared to the parent strain, the PrtX-deficient strain (ΔprtX demonstrated increased autoaggregation, an altered cellular morphology, and pleiotropic increases in adhesion to mucin and fibronectin, in vitro. Furthermore, ΔprtX demonstrated increased in vitro immune stimulation of IL-6, IL-12, and IL-10 compared to wild-type, when exposed to mouse dendritic cells. Finally, in vivo colonization of germ-free mice with ΔprtX led to an increase in epithelial barrier integrity. The absence of PrtX within the exoproteome of a ΔprtX strain caused morphological changes, resulting in a pleiotropic increase of the organisms’ immunomodulatory properties and interactions with some intestinal epithelial cell components.
Full Text Available The Press Independency that have been opening and tend to be bold to voice feeling and all condition starts to counter each other in their news, headlines, and illustrations. Including, PDIP ( Partai Demokratik Indoesia Perjuangan shows in its tabloid ‘Demokrat’ that appears the slogan ‘yang penting srudukannya bung’ more over in which the cover illustrates Amien Rais as if a vampire creature ( makluk vampir. This illustration images encourage the PAN’ s (Partai Amanat Nasional anger. This seems to be a part of the graphics design function as a provocation to the consumers. Keyword : graphic design function
Ono, Ekaterina Alexandrovna Durymanova; Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Brandão, Paulo
The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro and in vivo effects of short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against rabies virus phosphoprotein (P) mRNA in a post-infection treatment for rabies as an extension of a previous report (Braz J Microbiol. 2013 Nov 15;44(3):879-82). To this end, rabies virus strain RABV-4005 (related to the Desmodus rotundus vampire bat) were used to inoculate BHK-21 cells and mice, and the transfection with each of the siRNAs was made with Lipofectamine-2000™. In vitro results showed that siRNA 360 was able to inhibit the replication of strain RABV-4005 with a 1log decrease in virus titter and 5.16-fold reduction in P mRNA, 24h post-inoculation when compared to non-treated cells. In vivo, siRNA 360 was able to induce partial protection, but with no significant difference when compared to non-treated mice. These results indicate that, despite the need for improvement for in vivo applications, P mRNA might be a target for an RNAi-based treatment for rabies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Looking at television series True Blood (2008–), The Vampire Diaries (2009–), and The Walking Dead (2010–) the article analyzes positive emotions in horror: the sexual emotions, trust, and hope. First part substitutes the positive-negative dichotomy of emotions with seeing emotions as coming......, positive and negative, from a functional and evolutionary perspective. Comparing horror to play-fighting and fiction to the pretend of play, the article suggests four reasons why horror is attractive: we learn to feel emotions (sensation), to react to emotions (evaluation), control our emotions (action...... tendency in the here-and-now), and to experiment (action tendency and planning for what-comes-next)....
Malamud, Mariano; Carasi, Paula; Bronsoms, Sílvia; Trejo, Sebastián A; Serradell, María de Los Angeles
The S-layer is a proteinaceous envelope constituted by subunits that self-assemble to form a two-dimensional lattice that covers the surface of different species of Bacteria and Archaea, and it could be involved in cell recognition of microbes among other several distinct functions. In this work, both proteomic and genomic approaches were used to gain knowledge about the sequences of the S-layer protein (SLPs) encoding genes expressed by six aggregative and sixteen non-aggregative strains of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus kefiri. Peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) analysis confirmed the identity of SLPs extracted from L. kefiri, and based on the homology with phylogenetically related species, primers located outside and inside the SLP-genes were employed to amplify genomic DNA. The O-glycosylation site SASSAS was found in all L. kefiri SLPs. Ten strains were selected for sequencing of the complete genes. The total length of the mature proteins varies from 492 to 576 amino acids, and all SLPs have a calculated pI between 9.37 and 9.60. The N-terminal region is relatively conserved and shows a high percentage of positively charged amino acids. Major differences among strains are found in the C-terminal region. Different groups could be distinguished regarding the mature SLPs and the similarities observed in the PMF spectra. Interestingly, SLPs of the aggregative strains are 100% homologous, although these strains were isolated from different kefir grains. This knowledge provides relevant data for better understanding of the mechanisms involved in SLPs functionality and could contribute to the development of products of biotechnological interest from potentially probiotic bacteria.
Ma, C.; Mizurini, D.M.; Assumpção, T.C.F.; Li, Y.; Qi, Y.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Ribeiro, J.M.C.; Monteiro, R.Q.; Francischetti, I.M.B.
Roč. 122, č. 25 (2013), s. 4094-4106 ISSN 0340-6245 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Desmolaris * anticolagulant * vampire bat saliva * FXIa Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.760, year: 2013
Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.
Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037
Zinc oxide was coated on Fe2O3 nanoparticles using sol-gel spin-coating. Caulobacter crescentus have a crystalline surface layer (S-layer), which consist of one protein or glycoprotein species. The immobilization of bacterial S-layers obtained from C. crescentus on zincite-coated nanoparticles of iron oxide was investigated. The SDS PAGE results of S-layers isolated from C. crescentus showed the weight of 50 KDa. Nanoparticles of the Fe2O3 and zinc oxide were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. Fe2O3 nanoparticles with an average size of 50 nm were successfully prepared by the proper deposition of zinc oxide onto iron oxide nanoparticles surface annealed at 450 °C. The samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have revealed that the C-terminal region of the S-layer protein from Lactobacillus is responsible for the cell wall anchoring, which provide an approach for targeting heterologous proteins to the cell wall of lactic acid bacteria (LAB. In this study, we developed a new surface display system in lactic acid bacteria with the C-terminal region of S-layer protein SlpB of Lactobacillus crispatus K2-4-3 isolated from chicken intestine. Results Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the C-terminal region (LcsB of Lb. crispatus K2-4-3 SlpB had a high similarity with the cell wall binding domains SA and CbsA of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lb. crispatus. To evaluate the potential application as an anchoring protein, the green fluorescent protein (GFP or beta-galactosidase (Gal was fused to the N-terminus of the LcsB region, and the fused proteins were successfully produced in Escherichia coli, respectively. After mixing them with the non-genetically modified lactic acid bacteria cells, the fused GFP-LcsB and Gal-LcsB were functionally associated with the cell surface of various lactic acid bacteria tested. In addition, the binding capacity could be improved by SDS pretreatment. Moreover, both of the fused proteins could simultaneously bind to the surface of a single cell. Furthermore, when the fused DNA fragment of gfp:lcsB was inserted into the Lactococcus lactis expression vector pSec:Leiss:Nuc, the GFP could not be secreted into the medium under the control of the nisA promoter. Western blot, in-gel fluorescence assay, immunofluorescence microscopy and SDS sensitivity analysis confirmed that the GFP was successfully expressed onto the cell surface of L. lactis with the aid of the LcsB anchor. Conclusion The LcsB region can be used as a functional scaffold to target the heterologous proteins to the cell surfaces of lactic acid bacteria in vitro and in vivo, and has also the potential for biotechnological
Bahar Muratoğlu Pehlivan
Full Text Available This study aims to read Jim Jarmusch’s movie Only Lovers Left Alive from the perspective of downfall of industrial capitalism and ecosocialist approach. The movie mainly takes place in Detroit Michigan, which is a symbol of the collapse of Fordism and industrialization. Ecosocialist critique of industrial capitalism has common notions with Jarmusch’s tale. Thus, theoretical framework of this study has been established on ecosocialist paradigm. In the movie, Jarmusch represents vampires as intellectuals with a wide accumulation of culture and knowledge and places his critique of industrialization from their point of view. Multimodal Discourse Analysis was applied to the movie to find out how the movie did use visual and literal signifiers to establish its narrative.
Mesquita, Leonardo Pereira; Gamon, Thais Helena Martins; Cuevas, Silvia Elena Campusano; Asano, Karen Miyuki; Fahl, Willian de Oliveira; Iamamoto, Keila; Scheffer, Karin Correa; Achkar, Samira Maria; Zanatto, Dennis Albert; Mori, Cláudia Madalena Cabrera; Maiorka, Paulo César; Mori, Enio
Rabies is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is caused by several rabies virus (RABV) variants. These variants can exhibit differences in neurovirulence, and few studies have attempted to evaluate the neuroinvasiveness of variants derived from vampire bats and wild carnivores. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neuropathogenesis of infection with two Brazilian RABV street variants (variant 3 and crab-eating fox) in mice. BALB/c mice were inoculated with RABV through the footpad, with the 50% mouse lethal dose (LD 50 ) determined by intracranial inoculation. The morbidity of rabies in mice infected with variant 3 and the crab-eating fox strain was 100% and 50%, respectively, with an incubation period of 7 and 6 days post-inoculation (dpi), respectively. The clinical disease in mice was similar with both strains, and it was characterized initially by weight loss, ruffled fur, hunched posture, and hind limb paralysis progressing to quadriplegia and recumbency at 9 to 12 dpi. Histological lesions within the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis with neuronal degeneration and necrosis were observed in mice infected with variant 3 and those infected with the crab-eating fox variant. However, lesions and the presence of RABV antigen, were more widespread within the CNS of variant-3-infected mice, whereas in crab-eating fox-variant-infected mice, RABV antigens were more restricted to caudal areas of the CNS, such as the spinal cord and brainstem. In conclusion, the results shown here demonstrate that the RABV vampire bat strain (variant 3) has a higher potential for neuroinvasiveness than the carnivore variant.
Korkmaz, Nuriye; Ostermann, Kai; Rödel, Gerhard
Surface layer proteins have the appealing property to self-assemble in nanosized arrays in solution and on solid substrates. In this work, we characterize the formation of assembly structures of the recombinant surface layer protein SbsC of Geobacillus stearothermophilus ATTC 12980, which was tagged with enhanced green fluorescent protein and expressed in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tubular structures formed by the protein in vivo are retained upon bursting the cells by osmotic shock; however, their average length is decreased. During dialysis, monomers obtained by treatment with chaotropic chemicals recrystallize again to form tube-like structures. This process is strictly dependent on calcium (Ca2 + ) ions, with an optimal concentration of 10 mM. Further increase of the Ca2 + concentration results in multiple non-productive nucleation points. We further show that the lengths of the S-layer assemblies increase with time and can be controlled by pH. After 48 h, the average length at pH 9.0 is 4.13 µm compared to 2.69 µm at pH 5.5. Successful chemical deposition of platinum indicates the potential of recrystallized mSbsC-eGFP structures for nanobiotechnological applications.
Stasiak, Iga M; Smith, Dale A; Ganz, Tomas; Crawshaw, Graham J; Hammermueller, Jutta D; Bienzle, Dorothee; Lillie, Brandon N
Hepcidin is the key regulator of iron homeostasis in the body. Iron storage disease (hemochromatosis) is a frequent cause of liver disease and mortality in captive Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus), but reasons underlying this condition are unknown. Hereditary hemochromatosis in humans is due to deficiency of hepcidin or resistance to the action of hepcidin. Here, we investigated the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism in one species of pteropodid bat that is prone to iron storage disease [Egyptian fruit bat (with and without hemochromatosis)], one species of pteropodid bat where iron storage disease is rare [straw-colored fruit bat (Eidolon helvum)], and one species of bat with a natural diet very high in iron, in which iron storage disease is not reported [common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus)]. Iron challenge via intramuscular injection of iron dextran resulted in significantly increased liver iron content and histologic iron scores in all three species, and increased plasma iron in Egyptian fruit bats and straw-colored fruit bats. Hepcidin mRNA expression increased in response to iron administration in healthy Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, but not in straw-colored fruit bats or Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis. Hepcidin gene expression significantly correlated with liver iron content in Egyptian fruit bats and common vampire bats, and with transferrin saturation and plasma ferritin concentration in Egyptian fruit bats. Induction of hepcidin gene expression in response to iron challenge is absent in straw-colored fruit bats and in Egyptian fruit bats with hemochromatosis and, relative to common vampire bats and healthy humans, is low in Egyptain fruit bats without hemochromatosis. Limited hepcidin response to iron challenge may contribute to the increased susceptibility of Egyptian fruit bats to iron storage disease.
Savijoki, K; Kahala, M; Palva, A
A secretion cassette, based on the expression and secretion signals of a S-layer protein (SlpA) from Lactobacillus brevis, was constructed. E. coli beta-lactamase (Bla) was used as the reporter protein to determine the functionality of the S-layer signals for heterologous expression and secretion in Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus casei using a low-copy-number plasmid derived from pGK12. In all hosts tested, the bla gene was expressed under the slpA signals and all Bla activity was secreted to the culture medium. The Lb. brevis S-layer promoters were very efficiently recognized in L. lactis, Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum, whereas in Lb. gasseri the slpA promoter region appeared to be recognized at a lower level and in Lb. casei the level of transcripts was below the detection limit. The production of Bla was mainly restricted to the exponential phase of growth. The highest yield of Bla was obtained with L. lactis and Lb. brevis. Without pH control, substantial degradation of Bla occurred during prolonged cultivations with all lactic acid bacteria (LAB) tested. When growing L. lactis and Lb. brevis under pH control, the Bla activity could be stabilized also at the stationary phase. L. lactis produced up to 80 mg/l of Bla which to our knowledge represents the highest amount of a heterologous protein secreted by LAB so far. The short production phase implied a very high rate of secretion with a calculated value of 5 x 10(5) Bla molecules/cell per h. Such a high rate was also observed with Lb. plantarum, whereas in Lb. brevis the competition between the wild type slpA gene and the secretion construct probably lowered the rate of Bla production. The results obtained indicate wide applicability of the Lb. brevis slpA signals for efficient protein production and secretion in LAB.
Full Text Available The gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood (AFB, a globally occurring, deathly epizootic of honey bee brood. AFB outbreaks are predominantly caused by two genotypes of P. larvae, ERIC I and ERIC II, with P. larvae ERIC II being the more virulent genotype on larval level. Recently, comparative proteome analyses have revealed that P. larvae ERIC II but not ERIC I might harbour a functional S-layer protein, named SplA. We here determine the genomic sequence of splA in both genotypes and demonstrate by in vitro self-assembly studies of recombinant and purified SplA protein in combination with electron-microscopy that SplA is a true S-layer protein self-assembling into a square 2D lattice. The existence of a functional S-layer protein is novel for this bacterial species. For elucidating the biological function of P. larvae SplA, a genetic system for disruption of gene expression in this important honey bee pathogen was developed. Subsequent analyses of in vivo biological functions of SplA were based on comparing a wild-type strain of P. larvae ERIC II with the newly constructed splA-knockout mutant of this strain. Differences in cell and colony morphology suggest that SplA is a shape-determining factor. Marked differences between P. larvae ERIC II wild-type and mutant cells with regard to (i adhesion to primary pupal midgut cells and (ii larval mortality as measured in exposure bioassays corroborate the assumption that the S-layer of P. larvae ERIC II is an important virulence factor. Since SplA is the first functionally proven virulence factor for this species, our data extend the knowledge of the molecular differences between these two genotypes of P. larvae and contribute to explaining the observed differences in virulence. These results present an immense advancement in our understanding of P. larvae pathogenesis.
Benavides, J A; Shiva, C; Virhuez, M; Tello, C; Appelgren, A; Vendrell, J; Solassol, J; Godreuil, S; Streicker, D G
Antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial production of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) is a global threat to public health. ESBL resistance is most commonly hospital-acquired; however, infections acquired outside of hospital settings have raised concerns over the role of livestock and wildlife in the zoonotic spread of ESBL-producing bacteria. Only limited data are available on the circulation of ESBL-producing bacteria in animals. Here, we report ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in wild common vampire bats Desmodus rotundus and livestock near Lima, Peru. Molecular analyses revealed that most of this resistance resulted from the expression of bla CTX-M-15 genes carried by plasmids, which are disseminating worldwide in hospital settings and have also been observed in healthy children of Peru. Multilocus sequence typing showed a diverse pool of E. coli strains carrying this resistance that were not always host species-specific, suggesting sharing of strains between species or infection from a common source. This study shows widespread ESBL resistance in wild and domestic animals, supporting animal communities as a potential source of resistance. Future work is needed to elucidate the role of bats in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of public health importance and to understand the origin of the observed resistance. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Abundes-Gallegos, Judith; Salas-Rojas, Monica; Galvez-Romero, Guillermo; Perea-Martínez, Leonardo; Obregón-Morales, Cirani Y; Morales-Malacara, Juan B; Chomel, Bruno B; Stuckey, Matthew J; Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde; García-Baltazar, Anahi; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamin; Zuñiga, Gerardo; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro
Blood-feeding arthropods play a major role in the transmission of several flaviviruses, which represent an important problem for human health. Currently, dengue is one of the most important arboviral emerging diseases worldwide. Furthermore, some previous studies have reported the presence of viral nucleic acids and antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) in wild animals. Our knowledge of the role played by wildlife reservoirs in the sylvatic transmission and maintenance of DENV remains limited. Our objective was to screen blood-feeding ectoparasites (bat flies) and their common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) hosts, for flaviviruses in Hidalgo, Mexico. We detected Flavivirus sequences in 38 pools of ectoparasites (Diptera: Streblidae, Strebla wiedemanni and Trichobius parasiticus) and 8 tissue samples of D. rotundus by RT-PCR and semi-nested PCR using FlaviPF1S, FlaviPR2bis, and FlaviPF3S primers specific for NS5, a gene highly conserved among flaviviruses. Phylogenetic inference analysis performed using the maximum likelihood algorithm implemented in PhyML showed that six sequences clustered with DENV (bootstrap value = 53.5%). Although this study supports other reports of DENV detection in bats and arthropods other than Aedes mosquitoes, the role of these ectoparasitic flies and of hematophagous bats in the epidemiology of DENV still warrants further investigation.
The main aim of this bachelor thesis is to point out the most common problems that the translators from English to Czech may encounter, exemplified by real solutions in the proces of translating modern fiction. This work consists of two parts. The theoretical part of is the the actual translation of one chapter of the novel The Vampire Lestat by american author Anne Rice. The theoretical part contains the stylistic analysis of the translated text and it is aimed at the probles I have encounte...
Riskin, Daniel K; Parsons, Stuart; Schutt, William A; Carter, Gerald G; Hermanson, John W
Bats (Chiroptera) are generally awkward crawlers, but the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus) and the New Zealand short-tailed bat (Mystacina tuberculata) have independently evolved the ability to manoeuvre well on the ground. In this study we describe the kinematics of locomotion in both species, and the kinetics of locomotion in M. tuberculata. We sought to determine whether these bats move terrestrially the way other quadrupeds do, or whether they possess altogether different patterns of movement on the ground than are observed in quadrupeds that do not fly. Using high-speed video analyses of bats moving on a treadmill, we observed that both species possess symmetrical lateral-sequence gaits similar to the kinematically defined walks of a broad range of tetrapods. At high speeds, D. rotundus use an asymmetrical bounding gait that appears to converge on the bounding gaits of small terrestrial mammals, but with the roles of the forelimbs and hindlimbs reversed. This gait was not performed by M. tuberculata. Many animals that possess a single kinematic gait shift with increasing speed from a kinetic walk (where kinetic and potential energy of the centre of mass oscillate out of phase from each other) to a kinetic run (where they oscillate in phase). To determine whether the single kinematic gait of M. tuberculata meets the kinetic definition of a walk, a run, or a gait that functions as a walk at low speed and a run at high speed, we used force plates and high-speed video recordings to characterize the energetics of the centre of mass in that species. Although oscillations in kinetic and potential energy were of similar magnitudes, M. tuberculata did not use pendulum-like exchanges of energy between them to the extent that many other quadrupedal animals do, and did not transition from a kinetic walk to kinetic run with increasing speed. The gait of M. tuberculata is kinematically a walk, but kinetically run-like at all speeds.
Janesch, Bettina; Koerdt, Andrea; Messner, Paul; Schäffer, Christina
Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB). Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T) is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH) domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA. This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T).
Full Text Available Swarming and biofilm formation have been studied for a variety of bacteria. While this is well investigated for Gram-negative bacteria, less is known about Gram-positive bacteria, including Paenibacillus alvei, a secondary invader of diseased honeybee colonies infected with Melissococcus pluton, the causative agent of European foulbrood (EFB.Paenibacillus alvei CCM 2051(T is a Gram-positive bacterium which was recently shown to employ S-layer homology (SLH domains as cell wall targeting modules to display proteins on its cell surface. This study deals with the newly identified 1335-amino acid protein SlhA from P. alvei which carries at the C‑terminus three consecutive SLH-motifs containing the predicted binding sequences SRGE, VRQD, and LRGD instead of the common TRAE motif. Based on the proof of cell surface location of SlhA by fluorescence microscopy using a SlhA-GFP chimera, the binding mechanism was investigated in an in vitro assay. To unravel a putative function of the SlhA protein, a knockout mutant was constructed. Experimental data indicated that one SLH domain is sufficient for anchoring of SlhA to the cell surface, and the SLH domains of SlhA recognize both the peptidoglycan and the secondary cell wall polymer in vitro. This is in agreement with previous data from the S-layer protein SpaA, pinpointing a wider utilization of that mechanism for cell surface display of proteins in P. alvei. Compared to the wild-type bacterium ΔslhA revealed changed colony morphology, loss of swarming motility and impaired biofilm formation. The phenotype was similar to that of the flagella knockout Δhag, possibly due to reduced EPS production influencing the functionality of the flagella of ΔslhA.This study demonstrates the involvement of the SLH domain-containing protein SlhA in swarming and biofilm formation of P. alvei CCM 2051(T.
Luiz F. P Vieira
Full Text Available Rabies is a neurological disease, but the rabies virus spread to several organs outside the central nervous system (CNS. The rabies virus antigen or RNA has been identified from the salivary glands, the lungs, the kidneys, the heart and the liver. This work aimed to identify the presence of the rabies virus in non-neuronal organs from naturally-infected vampire bats and to study the rabies virus in the salivary glands of healthy vampire bats. Out of the five bats that were positive for rabies in the CNS, by fluorescent antibody test (FAT, viral isolation in N2A cells and reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, 100% (5/5 were positive for rabies in samples of the tongue and the heart, 80% (4/5 in the kidneys, 40% (2/5 in samples of the salivary glands and the lungs, and 20% (1/5 in the liver by RT-PCR test. All the nine bats that were negative for rabies in the CNS, by FAT, viral isolation and RT-PCR were negative for rabies in the salivary glands by RT-PCR test. Possible consequences for rabies epidemiology and pathogenesis are discussed in this work.
Kern, Valerie J.; Kern, Justin W.; Theriot, Julie A.; Schneewind, Olaf
The Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis contains 24 genes whose products harbor the structurally conserved surface-layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain. Proteins endowed with the SLH domain associate with the secondary cell wall polysaccharide (SCWP) following secretion. Two such proteins, Sap and EA1, have the unique ability to self-assemble into a paracrystalline layer on the surface of bacilli and form S layers. Other SLH domain proteins can also be found within the S layer and have been designated Bacillus S-layer-associated protein (BSLs). While both S-layer proteins and BSLs bind the same SCWP, their deposition on the cell surface is not random. For example, BslO is targeted to septal peptidoglycan zones, where it catalyzes the separation of daughter cells. Here we show that an insertional lesion in the sap structural gene results in elongated chains of bacilli, as observed with a bslO mutant. The chain length of the sap mutant can be reduced by the addition of purified BslO in the culture medium. This complementation in trans can be explained by an increased deposition of BslO onto the surface of sap mutant bacilli that extends beyond chain septa. Using fluorescence microscopy, we observed that the Sap S layer does not overlap the EA1 S layer and slowly yields to the EA1 S layer in a growth-phase-dependent manner. Although present all over bacilli, Sap S-layer patches are not observed at septa. Thus, we propose that the dynamic Sap/EA1 S-layer coverage of the envelope restricts the deposition of BslO to the SCWP at septal rings. PMID:22609927
Identification of a novel gene cluster in the upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA involved in cell wall metabolism of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 and characterization of the recombinantly produced autolysin and pyruvyl transferase.
Pleschberger, Magdalena; Hildner, Florian; Rünzler, Dominik; Gelbmann, Nicola; Mayer, Harald F; Sleytr, Uwe B; Egelseer, Eva M
The S-layer protein SbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 assembles into a square (p4) lattice structure and recognizes a pyruvylated secondary cell wall polymer (SCWP) as the proper anchoring structure to the rigid cell wall layer. Sequencing of 8,004 bp in the 5'-upstream region of the S-layer gene sbpA led to five ORFs-encoding proteins involved in cell wall metabolism. After cloning and heterologous expression of ORF1 and ORF5 in Escherichia coli, the recombinant autolysin rAbpA and the recombinant pyruvyl transferase rCsaB were isolated, purified, and correct folding was confirmed by circular dichroism. Although rAbpA encoded by ORF1 showed amidase activity, it could attack whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 only after complete extraction of the S-layer lattice. Despite the presence of three S-layer-homology motifs on the N-terminal part, rAbpA did not show detectable affinity to peptidoglycan-containing sacculi, nor to isolated SCWP. As the molecular mass of the autolysin lies above the molecular exclusion limit of the S-layer, AbpA is obviously trapped within the rigid cell wall layer by the isoporous protein lattice. Immunogold-labeling of ultrathin-sectioned whole cells of Ly. sphaericus CCM 2177 with a polyclonal rabbit antiserum raised against rCsaB encoded by ORF5, and cell fractionation experiments demonstrated that the pyruvyl transferase was located in the cytoplasm, but not associated with cell envelope components including the plasma membrane. In enzymatic assays, rCsaB clearly showed pyruvyl transferase activity. By using RT-PCR, specific transcripts for each ORF could be detected. Cotranscription could be confirmed for ORF2 and ORF3.
Full Text Available Why are some of us – inhabitants of increasingly dense and complex narrative ecosystems – compulsive spectators of horrors? What determines the liveliness of horror tropes that already have a long history of being used and re-used in narratives across different media, and what favors their being used incessantly on the small screen? This essay argues that in analyzing contemporary television series, we need to takes into account specific productive and narrative aspects, and (intra- and inter-textual elements as well as sociological ones, starting from the theoretical assumption that the fortune of horror series (and not only of them is in fact determined by those territories where these elements come together. As a case in point, this essay takes a look at True Blood, which was created in 2008 for HBO by Alan Ball, and came to an end with its seventh season in 2014. Positioned within the broader context of horror proliferation in contemporary television series, True Blood offers striking examples of the new mechanisms and distinction practices utilized by the television genre which is bringing about an increasing differentiation of audience segment.
Amanda L. Hodges
Full Text Available Popular culture provides a vital point of entry to examine discourses of hegemony and resistance at work within the growing culture of fandom. Drawing from epistemologies of feminism and poststructuralism, we deconstruct how fans read, co-construct, apply, and reenvision texts as they navigate societal notions of gender in their own constructions of subjectivity. We discuss subversive examples of sexuality and gender found in American popular culture, particularly the portrayal of femininity in the character of Faith, the bad girl from Buffy the Vampire Slayer. Such examples are important because they impart crucial hegemonic lessons that may then be played out in everyday life. By focusing on the third season of Buffy the Vampire Slayer, we examine the discourses of risk at play within the source text, fan sites, and online fan fiction. Bakhtin's ideas of carnival drive much of fan fiction, and Foucault's analysis of power relations as well as Butler's theories of performativity contribute to play that affords dynamic, critical perspectives with which to interrogate social metanarratives and their impact on the subject.
Full Text Available Marcus Recht leistet als einer der ersten deutschsprachigen Autoren eine ausführliche Analyse der besonderen Darstellung alternativer Geschlechtlichkeit in der TV-Serie Buffy. Mit Hilfe ausführlicher wissenschaftlicher Methodik zeigt Recht auf, dass die Serie sowohl soziale Konstrukte analysiert, widerspiegelt und karikiert als auch eine alternative Geschlechtlichkeit etabliert, welche die männlichen Vampire in einen zur Zeit der Serienausstrahlung gänzlich neuen Gender-Kontext stellt. Viele weitere klassische filmsoziologische Theorien zu Gender-Konstruktion und -Darstellung werden kritisch aufgegriffen und in die Analyse einbezogen. Eine gute Grundlage für Einsteiger/-innen als auch für Kenner/-innen des Feldes, um sich mit dem wissenschaftlichen Potential des popkulturellen Feldes auseinanderzusetzen.
Full Text Available Glycosylation of the S-layer of the crenarchaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius has been investigated using glycoproteomic methodologies. The mature protein is predicted to contain 31 N-glycosylation consensus sites with approximately one third being found in the C-terminal domain spanning residues L1004-Q1395. Since this domain is rich in Lys and Arg and therefore relatively tractable to glycoproteomic analysis, this study has focused on mapping its N-glycosylation. Our analysis identified nine of the 11 consensus sequence sites, and all were found to be glycosylated. This constitutes a remarkably high glycosylation density in the C-terminal domain averaging one site for each stretch of 30–40 residues. Each of the glycosylation sites observed was shown to be modified with a heterogeneous family of glycans, with the largest having a composition Glc1Man2GlcNAc2 plus 6-sulfoquinovose (QuiS, consistent with the tribranched hexasaccharide previously reported in the cytochrome b558/566 of S. acidocaldarius. S. acidocaldarius is the only archaeal species whose N-glycans are known to be linked via the chitobiose core disaccharide that characterises the N-linked glycans of Eukarya.
investments. This territory was soon explored by a number of American novels: John Beckman’s The Winter Zoo (2002), Dave Eggers’s You Shall Know Our Velocity (2002), Jonathan Safran Foer’s Everything Is Illuminated (2002), Jonathan Franzen’s The Corrections (2001), William Gibson’s Pattern Recognition (2003......During half of the twentieth century, the socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe functioned as a political Other that helped shape collective identities in the USA. The collapse of the socialist regimes in the early 1990s opened up a new territory for economic, personal and imaginary......), Arthur Phillips’s Prague (2002) and Gary Shteyngart’s The Russian Debutante’s Handbook (2002). This article argues that in these novels post-communist Eastern Europe functions as a region off the symbolic map, a wilderness, often violent, replete with traces of an insistent past. The novels often view...
Surface Display of the Receptor-Binding Region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-Layer Protein in Lactococcus lactis Provides Nonadhesive Lactococci with the Ability To Adhere to Intestinal Epithelial Cells
Åvall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi
Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactoc...
Morgante João S
Full Text Available Abstract Background The common vampire bat Desmodus rotundus is an excellent model organism for studying ecological vicariance in the Neotropics due to its broad geographic range and its preference for forested areas as roosting sites. With the objective of testing for Pleistocene ecological vicariance, we sequenced a mitocondrial DNA (mtDNA marker and two nuclear markers (RAG2 and DRB to try to understand how Pleistocene glaciations affected the distribution of intraspecific lineages in this bat. Results Five reciprocally monophyletic clades were evident in the mitochondrial gene tree, and in most cases with high bootstrap support: Central America (CA, Amazon and Cerrado (AMC, Pantanal (PAN, Northern Atlantic Forest (NAF and Southern Atlantic Forest (SAF. The Atlantic forest clades formed a monophyletic clade with high bootstrap support, creating an east/west division for this species in South America. On the one hand, all coalescent and non-coalescent estimates point to a Pleistocene time of divergence between the clades. On the other hand, the nuclear markers showed extensive sharing of haplotypes between distant localities, a result compatible with male-biased gene flow. In order to test if the disparity between the mitochondrial and nuclear markers was due to the difference in mutation rate and effective size, we performed a coalescent simulation to examine the feasibility that, given the time of separation between the observed lineages, even with a gene flow rate close to zero, there would not be reciprocal monophyly for a neutral nuclear marker. We used the observed values of theta and an estimated mutation rate for the nuclear marker gene to perform 1000 iterations of the simulation. The results of this simulation were inconclusive: the number of iterations with and without reciprocal monophyly of one or more clades are similar. Conclusions We therefore conclude that the pattern exhibited by the common vampire bat, with marked
Jonard David Echavarría-R
Full Text Available It is reported a new record of the hairy-legged vampire Diphylla ecaudata (SPIX, 1823 in the Choco region of Colombia, of which are known only few studies in the country, registered in the departments of Magdalena (1900, Vaupés (1966, Meta (1970, Caquetá (1999 y Amazonas (2016. This registry is based on two specimens that were properly analyzed and due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country deposited in the Teriologica Scientific Collection Research Group on Management and Wildlife Management of the Chocó of the Technological University of Chocó (ColTer-Choco. This report extends the geographic distribution until the department of Choco, in contraendose to 464.794 km some of the record closest in Magdalena, adding the Tropical Dry Forest Ecosystem (BST to habitats that occurred for the species. Due to its curiosity, discusses the available information on this species in the country in terms of its distribution and ecology, based on specimens in collections and existing reports. This log helps fill a void of the known geographic distribution of the species in the country.
Influenza Seasonal Summarv 2014-2015 Season EpiData Center Department Communicable Disease Division NMCPHC-EDC-TR-394-2015 REPORT DOCUMENTATION... Influenza Seasonal Summary, 2014-2015 Season Sb. GRANT NUMBER $c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHORjS) Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Ashleigh K McCabe, Kristen R...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 1<l. ABSTRACT This report summartzes influenza activity among Department of Navy (DON) and Depar1ment of Defense (DOD
Signature project 4a, Seasonality, Mobility, and Livability investigated the effects of weather, season, built environment, community amenities, attitudes, and demographics on mobility and quality of life (QOL). A four season panel survey exami...
