WorldWideScience

Sample records for valuing large environmental

  1. Estimating environmental value losses from earth materials excavation and infilling for large-scale airport construction: a case of Dalian Offshore Airport, Dalian, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hua-Kun; Wang, Nuo; Wu, Nuan; Song, Nan-Qi; Zhu, Dao-Li

    2017-09-01

    Large-scale airport construction removes large quantities of earth materials, resulting in serious environmental pollution and ecosystem damage. However, studies of environmental concerns caused by the materials used in airport construction are still preliminary, and those case studies on the impacts of large-scale offshore airport development are very limited. China's Dalian Offshore Airport is considered here to study the environmental value loss from 240 million m3 of materials excavations and 21 km2 of artificial island infillings. The findings show that the calculated annual environmental value loss for the development of the Dalian Offshore Airport is approximately US$7.75 million, including US$1.81 million and US$1.47 million of direct economic loss of timber resources and marine biology resources, respectively, and US$1.53 million and US$2.79 million value losses of forest and marine ecosystem services damaged caused by materials excavation and infilling, respectively. The conclusions of this study provide an important foundation to quantitatively analyse the environmental impact of the Dalian Offshore Airport's development and can be used as a reference for similar engineering and environment impact assessment programs.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENTAL VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Mamta Barman

    2017-01-01

    The real wealth of any nation and any region lies in the wellbeing of its people. The three main problems in the world, are known as three-P-Population, Poverty, and Pollution. Pollution is the main problem of the modern world. The technological inventions and progress has over powered nature, it has also resulted in the thoughtless exploitation of nature. Awareness by educating everyone, to value the nature and maintain the natural environment are important need. A study was conducted a 50 p...

  3. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Kathleen L; Robbins, Alicia S T

    2015-05-01

    Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities. We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes, and economic values. We reviewed the literature on urban nature-based health and well-being benefits. In this review, we provide a classification schematic and propose potential economic values associated with metro nature services. Economic valuation of benefits derived from urban green systems has largely been undertaken in the fields of environmental and natural resource economics, but studies have not typically addressed health outcomes. Urban trees, parks, gardens, open spaces, and other nearby nature elements-collectively termed metro nature-generate many positive externalities that have been largely overlooked in urban economics and policy. Here, we present a range of health benefits, including benefit context and beneficiaries. Although the understanding of these benefits is not yet consistently expressed, and although it is likely that attempts to link urban ecosystem services and economic values will not include all expressions of cultural or social value, the development of new interdisciplinary approaches that integrate environmental health and economic disciplines are greatly needed. Metro nature provides diverse and substantial benefits to human populations in cities. In this review, we begin to address the need for development of valuation methodologies and new approaches to understanding the potential economic outcomes of these benefits.

  4. Assembling large, complex environmental metagenomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, A. C. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Jansson, J. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Malfatti, S. A. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tringe, S. G. [USDOE Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Tiedje, J. M. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Plant Soil and Microbial Sciences; Brown, C. T. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States). Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, Computer Science and Engineering

    2012-12-28

    The large volumes of sequencing data required to sample complex environments deeply pose new challenges to sequence analysis approaches. De novo metagenomic assembly effectively reduces the total amount of data to be analyzed but requires significant computational resources. We apply two pre-assembly filtering approaches, digital normalization and partitioning, to make large metagenome assemblies more computationaly tractable. Using a human gut mock community dataset, we demonstrate that these methods result in assemblies nearly identical to assemblies from unprocessed data. We then assemble two large soil metagenomes from matched Iowa corn and native prairie soils. The predicted functional content and phylogenetic origin of the assembled contigs indicate significant taxonomic differences despite similar function. The assembly strategies presented are generic and can be extended to any metagenome; full source code is freely available under a BSD license.

  5. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  6. Environmental Upgrading in Global Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Ponte, Stefano; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Ports are crucial hubs in the functioning of the global economy, and maritime transport is a major emitter of air pollutants. Ports have considerable potential for promoting environmental upgrading in maritime transport and along global value chains more generally, but so far have been only...

  7. Valuing environmental services provided by local stormwater management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Daniel A.; Gangadharan, Lata; Lassiter, Allison; Leroux, Anke; Raschky, Paul A.

    2017-06-01

    The management of stormwater runoff via distributed green infrastructures delivers a number of environmental services that go beyond the reduction of flood risk, which has been the focus of conventional stormwater systems. Not all of these services may be equally valued by the public, however. This paper estimates households' willingness to pay (WTP) for improvements in water security, stream health, recreational and amenity values, as well as reduction in flood risk and urban heat island effect. We use data from nearly 1000 personal interviews with residential homeowners in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Our results suggest that the WTP for the highest levels of all environmental services is A799 per household per year. WTP is mainly driven by residents valuing improvements in local stream health, exemptions in water restrictions, the prevention of flash flooding, and decreased peak urban temperatures respectively at A297, A244, A104 and A$65 per year. We further conduct a benefit transfer analysis and find that the WTP and compensating surplus are not significantly different between the study areas. Our findings provide additional support that stormwater management via green infrastructures have large nonmarket benefits and that, under certain conditions, benefit values can be transferred to different locations.

  8. The value of a proactive environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno Mantilla, Carlos Eduardo; Reyes Rodríguez, Juan Felipe

    2013-01-01

    A model setting forth competitiveness in an organization setting is being put forwards and tried out in this paper. To do so, this approach includes different notions of the dynamic capability approach, the contingency theory, and the vision of a natural resource-based company. The hypothesis...... that uncertainty as perceived in the business setting somehow abates the relationship between the dynamic capability engrained in the proactive environmental strategy and the competitive advantage, is drawing upon data collected on the basis of a survey of 129 companies in Bogotá, and a partially restricted...... approach of latent interaction structural equation models. Survey outcomes show that both, the uncertainty as perceived of customer preferences, and changes in the environmental strategy being pursued by competitors, as well as the uncertainty concerning environmental resources and services are moderating...

  9. The effects of wildfire and environmental amenities on property values in northwest Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle M. Stetler; Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the hedonic price framework to examine the effects of 256 wildfires and environmental amenities on home values in northwest Montana between June 1996 and January 2007. The study revealed environmental amenities, including proximity to lakes, national forests, Glacier National Park and golf courses, have large positive effects on property values in...

  10. Environmental values and their relationship to ecological services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert W. Schroeder

    2011-01-01

    Natural environments give rise to value in diverse ways for different people and groups. In this paper, I present a conceptual scheme for how different kinds of value may arise from a natural environment. I use this scheme to illustrate the different ways in which people value natural environments and to clarify the relationship between environmental values and...

  11. Higher education, the church, and environmental values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, R.A. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    The goals and values of the university and church are seen to have played a contributing role in the energy crisis. Objective-analytical university disciplines, by focusing on how things work in nature rather than on why and by orienting their efforts toward controlling nature and man through technology, have become insensitive to ecology and the rhythms of nature. The university attitude is one of aggressive intellectual action with little emotion or understanding. Alternative funding methods, such as the voucher system, could be used to allow the teaching and learning process enough freedom to explore the areas of values and morals. The churches have an opportunity to develop a new awareness of nature by emphasizing man's stewardship role. Judeo-Christian theology has been goal-oriented and has emphasized man's work and accomplishments more than the meaning of his existence. Changes in man's perception of the earth and development of his concern for all things and all members of society should be a role of both these institutions. (DCK)

  12. Some Environmental Consequences of Large Igneous Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    The formation of large igneous provinces (LIPs)—continental flood basalts, ‘volcanic’ margins, and oceanic plateaus—may impact the atmosphere, oceans, and biosphere by rapidly releasing huge amounts of particulates, magmatic volatiles (CO2, SO2, Cl, F, etc.), and potentially volatiles (CO2, CH4, SO2, etc.) from intruded sediments (e.g., carbonates, organic-rich shales, evaporites). A key factor affecting the magnitude of volatile release is whether eruptions are subaerial or marine; hydrostatic pressure inhibits vesiculation and degassing of relatively soluble volatile components (H2O, S, Cl, F) in deep water submarine eruptions, although low solubility components (CO2, noble gases) are mostly degassed even at abyssal depths. Directly or indirectly, such injections may cause changes in the atmosphere/ocean system that can lead to perturbations of atmosphere/ocean chemistry, circulation, ecology, and biological productivity. These changes can be global in extent, particularly if environmental conditions were at or near a threshold state or tipping point. LIPs may have been responsible for some of the most dramatic and rapid changes in the global environment. For example, between ~145 and ~50 Ma, the global ocean was characterized by chemical and isotopic variations (especially in C and Sr isotope ratios, trace metal concentrations, and biocalcification), relatively high temperatures, high relative sea level, episodic deposition of black shales (oceanic anoxic events), high production of hydrocarbons, mass extinctions of marine organisms, and radiations of marine flora and fauna. Temporal correlations between the intense pulses of igneous activity associated with LIP formation and environmental changes suggest more than pure coincidence. The 1783-84 eruption of Laki on Iceland provides the only historical record of the type of volcanism that constructs transient LIPs. Although Laki produced a basaltic lava flow representing only ~1% of the volume of a typical

  13. Making sense of environmental values: a typology of concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Tadaki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Debates about environmental values and valuation are perplexing, in part because these terms are used in vastly different ways in a variety of contexts. For some, quantifying human and ecological values is promoted as a useful technical exercise that can support decision-making. Others spurn environmental valuation, equating it with reducing ethics to numbers or "putting a price tag on nature." We make sense of these complexities by distilling four fundamental concepts of value (and valuation from across the literature. These four concepts - value as a magnitude of preference, value as contribution to a goal, values as individual priorities, and values as relations - entail fundamentally different approaches to environmental valuation. Two notions of values (as magnitudes of preference or contributions to a goal are often operationalized in technical tools, including monetary valuation, in which experts tightly structure (and thus limit citizen participation in decision-making. This kind of valuation, while useful in some contexts, can mask important societal choices as technical judgments. The concept of values as priorities provides a way of describing individuals' priorities and considering how these priorities differ across a wider population. Finally, the concept of values as relations is generally used to foster deliberative forms of civic participation, but this tends to leave unresolved the final translation of civic meanings for decision-makers. We argue that all forms of valuation - even those that are technical tools - constitute technologies of participation, and that values practitioners should consider themselves more as reflexive facilitators than objective experts who represent the public interest. We thus encourage debate about environmental values to pivot away from theoretical gridlock and toward a concern with citizen empowerment and environmental democracy.

  14. Network analysis and Canada's large value transfer system

    OpenAIRE

    Embree, Lana; Roberts, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of the characteristics and structure of a network of financial institutions can provide insight into the complex relationships and interdependencies that exist in a payment, clearing, and settlement system (PCSS), and allow an intuitive understanding of the PCSS's efficiency, stability, and resiliency. The authors review the literature related to the PCSS network and describe the daily and intraday network structure of payment activity in the Large Value Transfer System (LVTS), which...

  15. Post-material values and environmental policy change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watts, N. (International Inst. for Environmental and Society, Berlin, Germany); Wandesforde-Smith, G.

    Environmental policy may be particularly suited as a vehicle to articulate post-material values in advanced industrial societies, and recognition of this is likely to prove enormously helpful in future comparative and cross-national research into the origins of environmentalism and the causes of environmental policy change. The paper notes the salient characteristics of post-materialism and the overlap of these with the leading indicators of environmentalism. Possible structural causes for this overlap are noted and opposed to the prevailing socialization explanation for the adoption of post-material and environmental values. To help understand the impact of environmentalism on policy, an idealized development of the movement is sketched. This leads to the description of a set of general factors likely to be related to the way environmentalism finds political expressions in various countries. In the final section, the focus is on what we might want to know about the policy process in order to be able to gauge environmentalist influence on policy outputs. 20 references.

  16. The value of environmental self-identity : The relationship between biospheric values, environmental self-identity and environmental preferences, intentions and behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Kees

    Biospheric values and environmental self-identities are considered to be important antecedents of environmental preferences, intentions, and behaviour. Although various authors suggest a relationship between values and self-identity, this has rarely been studied empirically. This paper aimed to

  17. Assessment of Environmental Impact and the Nutritive Value of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the environmental impact and nutritive value of water hyacinth (WH) in ruminant nutrition in Nigeria. In the first experiment, biomass yield, chemical composition, secondary metabolites and mineral content of WH harvested during the four sub seasons of the year were ...

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS IN THE VALUE SPACE FORMATION IN THE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Abakarova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the comprehensive study of environmental rights, as in the material and the spiritual spheres. The crisis of spirituality, the space value change caused by the different standards of living of families demonstrate changes in the soul of the people. It is necessary to find possible ways of optimizing the spiritual state of young generation.

  19. Effect of Environmental Quality on Property Rental Values in Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the effect of environmental quality on rental values of residential accommodation at the peripheral neighbourhoods of Minna, Nigeria. Cluster sampling method was employed in the selection of sampled areas and, six neighbourhoods were randomly selected. Sample size of 600 was drawn out of the ...

  20. Prediction of Breeding Values and Selection Responses With Genetic Heterogeneity of Environmental Variance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulder, H. A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W. G.

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that genotypes differ not only in mean, but also in environmental variance of the traits they affect. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance may indicate genetic differences in environmental sensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop a general framework for prediction of breeding values and selection responses in mean and environmental variance with genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance. Both means and environmental variances were treated as heritable traits. Breeding values and selection responses were predicted with little bias using linear, quadratic, and cubic regression on individual phenotype or using linear regression on the mean and within-family variance of a group of relatives. A measure of heritability was proposed for environmental variance to standardize results in the literature and to facilitate comparisons to “conventional” traits. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance can be considered as a trait with a low heritability. Although a large amount of information is necessary to accurately estimate breeding values for environmental variance, response in environmental variance can be substantial, even with mass selection. The methods developed allow use of the well-known selection index framework to evaluate breeding strategies and effects of natural selection that simultaneously change the mean and the variance. PMID:17277375

  1. A service and value based approach to estimating environmental flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Louise; Jensen, R.A.; Jønch-Clausen, Torkil

    2008-01-01

    of sustaining ecosystems but also a matter of supporting humankind/livelihoods. One reason for the marginalisation of environmental flows is the lack of operational methods to demonstrate the inherently multi-disciplinary link between environmental flows, ecosystem services and economic value. This paper aims......An important challenge of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is to balance water allocation between different users and uses. While economically and/or politically powerful users have relatively well developed methods for quantifying and justifying their water needs, this is not the case...... for ecosystems – the silent water user. Therefore, ecosystems are frequently omitted from water allocation decision-making. In IWRM, environmental flows may serve to represent water for ecosystems. As ecosystems, in turn, provide services to people, providing for environmental flows is not exclusively a matter...

  2. Environmental values and risk: A review of Sierra Club policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, P.P. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Graduate Group in Ecology

    1999-12-01

    Sierra Club values are driven by an overriding environmental ethic. Sierra Club environmental values may be characterized by the concept of 'usufruct' a term favored by United States Founding Father Thomas Jefferson. Usufruct conveys the idea that the environment is ours to use, but not to destroy. Each generation has the obligation to pass on to future generations a world at least as environmentally rich as the one it inherited. It is appropriate to accept risk today in order to preserve the environment for generations yet to come. As viewed through the lens of its formal policies, the Sierra Club is an organization that embraces technology, but insists that technology be evaluated comprehensively, taking full account of both environmental and social externalities. The Club is 'risk averse' with respect to early introduction of technologies seen as likely to have significant negative environmental or social impact. The Club places heavy emphasis on process, which must involve the public meaningfully.

  3. Valuing the Environmental Benefits of Urban WaterConservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie M.; Bolduc, Chris A.; Chan, Peter T.; Dunham-Whitehead, C.; Van Buskirk, R.D.

    2007-05-01

    This report documents a project undertaken for theCalifornia Urban Water Conservation Council (the Council) to create a newmethod of accounting for the diverse environmental benefits of raw watersavings. The environmental benefits (EB) model was designed to providewater utilities with a practical tool that they can use to assign amonetary value to the benefits that may accrue from implementing any ofthe Council-recommended Best Management Practices. The model treats onlyenvironmental services associated directly with water, and is intended tocover miscellaneous impacts that are not currently accounted for in anyother cost-benefit analysis.

  4. Value orientations to explain beliefs related to environmental significant behavior : How to measure egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    In environmental literature it is argued that three different value orientations may be relevant for understanding environmental beliefs and intentions: egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric. Until now, the distinction between altruistic and biospheric value orientations has hardly been supported

  5. Values in environmental research: Citizens' views of scientists who acknowledge values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; McCright, Aaron M; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist's values, if a scientist's conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist's values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist's conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist's values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects' values aligned with the scientist's values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations.

  6. Values in environmental research: Citizens’ views of scientists who acknowledge values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCright, Aaron M.; Allen, Summer; Dietz, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Scientists who perform environmental research on policy-relevant topics face challenges when communicating about how values may have influenced their research. This study examines how citizens view scientists who publicly acknowledge values. Specifically, we investigate whether it matters: if citizens share or oppose a scientist’s values, if a scientist’s conclusions seem contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and if a scientist is assessing the state of the science or making a policy recommendation. We conducted two 3x2 factorial design online experiments. Experiment 1 featured a hypothetical scientist assessing the state of the science on the public-health effects of exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA), and Experiment 2 featured a scientist making a policy recommendation on use of BPA. We manipulated whether or not the scientist expressed values and whether the scientist’s conclusion appeared contrary to or consistent with the scientist’s values, and we accounted for whether or not subjects’ values aligned with the scientist’s values. We analyzed our data with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression techniques. Our results provide at least preliminary evidence that acknowledging values may reduce the perceived credibility of scientists within the general public, but this effect differs depending on whether scientists and citizens share values, whether scientists draw conclusions that run contrary to their values, and whether scientists make policy recommendations. PMID:29069087

  7. Understandings of Environmental Quality: Ambiguities and Values Held by Environmental Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Hull; David Richert; Erin Seekamp; David Robertson; Gregory J. Buhyoff

    2003-01-01

    The terms used to describe and negotiate environmental quality are both ambiguous and value-laden. Stakeholders intimately and actively involved in the management of forested lands were interviewed and found to use ambiguous, tautological, and value-laden definitions of terms such as health, biodiversity, sustainability, and naturalness. This confusing language...

  8. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  9. Pattern Detection and Extreme Value Analysis on Large Climate Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhat, M.; Byna, S.; Paciorek, C.; Weber, G.; Wu, K.; Yopes, T.; Wehner, M. F.; Ostrouchov, G.; Pugmire, D.; Strelitz, R.; Collins, W.; Bethel, W.

    2011-12-01

    We consider several challenging problems in climate that require quantitative analysis of very large data volumes generated by modern climate simulations. We demonstrate new software capable of addressing these challenges that is designed to exploit petascale platforms using state-of-the-art methods in high performance computing. Atmospheric rivers and Hurricanes are important classes of extreme weather phenomena. Developing analysis tools that can automatically detect these events in large climate datasets can provide us with invaluable information about the frequency of these events. Application of these tools to different climate model outputs can provide us with quality metrics that evaluate whether models produce this important class of phenomena and how the statistics of these events will likely vary in the future. In this work, we present an automatic technique for detecting atmospheric rivers. We use techniques from image processing and topological analysis to extract these features. We implement this technique in a massively parallel fashion on modern supercomputing platforms, and apply the resulting software to both observational data and various models from the CMIP-3 archive. We have successfully completed atmospheric river detections on 1TB of data on 10000 hopper cores in 10 seconds. For hurricane tracking, we have adapted code from GFDL to run in parallel on large datasets. We present results from the application of this code to some recent high resolution CAM5 simulations. Our code is capable of processing 1TB of data in 10 seconds. Extreme value analysis involves statistical techniques for estimating the probability of extreme events and variations in the probabilities over time and space. Because of their rarity, there is a high degree of uncertainty when estimating the behavior of extremes from data at any one location. We are developing a local likelihood approach to borrow strength from multiple locations, with uncertainty estimated using the

  10. Reusing Recycling Material as Teaching Strategy to Strengthen Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudit Zaida del Carmen Alarcón de Palma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was centered interest implement recycling reuse the material as a teaching strategy to strengthen environmental students “Adolfo Moreno” National Basic School Barinitas parish, municipality Bolivar, Barinas state values. School Year 2014 - 2015. The study was based on the paradigm of qualitative research and research in action type. From this point of view, the study focuses on participatory action this mode, it is limited in so-called field layouts. The study its characteristics was fulfilled in the following phases: diagnosis, planning, implementation, evaluation and systematization. Finally, it can be noted that the implementation of teaching strategies reuse recycle material for strengthening environmental students "Adolfo Moreno" National Basic School values; They will be incorporating parents and guardians as well as various educational actors to implement the activities involved in the proposal which seeks to change attitudes to improve through practical actions management standards and conservation practices to achieve an environmental change in institution through technical, theoretical and practical knowledge to strengthen the benefit of recyclables properly handle procedures.

  11. Exploring pro-environmental lifestyles and values in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Moulé, Danette Erin Woodsworth

    2015-01-01

    Lifestyle can be defined as distinctive patterns of related actions or practices. A pro-environmental (or “green”) lifestyle might consist of several actions, such as recycling, conserving home energy use, or buying a hybrid vehicle. Engagement in lifestyle might be related to an individual's values, as well as other factors such as income and age. I use data collected from a representative sample of 1,216 Canadians to answer the following questions: i) what is green lifestyle and how does it...

  12. Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation

  13. Teaching Sustainability as a Large Format Environmental Science Elective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, C.; Frisch, M.; Wagner, J.