Abdul Halim, Mohd Farid; Karch, Kelly R; Zhou, Yitian; Haft, Daniel H; Garcia, Benjamin A; Pohlschroder, Mechthild
For years, the S-layer glycoprotein (SLG), the sole component of many archaeal cell walls, was thought to be anchored to the cell surface by a C-terminal transmembrane segment. Recently, however, we demonstrated that the Haloferax volcanii SLG C terminus is removed by an archaeosortase (ArtA), a novel peptidase. SLG, which was previously shown to be lipid modified, contains a C-terminal tripartite structure, including a highly conserved proline-glycine-phenylalanine (PGF) motif. Here, we demonstrate that ArtA does not process an SLG variant where the PGF motif is replaced with a PFG motif (slg(G796F,F797G)). Furthermore, using radiolabeling, we show that SLG lipid modification requires the PGF motif and is ArtA dependent, lending confirmation to the use of a novel C-terminal lipid-mediated protein-anchoring mechanism by prokaryotes. Similar to the case for the ΔartA strain, the growth, cellular morphology, and cell wall of the slg(G796F,F797G) strain, in which modifications of additional H. volcanii ArtA substrates should not be altered, are adversely affected, demonstrating the importance of these posttranslational SLG modifications. Our data suggest that ArtA is either directly or indirectly involved in a novel proteolysis-coupled, covalent lipid-mediated anchoring mechanism. Given that archaeosortase homologs are encoded by a broad range of prokaryotes, it is likely that this anchoring mechanism is widely conserved. Prokaryotic proteins bound to cell surfaces through intercalation, covalent attachment, or protein-protein interactions play critical roles in essential cellular processes. Unfortunately, the molecular mechanisms that anchor proteins to archaeal cell surfaces remain poorly characterized. Here, using the archaeon H. volcanii as a model system, we report the first in vivo studies of a novel protein-anchoring pathway involving lipid modification of a peptidase-processed C terminus. Our findings not only yield important insights into poorly understood
... Close ‹ Back to Healthy Living Sorting Out Seasonal Allergies Sneezing, runny nose, nasal congestion. Symptoms of the ... How do I know if I have seasonal allergies? According to Dr. Georgeson, the best way to ...
... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Seasonal Allergies (Hay Fever) KidsHealth / For Parents / Seasonal Allergies (Hay ... español Alergia estacional (fiebre del heno) About Seasonal Allergies "Achoo!" It's your son's third sneezing fit of ...
Seasonality analyses are important in medical research. If the incidence of a disease shows a seasonal pattern, then an environmental factor must be considered in its etiology. We discuss a method for the simultaneous analysis of seasonal variation in multiple groups. The nuts and bolts are explained using simple trigonometry, an elementary…
Explores the use of schools as settings for teenage horror films. Asserts that these narratives reflect the stress of social pressures and uncertainties, particularly young girls. Focuses on the television show, "Buffy the Vampire Slayer," while making this argument. Includes references. (CMK)
Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao
We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...
Anna Viola Sborgi
Full Text Available Since its first publication, Henry James’s The Turn of the Screw (1898 has always haunted the imagination of artists (Benjamin Britten, Jack Clayton, Amenábar and has been widely used as a source for television narratives (Dan Curtis, US TV version starring Colin Firth, Tim Fywell. In serial productions, James’s story has been the object of extensive quotation and allusion, from the 1960 gothic soap opera Dark Shadows to the C.S.I. episode Turn of the Screw (Season 4, Episode 21. A milestone in literary history, the story now embodies a set of cultural references conveying different, complex meanings, which can only be disclosed in the light of contemporary forms of representing reality. The novella appeals to two apparently opposite tendencies in contemporary television: the morbid display of the real (C.S.I. and the quest for the supernatural (Buffy The Vampire Slayer, among others. A line can be traced from Dark Shadows, the show that pioneered the genre, to contemporary horror soaps about vampires and supernatural phenomena. This paper shows the ways in which James’ sophisticated novella makes its way through popular culture, and how its constant ambiguous, dilemmatic interplay between reality and imagination can be related to the double-sided drive of the contemporary public towards hyper-reality and the supernatural.
Kunst, Robert M.
Abstract: Seasonal cointegration generalizes the idea of cointegration to processes with unit roots at frequencies different from 0. Here, also the dual notion of common trends, "common seasonals", is adopted for the seasonal case. Using a five-variable macroeconomic core system of the Austrian economy, it is demonstrated how common seasonals and seasonal cointegrating vectors look in practice. Statistical tests provide clear evidence on seasonal cointegration in the system. However, it is sh...
Woo, Jong-Min; Okusaga, Olaoluwa; Postolache, Teodor T.
A seasonal suicide peak in spring is highly replicated, but its specific cause is unknown. We reviewed the literature on suicide risk factors which can be associated with seasonal variation of suicide rates, assessing published articles from 1979 to 2011. Such risk factors include environmental determinants, including physical, chemical, and biological factors. We also summarized the influence of potential demographic and clinical characteristics such as age, gender, month of birth, socioeconomic status, methods of prior suicide attempt, and comorbid psychiatric and medical diseases. Comprehensive evaluation of risk factors which could be linked to the seasonal variation in suicide is important, not only to identify the major driving force for the seasonality of suicide, but also could lead to better suicide prevention in general. PMID:22470308
... than any non-seasonal depressions. Symptoms of Major Depression Feeling depressed most of the day, nearly every ... Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS Feed NIMH ...
Integrating meteorological and indigenous knowledge-based seasonal climate forecasts in ..... Explanation is based on spiritual and social values. Taught by .... that provided medicine and food became the subject of strict rules and practices ...
Plaut, Roger D; Beaber, John W; Zemansky, Jason; Kaur, Ajinder P; George, Matroner; Biswas, Biswajit; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A; Mokashi, Vishwesh; Hannah, Ryan M; Pope, Robert K; Read, Timothy D; Stibitz, Scott; Calendar, Richard; Sozhamannan, Shanmuga
In order to better characterize the Bacillus anthracis typing phage AP50c, we designed a genetic screen to identify its bacterial receptor. Insertions of the transposon mariner or targeted deletions of the structural gene for the S-layer protein Sap and the sporulation genes spo0A, spo0B, and spo0F in B. anthracis Sterne resulted in phage resistance with concomitant defects in phage adsorption and infectivity. Electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with AP50c revealed phage particles associated with the surface of bacilli of the Sterne strain but not with the surfaces of Δsap, Δspo0A, Δspo0B, or Δspo0F mutants. The amount of Sap in the S layer of each of the spo0 mutant strains was substantially reduced compared to that of the parent strain, and incubation of AP50c with purified recombinant Sap led to a substantial reduction in phage activity. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole-genome sequences of B. cereus sensu lato strains revealed several closely related B. cereus and B. thuringiensis strains that carry sap genes with very high similarities to the sap gene of B. anthracis. Complementation of the Δsap mutant in trans with the wild-type B. anthracis sap or the sap gene from either of two different B. cereus strains that are sensitive to AP50c infection restored phage sensitivity, and electron microscopy confirmed attachment of phage particles to the surface of each of the complemented strains. Based on these data, we postulate that Sap is involved in AP50c infectivity, most likely acting as the phage receptor, and that the spo0 genes may regulate synthesis of Sap and/or formation of the S layer.
Surface display of the receptor-binding region of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein in Lactococcus lactis provides nonadhesive lactococci with the ability to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells.
Avall-Jääskeläinen, Silja; Lindholm, Agneta; Palva, Airi
Lactobacillus brevis is a promising lactic acid bacterium for use as a probiotic dietary adjunct and a vaccine vector. The N-terminal region of the S-layer protein (SlpA) of L. brevis ATCC 8287 was recently shown to mediate adhesion to various human cell lines in vitro. In this study, a surface display cassette was constructed on the basis of this SlpA receptor-binding domain, a proteinase spacer, and an autolysin anchor. The cassette was expressed under control of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000. Western blot assay of lactococcal cell wall extracts with anti-SlpA antibodies confirmed that the SlpA adhesion domain of the fusion protein was expressed and located within the cell wall layer. Whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence microscopy verified that the SlpA adhesion-mediating region was accessible on the lactococcal cell surface. In vitro adhesion assays with the human intestinal epithelial cell line Intestine 407 indicated that the recombinant lactococcal cells had gained an ability to adhere to Intestine 407 cells significantly greater than that of wild-type L. lactis NZ9000. Serum inhibition assay further confirmed that adhesion of recombinant lactococci to Intestine 407 cells was indeed mediated by the N terminus-encoding part of the slpA gene. The ability of the receptor-binding region of SlpA to adhere to fibronectin was also confirmed with this lactococcal surface display system. These results show that, with the aid of the receptor-binding region of the L. brevis SlpA protein, the ability to adhere to gut epithelial cells can indeed be transferred to another, nonadhesive, lactic acid bacterium.
Li, Christina; Freedman, Marian
Seasonal influenza is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. It also has major social and economic consequences in the form of high rates of absenteeism from school and work as well as significant treatment and hospitalization costs. In fact, annual influenza epidemics and the resulting deaths and lost days of productivity…
Mean monochromatic extinction coefficients at various wavelengths at the Kottamia Observatory site have shown the existence of a seasonal variation of atmospheric extinction. The extinction of aerosol compontnts with wavelengths at winter represent exceedingly good conditions. Spring gives the highest extinction due to aerosol. (orig.)
Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Badruddoza, Syed
Simultaneity of borrowing, withdrawal of savings, and loan defaults due to the pronounced seasonality of agriculture often leads to investment failure of rural financial institutions. Lack of borrowing leads to lack of in-come- and consumption-smoothing, and in turn, causes inefficient resource allocation by rural households. Financial institutions that are active in rural areas take diffe...
start to go some way towards addressing this fundamental question. A delightful animation of The Hungry Season, commissioned by Leonie Joubert and funded by the University of Cape Town's Criminology. Department and the Embassy of Finland, is available online at http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=iX77NZttLKo.
In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee explains the nature of antiviral drugs and how they are used for seasonal flu. Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 9/29/2010.
In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes the main symptoms of seasonal flu and when it is serious enough to seek medical help. Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 9/29/2010.
In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee describes how to keep from getting seasonal flu and spreading it to others by taking these three steps. Created: 9/29/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD). Date Released: 9/29/2010.
Co-expression of cytokeratins and vimentin by highly invasive trophoblast in the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus youngi, and the black mastiff bat, Molossus ater, with observations on intermediate filament proteins in the decidua and intraplacental trophoblast.
Badwaik, N K; Rasweiler, J J; Muradali, F
Histological and immunocytochemical studies of gravid reproductive tracts obtained from the white-winged vampire bat (Diaemus youngi) and the black mastiff bat (Molossus ater) have established that both species develop unusually invasive trophoblast. This is released by the developing discoidal haemochorial placenta, expresses both cytokeratins and vimentin, and invades the myometrium and adjacent tissues (including the ovaries) via interstitial migration within the walls of maternal blood vessels. Hence, this trophoblast is noteworthy for the extent to which it undergoes an epithelial-mesenchymal transformation. In Molossus, it originates from the cytotrophoblastic shell running along the base of the placenta, is mononuclear, and preferentially invades maternal arterial vessels serving the discoidal placenta. This trophoblast may have a role in dilatation of these vessels when the discoidal placenta becomes functional. In Diaemus, the highly invasive trophoblast appears to originate instead from a layer of syncytiotrophoblast on the periphery of the placenta is multinucleated, and vigorously invades both arterial and venous vessels. During late pregnancy, it becomes extensively branched and sends attenuated processes around many of the myometrial smooth muscle fibres. In view of its distribution, this trophoblast could have important influences upon myometrial contractility and the function of blood vessels serving the gravid tract. Other aspects of intermediate filament expression in the uteri and placentae of these bats are also noteworthy. Many of the decidual giant cells in Molossus co-express cytokeratins and vimentin, while the syncytiotrophoblast lining the placental labyrinth in Diaemus late in pregnancy expresses little cytokeratin.
The Medical Service once again recommends you to get your annual flu vaccination for the year. Vaccination is the most effective way of avoiding the illness and any serious consequences and protecting those around you. The flu can have especially serious consequences for people with chronic conditions (diabetes, cardio-vascular disease, etc.), pregnant women, infants, and people over 65 years of age. Remember, anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor) with their vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement by UNIQA. NB: The Medical Service cannot provide this vaccination service for family members or retired members of the personnel. For more information: • The "Seasonal flu" flyer by the Medical Service • Recommendations of the Swiss Federal Office of Public...
As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not pr...
Please note the following cafeteria closures over the summer season: Bldg. 54 closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 13: closed from 13/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Restaurant No. 2, table service (brasserie and restaurant): closed from 01/08/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 864: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013. Bldg. 865: closed from 29/07/2013 to 06/09/2013.
Direct contamination is the primary pathway to terrestrial vegetation in the first period after an activity release to the atmosphere. All radionuclides are able to be transferred via this pathway. Deposition, interception and retention are the three processes involved in direct contamination of crops. Wet deposition is more important than dry deposition in temperature regions. Resuspension and rainsplash both belong to secondary direct deposition and became evident for e.g. radiocaesium after the Chernobyl accident. Seasonality is the varying response to radioactive contamination of crops according to the time of the year when the contamination occurs. Shortlived radionuclides (as 131 I) and those that mainly enter the foodchain by direct contamination (e.g. 137 Cs) are especially important in this connection. In particular, the contamination of cereal crops is influenced by seasonality. As a result of seasonality the impact of the Chernobyl accident on the radioactive contamination of human diet was for the same deposition density higher in southern than in northern Europe. (orig.)
This year, as usual, the Medical Service is helping to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal flu is especially recommended for anyone who suffers from chronic pulmonary, cardio-vascular or kidney disease or diabetes, is recovering from a serious illness or major surgery, or is over 65 years of age. The flu virus is transmitted through the air and through contact with contaminated surfaces, so frequent hand-washing with soap and/or an antiseptic hand wash is of great importance. As soon as the first symptoms appear (fever above 38°, shivering, coughing, muscle and/or joint pains, generalised weakness), you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. Anyone working on the CERN site who wishes to be vaccinated against seasonal flu should go to the Infirmary (Building 57, ground floor), with their dose of vaccine. The Medical Service will issue a prescription on the day of the vaccination for the purposes of reimbursement through UNIQA...
... type="submit" value="Submit" /> Archived Flu Emails Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Flublok Seasonal Influenza (Flu) Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español ...
Full Text Available While literature on the relation between on-field sports performance and stock returns is ample, there is very limited evidence on off-season stage. Constituting around 3 months, off-seasons do not only occupy a significant part of the year but also represent totally different characteristics than on-seasons. They lack the periodic, unambiguous news events in on-seasons (match results, instead they are associated with highly uncertain transfer news and rumors. We show that this distinction has several impacts on the stock market performances of soccer clubs. Most notably, off-seasons generate substantially higher (excess returns. After controlling for other variables, the estimated effect of off-season periods is as high as 38.75%, annually. In line with several seminal studies, we link this fact to increased optimism and betting behavior through uncertain periods; and periods prior to the start of a new calendar (in our case, new season. For all of the examined 7 clubs (3 from Italy and 4 from Turkey, mean excess returns over the market are positive (negative in off-seasons (on-seasons. On-seasons are associated with increased trading activity due to more frequent news. Stocks of Italian clubs are evidently more volatile through off-seasons while volatility results for the stocks of Turkish clubs are not consistent.
CERN Bulletin in collaboration with Julio Rosenfeld
On 16 June, CERN’s music season will open with Music on the Lawn. The event is the CERN Music Club’s contribution to the Fete de la Musique and will take place on the terrace of Restaurant 1 from 2 p.m. to 8 p.m. The Hardronic Festival, CERN’s long-running rock festival, will be held on the evenings of 20 and 21 July in Prévessin, on the terrace behind Restaurant 3. If you would like to help with the organisation, please contact the Music Club by e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The Canettes Blues Band during the 2011 Hardronic Festival. (© Christoph Balle, 2010). Summer is coming, and along with it comes the music season. CERN will be hosting its two annual rock music concerts: Music on the Lawn and the Hardronic Festival. The two events are organised by the CERN Music Club, which has been sharing the enjoyment of good music with its numerous fans for many years. “Music on the Lawn was originally created so that the members of the Mus...
Full Text Available Most of us who are practicing medicine know that we are in a very active flu season. This was brought home to me when last week trying to admit a patient to the hospital from the office. She was a bone marrow transplant patient who had severe diarrhea and dehydration probably secondary to C. difficile. Hospital admissions said the patient had to be sent to the Emergency Room because the hospital was full due to the flu epidemic. Nationwide there has been a dramatic increase in the number of hospitalizations due to influenza over the past week from 13.7 to 22.7 per 100,000 (1. Influenza A(H3N2 has been the most common form of influenza reported this season. These viruses are often linked to more severe illness, especially in children and people age 65 years and older. Fortunately, the CDC also says that the flu cases may be peaking. However, at ...
As every year, the Medical Service is taking part in the campaign to promote vaccination against seasonal influenza. Vaccination against seasonal influenza is especially recommended for people suffering from chronic lung, cardio-vascular or kidney conditions or diabetes, for those recovering from a serious illness or surgical operation and for everyone over the age of 65. The influenza virus is transmitted by air and contact with contaminated surfaces, hence the importance of washing hands regularly with soap and / or disinfection using a hydro-alcoholic solution. From the onset of symptoms (fever> 38°, chills, cough, muscle aches and / or joint pain, fatigue) you are strongly recommended to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus. In the present context of the influenza A (H1N1) pandemic, it is important to dissociate these two illnesses and emphasise that the two viruses and the vaccines used to combat them are quite different and that protection against one will not provide protection against the...
Lemaster, E. W. (Principal Investigator); Chance, J. E.
Data are presented from field measurements of 1980 including 5 acquisitions of handheld radiometer reflectance measurements, 7 complete sets of parameters for implementing the Suits mode, and other biophysical parameters to characterize the soybean canopy. LANDSAT calculations on the simulated Brazilian soybean reflectance are included along with data collected during the summer and fall on 1981 on soybean single leaf optical parameters for three irrigation treatments. Tests of the Suits vegetative canopy reflectance model for the full hemisphere of observer directions as well as the nadir direction show moderate agreement for the visible channels of the MSS and poor agreement in the near infrared channel. Temporal changes in the spectral characteristics of the single leaves were seen to occur as a function of maturity which demonstrates that the absorptance of a soybean single leaf is more a function of thetransmittancee characteristics than the seasonally consistent single leaf reflectance.
Patel, Manish M.; Pitzer, Virginia; Alonso, Wladimir J.; Vera, David; Lopman, Ben; Tate, Jacqueline; Viboud, Cecile; Parashar, Umesh D.
Background A substantial number of surveillance studies have documented rotavirus prevalence among children admitted for dehydrating diarrhea. We sought to establish global seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease before widespread vaccine introduction. Methods We reviewed studies of rotavirus detection in children with diarrhea published since 1995. We assessed potential relationships between seasonal prevalence and locality by plotting the average monthly proportion of diarrhea cases positive for rotavirus according to geography, country development, and latitude. We used linear regression to identify variables that were potentially associated with the seasonal intensity of rotavirus. Results Among a total of 99 studies representing all six geographical regions of the world, patterns of year-round disease were more evident in low- and low-middle income countries compared with upper-middle and high income countries where disease was more likely to be seasonal. The level of country development was a stronger predictor of strength of seasonality (P=0.001) than geographical location or climate. However, the observation of distinctly different seasonal patterns of rotavirus disease in some countries with similar geographical location, climate and level of development indicate that a single unifying explanation for variation in seasonality of rotavirus disease is unlikely. Conclusion While no unifying explanation emerged for varying rotavirus seasonality globally, the country income level was somewhat more predictive of the likelihood of having seasonal disease than other factors. Future evaluation of the effect of rotavirus vaccination on seasonal patterns of disease in different settings may help understand factors that drive the global seasonality of rotavirus disease. PMID:23190782
Abarbanel, H.; Foley, H.; MacDonald, G.; Rothaus, O.; Rudermann, M.; Vesecky, J.
In the interest of allocating heating fuels optimally, the state-of-the-art for seasonal weather forecasting is reviewed. A model using an enormous data base of past weather data is contemplated to improve seasonal forecasts, but present skills do not make that practicable. 90 references. (PSB)
Schloss, Karen B; Nelson, Rolf; Parker, Laura; Heck, Isobel A; Palmer, Stephen E
We investigated how color preferences vary according to season and whether those changes could be explained by the ecological valence theory (EVT). To do so, we assessed the same participants' preferences for the same colors during fall, winter, spring, and summer in the northeastern United States, where there are large seasonal changes in environmental colors. Seasonal differences were most pronounced between fall and the other three seasons. Participants liked fall-associated dark-warm colors-for example, dark-red, dark-orange (brown), dark-yellow (olive), and dark-chartreuse-more during fall than other seasons. The EVT could explain these changes with a modified version of Palmer and Schloss' (2010) weighted affective valence estimate (WAVE) procedure that added an activation term to the WAVE equation. The results indicate that color preferences change according to season, as color-associated objects become more/less activated in the observer. These seasonal changes in color preferences could not be characterized by overall shifts in weights along cone-contrast axes. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.
Butterflies are like all insects in that they are temperature sensitive and a changing climate with higher temperatures might effect their phenology. Several studies have found support for earlier flight dates among the investigated species. A comparative study with data from a citizen science project, including 66 species of butterflies in Sweden, was undertaken, and the result confirms that most butterfly species now fly earlier during the season. This is especially evident for butterflies overwintering as adults or as pupae. However, the advancement in phenology is correlated with flight date, and some late season species show no advancement or have even postponed their flight dates and are now flying later in the season. The results also showed that latitude had a strong effect on the adult flight date, and most of the investigated species showed significantly later flights towards the north. Only some late flying species showed an opposite trend, flying earlier in the north. A majority of the investigated species in this study showed a general response to temperature and advanced their flight dates with warmer temperatures (on average they advanced their flight dates by 3.8 days/°C), although not all species showed this response. In essence, a climate with earlier springs and longer growing seasons seems not to change the appearance patterns in a one-way direction. We now see butterflies on the wings both earlier and later in the season and some consequences of these patterns are discussed. So far, studies have concentrated mostly on early season butterfly-plant interactions but also late season studies are needed for a better understanding of long-term population consequences.
Schüttoff, Ute; Pawlowski, Tim
This study explores indicators describing socio-demographics, sports participation characteristics and motives which are associated with variation in sports participation across seasons. Data were drawn from the German Socio-Economic Panel which contains detailed information on the sports behaviour of adults in Germany. Overall, two different measures of seasonal variation are developed and used as dependent variables in our regression models. The first variable measures the coefficient of (seasonal) variation in sport-related energy expenditure per week. The second variable measures whether activity drops below the threshold as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Results suggest that the organisational setting, the intensity and number of sports practised, and the motive for participation are strongly correlated with the variation measures used. For example, both, participation in a sports club and a commercial facility, are associated with reduced seasonal variation and a significantly higher probability of participating at a volume above the WHO threshold across all seasons. These findings give some impetus for policymaking and the planning of sports programmes as well as future research directions.
Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Malling, H-J
in a double-blind study. Assessment of severity of symptoms from the nose, eyes and lungs were performed daily during the season 2000, and post-seasonally 6 months after the season in 1999 and 2000. A four-point verbal descriptor scale (VDS-4) was used at all occasions. A mean in-seasonal symptom rating...
Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L
Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.
Bødtger, Uffe; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Poulsen, Lars K
in a double-blind study. Drug use was recorded daily during the season 2000 and out-seasonally 6 months after the seasons 1999 and 2000. The mean daily drug use was transformed into a 4-point categorical scale for simplicity and was calculated for the out-seasonal rating and for 6 in-seasonal periods...
Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie
OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist...
Srarisrical Manual of Menral Disorders (DSM-III-R)), were looked at, and no attempt was made to delineate the occurrence of specific mood disorders. Reviewing publications on the association between season and its impact on mood, the findings are generally inconsistent but highly suggestive of an association.' However ...
Rasmussen, Peter Funder; Rosbjerg, Dan
In order to obtain a good description of the exceedances in a partial duration series it is often necessary to divide the year into a number (2-4) of seasons. Hereby a stationary exceedance distribution can be maintained within each season. This type of seasonal models may, however, not be suitable...... for prediction purposes due to the large number of parameters required. In the particular case with exponentially distributed exceedances and Poissonian occurrence times the precision of the T year event estimator has been thoroughly examined considering both seasonal and nonseasonal models. The two......-seasonal probability density function of the T year event estimator has been deduced and used in the assessment of the precision of approximate moments. The nonseasonal approach covered both a total omission of seasonality by pooling data from different flood seasons and a discarding of nonsignificant season(s) before...
Jan 26, 2011 ... ... Marie Ciotola, collected diseased striga samples in Mali, Niger and Burkina Faso. ... Fusarium oxysporum is easy to grow (just take ground-up sorghum and add a few extra ... Food for the soil: Rock phosphate as fertilizer.
Gee, James Paul
Argues that second language learning is a form of enculturation that involves learning the perspectives and identities that a culture allows and values. Proposes that a language teacher is actually changing the cultural identity of the student. (FMW)
Lima, Dante Luiz
Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-graduação em Letras/Inglês e Literatura Correspondente Este estudo tem o intuito de investigar como textos literários são adaptados para o cinema. Esta investigação foi feita usando-se o romance Entrevista com o Vampiro (1976) de Anne O´Brien Rice e sua adaptação fílmica (1994) dirigida por Neil Jordan. O aspecto principal do romance e do filme analisados durante a pesquisa f...
Peacock-Lopez, Enrique, E-mail: email@example.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, 7701 Cape Town (South Africa)
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.
Switching strategies can be related to the so-called Parrondian games, where the alternation of two losing games yields a winning game. We consider two dynamics that by themselves yield undesirable behaviors, but when alternated, yield a desirable oscillatory behavior. In the analysis of the alternate-logistic map, we prove that alternating parameter values yielding extinction with parameter values associated with chaotic dynamics results in periodic trajectories. Ultimately, we consider a four season logistic model with either migration or immigration. -- Highlights: → We consider the logistic map as a population model and include parameter switching. → From bifurcation diagrams, we find parameters that follow the Parrondian Paradox. → We study a four-season Parrondian model that includes migration or immigration.
Turtle, E. P.; DelGenio, A. D.; Barbara, J. M.; Perry, J. E.; Schaller, E. L.; McEwen, A. S.; West, R. A.; Ray, T. L.
The Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem has observed Titan for 1/4 Titan year, and we report here the first evidence of seasonal shifts in preferred locations of tropospheric methane clouds. South \\polar convective cloud activity, common in late southern summer, has become rare. North \\polar and northern mid \\latitude clouds appeared during the approach to the northern spring equinox in August 2009. Recent observations have shown extensive cloud systems at low latitudes. In contrast, southern mid \\latitude and subtropical clouds have appeared sporadically throughout the mission, exhibiting little seasonality to date. These differences in behavior suggest that Titan s clouds, and thus its general circulation, are influenced by both the rapid temperature response of a low \\thermal \\inertia surface and the much longer radiative timescale of Titan s cold thick troposphere. North \\polar clouds are often seen near lakes and seas, suggesting that local increases in methane concentration and/or lifting generated by surface roughness gradients may promote cloud formation. Citation
Hansen, Candice J.; Paige, David A.
A thermal model, developed to predict seasonal nitrogen cycles on Triton, has been modified and applied to Pluto. The model was used to calculate the partitioning of nitrogen between surface frost deposits and the atmosphere, as a function of time for various sets of input parameters. Volatile transport was confirmed to have a significant effect on Pluto's climate as nitrogen moved around on a seasonal time scale between hemispheres, and sublimed into and condensed out of the atmosphere. Pluto's high obliquity was found to have a significant effect on the distribution of frost on its surface. Conditions that would lead to permanent polar caps on Triton were found to lead to permanent zonal frost bands on Pluto. In some instances, frost sublimed from the middle of a seasonal cap outward, resulting in a "polar bald spot". Frost which was darker than the substrate did not satisfy observables on Pluto, in contrast to our findings for Triton. Bright frost (brighter than the substrate) came closer to matching observables. Atmospheric pressure varied seasonally. The amplitudes, and to a lesser extent the phase, of the variation depended significantly on frost and substrate properties. Atmospheric pressure was found to be determined both by Pluto's distance from the sun and by the subsolar latitude. In most cases two peaks in atmospheric pressure were observed annually: a greater one associated with the sublimation of the north polar cap just as Pluto receded from perihelion, and a lesser one associated with the sublimation of the south polar cap as Pluto approached perihelion. Our model predicted frost-free dark substrate surface temperatures in the 50 to 60 K range, while frost temperatures typically ranged between 30 to 40 K. Temporal changes in frost coverage illustrated by our results, and changes in the viewing geometry of Pluto from the Earth, may be important for interpretation of ground-based measurements of Pluto's thermal emission.
Seasonal affective disorder treatment: Choosing a light therapy box Light therapy boxes can offer an effective treatment for seasonal affective disorder. Features such as light intensity, safety, cost and ...
Dr Anil Sardana; Dr PoojaTalwar; Shruti Gulati
In this ever-dynamic world, the only thing that is constant is change. Change when happens, applies to all; then why should marketing remain the same? Each year is a witness to various seasons, and each season requires separate marketing efforts to be carried out differently. Seasonal marketing thus helps to capitalise on the varied demand through varied marketing. Every season requires special efforts and hence leads to different sales.
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing season. 916.15 Section 916.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 916.15 Marketing season. Marketing season means the period beginning on...
The year-end report notes that the 1991-92 heating season had lower average oil prices (retail home heating fuel) than the past two winters and prices remained relatively stable throughout the season. This year, the heating season average was $.87 per gallon, $1.05 for kerosene, and $1.33 for propane
We investigate the properties of this new model providing stationary conditions, some explicit form of the autocovariance function and the spectral density. We also establish the asymptotic behaviour of the spectral density function near the seasonal frequencies. Keywords: Seasonality; Spatial short memory; Seasonal long ...
acid (0 min Si in Table 1) yielded a release of 21% and 58%. Since...negatively stained preparations of DPPC-‐Cholesterol-‐ HDA +SbpA+SF6+glutaraldehyde cross-‐ linked micro bubbles. It...only few and mainly hydrophobic amino acids , located on the surface of the monomer, are
Sørensen, Nils Karl
the issue of the shoulder season in a time series framework. Departing from a discussion of the nature of types of seasonal variation, a test is set up in order to examine the impact of the shoulder season. The test examines the impact on the mean share of hotel nights in the shoulder season months in two...
Huang Xin; Song Yu; Li Mengmeng; Li Jianfeng; Zhu Tong
East China, a major agricultural zone with a dense population, suffers from severe air pollution during June, the agricultural harvest season, every year. Crop burning emits tremendous amounts of combustion products into the atmosphere, not only rapidly degrading the local air quality but also affecting the tropospheric chemistry, threatening public health and affecting climate change. Recently, in mid-June 2012, crop fires left a thick pall of haze over East China. We evaluated the PM 10 , PM 2.5 (particulates less than 10 and 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) and BC (black carbon) emissions by analyzing detailed census data and moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) remote sensing images and then simulated the consequent pollution using meteorological and dispersion models. The results show that the crop fires sweeping from the south to the north are responsible for the intensive air pollution during harvest season. It is necessary for scientists and governments to pay more attention to this issue. (letter)
Proietti, Tommaso; Hillebrand, Eric
The aim of this paper is to assess how climate change is reflected in the variation of the seasonal patterns of the monthly Central England Temperature time series between 1772 and 2013. In particular, we model changes in the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle. Starting from the seminal work...... by Thomson (“The Seasons, Global Temperature and Precession”, Science, 7 April 1995, vol 268, p. 59–68), a number of studies have documented a shift in the phase of the annual cycle implying an earlier onset of the spring season at various European locations. A significant reduction in the amplitude...... and stochastic trends, as well as seasonally varying autocorrelation and residual variances. The model can be summarized as containing a permanent and a transitory component, where global warming is captured in the permanent component, on which the seasons load differentially. The phase of the seasonal cycle...
Mc Mahon, Brenda; Andersen, Sofie B.; Madsen, Martin K.
controls with low seasonality scores and 17 patients diagnosed with seasonal affective disorder were scanned in both summer and winter to investigate differences in cerebral serotonin transporter binding across groups and across seasons. The two groups had similar cerebral serotonin transporter binding...... between summer and winter (Psex-(P = 0.02) and genotype-(P = 0.04) dependent. In the patients with seasonal affective disorder, the seasonal change in serotonin transporter binding was positively associated with change in depressive symptom...
Arnal, Louise; Cloke, Hannah L.; Stephens, Elisabeth; Wetterhall, Fredrik; Prudhomme, Christel; Neumann, Jessica; Krzeminski, Blazej; Pappenberger, Florian
This paper considers whether there is any added value in using seasonal climate forecasts instead of historical meteorological observations for forecasting streamflow on seasonal timescales over Europe. A Europe-wide analysis of the skill of the newly operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal streamflow forecasts (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with the ECMWF System 4 seasonal climate forecasts), benchmarked against the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) forecasting approach (produced by forcing the Lisflood model with historical meteorological observations), is undertaken. The results suggest that, on average, the System 4 seasonal climate forecasts improve the streamflow predictability over historical meteorological observations for the first month of lead time only (in terms of hindcast accuracy, sharpness and overall performance). However, the predictability varies in space and time and is greater in winter and autumn. Parts of Europe additionally exhibit a longer predictability, up to 7 months of lead time, for certain months within a season. In terms of hindcast reliability, the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcasts are on average less skilful than the ESP for all lead times. The results also highlight the potential usefulness of the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts for decision-making (measured in terms of the hindcast discrimination for the lower and upper terciles of the simulated streamflow). Although the ESP is the most potentially useful forecasting approach in Europe, the EFAS seasonal streamflow forecasts appear more potentially useful than the ESP in some regions and for certain seasons, especially in winter for almost 40 % of Europe. Patterns in the EFAS seasonal streamflow hindcast skill are however not mirrored in the System 4 seasonal climate hindcasts, hinting at the need for a better understanding of the link between hydrological and meteorological variables on seasonal timescales, with the aim of improving climate
Yao, F.; Hoteit, I.; Koehl, A.
The Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonal overturning circulation. In winter, a typical two-layer exchange structure, with a fresher inflow from the Gulf of Aden on top of an outflow from the Red Sea, is established. In summer months (June to September) this circulation pattern is changed to a three-layer structure: a surface outflow from the Red Sea on top of a subsurface intrusion of the Gulf of Aden Intermediate Water and a weakened deep outflow. This seasonal variability is studied using a general circulation model, MITgcm, with 6 hourly NCEP atmospheric forcing. The model is able to reproduce the observed seasonal variability very well. The forcing mechanisms of the seasonal variability related to seasonal surface wind stress and buoyancy flux, and water mass transformation processes associated with the seasonal overturning circulation are analyzed and presented.
Kundzewicz, Zbigniew; Huang, Shaochun
The awareness of global warming is well established and results from the observations made on thousands of stations. This paper complements the large-scale results by examining a long time-series of high-quality temperature data from the Secular Meteorological Station in Potsdam, where observation records over the last 117 years, i.e., from January 1893 are available. Tendencies of change in seasonal temperature-related climate extremes are demonstrated. "Cold" extremes have become less frequent and less severe than in the past, while "warm" extremes have become more frequent and more severe. Moreover, the interval of the occurrence of frost has been decreasing, while the interval of the occurrence of hot days has been increasing. However, many changes are not statistically significant, since the variability of temperature indices at the Potsdam station has been very strong.
Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of 0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.
Lu, T.; Fransoo, J.C.; Lee, C.-Y.
Many seasonal products are transported via ocean carriers from origin to destination markets. The shipments arriving earlier in the market may sell at higher prices, but faster shipping services can be costly. In this paper, we study a newsvendor-type shipper who transports and sells seasonal
Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude
BACKGROUND: This study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relatio...
Arritt, Raymond W.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Takle, Eugene S.
The ensemble prediction methods used for seasonal limited area forecasts were examined by comparing methods for generating ensemble simulations of seasonal precipitation. The summer 1993 model over the north-central US was used as a test case. The four methods examined included the lagged-average...
higher concentration during the wet season than in the dry season in all the Groups, except for BOD, sulphate and iron. ... availability and quality of groundwater due to waste and ... using 1 litre plastic containers that were treated with 3-4ml of ...
Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.; Malling, H-J
The history of the severity of seasonal allergic symptoms is often obtained post-seasonally as a retrospective assessment. Correct rating is essential when determining the efficacy of pharmaceutical treatment, indications for allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT), or inclusion into controlled cli...
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)
textabstractA recurring issue in modeling seasonal time series variables is the choice of the most adequate model for the seasonal movements. One selection method for quarterly data is proposed in Hylleberg et al. (1990). Market response models are often constructed for bimonthly variables, and
To explore the consequences of modeling decisions on inference about avian seasonal fecundity we generalize previous Markov chain (MC) models of avian nest success to formulate two different MC models of avian seasonal fecundity that represent two different ways to model renestin...
Luteijn, Johannes Michiel; Dolk, Helen; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Calzolari, Elisa; Draper, Elizabeth; Garne, Ester; Gatt, Miriam; Haeusler, Martin; Khoshnood, Babak; McDonnell, Bob; Nelen, Vera; O'Mahony, Mary; Mullaney, Carmel; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David; Verellen-Dumoulin, Christine; de Walle, Hermien; Yevtushok, Lyubov
BackgroundThis study describes seasonality of congenital anomalies in Europe to provide a baseline against which to assess the impact of specific time varying exposures such as the H1N1 pandemic influenza, and to provide a comprehensive and recent picture of seasonality and its possible relation to
Medici, Clara Reece; Vestergaard, Claus Høstrup; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan
in summer. Higher admission rates were associated with more sunshine, more ultraviolet radiation, higher temperature and less snow but were unassociated with rainfall. We did not find a secular trend in the seasonal pattern. Finally, neither gender nor admission status impacted on the overall seasonal...
Ghaemi, S N; Sachs, G S; Baldassano, C F; Truman, C J
Lack of insight complicates the evaluation and treatment of patients with psychotic and affective disorders. No studies of insight in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have been reported. Thirty patients with SAD diagnosed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R but no other axis I conditions were treated short-term with light-therapy. Insight was measured with the Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder (SUMD) as modified by the authors to assess the self-report of insight into depressive symptoms. Increasing scores (1 to 5) indicated increasing unawareness of illness (i.e., less insight). SAD patients displayed a moderate amount of insight when depressed (mean SUMD score, 2.5). When recovered, they showed no significant change in insight into past depressive symptoms (mean SUMD score, 2.8). Greater insight into current depressive symptoms correlated with more depressive symptoms on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression score ([HRSD] r = .35, P depressive symptoms that does not change after recovery, a result in agreement with studies of insight in psychosis and mania. Further, in SAD, increased severity of illness may be associated with increased insight into depressive symptoms, consistent with the hypothesis of depressive realism.
Stokes, M A; McKeever, J A; McQuillan, R F; O'Higgins, N J
All rugby and soccer players presenting to the Accident & Emergency department during the football season 1992-1993 (a total of 871) were prospectively studied to compare the injuries sustained in the two sports. The nature and site of injury, treatment required, age, fitness, experience and position of the player, situation giving rise to injury, and medical attention at the grounds were all analysed. The results show that rugby and soccer players had the same number of injuries, and while there were some differences in the nature of the injuries, there was no difference in overall severity. Rugby flankers and soccer goalkeepers are particularly at risk. Competitive matches produce more injuries than training sessions. Experience or fitness did not appear to be a factor and 45% of rugby injuries and 15% of soccer injuries were from school matches. Law changes (e.g. the rugby scrum and the use of gum-shields) have reduced some injuries, but other areas (e.g. jumping for the ball in soccer, rucks and mauls in rugby) also warrant consideration. There was one death, but no spinal cord injuries. Medical attention at the grounds was limited. Rugby injuries, therefore, do not appear to be more numerous or severe than soccer injuries. Law changes have been of benefit but they need to be enforced and perhaps more should be considered. Medical attention at sports grounds could be improved and Registers of injuries kept by the sporting bodies would be of benefit.
Full Text Available In order to discuss and analyze the available information concerning the seasonal breeding behavior of sheep in Mexico, this review was conducted. We analyzed the neuroendocrine basis that modulate the annual reproductive cycle in sheep and then discussed the degree of reproductive seasonality in Creole sheep wool, breeds originating in high latitudes and hair sheep, mainly in Pelibuey ewes. The Creole sheep wool show continuous annual reproductive activity and short seasonal anestrous. The females of northern origin, express seasonal reproductive activity, similar to that observed in individuals geographically located at latitudes above 35Âº. Pelibuey sheep show variable annual reproductive behavior with reduced anestrus or lack thereof. Â It is suggested that the neuroendocrine mechanisms regulating seasonal anestrus in ewes, are active in the sheep of northern origin that live in Mexico, in a manner contrary is not activated in Creole and hair sheep.
Sharp, Paul Richard; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
It has become popular to argue (e.g. Clark 2007) that all societies were Malthusian until about 1800. At the same time, the phenomenon of surplus labour is well-documented for historical (as well as modern) pre-industrial societies. This study discusses the paradox of surplus labour in a Malthusian...... economy. Inspired by the work of Boserup (1965) and others, and in contrast to the Lewis (1954) approach, we suggest that the phenomenon of surplus labour is best understood through an acceptance of the importance of seasonality in agriculture. Boserup observed that the harvest season was invariably...... associated with labour shortages (the high-season bottleneck on production), although there might be labour surplus during the low season. We introduce the concept of seasonality into a stylized Malthusian model, and endogenize the extent of agricultural labour input, which is then used to calculate labour...
Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil
Birth season has been reported to be a risk factor for several immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that this association is mediated by differential changes in neonatal immune phenotype and function with birth season. We sought to investigate the influence of season of birth on cord blood...... immune cell subsets and inflammatory mediators in neonatal airways. Cord blood was phenotyped for 26 different immune cell subsets, and at 1 month of age, 20 cytokines and chemokines were quantified in airway mucosal lining fluid. Multivariate partial least squares discriminant analyses were applied...... to determine whether certain immune profiles dominate by birth season, and correlations between individual cord blood immune cells and early airway immune mediators were defined. We found a birth season-related fluctuation in neonatal immune cell subsets and in early-life airway mucosal immune function...
Chang, Yuanmay; Lam, Calvin; Chen, Su-Ru; Sithole, Trevor; Chung, Min-Huey
To investigate the difference between nurses and the general population regarding seasonal variations in sleep disorders during 2004-2008. The effects of season and group interaction on sleep disorders with regard to different comorbidities were also examined. Studies on seasonal variations in sleep disorders were mainly conducted in Norway for the general population. Furthermore, whether different comorbidities cause seasonal variations in sleep disorders in nurses remains unknown. A retrospective study. Data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were used in generalised estimating equation Poisson distribution models to investigate the differences in sleep disorders between nurses and the general population diagnosed with sleep disorders (each n = 7643) as well as the interaction effects of sleep disorders between the groups with respect to different seasons. Furthermore, the interaction effects between groups and seasons on sleep disorders in the subgroups of comorbid anxiety disorders and depressive disorders were studied. Both the nurses and the general population had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in other seasons. The nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. The nurses had more outpatient visits for sleep disorders in winter than in summer compared with the general population in the comorbid depressive disorder subgroup but not in the comorbid anxiety disorder subgroup. Nurses and the general population exhibited similar seasonal patterns of sleep disorders, but nurses had fewer outpatient visits for sleep disorders than the general population did in each season. For nurses with comorbid depressive disorders, outpatient visits for sleep disorders were more numerous in winter than in summer, potentially because nurses with comorbid depressive disorders are affected by shorter daylight exposure during winter. Depression and daylight exposure may
Eiji Maeda, Eduardo; Ma, Xuanlong; Wagner, Fabien Hubert; Kim, Hyungjun; Oki, Taikan; Eamus, Derek; Huete, Alfredo
Evapotranspiration (ET) of Amazon forests is a main driver of regional climate patterns and an important indicator of ecosystem functioning. Despite its importance, the seasonal variability of ET over Amazon forests, and its relationship with environmental drivers, is still poorly understood. In this study, we carry out a water balance approach to analyse seasonal patterns in ET and their relationships with water and energy drivers over five sub-basins across the Amazon Basin. We used in situ measurements of river discharge, and remotely sensed estimates of terrestrial water storage, rainfall, and solar radiation. We show that the characteristics of ET seasonality in all sub-basins differ in timing and magnitude. The highest mean annual ET was found in the northern Rio Negro basin (˜ 1497 mm year-1) and the lowest values in the Solimões River basin (˜ 986 mm year-1). For the first time in a basin-scale study, using observational data, we show that factors limiting ET vary across climatic gradients in the Amazon, confirming local-scale eddy covariance studies. Both annual mean and seasonality in ET are driven by a combination of energy and water availability, as neither rainfall nor radiation alone could explain patterns in ET. In southern basins, despite seasonal rainfall deficits, deep root water uptake allows increasing rates of ET during the dry season, when radiation is usually higher than in the wet season. We demonstrate contrasting ET seasonality with satellite greenness across Amazon forests, with strong asynchronous relationships in ever-wet watersheds, and positive correlations observed in seasonally dry watersheds. Finally, we compared our results with estimates obtained by two ET models, and we conclude that neither of the two tested models could provide a consistent representation of ET seasonal patterns across the Amazon.
Stroeve, Julienne; Markus, Thorsten; Meier, Walter N.; Miller, Jeff
Melt-season duration, melt-onset and freeze-up dates are derived from satellite passive microwave data and analyzed from 1979 to 2005 over Arctic sea ice. Results indicate a shift towards a longer melt season, particularly north of Alaska and Siberia, corresponding to large retreats of sea ice observed in these regions. Although there is large interannual and regional variability in the length of the melt season, the Arctic is experiencing an overall lengthening of the melt season at a rate of about 2 weeks decade(sup -1). In fact, all regions in the Arctic (except for the central Arctic) have statistically significant (at the 99% level or higher) longer melt seasons by greater than 1 week decade(sup -1). The central Arctic shows a statistically significant trend (at the 98% level) of 5.4 days decade(sup -1). In 2005 the Arctic experienced its longest melt season, corresponding with the least amount of sea ice since 1979 and the warmest temperatures since the 1880s. Overall, the length of the melt season is inversely correlated with the lack of sea ice seen in September north of Alaska and Siberia, with a mean correlation of -0.8.
Helmig, Detlev; Daly, Ryan Woodfin; Milford, Jana; Guenther, Alex
Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from six coniferous tree species, i.e. Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa Pine), Picea pungens (Blue Spruce), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Rocky Mountain Douglas Fir) and Pinus longaeva (Bristlecone Pine), as well as from two deciduous species, Quercus gambelii (Gamble Oak) and Betula occidentalis (Western River Birch) were studied over a full annual growing cycle. Monoterpene (MT) and sesquiterpene (SQT) emissions rates were quantified in a total of 1236 individual branch enclosure samples. MT dominated coniferous emissions, producing greater than 95% of BVOC emissions. MT and SQT demonstrated short-term emission dependence with temperature. Two oxygenated MT, 1,8-cineol and piperitone, were both light and temperature dependent. Basal emission rates (BER, normalized to 1000μmolm(-2)s(-1) and 30°C) were generally higher in spring and summer than in winter; MT seasonal BER from the coniferous trees maximized between 1.5 and 6.0μgg(-1)h(-1), while seasonal lows were near 0.1μgg(-1)h(-1). The fractional contribution of individual MT to total emissions was found to fluctuate with season. SQT BER measured from the coniferous trees ranged from emissions modeling, was not found to exhibit discernible growth season trends. A seasonal correction factor proposed by others in previous work to account for a sinusoidal shaped emission pattern was applied to the data. Varying levels of agreement were found between the data and model results for the different plant species seasonal data sets using this correction. Consequently, the analyses on this extensive data set suggest that it is not feasible to apply a universal seasonal correction factor across different vegetation species. A modeling exercise comparing two case scenarios, (1) without and (2) with consideration of the seasonal changes in emission factors illustrated large deviations when emission factors are applied for other seasons than those in which they were experimentally
Burns, Jane C.; Herzog, Lauren; Fabri, Olivia; Tremoulet, Adriana H.; Rodó, Xavier; Uehara, Ritei; Burgner, David; Bainto, Emelia; Pierce, David; Tyree, Mary; Cayan, Daniel
Background Understanding global seasonal patterns of Kawasaki disease (KD) may provide insight into the etiology of this vasculitis that is now the most common cause of acquired heart disease in children in developed countries worldwide. Methods Data from 1970-2012 from 25 countries distributed over the globe were analyzed for seasonality. The number of KD cases from each location was normalized to minimize the influence of greater numbers from certain locations. The presence of seasonal variation of KD at the individual locations was evaluated using three different tests: time series modeling, spectral analysis, and a Monte Carlo technique. Results A defined seasonal structure emerged demonstrating broad coherence in fluctuations in KD cases across the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropical latitudes. In the extra-tropical latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, KD case numbers were highest in January through March and approximately 40% higher than in the months of lowest case numbers from August through October. Datasets were much sparser in the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics and statistical significance of the seasonality tests was weak, but suggested a maximum in May through June, with approximately 30% higher number of cases than in the least active months of February, March and October. The seasonal pattern in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics was consistent across the first and second halves of the sample period. Conclusion Using the first global KD time series, analysis of sites located in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics revealed statistically significant and consistent seasonal fluctuations in KD case numbers with high numbers in winter and low numbers in late summer and fall. Neither the tropics nor the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropics registered a statistically significant aggregate seasonal cycle. These data suggest a seasonal exposure to a KD agent that operates over large geographic regions and is concentrated during winter
Kryjov, Vladimir N
An overview of the current status of the operational seasonal climate prediction for North Eurasia is presented. It is shown that the performance of existing climate models is rather poor in seasonal prediction for North Eurasia. Multi-model ensemble forecasts are more reliable than single-model ones; however, for North Eurasia they tend to be close to climatological ones. Application of downscaling methods may improve predictions for some locations (or regions). However, general improvement of the reliability of seasonal forecasts for North Eurasia requires improvement of the climate prediction models. (letter)
Wu, S.; Zhao, J.; Wang, H.
This paper develops a seasonal water balance model based on the hypothesis that natural catchments utilize hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality. According to the monthly aridity index, one year is split into wet season and dry season. A seasonal water balance model is developed by analogy to a two-stage reservoir operation model, in which seasonal rainfall infiltration, evapotranspiration and saturation-excess runoff is corresponding to the inflow, release and surplus of the catchment system. Then the optimal hedging between wet season and dry season evapotranspiration is analytically derived with marginal benefit principle. Water budget data sets of 320 catchments in the United States covering the period from 1980 to 2010 are used to evaluate the performance of this model. The Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient for evapotranspiration is higher than 0.5 in 84% of the study catchments; while the runoff is 87%. This paper validates catchments' hedging strategy on evapotranspiration for climate seasonality and shows its potential application for seasonal water balance, which is valuable for water resources planning and management.
... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Key Facts About Seasonal Flu Vaccine Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... the flu is to get vaccinated each year. Flu Vaccination Why should people get vaccinated against the ...
... the onset of a form of depression called seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Most commonly, SAD usually occurs ... time. Others include: medicines, changes in diet, and stress management. If you ... Water Well? If your water comes from a private ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This personal geodatabase contains raster images of chlorophyll concentrations in the Gulf of Maine. These raster images are seasonal composites, and were calculated...
Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of groundwater in the Jimeta- Yola area ... animal feedlots, industrial waste and food processing ...... and conservation of groundwater quality; a) ... significant role of hydrous Mn and Fe oxides.
Full Text Available The seasonal cycle of extreme precipitation in Germany is investigated by fitting statistical models to monthly maxima of daily precipitation sums for 2,865 rain gauges. The basis is a non-stationary generalized extreme value (GEV distribution variation of location and scale parameters. The negative log-likelihood serves as the forecast error for a cross validation to select adequate orders of the harmonic functions for each station. For nearly all gauges considered, the seasonal model is more appropriate to estimate return levels on a monthly scale than a stationary GEV used for individual months. The 100-year return-levels show the influence of cyclones in the western, and convective events in the eastern part of Germany. In addition to resolving the seasonality, we use a simulation study to show that annual return levels can be estimated more precisely from a monthly-resolved seasonal model than from a stationary model based on annual maxima.
... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Rules for the Return of Distilled Spirits, Wine, and Malt Beverages Exchanges and Returns for Ordinary and Usual Commercial Reasons § 11.39 Seasonal dealers. Industry...
Carol Alexander; Manuel Cantavella Jordá
In this paper we examine the presence of seasonal unit roots in trade variables for Germany, France, the United Kingdom, and Italy, using the procedure developed by Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) [HEGY]. Both quarterly and monthly data reject the presence of unit roots at most seasonal frequencies, more frequently in quarterly than in monthly data. This has important implications for econometric modeling of trade balance, exchange rates and income in European Union (EU) countries. ...
Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of opportunity in the summers of 2012- 2014. In...measurements across the Beaufort-Chukchi sea seasonal sea ice zone (SIZ) utilizing US Coast Guard Arctic Domain Awareness ( ADA ) flights of...such, it contains the full range of positions of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) where sea ice interacts with open water. In addition to SIZRS
Jakosky, B. M.
A review of the behavior of water in the Mars atmosphere and subsurface is appropriate now that data from the Mariner and Viking spacecraft have been analyzed and discussed for several years following completion of those missions. Observations and analyses pertinent to the seasonal cycle of water vapor in the atmosphere of Mars are reviewed, with attention toward transport of water and the seasonal exchange of water between the atmosphere and various non-atmospheric reservoirs. Possible seasonally-accessible sources and sinks for water include water ice on or within the seasonal and residual polar caps; surface or subsurface ice in the high-latitude regions of the planet; adsorbed or chemically-bound water within the near-surface regolith; or surface or subsurface liquid water. The stability of water within each of these reservoirs is discussed, as are the mechanisms for driving exchange of the water with the atmosphere and the timescales for exchange. Specific conclusions are reached about the distribution of water and the viability of each mechanism as a seasonal reservoir. Discussion is also included of the behavior of water on longer timescales, driven by the variations in solar forcing due to the quasi-periodic variations of the orbital obliquity. Finally, specific suggestions are made for future observations from spacecraft which would further define or constrain the seasonal cycle of water.
Leombruni, Lisa [WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston, MA (United States); Paulsen, Christine Andrews [Concord Evaluation Group, Concord, MA (United States)
Over the course of four weeks in fall 2013, 11.7 million Americans tuned in to PBS to follow host David Pogue as he led them in search of engineering and scientific breakthroughs poised to change our world. Levitating trains, quantum computers, robotic bees, and bomb-detecting plants—these were just a few of the cutting-edge innovations brought into the living rooms of families across the country in NOVA’s four-part series, Making Stuff: Faster, Wilder, Colder, and Safer. Each of the four one-hour programs gave viewers a behind-the-scenes look at novel technologies poised to change our world—showing them how basic research and scientific discovery can hold the keys to transforming how we live. Making Stuff Season 2 (MS2) combined true entertainment with educational value, creating a popular and engaging series that brought accessible science into the homes of millions. NOVA’s goal to engage the public with such technological innovation and basic research extended beyond the broadcast series, including a variety of online, educational, and promotional activities: original online science reporting, web-only short-form videos, a new online quiz-game, social media engagement and promotion, an educational outreach “toolkit” for science educators to create their own “makerspaces,” an online community of practice, a series of nationwide Innovation Cafés, educator professional development, a suite of teacher resources, an “Idealab,” participation in national conferences, and specialized station relation and marketing. A summative evaluation of the MS2 project indicates that overall, these activities helped make a significant impact on the viewers, users, and participants that NOVA reached. The final evaluation conducted by Concord Evaluation Group (CEG) confidently concluded that the broadcast, website, and outreach activities were successful at achieving the project’s intended impacts. CEG reported that the MS2 series and website content were
Bronson, F H
Almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in births, owing mostly to seasonal variation in the frequency of conception. This review focuses on the degree to which environmental factors like nutrition, temperature and photoperiod contribute to these seasonal patterns by acting directly on the reproductive axis. The reproductive strategy of humans is basically that of the apes: Humans have the capacity to reproduce continuously, albeit slowly, unless inhibited by environmental influences. Two, and perhaps three, environmental factors probably act routinely as seasonal inhibitors in some human populations. First, it seems likely that ovulation is regulated seasonally in populations experiencing seasonal variation in food availability. More specifically, it seems likely that inadequate food intake or the increased energy expenditure required to obtain food, or both, can delay menarche, suppress the frequency of ovulation in the nonlactating adult, and prolong lactational amenorrhea in these populations on a seasonal basis. This action is most easily seen in tropical subsistence societies where food availability often varies greatly owing to seasonal variation in rainfall; hence births in these populations often correlate with rainfall. Second, it seems likely that seasonally high temperatures suppress spermatogenesis enough to influence the incidence of fertilization in hotter latitudes, but possibly only in males wearing clothing that diminishes scrotal cooling. Since most of our knowledge about this phenomenon comes from temperate latitudes, the sensitivity of spermatogenesis in both human and nonhuman primates to heat in the tropics needs further study. It is quite possible that high temperatures suppress ovulation and early embryo survival seasonally in some of these same populations. Since we know less than desired about the effect of heat stress on ovulation and early pregnancy in nonhuman mammals, and nothing at all about it in humans or any of the
Full Text Available This paper analyses the construction of two superheroines, one from the 1990s (Buffy the Vampire Slayer and one from the 2010s (Jessica Jones. I contend that popular feminism has changed between the 1990s and the present and that this is evident in the representation of televised superheroines. While in the 1990s superheroines were more conformist, today they are more transparent in their feminist intentions. I suggest that this is due to contemporary cultural trends in the United States.
Comprehensive seasonal cycles of production and consumption in the pelagial require the ocean to be partitioned. This can be done rationally at two levels: into four primary ecological domains (three oceanic and one coastal), or about fifty biogeochemical provinces. The domains differ in their characteristic seasonal cycles of stability, nutrient supply and illumination, while provinces are defined by ocean currents, fronts, topography and recurrent features in the sea surface chlorophyll field. For each of these compartments, seasonal cycles of photic depth, primary production and accumulation (or loss) of algal biomass were obtained from the climatological CZCS chlorophyll field and other data and these, together with mixed layer depths, rendered characteristic seasonal cycles of production and consumption, which can be grouped into eight models: i - polar irradiance-mediated production peak; ii - nutrient-limited spring production peak; iii - winter-spring production with nutrient limitation; iv - small amplitude response to trade wind seasonality; v - large amplitude response to monsoon reversal; vi - canonical spring-fall blooms of mid-latitude continental shelves; vii - topography-forced summer production; viii - intermittent production at coastal divergences. For higher latitudes, these models suggest that the observed late-summer ‘blooms’ result not from a renewal of primary production rate, but from a relaxation of grazing pressure; in mid-latitudes, the observed ‘winter’ bloom represents chlorophyll accumulation at a season when loss terms are apparently smaller than during the period of peak primary production rate which occurs later, in spring. Where an episodic seasonal increase in rate of primary production occurs, as in the Arabian Sea, algal biomass accumulation may brief, lasting only until consumption is fully re-established. Only in the low latitude oligotrophic ocean are production and consumption perennially and closely coupled.
Haines, K.; Melia, N.; Hawkins, E.; Day, J. J.
In our previous work  we showed how trans-Arctic shipping routes would become more available through the 21st century as sea ice declines, using CMIP5 models with means and stds calibrated to PIOMAS sea ice observations. Sea ice will continue to close shipping routes to open water vessels through the winter months for the foreseeable future so the availability of open sea routes will vary greatly from year to year. Here  we look at whether the trans-Arctic shipping season period can be predicted in seasonal forecasts, again using several climate models, and testing both perfect and imperfect knowledge of the initial sea ice conditions. We find skilful predictions of the upcoming summer shipping season can be made from as early as January, although typically forecasts may show lower skill before a May `predictability barrier'. Focussing on the northern sea route (NSR) off Siberia, the date of opening of this sea route is twice as variable as the closing date, and this carries through to reduced predictability at the start of the season. Under climate change the later freeze-up date accounts for 60% of the lengthening season, Fig1 We find that predictive skill is state dependent with predictions for high or low ice years exhibiting greater skill than for average ice years. Forecasting the exact timing of route open periods is harder (more weather dependent) under average ice conditions while in high and low ice years the season is more controlled by the initial ice conditions from spring onwards. This could be very useful information for companies planning vessel routing for the coming season. We tested this dependence on the initial ice conditions by changing the initial ice state towards climatologically average conditions and show directly that early summer sea-ice thickness information is crucial to obtain skilful forecasts of the coming shipping season. Mechanisms for this are discussed. This strongly suggests that good sea ice thickness observations
Jill Christine Preston
Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.
Gilcher, Ronald O; McCombs, Suzanne
This review is designed to help readers understand seasonal blood shortages and provide solutions through the use of technology that can increase the number of red blood cell units collected and the use of recruitment and marketing initiatives that appeal to the increasingly diverse donor base. Seasonal shortages are, in reality, mostly shortages of group O red blood cells and occur most commonly during midsummer and early winter. The shortages occur primarily from increased use of group O red blood cells at times of decreased donor availability. While reducing the disproportionate use of red cells will help, blood centers can more quickly reduce the seasonal deficits by using automated red cell technology to collect double red blood cell units; targeted marketing programs to provide effective messages; seasonal advertising campaigns; and recognition, benefits, and incentives to enhance the donor motivation donation threshold. A multi-level approach to increasing blood donations at difficult times of the year can ensure that donations are increased at a time when regular donor availability is decreased. Seasonal blood shortages can be eliminated by understanding the nature of the shortages, why and when they occur, and using more sophisticated recruitment and marketing strategies as well as automated collection technologies to enhance the blood supply.
Weisheimer, A.; Palmer, T. N.
Seasonal climate forecasts are being used increasingly across a range of application sectors. A recent UK governmental report asked: how good are seasonal forecasts on a scale of 1–5 (where 5 is very good), and how good can we expect them to be in 30 years time? Seasonal forecasts are made from ensembles of integrations of numerical models of climate. We argue that ‘goodness’ should be assessed first and foremost in terms of the probabilistic reliability of these ensemble-based forecasts; reliable inputs are essential for any forecast-based decision-making. We propose that a ‘5’ should be reserved for systems that are not only reliable overall, but where, in particular, small ensemble spread is a reliable indicator of low ensemble forecast error. We study the reliability of regional temperature and precipitation forecasts of the current operational seasonal forecast system of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, universally regarded as one of the world-leading operational institutes producing seasonal climate forecasts. A wide range of ‘goodness’ rankings, depending on region and variable (with summer forecasts of rainfall over Northern Europe performing exceptionally poorly) is found. Finally, we discuss the prospects of reaching ‘5’ across all regions and variables in 30 years time. PMID:24789559
Anna M. Calvert
Full Text Available For seasonal migrants, logistical constraints have often limited conservation efforts to improving survival and reproduction during the breeding season only. Yet, mounting empirical evidence suggests that events occurring throughout the migratory life cycle can critically alter the demography of many migrant species. Herein, we build upon recent syntheses of avian migration research to review the role of non-breeding seasons in determining the population dynamics and fitness of diverse migratory taxa, including salmonid fishes, marine mammals, ungulates, sea turtles, butterflies, and numerous bird groups. We discuss several similarities across these varied migrants: (i non-breeding survivorship tends to be a strong driver of population growth; (ii non-breeding events can affect fitness in subsequent seasons through seasonal interactions at individual- and population-levels; (iii broad-scale climatic influences often alter non-breeding resources and migration timing, and may amplify population impacts through covariation among seasonal vital rates; and (iv changes to both stationary and migratory non-breeding habitats can have important consequences for abundance and population trends. Finally, we draw on these patterns to recommend that future conservation research for seasonal migrants will benefit from: (1 more explicit recognition of the important parallels among taxonomically diverse migratory animals; (2 an expanded research perspective focused on quantification of all seasonal vital rates and their interactions; and (3 the development of detailed population projection models that account for complexity and uncertainty in migrant population dynamics.
Full Text Available Some mammals breed throughout the year, while others breed only at certain times of year. These differences in reproductive behavior can be explained by evolution. We identified positively-selected genes in two sets of species with different degrees of relatedness including seasonal and non-seasonal breeding species, using branch-site models. After stringent filtering by sum of pairs scoring, we revealed that more genes underwent positive selection in seasonal compared with non-seasonal breeding species. Positively-selected genes were verified by cDNA mapping of the positive sites with the corresponding cDNA sequences. The design of the evolutionary analysis can effectively lower the false-positive rate and thus identify valid positive genes. Validated, positively-selected genes, including CGA, DNAH1, INVS, and CD151, were related to reproductive behaviors such as spermatogenesis and cell proliferation in non-seasonal breeding species. Genes in seasonal breeding species, including THRAP3, TH1L, and CMTM6, may be related to the evolution of sperm and the circadian rhythm system. Identification of these positively-selected genes might help to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying seasonal and non-seasonal reproductive behaviors.
In seasonal environments the timing of various biological processes is crucial for growth, survival and reproductive success of an individual. Nowadays, rapid large-scale climate change is altering species’ seasonal timing (phenology) in many eco¬systems. In this thesis Lucia Salis focuses on the
Winthorst, Wim H; Roest, Annelieke M; Bos, Elisabeth H; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Nolen, Willem A; de Jonge, Peter
BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is considered to be a subtype of depression. AIMS: To compare the clinical picture of SAD to non-seasonal affective disorders (non-SADs). METHOD: Diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) were established
Paget, W.J.; Meijer, A.; Falcao, J.M.; Jong, J.C. de; Kyncl, J.; Meerhoff, T.J.; Meuwissen, L.E.; Nicoll, A.; Velden, J. van der
During the 2005-2006 season, seasonal influenza epidemics started late in countries across Europe. Clinical influenza activity has only reached moderate levels and has mainly been associated with influenza B viruses. There has been co-circulation of influenza A and B viruses in many countries, and
Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B. Hobijn (Bart)
textabstractIn this paper, we present tables with critical values for a variety of tests for seasonal and non-seasonal unit roots in seasonal time series. We consider (extensions of) the Hylleberg et al. and Osborn et al. test procedures. These extensions concern time series with increasing seasonal
Changes in seasons and season length are an indicator, as well as an effect, of climate change. Seasonal change profoundly affects the balance of life in ecosystems and impacts essential human activities such as agriculture and irrigation. This study investigates the uncertainty of season length in Karnataka state, India, ...