    2012-12-01

    A challenge in teaching sustainability is engaging students in the global scale and immediacy of environmental impacts, and degree of societal change required to address environmental challenges. Succeeding in a large format Environmental Science elective course with a many as 100 students is an even greater challenge. ENVSC 322 Environmental Sustainability is an innovative new course integrating multiple disciplines, a wide range of external expert speakers and a hands-on community engagement project. The course, in its third year, has been highly successful and impacting for the students, community and faculty involved. The determination of success is based on student and community impacts. Students covered science topics on Earth systems, ecosystem complexity and services through readings and specialist speakers. The interconnection of society and climate was approached through global and local examples with a strong environmental justice component. Experts in a wide range of professional fields were engaged to speak with students on the role and impacts of sustainability in their particular field. Some examples are: Region VII Environmental Protection Agency Environmental Justice Director engaged students in both urban and rural aspects of environmental justice; a Principle Architect and national leader in Green architecture and redevelopment spoke with students regarding the necessity and potential for green urbanism; and industry innovators presented closed-cycle and alternative energy projects. The capstone project and highlight of the course was an individual or team community engagement project on sustainability, designed and implemented by the students. Community engagement projects completed throughout the Kansas City metro area have increased each year in number, quality and impact from 35 the first year to 70 projects this past spring. Students directly engage their communities and through this experience integrate knowledge of environmental systems

  14. Determining Baseline Stress-Related Hormone Values in Large Cetaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Determining Baseline Stress-Related Hormone Values in...four-fold: 1) determine stress-related hormone (cortisol) baseline values from reconstructed lifetime hormone and contaminant profiles in both historic...levels will be transformative for our understanding of the extent of exposure and the potential effect on the health of these animals and offers

  15. Environmental Values (2-MEV and Appreciation of Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz X. Bogner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring the long history of empirical instruments for environmental attitude measurement, the Two Major Environmental Value model (2-MEV with its two higher order factors: Preservation (PRE and Utilization (UTL has repeatedly and independently been confirmed. PRE assesses preferences towards conservation of nature and the environment, whilst UTL measures preferences towards utilization/exploitation of nature. The latter, however, does not yet include the positive aspects of benefitting from the (enjoyable use of nature. Consequently, besides the established 2-MEV-battery, additional items from an “Appreciation of Nature” (APR scale were applied to an Irish sample of 289 secondary school students (age: M = 14.3 years. Responses to the altogether 30-item battery were applied on an oblique rotation by using the Promax procedure: UTL and PRE appeared as orthogonally related factors, APR correlated to PRE with 0.283. Based on loading scores, the item number for each subscale was further reduced to make the analysis more manageable in educational outreach sites; on those sites, where completing questionnaires may well be quite unpopular, they are very much needed for planning and fine-tuning educational programs. Therefore, extending the 2-MEV scale with an added scale for Appreciation may help: (i to judge participants’ feedback for adjusting/balancing program contents better; and (ii to promote appreciation as a successful strategy for shifting individuals away from their individual exploitative preferences.

  16. Value orientations and environmental beliefs in five countries - Validity of an instrument to measure egoistic, altruistic and biospheric value orientations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    Various scholars argue that egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric value orientations are important for understanding environmental beliefs and behavior. However, little empirical evidence has been provided for the distinction between altruistic and biospheric values. This study examines whether this

  17. Design of large-scale enterprise interoperable value webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Still a lot of enterprises are faced with the issue of interoperability. Whereas large enterprises are able to implement the required technology, SMEs (Small and Medium sized Enterprises) face challenges as they lack knowledge and budget. Enterprises have defined their specific semantics and

  18. Seasonal variation in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of bats reflect environmental baselines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G Popa-Lisseanu

    Full Text Available The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of animal tissues is commonly used to trace wildlife diets and analyze food chains. Changes in an animal's isotopic values over time are generally assumed to indicate diet shifts or, less frequently, physiological changes. Although plant isotopic values are known to correlate with climatic seasonality, only a few studies restricted to aquatic environments have investigated whether temporal isotopic variation in consumers may also reflect environmental baselines through trophic propagation. We modeled the monthly variation in carbon and nitrogen isotope values in whole blood of four insectivorous bat species occupying different foraging niches in southern Spain. We found a common pattern of isotopic variation independent of feeding habits, with an overall change as large as or larger than one trophic step. Physiological changes related to reproduction or to fat deposition prior to hibernation had no effect on isotopic variation, but juvenile bats had higher δ13C and δ15N values than adults. Aridity was the factor that best explained isotopic variation: bat blood became enriched in both 13C and 15N after hotter and/or drier periods. Our study is the first to show that consumers in terrestrial ecosystems reflect seasonal environmental dynamics in their isotope values. We highlight the danger of misinterpreting stable isotope data when not accounting for seasonal isotopic baselines in food web studies. Understanding how environmental seasonality is integrated in animals' isotope values will be crucial for developing reliable methods to use stable isotopes as dietary tracers.

  19. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR) IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables ...

  20. Value of Uncertainty: The Lost Opportunities in Large Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnar Johansen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The uncertainty management theory has become well established over the last 20–30 years. However, the authors suggest that it does not fully address why opportunities often remain unexploited. Empirical studies show a stronger focus on mitigating risks than exploiting opportunities. This paper therefore addresses why so few opportunities are explored in large projects. The theory claims that risks and opportunities should be equally managed in the same process. In two surveys, conducted in six (private and public companies over a four-year period, project managers stated that uncertainty management is about managing risk and opportunities. However, two case studies from 12 projects from the same companies revealed that all of them had their main focus on risks, and most of the opportunities were left unexploited. We have developed a theoretical explanation model to shed light on this phenomena. The concept is a reflection based on findings from our empirical data up against current project management, uncertainty, risk and stakeholder literature. Our model shows that the threshold for pursuing a potential opportunity is high. If a potential opportunity should be considered, it must be extremely interesting, since it may require contract changes, and the project must abandon an earlier-accepted best solution.

  1. Workshop: Valuing Environmental Health Risk Reductions to Children (2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This two-day workshop on children's health valuation was co-sponsored by EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics, Office of Children's Health Protection, and National Center for Environmental Research as well as the University of Central Florida.

  2. Valuing the benefits of environmental policy: the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howarth A; Pearce DW; Ozdemiroglu E; Seccombe-Hett T; Wieringa K; Streefkerk CM; Hollander AEM de; EFTEC; MNV

    2001-01-01

    This study seeks to set priorities for environmental policy in the Netherlands. We focused on seven environmental issues including: climate change, acidification, low level ozone, particulate matter, noise, eutrophication and land contamination. These issues are prioritised using three different

  3. Nitroaromatic munition compounds: environmental effects and screening values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, S S; Opresko, D M; Maxwell, C J; Welsh, C J; Cretella, F M; Reno, P H; Daniel, F B

    1999-01-01

    Available data on the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products, TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, RDX, HMX, and tetryl were used to identify potential fate in the environment and to calculate screening benchmarks or safe environmental levels for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Results of monitoring studies revealed that some of these compounds persist at sites where they were produced or processed. Most of the compounds are present in soil, sediment, and surface water or groundwater at military sites. Soil adsorption coefficients indicate that these chemicals are only moderately adsorbed to soil and may leach to groundwater. Most of these compounds are transformed by abiotic or biotic mechanisms in environmental media. Primary transformation mechanisms involve photolysis (TNT, RDX, HMX, tetryl), hydrolysis (tetryl), and microbial degradation (TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, and HMX). Microbial degradation for both nitro and nitramine aromatic compounds involves rapid reduction of nitro groups to amino groups, but further metabolism is slow. With the exception of DNB, complete mineralization did not usually occur under the conditions of the studies. RDX was resistant to microbial degradation. Available ecotoxicological data on acute and chronic studies with freshwater fish and invertebrates were summarized, and water quality criteria or ecotoxicological screening benchmarks were developed. Depending on the available data, criteria/benchmarks were calculated according to USEPA Tier I or Tier II guidelines. The munitions chemicals are moderately to highly toxic to freshwater organisms, with chronic screening values humans are based on studies with laboratory animals, reference doses or screening benchmarks for wildlife may also be calculated by extrapolation among mammalian species. Chronic NOAELs for the compounds of interest were determined from available laboratory studies. Endpoints

  4. The Value Relevance of Environmental Responsibility Information Disclosure in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Chiedu Oba

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria firms are facing the challenge of discharging sound environmental practices anddisclosing environmental information in order to meet upwith public concerns regarding these issues.This study basically investigates the association between environmental responsibility informationdisclosure and financial performance. To achieve the objective of this study, eighteen listed firmswere randomly selected from four environmentally sensitive industries for the year 2005–2009.Using the ordinary least square and logistic regression to test the research proposition, the studyobserved that there is a positive significant association between environmental responsibility andfinancial performance and vice versa. Additionally, foreign directors were found to play significantroles in these interactions. The paper therefore calls for an embrace of sound environmental policiesand disclosure practices by Nigerian firms and also recommends further research into associatedexplanatory factors and disclosure practices.

  5. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Peter Odjugo

    wild fire, drought, desertification, climate change, rain and windstorms, flood, earthquake, volcanicity and erosion among others. These are conceptualized in Figure 1. These environmental problems are caused either by unsustainable human activities, nature, or both, leading to environmental hazards or disasters. Of all the.

  6. Environmental Impacts and Hotspots of Food Losses: Value Chain Analysis of Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stucki, Matthias; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2017-10-03

    Reducing food losses and waste is crucial to making our food system more efficient and sustainable. This is the first paper that quantifies the environmental impacts of food waste by distinguishing the various stages of the food value chain, 33 food categories that represent the whole food basket in Switzerland, and including food waste treatment. Environmental impacts are expressed in terms of climate change and biodiversity impacts due to water and land use. Climate change impacts of food waste are highest for fresh vegetables, due to the large amounts wasted, while the specific impact per kg is largest for beef. Biodiversity impacts are mainly caused by cocoa and coffee (16% of total) and by beef (12%). Food waste at the end of the food value chain (households and food services) causes almost 60% of the total climate impacts of food waste, because of the large quantities lost at this stage and the higher accumulated impacts per kg of product. The net environmental benefits from food waste treatment are only 5-10% of the impacts from production and supply of the wasted food. Thus, avoiding food waste should be a first-line priority, while optimizing the method of treatment is less relevant.

  7. 76 FR 70444 - Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... AGENCY Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of Water... teleconference of the augmented SAB Environmental Economics Advisory Committee to provide early advice on the... that the Environmental Economics Advisory Committee Augmented for the Consideration of the Value of...

  8. A Cross-Cultural Study of Environmental Values and Their Effect on the Environmental Behavior of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Environmental values (EV) are regarded as significant precursors for environmental behavior (EB) by many scholars. The present study addresses the issue of the invariance of EV (tapped by the two-dimensional model of ecological values), and their effect on EB, across cultural contexts. In all, a total of 1,833 ten- to thirteen-year-old children…

  9. Toward an integrated understanding of perceived biodiversity values and environmental conditions in a national park

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Sherrouse, Ben C.; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Sutton, Stephen G.

    2016-01-01

    In spatial planning and management of protected areas, increased priority is being given to research that integrates social and ecological data. However, public viewpoints of the benefits provided by ecosystems are not easily quantified and often implicitly folded into natural resource management decisions. Drawing on a spatially explicit participatory mapping exercise and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) analysis tool, the present study empirically examined and integrated social values for ecosystem services and environmental conditions within Channel Islands National Park, California. Specifically, a social value indicator of perceived biodiversity was examined using on-site survey data collected from a sample of people who visited the park. This information was modeled alongside eight environmental conditions including faunal species richness for six taxa, vegetation density, categories of marine and terrestrial land cover, and distance to features relevant for decision-makers. Results showed that biodiversity value points assigned to places by the pooled sample of respondents were widely and unevenly mapped, which reflected the belief that biodiversity was embodied to varying degrees by multiple locations in the park. Models generated for two survey subgroups defined by their self-reported knowledge of the Channels Islands revealed distinct spatial patterns of these perceived values. Specifically, respondents with high knowledge valued large spaces that were publicly inaccessible and unlikely to contain on-ground biodiversity, whereas respondents with low knowledge valued places that were experienced first-hand. Accessibility and infrastructure were also important considerations for anticipating how and where people valued the protected land and seascapes of Channel Islands National Park.

  10. The Relationship between Environmental Relative Moldiness Index Values and Asthma

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — No data generated. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: There was no new data generated. It can be accessed through the following means: None available....

  11. Generalizing genetical genomics : getting added value from environmental perturbation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Yang; Breitling, Rainer; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetical genomics is a useful approach for studying the effect of genetic perturbations on biological systems at the molecular level. However, molecular networks depend on the environmental conditions and, thus, a comprehensive understanding of biological systems requires studying them across

  12. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Peter Odjugo

    2012-01-03

    Jan 3, 2012 ... face of changing climate: Emphasis on flood and erosion in Benin City, .... climate system. Earlier studies on flood and erosion concentrated more on analyzing the causes and the physical impacts of these environmental problems. The financial ..... the potentials of flood risk management in Nigerian urban.

  13. Valuing the cost of environmental degradation in the face of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are numerous environmental problems that plague different parts of the world in the face of climate change. These range from pollution, deforestation, indiscriminate bush burning and natural wild fire, desertification, climate change, rain and windstorms, flood, earthquake, volcanicity, drought and erosion among ...

  14. THE APPLICATION OF THE METHOD ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE AT RISK (EVaR IN ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cornelia I. PICIU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that the methodology Value at Risk or the method VaR, which is omnipresent in investment banking and which has lately become a standard in the procedure of evaluating risks for any category of economic activities, we shall use a technique that is compatible with the VaR-market, called Environmental Value at Risk or EvaR. While the VaR- market uses a level of trust of 95%, the EvaR uses a set of levels up to 99,999%. Thus, we shall try to analyze the variables of the method EVaR, and the way in which this model can be applied as a risk of the lack (rarity of petroleum. This risk is not only analyzed as a unique risk of growing the prices, but also as an uncertainty risk on volatile markets, in which the price and the volatility are the main variables used by the function EVaR.

  15. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees' biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees' pro environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  16. The relationship between Corporate Environmental Responsibility, employees’ biospheric values and pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela Maria; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations strive for Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER). This can make organizational processes and procedures more pro-environmental, but does it also promote employees’ pro-environmental behaviour? We reason that CER can encourage employees to act pro-environmentally at work by

  17. A large scale flume for hydro-environmental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Giráldez, Juan Vicente; Castro-Orgaz, Oscar; Casalí, Javier; Hermosín, Maria del Carmen; Mateos, Luciano

    2013-04-01

    The understanding of key hydrologic processes such as, water erosion, rill network development or agrochemical transport, requires controlled experiments at the appropriate scale. This is the reason for experimentation at flume scale in hydro-environmental research, used for many decades in this field. This communication presents a research infrastructure, recently completed in its first stage, consisting of a large flume for studying soil water erosion, sediment transport, and environmental processes such as the transport of different substances (salts, fertilizers, herbicides, carbon, …) rather dissolved or absorbed with the sediment. It is located at the Institute for Sustainable Agriculture (CSIC) in Córdoba, Spain. The flume is 0.6 m deep, 12 m long, and 6 m wide. It may be divided longitudinally into three channels (6 m long, 1 m wide). The slope of the flume can be regulated from 0 % to 20 %. The device allows studying free surface flows over movable beds with different conditions of sediment transport by supplying clear or sediment-laden water from its head system. The head system consists of three triangular weirs for accurate measurement of water flow, three stilling tanks at the entrance of the flume, and three vibratory hoppers for applying sediments at pre-set rates. The water can be re-circulated, the maximum inflow is then about 30 l s-1, or evacuated, then the inflow is limited to about 20 l s-1. The infrastructure is within a shelter with an area of 400 m2 and height 8.7 m. The area of the shelter allows in-door mechanical preparation of soil and sediments. The height of the shelter will allow the installation of the rainfall simulator and a light rail crane in a second stage, not started yet. Several experiments have been planned at IAS-CSIC already, particularly investigation of the water erosion and sediment transport processes in concentrated flows under different soil conditions, as well as hydrodynamics aspects of suspended and bed

  18. Measuring Corporate Sustainability and Environmental, Social, and Corporate Governance Value Added

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Kocmanová

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to propose a model for measuring sustainable value which would complexly assess environmental, social, and corporate governance contribution to value creation. In the paper the concept of the Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is presented. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is based on the Sustainable Value Added model and combines weighted environmental, social, and corporate governance indicators with their benchmarks determined by Data Envelopment Analysis. Benchmark values of indicators were set for each company separately and determine the optimal combination of environmental, social, and corporate governance inputs to economic outcomes. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added methodology is applied on real-life corporate data and presented through a case study. The value added of most of the selected companies was negative, even though economic indicators of all of them are positive. The Sustainable Environmental, Social and Corporate Governance Value Added is intended to help owners, investors, and other stakeholders in their decision-making and sustainability assessment. The use of environmental, social, and corporate governance factors helps identify the company’s strengths and weaknesses, and provides a more sophisticated insight into it than the one-dimensional methods based on economic performance alone.

  19. Environmental values, ethics, and depreciative behavior in wildland settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorceta E. Taylor; Patricia L. Winter

    1995-01-01

    Preliminary results were examined from a self-administered questionnaire regarding the relationships between personal values, individual characteristics, and depreciative behaviors. Respondents were queried about socio-demographics, reasons for visiting forest recreation areas, reasons for liking and disliking the forest, activities witnessed while visiting the forest...

  20. Revealing Components of the Economic Value for Environmental Goods and Services from Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtiari, Fatemeh

    The overall purpose and contribution of this thesis is increasing the understanding of components of the value of environmental goods. It investigates how the public perceive environmental goods (lay people’s perception) and the elements of it that they value. Providing such knowledge contributes...... to improving valuation methods, e.g. the use of the Choice Experiment (CE) for valuing forest biodiversity conservation. Increasing knowledge of lay people’s perception and mental constructs of environmental goods can help researchers to know how they can present environmental goods in CEs which align...

  1. Recent evolution of large-value payment systems : balancing liquidity and risk

    OpenAIRE

    Antoine Martin

    2005-01-01

    Large-value payment systems have evolved rapidly in the last 20 years, continually striking a balance between providing liquidity and keeping settlement risk under control. Changes to the design or to the risk management policies of such systems were needed, in part, due to the growth in the value of transactions on these systems. For example, in the United States the value of transactions on Fedwire, the Federal Reserve’s large-value payment system, increased from about 50 times GDP in 1989 ...

  2. Environmental values in the petrochemical industry: A Q-method study in South West Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoochani Omid M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Achieving sustainable development in different regional and cultural contexts is dependent, in part, upon an understanding of key actors’ underlying environmental, social and economic values. The social research technique called Q-methodology presents an effective means to explore such values as a matter of discourse: revealing the typologies of stakeholder perspectives within a given debate. Q-method involves factor analysis of participant rank-ordered preselected statements on a topic. The resultant factors are then reinterpreted as social discourses. In this study we use Q-methodology to explore the environmental values of Health Safety and Environmental (HSE managers in petrochemical companies in Khuzestan province in southwest Iran. Khuzestan is a key region of petrochemical product development, with significant associated environmental pollution effects. Understanding HSE managers’ attitudes to environmental protection is of value in predicting broader environmental impacts to the region, given the relative importance of their role in regulating the environmental performance of this industry. Our results reveal four distinct and varied perspectives on environmental protection labelled: ‘Environmental stewardship’, ‘Environmental presentism’, ‘Technological optimism’ and ‘Enlightened anthropocentrism’. We then discuss how these four emergent perspectives correspond to broader environmental discourses as categorized by John Dryzek: i.e. green rationalism, economic rationalism, prometheanism and ecological modernization respectively.

  3. Food, medicinal and environmental values of mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Alekseenko

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available We present the literature review describing food, medicinal and ecological properties of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom. It is shown that the mushroom is adequate foodstuff for human beings. It provides with proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and mineral salts. Protein of the oyster mushrooms’ mycothallus contains 18 amino acids, eight of which were essential (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, threonine, and valine. Therapeutic value of the mushroom is characterised by a content of water-soluble (thiamine B1, riboflavin B2, niacin, B5, PP, pyridoxine B6, biotin B7, ascorbic and pantothenic acid and liposoluble (calciferol, ergosterol, tocopherol vitamins. The considerable gains from the farm wastes use for the mushrooms raising with subsequent application of the substrate in plant cultivation and animal husbandry are stated.

  4. POST-MATERIALIST VALUES AND THE ADOPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL INNOVATION: THE CASE OF ELECTRIC VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Callens, Stéphane,; Sofiane CHERFI; Charlène BOYOM

    2014-01-01

    This research highlights the relationship between post materialist / materialist values and adoption / rejection by the consumer of an environmental innovation. The comparative study is based on data from the World Value Survey (2010-2014), made by a sample of 54 countries, representing the world's population. The adoption of electric vehicles as innovation differs across countries and post-materialist values. These differences give rise to new pro-environmental recommendations.

  5. Implementation and Evaluation of a Values Clarification Activity for a Large Undergraduate Human Sexuality Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Alyssa M.

    2016-01-01

    Values clarification is an important tool that helps individuals to clarify their beliefs about sexuality-related issues. This lesson plan provides instructions for a 1-hour values clarification activity for a large undergraduate human sexuality course that serves as an introduction to course content and tone, stimulates students' initial thinking…

  6. The effects of recreation experience, environmental attitude, and biospheric value on the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tsung Hung; Jan, Fen-Hauh

    2015-07-01

    The scientific understanding of the recreation experience and the environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists is limited. This study examines the relationship among the recreation experience, environmental attitude, biospheric value, and the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists in Taomi, Liuqiu Island, and Aowanda and Najenshan in Taiwan. A total of 1342 usable questionnaires were collected for this study. The empirical results indicate that the recreation experience influences biospheric value and environmental attitude; subsequently, it then indirectly influences the general and site-specific environmentally responsible behavior of nature-based tourists. Our theoretical behavioral model elucidates previously proposed but unexamined behavioral models among nature-based tourists, and it offers a theoretical framework for researchers, decision makers, managers, and tourists in the field of nature-based tourism. We conclude that when an individual participates in nature-based tourism as described here, these recreation experiences strengthen their environmental attitude and biospheric value, and consequently increase their engagement in both general and site-specific environmentally responsible behaviors.

  7. Contextual Drivers of Environmental Values Cross-Culturally: Evidence from Europe Between 2004 and 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Orru

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues continue to grow in international prominence, owing to the importance of environ- mental conditions to human wellbeing globally. This paper focuses on why people’s values toward care for nature and environmental protection change — one of the antecedents to pro-environmental norms and behaviour. We aimed to clarify how individual and country-level contextual factors affect environmental values in Europe. Our cross-national study used data on individual environmental values from the 2004 and 2012 rounds of the European Social Survey, in combination with macro-level data on socio-economic security, countries’ environmental performance and educational levels. Country-level results revealed that throughout the studied years, nature held more importance to people in countries with increased levels of unemployment and exacerbated income disparities, including in transitional, post-socialist economies. Care for environment is less prominent in countries already performing well in terms of socio-economic and environmental performance, i.e. in states that may have higher resilience capacity towards adverse environmental impacts. Besides a state’s science education, which functions as an effective socialiser of caring for nature, practical experiences with adverse environmental impacts (e.g. health impairment could be used to predict an increase in the mean value of the natural environment in a country.