Curlewis, J D
The majority of seasonally breeding mammals show a seasonal pattern of prolactin secretion with peak concentrations in spring or summer and a nadir in autumn or winter. Photoperiod influences prolactin secretion via its effects on the secretion of the pineal hormone melatonin. Preliminary evidence suggests that the effects of melatonin on both prolactin and gonadotrophin secretion are via a common target area, possibly within the anterior hypothalamus, and that differences in response to photoperiod may be due to differences in the processing and/or interpretation of the melatonin signal. In contrast to seasonal gonadotrophin secretion, the seasonal changes in prolactin are not due to changes in the sensitivity of a feedback loop and so must be due to direct effects on the hypothalamic pathways that control prolactin secretion. Little else can be said with confidence about the neuroendocrine mechanisms that lead to the seasonal changes in prolactin secretion. Dopamine and noradrenaline turnover in the arcuate nucleus and median eminence decrease under short daylength. If catecholamine turnover in these structures is positively correlated with catecholamine concentrations in the long or short hypophysial portal vessels, it is unlikely that the decrease in prolactin concentration in winter is due to the effects of increased concentrations of dopamine or noradrenaline in the portal vessels. There is, however, evidence for increased pituitary sensitivity to dopamine under short daylength, so increased dopamine concentrations may not be required for suppression of prolactin secretion at this time. In addition to the diminished secretion of prolactin under short daylength, rate of prolactin synthesis and pituitary content of prolactin also decline although the mechanisms that regulate these changes are poorly understood. Although all seasonal breeders show a seasonal change in prolactin secretion, there are continuously breeding species in which prolactin secretion is
B. V. Krishna Murthy
Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.
K. S. V. Subbarao
Full Text Available The occurrence of spread-F at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, dip 0.5°N has been investigated on a seasonal basis in sunspot maximum and minimum years in terms of the growth rate of irregularities by the generalized collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (GRT instability mechanism which includes the gravitational and cross-field instability terms. The occurrence statistics of spread-F at Trivandrum have been obtained using quarter hourly ionograms. The nocturnal variations of the growth rate of irregularities by the GRT mechanism have been estimated for different seasons in sunspot maximum and minimum years at Trivandrum using h'F values and vertical drift velocities obtained from ionograms. It is found that the seasonal variation of spread-F occurrence at Trivandrum can, in general, be accounted for on the basis of the GRT mechanism.
Borgsted, Camilla; Ozenne, Brice; Mc Mahon, Brenda
BACKGROUND: Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is characterized by seasonally recurring depression. Heightened amygdala activation to aversive stimuli is associated with major depressive disorder but its relation to SAD is unclear. We evaluated seasonal variation in amygdala activation in SAD......, we correlated change in symptom severity, assessed with The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression - Seasonal Affective Disorder version (SIGH-SAD), with change in amygdala activation. RESULTS: We found no season-by-group, season or group effect on our aversive contrast. Independent of season, SAD...... of the presence of depressive symptoms....
Macdiarmid, Jennie I
Eating more seasonal food is one proposal for moving towards more sustainable consumption patterns, based on the assumption that it could reduce the environmental impact of the diet. The aim of the present paper is to consider the implications of eating seasonal food on the different elements of sustainability (i.e. health, economics, society), not just the environment. Seasonality can be defined as either globally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season but consumed anywhere in the world) or locally seasonal (i.e. produced in the natural production season and consumed within the same climatic zone). The environmental, health, economic and societal impact varies by the definition used. Global seasonality has the nutritional benefit of providing a more varied and consistent supply of fresh produce year round, but this increases demand for foods that in turn can have a high environmental cost in the country of production (e.g. water stress, land use change with loss of biodiversity). Greenhouse gas emissions of globally seasonal food are not necessarily higher than food produced locally as it depends more on the production system used than transportation. Eating more seasonal food, however, is only one element of a sustainable diet and should not overshadow some of the potentially more difficult dietary behaviours to change that could have greater environmental and health benefits (e.g. reducing overconsumption or meat consumption). For future guidelines for sustainable diets to be realistic they will need to take into account modern lifestyles, cultural and social expectations in the current food environment.
Monroe, M J; Amundsen, T; Utne-Palm, A C; Mobley, K B
Genetic parentage analyses reveal considerable diversity in alternative reproductive behaviours (e.g. sneaking) in many taxa. However, little is known about whether these behaviours vary seasonally and between populations. Here, we investigate seasonal variation in male reproductive behaviours in a population of two-spotted gobies (Gobiusculus flavescens) in Norway. Male two-spotted gobies guard nests, attract females and care for fertilized eggs. We collected clutches and nest-guarding males early and late in the breeding season in artificial nests and used microsatellite markers to reconstruct parentage from a subset of offspring from each nest. We hypothesized that mating, reproductive success and sneaking should be more prevalent early in the breeding season when competition for mates among males is predicted to be higher. However, parentage analyses revealed similar values of mating, reproductive success and high frequencies of successful sneaking early (30% of nests) and late (27% of nests) in the season. We also found that multiple females with eggs in the same nest were fertilized by one or more sneaker males, indicating that some males in this population engage in a satellite strategy. We contrast our results to previous work that demonstrates low levels of cuckoldry in a population in Sweden. Our results demonstrate marked stability in both the genetic mating system and male alternative reproductive tactics over the breeding season. However, sneaking rates may vary geographically within a species, likely due to local selection influencing ecological factors encountered at different locations. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.
Georgescu, M; Mahalov, A; Moustaoui, M
Conversion of natural to urban land forms imparts influence on local and regional hydroclimate via modification of the surface energy and water balance, and consideration of such effects due to rapidly expanding megapolitan areas is necessary in light of the growing global share of urban inhabitants. Based on a suite of ensemble-based, multi-year simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, we quantify seasonally varying hydroclimatic impacts of the most rapidly expanding megapolitan area in the US: Arizona’s Sun Corridor, centered upon the Greater Phoenix metropolitan area. Using a scenario-based urban expansion approach that accounts for the full range of Sun Corridor growth uncertainty through 2050, we show that built environment induced warming for the maximum development scenario is greatest during the summer season (regionally averaged warming over AZ exceeds 1 °C). Warming remains significant during the spring and fall seasons (regionally averaged warming over AZ approaches 0.9 °C during both seasons), and is least during the winter season (regionally averaged warming over AZ of 0.5 °C). Impacts from a minimum expansion scenario are reduced, with regionally averaged warming ranging between 0.1 and 0.3 °C for all seasons except winter, when no warming impacts are diagnosed. Integration of highly reflective cool roofs within the built environment, increasingly recognized as a cost-effective option intended to offset the warming influence of urban complexes, reduces urban-induced warming considerably. However, impacts on the hydrologic cycle are aggravated via enhanced evapotranspiration reduction, leading to a 4% total accumulated precipitation decrease relative to the non-adaptive maximum expansion scenario. Our results highlight potentially unintended consequences of this adaptation approach within rapidly expanding megapolitan areas, and emphasize the need for undeniably sustainable development paths that account for
Kapnick, Sarah B.; Yang, Xiaosong; Vecchi, Gabriel A.; Delworth, Thomas L.; Gudgel, Rich; Malyshev, Sergey; Milly, Paul C. D.; Shevliakova, Elena; Underwood, Seth; Margulis, Steven A.
Western US snowpack—snow that accumulates on the ground in the mountains—plays a critical role in regional hydroclimate and water supply, with 80% of snowmelt runoff being used for agriculture. While climate projections provide estimates of snowpack loss by the end of th ecentury and weather forecasts provide predictions of weather conditions out to 2 weeks, less progress has been made for snow predictions at seasonal timescales (months to 2 years), crucial for regional agricultural decisions (e.g., plant choice and quantity). Seasonal predictions with climate models first took the form of El Niño predictions 3 decades ago, with hydroclimate predictions emerging more recently. While the field has been focused on single-season predictions (3 months or less), we are now poised to advance our predictions beyond this timeframe. Utilizing observations, climate indices, and a suite of global climate models, we demonstrate the feasibility of seasonal snowpack predictions and quantify the limits of predictive skill 8 month sin advance. This physically based dynamic system outperforms observation-based statistical predictions made on July 1 for March snowpack everywhere except the southern Sierra Nevada, a region where prediction skill is nonexistent for every predictor presently tested. Additionally, in the absence of externally forced negative trends in snowpack, narrow maritime mountain ranges with high hydroclimate variability pose a challenge for seasonal prediction in our present system; natural snowpack variability may inherently be unpredictable at this timescale. This work highlights present prediction system successes and gives cause for optimism for developing seasonal predictions for societal needs.
Olson, Stephanie L.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Ridgwell, Andy; Kane, Stephen R.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Lyons, Timothy W.
Current investigations of exoplanet biosignatures have focused on static evidence of life, such as the presence of biogenic gases like O2 or CH4. However, the expected diversity of terrestrial planet atmospheres and the likelihood of both “false positives” and “false negatives” for conventional biosignatures motivate exploration of additional life detection strategies, including time-varying signals. Seasonal variation in atmospheric composition is a biologically modulated phenomenon on Earth that may occur elsewhere because it arises naturally from the interplay between the biosphere and time-variable insolation. The search for seasonality as a biosignature would avoid many assumptions about specific metabolisms and provide an opportunity to directly quantify biological fluxes—allowing us to characterize, rather than simply recognize, biospheres on exoplanets. Despite this potential, there have been no comprehensive studies of seasonality as an exoplanet biosignature. Here, we provide a foundation for further studies by reviewing both biological and abiological controls on the magnitude and detectability of seasonality of atmospheric CO2, CH4, O2, and O3 on Earth. We also consider an example of an inhabited world for which atmospheric seasonality may be the most notable expression of its biosphere. We show that life on a low O2 planet like the weakly oxygenated mid-Proterozoic Earth could be fingerprinted by seasonal variation in O3 as revealed in its UV Hartley–Huggins bands. This example highlights the need for UV capabilities in future direct-imaging telescope missions (e.g., LUVOIR/HabEx) and illustrates the diagnostic importance of studying temporal biosignatures for exoplanet life detection/characterization.
Juan Carlos Alías
Full Text Available The exudate of Cistus ladanifer L. consists mainly of two families of secondary metabolites: flavonoids and diterpenes. The amount of flavonoids present in the leaves has a marked seasonal variation, being maximum in summer and minimum in winter. In the present study, we demonstrate that the amount of diterpenes varies seasonally, but with a different pattern: maximum concentration in winter and minimum in spring-summer. The experiments under controlled conditions have shown that temperature influences diterpene production, and in particular, low temperatures. Given this pattern, the functions that these compounds perform in C. ladanifer are probably different.
Stamps, Deborah C; Carr, Marcella L
The term "holiday heart" is defined as an acute cardiac arrhythmia or conduction disturbance associated with heavy alcohol intake in individuals with no known heart disease, but in whom heart rhythm is restored to normal with abstinence of alcohol. This article provides a brief overview of the literature on this topic, discusses causes of increased cardiac events during the holiday season, describes a patient profile and the effect on patients' health as well as on their families, and provides suggestions to decrease the risk of holiday heart during the festive season. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vieths, S; Vestergaard, H
The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of a seasonal variation in reactivity to apples in 27 birch pollen allergic patients. Before and during the birch pollen season 1998, the patients were subjected to double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with grated fresh...... Golden Delicious apple followed by an open food challenge with whole fresh apple. The clinical reactions elicited during the challenges were evaluated both by the patients and the investigators. Moreover, the skin reactivity and the in vitro reactivity to apple were evaluated by skin prick test (SPT...
Vélez-Belchí, P.; Hernandez-Guerra, A.; Pérez-Hernández, M. D.
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is recognized as an important component of the climate system, contributing to the relatively mild climate of northwest Europe. Due to its importance, the strength of the AMOC is continually monitored along 26ºN with several moorings, east of the Bahamas, in the Middle Atlantic Ridge and south of the Canary islands, known as the RAPID array. The measurements of the RAPID array show a 6 Sv seasonal cycle for the AMOC, and recent studies have pointed out the dynamics of the eastern Atlantic as the main driver for this seasonal cycle, specifically, rossby waves excited south of the Canary Islands.Due to the important role of the eastern Atlantic, in this study we describe the seasonal cycle of the Canary Current (CC) and the Canary Upwelling Current (CUC), using hydrographic data from two cruises carried out in a box around the Canary Islands, the region where the eastern component of the RAPID array is placed. CTD, VMADCP and LADCP data were combined with inverse modeling in order to determine absolute geostrophic transports in the Canary Islands region in fall and spring. During spring, the overall transport of Canary Current and the CUC was southward. In the Lanzarote Passage (LP), between the Canary Islands and Africa, the CUC transported 0.6±0.20 Sv southward, while the Canary Current transported 1.0±0.40 Sv in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. During fall, the CUC transported 2.8±0.4Sv northward, while the CC transported 2.9±0.60 Sv southward in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. The seasonal cycle observed has and amplitude of 3.4Sv for the CUC and 1.9Sv for the CC. Data from a mooring in the LP and the hydrographic data was used to calibrate geostrophic transport estimated using altimetry data. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the geostrophic transport obtained using the calibrated altimetry data (Figure 1) was quite similar to the seasonal cycle of the
Vélez-Belchí, P.; Hernandez-Guerra, A.; Pérez-Hernández, M. D.
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is recognized as an important component of the climate system, contributing to the relatively mild climate of northwest Europe. Due to its importance, the strength of the AMOC is continually monitored along 26ºN with several moorings east of the Bahamas, in the Middle Atlantic Ridge and south of the Canary islands, known as the RAPID array. The measurements of the RAPID array show a 6 Sv seasonal cycle for the AMOC, and recent studies have pointed out the dynamics of the eastern Atlantic as the main driver for this seasonal cycle, specifically, rossby waves excited south of the Canary Islands. Due to the important role of the eastern Atlantic, in this study we describe the seasonal cycle of the Canary Current (CC) and the Canary Upwelling Current (CUC) using hydrographic data from two cruises carried out in a box around the Canary Islands, the region where the eastern component of the RAPID array is placed. CTD, VMADCP and LADCP data were combined with inverse modeling in order to determine absolute geostrophic transports in the Canary Islands region in fall and spring. During spring, the overall transport of Canary Current and the CUC was southward. In the Lanzarote Passage (LP), between the Canary Islands and Africa, the CUC transported 0.6±0.20 Sv southward, while the Canary Current transported 1.0±0.40 Sv in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. During fall, the CUC transported 2.8±0.4Sv northward, while the CC transported 2.9±0.60 Sv southward in the oceanic waters of the Canary Islands Archipelago. The seasonal cycle observed has an amplitude of 3.4Sv for the CUC and 1.9Sv for the CC. Data from a mooring in the LP and the hydrographic data was used to calibrate geostrophic transport estimated using altimetry data. The amplitude of the seasonal cycle of the geostrophic transport obtained using the calibrated altimetry data (Figure 1) was quite similar to the seasonal cycle of the
Tian, Huaixiang; Li, Fenghua; Qin, Lan; Yu, Haiyan; Ma, Xia
This study examines the feasibility of electronic nose as a method to discriminate chicken and beef seasonings and to predict sensory attributes. Sensory evaluation showed that 8 chicken seasonings and 4 beef seasonings could be well discriminated and classified based on 8 sensory attributes. The sensory attributes including chicken/beef, gamey, garlic, spicy, onion, soy sauce, retention, and overall aroma intensity were generated by a trained evaluation panel. Principal component analysis (PCA), discriminant factor analysis (DFA), and cluster analysis (CA) combined with electronic nose were used to discriminate seasoning samples based on the difference of the sensor response signals of chicken and beef seasonings. The correlation between sensory attributes and electronic nose sensors signal was established using partial least squares regression (PLSR) method. The results showed that the seasoning samples were all correctly classified by the electronic nose combined with PCA, DFA, and CA. The electronic nose gave good prediction results for all the sensory attributes with correlation coefficient (r) higher than 0.8. The work indicated that electronic nose is an effective method for discriminating different seasonings and predicting sensory attributes. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®
Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,
Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.
Wilson, Leah C; Goodson, James L; Kingsbury, Marcy A
In many species, seasonal variation in grouping behavior is widespread, with shifts towards territoriality in the breeding season and grouping in the winter. Compared to the hormonal and neural mechanisms of seasonal territorial aggression, the mechanisms that promote seasonal grouping have received little attention. We collected brains in spring and winter from wild-caught males of two species of emberizid sparrows that seasonally flock (the field sparrow, Spizella pusilla, and the dark-eyed junco, Junco hyemalis) and two species that do not seasonally flock (the song sparrow, Melospiza melodia, and the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus). We used receptor autoradiography to quantify seasonal plasticity in available binding sites for three neuropeptides known to influence social behavior. We examined binding sites for 125I-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), 125I-sauvagine (SG, a ligand for corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors) and 125I-ornithine vasotocin analog (OVTA, a ligand for the VT3 nonapeptide). For all species and ligands, brain areas that exhibited a seasonal pattern in binding density were characterized by a winter increase. Compared to nonflocking species, seasonally flocking species showed different binding patterns in multiple brain areas. Furthermore, we found that winter flocking was associated with elevated winter 125I-VIP binding density in the medial amygdala, as well as 125I-VIP and 125I-OVTA binding density in the rostral arcopallium. While the functional significance of the avian rostral arcopallium is unclear, it may incorporate parts of the pallial amygdala. Our results point to this previously undescribed area as a likely hot spot of social modulation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Thai, Pham Quang; Choisy, Marc; Duong, Tran Nhu; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Yen, Nguyen Thu; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Weiss, Daniel J; Boni, Maciej F; Horby, Peter
Experimental and ecological studies have shown the role of climatic factors in driving the epidemiology of influenza. In particular, low absolute humidity (AH) has been shown to increase influenza virus transmissibility and has been identified to explain the onset of epidemics in temperate regions. Here, we aim to study the potential climatic drivers of influenza-like illness (ILI) epidemiology in Vietnam, a tropical country characterized by a high diversity of climates. We specifically focus on quantifying and explaining the seasonality of ILI. We used 18 years (1993-2010) of monthly ILI notifications aggregated by province (52) and monthly climatic variables (minimum, mean, maximum temperatures, absolute and relative humidities, rainfall and hours of sunshine) from 67 weather stations across Vietnam. Seasonalities were quantified from global wavelet spectra, using the value of the power at the period of 1 year as a measure of the intensity of seasonality. The 7 climatic time series were characterized by 534 summary statistics which were entered into a regression tree to identify factors associated with the seasonality of AH. Results were extrapolated to the global scale using simulated climatic times series from the NCEP/NCAR project. The intensity of ILI seasonality in Vietnam is best explained by the intensity of AH seasonality. We find that ILI seasonality is weak in provinces experiencing weak seasonal fluctuations in AH (annual power power >17.6). In Vietnam, AH and ILI are positively correlated. Our results identify a role for AH in driving the epidemiology of ILI in a tropical setting. However, in contrast to temperate regions, high rather than low AH is associated with increased ILI activity. Fluctuation in AH may be the climate factor that underlies and unifies the seasonality of ILI in both temperate and tropical regions. Alternatively, the mechanism of action of AH on disease transmission may be different in cold-dry versus hot-humid settings
Jurjen J Luykx
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Animal studies have revealed seasonal patterns in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF monoamine (MA turnover. In humans, no study had systematically assessed seasonal patterns in CSF MA turnover in a large set of healthy adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Standardized amounts of CSF were prospectively collected from 223 healthy individuals undergoing spinal anesthesia for minor surgical procedures. The metabolites of serotonin (5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5-HIAA, dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA and norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MPHG were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Concentration measurements by sampling and birth dates were modeled using a non-linear quantile cosine function and locally weighted scatterplot smoothing (LOESS, span = 0.75. The cosine model showed a unimodal season of sampling 5-HIAA zenith in April and a nadir in October (p-value of the amplitude of the cosine = 0.00050, with predicted maximum (PC(max and minimum (PC(min concentrations of 173 and 108 nmol/L, respectively, implying a 60% increase from trough to peak. Season of birth showed a unimodal 5-HIAA zenith in May and a nadir in November (p = 0.00339; PC(max = 172 and PC(min = 126. The non-parametric LOESS showed a similar pattern to the cosine in both season of sampling and season of birth models, validating the cosine model. A final model including both sampling and birth months demonstrated that both sampling and birth seasons were independent predictors of 5-HIAA concentrations. CONCLUSION: In subjects without mental illness, 5-HT turnover shows circannual variation by season of sampling as well as season of birth, with peaks in spring and troughs in fall.
The taxonomic structure and spatial variability of phytoplankton abundance in the icebound season was obtained from the Zhalong Wetland. A total of 109 taxa were identified in all samples, 92 taxa occurring in at least two samples or the percentages over 1% in at least one sample were utilized in further study. The algal ...
.... Recurring work that lasts less than 6 months each year is normally best performed by temporary employees... develop an experienced cadre of employees under career appointment to perform work which recurs predictably year-to-year. Consistent with the career nature of the appointments, seasonal employees receive...
Krzysztofowicz, R.; Reese, S.
Forecasts of seasonal snowmelt runoff volume provide indispensable information for rational decision making by water project operators, irrigation district managers, and farmers in the western United States. Bayesian statistical models and communication frames have been researched in order to enhance the forecast information disseminated to the users, and to characterize forecast skill from the decision maker's point of view. Four products are presented: (i) a Bayesian Processor of Forecasts, which provides a statistical filter for calibrating the forecasts, and a procedure for estimating the posterior probability distribution of the seasonal runoff; (ii) the Bayesian Correlation Score, a new measure of forecast skill, which is related monotonically to the ex ante economic value of forecasts for decision making; (iii) a statistical predictor of monthly cumulative runoffs within the snowmelt season, conditional on the total seasonal runoff forecast; and (iv) a framing of the forecast message that conveys the uncertainty associated with the forecast estimates to the users. All analyses are illustrated with numerical examples of forecasts for six gauging stations from the period 1971 1988.
Winter is here, and that means holiday decorations, a warm hearth, and (hopefully) plenty of homecooked meals. Unfortunately, winter also brings numerous fire hazards both at work and around the house. This year, as you shop, decorate, and celebrate, keep these safety tips in mind to ensure a safe and enjoyable holiday season.
Correlation and Multiple linear regression analysis was used to establish the degree of relationship and variability of groundwater quality parameters around Solous 1 and 2 Dumpsites, in Igando, Lagos, for the wet and the dry seasons. The correlation between TDS and other hydrochemical parameters which constituted ...
National survey on seasonal (thermal, large-scale) storage activities in Denmark. A storage programme under the Danish Energy Agency. Programme background, objectives, activities, projects and results.Technologies presented: Pit water storage, gravel water storage with pipe heat exchangers, lining...... materials for pit and lid designs....
Paramore, J.E.; King, V.M.
A review of seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is presented with a discussion of its standard treatment of phototherapy. A number of ophthalmic implications related to SAD are proposed. These implications relate to both the condition and the phototherapy used in its treatment, especially the use of full spectrum light which contains ultraviolet and near ultraviolet radiation. 12 references
The intention is to highlight how this concept, being the .... tragedy as she says that “tragedy can shape experience and history into meaning, and the ... “The Year of Floods” also intimates that the same seasons can present different ..... The socio-political episode is ... “Writing Traumatic Memory in Recent Malawian Poetry:.
The migration of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae between their feeding and breeding areas has thus far been considered a highly predictable and seasonal event. However, previous observations on the humpbacks that pass through the nearshore waters of the west coast of South Africa ...
Khavrus, Vyacheslav; Shelevytsky, Ihor
By means of a simple mathematical model recently developed by the authors (2010 "Phys. Educ." 45 641), the passage of the seasons on the Earth is simulated for arbitrary latitudes, taking into account sunlight attenuation in the atmosphere. The method developed can be used to predict a realistic value of the solar energy input (insolation) that…
Full Text Available . For this model and lead time, the Pearson correlation between the area-averaged of the observed and forecasts over the study area for the OND, November-December-January (NDJ), December-January-February (DJF) and January-February-March (JFM) seasons were 0.68, 0...
Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de
In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy
... Vaccine (LAIV) Misconceptions about Flu Vaccines Vaccine Supply & Distribution Vaccine Supply for 2017-2018 Season Frequently Asked ... conditions. Flu vaccination has been associated with lower rates of some cardiac ... a baby after birth from flu. (Mom passes antibodies onto the developing ...
DEPT OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
nificant difference between the means of predicted and observed seasonal rainfall amount for all ... and the Gulf of Guinea in the north, east, west ... from the northern part to the southern part of ... and Savanna regions of Nigeria than the other.
Park, T.; Myneni, R.
Multiple evidences of widespread greening and increasing terrestrial carbon uptake have been documented. In particular, enhanced gross productivity of northern vegetation has been a critical role leading to observed carbon uptake trend. However, seasonal photosynthetic activity and its contribution to observed annual carbon uptake trend and interannual variability are not well understood. Here, we introduce a multiple-source of datasets including ground, atmospheric and satellite observations, and multiple process-based global vegetation models to understand how seasonal variation of land surface vegetation controls a large-scale carbon exchange. Our analysis clearly shows a seasonally asymmetric enhancement of northern vegetation productivity in growing season during last decades. Particularly, increasing gross productivity in late spring and early summer is obvious and dominant driver explaining observed trend and variability. We observe more asymmetric productivity enhancement in warmer region and this spatially varying asymmetricity in northern vegetation are likely explained by canopy development rate, thermal and light availability. These results imply that continued warming may facilitate amplifying asymmetric vegetation activity and cause these trends to become more pervasive, in turn warming induced regime shift in northern land.
Earle, Alissa M.; Binzel, Richard; Young, Leslie; Stern, S. Alan; Olkin, Catherine B.; Ennico, Kimberly; Moore, Jeffrey M.; Weaver, Harold A.; NASA New Horizons Composition Team, The NASA New Horizons GGI Team
The data returned from NASA's New Horizons' reconnaissance of the Pluto system shows striking albedo variations from polar to equatorial latitudes as well as sharp boundaries for longitudinal variations. Pluto has a high obliquity (currently around 119 degrees) which varies by more than 23 degrees (between roughly 103 and 127 degrees) over a period of less than 3 million years. These obliquity properties, combined with Pluto's orbital regression in longitude of perihelion (360 degrees over 3.7 million years), create epochs of "Super Seasons" on Pluto. A "Super Season" occurs, for example, when Pluto happens to be pole-on towards the Sun at the same time as perihelion. In such a case, one pole experiences a short, intense summer (relative to its long-term average) followed by a longer than average period of winter darkness. By complement, the other pole experiences a much longer, but less intense summer and short winter season. We explore the relationship between albedo variations and volatile transport for the current epoch as well as historical epochs during which Pluto experienced these "Super Seasons". Our investigation suggests Pluto's orbit creates the potential for runaway albedo variations, particularly in the equatorial region, which would create and support stark longitudinal contrasts like the ones we see between the informally named Tombaugh and Cthulhu Regios.This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons mission.
Full Text Available Background: Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP is an autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by thrombocytopenia due to thrombocyte destruction mediated by autoantibodies; however, cytotoxic and defective regulatory T-lymphocytes play an important role in its pathogenesis. While childhood ITP is usually acute, self-limiting and generally seasonal in nature, ITP in adults is usually chronic; its relation with seasons has not been studied. Aims: We investigated whether months and/or seasons have triggering roles in adults with ITP. Study Design: Descriptive study. Methods: A retrospective case review of adult patients with primary ITP diagnosed at various University Hospitals in cities where Mediterranean climate is seen was performed. Demographic data, date of referral and treatments were recorded. Corticosteroid-resistant, chronic and refractory cases were determined. Relation between sex, corticosteroid-resistant, chronic and refractory ITP with the seasons was also investigated. Results: The study included 165 patients (124 female, mean age=42.8±16.6. Most cases of primary ITP were diagnosed in the spring (p=0.015. Rates of patients diagnosed according to the seasons were as follows: 35.8% in spring, 23% in summer, 20.6% in fall, and 20.6% in winter. With respect to months, the majority of cases occurred in May (18.2%. Time of diagnosis according to the seasons did not differ between genders (p=0.699. First-line treatment was corticosteroids in 97.3%, but 35% of the cases were corticosteroid-resistant. Steroid-resistant patients were mostly diagnosed in the spring (52.1% (p=0.001. ITP was chronic in 52.7% of the patients and they were also diagnosed mostly in the spring (62.7% (p=0.149. Conclusion: This is the first study showing seasonal association of ITP in adults and we have observed that ITP in adults is mostly diagnosed in the spring. The reason why more patients are diagnosed in the spring may be due to the existence of atmospheric pollens
In seasonal environments the timing of various biological processes is crucial for growth, survival and reproductive success of an individual. Nowadays, rapid large-scale climate change is altering species’ seasonal timing (phenology) in many eco¬systems. In this thesis Lucia Salis focuses on the study of seasonal timing in the food chain of the oak-winter moth-great tit. As temperature increased over the last decades, both phenologies of the host plant, the oak, and the herbivorous insect, t...
Emerton, Rebecca; Zsoter, Ervin; Smith, Paul; Salamon, Peter
Seasonal hydrological forecasting has potential benefits for many sectors, including agriculture, water resources management and humanitarian aid. At present, no global scale seasonal hydrological forecasting system exists operationally; although smaller scale systems have begun to emerge around the globe over the past decade, a system providing consistent global scale seasonal forecasts would be of great benefit in regions where no other forecasting system exists, and to organisations operating at the global scale, such as disaster relief. We present here a new operational global ensemble seasonal hydrological forecast, currently under development at ECMWF as part of the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). The proposed system, which builds upon the current version of GloFAS, takes the long-range forecasts from the ECMWF System4 ensemble seasonal forecast system (which incorporates the HTESSEL land surface scheme) and uses this runoff as input to the Lisflood routing model, producing a seasonal river flow forecast out to 4 months lead time, for the global river network. The seasonal forecasts will be evaluated using the global river discharge reanalysis, and observations where available, to determine the potential value of the forecasts across the globe. The seasonal forecasts will be presented as a new layer in the GloFAS interface, which will provide a global map of river catchments, indicating whether the catchment-averaged discharge forecast is showing abnormally high or low flows during the 4-month lead time. Each catchment will display the corresponding forecast as an ensemble hydrograph of the weekly-averaged discharge forecast out to 4 months, with percentile thresholds shown for comparison with the discharge climatology. The forecast visualisation is based on a combination of the current medium-range GloFAS forecasts and the operational EFAS (European Flood Awareness System) seasonal outlook, and aims to effectively communicate the nature of a seasonal
Silva, Analiza M; Matias, Catarina N; Santos, Diana A; Thomas, Diana; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luís B
Magnitude and variation in energy balance (EB) components over an athletic season are largely unknown. We investigated the longitudinal changes in EB over one season and explored the association between EB variation and change in the main fat-free mass (FFM) components in highly trained athletes. Eighty athletes (54 males; handball, volleyball, basketball, triathlete, and swimming) were evaluated from the beginning of the season to the main competition stage. Resting and total energy expenditure (REE and TEE, respectively) were assessed by indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water, respectively. Physical activity energy expenditure was calculated as TEE - 0.1 TEE - REE. Fat mass (FM), FFM, and bone mineral were evaluated with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; changed body energy stores were calculated as 1.0(ΔFFM/Δtime) + 9.5(ΔFM/Δtime). Total-body water (TBW) and its compartments were assessed through dilution techniques, and total-body protein was calculated from a four-compartment model, with body volume assessed by air displacement plethysmography. Although a negative EB of -17.4 ± 72.7 kcal·d was observed (P sports and across sex groups resulting in a net weight increase (0.7 ± 2.3 kg) that is attributable to significant changes in FFM (1.2 ± 1.6 kg) and FM (-0.7 ± 1.5 kg) (P sports, and age. The mean negative EB observed over the season resulted from the rate of FM use and FFM accretion, but with a large variation by sex and sports. TBW, but not total-body protein or mineral balance, explained the magnitude of EB, which means that athletes under a positive or a negative EB showed a TBW expansion or shrinkage, respectively, specifically within the cells, over one athletic season.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Patterns of seasonal occurrence of Southern Resident Killer Whales (SRKW) throughout their range. Southern Resident Killer Whales are listed as a Distinct Population...
Full Text Available The recognition of seasonal patterns in infectious disease occurrence dates back at least as far as the hippocratic era, but the mechanisms underlying these fluctuations remain poorly understood. Many classes of mechanistic hypotheses have been proposed to explain seasonality of various directly transmitted diseases, including at least the following; human activity, seasonal variability in human immune system function, seasonal variations in vitamin D levels, seasonality of melatonin, and pathogen infectivity. In this short paper will briefly discuss the role of these factors in the seasonal patterns of infectious diseases.
Miura, T.; Tobioka, J.
The seasonal changes in trees are highly dependant on their health and growth rate. Monitoring the vigor of trees at every season provides basic data which can be used at trees planting to predict the physiological characteristics of their seasonal change. In this study, 3 kinds of trees ; zelkova, camphor and metasequoia were monthly observed from April to December, using an infrared television camera. The vigor of the trees was evaluated in each season and the relationship between their image and the evaluation in each season was investigated. The data shows that there is a high correlation between the vigor and the seasonal evaluations
Nursamsiah; Nugroho Sugianto, Denny; Suprijanto, Jusup; Munasik; Yulianto, Bambang
The information of extreme wave height return level was required for maritime planning and management. The recommendation methods in analyzing extreme wave were better distributed by Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). Seasonal variation was often considered in the extreme wave model. This research aims to identify the best model of GPD by considering a seasonal variation of the extreme wave. By using percentile 95 % as the threshold of extreme significant wave height, the seasonal GPD and non-seasonal GPD fitted. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was applied to identify the goodness of fit of the GPD model. The return value from seasonal and non-seasonal GPD was compared with the definition of return value as criteria. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test result shows that GPD fits data very well both seasonal and non-seasonal model. The seasonal return value gives better information about the wave height characteristics.
Poland, M. P.; de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, E.
The driving forces behind Yellowstone's dynamic deformation, vigorous hydrothermal system, and abundant seismicity are usually ascribed to "magmatic fluids," which could refer to magma, water, volatiles, or some combination. Deformation data alone cannot distinguish the relative importance of these fluids. Gravity measurements, however, provide an indication of mass change over time and, when combined with surface displacements, can constrain the density of subsurface fluids. Unfortunately, several decades of gravity surveys at Yellowstone have yielded ambiguous results. We suspect that the difficulty in interpreting Yellowstone gravity data is due to seasonal variations in environmental conditions—especially surface and ground water. Yellowstone gravity surveys are usually carried out at the same time of year (generally late summer) to minimize the impact of seasonality. Nevertheless, surface and subsurface water levels are not likely to be constant from year to year, given annual differences in precipitation. To assess the overall magnitude of seasonal gravity changes, we conducted gravity surveys of benchmarks in and around Yellowstone caldera in May, July, August, and October 2017. Our goal was to characterize seasonal variations due to snow melt/accumulation, changes in river and lake levels, changes in groundwater levels, and changes in hydrothermal activity. We also hope to identify sites that show little variation in gravity over the course of the 2017 surveys, as these locations may be less prone to seasonal changes and more likely to detect small variations due to magmatic processes. Preliminary examination of data collected in May and July 2017 emphasizes the importance of site location relative to sources of water. For example, a site on the banks of the Yellowstone River showed a gravity increase of several hundred microgals associated with a 50 cm increase in the river level. A high-altitude site far from rivers and lakes, in contrast, showed a
THIAGO ALEXANDRE SANTANA GILIO
Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the agronomic performance and estimate the genetic divergence of 18 cotton genotypes grown in the main season (sowed in December, 2012 and off season (sowed in January, 2013, considering their agronomic characteristics and resistance to Ramularia leaf spot. A randomized block experimental design was used, with five replications. The characteristics evaluated were plant height, first branch height, position of first fruiting branch, height of first fruiting branch, length between nodes, number of nodes, average number of bolls per plant, average boll weight, area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC related to the Ramularia leaf spot severity, weight of 100 - seed from the plant middle third, fiber percentage, average production per plant, yield and cotton fiber quality. The results were subjected to individual and joint analysis of variance and the genetic divergence was estimated according to multivariate procedures (Mahalanobis' generalized distance and Tocher's optimization method. The dissimilarity matrices were summed to estimate the genetic divergence, considering both growing periods. Genetic variability was found among the genotypes evaluated, in both the main season and off season. The characteristic that most contributed to the genetic divergence in the main season was the production per plant and, in the off season, was the fiber percentage. According to the results of the present work, the crosses between the genotypes BRS - 335 and FMT - 707; FM - 910 and FMT - 707; and IMA - 08 - 12427 and FMT - 707 are recommended.
Jazayeri, S.M.R.T.; Yahyai, A.
The purpose of this study is, first to find out, based on historical data, whether quarterly averages of non-OPEC supply follow a seasonal pattern. If that is mathematically established, then, secondly, it is attempted to estimate the best seasonal factors to decompose the estimated yearly average into seasonal averages. This study applies the Fourier analysis to quarterly supply series to test for seasonality, and provides estimates of seasonal factors for the year 2001 by applying the so-called X-11 decomposition method to the annual estimate. A set of historical data, consisting of quarterly supply averages of individual countries, regional subtotals and aggregate non-OPEC for the period 1971-2000, forms the basis of the analysis. Through the application of the Fourier analysis and X-11 decomposition method, it is demonstrated that quarterly non-OPEC supply, be it by an individual major producer or regional sub-totals, clearly follows a seasonal pattern. This is a very useful conclusion for the market analyst involved with forecasting the quarterly supply. (author)
Clark, Niall A.; Edwards, Andrew M.; Morton, R. Hugh; Butterly, Ronald J.
The purpose of this study was to examine season-to-season variations in physiological fitness parameters among a 1st team squad of professional adult male soccer players for the confirmatory purposes of identifying normative responses (immediately prior to pre-season training (PPS), mid-season (MID), and end-of-season (EOS)). Test-retest data were collected from a student population on the primary dependent variables of anaerobic threshold (AT) and maximal aerobic power (VO2 max) to define meaningful measurement change in excess of test-retest technical error between test-to-test performances. Participants from a pool of 42 professional soccer players were tested over a set sequence of tests during the 3-year period: 1) basic anthropometry, 2) countermovement jump (CMJ) tests 3) a combined AT and VO2 max test. Over the 3-year period there were no test-to-test changes in mean VO2 max performance exceeding pre-defined limits of test agreement (mean of eight measures: 61.6 ± 0.6 ml·kg-1·min-1). In contrast, VO2 at AT was significantly higher at the MID test occasion in seasons 2 (+4.8%; p = 0.04, p elite cohort between test-to-test occasions, VO2 max values did not vary significantly over the study which supports previous short-term observations suggesting a general ‘elite’ threshold of 60 ml·kg-1 min. Interestingly, AT significantly varied where VO2 max was stable and these variations also coincided with on- and off-seasons suggesting that AT is a better indication of acute training state than VO2 max. Key points Maximal aerobic power remains fairly stable across inter- and intra-season measurements. Anaerobic threshold appears more sensitive of training state confirming our earlier observations. The professional players tended to attain optimal performances at the mid-season interval over the 3 seasons, presumably prior to the development of accumulative fatigue. PMID:24150149
Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.
In biomes that have distinct winter seasons, start of spring phenological events, specifically timing of budburst and green-up of leaves, coincides with transpiration. Seasons leave annual signatures that reflect the dynamic nature of the hydrologic cycle and link the different spheres of the Earth system. This paper evaluates whether continuity between AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring land surface phenology, specifically start of season (SOS), in Alaska. Additionally, two thresholds, one based on NDVI and the other on accumulated growing degree-days (GDD), are compared to determine which most accurately predicts SOS for Fairbanks. Ratio of maximum greenness at SOS was computed from biweekly AVHRR and MODIS composites for 2001 through 2004 for Anchorage and Fairbanks regions. SOS dates were determined from annual green-up observations made by GLOBE students. Results showed that different processing as well as spectral characteristics of each sensor restrict continuity between the two datasets. MODIS values were consistently higher and had less inter-annual variability during the height of the growing season than corresponding AVHRR values. Furthermore, a threshold of 131-175 accumulated GDD was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to AVHRR and MODIS datasets. The NDVI threshold was developed from biweekly AVHRR composites from 1982 through 2004 and corresponding annual green-up observations at University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). The GDD threshold was developed from 20+ years of historic daily mean air temperature data and the same green-up observations. SOS dates computed with the GDD threshold most closely resembled actual green-up dates observed by GLOBE students and UAF researchers. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska.
Bai, Zhenguo; Liu, Dan
A discrete-time deterministic measles model with periodic transmission rate is formulated and studied. The basic reproduction number R0 is defined and used as the threshold parameter in determining the dynamics of the model. It is shown that the disease will die out if R0 1 . Parameters in the model are estimated on the basis of demographic and epidemiological data. Numerical simulations are presented to describe the seasonal fluctuation of measles infection in China.
Miles, E.; Quincey, D. J.; Miles, K.; Hubbard, B. P.; Rowan, A. V.
While the low-gradient debris-covered tongues of many Himalayan glaciers exhibit low surface velocities, quantifying ice flow and its variation through time remains a key challenge for studies aimed at determining the long-term evolution of these glaciers. Recent work has suggested that glaciers in the Everest region of Nepal may show seasonal variability in surface velocity, with ice flow peaking during the summer as monsoon precipitation provides hydrological inputs and thus drives changes in subglacial drainage efficiency. However, satellite and aerial observations of glacier velocity during the monsoon are greatly limited due to cloud cover. Those that do exist do not span the period over which the most dynamic changes occur, and consequently short-term (i.e. daily) changes in flow, as well as the evolution of ice dynamics through the monsoon period, remain poorly understood. In this study, we combine field and remote (satellite image) observations to create a multi-temporal, 3D synthesis of ice deformation rates at Khumbu Glacier, Nepal, focused on the 2017 monsoon period. We first determine net annual and seasonal surface displacements for the whole glacier based on Landsat-8 (OLI) panchromatic data (15m) processed with ImGRAFT. We integrate inclinometer observations from three boreholes drilled by the EverDrill project to determine cumulative deformation at depth, providing a 3D perspective and enabling us to assess the role of basal sliding at each site. We additionally analyze high-frequency on-glacier L1 GNSS data from three sites to characterize variability within surface deformation at sub-seasonal timescales. Finally, each dataset is validated against repeat-dGPS observations at gridded points in the vicinity of the boreholes and GNSS dataloggers. These datasets complement one another to infer thermal regime across the debris-covered ablation area of the glacier, and emphasize the seasonal and spatial variability of ice deformation for glaciers in High
Gabriel R. Bitran; Susana V. Mondschein
This paper studies intertemporal pricing policies when selling seasonal products in retail stores. We first present a continuous time model where a seller faces a stochastic arrival of customers with different valuations of the product. For this model, we characterize the optimal pricing policies as functions of time and inventory. We use this model as a benchmark against which we compare more realistic models that consider periodic pricing reviews. We show that the structure of the optimal p...
Bevan, Suzanne L.; Luckman, Adrian; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas
of 671±70kgm-3 and calculate that total water equivalent volume loss from the active part of the glacier (surface flow speeds >1 m day-1) ranges from 0.5 km3 in 2011 to 1.6 km3 in 2013. A rough ice-flux divergence analysis shows that at lower elevations (... the time series, that melt-induced acceleration is most likely the main driver of the seasonal dynamic thinning, as opposed to changes triggered by retreat....
Daguenet-Frick, Xavier; Gantenbein, Paul; Rommel, Mathias; Fumey, Benjamin; Weber, Robert; Gooneseker, Kanishka; Williamson, Tommy
This article describes a thermochemical seasonal storage with emphasis on the development of a reaction zone for an absorption/desorption unit. The heat and mass exchanges are modelled and the design of a suitable reaction zone is explained. A tube bundle concept is retained for the heat and mass exchangers and the units are manufactured and commissioned. Furthermore, experimental results of both absorption and desorption processes are presented and the exchanged power is compared to the results of the simulations.
Rohošková, M.; Kodešová, R.; Jirků, V.; Žigová, Anna; Kozák, J.
Roč. 11, - (2009), , , EGU2009-6341-3-EGU2009-6341-3 ISSN 1029-7006. [European Geosciences Union General Assembly. 19.04.2009-24.04.2009, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/08/0434 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : seasonal variability * soil aggregate stability * soil types Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science
A. S. Rodger
Full Text Available Analysis of the diurnal and seasonal variation of polar patches, as identified in two years of HF-radar data from Halley, Antarctica during a period near sunspot maximum, shows that there is a broad maximum in occurrence centred about magnetic noon, not local noon. There are minima in occurrence near midsummer and midwinter, with maxima in occurrence between equinox and winter. There are no significant correlations between the occurrence of polar patches and the corresponding hourly averages of the solar wind and IMF parameters, except that patches usually occur when the interplanetary magnetic field has a southward component. The results can be understood in terms of UT and seasonal differences in the plasma concentration being convected from the dayside ionosphere into the polar cap. In summer and winter the electron concentrations in the polar cap are high and low, respectively, but relatively unstructured. About equinox, a tongue of enhanced ionisation is convected into the polar cap; this tongue is then structured by the effects of the interplanetary magnetic field, but these Halley data cannot be used to separate the various competing mechanisms for patch formation. The observed diurnal and seasonal variation in the occurrence of polar patches are largely consistent with predictions of Sojka et al. (1994 when their results are translated into the southern hemisphere. However, the ionospheric effects of flux transfer events are still considered essential in their formation, a feature not yet included in the Sojka et al. model.
Spessa, A. C.; Field, R. D.; Pappenberger, F.; Langner, A.; Englhart, S.; Weber, U.; Stockdale, T.; Siegert, F.; Kaiser, J. W.; Moore, J.
Large-scale fires occur frequently across Indonesia, particularly in the southern region of Kalimantan and eastern Sumatra. They have considerable impacts on carbon emissions, haze production, biodiversity, health, and economic activities. In this study, we demonstrate that severe fire and haze events in Indonesia can generally be predicted months in advance using predictions of seasonal rainfall from the ECMWF System 4 coupled ocean-atmosphere model. Based on analyses of long, up-to-date series observations on burnt area, rainfall, and tree cover, we demonstrate that fire activity is negatively correlated with rainfall and is positively associated with deforestation in Indonesia. There is a contrast between the southern region of Kalimantan (high fire activity, high tree cover loss, and strong non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire) and the central region of Kalimantan (low fire activity, low tree cover loss, and weak, non-linear correlation between observed rainfall and fire). The ECMWF seasonal forecast provides skilled forecasts of burnt and fire-affected area with several months lead time explaining at least 70% of the variance between rainfall and burnt and fire-affected area. Results are strongly influenced by El Niño years which show a consistent positive bias. Overall, our findings point to a high potential for using a more physical-based method for predicting fires with several months lead time in the tropics rather than one based on indexes only. We argue that seasonal precipitation forecasts should be central to Indonesia's evolving fire management policy.
Seasonal variations of indoor radon concentrations have been studied in a cluster of 10 single-family houses. Eight of the houses are of a similar construction with slab-on-grade foundations. The remaining two houses have different substructures, one of them having a crawl space, and the other having partly a basement and partly a crawl space. A 'normal' seasonal variation of the radon concentration with a maximum in winter and a minimum in summer was observed in most of the houses. In these houses the variation showed a strong correlation with the indoor-outdoor temperature difference on a 2-month basis. However, deviating seasonal variations were observed in some of the houses, notably in the two houses having different substructures. This paper reports that a re-examination of the data obtained in a previous study indicates that winter/summer ratios of indoor radon concentrations in Danish houses depend on the house substructure. The mean winter/summer ratios were about 2.1 for houses with slab-on-grade foundations, 1.5 for houses having a basement, and 1.0 for houses with a crawl space (geometric mean values). However, a study with more houses in each substructure category will be needed to show whether or not the indicated differences are generally valid for Danish houses
Vellinga, Michael; Scaife, Adam
Until recently, long-range forecast systems showed only modest levels of skill in predicting surface winter climate around the Atlantic Basin and associated fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation at seasonal lead times. Here we use a new forecast system to assess seasonal predictability of winter North Atlantic climate. We demonstrate that key aspects of European and North American winter climate and the surface North Atlantic Oscillation are highly predictable months ahead. We demonstrate high levels of prediction skill in retrospective forecasts of the surface North Atlantic Oscillation, winter storminess, near-surface temperature, and wind speed, all of which have high value for planning and adaptation to extreme winter conditions. Analysis of forecast ensembles suggests that while useful levels of seasonal forecast skill have now been achieved, key sources of predictability are still only partially represented and there is further untapped predictability. This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License together with an author copyright. This license does not conflict with the regulations of the Crown Copyright.
... consumers How to be a good visitor during flu season 11/20/2017 Access a printer-friendly ... of infection prevention. This is especially true during flu season. According to the CDC, influenza (the flu) ...
Full Text Available An assessment of probabilistic prediction skill of seasonal temperature extremes over Southern Africa is presented. Verification results are presented for six run-on seasons; September to November, October to December, November to January, December...
Cem Yaşar Sanhal
Conclusion: Main outcome of the study points at seasonality in ICP frequency. Future studies in different populations may reveal data about factors that interact with seasonality and playing roles in ICP.
Effect of Dry Season Tomato Farming on Poverty Alleviation among Women ... their major sources of resources for tomato farming, marketing and marketing ... and the effect of dry season tomato farming as strategy for poverty reduction; ...
Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Pratt, Larry; Bower, Amy; Koehl, Armin; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh
The overturning circulation in the Red Sea exhibits a distinct seasonally reversing pattern and is studied using 50-year, high-resolution MIT general circulation model simulations. The seasonal water exchange in the Strait of Bab el Mandeb
... English Español 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season KidsHealth / For Teens / 5 Ways to Prepare ... temporada deportiva 5 Ways to Prepare for Your Sports Season If you've ever played competitive sports, ...
CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...
Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.; Bhosle, N.B.
Seasonal variation in the concentration of some heavy metals in the leaves of seven species of mangrove vegetation from Goa, revealed that maximum concentration of iron and manganese occurs during the monsoon season without any significant toxic...
Avian seasonal fecundity is of interest from evolutionary, ecological, and conservation perspectives. However, direct estimation of seasonal fecundity is difficult, especially with multibrooded birds, and models representing the renesting and quitting processes are usually requi...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Average seasonal sea surface temperatures http://podaac.jpl.nasa.gov/ Naming Convention: XXXX_SSSYYYY_SST.tif XXXX=location (Stell) SSS=season (FAL=fall, SPR=spring,...
Jun 30, 2016 ... The taxonomic composition and the species ... Keywords: Biodiversity; Community structure; Hydrological season; Zooplankton .... Table 1: Seasonal change in recorded environmental parameters ..... reproduction, growth and life duration (Fernandez de .... Spatial temporal patterns and relationships with.
Dr M Waziri
Vol. 20, 2015. 39. Seasonal Variations in Physicochemical Properties of Water, Sediment and Fish of ... The levels of some physicochemical parameters in the dam water were determined in wet and dry seasons .... Water, Waste and Health in ...
Seasonal variation in admission for heart failure, hypertension and stroke. ... Background: Seasonal variation in hospitalization for cardiovascular disease has been ... hypertension and hypertension – related stroke (Cerebrovascular accident) ...
Ikegami, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Takashi
Organisms living outside of tropical zones experience seasonal changes in environment. Organisms are using day length as a calendar to change their physiology and behavior such as seasonal breeding, hibernation, migration, and molting. A comparative biology approach revealed underlying mechanisms of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. Here we review the current understanding of vertebrate seasonal reproduction. We Aso describe the involvement of tissue-specific post-translational modification in functional diversification of a hormone.
Seasonality in yield, physical and chemical properties of the native agar from different life stages of Gracilaria cliftonii was investigated over a period of six seasons (autumn 2008–winter 2009). Agar yield and its properties varied as a function of seasons and life stages but there was no significant correlation between ...
Full Text Available seasonal time scale. Seasonal climate forecasts are defined as probabilistic predictions of how much rain is expected during the season and how warm or cool it will be, based primarily on the principle that the ocean (sea-surface temperatures) influences...
Seasonal boar infertility occurs worldwide and contributes to economic loss to the pork industry. The current study evaluated cooled vs cryopreserved semen quality of 11 Duroc boars collected in June (cool season) and August 2014 (warm season). Semen was cooled to 16°C (cooled) or frozen over liquid...
Learn the astronomy behind the changing of the seasons. Students know that we mark the change of seasons with the position of the Sun over certain parts of the Earth. The specific time and date for the change of seasons is determined by the position of the Sun, not above the horizon necessarily, nor geographically, but rather where the Sun is…
Quresh S. Latif; Kathleen D. Fleming; Cameron Barrows; John T. Rotenberry
To guide monitoring of burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia) in the Coachella Valley, California, USA, we analyzed survey-method-specific seasonal variation in detectability. Point-based call-broadcast surveys yielded high early season detectability that then declined through time, whereas detectability on driving surveys increased through the season. Point surveys...
Coupled with the seasonal nature of agricultural production, seasonality of farmers\\' cash demand influences the level of actual market supply and price of agricultural products. This study investigates the seasonal behaviours of producer prices and farmers\\' cash demand for two crops (white teff and white wheat) that serve ...
Bal, A.; Bartlow, N. M.
Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations provide crucial data for the study of slow slip events and volcanic hazards in the Cascadia region. However, these GPS stations also record seasonal changes in deformation caused by hydrologic, atmospheric, and other seasonal loading. Removing these signals is necessary for accurately modeling the tectonic sources of deformation. Traditionally, seasonal trends in data been accounted for by fitting and removing sine curves from the data. However, not all seasonal trends follow a sinusoidal shape. Seasonal Trend Loess, or STL, is a filtering procedure for a decomposing a time series into trend, seasonal, and remainder components (Cleveland et. al, Journal of Official Statistics, 1990). STL has a simple design that consists of a sequence of applications of the loess smoother which allows for fast computation of large amounts of trend and seasonal smoothing. STL allows for non-sinusoidal shapes in seasonal deformation signals, and allows for evolution of seasonal signals over time. We applied Seasonal Trend Loess to GPS data from the Cascadia region. We compared our results to a traditional sine wave fit for seasonal removal at selected stations, including stations with slow slip event and volcanic signals. We hope that the STL method may be able to more accurately differentiate seasonal and tectonic deformation signals.
Full Text Available The Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) involved two wet season and one dry season field campaigns. This paper reports on the wet season campaigns. The first was conducted at five sites along the Kalahari Transect in Zambia...
Beighle, Aaron; Alderman, Brandon; Morgan, Charles F.; Le Masurier, Guy
Seasonality appears to have an impact on children's physical activity levels, but equivocal findings demand more study in this area. With the increased use of pedometers in both research and practice, collecting descriptive data in various seasons to examine the impact of seasonality on pedometer-measured physical activity among children is…
National Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site government Web resources and services. CFS Seasonal Climate Forecasts CFS Forecast of Seasonal Climate discontinued after October 2012. This page displays seasonal climate anomalies from the NCEP coupled forecast
Sunde, Peter; Asferg, Tommy
season length (population management/ethical/other). In non-sedentary species, changes in bag size correlated positively with changes in season length (overall response: b = 0.54, 95%CI: 0.14-0.95): reducing the hunting season to 50% of its initial length would on average result in a 31% reduction (95...
Hsu, Sze-Bi; Zhao, Xiao-Qiang
A complete classification for the global dynamics of a Lotka-Volterra two species competition model with seasonal succession is obtained via the stability analysis of equilibria and the theory of monotone dynamical systems. The effects of two death rates in the bad season and the proportion of the good season on the competition outcomes are also discussed. © Springer-Verlag 2011
Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter
Objectives: In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Methods: Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health...
... Island; thence the rhumb line to Black Rock Point on Stewart Island; thence the rhumb line to the point... BY SEA Zones, Areas, and Seasonal Periods § 42.30-10 Southern Winter Seasonal Zone. (a) The northern boundary of the Southern Winter Seasonal Zone is the rhumb line from the east coast of the American...
Hassoon, Ahmed F. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, AL- Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)
Monthly observed wind speed data at four weather stations (Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Rutba) at 10m above surface were used to explore the temporal variations of the wind speed (1971-2000) in Iraq. There are different methods to analyze wind speed variation data, but the time series are one of the powerful analysis methods to diagnose the seasonal wind speed anomaly. The results show most high abnormal data is found in summer seasons in all the stations of study, where it concentrated at 1975, 1976, 1978,1996-1995, 2000. Rutba station is different where its high deviation about annual average at nearly all the seasons, in this station there are trends in seasonal wind towards decreases in all the seasons, for example in winter it reached to about 0.046m/s.a-1, while in other stations Mosul and Basra there increases in annual seasonal wind speed trends in seasons spring, summer, autumn where its reached higher value at summer in Basra about 0.0482m/s.a-1. The second method to determine abnormal annual seasonal wind speed is through comparison seasonal average wind speed, where the average wind speed at the seasons summer and spring in Baghdad and Basra station have very high averages at nearly all years, this cannot see in Mosul and Rutba, in Rutba the seasonal average is intersected with each other, summer and spring is not have greater seasonal average in this station.
The influence of seasonal changes on the properties of water from Ethiope River at Abraka was investigated. Composite samples from six different sampling points were collected and assessed for both dry and wet seasons. The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal ...
Minett, M.M.; Binkley, T.B.; Weidauer, L.A.; Specker, B.L.
Objectives: To assess body composition and bone changes pre- to post-season (pre-post) and post- to off-season (post-off) in female soccer athletes (SC). Methods: Outcomes were assessed using DXA and pQCT in 23 SC and 17 controls at three times throughout season. Results: SC, non-starters in particular, lost lean mass pre-post (-0.9±0.2 kg, pSoccer players lost lean mass over the competitive season that was not recovered during off-season. Bone size increased pre- to post-season. Female soccer athletes experience body composition and bone geometry changes that differ depending on the time of season and on athlete’s playing status. Evaluations of athletes at key times across the training season are necessary to understand changes that occur. PMID:28250243
Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry
The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.
Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.
The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat
Groves-Kirkby, C. J.; Denman, A. R.; Phillips, P. S.; Crockett, R. G. M.; Sinclair, J. M.
In temperate climates, domestic radon concentration levels are generally seasonally dependent, the level in the home reflecting the convolution of two time-dependent functions. These are the source soil-gas radon concentration itself, and the principal force driving radon into the building from the soil, namely the pressure-difference between interior and exterior environment. While the meteorological influence can be regarded as relatively uniform on a European scale, its variability being defined largely by the influence of North-Atlantic weather systems, soil-gas radon is generally more variable as it is essentially geologically dependent. Seasonal variability of domestic radon concentration can therefore be expected to exhibit geographical variability, as is indeed the case. To compensate for the variability of domestic radon levels when assessing the long term radon health risks, the results of individual short-term measurements are generally converted to equivalent mean annual levels by application of a Seasonal Correction Factor (SCF). This is a multiplying factor, typically derived from measurements of a large number of homes, applied to the measured short-term radon concentration to provide a meaningful annual mean concentration for dose-estimation purposes. Following concern as to the universal applicability of a single SCF set, detailed studies in both the UK and France have reported location-specific SCF sets for different regions of each country. Further results indicate that SCFs applicable to the UK differ significantly from those applicable elsewhere in Europe and North America in both amplitude and phase, supporting the thesis that seasonal variability in indoor radon concentration cannot realistically be compensated for by a single national or international SCF scheme. Published data characterising the seasonal variability of European national domestic radon concentrations, has been collated and analysed, with the objective of identifying
Full Text Available Avian annual survival has received much attention, yet little is known about seasonal patterns in survival, especially of migratory passerines. In order to evaluate survival rates and timing of mortality within the breeding season of adult reed warblers (Acrocephalus scirpaceus, mark-recapture data were collected in southwest Poland, between 2006 and 2012. A total of 612 individuals (304 females and 308 males were monitored throughout the entire breeding season, and their capture-recapture histories were used to model survival rates. Males showed higher survival during the breeding season (0.985, 95% CI: 0.941-0.996 than females (0.869, 95% CI: 0.727-0.937. Survival rates of females declined with the progression of the breeding season (from May to August, while males showed constant survival during this period. We also found a clear pattern within the female (but not male nesting cycle: survival was significantly lower during the laying, incubation, and nestling periods (0.934, 95% CI: 0.898-0.958, when birds spent much time on the nest, compared to the nest building and fledgling periods (1.000, 95% CI: 1.00-1.000, when we did not record any female mortality. These data (coupled with some direct evidence, like bird corpses or blood remains found next to/on the nest may suggest that the main cause of adult mortality was on-nest predation. The calculated survival rates for both sexes during the breeding season were high compared to annual rates reported for this species, suggesting that a majority of mortality occurs at other times of the year, during migration or wintering. These results have implications for understanding survival variation within the reproductive period as well as general trends of avian mortality.
Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.
Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.
Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz
Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
E. Coughlan de Perez
Full Text Available In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale across sub-Saharan Africa. Given the sparsity of hydrological observations, we input bias-corrected reanalysis rainfall into the Global Flood Awareness System to identify seasonal indicators of floodiness. Results demonstrate that in some regions of western, central, and eastern Africa with typically wet climates, even a perfect tercile forecast of seasonal total rainfall would provide little to no indication of the seasonal likelihood of flooding. The number of extreme events within a season shows the highest correlations with floodiness consistently across regions. Otherwise, results vary across climate regimes: floodiness in arid regions in southern and eastern Africa shows the strongest correlations with seasonal average soil moisture and seasonal total rainfall. Floodiness in wetter climates of western and central Africa and Madagascar shows the strongest relationship with measures of the intensity of seasonal rainfall. Measures of rainfall patterns, such as the length of dry spells, are least related to seasonal floodiness across the continent. Ultimately, identifying the drivers of seasonal flooding can be used to improve forecast information for flood preparedness and to avoid misleading decision-makers.
Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Ozenne, Brice
Modalities Test (SDMT) and the Simple Reaction Time (SRT) twice; in summer and in winter. Compared to controls, SAD individuals showed significant season-independent impairments in tasks measuring working memory (LNS), cognitive processing speed (SDMT) and motor speed (SRT). In SAD individuals, cognitive...... processing speed was significantly negatively associated with the seasonal change in SAD depressive symptoms. We present novel evidence that in SAD individuals, working memory, cognitive processing- and motor speed is not only impaired in the winter but also in the summer. This suggests that certain...
Gilbert, Christopher L; Christiaensen, Luc; Kaminski, Jonathan
Everyone knows about seasonality. But what exactly do we know? This study systematically measures seasonal price gaps at 193 markets for 13 food commodities in seven African countries. It shows that the commonly used dummy variable or moving average deviation methods to estimate the seasonal gap can yield substantial upward bias. This can be partially circumvented using trigonometric and sawtooth models, which are more parsimonious. Among staple crops, seasonality is highest for maize (33 percent on average) and lowest for rice (16½ percent). This is two and a half to three times larger than in the international reference markets. Seasonality varies substantially across market places but maize is the only crop in which there are important systematic country effects. Malawi, where maize is the main staple, emerges as exhibiting the most acute seasonal differences. Reaching the Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger requires renewed policy attention to seasonality in food prices and consumption.
Kunst, Robert M.
Abstract: We consider a nonparametric test for the null of seasonal unit roots in quarterly time series that builds on the RUR (records unit root) test by Aparicio, Escribano, and Sipols. We find that the test concept is more promising than a formalization of visual aids such as plots by quarter. In order to cope with the sensitivity of the original RUR test to autocorrelation under its null of a unit root, we suggest an augmentation step by autoregression. We present some evidence on the siz...
Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)
PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system
Gammage, R.B.; Dudney, C.S.; Wilson, D.L.; King, D.
Winter and summer indoor radon measurements are reported for 121 houses in Freehold, New Jersey. When presented as winter:summer ratios of indoor radon, the data closely approximate a lognormal distribution. The geometric mean is 1.49. Freehold is located on the fairly flat coastal plain. The winter:summer ratios are believed to represent the norm for regions of the U.S. with cold winters and hot summers. The Freehold data set can be compared to corresponding data sets from other locations to suggest seasonal perturbations of indoor radon arising from unusual causes
Reilly, R. W.; Brown, D. R.; Huber, H. D.
Results are reported of an investigation to estimate the cost of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) from a seasonal heat source. The cost of supplying energy (hot water) from an ATES system is estimated. Three types of loads are investigated: point demands, residential developments, and a multidistrict city. Several technical and economic factors are found to control the economic performance of an ATES system. Costs are found to be prohibitive for systems of small size, long transmission distances, and employing expensive purchased thermal energy. ATES is found to be cost-competitive with oil-fired and electric hot water delivery systems under a broad range of potential situations.
Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M
Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...
Full Text Available Purpose of the article is to disentangle different calendar effects which leave efficiency holes in Lithuanian market. This paper presents and tests if commonly described seasonal patterns exist in Lithuanian stock market. Analysis of three different sections: period-of-the-year; week-of-the-month and day-of-the-week, suggests that calendar effects do exist in this market. The multitude of explanations for the seasonal effect leaves the reader confused about its primary cause(s: is it tax-loss selling, window dressing, information, bid-ask bounce, or a combination of these causes? The confusion arises, in part, because evidence has generally been presented in support of a particular hypothesis though the same evidence may be consistent with another hypothesis. Methodology/methods are logical and systemic analysis of research literature based on the comparative and generalization methods as well as statistical methods. Scientific aim of the article is the lack of arguments questioning if market prices operating system is fully effective. Novelty of the paper is to the answer to the question what seasonal anomalies are also present in the stock market of new open economy countries. Findings show that using this modified strategy investor could achieve 20.7% compounded annual growth rate versus 7.8% achieved using simply holding stocks throughout. The hypothesis asserts that returns generally will be greater following the “January effect”. There is limited amount of data for constructing robust seasonal strategies so we modified Buy and Hold strategy with simple rules of using best and worst months to show how they influence OMXV index performance. In the conclusions, empirical results using stock index returns for 2000 - 2010 support the hypothesis in Lithuaian stock market. Abnormal activity of OMXV index’s performance is found in the end of summer and throughout autumn. August is best performer of the year while October is
European demand for gas will grow in the years to come. Simultaneously, gas production in Europe will decrease and imported gas will be needed to replace indigenous production. Gas demand is not constant during the year. There are variations in demand on different timescales ranging from seasonal to hourly. Variations in demand are characterised by two main parameters: working volume and deliverability. Working volume - the amount of gas that can be supplied above the baseload production volume during a long (cold) period- is primarily needed to cope with the summer-winter pattern of gas consumption. Most of the summer-winter pattern comes from the temperature sensitive gas consumption by households and service industries. Gas usage by industry and the power sector are more evenly spread throughout the year and need less working volume. Deliverability - the amount of gas per hour that can be generated on a (very) cold day above the baseload capacity - is the ability to produce large volumes during short periods, e.g. for extremely cold days, or during peak periods during a day. In this paper we argue that a large amount of additional working volume will be required over the coming years. First, flexible European production will be replaced by long-distance import gas, and second, the gas market is expected to grow further. Todays market appears focus mainly on cavems for storage volume. Cavems have little working volume but are ideal for trading purposes. Consequently, Europe may be facing a deficit in working volume, i.e. the ability to cope with seasonal changes in demand. This paper aims to widen the discussion of this matter and give rise to this concern by setting out a broad analysis, exploring the market drivers for seasonal storage and identifying the public interest issues for this market. Chapter 2 gives an overview of demand for and supply characteristics of gas flexibility. Chapter 3 describes the role of gas storage facilities in the gas market
Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent
In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sanchezgomez, E.; Ortizbevia, M.