  8. Impact of Religious Affiliation on Ethical Values of Spanish Environmental Activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Chuvieco

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the impact of religious affiliation on the ethical and environmental values of Spanish environmental activists, based on an internet survey and a working seminar held with representatives of major environmental non-government organizations (ENGO of Spain. Respondents’ religious affiliations were significantly different compared with those of Spanish society in general, with a much higher proportion of Buddhists, agnostics and atheists and a lower proportion of Catholics. Strict environmental values of ENGOs activists did not show significant differences between the religious groups, which imply that religious beliefs did not impact actual environmental values. However, they did have a significant influence on the activists’ opinions on other bioethical issues. We found that Catholics and believers of other religions were more in favor than agnostics and atheists of introducing ethical limits on abortion, euthanasia or human embryo manipulation.

  9. Integrating Poverty and Environmental Concerns into Value-Chain Analysis: A Conceptual Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Simon; Ponte, Stefano; du Toit, Andries

    2010-01-01

    Many policy prescriptions emphasise poverty reduction through closer integration of poor people or areas with global markets. Global value chain (GVC) studies reveal how firms and farms in developing countries are upgraded by being integrated in global markets, but few explicitly document...... the impact on poverty, gender and the environment, or conversely, how value chain restructuring is in turn mediated by local history, social relations and environmental factors. This article develops a conceptual framework that can help overcome the shortcomings in 'standalone' value-chain, livelihood...... and environmental analyses by integrating the 'vertical' and 'horizontal' aspects of value chains that together affect poverty and sustainability....

  10. Valuing physically and financially-induced flexibility in large-scale water resources systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, Amaury; Pina, Jasson; Côté, Pascal

    2017-04-01

    In a world characterized by rapid changes in terms of water demands and supplies, there is a growing and persistent need for institutional reforms that promote cross-sectoral, adaptive management processes and policies. Yet, in many regions throughout the world, the continued expansion of supply-side infrastructure is still perceived as the way to go despite the rising financial, social and environmental costs. This trend is further compounded by the risks posed by climate change; reservoir storage, for example, is still perceived as a key element of climate change adaptation strategies in many countries. There is a growing concern that such strategies may result in a rigidity trap whereby the physical and institutional infrastructure become inflexible and unable to adapt to changes because they are mutually reinforcing each other. However, several authors have recently advocated for adaptive, flexible, management techniques involving a more diversified portfolio of measures whose management is regularly updated as new information about supplies and demands becomes available. Despite being conceptually attractive, such a management approach presents several challenges to policy makers. One of them is the sheer amount of information that must be processed each time a management decision must be taken. To address this issue, we propose an optimization framework that can be used to determine the optimal management of a large portfolio of physical and financial assets using various hydro-climatic information. This optimization framework is illustrated with the management of a power system in Quebec involving various power stations, reservoirs, power and energy contracts as well as hydrologic and climatic data. The results can be used to assess the economic value of the flexibility induced by either the physical assets (power stations and reservoirs) or by the financial ones (contracts), an information we believe is important to highlight the benefits of adaptive

  11. Iteratio: Calculating environmental indicator values for species and relevés.

    OpenAIRE

    Holtland, W.J.; Braak, ter, C.J.F.; Schouten, M.G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Question: Is it possible to translate vegetation maps into reliable thematic maps of site conditions? Method: This paper presents a new method, called Iteratio, by which a coherent spatial overview of specific environmental conditions can be obtained from a comprehensive vegetation survey of a specific area. Iteratio is a database application which calculates environmental indicator values for vegetation samples (relevés) on the basis of known indicator values of a limited number of plant spe...

  12. Environmental and Quality Improvement Practices: Their Analysis as Components of the Value Added in Horticultural Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez, Emilio Galdeano; Lorente, Jose Cespedes; Rodriguez, Manuel Rodriguez

    2002-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of environmental and quality improvement practices on the value added of the fruit and vegetable sector. These practices form part of the incentive-based programmes established by the Common Agricultural Policy. Taking the investment in quality-environmental activities as knowledge capital, we propose a specific analysis that evaluates the effect of the factors of the production function and of the current subsidies over the value added. In general, the share of...

  13. The Effect of Eco-Schools on Children's Environmental Values and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle; Van Petegem, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The study examines the effectiveness of eco-schools concerning their students' environmental values and environmental behaviour, and includes 1287 children from fifty-nine schools (thirty-eight eco-schools and twenty-one control schools) in Flanders. Controlling for effects of gender and socio-economic status, analyses show that eco-schools have…

  14. Secondary School Students' Interests, Attitudes and Values Concerning School Science Related to Environmental Issues in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uitto, Anna; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Byman, Reijo; Meisalo, Veijo

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between students' interests in environmental issues, attitudes to environmental responsibility and biocentric values in school science education. The factors were investigated within the framework of three moderators: gender, school and residential area of the school. The survey was carried out using the…

  15. Values determine the (ineffectiveness of informational interventions in promoting pro-environmental behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    Full Text Available Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this reasoning is mixed. In this paper, we argue that informational interventions may succeed in improving people's knowledge about the negative environmental consequences of one's actions, but this knowledge will not gain motivational force if people do not consider protecting the environment an important personal value. In an experiment, we measured individual differences in value priorities, and either presented participants a movie clip that portrayed the negative environmental consequences of using bottled water, or a control movie. As predicted, we found that the environmental movie improved recipients' knowledge of the negative environmental impact of bottled water, but this knowledge only resulted in concomitant changes in intentions and acceptability of related policies among participants who strongly endorsed biospheric (i.e. environmental values, while having no effect on those who care less about the environment. Interestingly, the results suggest that although informational interventions are perhaps not always successful in directly affecting less environmentally-conscious recipients, they could still have beneficial effects, because they make those who strongly care about the environment more inclined to act on their values.

  16. Assessing the value of storage services in large-scale multireservoir systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmant, A.; Arjoon, D.; Guilherme, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    Following three decades of rather low investment in dams, many regions throughout the world are now seeking to further develop new storage capacity in order to meet exploding demands for water and to hedge against the risk posed by climate change. Storage capacity is indee perceived as a key element of climate change adaptation strategies, while at the same time contributing to socioeconomic development through irrigation, energy generation, fish production, and municipal and industrial water supply. The benefits provided by dams must be balanced with the associated environmental and social costs, which can take various forms such as the degradation of ecosystems due to altered flow regimes, the relocation of people from the impoundment area, etc. The benefits of storage essentially come from the ability to move water in time, making it available during the low flow season when it becomes more valuable. As river basins develop and new dams are constructed, it may be important for planning and operational purposes to assess the individual contribution of each reservoir to the benefits of storage. We present a methodology to determine the economic value of storage in multireservoir systems based on the marginal net benefit functions of storage. In economics, the marginal net benefit function for water represents the user's willingness to pay for various quantities of water, i.e. the demand for water. Here, we will concentrate on the marginal net benefit of storing raw water in a particular reservoir for later use by different users/sectors. Based on this function, one can determine the economic value associated with changes in storage from the reservoir operating policies and the marginal value of water stored in the reservoirs. This information can nowadays be obtained from multireservoir optimization models. A cascade of reservoirs in the upper reaches of the Euphrates river basin (Turkey/Syria) is used to illustrate the methodology. To water resources planners in

  17. The Role of Technological Rarity and Environmental Uncertainty in Explaining Patent Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkærsig, Lars; Beukel, Karin; Lauto, Giancarlo

    It is well known that knowledge circulates and diffuses in an industry through spillover mechanisms. Building on the insights offered by the Resource Based View that only rare and inimitable resources contribute to value we study how rarity to the market affects innovation value. Furthermore we...... explore how environmental uncertainty affects innovation value, and whether environmental uncertainty has a moderating effect on the relation between rarity and innovation value. We take as our empirical case hydrocracking, a mature technology widely applied in the oil industry. Innovations...... in hydrocracking are based on the combination of elementary technologies relative to three technology areas: feeds and products, catalyst preparation, and refinery processing.Using detailed patent information, we find that rarity has a curvilinear effect in an U-shape on innovation value, that environmental...

  18. Nutraceutical Value of Durum Wheat: Influence of Environment and Genotype in a Large Scale Experimental Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Di Loreto, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Grain quality is well known as one of the most interesting breeding objectives in Mediterranean countries. It still has great importance in wheat markets because of the increased interest of the consumers for high-quality staple food such as pasta, couscous and various types of bread. The performance of many quality characteristics depends greatly on environmental conditions and, in this context, organic agriculture could guarantee a durum wheat material with high nutraceutical value for heal...

  19. Large-Scale Environmental Influences on Aquatic Animal Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the latter portion of the 20th century, North America experienced numerous large-scale mortality events affecting a broad diversity of aquatic animals. Short-term forensic investigations of these events have sometimes characterized a causative agent or condition, but have rare...

  20. Promoting Pro-Environmental Printing Behavior: The Role of ICT Barriers and Sustainable Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleri, Javed; Cavagnaro, Elena

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore how to reduce printing at elementary schools through strengthening both the effective use of ICT and pro-environmental values. Literature review is presented in themes--ICT barriers (fears, knowledge, skills and time), demographic, printing behavior and sustainable values (egoistic, hedonic, prosocial & biospheric).…

  1. An evaluation of South African fuelwood with regards to calorific value and environmental impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munalula, Francis; Meincken, Martina [Department of Forest and Wood Science, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag XI, Matieland, Western Cape 7602 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    The fuelwood commonly used in the Western Cape of South Africa, namely Acacia cyclops (Rooikrans), Acacia erioloba (Camelthorn), Eucalyptus cladocalyx (Blue gum), Pinus patula (South African pine) and Vitis vinifera (Vine stumps), was evaluated with regards to its calorific value and environmental impact when burned. Properties, such as density, ash content and elemental composition were determined and related to the calorific value. It could be demonstrated that the wood with the highest calorific value does not necessarily constitute the best option as fuelwood, if environmental factors are taken into account. (author)

  2. Prognostic value of tumor necrosis at CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; De Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Dubois, Stefan V.; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic value of tumor necrosis at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Materials and methods This retrospective study included 51 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone both unenhanced and intravenous

  3. Remarks on Slater's asymptotic expansions of Kummer functions for large values of the $a-$parameter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.M. Temme (Nico)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn Slater's 1960 standard work on confluent hypergeometric functions, also called Kummer functions, a number of asymptotic expansions of these functions can be found. We summarize expansions derived from a differential equation for large values of the $a-$parameter. We show how similar

  4. Rarity in large data sets: Singletons, model values and the location of the species abundance distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.; Egli, S.

    2012-01-01

    Species abundance data in 12 large data sets, holding 10 × 103 to 125 × 106 individuals in 350 to 10 × 103 samples, were studied. Samples and subsets, for instance the summarized data of samples over years, and whole sets were analysed. Two methods of the binning of data, assigning abundance values

  5. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate literacy is evolving as a specific subset of science and environmental literacy. Through a longitudinal analysis of environmental autobiographies of an internationally and religiously diverse group of environmental sciences majors at a Historically Black College or University (HBCU) in the southern U.S., this presentation will explore: 1) sources and impact of religious beliefs on students' environmental worldview; 2) conflicts between religious, community and scientific values; and 3) navigating the tensions between trust in a religious deity as well as scientific methods and processes. Lester Milbrath states that "beliefs empower and deceive us." The media, as well as significant people and institutions, including religious institutions, socialize us and contribute to individual and societal worldviews. "We so thoroughly accept our culture's beliefs about how the world works that we hardly ever think about them even though they underlie everything we think and do." Beliefs, attitudes, and values comprise an important component of environmental literacy, a praxis-oriented concept from the field of environmental education, which is defined as: [T]he capacity to perceive and interpret the relative health of environmental systems and take appropriate action to maintain, restore, or improve the health of those systems . . . Environmental literacy should be defined in terms of observable behaviors. (Disinger and Roth 1992, 2). Environmental literacy draws upon six areas: environmental sensitivity; knowledge; skills; beliefs, attitudes and values; personal investment and responsibility; and active involvement. It involves particular ways of thinking, acting, and valuing (Roth 1992). Religious beliefs, or lack thereof, shape worldviews, thereby influencing individual and societal environmental and more specifically, climate literacy. For example, Western Christianity espouses a hierarchical anthropocentric worldview, putting God infinitely above human beings, and

  6. An Exploration of Professional Values Held by Nurses at a Large Freestanding Pediatric Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cara; Sortedahl, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Professional values form the basis for nurse attitudes and behavior, and are cornerstones to guiding nurses' clinical practice decisions. The purpose of this descriptive study of nurses at a large children's hospital is to describe the professional values of employed registered nurses and describe differences based on demographic characteristics, such as generation, years of experience, education, and professional role. This study is based on Benner's (1984) theoretical framework of novice to expert. The Nurses Professional Values Scale: Revised (NPVS-R) (Weis & Schank, 2004) was administered to working RNs at the children's hospital. The results of this descriptive study indicate that nurses' professional values differed based on characteristics, such as education, generation, job classification, and years of experience.

  7. Ecohydrological modeling for large-scale environmental impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woznicki, Sean A; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Abouali, Mohammad; Herman, Matthew R; Esfahanian, Elaheh; Hamaamin, Yaseen A; Zhang, Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Ecohydrological models are frequently used to assess the biological integrity of unsampled streams. These models vary in complexity and scale, and their utility depends on their final application. Tradeoffs are usually made in model scale, where large-scale models are useful for determining broad impacts of human activities on biological conditions, and regional-scale (e.g. watershed or ecoregion) models provide stakeholders greater detail at the individual stream reach level. Given these tradeoffs, the objective of this study was to develop large-scale stream health models with reach level accuracy similar to regional-scale models thereby allowing for impacts assessments and improved decision-making capabilities. To accomplish this, four measures of biological integrity (Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa (EPT), Family Index of Biotic Integrity (FIBI), Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI), and fish Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI)) were modeled based on four thermal classes (cold, cold-transitional, cool, and warm) of streams that broadly dictate the distribution of aquatic biota in Michigan. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to simulate streamflow and water quality in seven watersheds and the Hydrologic Index Tool was used to calculate 171 ecologically relevant flow regime variables. Unique variables were selected for each thermal class using a Bayesian variable selection method. The variables were then used in development of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference systems (ANFIS) models of EPT, FIBI, HBI, and IBI. ANFIS model accuracy improved when accounting for stream thermal class rather than developing a global model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The economic and environmental value of genetic improvements in fattening pigs: An integrated dynamic model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, J K; Sevón-Aimonen, M-L; Stygar, A H; Partanen, K

    2015-08-01

    The selection of animals for improved performance affects the profitability of pig fattening and has environmental consequences. The goal of this paper was to examine how changes in genetic and market parameters impact the biophysical (feeding patterns, timing of slaughter, nitrogen excretion) and economic (return per pig space unit) results describing pig fattening in a Finnish farm. The analysis can be viewed as focusing on terminal line breeding goals. An integrated model using recursive stochastic dynamic programming and a biological pig growth model was used to estimate biophysical results and economic values. Combining these models allowed us to provide more accurate estimates for the value of genetic improvement and, thus, provide better feedback to animal breeding programs than the traditional approach, which is based on fixed management patterns. Besides the benchmark scenario, the results were simulated for 5 other scenarios. In each scenario, genotype was improved regarding daily growth potential, carcass lean meat content, or the parameters of the Gompertz growth curve (maturing rate [], adult weight of protein [α], and adult weight of lipid mass []). The change in each parameter was equal to approximately 1 SD genetic improvement (ceteris paribus). Increasing , , daily growth potential, or carcass lean meat content increased the return on pig space unit by €12.60, €7.60, €4.10, or €2.90 per year, respectively, whereas an increase in decreased the return by €3.10. The genetic improvement in and resulted in the highest decrease in nitrogen excretion calculated in total or per kilogram of carcass gain but only under the optimal feeding pattern. Simulated changes in the Gompertz growth function parameters imply greater changes in ADG and lean meat content than changes in scenarios focusing on improving ADG and lean meat content directly. The economic value of genetic improvements as well as the quantity of nitrogen excreted during the fattening

  9. Using constraints and their value for optimization of large ODE systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domijan, Mirela; Rand, David A.

    2015-01-01

    We provide analytical tools to facilitate a rigorous assessment of the quality and value of the fit of a complex model to data. We use this to provide approaches to model fitting, parameter estimation, the design of optimization functions and experimental optimization. This is in the context where multiple constraints are used to select or optimize a large model defined by differential equations. We illustrate the approach using models of circadian clocks and the NF-κB signalling system. PMID:25673300

  10. Intergenerational transmission of values, attitudes, and behaviours in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2007-01-01

    Is young people's proenvironmental orientation - or lack thereof - a function of parents' proenvironmental values, attitudes and behaviours? To answer this question, the paper examines parent-adolescent similarities of general values, specific attitudes and behaviours related to three common...... household practices: purchasing environmentally friendly products, curtailing electricity use, and handling waste responsibly. Significant, but weak correlations between parents and adolescents were found across all of Schwartz's ten value domains, which suggests a clear, albeit not necessarily strong......, parental influence on values. The IG influence was found to be much stronger as regards specific environmental attitudes and behaviours. Mothers seem to influence their offspring more than fathers, and some indications of sex-typed gender socialization are found. On average, the younger generation...

  11. Measuring Environmental Value in Nonmonetary Terms: A Review of Common Practices and Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    which made clear that all significant environmental value, whether measurable in monetary terms or not, was to be considered in federal actions that...in principle . Measurement of monetary benefits derived from resource use or resource heritage value is rarely attempted. Program ERDC/EL CR-14-1 33...Inc. Bateman , I. J., R. C. Carson, B. Day, M. Hanemann, N. Hanley, T. Hett, M. J. Lee, G. Loomes, S . Mourato, E. Ozdemiroglu, D. Pearce, R. Sugden

  12. The Value Relevance of Environmental, Social, and Governance Performance: The Brazilian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mar Miralles-Quirós

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is extensive literature on the value relevance of social responsibility for companies that operate in developed countries. However, little is known about the influence of these practices on the price of assets listed on emerging economies, such as Brazil. In this context, the aim of this study is to analyse whether social responsibility activities carried out by companies listed on the São Paulo Stock Exchange during the 2010–2015 period play a significant role in enhancing firm value. Unlike previous studies, we distinguish between the three modern pillars of sustainability: environmental, social, and corporate governance (ESG. Our overall results support the value enhancing theory rather than the shareholder expense theory. However, it is important to note that the results also show that the market does not significantly value the three ESG pillars. Specifically, the market positively and significantly values the environmental practices carried out by companies not related to environmentally sensitive industries. In contrast, the market positively and significantly values the social and corporate governance practices carried out by the companies belonging to these sensitive industries. These findings are relevant for both investors and the managers of these companies, policy makers, customers, and citizens concerned about ESG issues.

  13. The role of metadata in managing large environmental science datasets. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, R.B.; DeVaney, D.M. [eds.] [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); French, J. C. [Univ. of Virginia, (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this workshop was to bring together computer science researchers and environmental sciences data management practitioners to consider the role of metadata in managing large environmental sciences datasets. The objectives included: establishing a common definition of metadata; identifying categories of metadata; defining problems in managing metadata; and defining problems related to linking metadata with primary data.

  14. Environmental value transfer: an application for the South East Queensland waterways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J J

    2002-01-01

    Economic valuations of the environmental resources provided by the waterways of South East Queensland are required for the evaluation of proposed environmental management strategies. Due to time and funding constraints it is unlikely that the environmental resources for each tributary of the river system will be subject to individual and explicit valuation. This paper reviews the literature about the validity of environmental benefit transfer, identifying the protocol for undertaking such a study. It then describes a study designed to transfer the estimated value of water quality improvements for the Bremer River to other waterways in South East Queensland. The study addresses some of the shortcomings of stated preference techniques to value the environment, including improving the quality of the information provided to survey respondents and the reliability of their responses by adopting a citizens' jury approach to the valuation exercise. In addition, the study is expected to provide the results in a form that will facilitate the estimation of a demand function for water quality improvements that will be meaningful for environmental value transfer to other sites with similar water quality issues.

  15. Quiet as an environmental value: a contrast between two legislative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Robert; Shepherd, Daniel

    2013-07-03

    This paper examines the concept of "quiet" as an "environmental value" in terms of amenity and wellbeing from a legislative context. Critical review of two pieces of environmental legislation from Australia and New Zealand forms the basis of the paper. The Australian legislation is Queensland's Environmental Protection Act, and the New Zealand legislation is that nation's Resource Management Act. Quiet is part of the psychoacoustic continuum between a tranquil and an intrusively noisy sound environment. As such, quiet possesses intrinsic value in terms of overall sound within the environment (soundscape) and to individuals and communities. In both pieces of legislation, guidance, either directly or indirectly, is given to "maximum" sound levels to describe the acoustic environment. Only in Queensland is wellbeing and amenity described as environmental values, while in the New Zealand approach, amenity is identified as the core value to defend, but guidance is not well established. Wellbeing can be related to degrees of quietness and the absence of intrusive noise, the character of sound within an environment ("soundscape"), as well as the overall level of sound. The quality of life experienced by individuals is related to that person's physical and mental health, sense of amenity and wellbeing. These characteristics can be described in terms of subjective and objective measures, though legislation does not always acknowledge the subjective.

  16. The 2-MEV Model: Constancy of Adolescent Environmental Values within an 8-Year Time Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, F. X.; Johnson, B.; Buxner, S.; Felix, L.