We present here seasonal forecasts of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) issued from ocean predictors with an empirical procedure. The Singular Values Decomposition (SVD) of the cross-correlation matrix between predictor and predictand fields at the lag used for the forecast lead is at the core of the empirical model. The main predictor field are sea surface temperature anomalies, although sea ice cover anomalies are also used. Forecasts are issued in probabilistic form. The model is an improvement over a previous version (1), where Sea Level Pressure Anomalies were first forecast, and the NAO Index built from this forecast field. Both correlation skill between forecast and observed field, and number of forecasts that hit the correct NAO sign, are used to assess the forecast performance , usually above those values found in the case of forecasts issued assuming persistence. For certain seasons and/or leads, values of the skill are above the .7 usefulness treshold. References (1) SanchezGomez, E. and Ortiz Bevia M., 2002, Estimacion de la evolucion pluviometrica de la Espana Seca atendiendo a diversos pronosticos empiricos de la NAO, in 'El Agua y el Clima', Publicaciones de la AEC, Serie A, N 3, pp 63-73, Palma de Mallorca, Spain
Flueckiger, Jacqueline [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Environmental Physics, Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Knutti, Reto [Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); White, James W.C. [Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Renssen, Hans [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Greenland ice cores, as well as many other paleo-archives from the northern hemisphere, recorded a series of 25 warm interstadial events, the so-called Dansgaard-Oeschger (D-O) events, during the last glacial period. We use the three-dimensional coupled global ocean-atmosphere-sea ice model ECBILT-CLIO and force it with freshwater input into the North Atlantic to simulate abrupt glacial climate events, which we use as analogues for D-O events. We focus our analysis on the Northern Hemisphere. The simulated events show large differences in the regional and seasonal distribution of the temperature and precipitation changes. While the temperature changes in high northern latitudes and in the North Atlantic region are dominated by winter changes, the largest temperature increases in most other land regions are seen in spring. Smallest changes over land are found during the summer months. Our model simulations also demonstrate that the temperature and precipitation change patterns for different intensifications of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are not linear. The extent of the transitions varies, and local non-linearities influence the amplitude of the annual mean response as well as the response in different seasons. Implications for the interpretation of paleo-records are discussed. (orig.)
West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida
Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.
Ávila Marizangela Rizzatti
Full Text Available Considering the difficulties of producing high quality soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] seeds during the traditional cropping period in some areas of the State of Paraná, Brazil, a research project was carried out with the objective of evaluating the influence of sowing dates on the physiological and sanitary quality of seeds, during the 1998/99 and 1999/00 cropping seasons, in Maringá, PR, Brazil. The experiment consisted of five cultivar competition assays, arranged in a completely randomized block design, with each assay sown at different dates (10/15, 10/30, 11/15, 11/30 and 12/15 for each cropping season. The evaluated cultivars were BRS 132 (early, BRS 133 (semi-early, BR 16 (semi-early, BRS 134 (intermediate and FT- Estrela (late. Seeds obtained at the sowing dates were evaluated in the laboratory by germination, accelerated aging, and health tests. Sowing in November resulted in seeds with superior physiological and health quality. Cultivar BRS 133 showed the greatest stability in seed production with better quality for the different sowing dates. Cultivars BRS 134 and BRS 133, which were sown during the period from 10/15 to 11/30, produced seeds that had higher percentages of normal seedlings in the germination and accelerated aging tests. Advancing or delaying sowing dates had adverse effects on soybean seed production with regard to their sanitary quality.
Jennings, D. E.; Cottini, V.; Nixon, C. A.; Flasar, F. M.; Kunde, V. G.; Samuelson, R. E.; Romani, P. N.; Hesman, B. E.; Carlson, R. C.; Gorius, N. J. P.; Coustenis, A.; Tokano, T.
Seasonal changes in Titan's surface brightness temperatures have been observed by Cassini in the thermal infrared. The Composite Infrared Spectrometer measured surface radiances at 19 μm in two time periods: one in late northern winter (LNW; L s = 335 deg.) and another centered on northern spring equinox (NSE; L s = 0 deg.). In both periods we constructed pole-to-pole maps of zonally averaged brightness temperatures corrected for effects of the atmosphere. Between LNW and NSE a shift occurred in the temperature distribution, characterized by a warming of ∼0.5 K in the north and a cooling by about the same amount in the south. At equinox the polar surface temperatures were both near 91 K and the equator was at 93.4 K. We measured a seasonal lag of ΔL S ∼ 9 0 in the meridional surface temperature distribution, consistent with the post-equinox results of Voyager 1 as well as with predictions from general circulation modeling. A slightly elevated temperature is observed at 65 0 S in the relatively cloud-free zone between the mid-latitude and southern cloud regions.
Purkey, Matthew R; Seeskin, Zachary; Chandra, Rakesh
To examine the incidence of epistaxis as a function of season and age and to determine predictors of episodes within the epistaxis patient population presenting to a tertiary hospital system. Retrospective cohort study. Electronic medical record charts of patients presenting to the Northwestern Emergency Department, admitted to an inpatient ward, or seen in an outpatient setting between 2008 and 2012 were reviewed and selected for an International Classifications of Disease-Ninth Revision epistaxis code of 784.7. Season of presentation, demographic factors (age, race, gender, insurance status), medication use (including anticoagulants and topical nasal steroid administration), and several comorbidities were analyzed as potential predictors of episodes. A total of 2,405 patients were identified with a total of 3,666 individual epistaxis episodes over 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis (CRS), coagulopathy, hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), hematologic malignancy, and hypertension (HTN) as predictors of a higher number of cases. Epistaxis occurred more frequently during colder months and in older patients. Epistaxis occurs more commonly during the winter and in older patients. AR, CRS, coagulopathy, HHT, hematologic malignancy, and HTN are associated with increased epistaxis incidence. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Gatzen, Christoph; Púčik, Tomas; Ryva, David
In this study, we apply for the first time the definition of a derecho (Johns and Hirt, 1987) to European cold-season convective storm systems. These occurred on 18 January 2007 and 1 March 2008, respectively, and they are shown to fulfill the criteria of a derecho. Damaging winds were reported over a distance of 1500 km and locally reached F3 intensity. Synoptic analysis for the events reveal strongly forced situations that have been described for cold-season derechoes in the United States. A comparison of swaths of damaging winds, radar structures, detected lightning, cold pool development, and cloud-top temperatures indicates that both derechoes formed along cold fronts that were affected by strong quasi-geostrophic forcing. It seems that the overlap of the cold front position with the strong differential cyclonic vorticity advection at the cyclonic flank of mid-level jet streaks favoured intense convection and high winds. The movement and path width of the two derechoes seemed to be related to this overlap. The wind gust intensity that was also different for both events is discussed and could be related to the component of the mid-level winds perpendicular to the gust fronts.
Jimmie L. Yeiser; Andrew W. Ezell
Results from four loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) sites, one in each of MS and TX in 2001 and again in 2002, are presented. Twelve herbicide treatments and an untreated check were tested. Herbicide treatments were applied early (mid-March), late (mid-May), both timings, or not at all to achieve, early- late-, full-season, or no weed control. When...
Cai, Zhi-Quan; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Bongers, Frans
Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in seasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage in seasonal tropical forests, which may explain pan-tropical liana distributions. We compared a range of leaf-level physiological attributes of 18 co-occurring liana and 16 tree species during the wet and dry seasons in a tropical seasonal forest in Xishuangbanna, China. We found that, during the wet season, lianas had significantly higher CO(2) assimilation per unit mass (A(mass)), nitrogen concentration (N(mass)), and delta(13)C values, and lower leaf mass per unit area (LMA) than trees, indicating that lianas have higher assimilation rates per unit leaf mass and higher integrated water-use efficiency (WUE), but lower leaf structural investments. Seasonal variation in CO(2) assimilation per unit area (A(area)), phosphorus concentration per unit mass (P(mass)), and photosynthetic N-use efficiency (PNUE), however, was significantly lower in lianas than in trees. For instance, mean tree A(area) decreased by 30.1% from wet to dry season, compared with only 12.8% for lianas. In contrast, from the wet to dry season mean liana delta(13)C increased four times more than tree delta(13)C, with no reduction in PNUE, whereas trees had a significant reduction in PNUE. Lianas had higher A(mass) than trees throughout the year, regardless of season. Collectively, our findings indicate that lianas fix more carbon and use water and nitrogen more efficiently than trees, particularly during seasonal drought, which may confer a competitive advantage to lianas during the dry season, and thus may explain their high relative abundance in seasonal tropical forests.
Ray, A. J.; Barsugli, J. J.; Yocum, H.; Stokes, M.; Miskus, D.
The runoff season is a critical period for the management of water supply in the western U.S., where in many places over 70% of the annual runoff occurs in the snowmelt period. Managing not only the volume, but the intra-seasonal timing of the runoff is important for optimizing storage, as well as achieving other goals such as mitigating flood risk, and providing peak flows for riparian habitat management, for example, for endangered species. Western river forecast centers produce volume forecasts for western reservoirs that are key input into many water supply decisions, and also short term river forecasts out to 10 days. The early volume forecasts each year typically begin in December, and are updated throughout the winter and into the runoff season (April-July for many areas, but varies). This presentation will discuss opportunities for enhancing this existing suite of RFC water outlooks, including the needs for and potential use for "intraseasonal" products beyond those provided by the Ensemble Streamflow Prediction system and the volume forecasts. While precipitation outlooks have little skill for many areas and seasons, and may not contribute significantly to the outlook, late winter and spring temperature forecasts have meaningful skill in certain areas and sub-seasonal to seasonal time scales. This current skill in CPC temperature outlooks is an opportunity to translate these products into information about the snowpack and potential runoff timing, even where the skill in precipitation is low. Temperature is important for whether precipitation falls as snow or rain, which is critical for streamflow forecasts, especially in the melt season in snowpack-dependent watersheds. There is a need for better outlooks of the evolution of snowpack, conditions influencing the April-July runoff, and the timing of spring peak or shape of the spring hydrograph. The presentation will also discuss a our work with stakeholders of the River Forecast Centers and the NIDIS
Tan, Oğuz; Metin, Barış; Ünsalver, Barış Önen; Sayar, Gökben Hızlı
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is frequently associated with mood disorders. However, to date, the co-occurrence of OCD with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) has not been investigated. We have aimed to estimate the prevalence of seasonal mood changes in patients with OCD and explore the contribution of seasonality in mood to the severity of OCD. The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ), the Yale-Brown Obsession and Compulsion Scale (Y-BOCS), the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 Items (HDRS-17), and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered to patients with OCD (n=104) and controls (n=125). The degree of seasonality was measured by the Global Seasonality Score (GSS) calculated from the SPAQ. SAD and subsyndromal seasonal affective disorder (S-SAD) were significantly more prevalent in patients with OCD (53%, n=55) than controls (25%, n=31). When patients were assessed in the season in which SAD occurs, depression and compulsions (but not obsessions, OCD or anxiety) were more severe than those assessed in a season during which SAD does not occur. SAD frequently co-occurs with OCD and, given this co-occurrence, depression symptoms in some patients with OCD might be expected to vary on a seasonal basis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In South America, the largest seasonal savanna region is the Brazilian cerrado. Our aim was to study temporal changes in some community descriptors, such as floristic composition, richness, species density, plant density, and cylindrical volume, in a seasonal cerrado, comparing it to a nearby hyperseasonal cerrado. In four different seasons, we placed randomly ten 1 m² quadrats in each vegetation form and sampled all the vascular plants. Seasonal changes in floristic composition, species density, and plant density were less pronounced in the seasonal than in the hyperseasonal cerrado. Floristic similarity between the vegetation forms was lower when the hyperseasonal cerrado was waterlogged. Richness and species density were higher in the seasonal cerrado, which reached its biomass peak at mid rainy season. The hyperseasonal cerrado, in turn, reached its biomass peak at early rainy season and, despite the waterlogging, maintained it until late rainy season. In the hyperseasonal cerrado, waterlogging acts as an environmental filter restricting the number of cerrado species able to withstand it. The seasonal cerrado community was more stable than the hyperseasonal one. Our results corroborated the idea that changes in the environmental filters will affect floristic composition and community structure in savannas.
Snedegar, K. V.
Although the indigenous people of Southern Africa traditionally viewed the sky as a place quite apart from the Earth, they believed celestial phenomena to be natural signs united with those of the Earth in a harmonious synchronicity. There is no substantial evidence that the precolonial Africans imagined a casual relationship between celestial bodies and the seasonal patterns of life on Earth. They did, however, recognize a coincidental relationship. The traditional African cosmos, then, worked as a noetic principle unifying the observed motions of celestial bodies, the sequence of seasons, and the behavior of plants and animals. Such a cosmos, with local peculiarities, was widely understood in Southern Africa before the end of the last century. By the early 20th century European colonial paradigms had largely obliterated this African worldview. This paper will offer a partial reconstruction. Pre-colonial South African people viewed time as a sequence of discrete natural events; through annual repetition these events served as a guide for proper human action. The South Africans analyzed the passage of time in terms of the motions of celestial bodies, the maturation of beneficial plants, and the mating patterns of animals. The rightful course of human life was seen to fit within the seasonal context of these natural phenomena. The visibility of conspicuous stars and asterisms marked significant times of year. For instance, the Lovedu people greeted the dawn rising of Canopus with joy: "The boy has come out." The star was a signal for rainmaking and boys' initiation ceremonies to proceed. The Venda constellation Thutlwa, the giraffes, comprises α and β Crucis and α and β Centauri. In October Thutlwa skims the trees of the evening horizon. The Venda Thutlwa literally means 'rising above the trees,' an allusion to the majestic vegetarian creatures and the stars advising the people to be done with their spring planting. This paper will describe stellar associations
Webb, R. S.; Nowak, K.; Cifelli, R.; Brekke, L. D.
The Bureau of Reclamation, as the largest water wholesaler and the second largest producer of hydropower in the United States, benefits from skillful forecasts of future water availability. Researchers, water managers from local, regional, and federal agencies, and groups such as the Western States Water Council agree that improved precipitation and temperature forecast information at the sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescale is an area with significant potential benefit to water management. In response, and recognizing NOAA's leadership in forecasting, Reclamation has partnered with NOAA to develop and implement a real-time S2S forecasting competition. For a year, solvers are submitting forecasts of temperature and precipitation for weeks 3&4 and 5&6 every two weeks on a 1x1 degree grid for the 17 western state domain where Reclamation operates. The competition began on April 18, 2017 and the final real-time forecast is due April 3, 2018. Forecasts are evaluated once observational data become available using spatial anomaly correlation. Scores are posted on a competition leaderboard hosted by the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS). The leaderboard can be accessed at: https://www.drought.gov/drought/sub-seasonal-climate-forecast-rodeo. To be eligible for cash prizes - which total $800,000 - solvers must outperform two benchmark forecasts during the real-time competition as well as in a required 11-year hind-cast. To receive a prize, competitors must grant a non-exclusive license to practice their forecast technique and make it available as open source software. At approximately one quarter complete, there are teams outperforming the benchmarks in three of the four competition categories. With prestige and monetary incentives on the line, it is hoped that the competition will spur innovation of improved S2S forecasts through novel approaches, enhancements to established models, or otherwise. Additionally, the competition aims to raise
Krauklis, A.; Draveniece, A.
Latvia is located in the middle of an area where the boreal and nemoral zones and the regions of oceanic and continental climate meet, and it was studied as a model territory of the most typical variation of boreo-nemoral ecotone. The subject of this study was seasonal dynamics of the state of landscapes and diachronous links between seasons. It was found that landscapes undergo 12 seasonal states or seasons during the annual cycle of insulation and air mass occurrence. Each season may be distinguished by a definite amount of solar radiation, distinctive state of heat and water balance, phenological state of vegetation, and a distinctive occurrence of different air mass types and their particular 'association'. During each season these variables show a particular combination of numerical values and a distinctive landscape pattern
Full Text Available In casual labor markets, intermediaries are used in order to match employers and employees. This function is especially important when the market is imperfect and employers and employees have not formed solid networks. This paper investigates the network effects and the role of intermediaries in the seasonal agricultural labor market in the irrigated area of Adana, Turkey. The network of rural households is divided into one composed mainly of farmers and one composed mainly of seasonal agricultural workers. Our regression analyses show that the seasonal workers who do not have strong networks with farmers have difficulty finding jobs. Middlemen serve to mitigate the seasonal workers’ lack of a network and play a key role in the area’s seasonal agricultural labor market. At the same time, however, blood ties and territorial ties between middlemen and workers may cause middlemen to discriminate among seasonal workers based on their origins.
Nørgaard, Martin; Ganz, Melanie; Svarer, Claus
, patients with SAD fail to globally downregulate their cerebral serotonin transporter (5-HTT) in winter, and that this effect seemed to be particularly pronounced in female S-carriers of the 5-HTTLPR genotype. The purpose of this study was to identify a 5-HTT brain network that accounts for the adaption...... without SAD; it included the right superior frontal gyrus, brainstem, globus pallidus (bilaterally) and the left hippocampus. Across seasons, female S' carriers without SAD showed nominally higher 5-HTT levels in these regions compared to female S' carriers with SAD, but the group difference was only...... winter compared to female S' carriers without SAD. Limitations: The study is preliminary and limited by small sample size in the SAD group (N = 6). Conclusions: These findings provide novel exploratory evidence for a wintertime state-dependent difference in 5-HTT levels that may leave SAD females...
Bintanja, R; van der Linden, E C
Ongoing and projected greenhouse warming clearly manifests itself in the Arctic regions, which warm faster than any other part of the world. One of the key features of amplified Arctic warming concerns Arctic winter warming (AWW), which exceeds summer warming by at least a factor of 4. Here we use observation-driven reanalyses and state-of-the-art climate models in a variety of standardised climate change simulations to show that AWW is strongly linked to winter sea ice retreat through the associated release of surplus ocean heat gained in summer through the ice-albedo feedback (~25%), and to infrared radiation feedbacks (~75%). Arctic summer warming is surprisingly modest, even after summer sea ice has completely disappeared. Quantifying the seasonally varying changes in Arctic temperature and sea ice and the associated feedbacks helps to more accurately quantify the likelihood of Arctic's climate changes, and to assess their impact on local ecosystems and socio-economic activities.
Sørensen, Heidi L.; Meire, Lorenz; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas
Climate change is expected to have a pronounced effect on biogeochemical cycling in Arctic fjords, but current insight on the biogeochemical functioning of these systems is limited. Here, we present seasonal data on primary production, export of particulate organic carbon (POC), and the coupling...... carbon amounted to 3.2 and 5.3 mol C m−2 yr−1, respectively. Sulfate reduction was the most prominent mineralization pathway, accounting for 69% of the benthic mineralization, while denitrification accounted for 2%. Overall, the carbon mineralization and burial in Kobbefjord were significantly higher...... in ice coverage in higher Arctic Greenlandic fjords will, as a first approximation, entail proportional increases in productivity, mineralization, and burial of organic carbon in the fjords, which will thus become similar to present-day southerly systems....
Burger, Matthew H.; Killen, Rosemary M.; McClintock, William E.; Merkel, Aimee W.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Cassidy, Timothy A.; Sarantos, Menelaos
The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer on the MESSENGER spacecraft has observed calcium emission in Mercury's exosphere on a near-daily basis since March 2011. During MESSENGER's primary and first extended missions (March 2011 - March 2013) the dayside calcium exosphere was measured over eight Mercury years. We have simulated these data with a Monte Carlo model of exospheric source processes to show that (a) there is a persistent source of energetic calcium located in the dawn equatorial region, (b) there is a seasonal dependence in the calcium source rate, and (c) there are no obvious year-to-year variations in the near-surface dayside calcium exosphere. Although the precise mechanism responsible for ejecting the calcium has not yet been determined, the most likely process is the dissociation of Ca-bearing molecules produced in micrometeoroid impact plumes to form energetic, escaping calcium atoms.
Stothers, Richard B.
Do volcanic eruptions have a tendency to occur more frequently in the months of May and June? Some past evidence suggests that they do. The present study, based on the new eruption catalog of Simkin et al.(1981), investigates the monthly statistics of the largest eruptions, grouped according to explosive magnitude, geographical latitude, and year. At the 2-delta level, no month-to-month variations in eruption frequency are found to be statistically significant. Examination of previously published month-to-month variations suggests that they, too, are not statistically significant. It is concluded that volcanism, at least averaged over large portions of the globe, is probably not periodic on a seasonal or annual time scale.
Persson, Roger; Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie
Measurement of cortisol concentration can contribute important information about an individual's ability to adjust to various environmental demands of both physical and psychosocial origin. However, one uncertainty that affects the possibilities of correctly interpreting and designing field studies...... is the lack of observations of the impact of seasonal changes on cortisol excretion. For this reason, the month-to-month changes in diurnal cortisol concentration, the awakening cortisol response (ACR), maximum morning concentration, and fall during the day were studied in a group of 24 healthy men and women...... 32 to 61 yrs of age engaged in active work. On one workday for 12 consecutive months, participants collected saliva at four time points for determination of cortisol: at awakening, +30 min, +8 h, and at 21:00 h. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures design with month (12 levels) and time...
26 janv. 2011 ... ... de s'assurer que l'arme fongique découverte par Alan Watson ne se transforme en mercenaire et cause la destruction d'autres espèces végétales, Fusarium oxysporum a été soumis pendant deux ans à une batterie de tests dans les laboratoires hautement sécurisés de McGill, sur le campus Macdonald.
Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension in pregnancy is one of the three factors of maternal mortality. Etiology of the disease is unknown, but the many factors contributing to the identification and control of it can be taken a step to prevent and reduce the symptoms of the disease. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of preeclampsia (high-blood pressure in different seasons of the year. Methods: The present retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on more than 8,000 pregnant women visiting Assali specialized hospital from 2011 to 2013. Required data was collected through questionnaire checklist. The Chi-square test with multiple comparisons was used to compare the frequencies of pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH according to the month of year, and adjustment of multiplicity was conducted using Bonferroni's method. Student's t-test was used to compare the means of PIH prevalence rates. In all analyses, P < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Results: In these 8000 woman admitted to labor, overall prevalence of PIH was 3.8 ± 0.6%. The prevalence rate of PIH was highest in the summer (4.5% and lowest frequent in the winter (2.7%, respectively. In July, the prevalence rate was significantly higher than those for any other month (4.7%, and in March, it was lower prevalence than for any month (2.2%, respectively. Using the Chi-square test, a significant difference between the incidence of disease was observed in summer and winter (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The prevalence rate of PIH was higher for delivery in summer and early spring and lowest for winter delivery among Khorramabad women based on these results; it seems that changes in temperature and humidity in different seasons can affect preeclampsia, and preeclampsia increases with increasing frequency temperature.
オオシマ; Kay I., OHSHIMA
Seasonal variations of the Antarctic coastal oceans has not been well understood owing to logistical difficulties in observations, especially during the ice-covered season. Recently, 'Weddell Gyre Study' and 'Japanese Antarctic Climate Research program' have revealed the following seasonal variations in the Antarctic coastal ocean. First, the thickness of the Winter Water (WW) layer, characterized by cold, fresh, oxygen-rich water, exhibits its maximum in the austral fall and its minimum in t...
Ferreira, Diogo F; Rocha, Ricardo; López-Baucells, Adrià; Farneda, Fábio Z; Carreiras, João M B; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Meyer, Christoph F J
Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon characterized by primary forest fragments embedded in a secondary forest matrix. We also evaluated whether the relative importance of local vegetation structure versus landscape characteristics (composition and configuration) in shaping bat abundance patterns varied between seasons. Our working hypotheses were that abundance responses are species as well as season specific, and that in the wet season, local vegetation structure is a stronger determinant of bat abundance than landscape-scale attributes. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in combination with hierarchical partitioning revealed that relationships between species abundances and local vegetation structure and landscape characteristics were both season specific and scale dependent. Overall, landscape characteristics were more important than local vegetation characteristics, suggesting that landscape structure is likely to play an even more important role in landscapes with higher fragment-matrix contrast. Responses varied between frugivores and animalivores. In the dry season, frugivores responded more to compositional metrics, whereas during the wet season, local and configurational metrics were more important. Animalivores showed similar patterns in both seasons, responding to the same group of metrics in both seasons. Differences in responses likely reflect seasonal differences in the phenology of flowering and fruiting between primary and secondary forests, which affected the foraging behavior and habitat use of bats. Management actions should encompass multiscale approaches to account for the idiosyncratic responses of species to seasonal variation in
Mukhopadhyay, S.; Arumugam, S.
Sub-seasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) (15-90 days) streamflow forecasting is an emerging area of research that provides seamless information for reservoir operation from weather time scales to seasonal time scales. From an operational perspective, sub-seasonal inflow forecasts are highly valuable as these enable water managers to decide short-term releases (15-30 days), while holding water for seasonal needs (e.g., irrigation and municipal supply) and to meet end-of-the-season target storage at a desired level. We propose a Bayesian Hierarchical Hidden Markov Model (BHHMM) to develop S2S inflow forecasts for the Tennessee Valley Area (TVA) reservoir system. Here, the hidden states are predicted by relevant indices that influence the inflows at S2S time scale. The hidden Markov model also captures the both spatial and temporal hierarchy in predictors that operate at S2S time scale with model parameters being estimated as a posterior distribution using a Bayesian framework. We present our work in two steps, namely single site model and multi-site model. For proof of concept, we consider inflows to Douglas Dam, Tennessee, in the single site model. For multisite model we consider reservoirs in the upper Tennessee valley. Streamflow forecasts are issued and updated continuously every day at S2S time scale. We considered precipitation forecasts obtained from NOAA Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) GCM as predictors for developing S2S streamflow forecasts along with relevant indices for predicting hidden states. Spatial dependence of the inflow series of reservoirs are also preserved in the multi-site model. To circumvent the non-normality of the data, we consider the HMM in a Generalized Linear Model setting. Skill of the proposed approach is tested using split sample validation against a traditional multi-site canonical correlation model developed using the same set of predictors. From the posterior distribution of the inflow forecasts, we also highlight different system behavior
Dexter, K.G.; Smart, B.; Baldauf, C.
To provide an inter-continental overview of the floristics and biogeography of drought-adapted tropical vegetation formations, we compiled a dataset of inventory plots in South America (n=93), Africa (n=84), and Asia (n=92) from savannas (subject to fire), seasonally dry tropical forests (not...... similar vegetation formations (e.g. savannas) are floristically highly dissimilar. Neotropical moist forest, savanna and seasonally dry tropical forest are floristically distinct, but elsewhere there is no clear floristic division of savanna and seasonally dry tropical forest, though moist and dry...... of the ecology, biology and conservation of savannas and seasonally dry tropical forests may be difficult....
Amelia GÃ³mez Brunet
Full Text Available Sheep and goat breeds from subtropical, middle and high latitudes show seasonal changes in reproductive activity. In general, the breeding season starts in autumn and ends in winter, with anoestrus in spring/summer. An endogenous circannual rhythm driven and synchronised by the annual photoperiod cycle regulates the onset and offset of the breeding season. However, the timing and duration of the breeding season can be affected by interactions between the photoperiod and factors such as breed, geographical origin, nutritional and lactational status, social interactions, and the season of parturition. Seasonality in reproduction is naturally accompanied by variation in the availability and price of meat, milk and cheese over the year, affecting the economy of farmers, consumers and the food industry alike. The control of reproduction outside the normal breeding season by inducing and synchronizing oestrus and ovulation plus the use of artificial insemination and/or natural mating would help ensure the year-round availability of products. This review describes the seasonal variation in the sexual activity of ovine and caprine species with special regard to local Spanish sheep and goats breeds, examines how the photoperiod regulates their annual reproductive cycle, and discusses a number of strategies that can be used to induce and synchronise ovulation outside the natural breeding season.
Pham Quang Thai
Conclusions: Our results identify a role for AH in driving the epidemiology of ILI in a tropical setting. However, in contrast to temperate regions, high rather than low AH is associated with increased ILI activity. Fluctuation in AH may be the climate factor that underlies and unifies the seasonality of ILI in both temperate and tropical regions. Alternatively, the mechanism of action of AH on disease transmission may be different in cold-dry versus hot-humid settings.
Ngo-Thanh, Huong; Ngo-Duc, Thanh; Nguyen-Hong, Hanh; Baker, Peter; Phan-Van, Tan
The daily rainfall data at 13 stations over the Central Highlands (CH) Vietnam were collected for the period 1981-2014. Two different sets of criteria using daily observed rainfall and 850 hPa daily reanalysis wind data were applied to determine the onset (retreat) dates of the summer rainy season (RS) and summer monsoon (SM) season, respectively. Over the study period, the mean RS and SM onset dates were April 20 and May 13 with standard deviations of 17.4 and 17.8 days, respectively. The mean RS and SM retreat dates were November 1 and September 30 with standard deviations of 17.9 and 10.2 days, respectively . The year-to-year variations of the onset dates and the rainfall amount within the RS and SM season were closely linked with the preceding winter and spring sea surface temperature in the central-eastern and western Pacific. It was also found that the onset dates were significantly correlated with the RS and SM rainfall amount.
This is an X-band image showing seasonal changes at the hydrological test site of Bebedouro in Brazil. The image is centered at 9 degrees south latitude and 40.2 degrees west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) aboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 10, 1994, during the first flight of the radar system, and on October 1, 1994, during the second mission. The swath width is approximately 16.5 kilometers (10.5 miles) wide. The image channels have the following color assignments: red represents data acquired on April 10; green represents data acquired on October 1; blue corresponds to the ratio of the two data sets. Agriculture plays an important economic and social role in Brazil. One of the major problems related to Brazilian agriculture is estimating the size of planting areas and their productivity. Due to cloud cover and the rainy season, which occurs from November through April, optical and infrared Earth observations are seldom used to survey the region. An additional goal of monitoring this region is to watch the floodplains of rivers like Rio Sao Francisco in order to determine suitable locations for additional agricultural fields. This area belongs to the semi-arid northeastern region of Brazil, where estimates have suggested that about 10 times more land could be used for agriculture, including some locations which could be used for irrigation projects. Monitoring of soil moisture during the important summer crop season is of high priority for the future development and productivity of this region. In April the area was covered with vegetation because of the moisture of the soil and only small differences could be seen in X-band data. In October the run-off channels of this hilly region stand out quite clearly because the greenish areas indicated much less soil moisture and water content in plants. Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR
Heck, J.M.L.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.; Dijkstra, J.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.
In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main
... T U V W X Y Z Seasonal Allergies at a Glance If you have an allergy, your immune system reacts to something that doesn’t bother most other people. People with seasonal allergies (also called hay fever or allergic rhinitis) react ...
Seasonal variation is a well-known phenomenon, in many endeavrous and enterprises. Passenger of patronage of road transportation by bus is generally implicated as exhibiting excessive seasonality. The study thus set out to empirically investigate the myth or reality of the thesis that trip generation and trip attraction can ...
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of season on sperm quality parameters, expression of the fertility-related protein SP22 and selected mRNA transcripts infresh and cryopreserved stallion sperm. Four stallions were collected in each of the four seasons: summ...
Hevea brasiliensis that is grown in Thailand and Southeast Asia is a very valuable source of natural rubber. However, few studies have been conducted to evaluate the effects of seasonal effect on plantlet regenera-tion through somatic embryogenesis from anther culture. Thus, this study discussed the effect of season on ...
Jan 15, 2014 ... belonging to four families (Cichlidae, Bagridae, Hepsetidae and Channidae), seven genera and nine species were collected from the lake ... Fish oil contains omega-3-essential fatty acids necessary for the proper ... 7°01' and 7°03'E. The climate of the area shows two distinct seasons namely, rainy season ...
Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the yield and nutritive value of Chloris gayana in the southern highlands of Tanzania. ... In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) declined faster with increasing periods of growth in the early than in the late wet season. ME ranged ...
Kathryn M. Womack; Sybill K. Amelon; Frank R. Thompson
Little information exists on resource selection by foraging Indiana bats (Myotis sodalis) during the maternity season. Existing studies are based on modest sample sizes because of the rarity of this endangered species and the difficulty of radio-tracking bats. Our objectives were to determine resource selection by foraging Indiana bats during the maternity season and...
The timing of breeding in birds is a life-history trait that generally depends on food availability, but other factors may play a role, particularly in tropical areas where food availability is less seasonal than in temperate or polar areas. We studied the factors affecting the breeding season of the Crab Plover Dromas ardeola, ...
The growing period for most crops continues beyond the rainy season and, to a greater or lesser extent, crops often mature on moisture reserves stored in the soil profile. When the rains start early the season is likely to be· longer, however, early rainfall (November) over unimodal areas is variable (Mhita and Nassib, 1988).