    2015-01-01

    The 2-MEV model is a widely used tool to monitor children's environmental perception by scoring individual values. Although the scale's validity has been confirmed repeatedly and independently as well as the scale is in usage within more than two dozen language units all over the world, longitudinal properties still need clarification. The purpose…

  17. The Impact of Childhood Reading on the Development of Environmental Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Margaret; O'Toole, John Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Direct experiences of nature are becoming less common in our urbanised world and little research exists regarding the impact of less direct experiences, particularly how childhood reading relates to the development of pro-environmental values. This study differs from previous reports into the influence of books, as it concentrates on the potential…

  18. Demographic influences on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry J. Vaske; Maureen P. Donnelly; Daniel R. Williams; Sandra Jonker

    2001-01-01

    Using the cognitive hierarchy as the theoretical foundation, this article examines the predictive influence of individuals' demographic characteristics on environmental value orientations and normative beliefs about national forest management. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n = 960). As predicted by theory, a...

  19. The lost value of groundwater and its influence on environmental decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paleologos, Evan K

    2008-08-01

    A critical aspect in establishing environmental policies lies in the proper assessment of the value of the resource being affected. Standard risk assessment analyses calculate the cost of pollution as consisting, solely, of the cost to remediate a site. This traditional definition is extended here to include the lost value of groundwater. These concepts and their impact on decision-making analyses are illustrated through the case of municipal waste landfills. Based on data from existing polluting sites, a simple cost-benefit probabilistic analysis is conducted first, which equates, as is the practice, the cost of pollution to that of remediation. This leads rationally to selection of the lowest-protection technology. Using plausible arguments the reduction in value of groundwater from potable high-quality water to irrigation water, which is what is returned after remediation, is argued. The arguments consist of: (a) the ratio of the subsidized prices of drinking to irrigation water reflects the relative value of the use of water; (b) the amount paid for remediation, in each case, represents, at a minimum, the value of the water recovered; and (c) the lost value of groundwater equals the value of drinking water minus the value of irrigation water. Incorporation of this lost value of groundwater is sufficient to drastically alter the conclusions of the decision-making analysis and make the highest level technology the most rational and profitable alternative. The broader point of this article lies in that proper accounting of environmental costs is necessary in order to alter environmental policies and practices.

  20. [Re]Evaluating significance: the environmental and cultural value in older and historic buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Kathryn Rogers

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally the value of a building is measured through the historical, cultural, or architectural significance that has emerged from the established traditions of historic preservation policy in the United States. Although the designation of historic properties is a critical venue to save our most historically significant buildings, it does not account for those that fall outside of the established categories of significance. Accounting for the environmental value of buildings and understanding them as repositories of energy and materials repositions the way we value of the built environment for a more sustainable future.

  1. The economic value of the flow regulation environmental service in a Brazilian urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Guilherme F.; de Souza, Verônica B. F. S.; Moraes, Natália V.

    2017-11-01

    Urban flood management have often focused either on the capacity expansion of drainage systems or on artificial detention storage. While flood control should take part early on urban planning, not enough is known to guide such plans and provide incentive to land use decisions that minimize the vulnerability to localized floods. In this paper, we offer a broader perspective on flood protection, by treating the original hydrologic flow regulation as an environmental service, and exploring how the value of this environmental service drives economic land use decisions that convert original (permeable) land into urbanized (impermeable). We investigate the relationship between land use decisions and their hydrologic consequences explicitly, and use this relationship to simulate resulting land use scenarios depending on the value attached to the environmental service of flow regulation. Rainfall-runoff simulation model results are combined to an optimization model based on two-stage stochastic programming approach to model economic land use decisions. The objective function maximizes the total expected land use benefit in an urban area, considering the opportunity cost of permeable areas in the first stage and the resulting loss of the environmental service of flow regulation on the second stage, under several probable hydrological events. A watershed in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, is used to demonstrate the approach. Different values attached to the environmental service were tested, from zero to higher than the opportunity cost of land, and artificial detention infrastructure was included to calculate the resulting land use change and the loss in the environmental service value. Results indicate that by valuing the environmental service loss and discounting it from the economic benefits of land use, alternative solutions to land use are found, with decreased peak flows and lower flood frequency. Combined solutions including structural and non

  2. Agri-Environmental Resource Management by Large-Scale Collective Action: Determining KEY Success Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetake, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Large-scale collective action is necessary when managing agricultural natural resources such as biodiversity and water quality. This paper determines the key factors to the success of such action. Design/Methodology/Approach: This paper analyses four large-scale collective actions used to manage agri-environmental resources in Canada and…

  3. Causal inference between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors in a large-scale region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqiong; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Qi; Yu, Huanyun; Liu, Jianfeng; Tian, Yu; Chang, Chunying; Lei, Jing

    2017-07-01

    The causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors are generally obtained from field experiments at local scales at present, and lack sufficient evidence from large scales. However, inferring causation between bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions is challenging. Because the conventional correlation-based approaches used for causation assessments across large-scale regions, at the expense of actual causation, can result in spurious insights. In this study, a general approach framework, Intervention calculus when the directed acyclic graph (DAG) is absent (IDA) combined with the backdoor criterion (BC), was introduced to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and the potential environmental factors across large-scale regions. We take the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China as a case study. The causal structures and effects were identified based on the concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, As, Cu, Hg, Pb, Cr, Ni and Cd) in soil (0-20 cm depth) and vegetable (lettuce) and 40 environmental factors (soil properties, extractable heavy metals and weathering indices) in 94 samples across the PRD. Results show that the bioavailability of heavy metals (Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni and As) was causally influenced by soil properties and soil weathering factors, whereas no causal factor impacted the bioavailability of Cu, Hg and Pb. No latent factor was found between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors. The causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors at field experiments is consistent with that on a large scale. The IDA combined with the BC provides a powerful tool to identify causation between the bioavailability of heavy metals and environmental factors across large-scale regions. Causal inference in a large system with the dynamic changes has great implications for system-based risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Spatial extreme value analysis to project extremes of large-scale indicators for severe weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleland, Eric; Brown, Barbara G; Ammann, Caspar M

    2013-09-01

    Concurrently high values of the maximum potential wind speed of updrafts (Wmax) and 0-6 km wind shear (Shear) have been found to represent conducive environments for severe weather, which subsequently provides a way to study severe weather in future climates. Here, we employ a model for the product of these variables (WmSh) from the National Center for Atmospheric Research/United States National Center for Environmental Prediction reanalysis over North America conditioned on their having extreme energy in the spatial field in order to project the predominant spatial patterns of WmSh. The approach is based on the Heffernan and Tawn conditional extreme value model. Results suggest that this technique estimates the spatial behavior of WmSh well, which allows for exploring possible changes in the patterns over time. While the model enables a method for inferring the uncertainty in the patterns, such analysis is difficult with the currently available inference approach. A variation of the method is also explored to investigate how this type of model might be used to qualitatively understand how the spatial patterns of WmSh correspond to extreme river flow events. A case study for river flows from three rivers in northwestern Tennessee is studied, and it is found that advection of WmSh from the Gulf of Mexico prevails while elsewhere, WmSh is generally very low during such extreme events. © 2013 The Authors. Environmetrics published by JohnWiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Integrating Poverty and Environmental Concerns into Value-Chain Analysis: A Strategic Framework and Practical Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard, Lone; Bolwig, Simon; Ponte, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to guide the design and implementation of action-research projects in value-chain analysis by presenting a strategic framework focused on small producers and trading and processing firms in developing countries. Its stepwise approach – building on the conceptual framework set out...... in a companion article – covers in detail what to do, questions to be asked and issues to be considered, and integrates poverty, gender, labour and environmental concerns.'Upgrading' strategies potentially available for improving value-chain participation for small producers are identified, with the ultimate...

  6. Pressure and cold pain threshold reference values in a large, young adult, pain-free population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Robert; Smith, Anne Julia; O'Sullivan, Peter Bruce; Slater, Helen; Sterling, Michele; McVeigh, Joanne Alexandra; Straker, Leon Melville

    2016-10-01

    Currently there is a lack of large population studies that have investigated pain sensitivity distributions in healthy pain free people. The aims of this study were: (1) to provide sex-specific reference values of pressure and cold pain thresholds in young pain-free adults; (2) to examine the association of potential correlates of pain sensitivity with pain threshold values. This study investigated sex specific pressure and cold pain threshold estimates for young pain free adults aged 21-24 years. A cross-sectional design was utilised using participants (n=617) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study at the 22-year follow-up. The association of site, sex, height, weight, smoking, health related quality of life, psychological measures and activity with pain threshold values was examined. Pressure pain threshold (lumbar spine, tibialis anterior, neck and dorsal wrist) and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) were assessed using standardised quantitative sensory testing protocols. Reference values for pressure pain threshold (four body sites) stratified by sex and site, and cold pain threshold (dorsal wrist) stratified by sex are provided. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased pressure pain sensitivity measures were site (neck, dorsal wrist), sex (female), higher waist-hip ratio and poorer mental health. Statistically significant, independent correlates of increased cold pain sensitivity measures were, sex (female), poorer mental health and smoking. These data provide the most comprehensive and robust sex specific reference values for pressure pain threshold specific to four body sites and cold pain threshold at the dorsal wrist for young adults aged 21-24 years. Establishing normative values in this young age group is important given that the transition from adolescence to adulthood is a critical temporal period during which trajectories for persistent pain can be established. These data will provide an important research

  7. Assessing the value of cooperation and information exchange in large water resources systems by agent-based optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2013-07-01

    Many large-scale water resources systems, especially in transboundary contexts, are characterized by the presence of several and conflicting interests and managed by multiple, institutionally independent decision makers. These systems are often studied adopting a centralized approach based on the assumption of full cooperation and information exchange among the involved parties. Such a perspective is conceptually interesting to quantify the best achievable performance but might have little practical impact given the real political and institutional setting. In this work, we propose a novel decision-analytic framework based on multiagent systems to model and analyze different levels of cooperation and information exchange among multiple decision makers. The Zambezi River basin is used as a case study. According to the proposed agent-based optimization approach, each agent represents a decision maker, whose decisions are defined by an explicit optimization problem considering only the agent's local interests. The economic value of information exchange is estimated comparing a noncooperative setting, where agents act independently, with the first basic level of cooperation, i.e., coordination, characterized by full information exchange. The economic value of cooperation is also estimated by comparison with the ideal, fully cooperative management of the system. Results show that coordination, obtained with complete information exchange, allows the downstream agents to better adapt to the upstream behaviors. The impact of information exchange depends on the objective considered, and we show coordination to be particularly beneficial to environmental interests.

  8. Using frameworks to diagram value in complex policy and environmental interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Melissa Farrell; Brennan, Laura K; Gentry, Daniel; Kemner, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    To date, few tools assist policy makers and practitioners in understanding and conveying the implementation costs, potential impacts, and value of policy and environmental changes to address healthy eating, active living, and childhood obesity. For the Evaluation of Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), evaluators considered inputs (resources and investments) that generate costs and savings as well as benefits and harms related to social, economic, environmental, and health-related outcomes in their assessment of 49 HKHC community partnerships funded from 2009 to 2014. Using data collected through individual and group interviews and an online performance monitoring system, evaluators created a socioecological framework to assess investments, resources, costs, savings, benefits, and harms at the individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. Evaluators customized frameworks for 6 focal strategies: active transportation, parks and play spaces, child care physical activity standards, corner stores, farmers' markets, and child care nutrition standards. To illustrate the Value Frameworks, this brief highlights the 38 HKHC communities implementing at least 1 active transportation strategy. Evaluators populated this conceptual Value Framework with themes from the strategy-specific inputs and outputs. The range of factors corresponding to the implementation and impact of the HKHC community partnerships are highlighted along with the inputs and outputs. The Value Frameworks helped evaluators identify gaps in current analysis models (ie, benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis) as well as paint a more complete picture of value for potential obesity prevention strategies. These frameworks provide a comprehensive understanding of investments needed, proposed costs and savings, and potential benefits and harms associated with economic, social, environmental, and health outcomes. This framing also allowed evaluators to demonstrate the interdependence

  9. The Environmental Conservation Value of the Saemangeum Open Sea in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seul-Ye Lim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Saemangeum open sea (SOS, which refers to the outer sea of the Saemangeum seawall in Korea, is being threatened by contamination caused by the Saemangeum development project. The policy-makers need information on the environmental conservation value of the SOS for informed decision-making about the SOS. This paper attempts to measure the environmental conservation value of the SOS. To this end, the public’s willingness to pay (WTP for conserving the SOS is derived from a 2015 contingent valuation survey of 1000 Korean households comprising 400 households residing in the Saemangeum area and 600 households living in other areas. The authors employ a one-and-one-half-bounded dichotomous choice question format. Moreover, the spike model is adopted to analyze the WTP data with zero observations. The mean annual WTP values for both areas are calculated to be KRW 3861 (USD 3.26 and KRW 3789 (USD 3.20 per household, respectively. They are statistically significant at the 1% level. When the sample is expanded to the whole country, it is worth KRW 70.9 billion (USD 59.8 million per annum. Therefore, conserving the SOS will contribute to the Korean people’s utility and can be done with public support. The value provides a useful baseline for decision-making for the SOS management.

  10. Characterization of large-insert DNA libraries from soil for environmental genomic studies of Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treusch, Alexander H; Kletzin, Arnulf; Raddatz, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    Complex genomic libraries are increasingly being used to retrieve complete genes, operons or large genomic fragments directly from environmental samples, without the need to cultivate the respective microorganisms. We report on the construction of three large-insert fosmid libraries in total cove......, are presented and discussed. We thereby extend the genomic information of uncultivated crenarchaeota from soil and offer hints to specific metabolic traits present in this group....

  11. Environmental Value Considerations in Public Attitudes About Alternative Energy Development in Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brent S.; Pierce, John C.; Warner, Rebecca L.; Lovrich, Nicholas P.

    2015-03-01

    The 2013 Pacific Coast Action Plan on Climate and Energy signed by the Governors of California, Oregon, and Washington and the Premier of British Columbia launched a broadly announced public commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions through multiple strategies. Those strategies include the development and increased use of renewable energy sources. The initiative recognized that citizens are both a central component in abating greenhouse gas emissions with regard to their energy use behaviors, and are important participants in the public policymaking process at both state and local levels of government. The study reported here examines whether either support or opposition to state government leadership in the development of alternative energy technologies can be explained by environmental values as measured by the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP). The research results are based on mail surveys of randomly selected households conducted throughout Oregon and Washington in late 2009 and early 2010. Findings suggest that younger and more highly educated respondents are significantly more likely than older and less educated respondents to either support or strongly support government policies to promote bioenergy, wind, geothermal, and solar energy. Those respondents with higher NEP scores are also more supportive of government promotion of wind, geothermal, and solar technologies than are those with lower NEP scores. Support for wave energy does not show a statistical correlation with environmental values, maybe a reflection of this technology's nascent level of development. The paper concludes with a consideration of the implications of these findings for environmental management.

  12. Environmental values in post-socialist Hungary : Is it useful to distinguish egoistic, altruistic and biospheric values?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith. I. M.; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Martijn; Farsang, Andrea; Watt, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the authors examine whether the significance of biospheric values as a separate cluster next to egoistic and altruistic values is mainly a Western European phenomenon or whether biospheric values are also endorsed as a value in its own right in post-socialist Hungary. In two

  13. Capturing multiple values of ecosystem services shaped by environmental worldviews: a spatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, Carena J; Kyle, Gerard T

    2014-12-01

    Two related approaches to valuing nature have been advanced in past research including the study of ecosystem services and psychological investigations of the factors that shape behavior. Stronger integration of the insights that emerge from these two lines of enquiry can more effectively sustain ecosystems, economies, and human well-being. Drawing on survey data collected from outdoor recreationists on Santa Cruz Island within Channel Islands National Park, U.S., our study blends these two research approaches to examine a range of tangible and intangible values of ecosystem services provided to stakeholders with differing biocentric and anthropocentric worldviews. We used Public Participation Geographic Information System methods to collect survey data and a Social Values for Ecosystem Services mapping application to spatially analyze a range of values assigned to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in the park. Our results showed that preferences for the provision of biological diversity, recreation, and scientific-based values of ecosystem services varied across a spatial gradient. We also observed differences that emerged from a comparison between survey subgroups defined by their worldviews. The implications emanating from this investigation aim to support environmental management decision-making in the context of protected areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 3D-Printed Disposable Wireless Sensors with Integrated Microelectronics for Large Area Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad

    2017-05-19

    Large area environmental monitoring can play a crucial role in dealing with crisis situations. However, it is challenging as implementing a fixed sensor network infrastructure over large remote area is economically unfeasible. This work proposes disposable, compact, dispersible 3D-printed wireless sensor nodes with integrated microelectronics which can be dispersed in the environment and work in conjunction with few fixed nodes for large area monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity, and H2S levels are shown which are important for two critical environmental conditions namely forest fires and industrial leaks. These inkjet-printed sensors and an antenna are realized on the walls of a 3D-printed cubic package which encloses the microelectronics developed on a 3D-printed circuit board. Hence, 3D printing and inkjet printing are uniquely combined in order to realize a low-cost, fully integrated wireless sensor node.

  15. Prognostic value of tumor necrosis at CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Hugo J A; de Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Dubois, Stefan V; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C

    2015-03-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor necrosis at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 51 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone both unenhanced and intravenous contrast-enhanced CT before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Presence of tumor necrosis was visually and quantitatively assessed at CT. Associations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors were assessed. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic impact of NCCN-IPI scores and tumor necrosis status at CT. There were no correlations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the NCCN-IPI factors categorized age (ρ=-0.042, P=0.765), categorized lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ratio (ρ=0.201, P=0.156), extranodal disease in major organs (φ=-0.245, P=0.083), Ann Arbor stage III/IV disease (φ=-0.208, P=0.141), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (φ=0.015, P=0.914). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only tumor necrosis status at CT was an independent predictive factor of progression-free survival (P=0.003) and overall survival (P=0.004). The findings of this study indicate the prognostic potential of tumor necrosis at CT in newly diagnosed DLBCL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Annual Rainfall Maxima: Large-Deviation Alternative to Extreme-Value and Extreme-Excess Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, D.; Langousis, A.; Lepore, C.

    2009-04-01

    Contrary to common belief, Gumbel's extreme value (EV) and Pickands' extreme excess (EE) theories do not generally apply to rainfall maxima at the annual level. This is true not just for long averaging durations d, as one would expect, but also in the high-resolution limit as d → 0. We reach these conclusions by studying the annual maxima of scale-invariant rainfall models with a multiplicative structure. We find that for d → 0 the annual maximum rainfall intensity in d, Iyear(d), has a generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution with a shape parameter k that is significantly higher than that predicted by Gumbel's theory and is always in the EV2 range. Under the same conditions, the excess above levels close to the annual maximum has generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a parameter k that is always higher than that predicted by Pickands' theory. The proper tool to obtain these results is large deviation (LD) theory, a branch of probability that has been largely ignored in stochastic hydrology. In the classic EV and EE settings one considers a single random variable X and studies either the distribution of the maximum of n independent copies of X as n →ž or the distribution of the excess Xu = (X - u|X ≥ u) as the threshold u →ž. A well known result is that, if under renormalization these distributions approach non-degenerate limits, then the distribution of the maximum is GEV(k), the distribution of the excess above u is GP(k), and the common shape parameter k depends on the tail behavior of X. When applied to rainfall extremes, X is typically taken to be I(d), the rainfall intensity in a generic d interval. The problem with the EV approach is that the number of d intervals in one year, n(d) = 1yr•d, may be too small for convergence of Iyear(d) to the asymptotic GEV distribution. Likewise, in the EE approach, thresholds u on the order of the annual maximum may be too low for convergence of the excess to the asymptotic GP

  17. Added value measures in education show genetic as well as environmental influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire M A Haworth

    Full Text Available Does achievement independent of ability or previous attainment provide a purer measure of the added value of school? In a study of 4000 pairs of 12-year-old twins in the UK, we measured achievement with year-long teacher assessments as well as tests. Raw achievement shows moderate heritability (about 50% and modest shared environmental influences (25%. Unexpectedly, we show that for indices of the added value of school, genetic influences remain moderate (around 50%, and the shared (school environment is less important (about 12%. The pervasiveness of genetic influence in how and how much children learn is compatible with an active view of learning in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities.

  18. The Study of Enhancing Plans on Korean Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map (ECVAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, M.; Choi, Y.; Hwang, J.; Jeon, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    With the limitation of land area in the Republic of Korea, land use and excessive development in Korea is one of the huge socio-environmental problems. Plethora of land owners, government, and enterprises to develop land cover are still struggling for maintaining balance between efficient land utilization and sufficient land conservation. For the feasible management and land use in the future, ECVAM(as known as Environmental Conservation Value Assessment Map) was created, accompanied with objective environmental grading of land in South Korea as well as integrated environmental information. ECVAM is the mapping system expressed by five-graded quality whether to develop or conserve in given land area with different colours. This map was primarily produced as the version 1.0 to ultimately use land eco-friendly and thoroughly which contains legally considered grade factors, environmental and ecological factors since 2001. From 2013, this project has planned to renovate the version 2.0 in more precise methods - strengthening legal support for user expansion, more amplified scale to 1:5,000, and the wide-spread supply such as education for those who demands ECVAM to adjust other fields like Environmental Impact Assessment to cope with land developers. For this year, we framed the official guideline to facilitate governments to design their newly-upgraded ECVAM but also to encourage local governors to utilize this figure for given land assessments. This assessment system also include the theoretical concept called natural asset valuation and the base study plan analyzing Vertical Vegetation Profile in the grading element of Stability of Community Structure. For the further study, it needs to reorganize the assessment factors to make the linkage between the ministry of environment and the ministry of land, infrastructure and transport in Korea for sustainable land use as well as to satisfy the grading ones in other nations' environmental conservation assessments such as

  19. The Small-Scale Hydropower Plants in Sites of Environmental Value: An Italian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Rotilio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times water has been accompanying technological change in the energy sector. Used as a source of hydraulic energy, it currently generates one-fifth of the global electricity production. However, according to collective imagination, hydroelectric plants are constructions of high environmental, acoustic, and visual impact, which may harm the preservation of the territory. This paper intends to address the topic of mini-hydropower that, in addition to providing the production of renewable energy, ensures a limited environmental impact even in delicate contexts with high landscape values, by elaborating a research methodology that makes these interventions compatible with them. The process of “global compatibility” checks developed to assess the feasibility of the intervention will be explained in the paper. We intend to describe here the research process undertaken to make the planning of this type of system sustainable, in contexts that need to be rehabilitated in relation both to the accessibility of citizens and to the environmental enhancement. The intervention planned will be characterized by the combined use of other renewable energy sources, in addition to water. The proposed methodology has been tested on a case study in the village of Roccacasale, in the province of L’Aquila.