Vegetable is a vital component of human diet that should be eaten all year round, but they are scarce during dry season in Anyigba community in Kogi State, Nigeria. Available dry season vegetables such as the leaves of Manihot esculentum (Cassava), Piper guineese (Oziza), Chromolena odorata (Akintola), Solanum ...
May 16, 2008 ... Key words: Sensory evaluation, dry season vegetable, available, Anyigba, Nigeria. INTRODUCTION. Dry season vegetables are shrubs or herbaceous annuals or biennial plants. In Nigeria, most of the com- monly eaten vegetables are the succulent leaves of plants; they are eaten as supplementary foods, ...
Coughlan, E.R.; Stephens, E.; Bischiniotis, K.; van Aalst, M.; van den Hurk, B.J.J.M.; Mason, S.; Nissan, H.; Pappenberger, F.
In light of strong encouragement for disaster managers to use climate services for flood preparation, we question whether seasonal rainfall forecasts should indeed be used as indicators of the likelihood of flooding. Here, we investigate the primary indicators of flooding at the seasonal timescale
Gençay, R.; Selçuk, F.; Whitcher, B.
It is well documented that strong intraday seasonalities may induce distortions in the estimation of volatility models. These seasonalities are also the dominant source for the underlying misspecifications of the various volatility models. Therefore, an obvious route is to filter out the underlying
Yip, P.S.; Yang, K.C.; Qin, Ping
This paper studied the seasonality of suicides among persons with and without psychiatric illness in Denmark from 1970 to 1999. A non-homogenous Poisson process was used to examine the data. The seasonality of suicides was shown to be associated with gender and their psychiatric histories...
The study evaluated profitability and resource use efficiency in dry season onion production in Sokoto and Kebbi States. Eight local government areas (L. G. As), four from each State, were purposively selected for the study. From each L.G.A., four villages were selected and from each village, five dry season onion farmers ...
ISSN 0794-5698. Assessment and Seasonal Variations of Heavy Metals and Mineral Elements in River ... immediately from Sokoto Cement Factory) at value above WHO's permissible limit in the rainy season. Ag .... level which is considered to represent a threat to the life of .... regulations governing waste management and.
Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta
Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...
In this study, the seasonal variations in concentrations of the heavy metals - As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn - in soil and crops from a farm near the refuse dump site of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria were investigated during the two major seasons of Nigeria. This was done to assess the pollution ...
The study was designed to analyze the economics of dry season vegetable farming among women farmers in Owerri West local government area of Imo State, South Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected with structured questionnaire from 50 randomly selected dry season women vegetable farmers. Data were analyzed ...
Seitaj, D.; Sulu-Gambari, F; Burdorf, L.D.W.; Romero-Ramirez, A.; Maire, O.; Malkin, S.Y.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F.J.R.
Seasonal hypoxia refers to the oxygen depletion that occurs in summer in the bottom water of stratified systems, and is increasingly observed in coastal areas worldwide. The process induces a seasonal cycle on the biogeochemistry of the underlying sediments, which remains poorly quantified. Here, we
Seasonal variation in trypanosome parasitological infection rates in small ruminants was studied at the Kaduna Central abattoir, North Central Nigeria. Blood samples were obtained at slaughter from 320 goats and 209 sheep during the dry and rainy seasons and examined using the Haematocrit Centrifugation Technique ...
Zhang, Wen; Feng, Feng; Tyree, Melvin T
Although cavitation is common in plants, it is unknown whether the cavitation resistance of xylem is seasonally constant or variable. We tested the changes in cavitation resistance of Acer mono before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling and freeze-thaw cycles for a whole year. Cavitation resistance was determined from 'vulnerability curves' showing the percent loss of conductivity versus xylem tension. Cavitation fatigue was defined as a reduction of cavitation resistance following a cavitation-refilling cycle, whereas frost fatigue was caused by a freeze-thaw cycle. A. mono developed seasonal changes in native embolisms; values were relatively high during winter but relatively low and constant throughout the growing season. Cavitation fatigue occurred and changed seasonally during the 12-month cycle; the greatest fatigue response occurred during summer and the weakest during winter, and the transitions occurred during spring and autumn. A. mono was highly resistant to frost damage during the relatively mild winter months; however, a quite different situation occurred during the growing season, as the seasonal trend of frost fatigue was strikingly similar to that of cavitation fatigue. Seasonality changes in cavitation resistance may be caused by seasonal changes in the mechanical properties of the pit membranes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
B.D. Marx (Brian); P.H.C. Eilers (Paul); J. Gampe (Jutta); R. Rau (Roland)
textabstractWe propose generalized linear models for time or age-time tables of seasonal counts, with the goal of better understanding seasonal patterns in the data. The linear predictor contains a smooth component for the trend and the product of a smooth component (the modulation) and a periodic
Background: Vitamin D is a steroid hormone that plays essential roles in calcium and phosphorus metabolism, bone formation and mineralization homeostasis, also has a role in the maintenance of immune-homeostasis. Objective: We aimed to investigate seasonal serum vitamin D levels and seasonal disease activity in ...
Rakhimberdiev, Eldar; van den Hout, Piet J.; Brugge, Maarten; Spaans, Bernard; Piersma, Theunis
Migratory bird populations may be limited during one or more seasons, and thus at one or more places, but there is a dearth of empirical examples of this possibility. We analyse seasonal survival in a migratory shellfish-eating shorebird (red knot Calidris canutus islandica) during a series of years
"Sitting down to watch the fourth episode of the second season of Nova ScienceNOW I'm mainly struck by one thought: why have they only put out four epidoses nearly nine months into their second season? The second story is all about CERN and the LHC. (2 pages)
Our findings suggest that in a situation where there is no natural forest, an exotic plantation with suitable indigenous understorey cover can help in protection of birds, including endemic and near-endemic species. Keywords: birds, conservation, Eastern Arc Mountains, plantation, seasonal altitudinal migration, seasons, ...
Conclusion: There was a higher probability of finding BHR in outpatients with suspected asthma in autumn and spring compared with summer. Spring is the season where BHR may be more severe. Females and overweight/obese subjects were those mainly involved in this seasonal variability of BHR.
Seasonal and daily activity patterns of leopard tortoises ( Stigmochelys pardalis Bell, 1828) on farmland in the Nama-Karoo, South Africa. ... that activity is also initiated by the time since sunrise. Key words: Stigmochelys pardalis, leopard tortoise, activity patterns, activity behaviour, Nama-Karoo Biome, time of day, season.
Miles, J C H; Howarth, C B; Hunter, N
The patterns of seasonal variation of radon concentrations were measured in 91 homes in five regions of the UK over a period of two years. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the regions in the pattern or magnitude of seasonal variation in radon concentrations. The arithmetic mean variation was found to be close to that found previously in the UK national survey. Differences in the pattern between the two years of the study were not significant. Two-thirds of homes in the study followed the expected pattern of high radon in the winter and low radon in the summer. Most of the rest showed little seasonal variation, and a few showed a reversed seasonal pattern. The study does not provide any clear evidence for the recorded house characteristics having an effect on the seasonal variation in radon concentrations in UK homes, though the statistical power for determining such effects is limited in this study. The magnitude of the seasonal variation varied widely between homes. Analysis of the individual results from the homes showed that because of the wide variation in the amount of seasonal variation, applying seasonal correction factors to the results of three-month measurements can yield only relatively small improvements in the accuracy of estimates of annual mean concentrations.
Pamela E. Porter; William R. Meehan
The invertebrate communities ofeight Oregon streams were sampled seasonally from 1974 to 1976. Benthic, drift, and two types of aerial-trap samples were collected. Occurrence and percentage composition are summarized by sample type, season, and geographic area (coastal, Cascade, central, and eastern Oregon). Within 276 families, 426 taxa were identified; the 20...
(Received 9 May, 2000; accepted 5 May, 2002) Abstract Soil water availability is a major constraint to crop production in the post-rainy season period in the humid tropics. The seasonal pattern of water use was, therefore, studied in field-grown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) during two consecutive rainy and post-rainy ...
Randall K. Kolka; Brian J. Palik; Daniel P. Tersteeg; James C. Bell
Although seasonal ponds are common in northern, glaciated, forested landscapes, forest management guidelines are generally lacking for these systems. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of riparian buffer type on seasonal pond hydrology following harvest of the adjacent upland forest. A replicated block design consisting of four buffer treatments...
On the basis of the seasonal response of Eragrostis curvula to nitrogen applied as single dressings to separate plots at the beginning of each of the six months of the growing season, it is deduced that nitrogen can profitably be applied in the Ukulinga environment from early spring though to early January. Late summer and ...
Stevenson, T. J.; Visser, M. E.; Arnold, W.; Barrett, P.; Biello, S.; Dawson, A.; Denlinger, D. L.; Dominoni, D.; Ebling, F. J.; Elton, S.; Evans, N.; Ferguson, H. M.; Foster, R. G.; Hau, M.; Haydon, D. T.; Hazlerigg, D. G.; Heideman, P.; Hopcraft, J. G. C.; Jonsson, N. N.; Kronfeld-Schor, N.; Kumar, V.; Lincoln, G. A.; MacLeod, R.; Martin, S. A. M.; Martinez-Bakker, M.; Nelson, R. J.; Reed, T.; Robinson, J. E.; Rock, D.; Schwartz, W. J.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Tauber, E.; Thackeray, S. J.; Umstatter, C.; Yoshimura, T.; Helm, B.
The rhythm of life on earth is shaped by seasonal changes in the environment. Plants and animals show profound annual cycles in physiology, health, morphology, behaviour and demography in response to environmental cues. Seasonal biology impacts ecosystems and agriculture, with consequences for
We monitored seasonal use of grassland types by white rhinos at two sites within the Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park (HiP). Thirty-two rhinos were removed from one site to reduce rhino density. Seasonal use of grassland types was similar at both sites, but differed to what a previous study reported. This was likely due to higher food ...
The demand for improved decision making products for cereal production systems has placed added emphasis on using plant sensors in-season, and that incorporate real-time, site specific, growing environments. The objective of this work was to describe validated in-season sensor based algorithms prese...
The seasonality of population data has been of great interest in demographic studies. When seasonality is analyzed, the population at risk plays a central role. In a study of the monthly number of births and deaths, the population at risk is the product of the size of the population and the length of the month. Usually, the population can be assumed to be constant, and consequently, the population at risk is proportional to the length of the month. Hence, the number of cases per day has to be analyzed. If one studies the seasonal variation in twin or multiple maternities, the population at risk is the total number of monthly confinements, and the study should be based on the rates of the multiple maternities. Consequently, if one considers monthly twinning rates, the monthly number of birth data is eliminated and one obtains an unaffected seasonality measure of the twin maternities. The strength of the seasonality is measured by a chi-squared test or by the standard deviation. When seasonal models are applied, one must pay special attention to how well the model fits the data. If the goodness of fit is poor, it can erroneously result in a statement that the seasonality is slight, although the observed seasonal fluctuations are marked.
Seitaj, Dorina; Sulu-Gambari, Fatimah; Burdorf, Laurine D. W.; Romero-Ramirez, Alicia; Maire, Olivier; Malkin, Sairah Y.; Slomp, Caroline P.; Meysman, Filip J.R.
Seasonal hypoxia refers to the oxygen depletion that occurs in summer in the bottom water of stratified systems, and is increasingly observed in coastal areas worldwide. The process induces a seasonal cycle on the biogeochemistry of the underlying sediments, which remains poorly quantified. Here, we
The relative importance of tropical pelagic algal blooms in not yet fully appreciated and the way they are induced not well understood. The tropical Atlantic supports pelagic blooms together equivalent to the North Atlantic spring bloom. These blooms are driven by thermocline tilting, curl of wind stress and eddy upwelling as the ocean responds to intensified basin-scale winds in boreal summer. The dimensions of the Pacific Ocean are such that seasonal thermocline tilting does not occur, and nutrient conditions are such that tilting might not induce bloom, in any case. Divergence at the equator is a separate process that strengthens the Atlantic bloom, is more prominent in the eastern Pacific, and in the Indian Ocean induces a bloom only in the western part of the ocean. Where western jet currents are retroflected from the coast off Somalia and Brazil, eddy upwelling induces prominent blooms. In the eastward flow of the northern equatorial countercurrents, positive wind curl stress induces Ekman pumping and the induction of algal blooms aligned with the currents. Some apparent algal bloom, such as that seen frequently in CZCS images westwards from Senegal, must be due to interference from airborne dust.
At this time every year, the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu. We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (without the need for a prescription in France). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. - 12 p.m. and 2 p.m. - 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder: The...
At this time every year the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu. We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (in France you don't need a prescription). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. and 12 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder:...
At this time every year the Medical Service suggests that you should get vaccinated against seasonal flu. We would like to remind you that vaccination is the best method of protecting yourself and others against this contagious illness which can have serious consequences for certain people, especially those suffering from chronic medical conditions (e.g. chronic pulmonary, cardiovascular or kidney disease or diabetes), pregnant women, people suffering from obesity (BMI>30) and those over 65. As the Medical Service does not supply the vaccine, you must purchase it from a pharmacy (in France without the need for a prescription). From the beginning of October you can then bring your vaccine to the Infirmary (Building 57-Ground floor) and get vaccinated without an appointment between 9 a.m. and 12 a.m. and 2 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. For the purposes of health insurance reimbursement, you can get a prescription from the Medical Service either on the day of the injection or beforehand. Reminder: The Medical Se...
Bell, Ray; Kirtman, Ben
We present an assessment of seasonal forecasting of surface wind speed, significant wave height and ocean surface current speed in the North Pacific for potential use of vessel routing from Singapore to San Diego. WaveWatchIII is forced with surface winds and ocean surface currents from the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) retrospective forecasts for the period of 1982-2015. Several lead time forecasts are used from zero months to six months resulting in 2,720 model years, ensuring the findings from this study are robust. July surface wind speed and significant wave height can be skillfully forecast with a one month lead time, with the western North Pacific being the most predictable region. Beyond May initial conditions (lead time of two months) the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Spring predictability barrier limits skill of significant wave height but there is skill for surface wind speed with January initial conditions (lead time of six months). In a separate study of vessel routing between Norfolk, Virginia and Gibraltar we demonstrate the benefit of a multimodel approach using the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME). In collaboration with Charles River Analytics an all-encompassing forecast is presented by using machine learning on the various ensembles which can be using used for industry applications.
Szymaniec, Irena; Weron, Aleksander; Shenitzer, Abe
This book presents, in his own words, the life of Hugo Steinhaus (1887–1972), noted Polish mathematician of Jewish background, educator, and mathematical popularizer. A student of Hilbert, a pioneer of the foundations of probability and game theory, and a contributor to the development of functional analysis, he was one of those instrumental to the extraordinary flowering of Polish mathematics before and after World War I. In particular, it was he who “discovered” the great Stefan Banach. Exhibiting his great integrity and wit, Steinhaus’s personal story of the turbulent times he survived – including two world wars and life postwar under the Soviet heel – cannot but be of consuming interest. His recounting of the fearful years spent evading Nazi terror is especially moving. The steadfast honesty and natural dignity he maintained while pursuing a life of demanding scientific and intellectual enquiry in the face of encroaching calamity and chaos show him to be truly a mathematician for all seasons. ...
Autumn is not usually thought of as the season for renewal, but in the world of particle physics, this year is different. Around the world, many of CERN’s old friends and colleagues are moving on and making way for new faces. In China, Chen Hesheng, who has been Director of the nation’s Institute for High Energy Physics since 1998, is taking up a new position, passing the baton to Wang Yifang. In Italy, Roberto Petronzio steps down after seven years at the helm of INFN, handing over the Presidency to Fernando Ferroni. In the UK, John Womersley has been appointed chief executive of the Science and Technology Facilities Council, taking over from Keith Mason. And in the USA, Jim Siegrist has been appointed to the leadership of the Department of Energy’s High Energy Physics Office following Denis Kovar’s retirement. Earlier in the year, Victor Matveev was elected to be the next Director of the Joint Institute of Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, followin...
Goetz, David W
The exotic Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis, has become a prominent cause of seasonal inhalant allergy (allergic rhinitis, asthma, and urticaria) in the last two decades in North America and Europe after being introduced into the environment as an agricultural pest-control predator. Seeking winter hibernation sites, ladybug swarms will invade human habitats in the fall. Large fall swarms and smaller spring dispersions produce corresponding peaks in ladybug allergy. Ladybug allergy prevalence in endemic areas has been reported as high as 10%. For some individuals ladybug allergy is their first expression of allergic disease. Exposures at home, work, school, and in other settings may be sensitizing. Ladybug hemolymph is the primary source of allergens. Har a 1 and Har a 2 major ladybug allergens have been characterized. 'Reflex bleeding' from tibiofemoral joints (for communication and during alarm) disperses these allergens. Ladybug skin testing should be routine in endemic areas. Avoidance continues to be the first step in treatment. Allergen vaccine therapy may be effective, but a commercial extract of H. axyridis is needed.
Tattersall, Glenn J.; Leite, Cleo A. C.; Sanders, Colin E.; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V.; Abe, Augusto S.; Milsom, William K.
With some notable exceptions, small ectothermic vertebrates are incapable of endogenously sustaining a body temperature substantially above ambient temperature. This view was challenged by our observations of nighttime body temperatures sustained well above ambient (up to 10°C) during the reproductive season in tegu lizards (~2 kg). This led us to hypothesize that tegus have an enhanced capacity to augment heat production and heat conservation. Increased metabolic rates and decreased thermal conductance are the same mechanisms involved in body temperature regulation in those vertebrates traditionally acknowledged as “true endotherms”: the birds and mammals. The appreciation that a modern ectotherm the size of the earliest mammals can sustain an elevated body temperature through metabolic rates approaching that of endotherms enlightens the debate over endothermy origins, providing support for the parental care model of endothermy, but not for the assimilation capacity model of endothermy. It also indicates that, contrary to prevailing notions, ectotherms can engage in facultative endothermy, providing a physiological analog in the evolutionary transition to true endothermy. PMID:26844295
Tattersall, Glenn J; Leite, Cleo A C; Sanders, Colin E; Cadena, Viviana; Andrade, Denis V; Abe, Augusto S; Milsom, William K
With some notable exceptions, small ectothermic vertebrates are incapable of endogenously sustaining a body temperature substantially above ambient temperature. This view was challenged by our observations of nighttime body temperatures sustained well above ambient (up to 10°C) during the reproductive season in tegu lizards (~2 kg). This led us to hypothesize that tegus have an enhanced capacity to augment heat production and heat conservation. Increased metabolic rates and decreased thermal conductance are the same mechanisms involved in body temperature regulation in those vertebrates traditionally acknowledged as "true endotherms": the birds and mammals. The appreciation that a modern ectotherm the size of the earliest mammals can sustain an elevated body temperature through metabolic rates approaching that of endotherms enlightens the debate over endothermy origins, providing support for the parental care model of endothermy, but not for the assimilation capacity model of endothermy. It also indicates that, contrary to prevailing notions, ectotherms can engage in facultative endothermy, providing a physiological analog in the evolutionary transition to true endothermy.
PRESS BRIEFING ON THE LARGE HADRON COLLIDER (LHC) RE-START, SEASON 2 AT CERN, GLOBE OF SCIENCE AND INNOVATION Where : http://cern.ch/directions at the Globe of Science and Innovation When : Thursday, 12 March from 2.30 to 3.30pm - Open seating as from 2.15pm Speakers : CERN’s Director General, Rolf Heuer and Director of Accelerators, Frédérick Bordry, and representatives of the LHC experiments Webcast : https://webcast.web.cern.ch/webcast/ Dear Journalists, CERN is pleased to invite you to the above press briefing which will take place on Thursday 12 March, in the Globe of Science and Innovation, 1st floor, from 2.30 to 3.30pm. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is ready to start up for its second three-year run. The 27km LHC is the largest and most powerful particle accelerator in the world operating at a temperature of -217 degrees Centigrade and powered to a current of 11,000 amps. Run 2 of the LHC follows a two-year technical s...
Mirantes, Andrés García; Población, Javier; Serna, Gregorio
This paper contributes to the commodity pricing literature by consistently modeling the convenience yield with its empirically observed properties. Specifically, in this paper, we show how a four-factor model for the stochastic behavior of commodity prices, with two long- and short-term factors and two additional seasonal factors, may accommodate some of the most important empirically observed characteristics of commodity convenience yields, such as the mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. Based on this evidence, a theoretical model is presented and estimated to characterize the commodity convenience yield dynamics that are consistent with previous findings. We also show that commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields than through futures prices. - Highlights: • Energy commodity convenience yields exhibit mean reversion and stochastic seasonality. • We present a model for convenience yields accounting for their observed characteristics. • Commodity price seasonality is better estimated through convenience yields
Chen, Chia-Jeng; Lee, Tsung-Yu
Seasonal streamflow as an integrated response to complex hydro-climatic processes can be subject to activity of prevailing weather systems potentially modulated by large-scale climate oscillations (e.g., El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO). To develop a seamless seasonal forecasting system in Taiwan, this study assesses how significant Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow in different seasons correlate with selected teleconnection patterns. Long-term precipitation and streamflow data in three major precipitation seasons, namely the spring rains (February to April), Mei-Yu (May and June), and typhoon (July to September) seasons, are derived at 28 upstream and 13 downstream catchments in Taiwan. The three seasons depict a complete wet period of Taiwan as well as many regions bearing similar climatic conditions in East Asia. Lagged correlation analysis is then performed to investigate how the precipitation and streamflow data correlate with predominant teleconnection indices at varied lead times. Teleconnection indices are selected only if they show certain linkage with weather systems and activity in the three seasons based on previous literature. For instance, the ENSO and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation, proven to influence East Asian climate across seasons and summer typhoon activity, respectively, are included in the list of climate indices for correlation analysis. Significant correlations found between Taiwan's precipitation and streamflow and teleconnection indices are further examined by a climate regime shift (CRS) test to identify any abrupt changes in the correlations. The understanding of existing CRS is useful for informing the forecasting system of the changes in the predictor-predictand relationship. To evaluate prediction skill in the three seasons and skill differences between precipitation and streamflow, hindcasting experiments of precipitation and streamflow are conducted using stepwise linear regression models. Discussion and suggestions for coping
Cai, Z.Q.; Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.
Lianas are an important component of most tropical forests, where they vary in abundance from high in seasonal forests to low in aseasonal forests. We tested the hypothesis that the physiological ability of lianas to fix carbon (and thus grow) during seasonal drought may confer a distinct advantage
Bobbitt, Larry; Otto, Mark
Three Autoregressive Integrated Moving Averages (ARIMA) forecast procedures for Census Bureau X-11 concurrent seasonal adjustment were empirically tested. Forty time series from three Census Bureau economic divisions (business, construction, and industry) were analyzed. Forecasts were obtained from fitted seasonal ARIMA models augmented with…
Zakari, Friday Ocheja; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun; Rekwot, Peter Ibrahim; Kawu, Mohammed Umar
The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of age and season on haematological parameters of donkeys at rest during the rainy and cold-dry seasons. Thirty healthy donkeys divided into three groups based on their age served as the subjects. During each season, blood sample was collected from each donkey thrice, 2 weeks apart, for haematological analysis, and the dry-bulb temperature (DBT), relative humidity (RH) and temperature-humidity index (THI) were obtained thrice each day during the experimental period using standard procedures. During the rainy season, the mean DBT (33.05 ± 0.49 °C), RH (73.63 ± 1.09 %) and THI (84.39 ± 0.71) were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P donkeys were higher ( P < 0.05) in the rainy than in the cold-dry season. In conclusion, PCV, RBC, Hb and LYM were considerably higher in foals than yearlings or adults during the rainy season, while erythrocytic indices and platelet counts were higher in adults or yearlings than in foals in both seasons. Erythrocytic indices, PLT and N/L were higher in the rainy than the cold-dry season in adults, yearlings and foals.
Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.
Richardson, Doug; Fowler, Hayley; Kilsby, Chris; Serinaldi, Francesco
In the UK drought is a recurrent feature of climate with potentially large impacts on public water supply. Water companies' ability to mitigate the impacts of drought by managing diminishing availability depends on forward planning and it would be extremely valuable to improve forecasts of drought on monthly to seasonal time scales. By focusing on statistical forecasting methods, this research aims to provide techniques that are simpler, faster and computationally cheaper than physically based models. In general, statistical forecasting is done by relating the variable of interest (some hydro-meteorological variable such as rainfall or streamflow, or a drought index) to one or more predictors via some formal dependence. These predictors are generally antecedent values of the response variable or external factors such as teleconnections. A candidate model is Generalised Additive Models for Location, Scale and Shape parameters (GAMLSS). GAMLSS is a very flexible class allowing for more general distribution functions (e.g. highly skewed and/or kurtotic distributions) and the modelling of not just the location parameter but also the scale and shape parameters. Additionally GAMLSS permits the forecasting of an entire distribution, allowing the output to be assessed in probabilistic terms rather than simply the mean and confidence intervals. Exploratory analysis of the relationship between long-memory processes (e.g. large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns, sea surface temperatures and soil moisture content) and drought should result in the identification of suitable predictors to be included in the forecasting model, and further our understanding of the drivers of UK drought.
Halecki, W; Gąsiorek, M
Urban soils have been formed through human activities. Seasonal evaluation with time-control procedure are essential for plant, and activity of microorganisms. Therefore, these processes are crucial in the urban area due to geochemical changes in the past years. The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes of content of microbial biomass phosphorus (P) in the top layer of soils throughout the season. In this research, the concentration of microbial biomass P ranged from 0.01 to 6.29 mg·kg(-1). We used single-factor repeated-measure analysis of variance to test the effect of season on microbial biomass P content of selected urban soils. We found no statistically significant differences between the concentration of microbial biomass P in the investigated urban and sub-urban soils during the growing season. This analysis explicitly recognised that environmental urban conditions are steady. Specifically, we have studied how vegetation seasonality and ability of microbial biomass P are useful for detecting quality deviations, which affect the equilibrium of urban soil. In conclusion, seasonal variability of the stringency of assurance across the different compounds of soil reveals, as expected, the stable condition of the urban soils. Seasonal responses in microbial biomass P under urban soil use should establish a framework as a reference to the activity of the microorganisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Abdul Khalik; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah; Mohd Pauzi Abdullah
A study of the water quality in Temenggor Lake was conducted within two different seasons, namely wet season (November - January 2009) and dry season (March - July 2010). Thirteen sampling stations were selected representing open water body of the lake particularly surrounding Banding Island. Three depths layered sampling (surface, middle and bottom of lake) was performed at each sampling stations except in zone B. An average WQI for Temenggor Lake in wet season (90.49) is slightly higher than the average for dry season (88.87). This study indicates quite significant seasonal influence of rainfalls on environmental lake ecosystems by improving the quality through dilution effect on several parameters. Statistical analysis of two-way ANOVA test indicates that all measured parameters are affected by seasonal changes except for pH, turbidity, DO, BOD, oil and grease. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and water hardness showed significant relationship with local community activities. Considering future development as eco tourism destination, the water quality of Temenggor Lake should be maintained thus some sort of integrated lake management system model on the integrated water resource management concept should be implemented. (author)
Full Text Available Most types of crime are known to exhibit seasonal oscillations, yet the annual variations in the amplitude of this seasonality and their causes are still uncertain. Using a large collection of data from the Houston and Los Angeles Metropolitan areas, we extract and study the seasonal variations in aggravated assault, break in and theft from vehicles, burglary, grand theft auto, rape, robbery, theft, and vandalism for many years from the raw daily data. Our approach allows us to see various long term and seasonal trends and aberrations in crime rates that have not been reported before. We then apply an ecologically motivated stochastic differential equation to reproduce the data. Our model relies only on social interaction terms, and not on any exigent factors, to reproduce both the seasonality, and the seasonal aberrations observed in our data set. Furthermore, the stochasticity in the system is sufficient to reproduce the variations seen in the seasonal oscillations from year to year. Researchers should be very careful about trying to correlate these oscillations with external factors.
Jo Beldring Henningsen
Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.
Full Text Available The Brazilian cerrado presents strong climate seasonality. During the dry season, plants may be exposed to stressful situations, such as a soil surface water deficit, that stimulate their chemical defenses. However, the seasonality effect on the production of allelopathic compounds of cerrado plant species is poorly understood. In this study, the phytotoxic activities of common native cerrado plants were evaluated during rainy and dry seasons. Crude leaves extracts (10% concentration: weight/volume, with dry leaves and distilled water from eleven species were tested on lettuce and sesame germination. The negative effects on germination percentages, rates and informational entropies of the target species were higher when submitted to plant extracts from the dry season, where the germination rate was the most sensible parameter. The higher sensibility of lettuce and the germination rate parameter showed this difference. Only two exceptions had higher effects for rainy season extracts; one species showed higher negative effects on germination informational entropy of lettuce and another species on the germination rate of sesame. Thus, increases in the allelopathic activity were seen in the majority of the studied cerrado plant species during the dry season. These distinct responses to stressful situations in a complex environment such as the Brazilian cerrado may support the establishment and survival of some species.
Peng, P.; Wang, W. [NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Washington, DC (United States); Kumar, A. [NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Washington, DC (United States); NCEP/NWS/NOAA, Climate Prediction Center, Camp Springs, MD (United States)
In the recent decade, operational seasonal prediction systems based on initialized coupled models have been developed. An analysis of how the predictability of seasonal means in the initialized coupled predictions evolves with lead-time is presented. Because of the short lead-time, such an analysis for the temporal behavior of seasonal predictability involves a mix of both the predictability of the first and the second kind. The analysis focuses on the lead-time dependence of ensemble mean variance, and the forecast spread. Further, the analysis is for a fixed target season of December-January-February, and is for sea surface temperature, rainfall, and 200-mb height. The analysis is based on a large set of hindcasts from an initialized coupled seasonal prediction system. Various aspects of predictability of the first and the second kind are highlighted for variables with long (for example, SST), and fast (for example, atmospheric) adjustment time scale. An additional focus of the analysis is how the predictability in the initialized coupled seasonal predictions compares with estimates based on the AMIP simulations. The results indicate that differences in the set up of AMIP simulations and coupled predictions, for example, representation of air-sea interactions, and evolution of forecast spread from initial conditions do not change fundamental conclusion about the seasonal predictability. A discussion of the analysis presented herein, and its implications for the use of AMIP simulations for climate attribution, and for time-slice experiments to provide regional information, is also included. (orig.)
Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.
The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.
Feng, Yiming; Albiol Tapia, Marta; Okada, Kyle; Castaneda Lazo, Nuria Blanca; Chapman-Novakofski, Karen; Phillips, Carter; Lee, Soo-Yeun
Recent findings show that approximately 87% of the U.S. population fail to meet the vegetable intake recommendations, with unpleasant taste of vegetables being listed as the primary reason for this shortfall. In this study, spice and herb seasoning was used to enhance palatability of vegetables, in order to increase consumer acceptance. In total, 749 panelists were screened and recruited as specific vegetable likers of the vegetable being tested or general vegetable likers. Four sessions were designed to evaluate the effect of seasoning within each type of vegetable, including broccoli, cauliflower, carrot, and green bean. Each panelist was only allowed to participate in one test session to evaluate only one vegetable type, so as to mitigate potential learning effect. Overall, the results showed that seasoned vegetables were significantly preferred over unseasoned vegetables (P trend of seasoned vegetable being preferred remained. The findings from this study demonstrate the effect of seasoning in enhancing consumer liking of vegetables, which may lead to increased consumption to be assessed in future studies. To improve the sensory properties of vegetables, masking the bitter taste of vegetables using spice and herb seasoning are gaining increasing attention. Our findings suggest that the overall liking of vegetables could be improved by incorporating spice and herb seasonings that are specifically formulated for each vegetable. Ultimately, developing and commercializing spice and herb seasonings may aid to increase vegetable consumption, as well as expanding the vegetable seasoning market. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Food Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Institute of Food Technologists.
Zona, Donatella; Gioli, Beniamino; Commane, Róisín; Lindaas, Jakob; Wofsy, Steven C.; Miller, Charles E.; Dinardo, Steven J.; Dengel, Sigrid; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Chang, Rachel Y.-W.; Henderson, John M.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Goodrich, Jordan P.; Moreaux, Virginie; Liljedahl, Anna; Watts, Jennifer D.; Kimball, John S.; Lipson, David A.; Oechel, Walter C.
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems are major global sources of methane (CH4); hence, it is important to understand the seasonal and climatic controls on CH4 emissions from these systems. Here, we report year-round CH4 emissions from Alaskan Arctic tundra eddy flux sites and regional fluxes derived from aircraft data. We find that emissions during the cold season (September to May) account for ≥50% of the annual CH4 flux, with the highest emissions from noninundated upland tundra. A major fraction of cold season emissions occur during the "zero curtain" period, when subsurface soil temperatures are poised near 0 °C. The zero curtain may persist longer than the growing season, and CH4 emissions are enhanced when the duration is extended by a deep thawed layer as can occur with thick snow cover. Regional scale fluxes of CH4 derived from aircraft data demonstrate the large spatial extent of late season CH4 emissions. Scaled to the circumpolar Arctic, cold season fluxes from tundra total 12 ± 5 (95% confidence interval) Tg CH4 y-1, ∼25% of global emissions from extratropical wetlands, or ∼6% of total global wetland methane emissions. The dominance of late-season emissions, sensitivity to soil environmental conditions, and importance of dry tundra are not currently simulated in most global climate models. Because Arctic warming disproportionally impacts the cold season, our results suggest that higher cold-season CH4 emissions will result from observed and predicted increases in snow thickness, active layer depth, and soil temperature, representing important positive feedbacks on climate warming.