  20. The roles of human values and generalized trust on stated preferences when food is labeled with environmental footprints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grebitus, Carola; Steiner, Bodo; Veeman, Michele

    2015-01-01

    This study explores stated preferences for food labeled with environmental footprints, concentrating on human values (Rokeach 1973) and trust attitudes (Uslaner 2002). An online survey, conducted in Germany during 2011 (n = 1579), collected data on human values using the Rokeach Value Survey...

  1. Enhancing metaproteomics-The value of models and defined environmental microbial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, Florian-Alexander [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg Denmark; Lünsmann, Vanessa [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig Germany; Department of Environmental Biotechnology, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig Germany; Kjeldal, Henrik [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg Denmark; Jehmlich, Nico [Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig Germany; Tholey, Andreas [Systematic Proteome Research and Bioanalytics, Institute for Experimental Medicine, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Kiel Germany; von Bergen, Martin [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg Denmark; Department of Proteomics, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Leipzig Germany; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg Denmark; Hettich, Robert L. [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, Oak Ridge TN USA; Seifert, Jana [Institute of Animal Science, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart Germany; Nielsen, Per Halkjaer [Department of Chemistry and Bioscience, Center for Microbial Communities, Aalborg University, Aalborg Denmark

    2016-01-21

    Metaproteomics - the large-scale characterization of the entire protein complement of environmental microbiota at a given point in time - added unique features and possibilities to study environmental microbial communities and to unravel these “black boxes”. New technical challenges arose which were not an issue for classical proteome analytics before and choosing the appropriate model system applicable to the research question can be difficult. Here, we reviewed different model systems for metaproteome analysis. Following a short introduction to microbial communities and systems, we discussed the most used systems ranging from technical systems over rhizospheric models to systems for the medical field. This includes acid mine drainage, anaerobic digesters, activated sludge, planted fixed bed reactors, gastrointestinal simulators and in vivo models. Model systems are useful to evaluate the challenges encountered within (but not limited to) metaproteomics, including species complexity and coverage, biomass availability or reliable protein extraction. The implementation of model systems can be considered as a step forward to better understand microbial responses and ecological distribution of member organisms. In the future, novel improvements are necessary to fully engage complex environmental systems.

  2. Prognostic value of tumor necrosis at CT in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A., E-mail: h.j.a.adams@gmail.com [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Department of Hematology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Department of Pathology, Meander Medical Center, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: •CT is compulsory for staging newly diagnosed DLBCL. •Approximately 13.7% of DLBCL patients have tumor necrosis at CT. •Tumor necrosis status at CT is not associated with any NCCN-IPI factor. •Patients with tumor necrosis at CT have a significantly worse outcome. -- Abstract: Objective: To determine the prognostic value of tumor necrosis at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 51 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone both unenhanced and intravenous contrast-enhanced CT before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Presence of tumor necrosis was visually and quantitatively assessed at CT. Associations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) International Prognostic Index (IPI) factors were assessed. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic impact of NCCN-IPI scores and tumor necrosis status at CT. Results: There were no correlations between tumor necrosis status at CT and the NCCN-IPI factors categorized age (ρ = −0.042, P = 0.765), categorized lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) ratio (ρ = 0.201, P = 0.156), extranodal disease in major organs (φ = −0.245, P = 0.083), Ann Arbor stage III/IV disease (φ = −0.208, P = 0.141), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (φ = 0.015, P = 0.914). In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only tumor necrosis status at CT was an independent predictive factor of progression-free survival (P = 0.003) and overall survival (P = 0.004). Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate the prognostic potential of tumor necrosis at CT in newly diagnosed DLBCL.

  3. The role of large environmental noise in masting: general model and example from pistachio trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Danielle; Rosenstock, Todd S; Hastings, Alan; Brown, Patrick H

    2009-08-21

    Masting is synchronous, highly variable reproduction in a plant population, or synchronized boom-bust cycles of reproduction. These pulses of resources have cascading effects through ecosystems, and thus it is important to understand where they come from. How does masting happen and synchronize? In this paper, we suggest a mechanism for this. The mechanism is inspired by data from a pistachio orchard, which suggest that large environmental noise may play a crucial role in inducing masting in plant populations such as pistachio. We test this idea through development and analysis of a mathematical model of plant reproduction. We start with a very simple model, and generalize it based on the current models of plant reproduction and masting. Our results suggest that large environmental noise may indeed be a crucial part of the mechanism of masting in certain types of plant populations, including pistachio. This is a specific example of an important functional consequence of the interactions between stochasticity and nonlinearity.

  4. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Savina, Irina N; Ingavle, Ganesh C; Cundy, Andrew B; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas...

  5. Environmental dilemma game to establish a sustainable society dealing with an emergent value system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Jun

    2005-01-01

    To induce whether we can obtain a sustainable society by shifting our paradigm from the materialistic to the eco-conscientious, we established a multi-agent simulation model. The model primarily featured a dilemma structure encouraged by a conflict between each agent's private desire to earn more and the need for environmental conservation. Another important feature is that the model has two evolutionary layers. The subordinate layer is a learning system comprised of a finite state machine (FSM) and a genetic algorithm (GA) primarily, which is carried with each individual agent to determine his/her next behavior and how much he/she must earn to maximize an individual fitness function. The supra layer is the so-called value system, the gene pool of which is shared within the society. The value system stipulates an agent's fitness function, which in turn affects the agent's behavior. The value system of each agent was set up to be entirely ego-oriented at the beginning of the simulation episode. A numerical experiment based on the model reveals a scene in which, under a certain condition related to assumptions of the value system, a group of agents undergoes a paradigm shift from the ego-oriented materialism to the eco-conscious sustainable society. The key condition is a latent existence of several values that ultimately lead to sustainability, even though they do not work at all at the beginning of the episode. In terms of the evolutionary game theory, this implies that changing game structure on the way of a simulation episode by transforming the fitness function seems to be much powerful measures for the emergent collective cooperation among the agents than ordinal options to support cooperation. In addition, we made a detailed analysis on how assumed agents have obtained a sustainable value system. Each agent has an individual decision-making process based on the input with a learning mechanism. We focus here on two types of learning system, the finite state

  6. Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ conceptions, values and teaching practices in health and environmental education

    OpenAIRE

    Kuurala, S.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Clément, Pierre; Bogner, Franz; Kyllönen, T.; Hänninen, O.; Rauma, Anna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Health and environmental education in Finnish schools is guided firstly by the national core curriculum and secondly by the individual curricula in each school. However, teaching practices are influenced to some extent also by teachers’ own conceptions and systems of values. The aim of the study was to examine Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ conceptions, values and experiences concerning health and environmental education. Respondents (n=312) comprised of pre-service teachers (52 %), in...

  7. Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ conceptions, values and teaching practices in teaching of health and environmental knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Kuurala, S.; Carvalho, Graça Simões de; Clément, Pierre; Bogner, Franz; Kyllönen, T.; Hänninen, O.; Rauma, Anna-Liisa

    2006-01-01

    Teaching of health and environmental knowledge in Finnish schools is guided by the national core curriculum and school curriculum. However, teaching practices are influenced to some extent also by teachers’ own conceptions and systems of values. The aim of the study was to survey Finnish pre- and in-service teachers’ conceptions concerning teaching of health and environmental knowledge as well as their attitudes and values related to environment. Teach-ers (n=312) appreciate and see their val...

  8. Like father, like son? Intergenerational transmission of values, attitudes, and behaviours in the environmental domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2009-01-01

    -child correlations are stronger for specific pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours. The positive correlations suggest that family socialization exert a significant influence on young consumers' pro-environmental orientation. Still, the young generation is, on average, significantly less environmentally...

  9. On the Values for the Turbulent Schmidt Number in Environmental Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Gualtieri

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD has consolidated as a tool to provide understanding and quantitative information regarding many complex environmental flows. The accuracy and reliability of CFD modelling results oftentimes come under scrutiny because of issues in the implementation of and input data for those simulations. Regarding the input data, if an approach based on the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS equations is applied, the turbulent scalar fluxes are generally estimated by assuming the standard gradient diffusion hypothesis (SGDH, which requires the definition of the turbulent Schmidt number, Sct (the ratio of momentum diffusivity to mass diffusivity in the turbulent flow. However, no universally-accepted values of this parameter have been established or, more importantly, methodologies for its computation have been provided. This paper firstly presents a review of previous studies about Sct in environmental flows, involving both water and air systems. Secondly, three case studies are presented where the key role of a correct parameterization of the turbulent Schmidt number is pointed out. These include: (1 transverse mixing in a shallow water flow; (2 tracer transport in a contact tank; and (3 sediment transport in suspension. An overall picture on the use of the Schmidt number in CFD emerges from the paper.

  10. Vermiculture in the Production of Organic Fertilizer for Promoting Environmental Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy del Carmen Ramírez Joyo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to encourage environmental values to produce organic fertilizer through the vermiculture practice (the raising and production od earthworms and their by-products done by the students of the Francisco Tamayo School Technical located in Barinitas parish, Bolívar municipality state Barinas. This investigation draws attention to take advantage of organic wastes related to organic solid remains due to the excessive accumulation of vegetable and animal organic solid waste without being used. The nature of this study belongs to the qualitative approach of a participatory action research. It supports the field method in a descriptive way and its methodological design was made in four phases: Reflection, Planning, Execution Plan, Reflection and Results. The key people were: (02 students and (01 teacher. The techniques of gathering information were the participatory observation and the free standard interview, the instrument, the guide notes interview and field notebook. The analysis techniques of information were categorization and triangulation. Among the preliminary considerations are expected to encourage the sustainability through the production of organic fertilizer along the vermiculture as an option to change the production to become more sensitive students and to reach their own development in the environmental culture.

  11. A Study of Effects of Hyperthermia on Large, Short-Haired Male Dogs: A Simulated Air Transport Environmental Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    FAA-AM-77-8 A STUDY OF EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON LARGE, SHORT-HAIRED MALE DOGS: A SIMULATED AIR TRANSPORT ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS G. D. Hanneman, D.V.M...EFFECTS OF HYPERTHERMIA ON LARGE, SHORT-HAIRED •[MALE DOGS: A SIMULATED AIR TRNPR S : ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS 4 M. 1N • . Introduction. In the past decade

  12. Shareholder Value and the Performance of a Large Nursing Home Chain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kitchener, Martin; O'Meara, Janis; Brody, Ab; Lee, Hyang Yuol; Harrington, Charlene

    2008-01-01

    ...‐facility nursing home corporations (chains) that pursue stakeholder value (profit maximization) strategies. Study Design. To establish a foundation of knowledge about the focal phenomenon and processes, we conducted an historical...

  13. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L Richards

    Full Text Available Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores. Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  14. Environmental factors affecting large-bodied coral reef fish assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin L; Williams, Ivor D; Vetter, Oliver J; Williams, Gareth J

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research.

  15. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Benjamin L.; Williams, Ivor D.; Vetter, Oliver J.; Williams, Gareth J.

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects. While many studies have investigated habitat characteristics affecting populations of small-bodied reef fishes, few have explored the relationship between large-bodied species and their environment. Here, we describe the distribution of the large-bodied reef fishes in the Mariana Archipelago with an emphasis on the environmental factors associated with their distribution. Of the factors considered in this study, a negative association with human population density showed the highest relative influence on the distribution of large-bodied reef fishes; however, depth, water temperature, and distance to deep water also were important. These findings provide new information on the ecology of large-bodied reef fishes can inform discussions concerning essential fish habitat and ecosystem-based management for these species and highlight important knowledge gaps worthy of additional research. PMID:22384014

  16. The effect of environmental harshness on neurogenesis: a large-scale comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancellor, Leia V; Roth, Timothy C; LaDage, Lara D; Pravosudov, Vladimir V

    2011-03-01

    Harsh environmental conditions may produce strong selection pressure on traits, such as memory, that may enhance fitness. Enhanced memory may be crucial for survival in animals that use memory to find food and, thus, particularly important in environments where food sources may be unpredictable. For example, animals that cache and later retrieve their food may exhibit enhanced spatial memory in harsh environments compared with those in mild environments. One way that selection may enhance memory is via the hippocampus, a brain region involved in spatial memory. In a previous study, we established a positive relationship between environmental severity and hippocampal morphology in food-caching black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus). Here, we expanded upon this previous work to investigate the relationship between environmental harshness and neurogenesis, a process that may support hippocampal cytoarchitecture. We report a significant and positive relationship between the degree of environmental harshness across several populations over a large geographic area and (1) the total number of immature hippocampal neurons, (2) the number of immature neurons relative to the hippocampal volume, and (3) the number of immature neurons relative to the total number of hippocampal neurons. Our results suggest that hippocampal neurogenesis may play an important role in environments where increased reliance on memory for cache recovery is critical. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterizing large river sounds: Providing context for understanding the environmental effects of noise produced by hydrokinetic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bevelhimer, Mark S.; Deng, Z. Daniel; Scherelis, Constantin

    2016-01-01

    Underwater noise associated with the installation and operation of hydrokinetic turbines in rivers and tidal zones presents a potential environmental concern for fish and marine mammals. Comparing the spectral quality of sounds emitted by hydrokinetic turbines to natural and other anthropogenic sound sources is an initial step at understanding potential environmental impacts. Underwater recordings were obtained from passing vessels of different sizes and other underwater sound sources in both static and flowing waters. Static water measurements were taken in a lake with minimal background noise. Flowing water measurements were taken at a previously proposed deployment site for hydrokinetic turbines on the Mississippi River, where the sound of flowing water is included in background measurements. The size of vessels measured ranged from a small fishing boat with a 60 HP outboard motor to an 18-unit barge train being pushed upstream by tugboat. As expected, large vessels with large engines created the highest sound levels, and when compared to the sound created by an operating HK turbine were many times greater. A comparison of sound levels from the same sources at different distances using both spherical and cylindrical sound attenuation functions suggests that spherical model results more closely approximate observed values.

  18. Rugged large volume injection for sensitive capillary LC-MS environmental monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberg-Larsen, Hanne; Abele, Silvija; Demir, Deniz; Dzabijeva, Diana; Amundsen, Sunniva F.; Wilson, Steven R.; Bartkevics, Vadims; Lundanes, Elsa

    2017-08-01

    A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC) LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL) solid phase extraction (SPE) for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g. injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples would did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 µm). In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD) in the 0.05 - 12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were RSD.

  19. Rugged Large Volume Injection for Sensitive Capillary LC-MS Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanne Roberg-Larsen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A rugged and high throughput capillary column (cLC LC-MS switching platform using large volume injection and on-line automatic filtration and filter back-flush (AFFL solid phase extraction (SPE for analysis of environmental water samples with minimal sample preparation is presented. Although narrow columns and on-line sample preparation are used in the platform, high ruggedness is achieved e.g., injection of 100 non-filtrated water samples did not result in a pressure rise/clogging of the SPE/capillary columns (inner diameter 300 μm. In addition, satisfactory retention time stability and chromatographic resolution were also features of the system. The potential of the platform for environmental water samples was demonstrated with various pharmaceutical products, which had detection limits (LOD in the 0.05–12.5 ng/L range. Between-day and within-day repeatability of selected analytes were <20% RSD.

  20. An Investigation into The Relationships and Discrepancies between UK Consumers’ Materialistic Values, Their Environmental Attitudes, and Their Consumer Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    West, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between consumers’ materialistic values and their support for the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP), which measures the extent to which individuals perceive humans as separate or an integrated part of the rest of the natural environment. The research found that although many of the participants show a strong support for the NEP, the strength of many of the individuals’ materialistic values, and the extent to which these values are promoted and reinforced th...

  1. [The analysis of data of large study of cholesterol level in population: on the issue of reference values of cholesterol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igonina, N A; Zhuravlev, E A; Kondrashova, E A; Torshina, I G; Chashchikhina, E V; Makarova, T A; Kopaeva, L B; Sysoeva, S N

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with analysis of the results of large study of cholesterol level at the sampling of 52 075 patients. The median of values of common cholesterol exceeds 5.0 mmol/l in all groups of males older than 30-35 years and females older than 35-40 years. The percentage of patients with level of common cholesterol > or = 6.2 mmol/l consisted 40.15 in the age group of 40-69 years. The issue of presentation of the results of laboratory analysis of common cholesterol (reference values as compared with recommended values) is discussed.

  2. Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    Container ships of today are becoming increasingly larger. The increased ship size implies lower natural hull frequencies which influence the hull girder response in waves. The large bow and stern flare of container ships make them vulnerable to whipping-induced loads, and whipping loads may...

  3. Cost (and Quality and Value) of Information Technology Support in Large Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Christopher S.; Antolovic, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Shows how financial and quality measures associated with the Balanced Scorecard (developed by Kaplan and Norton to measure organizational performance) can be applied to information technology (IT) user education and support in large research universities. Focuses on University Information Technology Services that has measured the quality of IT…

  4. Variation of corneal glycosaminoglycan values of hares in relation to environmental pollution by industrial emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miková, M; Nováková, E

    1979-09-01

    In localities contaminated by industrial emissions a significant decrease in keratan sulfate and chondroitin 4-sulfate occurs in the cornea of the hare. The changes also occur in hares living near small emission sources with a local emission zone; therefore they should not be neglected, especially if the area is used for recreation, as in the case reported here. The decrease in glycosaminoglycan values is more pronounced in adults than in juveniles, because of the length of exposure. Relatively large amounts of keratan sulfate in the glycosaminoglycan fraction correspond to changes expected in a prematurely senescent tissue. Because of the painstaking laboratory work required, assessment of glycosaminoglycans could be used for special bioindication purposes but would not be suitable for routine monitoring.

  5. Prognostic value of anemia and C-reactive protein levels in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; De Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Heggelman, Ben G F; Dubois, Stefan V.; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the prognostic value of pretreatment anemia, pretreatment elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, and 6-month posttreatment anemia in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and

  6. Value of microwave ablation in treatment of large lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Ashraf; Nabeel, Mohammed; Elbaz, Tamer; Zakaria, Zeinab; Shousha, Hend; Amer, Ayman; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Maher, Rabab; Musa, Shereif

    2015-08-01

    Thermal ablative therapies continue to be favored as a safe and effective treatment for patients with non-resectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Percutaneous microwave ablative therapy, which is a relatively new technique, has the advantage in providing faster ablation of large tumors. This study aimed to evaluate microwave ablation in the treatment of large HCC (5-7 cm) and to assess its effect on local tumor progression, prognostic outcome and patients' survival. In all, 26 patients with large HCC lesions (5-7 cm) were managed in the multidisciplinary clinic of Kasr Al Ainy University hospital using microwave ablation. The treatment was performed with the patient under conscious sedation and analgesia and ultrasonography-guided using an HS AMICA microwave machine operating at frequency of 2450 MHz and a power up to 100 W. Multiple needle insertions were made in one or two sessions according to the size of the lesion. The complete ablation rate, local tumor progression and patients' overall survival were analyzed, and the efficacy and safety of MWA was evaluated. Complete ablation was achieved in 19/26 (73.1%). Local tumor progression was recorded in five treated lesions (19.2%). Distant tumor progression within the liver was recorded in six patients (23.1%), with a mean survival of 21.5 months. No procedure-related major complications or deaths were observed. Percutaneous microwave ablation is safe and effective in the treatment of large HCC tumors. Patients' survival and local tumor control were acceptable. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Value of CT angiography in anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke: Imaging findings, pearls, and pitfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Sarah, E-mail: drsarahpower@gmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); McEvoy, Sinead H., E-mail: sineadmcevoy@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Cunningham, Jane, E-mail: janecunningham0708@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Ti, Joanna P., E-mail: joannapearlyti@gmail.com [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Looby, Seamus, E-mail: seamuslooby@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); O' Hare, Alan, E-mail: alanohare@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Williams, David, E-mail: davidwilliams@rcsi.ie [Department of Geriatrics and Stroke Medicine, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI) and Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Brennan, Paul, E-mail: paulbrennan@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Thornton, John, E-mail: johnthornton@beaumont.ie [Department of Neuroradiology, Beaumont Hospital, P.O. Box 1297, Beaumont Rd, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Site of occlusion determines potential collateralization routes and impacts outcome. • Multifocality of arterial occlusion is common, seen in approximately 20% of cases. • ICA false occlusion sign can be seen in setting of ICA stenosis or carotid T occlusion. • False patency sign: hyperdense thrombus/calcified occlusive plaque misinterpreted as patent vessel. • Additional abnormalities on CTA may infer stroke mechanism or alter decision making. - Abstract: Hyperacute stroke imaging is playing an increasingly important role in determining management decisions in acute stroke patients, particularly patients with large vessel occlusive stroke who may benefit from endovascular intervention. CT angiography (CTA) is an important tool in the work-up of the acute stroke patient. It reliably detects large occlusive thrombi in proximal cerebral arteries and is a quick and highly accurate method in identifying candidates for endovascular stroke treatment. In this article we review the imaging findings on CTA in acute large vessel occlusive stroke using a pictorial case based approach. We retrospectively reviewed CTA studies in 48 patients presenting with acute anterior circulation large vessel occlusive stroke who were brought for intra-arterial acute stroke intervention. We discuss and illustrate patterns of proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, collateralization to the occluded territory, as well as reviewing some important pearls, pitfalls and teaching points in CTA assessment of the acute stroke patient. Performed from the level of the aortic arch CTA also gives valuable information regarding the state of other vessels in the acute stroke patient, identifying additional significant vascular stenoses or occlusions, and as we illustrate, can demonstrate other clinically significant findings which may impact on patient management and outcome.

  8. Deformation of Cases in High Capacitance Value Wet Tantalum Capacitors under Environmental Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Internal gas pressure in hermetic wet tantalum capacitors is created by air, electrolyte vapor, and gas generated by electrochemical reactions at the electrodes. This pressure increases substantially with temperature and time of operation due to excessive leakage currents. Deformation of the case occurs when the internal pressure exceeds pressure of the environments and can raise significantly when a part operates in space. Contrary to the cylinder case wet tantalum capacitors that have external sealing by welding and internal sealing provided by the Teflon bushing and crimping of the case, no reliable internal sealing exists in the button case capacitors. Single seal design capacitors are used for high capacitance value wet tantalum capacitors manufactured per DLA L&M drawings #04003, 04005, and 10011, and require additional analysis to assure their reliable application in space systems. In this work, leakage currents and case deformation of button case capacitors were measured during different environmental test conditions. Recommendations for derating, screening and qualification testing are given. This work is a continuation of a series of NEPP reports related to quality and reliability of wet tantalum capacitors.

  9. Understanding Values in a Large Health Care Organization through Work-Life Narratives of High-Performing Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orit Karnieli-Miller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective— To understand high-performing frontline employees’ values as reflected in their narratives of day-to-day interactions in a large health care organization. Methods— A total of 150 employees representing various roles within the organization were interviewed and asked to share work-life narratives (WLNs about value-affirming situations (i.e. situations in which they believed their actions to be fully aligned with their values and value-challenging situations (i.e. when their actions or the actions of others were not consistent with their values, using methods based on appreciative inquiry. Results— The analysis revealed 10 broad values. Most of the value-affirming WLNs were about the story-teller and team providing care for the patient/family. Half of the value-challenging WLNs were about the story-teller or a patient and barriers created by the organization, supervisor, or physician. Almost half of these focused on “treating others with disrespect/respect”. Only 15% of the value-challenging WLNs contained a resolution reached by the participants, often leaving them describing unresolved and frequently negative feelings. Conclusions— Appreciative inquiry and thematic analysis methods were found to be an effective tool for understanding the important and sometimes competing role personal and institutional values play in day-to-day work. There is remarkable potential in using WLNs as a way to surface and reinforce shared values and, perhaps more importantly, respectfully to identify and discuss conflicting personal and professional values.

  10. Teaching Science or Cultivating Values? Conservation NGOs and Environmental Education in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    A key ongoing debate in environmental education practice and its research relates to the content and goals of environmental education programmes. Specifically, there is a long history of debate between advocates of educational perspectives that emphasise the teaching of science concepts and those that seek to more actively link environmental and…

  11. Prediction of breeding values and selection responses with genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, H.A.; Bijma, P.; Hill, W.G.

    2007-01-01

    There is empirical evidence that genotypes differ not only in mean, but also in environmental variance of the traits they affect. Genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance may indicate genetic differences in environmental sensitivity. The aim of this study was to develop a general framework

  12. Evaluation of environmental radioxenon isotopical signals from a singular large source emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saey, P. R. J.; Bowyer, T. W.; Aldener, M.; Becker, A.; Cooper, M. W.; Elmgren, K.; Faanhof, A.; Hayes, J. C.; Hosticka, B.; Lidey, L. S.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) the atmospheric background of environmental radioxenon is been studied near areas that could be affected by man-made sources. It was recently shown that radiopharmaceutical facilities (RPF) make a major contribution to the general background of 133Xe and other xenon isotopes both in the northern and southern hemisphere. The daily IMS noble gas measurements around the globe are influenced from such anthropogenic sources that could mask radioxenon signals from a nuclear explosion. To distinguish a nuclear explosion signal from releases from civil nuclear facilities, not only the activity concentration but also the ratio of different radioxenon isotopes (131mXe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 135Xe) plays a crucial role, since the ratios can be used to discriminate source types. Theoretical release and ratio studies were recently published, but no measurements close to radiopharmaceutical facilities have ever been performed. The world's fourth largest radiopharmaceutical facility, NTP Radioisotopes Ltd, is located in Pelindaba, South Africa. Other than a small nuclear power plant, located 1300 km southwest, near Cape Town and a small research reactor in the DR of Congo, located 2700 km northwest, this is the only facility that is known to emit any radioxenon on the African continent south of the Equator. This source is likely very dominant with respect to xenon emission. This makes it a point source, which is a unique situation, as all other worldwide large radiopharmaceutical facilities are situated in regions surrounded by many other nuclear facilities. Between 10 November and 22 December 2008, radioxenon was measured continuously with a radioactive xenon measurement system, at the North-West University, Mafikeng, South Africa, which is situated 250 km northwest of Pelindaba. Fifty-six 12-hour samples were measured with a beta-gamma coincidence detector, of which 55 contained 133Xe with

  13. Renal function largely influences Galectin-3 prognostic value in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Elisabet; Lupón, Josep; de Antonio, Marta; Galán, Amparo; Domingo, Mar; Urrutia, Agustín; Troya, Maribel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2014-11-15

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has been associated with cardiac remodeling and heart failure (HF) prognosis. Renal function is also a well known HF prognostic indicator. The link between renal insufficiency, HF, and Gal-3 is not completely elucidated. We explored the association between Gal-3 and renal function in a cohort of 876 consecutive ambulatory patients with HF (mean age: 68 years; mean left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF]: 36%), 52.2% had HF etiology of ischemic heart disease. Circulating Gal-3 was highly correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), calculated with either the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation (r = -0.64) or the CKD-EPI-cystatin-C equation (r = -0.59) and with Cystatin-C levels (r = 0.70), after adjusting for age, sex, New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, LVEF, and HF etiology (all prenal function in outpatients with HF. The value of Gal-3 for HF prognosis declined after adjusting for renal function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Split-and-Combine Singular Value Decomposition for Large-Scale Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jengnan Tzeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The singular value decomposition (SVD is a fundamental matrix decomposition in linear algebra. It is widely applied in many modern techniques, for example, high- dimensional data visualization, dimension reduction, data mining, latent semantic analysis, and so forth. Although the SVD plays an essential role in these fields, its apparent weakness is the order three computational cost. This order three computational cost makes many modern applications infeasible, especially when the scale of the data is huge and growing. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a fast SVD method in modern era. If the rank of matrix is much smaller than the matrix size, there are already some fast SVD approaches. In this paper, we focus on this case but with the additional condition that the data is considerably huge to be stored as a matrix form. We will demonstrate that this fast SVD result is sufficiently accurate, and most importantly it can be derived immediately. Using this fast method, many infeasible modern techniques based on the SVD will become viable.

  15. Evaluation of value-based insurance design with a large retail employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoona A; Loucks, Aimee; Yokoyama, Glenn; Lightwood, James; Rascate, Karen; Serxner, Seth A

    2011-10-01

    To measure adherence and assess medical utilization among employees enrolled in a disease management (DM) program offering copayment waivers (value-based insurance design [VBID]). Retrospective matched case control study. Cases were defined as those enrolled in DM, of whom 800 received health education mailings (HEMs) and 476 received telephonic nurse counseling (NC). Controls were eligible for the DM program but did not enroll. Cases and controls were matched 1:1 based on propensity score (n = 2552). Adherence, defined by proportion of days covered, was calculated for 4 diseases using incurred drug claims 1 year before and after the DM program was implemented. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression compared changes in adherence. Costs and utilization were compared at 1 year and 1.5 years after versus 1 year before implementation. Members receiving NC had improved adherence for antihypertensives, diabetes medications, and statins (β = 0.050, P = .025; β = 0.108, P < .001; β = 0.058, P = .017). Members receiving HEMs had improved adherence only for diabetes medications (β = 0.052, P = .019). Total healthcare costs for NC members increased by $44 ± $467 versus $1861 ± $401 per member per year (PMPY) for controls (P = .003) at 1.5 years post-implementation. Total healthcare costs for HEM members significantly increased ($1261 ± $199 vs $182 ± $181 PMPY for controls; P < .001) at 1.5 years. VBID may be effective in improving medication adherence and reducing total healthcare costs when active counseling is provided to high utilizers of care.

  16. Environmental Impact Assessment and Environmental Audit in Large-Scale Public Infrastructure Construction: The Case of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Guizhen; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yonglong

    2009-09-01

    Large-scale public infrastructure projects have featured in China’s modernization course since the early 1980s. During the early stages of China’s rapid economic development, public attention focused on the economic and social impact of high-profile construction projects. In recent years, however, we have seen a shift in public concern toward the environmental and ecological effects of such projects, and today governments are required to provide valid environmental impact assessments prior to allowing large-scale construction. The official requirement for the monitoring of environmental conditions has led to an increased number of debates in recent years regarding the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and Governmental Environmental Audits (GEAs) as environmental safeguards in instances of large-scale construction. Although EIA and GEA are conducted by different institutions and have different goals and enforcement potential, these two practices can be closely related in terms of methodology. This article cites the construction of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway as an instance in which EIA and GEA offer complementary approaches to environmental impact management. This study concludes that the GEA approach can serve as an effective follow-up to the EIA and establishes that the EIA lays a base for conducting future GEAs. The relationship that emerges through a study of the Railway’s construction calls for more deliberate institutional arrangements and cooperation if the two practices are to be used in concert to optimal effect.

  17. Parallel Motion Simulation of Large-Scale Real-Time Crowd in a Hierarchical Environmental Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel real-time crowd simulation method based on a hierarchical environmental model. A dynamical model of the complex environment should be constructed to simulate the state transition and propagation of individual motions. By modeling of a virtual environment where virtual crowds reside, we employ different parallel methods on a topological layer, a path layer and a perceptual layer. We propose a parallel motion path matching method based on the path layer and a parallel crowd simulation method based on the perceptual layer. The large-scale real-time crowd simulation becomes possible with these methods. Numerical experiments are carried out to demonstrate the methods and results.

  18. An environmental bacterial taxon with a large and distinct metabolic repertoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Micheal C; Mori, Tetsushi; Rückert, Christian; Uria, Agustinus R; Helf, Maximilian J; Takada, Kentaro; Gernert, Christine; Steffens, Ursula A E; Heycke, Nina; Schmitt, Susanne; Rinke, Christian; Helfrich, Eric J N; Brachmann, Alexander O; Gurgui, Cristian; Wakimoto, Toshiyuki; Kracht, Matthias; Crüsemann, Max; Hentschel, Ute; Abe, Ikuro; Matsunaga, Shigeki; Kalinowski, Jörn; Takeyama, Haruko; Piel, Jörn

    2014-02-06

    Cultivated bacteria such as actinomycetes are a highly useful source of biomedically important natural products. However, such 'talented' producers represent only a minute fraction of the entire, mostly uncultivated, prokaryotic diversity. The uncultured majority is generally perceived as a large, untapped resource of new drug candidates, but so far it is unknown whether taxa containing talented bacteria indeed exist. Here we report the single-cell- and metagenomics-based discovery of such producers. Two phylotypes of the candidate genus 'Entotheonella' with genomes of greater than 9 megabases and multiple, distinct biosynthetic gene clusters co-inhabit the chemically and microbially rich marine sponge Theonella swinhoei. Almost all bioactive polyketides and peptides known from this animal were attributed to a single phylotype. 'Entotheonella' spp. are widely distributed in sponges and belong to an environmental taxon proposed here as candidate phylum 'Tectomicrobia'. The pronounced bioactivities and chemical uniqueness of 'Entotheonella' compounds provide significant opportunities for ecological studies and drug discovery.

  19. The large-scale environmental impact experiment DISCOL—reflection and foresight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Hjalmar; Schriever, Gerd; Ahnert, Ahmed; Bluhm, Hartmut; Borowski, Christian; Vopel, Kay

    It is now accepted that environmental impact studies should accompany society's growing interest in exploiting deep-sea resources. A large-scale experiment, DISCOL ( Disturbance and re colonisation experiment in a manganese nodule area of the deep South Pacific) was conducted to evaluate potential impacts from mining on the deep-sea bed. DISCOL was the first of a series of projects aimed at better understanding impacts of industrial-scale mining of polymetallic nodules upon the seafloor and its biological community. A schedule of biological work, including a disturbance scheme and sampling patterns, for another 12-year period is described that builds on the DISCOL results, but is strictly valid only for this area. However, future experiments may use estimates from the DISCOL data as a first approximation in their planning phase, but will need to conduct site-specific sampling to establish a baseline.

  20. The Value of Conceptual Models in Coping with Complexity and Interdisciplinarity in Environmental Sciences Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Karen P. J.; van Koppen, C. S. A.; Leemans, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Conceptual models are useful for facing the challenges of environmental sciences curriculum and course developers and students. These challenges are inherent to the interdisciplinary and problem-oriented character of environmental sciences curricula. In this article, we review the merits of conceptual models in facing these challenges. These…

  1. Valuing Quiet: An Economic Assessment of U.S. Environmental Noise as a Cardiovascular Health Hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinburn, Tracy K; Hammer, Monica S; Neitzel, Richard L

    2015-09-01

    Environmental noise pollution increases the risk for hearing loss, stress, sleep disruption, annoyance, and cardiovascular disease and has other adverse health impacts. Recent (2013) estimates suggest that more than 100 million Americans are exposed to unhealthy levels of noise. Given the pervasive nature and significant health effects of environmental noise pollution, the corresponding economic impacts may be substantial. This 2014 economic assessment developed a new approach to estimate the impact of environmental noise on the prevalence and cost of key components of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in the U.S. By placing environmental noise in context with comparable environmental pollutants, this approach can inform public health law, planning, and policy. The effects of hypothetical national-scale changes in environmental noise levels on the prevalence and corresponding costs of hypertension and coronary heart disease were estimated, with the caveat that the national-level U.S. noise data our exposure estimates were derived from are >30 years old. The analyses suggested that a 5-dB noise reduction scenario would reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 1.4% and coronary heart disease by 1.8%. The annual economic benefit was estimated at $3.9 billion. These findings suggest significant economic impacts from environmental noise-related cardiovascular disease. Given these initial findings, noise may deserve increased priority and research as an environmental health hazard. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of digital soil mapping approaches with large sets of environmental covariates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nussbaum

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial assessment of soil functions requires maps of basic soil properties. Unfortunately, these are either missing for many regions or are not available at the desired spatial resolution or down to the required soil depth. The field-based generation of large soil datasets and conventional soil maps remains costly. Meanwhile, legacy soil data and comprehensive sets of spatial environmental data are available for many regions. Digital soil mapping (DSM approaches relating soil data (responses to environmental data (covariates face the challenge of building statistical models from large sets of covariates originating, for example, from airborne imaging spectroscopy or multi-scale terrain analysis. We evaluated six approaches for DSM in three study regions in Switzerland (Berne, Greifensee, ZH forest by mapping the effective soil depth available to plants (SD, pH, soil organic matter (SOM, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC, clay, silt, gravel content and fine fraction bulk density for four soil depths (totalling 48 responses. Models were built from 300–500 environmental covariates by selecting linear models through (1 grouped lasso and (2 an ad hoc stepwise procedure for robust external-drift kriging (georob. For (3 geoadditive models we selected penalized smoothing spline terms by component-wise gradient boosting (geoGAM. We further used two tree-based methods: (4 boosted regression trees (BRTs and (5 random forest (RF. Lastly, we computed (6 weighted model averages (MAs from the predictions obtained from methods 1–5. Lasso, georob and geoGAM successfully selected strongly reduced sets of covariates (subsets of 3–6 % of all covariates. Differences in predictive performance, tested on independent validation data, were mostly small and did not reveal a single best method for 48 responses. Nevertheless, RF was often the best among methods 1–5 (28 of 48 responses, but was outcompeted by MA for 14 of these 28

  3. Evaluation of digital soil mapping approaches with large sets of environmental covariates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Madlene; Spiess, Kay; Baltensweiler, Andri; Grob, Urs; Keller, Armin; Greiner, Lucie; Schaepman, Michael E.; Papritz, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    The spatial assessment of soil functions requires maps of basic soil properties. Unfortunately, these are either missing for many regions or are not available at the desired spatial resolution or down to the required soil depth. The field-based generation of large soil datasets and conventional soil maps remains costly. Meanwhile, legacy soil data and comprehensive sets of spatial environmental data are available for many regions. Digital soil mapping (DSM) approaches relating soil data (responses) to environmental data (covariates) face the challenge of building statistical models from large sets of covariates originating, for example, from airborne imaging spectroscopy or multi-scale terrain analysis. We evaluated six approaches for DSM in three study regions in Switzerland (Berne, Greifensee, ZH forest) by mapping the effective soil depth available to plants (SD), pH, soil organic matter (SOM), effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC), clay, silt, gravel content and fine fraction bulk density for four soil depths (totalling 48 responses). Models were built from 300-500 environmental covariates by selecting linear models through (1) grouped lasso and (2) an ad hoc stepwise procedure for robust external-drift kriging (georob). For (3) geoadditive models we selected penalized smoothing spline terms by component-wise gradient boosting (geoGAM). We further used two tree-based methods: (4) boosted regression trees (BRTs) and (5) random forest (RF). Lastly, we computed (6) weighted model averages (MAs) from the predictions obtained from methods 1-5. Lasso, georob and geoGAM successfully selected strongly reduced sets of covariates (subsets of 3-6 % of all covariates). Differences in predictive performance, tested on independent validation data, were mostly small and did not reveal a single best method for 48 responses. Nevertheless, RF was often the best among methods 1-5 (28 of 48 responses), but was outcompeted by MA for 14 of these 28 responses. RF tended to over

  4. Using value stream mapping technique through the lean production transformation process: An implementation in a large-scaled tractor company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Rıza Adalı

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today’s world, manufacturing industries have to continue their development and continuity in more competitive environment via decreasing their costs. As a first step in the lean production process transformation is to analyze the value added activities and non-value adding activities. This study aims at applying the concepts of Value Stream Mapping (VSM in a large-scaled tractor company in Sakarya. Waste and process time are identified by mapping the current state in the production line of platform. The future state was suggested with improvements for elimination of waste and reduction of lead time, which went from 13,08 to 4,35 days. Analysis are made using current and future states to support the suggested improvements and cycle time of the production line of platform is improved 8%. Results showed that VSM is a good alternative in the decision-making for change in production process.

  5. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  6. Enhancing Sustainable Innovation by Design: an Approach to the Co-creation of Economic, Social and Environmental Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Rocchi

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis introduces a new, flexible and easy-to-use methodological design approach to envisioning product-service systems able to create economic value for business, as well as social and environmental benefits for society. Such an approach has been developed to support business

  7. Alternatives to minimize the environmental impact of large swine production units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, J R

    1999-02-01

    Large swine production facilities have become controversial additions to the agricultural landscape as their numbers and sizes have increased. In addition to being larger enterprises, these units have involved greater specialization, the influx of outside capital, and the employment of labor without extensive investment in the enterprise. Major complaints have included water pollution and odors. Water pollution complaints have been related to surface and groundwater resources. Accidental spills, structural failure, and purposeful discharges have been noted. Odor problems are most often related to manure management techniques. Large anaerobic lagoons and irrigation of lagoon effluent have the potential to emit odors that travel long distances. Fortunately, technology and management alternatives exist to achieve higher levels of environmental acceptability. More effective water pollution and odor control alternatives generally increase construction and operating costs. Producers, regulatory officials, and the local public have an opportunity to interact to achieve progress in establishing acceptable compromises. This article identifies the range of existing and evolving alternative strategies and provides some assistance to producers and neighbors in achieving the necessary equilibrium.

  8. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion - PEST++, a Parameter ESTimation code optimized for large environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, David E.; Doherty, John E.; Hunt, Randall J.; Muffels, Christopher T.; Tonkin, Matthew J.; Schreuder, Willem A.

    2012-01-01

    An object-oriented parameter estimation code was developed to incorporate benefits of object-oriented programming techniques for solving large parameter estimation modeling problems. The code is written in C++ and is a formulation and expansion of the algorithms included in PEST, a widely used parameter estimation code written in Fortran. The new code is called PEST++ and is designed to lower the barriers of entry for users and developers while providing efficient algorithms that can accommodate large, highly parameterized problems. This effort has focused on (1) implementing the most popular features of PEST in a fashion that is easy for novice or experienced modelers to use and (2) creating a software design that is easy to extend; that is, this effort provides a documented object-oriented framework designed from the ground up to be modular and extensible. In addition, all PEST++ source code and its associated libraries, as well as the general run manager source code, have been integrated in the Microsoft Visual Studio® 2010 integrated development environment. The PEST++ code is designed to provide a foundation for an open-source development environment capable of producing robust and efficient parameter estimation tools for the environmental modeling community into the future.

  9. Genetic and Environmental Parent-Child Transmission of Value Orientations: An Extended Twin Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite cross-cultural universality of core human values, individuals differ substantially in value priorities, whereas family members show similar priorities to some degree. The latter has often been attributed to intrafamilial socialization. The analysis of self-ratings on eight core values from 399 twin pairs (ages 7-11) and their biological…

  10. Application of large-scale computing infrastructure for diverse environmental research applications using GC3Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffioletti, Sergio; Dawes, Nicholas; Bavay, Mathias; Sarni, Sofiane; Lehning, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The Swiss Experiment platform (SwissEx: http://www.swiss-experiment.ch) provides a distributed storage and processing infrastructure for environmental research experiments. The aim of the second phase project (the Open Support Platform for Environmental Research, OSPER, 2012-2015) is to develop the existing infrastructure to provide scientists with an improved workflow. This improved workflow will include pre-defined, documented and connected processing routines. A large-scale computing and data facility is required to provide reliable and scalable access to data for analysis, and it is desirable that such an infrastructure should be free of traditional data handling methods. Such an infrastructure has been developed using the cloud-based part of the Swiss national infrastructure SMSCG (http://www.smscg.ch) and Academic Cloud. The infrastructure under construction supports two main usage models: 1) Ad-hoc data analysis scripts: These scripts are simple processing scripts, written by the environmental researchers themselves, which can be applied to large data sets via the high power infrastructure. Examples of this type of script are spatial statistical analysis scripts (R-based scripts), mostly computed on raw meteorological and/or soil moisture data. These provide processed output in the form of a grid, a plot, or a kml. 2) Complex models: A more intense data analysis pipeline centered (initially) around the physical process model, Alpine3D, and the MeteoIO plugin; depending on the data set, this may require a tightly coupled infrastructure. SMSCG already supports Alpine3D executions as both regular grid jobs and as virtual software appliances. A dedicated appliance with the Alpine3D specific libraries has been created and made available through the SMSCG infrastructure. The analysis pipelines are activated and supervised by simple control scripts that, depending on the data fetched from the meteorological stations, launch new instances of the Alpine3D appliance

  11. Value of environmental factors and willingness to pay for green apartments in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Zalejska-Jonsson, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the importance of environmental factors in the residential property market and investigates avowed willingness to pay for green apartments. The paper presents results from a quasi-experimental study and survey responses from 733 occupants of green and conventional buildings. The analysis indicates that people are prepared to pay approximately five per cent more for very low-energy buildings; however, they are not equally willing to pay for a building with an environmental ...