Fitzgerald, Daniel B; Winemiller, Kirk O; Sabaj Pérez, Mark H; Sousa, Leandro M
Despite growing interest in trait-based approaches to community assembly, little attention has been given to seasonal variation in trait distribution patterns. Mobile animals can rapidly mediate influences of environmental factors and species interactions through dispersal, suggesting that the relative importance of different assembly mechanisms can vary over short time scales. This study analyzes seasonal changes in functional trait distributions of tropical fishes in the Xingu River, a major tributary of the Amazon with large predictable temporal variation in hydrologic conditions and species density. Comparison of observed functional diversity revealed that species within wet-season assemblages were more functionally similar than those in dry-season assemblages. Further, species within wet-season assemblages were more similar than random expectations based on null model predictions. Higher functional richness within dry season communities is consistent with increased niche complementarity during the period when fish densities are highest and biotic interactions should be stronger; however, null model tests suggest that stochastic factors or a combination of assembly mechanisms influence dry-season assemblages. These results demonstrate that the relative influence of community assembly mechanisms can vary seasonally in response to changing abiotic conditions, and suggest that studies attempting to infer a single dominant mechanism from functional patterns may overlook important aspects of the assembly process. During the prolonged flood pulse of the wet season, expanded habitat and lower densities of aquatic organisms likely reduce the influence of competition and predation. This temporal shift in the influence of different assembly mechanisms, rather than any single mechanism, may play a large role in maintaining the structure and diversity of tropical rivers and perhaps other dynamic and biodiverse systems. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Hendon, Harry H.; Wang, Guomin [Centre for Australian Weather and Climate Research, Bureau of Meteorology, PO Box 1289, Melbourne (Australia)
The potential for predicting interannual variations of the Leeuwin Current along the west coast of Australia is addressed. The Leeuwin Current flows poleward against the prevailing winds and transports warm-fresh tropical water southward along the coast, which has a great impact on local climate and ecosystems. Variations of the current are tightly tied to El Nino/La Nina (weak during El Nino and strong during La Nina). Skilful seasonal prediction of the Leeuwin Current to 9-month lead time is achieved by empirical downscaling of dynamical coupled model forecasts of El Nino and the associated upper ocean heat content anomalies off the north west coast of Australia from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia (POAMA) seasonal forecast system. Prediction of the Leeuwin Current is possible because the heat content fluctuations off the north west coast are the primary driver of interannual annual variations of the current and these heat content variations are tightly tied to the occurrence of El Nino/La Nina. POAMA can skilfully predict both the occurrence of El Nino/La Nina and the subsequent transmission of the heat content anomalies from the Pacific onto the north west coast. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Food quality control techniques based on process control methods are increasingly adopted in livestock production systems to fulfill increasing market's expectations toward competitiveness and issues linked to One Health pillars (environment, animal, and human health. Control Charts allow monitoring and systematic investigation of sources of variability in dairy production parameters. These parameters, however, may be affected by seasonal variations that render impractical, biased or ineffective the use statistical control charts. A possible approach to this problem is to adapt seasonal adjustment methods used for the analysis of economic and demographic seasonal time series. The aim of the present work is to evaluate a seasonal decomposition technique called X-11 on milk parameters routinely collected also in small farms (fat, protein, and lactose content, solids-not-fat, freezing point, somatic cell count, total bacterial count and to test the efficacy of different seasonal removal methods to improve the effectiveness of statistical control charting.Method: Data collection was carried out for 3 years on routinely monitored bulk tank milk parameters of a small farm. Seasonality presence was statistically assessed on milk parameters and, for those parameters showing seasonality, control charts for individuals were applied on raw data, on X-11 seasonally adjusted data, and on data smoothed with a symmetric moving average filter. Correlation of seasonally influenced parameters with daily mean temperature was investigated.Results: Presence of seasonality in milk parameters was statistically assessed for fat, protein, and solids-non-fat components. The X-11 seasonally-adjusted control charts showed a reduced number of violations (false alarms with respect to non-seasonally adjusted control chart (from 5 to 1 violation for fat, from 17 to 1 violation for protein, and from 9 to none violation for solids-non-fat.. This result was
Jansson, Michael; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard
In an important generalization of zero frequency autore- gressive unit root tests, Hylleberg, Engle, Granger, and Yoo (1990) developed regression-based tests for unit roots at the seasonal frequencies in quarterly time series. We develop likelihood ratio tests for seasonal unit roots and show...... that these tests are "nearly efficient" in the sense of Elliott, Rothenberg, and Stock (1996), i.e. that their local asymptotic power functions are indistinguishable from the Gaussian power envelope. Currently available nearly efficient testing procedures for seasonal unit roots are regression-based and require...... the choice of a GLS detrending parameter, which our likelihood ratio tests do not....
Jimmy T. Efird
Full Text Available Adult onset glioma is a rare cancer which occurs more frequently in Caucasians than African Americans, and in men than women. The etiology of this disease is largely unknown. Exposure to ionizing radiation is the only well established environmental risk factor, and this factor explains only a small percentage of cases. Several recent studies have reported an association between season of birth and glioma risk. This paper reviews the plausibility of evidence focusing on the seasonal interrelation of farming, allergies, viruses, vitamin D, diet, birth weight, and handedness. To date, a convincing explanation for the occurrence of adult gliomas decades after a seasonal exposure at birth remains elusive.
Jensen, Camilla Bjørn; Gamborg, M; Raymond, K
and phase of the yearly cycles to change. RESULTS: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW which, however, changed gradually across the study period. The highest BWs were seen during fall (September - October) from 1936 to 1963, but a new peak gradually grew from the early 1940s during early summer (May...... again. Sunshine did not explain the seasonal variation in BW. CONCLUSION: There was a clear seasonal pattern in BW in Denmark 1936-1989, which however changed across the study period. Throughout the study period we observed a peak in BW during the fall, but gradually, starting in the early 1940s...
Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The boll weevil colonizes cotton fields as early as cotton squaring, causing significant losses due to feeding and protected development inside fruiting structures throughout crop phenology. Successful control depends on control of adults and their accurate detection when they colonize the crops. The commercial trap and boll weevil attract-and-control tubes (BWACT are the only available tools to monitor and attract-and-kill boll weevil, despite limitation in efficacy, and insecticide in BWACT is not allowed in organic production. A grandlure-and-glue reusable and insecticide-free tube (GGT made with polyvinyl chloride tube, smeared with entomological glue, and lured with pheromone was tested to detect boll weevil activity across various seasons. Boll weevil showed activity during growing season and off-season from 2009 to 2012 in the Semiarid and with higher numbers captured in GGT in comparisons to commercial traps. GGT was able to detect early weevils in the field right after planting. Further, the overall averages resulted in 34-, 16.8-, and 7.5-times more weevils captured in GGTs compared to the traps during stalk destruction in the Semiarid 2011 and Cerrado season 2012/13 and during the harvesting period in the Cerrado season 2011/12, respectively. Therefore, boll weevils were captured actively during season and off-season and early captures obtained in GGT compared to traps showed a better correlation between captures and square damage.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D status generally varies seasonally with changing solar UVB radiation, time in the sun, amount of skin exposed, and, possibly, diet. The Seasonal D Study was designed to quantify the amplitude and phase of seasonal variation in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, (25OHD and identify the determinants of the amplitude and phase and those of inter-individual variability in seasonal pattern. Methods The Seasonal D Study collected data 2-monthly for 12 months, including demographics, personal sun exposure using a diary and polysulphone dosimeters over 7 days, and blood for serum 25(OHD concentration. The study recruited 333 adults aged 18–79 years living in Canberra (35°S, n = 168 and Brisbane (27°South, n = 165, Australia. Discussion We report the study design and cohort description for the Seasonal D Study. The study has collected a wealth of data to examine inter- and intra-individual seasonal variation in vitamin D status and serum 25(OHD levels in Australian adults.
Journal Home > Vol 20, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or ... To study seasonality in bipolar disorder (BD) patients and also the factors affecting this seasonality. ... Most of the patients were morning types but chronotype had no influence on seasonality.
He, Changli; Kang, Jian; Terasvirta, Timo
In this paper we introduce an autoregressive model with seasonal dummy variables in which coefficients of seasonal dummies vary smoothly and deterministically over time. The error variance of the model is seasonally heteroskedastic and multiplicatively decomposed, the decomposition being similar ...... temperature series. More specifically, the idea is to find out in which way and by how much the monthly temperatures are varying over time during the period of more than 240 years, if they do. Misspecification tests are applied to the estimated model and the findings discussed....
Background:Appendicitis is a common clinical condition worldwide. Differences in ... Aim:To assess the trends in incidence and pattern of variation with age, sex, and seasons of the year. .... population of 465000 (an annual population growth.
It seems, therefore, that although these animals exhibit an inherent rhythm in their breeding activities, this may be considerably influenced by prevailing climatic conditions. The picture ... Brand (1963) finds no calving season in his analysis.
Gundersen, Joshua; Barkats, Denis; Hedman, Matt; Staggs, Suzanne; Winstein, Bruce
We report on the first two seasons of the Princeton IQU Experiment (PIQUE). PIQUE is a ground-based telescope designed to measure the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). During the first season (1/19/00-4/2/00), PIQUE measured the Q Stokes parameter on a ring at declination of 89 degrees from the roof of the Physics Department at Princeton University using a 90 GHz correlation polarimeter with a full-width-half maximum beam of 0.24 degrees. PIQUE's observations from the first season yielded a new limit on the polarization of the CMB in the multipole range 100the second season (currently in progress), PIQUE will measure the U Stokes parameter in the same ring using a combination of the 90 GHz polarimeter and a new 40 GHz polarimeter. Preliminary results from these observations will be presented.
... work. CDC has been working with researchers at universities and hospitals since the 2003-2004 flu season ... maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email ...
... influence waterbird communities include rainfall quantity and distribution, waterbird movement, breeding and moulting; anthropogenic drivers include activities such as fishing and agriculture. Results suggest that seasonal variations in resource availability influenced the waterbird community composition and abundance, ...
Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas
the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
The seasonal cycle of temperature - salinity variations in the Bab el Mandab region ... Sea water that flows into the Gulf of Aden is maximum during the winter and minimum during the summer. ..... stress the importance of both thermohaline and.
Naqvi, S.W.A; Naik, H.; Jayakumar, A; Pratihary, A; Narvenkar, G.; Kurian, S.; Agnihotri, R.; Shailaja, M.S.; Narvekar, P.V.
The eastern Arabian Sea contains the only eastern-boundary-type upwelling environment in the entire Indian Ocean, albeit on a seasonal basis. During the southwest monsoon, when the surface current flows equatorward, upwelling brings oxygen...
Tippett, Michael K.; Kleeman, Richard; Tang, Youmin
Variation of sea surface temperature (SST) on seasonal-to-interannual time-scales leads to changes in seasonal weather statistics and seasonal climate anomalies. Relative entropy, an information theory measure of utility, is used to quantify the impact of SST variations on seasonal precipitation compared to natural variability. An ensemble of general circulation model (GCM) simulations is used to estimate this quantity in three regions where tropical SST has a large impact on precipitation: South Florida, the Nordeste of Brazil and Kenya. We find the yearly variation of relative entropy is strongly correlated with shifts in ensemble mean precipitation and weakly correlated with ensemble variance. Relative entropy is also found to be related to measures of the ability of the GCM to reproduce observations.
Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Joseph, T.
that surface distribution pattern of the trace metal concentration of cobalt, nickel and iron was almost similar at the four stations thereby stressing the fact that seasonal fluctuations contributed a major part in the surface distribution of these metals...
African Journal of Environmental Science and. Technology. Full Length ..... higher volume during dry season and lower volume during rainy .... 224 Afr. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. ..... Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 1- 5. Babatunde ...
Flu season starts in the fall and goes through the spring, typically peaking between January and March in the United States. In this podcast, Dr. Joe Bresee discusses the importance of getting vaccinated against the flu every year.
Bochenin, V.F.; Chebotina, M.Ya.
The seasonal dynamics of Co 60 accumulation by one of the most widely distributed fresh-water plants, elodea (Elodea canadensis Rich), were studied. Accumulation was shown to vary with the season. A very low coefficient of accumulation (500-700 units) was typical for the summer period (June to August). It increased in the fall, reached its highest values (3500-4000) in mid-winter (January), and dropped sharply in the spring. Radioisotope concentrations in the plant varied similarly. The cumulative capacity of plants for Co 60 may vary by a factor of 6 to 7 during the year. It is suggested that the seasonal changes in Co 60 accumulation may be caused by both differences in the physiological state of the plants at different times of the year, and by seasonal variations in the hydrochemical regime of the water reservoir. Experiments were done to clarify which of these mechanisms is the determining factor. (V.A.P.)
Du Plessis, M
Full Text Available Traditionally, the mechanism driving the seasonal restratification of the Southern Ocean mixed layer (ML) is thought to be the onset of springtime warming. Recent developments in numerical modeling and North Atlantic observations have shown...
Matondkar, S.G.P.; Mathani, S.; Mavinkurve, S.
Seasonal variations in bacterial and fungal counts from the water and sediment samples of mangrove ecosystem of Goa (India) show that this ecosystem supports a very high population of fungi and bacteria...
Seasonal study on Bothriocephalus as indicator of metal pollution in yellowfish, ... Water and sediment, as well as liver, muscle and tapeworm samples were ... iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, tin, ...
Jul 16, 2006 ... seasonality of hedgerow tree mulch contribution to alley-cropped ... Field experiments were carried out on an alley-cropping farm in Ajibode village, near Ibadan where cassava ...... Research Guide series 61. p.27. Osonubi O ...
Sep 15, 2009 ... Main characteristics of mediterranean climate are represented by mild, rainy ... the warm-season turfgrasses with low water use rate and. *Corresponding ..... Lawns and Golf, Sleeping Bear Press, Chelsea, MI. Busey P (2003).
Gonzalez-Gomez, C.; Azahra, M.; Lopez-Penalver, J.J.; Camacho-Garcia, A.; Bardouni, T.El.; Boukhal, H.
Measurement of 7 Be depositional fluxes at Granada, Spain (37 o 10'50''N-3 o 35'44''W, altitude 670 m) in the period 1995 through 1998 indicates substantial variations between the four seasons and also between corresponding seasons in different years, ranging from 23.6 to 242 Bq m -2 per season. A strongly positive correlation with precipitation is shown, which explains about 70% of the variations in the 7 Be depositional fluxes over the 16 seasons studied. The depositional 7 Be flux is on the average highest in the fall and lowest in the summer. The study shows that precipitation primarily controls the 7 Be depositional flux and plays a dominant role in the removal of 7 Be from the troposphere. The average annual 7 Be depositional flux at Granada amounts to 469+145 Bq m -2
The sampling points represent the villages within Abraka clan along the river. The seasonal variations are ... untreated waste water or poorly treated effluents accrued from .... Fakayode, S.O. (2005): Impact Assessment of. Industrial Effluent on ...
The objective of this study was to characterize the reproductive seasonality of a wild population of male Florida gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus. We measured the gonadosomatic index, reproductive stage of the testes, seminiferous tubule area, and plasma concentrations of testoster...
Mar 17, 1998 ... ... both seasonal and daily cyclic variation in water stress, with concomitant changes in ... nutritional) stress, are of dubious applicability to animals in their natural ..... The similarity of haematocrit measurements in the two sea-.
Kumar, S.S.; Chinchkar, U.; Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Chandramohan, D.
as producers of DMSP in Dona Paula bay. Dinoflagellates also contributed during the non-monsoon seasons. Another factor involved in the variability of DMSPt was DMSP utilizing bacteria, which ranged from 1 to 10% of the total heterotrophic count...
North-East Atlantic), determining the spatial and seasonal abundance, population structure and physical appearance of European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus. Animals were surveyed off Gran Canaria Island in two ...
Full Text Available to avoid using wood altogether. The requirements of a cooking fuel vary seasonally in any given household, and across different climatic zones. The ability of improved stoves to meet these requirements varies considerably across these different zones...
RamaRaju, V.S.; Rao, T.V.N.; RameshBabu, V.; Anto, A.F.
The hydrography of the Wadge Bank during premonsoon and monsoon seasons is presented. The thermocline slopes downward towards the central region. Upwelling is prominent in the entire region during monsoon and is observed only in the western...
Dr. K.J. Umar
Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Science (June, 2015), 23(1): 39-44 ... ABSTRACT: This study was aimed to assess the effect of season, habitat and leaf age on proximate ... most developing nations, for example in Nigeria, food.
Daly, Steven F; Baldwin, Timothy B; Weyrick, Patricia
Daily estimates of the snow water equivalent (SWE) distribution for the period from 1 December through 30 April for each winter season from 1979 80 through 2002 03 were calculated for the entire Lake Superior watershed...
Aug 21, 2012 ... liberating end-products such as volatile fatty acids. Cellulase enzyme ... All the other common chemicals such as glacial acetic acid, sodium azide .... specific activity was observed among animal species and between seasons ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ceptometer data from a Decagon AccuPAR (Model PAR-80) were collected at four sites in Botswana during the SAFARI 2000 Kalahari Transect Wet Season Campaign (March,...
Full Text Available of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison project (AMIP) was performed first, generating different ensemble members using a lagged-average forecasting approach. These simulations are shown to be skilful in representing southern African summer-season inter...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent Seasonal Mangagement Area locations where regulations implement speed restrictions in shipping areas at certain times of the year along the...
Seasonal ataxia: a case report of a disappearing disease. Adebiyi Ayoade ... ological profiles of the disease. ... low serum albumin levels  act as a potentiating factor to trigger the ... 65% neutrophils, 25% lymphocytes,eosinophils 5% and.
Highlights: ► We analyze seasonal anomalies in electricity intensity in China. ► Regional and time dimensions are investigated from 2003 to 2009. ► Results suggest that seasonality is stochastic. ► We find four main effects: Summer, Winter, Spring and Lunar New Year effects. ► Differences are observed between northern regions and east-south of China. - Abstract: This paper provides evidence on the relevance of modeling the seasonal nature of electricity intensity across Chinese regions in a suitable manner with monthly data from 2003 to 2009. In contrast to previous works, this study relaxes the assumption of deterministic seasonality, allowing for time and regional variation in the Chinese economy. In doing so, unobserved-components models are used to analyze the type of seasonality – stochastic or deterministic – that prevails. Regional differences in the seasonal patterns and their evolution over time are also examined. Results provide new empirical evidence on the stochastic nature of electricity intensity in the majority of the provinces. In addition, we find four main effects as regards seasonal patterns: (i) Lunar New Year, (ii) Summer, (iii) Spring, and (iv) Winter effects. In the first two effects seasonality becomes positive, thus indicating that electricity intensity increases, and the last two are negative, showing improvements in the use of electricity per unit of output. However, differences are observed between northern regions and the east-south of China. In addition, once we control our estimates for temperature and prices, no significant differences are seen in the results. Conclusions from this analysis are useful for empirical modeling in the energy-economics literature, and also for designing energy policies to improve the efficiency of the use of energy resources across Chinese regions
Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Leduc, Martin; Damon Matthews, H.
Cumulative CO2 emissions are near linearly related to both global and regional changes in annual-mean surface temperature. These relationships are known as the transient climate response to cumulative CO2 emissions (TCRE) and the regional TCRE (RTCRE), and have been shown to remain approximately constant over a wide range of cumulative emissions. Here, we assessed how well this relationship holds for seasonal patterns of temperature change, as well as for annual-mean and seasonal precipitation patterns. We analyzed an idealized scenario with CO2 concentration growing at an annual rate of 1% using data from 12 Earth system models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). Seasonal RTCRE values for temperature varied considerably, with the highest seasonal variation evident in the Arctic, where RTCRE was about 5.5 °C per Tt C for boreal winter and about 2.0 °C per Tt C for boreal summer. Also the precipitation response in the Arctic during boreal winter was stronger than during other seasons. We found that emission-normalized seasonal patterns of temperature change were relatively robust with respect to time, though they were sub-linear with respect to emissions particularly near the Arctic. Moreover, RTCRE patterns for precipitation could not be quantified robustly due to the large internal variability of precipitation. Our results suggest that cumulative CO2 emissions are a useful metric to predict regional and seasonal changes in precipitation and temperature. This extension of the TCRE framework to seasonal and regional climate change is helpful for communicating the link between emissions and climate change to policy-makers and the general public, and is well-suited for impact studies that could make use of estimated regional-scale climate changes that are consistent with the carbon budgets associated with global temperature targets.
Fiedler, Paul C.
Interannual variability caused by the El Nino-Southern Oscillation in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean (ETP) is analogous to seasonal variability of comparable magnitude. Climatological spatial patterns and seasonal variability of physical variables that may affect the ETP ecosystem are presented and discussed. Surface temperature, surface salinity, mixed layer depth, thermocline depth, thermocline strength, and surface dynamic height were derived from bathythermograph, hydrocast, and...
This paper reports dynamical characteristics of the seasonal circulations over the Korean peninsula. It consists of summary, research method, result, consideration and conclusion. It introduces the method of research ; characteristics of circulation over seasonal wind in Asia, characteristic of upper jet stream related cold wave and monsoon in East Asia and dynamics of pulsation and maintain of high atmospheric pressure in siberia in winter. It was reported by Korea science foundation in 1989.
Broor, Shobha; Saha, Siddhartha; Barnes, John; Smith, Catherine; Shaw, Michael; Chadha, Mandeep; Lal, Renu B.
The seasonality of influenza in the tropics complicates vaccination timing. We investigated influenza seasonality in northern India and found influenza positivity peaked in Srinagar (34.09°N) in January–March but peaked in New Delhi (28.66°N) in July–September. Srinagar should consider influenza vaccination in October–November, but New Delhi should vaccinate in May–June. PMID:25279651
Silm, Siiri; Ahas, Rein
We studied alcohol consumption and its consequences as a seasonal phenomenon in Estonia and analysed the social and environmental factors that may cause its seasonal rhythm. There are two important questions when researching the seasonality of human activities: (1) whether it is caused by natural or social factors, and (2) whether the impact of the factors is direct or indirect. Often the seasonality of social phenomena is caused by social factors, but the triggering mechanisms are related to environmental factors like temperature, precipitation, and radiation via the circannual calendar. The indicators of alcohol consumption in the current paper are grouped as: (1) pre-consumption phenomena, i.e. production, tax and excise, sales (beer, wine and vodka are analysed separately), and (2) post-consumption phenomena, i.e. alcohol-related crime and traffic accidents and the number of people detained in lockups and admitted to alcohol treatment clinics. In addition, seasonal variability in the amount of alcohol advertising has been studied, and a survey has been carried out among 87 students of Tartu University. The analysis shows that different phenomena related to alcohol have a clear seasonal rhythm in Estonia. The peak period of phenomena related to beer is in the summer, from June to August and the low point is during the first months of the year. Beer consumption correlates well with air temperature. The consumption of vodka increases sharply at the end of the year and in June; the production of vodka does not have a significant correlation with negative temperatures. The consumption of wine increases during summer and in December. The consequences of alcohol consumption, expressed as the rate of traffic accidents or the frequency of medical treatment, also show seasonal variability. Seasonal variability of alcohol consumption in Estonia is influenced by natural factors (temperature, humidity, etc.) and by social factors (celebrations, vacations, etc.). However
Heck, J M L; van Valenberg, H J F; Dijkstra, J; van Hooijdonk, A C M
In this study, we determined the detailed composition of and seasonal variation in Dutch dairy milk. Raw milk samples representative of the complete Dutch milk supply were collected weekly from February 2005 until February 2006. Large seasonal variation exists in the concentrations of the main components and milk fatty acid composition. Milk lactose concentration was rather constant throughout the season. Milk true protein content was somewhat more responsive to season, with the lowest content in June (3.21 g/100 g) and the highest content in December (3.38 g/100 g). Milk fat concentration increased from a minimum of 4.10 g/100 g in June to a maximum of 4.57 g/100 g in January. The largest (up to 2-fold) seasonal changes in the fatty acid composition were found for trans fatty acids, including conjugated linoleic acid. Milk protein composition was rather constant throughout the season. Milk unsaturation indices, which were used as an indication of desaturase activity, were lowest in spring and highest in autumn. Compared with a previous investigation of Dutch dairy milk in 1992, the fatty acid composition of Dutch raw milk has changed considerably, in particular with a higher content of saturated fatty acids in 2005 milk.
Wright, Jonathon S; Fu, Rong; Worden, John R; Chakraborty, Sudip; Clinton, Nicholas E; Risi, Camille; Sun, Ying; Yin, Lei
Although it is well established that transpiration contributes much of the water for rainfall over Amazonia, it remains unclear whether transpiration helps to drive or merely responds to the seasonal cycle of rainfall. Here, we use multiple independent satellite datasets to show that rainforest transpiration enables an increase of shallow convection that moistens and destabilizes the atmosphere during the initial stages of the dry-to-wet season transition. This shallow convection moisture pump (SCMP) preconditions the atmosphere at the regional scale for a rapid increase in rain-bearing deep convection, which in turn drives moisture convergence and wet season onset 2-3 mo before the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Aerosols produced by late dry season biomass burning may alter the efficiency of the SCMP. Our results highlight the mechanisms by which interactions among land surface processes, atmospheric convection, and biomass burning may alter the timing of wet season onset and provide a mechanistic framework for understanding how deforestation extends the dry season and enhances regional vulnerability to drought.
Observations show that the Arctic sea ice cover is currently declining as a result of climate warming. According to climate models, this retreat will continue and possibly accelerate in the near-future. However, the magnitude of this decline is not the same throughout the year. With temperatures near or above the freezing point, summertime Arctic sea ice will quickly diminish. However, at temperatures well below freezing, the sea ice cover during winter will exhibit a much weaker decline. In the future, the sea ice seasonal cycle will be no ice in summer, and thin one-year ice in winter. Hence, the seasonal cycle in sea ice cover will increase with ongoing climate warming. This in itself leads to an increased summer-winter contrast in surface air temperature, because changes in sea ice have a dominant influence on Arctic temperature and its seasonality. Currently, the annual amplitude in air temperature is decreasing, however, because winters warm faster than summer. With ongoing summer sea ice reductions there will come a time when the annual temperature amplitude will increase again because of the large seasonal changes in sea ice. This suggests that changes in the seasonal cycle in Arctic sea ice and temperature are closely, and intricately, connected. Future changes in Arctic seasonality (will) have an profound effect on flora, fauna, humans and economic activities.
Full Text Available Objective: in recent years different hypotheses with respect to the formation of cerebral laterality were proposed. Some of the researchers claim that cerebral dominance and laterality are determined by genetic factors, just as the case with eye color and blood type. However, another group states that in addition to genetic factors, environmental factors, too, have a remarkable role in hemispheric dominance and lateral dominance. Hence, the present research was designed to study the relationship between 1- lateral dominance and birth season 2- lateral dominance and gender. "n "nMethod:1355(girls and boys fifth graders from the 19 educational regions of Tehran were selected using multi stage cluster sampling in the 2003-2004 school year. Coren lateral preference and personal information questionnaire were applied. "nResults:The following results were obtained at the level of ل=0.05 and probability of 95%. There were significant association between lateral dominance and birth season, between lateral dominance and gender, between ambidexterity and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and birth season, between dexterality and gender, between ambidexterity and gender, between genetic sinistrality and gender. There were no significant associations between dexterality and birth season, genetic sinistrality and birth season, between non-genetic sinistrality and gender. "nConclusion: The gestational environmental factors can have significant effect on the formation of lateral dominance and cerebral laterality.
MacLeod, D.; Palmer, T.
Many people living in East Africa are significantly exposed to risks arising from climate variability. The region experiences two rainy seasons and poor performance of either or both of these (such as seen recently in 2016/17) reduces agricultural productivity and threatens food security. In combination with other factors this can lead to famine. By utilizing seasonal climate forecasts, preparatory actions can be taken in order to mitigate the risks arising from such climate variability. As part of the project ForPAc: "Towards forecast-based preparedness action", we are working with humanitarian agencies in Kenya to build such early warning systems on subseasonal-to-seasonal timescales. Here, the seasonal predictability and forecast skill of the two East African rainy seasons will be presented. Results from the new ECMWF operational forecasting system SEAS5 will be shown and compared to the previous System 4. Analysis of a new 110 year long atmosphere-only simulation will also be discussed, demonstrating impacts of atmosphere-ocean coupling as well as putting operational forecast skill in a long-term context. Particular focus will be given to the model representation of teleconnections of seasonal climate with global sea surface temperatures; highlighting sources of forecast error and informing future model development.
Miller, Paige B; O'Dea, Eamon B; Rohani, Pejman; Drake, John M
Despite high vaccination coverage, many childhood infections pose a growing threat to human populations. Accurate disease forecasting would be of tremendous value to public health. Forecasting disease emergence using early warning signals (EWS) is possible in non-seasonal models of infectious diseases. Here, we assessed whether EWS also anticipate disease emergence in seasonal models. We simulated the dynamics of an immunizing infectious pathogen approaching the tipping point to disease endemicity. To explore the effect of seasonality on the reliability of early warning statistics, we varied the amplitude of fluctuations around the average transmission. We proposed and analyzed two new early warning signals based on the wavelet spectrum. We measured the reliability of the early warning signals depending on the strength of their trend preceding the tipping point and then calculated the Area Under the Curve (AUC) statistic. Early warning signals were reliable when disease transmission was subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning signals were as reliable as other conventional early warning signals. We found that removing seasonal trends, prior to analysis, did not improve early warning statistics uniformly. Early warning signals anticipate the onset of critical transitions for infectious diseases which are subject to seasonal forcing. Wavelet-based early warning statistics can also be used to forecast infectious disease.
Coffel, E.; Horton, R. M.
Significant seasonal variations in warming are projected in some regions, especially central Europe, the southeastern U.S., and central South America. Europe in particular may experience up to 2°C more warming during June, July, and August than in the annual mean, enhancing the risk of extreme summertime heat. Previous research has shown that heat waves in Europe and other regions are tied to seasonal soil moisture variations, and that in general land-surface feedbacks have a strong effect on seasonal temperature anomalies. In this study, we show that the seasonal anomalies in warming are also due in part to land-surface feedbacks. We find that in regions with amplified warming during the hot season, surface soil moisture levels generally decline and Bowen ratios increase as a result of a preferential partitioning of incoming energy into sensible vs. latent. The CMIP5 model suite shows significant variability in the strength of land-atmosphere coupling and in projections of future precipitation and soil moisture. Due to the dependence of seasonal warming on land-surface processes, these inter-model variations influence the projected summertime warming amplification and contribute to the uncertainty in projections of future extreme heat.
Klausmeier, Christopher A; Litchman, Elena
Plankton seasonal succession is a classic example of nonequilibrium community dynamics. Despite the fact that it has been well studied empirically, it lacks a general quantitative theory. Here we investigate a food web model that includes a resource, two phytoplankton, and a shared grazer-the diamond food web-in a seasonal environment. The model produces a number of successional trajectories that have been widely discussed in the context of the verbal Plankton Ecology Group model of succession, such as a spring bloom of a good competitor followed by a grazer-induced clear-water phase, setting the stage for the late-season dominance of a grazer-resistant species. It also predicts a novel, counterintuitive trajectory where the grazer-resistant species has both early- and late-season blooms. The model often generates regular annual cycles but sometimes produces multiyear cycles or chaos, even with identical forcing each year. Parameterizing the model, we show how the successional trajectory depends on nutrient supply and the length of the growing season, two key parameters that vary among water bodies. This model extends nonequilibrium theory to food webs and is a first step toward a quantitative theory of plankton seasonal succession.
Full Text Available Seasonality in tourism represents a key topic in academic literature. Since the first study of BarOn (1975 about tourism seasonality, this topic is still currently being tackled over decades by several authors, as well as by policy makers of the tourism sector. The purpose of the study, rather than representing an exhaustive and complete framework of a wide field of study such as seasonality in tourism, is to explore the main characteristics of this phenomenon (causes, impacts, spatiality and temporality, measurements and to focus the attention on policies and strategies in order to highlight how and in which ways tourism destinations can modify tourism seasonality’s feature. If the rather more common perspective adopted is that seasonality presents business challenges to a destination and to individual operators, it is a crucial aim of this literature review the attempt to point out the main features of these challenges and to provide a rational framework for the tourism seasonality researches.  The paper is drawn from: Cannas, R. (2010 Public Policies for tourism seasonality from a territorial perspective. Cases study in Scotland and Sardinia, PhD thesis, University of Bologna, Department of Economics, unpublished.
Full Text Available Тhe aim of the present study was identification of flavone aglycones and determination of the content of each and the content of total flavonoids as well as investigation of the eventual seasonal variations of flavonoids in Teucrium polium L. (Lamiaceae. The plant samples were collected at six different locations in Republic of Macedonia, during summer in 1999, 2000 and 2003. For determination of seasonal variations, the samples were collected in v. Koleshino, in 2004, each month during the whole season. Six flavone aglycones (luteolin, apigenin, diosmetin, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin and cirsilineol were identified in the hydrolyzed extracts of the over ground part of Teucrium polium by HPLC method. The most abundant flavone was luteolin, followed by apigenin and cirsimaritin. Great seasonal variations were found in the content of each and in the content of total amount of flavonoids. The most abundant flavone during the whole season was luteolin with the highest content in May. The content of total flavonids was the highest in the period from May to July, which could be recommended as the most convenience period in the season for collecting of the plant material from Teucrium polium.