  12. Analysis on the Critical Rainfall Value For Predicting Large Scale Landslides Caused by Heavy Rainfall In Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chiang, Jie-Lun; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Chen, Yie-Ruey

    2017-04-01

    Analysis on the Critical Rainfall Value For Predicting Large Scale Landslides Caused by Heavy Rainfall In Taiwan. Kuang-Jung Tsai 1, Jie-Lun Chiang 2,Ming-Hsi Lee 2, Yie-Ruey Chen 1, 1Department of Land Management and Development, Chang Jung Christian Universityt, Tainan, Taiwan. 2Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, Pingtung, Taiwan. ABSTRACT The accumulated rainfall amount was recorded more than 2,900mm that were brought by Morakot typhoon in August, 2009 within continuous 3 days. Very serious landslides, and sediment related disasters were induced by this heavy rainfall event. The satellite image analysis project conducted by Soil and Water Conservation Bureau after Morakot event indicated that more than 10,904 sites of landslide with total sliding area of 18,113ha were found by this project. At the same time, all severe sediment related disaster areas are also characterized based on their disaster type, scale, topography, major bedrock formations and geologic structures during the period of extremely heavy rainfall events occurred at the southern Taiwan. Characteristics and mechanism of large scale landslide are collected on the basis of the field investigation technology integrated with GPS/GIS/RS technique. In order to decrease the risk of large scale landslides on slope land, the strategy of slope land conservation, and critical rainfall database should be set up and executed as soon as possible. Meanwhile, study on the establishment of critical rainfall value used for predicting large scale landslides induced by heavy rainfall become an important issue which was seriously concerned by the government and all people live in Taiwan. The mechanism of large scale landslide, rainfall frequency analysis ,sediment budge estimation and river hydraulic analysis under the condition of extremely climate change during the past 10 years would be seriously concerned and recognized as a required issue by this

  13. Treatments of Missing Values in Large National Data Affect Conclusions: The Impact of Multiple Imputation on Arthroplasty Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondeck, Nathaniel T; Fu, Michael C; Skrip, Laura A; McLynn, Ryan P; Su, Edwin P; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2018-03-01

    Despite the advantages of large, national datasets, one continuing concern is missing data values. Complete case analysis, where only cases with complete data are analyzed, is commonly used rather than more statistically rigorous approaches such as multiple imputation. This study characterizes the potential selection bias introduced using complete case analysis and compares the results of common regressions using both techniques following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Patients undergoing unicompartmental knee arthroplasty were extracted from the 2005 to 2015 National Surgical Quality Improvement Program. As examples, the demographics of patients with and without missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values were compared. Missing data were then treated with both complete case analysis and multiple imputation (an approach that reproduces the variation and associations that would have been present in a full dataset) and the conclusions of common regressions for adverse outcomes were compared. A total of 6117 patients were included, of which 56.7% were missing at least one value. Younger, female, and healthier patients were more likely to have missing preoperative albumin and hematocrit values. The use of complete case analysis removed 3467 patients from the study in comparison with multiple imputation which included all 6117 patients. The 2 methods of handling missing values led to differing associations of low preoperative laboratory values with commonly studied adverse outcomes. The use of complete case analysis can introduce selection bias and may lead to different conclusions in comparison with the statistically rigorous multiple imputation approach. Joint surgeons should consider the methods of handling missing values when interpreting arthroplasty research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Large-river delta-front estuaries as natural “recorders” of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Allison, Mead A.

    2009-01-01

    Large-river delta-front estuaries (LDE) are important interfaces between continents and the oceans for material fluxes that have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. In this article, we propose that more emphasis should be placed on LDE in future global climate change research. We will use some of the most anthropogenically altered LDE systems in the world, the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River and the Chinese rivers that enter the Yellow Sea (e.g., Huanghe and Changjiang) as case-studies, to posit that these systems are both “drivers” and “recorders” of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. Specifically, the processes in the LDE can influence (“drive”) the flux of particulate and dissolved materials from the continents to the global ocean that can have profound impact on issues such as coastal eutrophication and the development of hypoxic zones. LDE also record in their rapidly accumulating subaerial and subaqueous deltaic sediment deposits environmental changes such as continental-scale trends in climate and land-use in watersheds, frequency and magnitude of cyclonic storms, and sea-level change. The processes that control the transport and transformation of carbon in the active LDE and in the deltaic sediment deposit are also essential to our understanding of carbon sequestration and exchange with the world ocean—an important objective in global change research. U.S. efforts in global change science including the vital role of deltaic systems are emphasized in the North American Carbon Plan (www.carboncyclescience.gov). PMID:19435849

  15. The value of local Italian supply chain of the large wild ungulates meat: the case of the red deer meat in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Marescotti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently in Italy, in contrast to other EU countries, a supply chain for hunted game meat does not exist. Nevertheless there are the conditions for its development (Gaviglio et al., 2017; in fact game meat dishes’ has always been part of Alpine area’s culinary tradition and furthermore, management measures aimed at reducing the overpopulation of large wild ungulates leaded to an increase in the availability of their meat. In this context, the present research aims at analyze the dynamics of the value in the local non-existent supply chain of the large wild game meat by the application on the case study of the Valle Ossola (Piedmont, Italy. Due to its representativeness among Italian wild ungulates, the research focus on red deer meat. The data has been collected in 2016 through in-depth interviews and focus groups with the stakeholders involved in the supply chain: hunters, transformers and restaurateurs. Results show that for the hunter the red deer reach a hypothetical price of 6,00 €/kg. From a meat processing targeted at the maximum enhancement of the carcass, without any waste, the transformers can reach a hypothetical price of 9,80 €/kg. Whereas for the restaurateur, the red deer meat can reach a final price range between 22,88 and 51,47 €/kg (hypothesizing maximum sales of high value-added course. Through the maximization of the meat’s quality, hunter and transformers profits can increase significantly, with a redistribution of the added value throughout the supply chain. A limitation of this study is that the calculated values does not take into consideration the stakeholders’ production costs (that increasing along the supply chain. Considering our findings, the development of sustainable supply chain of the local game meat could be economically interesting. Thus, wild ungulates could represent an economic resource for the population rather than an environmental and social cost for the mountain areas.

  16. Reading exposure: a (largely) environmental risk factor with environmentally-mediated effects on reading performance in the primary school years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlaar, Nicole; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2007-12-01

    It is widely believed that there are reciprocal links between reading achievement and reading exposure: children who read more do better at reading, and reading achievement itself promotes reading. We tested the hypotheses that these links arise because children's genetically influenced reading performance is correlated with their leisure-time reading exposure, and reading exposure, in turn, may have an environmentally mediated effect on later reading performance. The sample consisted of 3039 twin pairs from the UK Twins Early Development Study (TEDS). Reading exposure was assessed at age 10 using the Author Recognition Test (ART). Reading performance was assessed at ages 7 and 12 using the Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE). ART scores were moderately correlated with TOWRE scores at ages 7 and 12. Shared environmental variance in 7-year TOWRE performance accounted for most of the contribution made by 7-year TOWRE scores to the prediction of 10-year ART scores. Genetic influences on ART scores were modest, but this genetic variance almost completely reflected genetic variance in 7-year TOWRE scores. After controlling for genetic and environmental influences that overlapped between 7-year TOWRE and 10-year ART scores, there was evidence for a separate link between 10-year ART and 12-year TOWRE that was due to shared environmental influences. Genetic influences on early reading achievement contribute to later propensities to seek out reading experiences that might, in turn, reciprocally influence reading achievement through shared environmental paths.

  17. The value of enduring environmental surrogates as predictors of estuarine benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildsmith, Michelle D.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Robinson, Samuel F.

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the extent to which spatial differences in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of a temperate microtidal estuary were 'explained' by the enduring (biophysical) vs non-enduring (water and sediment quality) environmental attributes of a diverse range of habitats, and thus the potential of those environmental surrogates to support faunal prediction. Species composition differed significantly among habitats in each season, with the greatest differences occurring in winter and spring and the least in summer. The pattern of habitat differences, as defined by their enduring environmental characteristics, was significantly and well matched with that in the fauna in each season. In contrast, significant matches between the non-enduring environmental and faunal data were only detected in winter and/or spring, and to a lesser extent. Field validation of the faunal prediction capacity of the biophysical surrogate framework at various 'test' sites throughout the estuary showed good agreement between the actual vs predicted key species. These findings demonstrate that enduring environmental criteria, which can be readily measured from mapped data, provide a better and more cost-effective surrogate for explaining spatial differences in the invertebrate fauna of this system than non-enduring criteria, and are thus a promising basis for faunal prediction. The approaches developed in this study are also readily adapted to any estuary worldwide.

  18. Recreation, values and stewardship: Rethinking why people engage in environmental behaviors in parks and protected areas: Chapter 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; Sharp, Ryan; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Vagias, Wade M.; Kwenye, Jane; Depper, Gina; Freimund, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Successfully promoting and encouraging the adoption of environmental stewardship behavior is an important responsibility for public land management agencies. Although people increasingly report high levels of concern about environmental issues, widespread patterns of stewardship behavior have not followed suit (Moore 2002). One concept that can be applied in social science research to explain behavior change is that of values. More specifically, held and assigned values lie at the heart of understanding why people around the world continue to live in unsustainable ways that impact parks and protected areas. A held value is an individual psychological orientation defined by Rokeach as “an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or endstate of existence is personally and socially preferable” (1973, 550). Held values are at the core of human cognition, and as such, influence attitudes and behavior. Assigned values on the other hand, according to Brown (1984), are the perceived qualities of an environment that are based on and deduced from held values. In other words, assigned values are considered the material and nonmaterial benefits that people believe they obtain from ecosystems. Held and assigned values predict stewardship behaviors (Figure 1). During the 2013 George Wright Society Conference on Parks, Protected Areas, and Cultural Sites, we organized a session to improve our understanding of why individuals and groups choose to engage in stewardship behaviors that benefit the environment. We used held and assigned values as vehicles to explore what people cared about in diverse landscapes, review select case studies from across the globe, and question how best to incorporate visitor perspectives into protected area management decisions and policymaking. In addition to sharing project results, we also discussed the importance of accounting for multiple and often competing value perspectives, potential ways to integrate disciplinary perspectives on

  19. Testing a discrete choice experiment including duration to value health states for large descriptive systems: addressing design and sampling issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansback, Nick; Hole, Arne Risa; Mulhern, Brendan; Tsuchiya, Aki

    2014-08-01

    There is interest in the use of discrete choice experiments that include a duration attribute (DCETTO) to generate health utility values, but questions remain on its feasibility in large health state descriptive systems. This study examines the stability of DCETTO to estimate health utility values from the five-level EQ-5D, an instrument with depicts 3125 different health states. Between January and March 2011, we administered 120 DCETTO tasks based on the five-level EQ-5D to a total of 1799 respondents in the UK (each completed 15 DCETTO tasks on-line). We compared models across different sample sizes and different total numbers of observations. We found the DCETTO coefficients were generally consistent, with high agreement between individual ordinal preferences and aggregate cardinal values. Keeping the DCE design and the total number of observations fixed, subsamples consisting of 10 tasks per respondent with an intermediate sized sample, and 15 tasks with a smaller sample provide similar results in comparison to the whole sample model. In conclusion, we find that the DCETTO is a feasible method for developing values for larger descriptive systems such as EQ-5D-5L, and find evidence supporting important design features for future valuation studies that use the DCETTO. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Corporate Characteristics, Political Embeddedness and Environmental Pollution by Large U.S. Corporations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prechel, Harland; Zheng, Lu

    2012-01-01

    Organizational and environmental sociology contain surprisingly few studies of the corporation as one of the sources of environmental pollution. To fill this gap, we focus on the parent company as the unit of analysis and elaborate environmental theories that focus on the organizational and political-legal causes of pollution. Using a compiled…

  1. REFERENCE VALUES OF AORTIC PULSE WAVE VELOCITY IN A LARGE HEALTHY POPULATION AGED BETWEEN 3 AND18 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsebet Valeria Hidvegi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao is an accepted marker in stratifying individual cardiovascular risk in adults. There is an increasing volume of evidence concerning impaired vascular function in different diseases in paediatric populations, but, unfortunately, only a few studies are available on the measurement of normal PWVao values in children. The aim of our study was to determine the reference values of PWVao in a large healthy population using a newly developed technique. Methods: Three thousand, three hundred and seventyfour healthy individuals (1802 boys aged 3–18 years were examined by an invasively validated, occlusive, oscillometric device. Results: The mean PWVao values increased from 5.5_0.3 to 6.5_0.3 m/s (P<0.05 in boys and from 5.6_0.3 to 6.4_0.3 m/s (P<0.05 in girls. The increase, however, was not constant, and the values exhibited a flat period between the ages of 3 and 8 years in both sexes. The first pronounced increase occurred at the age of 12.1 years in boys and 10.4 years in girls. Moreover, between the ages of 3 and 8 years, the brachial SBP and mean blood pressures increased continuously and gradually, whereas the PWVao remained unchanged. By contrast, beyond the age of 9 years, blood pressure and aortic stiffness trends basically moved together. Conclusion: Our study provides the largest database to date concerning arterial stiffness in healthy children and adolescents between the ages of 3 and 18 years, and the technology adopted proved easy to use in large paediatric populations, even at a very young age.  

  2. Environmental networks for large-scale monitoring of Earth and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurodimou, Olga; Kolios, Stavros; Konstantaras, Antonios; Georgoulas, George; Stylios, Chrysostomos

    2013-04-01

    Installation and operation of instrument/sensor networks are proven fundamental in the monitoring of the physical environment from local to global scale. The advances in electronics, wireless communications and informatics has led to the development of a huge number of networks at different spatial scales that measure, collect and store a wide range of environmental parameters. These networks have been gradually evolved into integrated information systems that provide real time monitoring, forecasts and different products from the initial collected datasets. Instrument/sensor networks have nowadays become important solutions for environmental monitoring, comprising a basic component of fully automated systems developing worldwide that contribute in the efforts for a sustainable Earth's environment (e.g. Hart et al., 2006, Othman et al., 2012). They are also used as a source of data for models parameterization and as verification tools for accuracy assessment techniques of the satellite imagery. Environmental networks can be incorporated into decision support systems (e.g Rizzi et al., 2012) providing informational background along with data from satellites for decision making, manage problems, suggest solutions and best practices for a sustainable management of the environment. This is a comparative study aiming to examine and highlight the significant role of existing instrument/sensor networks for large-scale monitoring of environmental issues, especially atmospheric and marine environment as well as weather and climate. We provide characteristic examples of integrated systems based on large scale instrument/sensor networks along with other sources of data (like satellite datasets) as informational background to measure, identify, monitor, analyze and forecast a vast series of atmospheric parameters (like CO2, O3, particle matter and solar irradiance), weather, climate and their impacts (e.g., cloud systems, lightnings, rainfall, air and surface temperature

  3. Environmental Attitudes Start at Home: Parents and Their Role in the Development of Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Investigates how much time parents devote to environmental activities and to what extent they are involved with their children in participation in such events. Focuses on two different settings, home and school. Reports cultural and educational differences between Mexican and English parents. (Contains 24 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Economic valuation of the impact of a large surgical charity using the value of lost welfare approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corlew, Daniel Scott; Alkire, Blake C; Poenaru, Dan; Meara, John G; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of the economic burden of surgical disease is integral to determining allocation of resources for health globally. We estimate the economic gain realised over an 11-year period resulting from a vertical surgical programme addressing cleft lip (CL) and cleft palate (CP). The database from a large non-governmental organisation (Smile Train) over an 11-year period was analysed. Incidence-based disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) averted through the programme were calculated, discounted 3%, using disability weights from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study and an effectiveness factor for each surgical intervention. The effectiveness factor allowed for the lack of 100% resolution of the disability from the operation. We used the value of lost welfare approach, based on the concept of the value of a statistical life (VSL), to assess the economic gain associated with each operation. Using income elasticities (IEs) tailored to the income level of each country, a country-specific VSL was calculated and the VSL-year (VSLY) was determined. The VSLY is the economic value of a DALY, and the DALYs averted were converted to economic gain per patient and aggregated to give a total value and an average per patient. Sensitivity analyses were performed based on the variations of IE applied for each country. Each CL operation averted 2.2 DALYs on average and each CP operation 3.3. Total averted DALYs were 1 325 678 (CP 686 577 and CL 639 102). The economic benefit from the programme was between US$7.9 and US$20.7 billion. Per patient, the average benefit was between US$16 133 and US$42 351. Expense per DALY averted was estimated to be $149. Addressing basic surgical needs in developing countries provides a massive economic boost through improved health. Expansion of surgical capacity in the developing world is of significant economic and health value and should be a priority in global health efforts.

  5. Environmental impacts of a large-scale incinerator with mixed MSW of high water content from a LCA perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Ziyang; Bilitewski, Bernd; Zhu, Nanwen; Chai, Xiaoli; Li, Bing; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale incinerators are applied widely as a result of the heavy burden of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated, while strong opposition is arising from the public living nearby. A large-scale working incineration plant of 1500 ton/day was chosen for evaluation using life cycle assessment. It was found that the corresponding human toxicity impacts via soil (HTs), human toxicity impacts via water (HTw) and human toxicity impacts via air (HTa) categories are 0.213, 2.171, and 0.012 personal equivalents (PE), and global warming (GW100) and nutrient enrichment (NE) impacts are 0.002 and 0.001 PE per ton of waste burned for this plant. Heavy metals in flue gas, such as Hg and Pb, are the two dominant contributors to the toxicity impact categories, and energy recovery could reduce the GW100 and NE greatly. The corresponding HTs, HTw and HTa decrease to 0.087, 0.911 and 0.008 PE, and GW100 turns into savings of -0.007 PE due to the increase of the heating value from 3935 to 5811 kJ/kg, if a trommel screener of 40 mm mesh size is used to pre-separate MSW. MSW sorting and the reduction of water content by physical pressure might be two promising pre-treatment methods to improve the combustion performance, and the application of stricter standards for leachate discharge and the flue gas purification process are two critical factors for improvement of the environmental profile identified in this work. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Estimating the Economic Value of Environmental Amenities of Isfahan Sofeh Highland Park (The Individual Revealed and Expressed Travel Cost Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amirnejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural resources and the environment, such as mountains are considered public goods. The main features of these public goods are lack of market and price for exchange. This issue leads to a worthless impression about these goods, lack of effort for their conservation and preventing resource degradation. One of the major benefits of environmental resources, such as mountains, is their function as environmental amenities (for leisure and recreation. The estimation of their recreational worth is important as a part of the total value of such resources. In this context, the aim of this study is to estimate the economic value of environmental amenities of Sofeh Highland Park in Isfahan by individual travel cost method. Materials and Methods: Travel cost method is used for the evaluation of public goods or environmental non-market commodities. It is applied to a wide range of areas, including tourism values of lakes and wetlands, coral reefs, biodiversity and national parks, recreational fishing and mountaineering. The travel cost approach does not ask willingness to pay directly, but imputes it from the observed behavior of other visitors through an estimated demand function, which relates the number of observed trips to the incurred travel cost. Underpinning the travel cost method is for the estimation of the recreational demand function, from which consumer surplus estimates can be derived. Consumer surplus -the measure of non-market benefits to the visitors- is the difference between what the visitor would be (theoretically willing to pay to go the intended recreational location, and what they are actually required to pay. In this research, the individual travel cost method was used. For this purpose, a 290 item questionnaire with simple random sampling was filled by travelers in the area in 2013. Then the demand function of environmental amenities (tourism demand was estimated in two scenarios by using negative binomial regression

  7. Quantifying Behaviour Change in reducing environmental impact within large organisations - 3 case studies from the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew F.G. Smith

    2015-10-01

    over 50% have been achieved. In total, these programmes have saved the organisations substantial amounts of money and avoided CO2 emissions. Analysis has shown that the three universities are currently benefitting by over £320,000 / year and 1,300 tonnes of avoided CO2, as behavioural-led changes have already reduced demand by between 5% and 8%. Figure 1 shows the savings made by one university, and demonstrates a 99kW reduction in electricity demand that has been created through staff behaviour change. CONCLUSIONS Effecting behaviour change within large organisations has always been difficult owing to the large numbers of people involved, the slow speed of feedback and the difficulty in quantifying results. This work shows that well-designed IT systems are a key enabler in overcoming all of these challenges. IT has permitted and facilitated the following: Community building, awareness raising, quantification of savings, feedback on actions, competitive activity and rapid reporting. The results from these programmes have helped three universities to cut their electricity consumption by between 5% and 8%, with potential for greater future cuts. Collectively, as a result of this mechanism, the three universities are reducing their environmental impact by over 1,300 tonnes of CO2 per year. The implications for other areas of behaviour change are significant. Potentially the lessons learned in these IT-enabled environmental impact reduction initiatives can be translated into other fields (eg: other health, organisational change, etc.

  8. Environmental health attitudes and behaviors: findings from a large pregnancy cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Janssen, Sarah; Redmon, J Bruce; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Kobrosly, Roni; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-05-01

    Environmental chemicals are widely found in food and personal care products and may have adverse effects on fetal development. Our aim was to examine women's attitudes about these chemicals and ask whether they try to limit their exposure during pregnancy. A multi-center cohort of women in the first trimester of pregnancy completed questionnaires including items on attitudes and behaviors related to environmental chemicals. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine: (1) whether sociodemographic variables predict environmental health attitudes and behaviors; and (2) whether women's attitudes about environmental chemicals affect their lifestyle behaviors, particularly diet and personal care product use. Of the 894 subjects, approximately 60% strongly agreed that environmental chemicals are dangerous and 25% strongly felt they were impossible to avoid. Adjusting for covariates, educated women were more likely to believe that environmental chemicals are dangerous (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.13, 2.66), and that belief, in turn, was associated with a number of healthy behaviors including choosing organic foods, foods in safe plastics, and chemical-free personal care products, and limiting fast food intake. Younger women were more likely to believe that environmental chemicals are impossible to avoid (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.00, 1.08). Women's attitudes about environmental chemicals may impact their choices during pregnancy. Overcoming a lack of concern about environmental chemicals, particularly among certain sociodemographic groups, is important for the success of clinical or public health prevention measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellous Marc

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The Biomolecular Engineering Commission considers that the knowledge acquired in the last three years has provided significant information in reply to the points raised in its review dated 16 February 2001. The Commission has studied the potential environmental impacts associated with large-scale herbicidetolerantGMoilseed rape crops, making a distinction between direct and indirect impacts. Direct impacts stem from the intrinsic properties of herbicide-tolerant GM oilseed rape crops whereas indirect impacts result from practices associated with the farming of these crops. The Commission considers that, in the absence of the use of the herbicide in question in and outside of farmed land, there is no direct environmental risk (development of invasive crops per se associated with the presence of a herbicide-tolerance gene in oilseed rape (or related species. Nevertheless, since the interest of these tolerant crops lies in the use of the herbicide in question, indirect effects, to varying extents, have been identified and must be taken into account: the use of the herbicide in question, applied to agricultural fields containing the herbicide-tolerant crop could lead to an increase in oilseed rape volunteer populations in crop rotations; the selective pressure exerted by non-specific herbicides (to which the crops have been rendered tolerant may be very high in cases of continuous and uncontrolled use of these herbicides, and may result in the persistence of rare events such as the reproduction of fertile interspecies hybrids; the change to the range of herbicides used should be conveyed by more effective weed control and, like any change in farming practices, induce indirect effects on the agri-ecosystem, particularly in terms of changes to weeds and the associated animal life. Accordingly, the Biomolecular Engineering Commission recommends a global approach in terms of the large-scale farming of herbicide-tolerant crops that: accounts for the

  10. Positive predictive value estimates for cell-free noninvasive prenatal screening from data of a large referral genetic diagnostic laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Andrea K; Cheung, Sau Wai; Smith, Janice L; Bi, Weimin; Ward, Patricia A; Peacock, Sandra; Braxton, Alicia; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B; Breman, Amy M

    2017-12-01

    Since its debut in 2011, cell-free fetal DNA screening has undergone rapid expansion with respect to both utilization and coverage. However, conclusive data regarding the clinical validity and utility of this screening tool, both for the originally included common autosomal and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies as well as the more recently added chromosomal microdeletion syndromes, have lagged behind. Thus, there is a continued need to educate clinicians and patients about the current benefits and limitations of this screening tool to inform pre- and posttest counseling, pre/perinatal decision making, and medical risk assessment/management. The objective of this study was to determine the positive predictive value and false-positive rates for different chromosomal abnormalities identified by cell-free fetal DNA screening using a large data set of diagnostic testing results on invasive samples submitted to the laboratory for confirmatory studies. We tested 712 patient samples sent to our laboratory to confirm a cell-free fetal DNA screening result, indicating high risk for a chromosome abnormality. We compiled data from all cases in which the indication for confirmatory testing was a positive cell-free fetal DNA screen, including the common trisomies, sex chromosomal aneuploidies, microdeletion syndromes, and other large genome-wide copy number abnormalities. Testing modalities included fluorescence in situ hybridization, G-banded karyotype, and/or chromosomal microarray analysis performed on chorionic villus samples, amniotic fluid, or postnatally obtained blood samples. Positive predictive values and false-positive rates were calculated from tabulated data. The positive predictive values for trisomy 13, 18, and 21 were consistent with previous reports at 45%, 76%, and 84%, respectively. For the microdeletion syndrome regions, positive predictive values ranged from 0% for detection of Cri-du-Chat syndrome and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome to 14% for 1p36 deletion

  11. DETERMINING THE LARGE-SCALE ENVIRONMENTAL DEPENDENCE OF GAS-PHASE METALLICITY IN DWARF GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Kelly A.; Vogeley, Michael S., E-mail: kelly.a.douglass@drexel.edu [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We study how the cosmic environment affects galaxy evolution in the universe by comparing the metallicities of dwarf galaxies in voids with dwarf galaxies in more dense regions. Ratios of the fluxes of emission lines, particularly those of the forbidden [O iii] and [S ii] transitions, provide estimates of a region’s electron temperature and number density. From these two quantities and the emission line fluxes [O ii] λ 3727, [O iii] λ 4363, and [O iii] λλ 4959, 5007, we estimate the abundance of oxygen with the direct T{sub e}  method. We estimate the metallicity of 42 blue, star-forming void dwarf galaxies and 89 blue, star-forming dwarf galaxies in more dense regions using spectroscopic observations from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, as reprocessed in the MPA-JHU value-added catalog. We find very little difference between the two sets of galaxies, indicating little influence from the large-scale environment on their chemical evolution. Of particular interest are a number of extremely metal-poor dwarf galaxies that are less prevalent in voids than in the denser regions.

  12. The value of long-term environmental monitoring programs: an Ohio River case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Timothy W; Dixon, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    As a subset of environmental monitoring, fish sampling programs have been an important part of assessing the potential impacts of water withdrawals and effluent discharges on fish populations for many years. New environmental regulations often require that adverse environmental impacts to fish populations be minimized. Without long-term field data, population evaluations may incorrectly indicate adverse impacts where none exist or no impact where one is likely to occur. Several electric utility companies have funded the Ohio River Ecological Research Program, which has been in existence for over 40 years and consists of fish, habitat, and water quality studies at multiple power plant sites on the mainstem Ohio River. Sampling includes seasonal night-time electrofishing and daytime beach seining at three upstream and three downstream locations near each plant. The long-term nature of the program allows for the establishment of aquatic community indices to support evaluations of technology performance, the collaborative development of compliance metrics, and the assessment of fish population trends. Studies have concluded that the Ohio River fish community has improved in response to better water quality and that power plant fish entrainment and impingement and thermal discharges have had little or no measureable impact. Through collaboration and the use of long-term data, $6.3 million in monitoring costs have been saved during recent fish impingement studies. The ability to access a multiyear fish abundance database, with its associated data on age, growth, and fecundity, improves the quality of such evaluations and reduces the need for extensive field sampling at individual locations.

  13. Maximizing heavy oil value while minimizing environmental impact with HTL upgrading of heavy to light oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshka, E. [Ivanhoe Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described Ivanhoe Energy Inc.'s proprietary HTL upgrading technology which was designed to process heavy oil in the field to cost effectively produce an upgraded synthetic oil that meets pipeline requirements. Steam and electricity are generated from the energy produced during the process. HTL improves the economics of heavy oil production by reducing the need for natural gas and diluent, and by capturing most of the heavy to light oil price differential. Integrated HTL heavy oil production also provides many environmental benefits regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The HTL upgrading process is ready for full scale application. tabs., figs.

  14. The environmental, socioeconomic, and health impacts of woodfuel value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sola, Phosiso; Cerutti, Paolo Omar; Zhou, Wen; Gautier, Denis; Iiyama, Miyuki; Schure, Jolien; Chenevoy, Audrey; Yila, Jummai; Dufe, Vanessa; Nasi, Robert; Petrokofsky, Gillian; Shepherd, Gill

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the production and use of woodfuel remains an important socio-economic activity with more than 70% of the population relying on woodfuel as their primary household energy source. Despite their socio-economic significance, woodfuel value chains are often

  15. Valuing Mortality Risk Reductions for Environmental Policy: A White Paper (1999)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This white paper addresses current and recent U.S. EPA practices regarding the valuation of mortality risk reductions, focusing especially on empirical estimates of the “value of a statistical life” (VSL) from stated preference and hedonic wage studies.

  16. Towards a Campus Culture of Environmental Sustainability: Recommendations for a Large University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Brett L. M.; Marans, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors led an interdisciplinary team that developed recommendations for building a "culture of environmental sustainability" at the University of Michigan (UM), and the purpose of this paper is to provide guidance on how other institutions might promote pro-environmental behaviors on their campuses.…

  17. EU Environmental and Planning Law Aspects of Large-Scale Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squintani, Lorenzo; Vanheusden, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This book is the second volume in the European Environmental Law Forum (EELF) Book Series. The EELF is a non-profit initiative of environmental law scholars and practitioners from across Europe aiming to support intellectual exchange on the development and implementation of international, European

  18. On the value of environmental stewardship and sustainability in health administration education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen; Fauerbach, Julia; Walter, Brandon

    2008-01-01

    Global warming, the depletion of the world'snatural resources, and excessive consumer consumption in developed countries are determinants reshaping the way we live our everyday lives. These factors are rapidly giving rise to new ecological paradigms of environmental stewardship and in healthcare environments that express sustainable theories and practices. This has given rise to a systematic system for promoting and assessing the energy performance and efficiency of healthcare facilities known as Leadership in Energy Efficient Environmental Design (LEED), and a parallel certification program, the Green Guide for Heath Care. These developments are examined in direct relation to the functions of managerial ethics. A series of ten sustainability-based ethical dilemmas are presented. Each is examined in relation to the need to inculcate in future healthcare administrators a critical understanding and appreciation of the need to reposition contemporary healthcare organizations at the center--as leading civic participants and role models in relation to the emerging movement towards carbon neutrality in the healthcare industry.

  19. Cost and benefit including value of life, health and environmental damage measured in time units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Friis-Hansen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Key elements of the authors' work on money equivalent time allocation to costs and benefits in risk analysis are put together as an entity. This includes the data supported dimensionless analysis of an equilibrium relation between total population work time and gross domestic product leading...... to the definition of the life quality time allocation index (LQTAI). On the basis of a postulate of invariance of the LQTAI, a rule is obtained for allocating societal value in terms of time to avoid life shortening fatalities as well as serious injuries that shorten the life in good health. The excess...... of this societal value over the actual costs, used by the owner for economically optimizing an activity, motivates a simple risk accept criterion suited to be imposed on the owner by the public. An illustration is given concerning allocation of economical means for mitigation of loss of life and health on a ferry...

  20. Analytic estimation of recycled products added value as a means for effective environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batzias, Dimitris F.

    2012-12-01

    In this work, we present an analytic estimation of recycled products added value in order to provide a means for determining the degree of recycling that maximizes profit, taking also into account the social interest by including the subsidy of the corresponding investment. A methodology has been developed based on Life Cycle Product (LCP) with emphasis on added values H, R as fractions of production and recycle cost, respectively (H, R >1, since profit is included), which decrease by the corresponding rates h, r in the recycle course, due to deterioration of quality. At macrolevel, the claim that "an increase of exergy price, as a result of available cheap energy sources becoming more scarce, leads to less recovered quantity of any recyclable material" is proved by means of the tradeoff between the partial benefits due to material saving and resources degradation/consumption (assessed in monetary terms).

  1. Enhancing the Economic Value of Large Investments in Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS through Inclusion of Ecosystems Services Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Urrestarazu Vincent

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS are used in cities across the world as effective flood adaptation responses, their economic viability has frequently been questioned. Inclusion of the monetary value of ecosystem services (ES provided by SuDS can increase the rate of return on investments made. Hence, this paper aims at reviewing the enhancement of the economic value of large-scale investments in SuDS through inclusion of ecosystem services. This study focuses on the flood reduction capacity and the ES benefits of green roofs and rain barrels in the combined sewerage network of Montevideo Municipality in Uruguay. The methodology comprises a cost–benefit analysis—with and without monetised ES provided by SuDS—of two drainage network configurations comprising: (i SuDS; and (ii SuDS and detention storage. The optimal drainage design for both these drainage configurations have been determined using SWMM-EA, a tool which uses multi-objective optimisation based evolutionary algorithm (EA and the storm water management model (SWMM. In both design configurations, total benefits comprising both flood reduction and ES benefits are always higher than their costs. The use of storage along with SuDS provides greater benefits with a larger reduction in flooding, and thus is more cost-effective than using SuDS alone. The results show that, for both of the drainage configurations, the larger investments are not beneficial unless ES benefits are taken into account. Hence, it can be concluded that the inclusion of ES benefits is necessary to justify large-scale investments in SuDS.

  2. Social Norms and Global Environmental Challenges: The Complex Interaction of Behaviors, Values, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzig, Ann P; Ehrlich, Paul R; Alston, Lee J; Arrow, Kenneth; Barrett, Scott; Buchman, Timothy G; Daily, Gretchen C; Levin, Bruce; Levin, Simon; Oppenheimer, Michael; Ostrom, Elinor; Saari, Donald

    2013-03-01

    Government policies are needed when people's behaviors fail to deliver the public good. Those policies will be most effective if they can stimulate long-term changes in beliefs and norms, creating and reinforcing the behaviors needed to solidify and extend the public good.It is often the short-term acceptability of potential policies, rather than their longer-term efficacy, that determines their scope and deployment. The policy process should consider both time scales. The academy, however, has provided insufficient insight on the coevolution of social norms and different policy instruments, thus compromising the capacity of decision makers to craft effective solutions to the society's most intractable environmental problems. Life scientists could make fundamental contributions to this agenda through targeted research on the emergence of social norms.

  3. Using Team-based Learning to teach a Large-enrollment Environmental Science Course Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, V.

    2013-12-01

    Student enrollment in many online courses is usually limited to small classes, ranging from 20-25 students. Over two summers Environmental Science 1301, with an enrollment of 50, has been piloted online using team-based learning (TBL) methods. Teams, consisting of 7 members, were assigned randomly using the group manager tool found in the learning management system. The course was organized around Learning Modules, which consisted of a quiz (individual) over the reading, a team assignment, which covered a topic from one of the chapters was completed for each learning module, and a class/group discussion. The discussion usually entailed a presentation of findings to the class by each team. This allowed teams to interact with one another and was also designed to encourage competition among the teams. Over the course of the class it was observed that as the students became comfortable with the course procedures they developed a commitment to the goals and welfare of their team. They found that as a team they could accomplish much more than an individual; they discovered strengths in their team mates that they, themselves, lacked, and they helped those team mates who struggled with the material. The teams tackled problems that would be overwhelming to an individual in the time allotted, such as running multiple scenarios with the simulations and tackling a large amount of data. Using TBL shifted the majority of responsibility of learning the material to the student with the instructor functioning as a facilitator instead of dispenser of knowledge. Dividing the class into teams made the course load manageable for the instructor while at the same time created a small-class environment for the students. In comparing this course to other, nonTBL-based online courses taught, the work load was very manageable. There were only 7-10 items to be graded per Learning Module and only 7-10 teams to monitor and provide guidance to instead of 50 individuals. Retention rates (86

  4. Environmental Health Risks and Housing Values: Evidence from 1,600 Toxic Plant Openings and Closings†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Davis, Lucas; Greenstone, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Regulatory oversight of toxic emissions from industrial plants and understanding about these emissions’ impacts are in their infancy. Applying a research design based on the openings and closings of 1,600 industrial plants to rich data on housing markets and infant health, we find that: toxic air emissions affect air quality only within 1 mile of the plant; plant openings lead to 11 percent declines in housing values within 0.5 mile or a loss of about $4.25 million for these households; and a plant’s operation is associated with a roughly 3 percent increase in the probability of low birthweight within 1 mile. PMID:27134284

  5. Freebies, freedom and fundamental change: Resistance to neoliberal environmentalism in large ‘green’ corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Swaffield, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Despite the professed concern of many governments, businesses and individuals – and the recent publication of another alarming report from the IPCC – inaction on climate change remains a significant concern. For many, the problem is rooted in a neoliberal account of social change. Neoliberal environmentalism is the dominant approach to environmental issues but it is often blamed for the continuing failure of climate change policy in general and behaviour change initiatives in particular. This...

  6. Large volume sample stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis for the monitoring of the degradation products of metribuzin in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Molina, Carolina; García-Campaña, Ana M; Del Olmo-Iruela, Laura; Del Olmo, Monsalud

    2007-09-14

    A capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method with UV-vis detection has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of the major degradation products of metribuzin, i.e. deaminometribuzin (DA), deaminodiketometribuzin (DADK) and diketometribuzin (DK). The dissociation acid constants have also been estimated by CE and no significant differences have been observed with the values obtained by applying other techniques. Optimum separation has been achieved in less than 9 min in 40 mM sodium tetraborate buffer, pH 9.5 by applying a voltage of 15kV at 25 degrees C and using p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard. In order to increase sensitivity, large volume sample stacking (LVSS) with polarity switching has been applied as on-line pre-concentration methodology. Detection limits of 10, 10 and 20 ng/mL for DA, DADK and DK, respectively were obtained. The method has been applied to soil samples, after pressurized liquid extraction (PLE). Samples were extracted at high temperature (103 degrees C and 1500 psi) using methanol as extraction solvent and sodium sulphate as drying agent. This PLE procedure was followed by an off-line pre-concentration and sample clean-up procedure by solid-phase extraction (SPE) using a LiChrolut EN sorbent column. These last two procedures were also suitable for the direct treatment of groundwater samples before CE analysis. The combination of both off-line and on-line pre-concentration procedures provided a significant improvement in sensitivity. LVSS provided pre-concentration factors of 4, 36 and 28 for DK, DA and DADK, respectively and with SPE a pre-concentration of 500-fold for the case of water samples and of 2.5-fold in the case of soil samples was obtained. The method is suitable for the monitoring of these residues in environmental samples with high sensitivity, precision and satisfactory recoveries.

  7. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  8. Visions of development and environmental values in the municipal councils of Itajaí Middle Valley, Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleci Teresinha Noara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper began in November 2006, it deals with environmental values the councils of environment of Blumenau and Indaial on the middle Vale of Itajaí, Santa Catarina State. The objective was to identify and to analyze the environment values and interests that permeate the practice of these councils. The subject becomes relevant because the theorical sources are scarces, data-collecting interviews, comments bibliographical and documentary. The results demonstrate even though the council members possess and anthropocentric vision about environment, they believe that, with a environment management integrated and participative action, close to sustainable development, it will be possible the solution of these environment problems. The study aims to be a contribution to municipal councils of environment in Itajaí basin, since it allows us to understand some of the capacities and limitations of them in the formulation and implementation of public policies for sustainable development in the region.

  9. The value of the new scoring system for predicting neoplastic pericarditis in the patients with large pericardial effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szturmowicz, M; Pawlak-Cieślik, A; Fijałkowska, A; Gątarek, J; Skoczylas, A; Dybowska, M; Błasińska-Przerwa, K; Langfort, R; Tomkowski, W

    2017-08-01

    Early recognition of neoplastic pericarditis (npe) is crucial for the planning of subsequent therapy. The aim of the present study was to construct the scoring system assessing the probability of npe, in the patients requiring pericardial fluid (pf) drainage due to large pericardial effusion. One hundred forty-six patients, 74 males and 72 females, entered the study. Npe based on positive pf cytology and/or pericardial biopsy specimen was recognised in 66 patients, non-npe in 80. Original scoring system was constructed based on parameters with the highest diagnostic value: mediastinal lymphadenopathy on chest CT scan, increased concentration of tumour markers (cytokeratin 19 fragments-Cyfra 21-1 and carcinoembryonic antigen-CEA) in pf, bloody character of pf, signs of imminent cardiac tamponade on echocardiography and tachycardia exceeding 90 beats/min on ECG. Each parameter was scored with positive or negative points depending on the positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV). The area under curve (AUC) for the scoring system was 0.926 (95%CI 0.852-0.963) and it was higher than AUC for Cyfra 21-1 0.789 (95%CI 0.684-0.893) or CEA 0.758 (95%CI 0.652-0.864). The score optimally discriminating between npe and non-npe was 0 points (sensitivity 0.84, specificity 0.91, PPV 0.9, NPV 0.85). Despite chest CT and tumour marker evaluation in pericardial fluid were good discriminators between npe and non-npe, the applied scoring system further improved the predicting of neoplastic disease in the studied population.

  10. A simple method for the production of large volume 3D macroporous hydrogels for advanced biotechnological, medical and environmental applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savina, Irina N.; Ingavle, Ganesh C.; Cundy, Andrew B.; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V.

    2016-02-01

    The development of bulk, three-dimensional (3D), macroporous polymers with high permeability, large surface area and large volume is highly desirable for a range of applications in the biomedical, biotechnological and environmental areas. The experimental techniques currently used are limited to the production of small size and volume cryogel material. In this work we propose a novel, versatile, simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of large volume porous polymer hydrogels by cryogelation. By controlling the freezing process of the reagent/polymer solution, large-scale 3D macroporous gels with wide interconnected pores (up to 200 μm in diameter) and large accessible surface area have been synthesized. For the first time, macroporous gels (of up to 400 ml bulk volume) with controlled porous structure were manufactured, with potential for scale up to much larger gel dimensions. This method can be used for production of novel 3D multi-component macroporous composite materials with a uniform distribution of embedded particles. The proposed method provides better control of freezing conditions and thus overcomes existing drawbacks limiting production of large gel-based devices and matrices. The proposed method could serve as a new design concept for functional 3D macroporous gels and composites preparation for biomedical, biotechnological and environmental applications.

  11. Development of a decision aid for energy resource management for the Navajo Nation incorporating environmental cultural values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necefer, Len Edward

    Decision-making surrounding pathways of future energy resource management are complexity and requires balancing tradeoffs of multiple environmental, social, economic, and technical outcomes. Technical decision aid can provide a framework for informed decision making, allowing individuals to better understand the tradeoff between resources, technology, energy services, and prices. While technical decision aid have made significant advances in evaluating these quantitative aspects of energy planning and performance, they have not been designed to incorporate human factors, such as preferences and behavior that are informed by cultural values. Incorporating cultural values into decision tools can provide not only an improved decision framework for the Navajo Nation, but also generate new insights on how these perspective can improve decision making on energy resources. Ensuring these aids are a cultural fit for each context has the potential to increase trust and promote understanding of the tradeoffs involved in energy resource management. In this dissertation I present the development of a technical tool that explicitly addresses cultural and spiritual values and experimentally assesses their influence on the preferences and decision making of Navajo citizens. Chapter 2 describes the results of a public elicitation effort to gather information about stakeholder views and concerns related to energy development in the Navajo Nation in order to develop a larger sample survey and a decision-support tool that links techno-economic energy models with sociocultural attributes. Chapter 3 details the methods of developing the energy decision aid and its underlying assumptions for alternative energy projects and their impacts. This tool also provides an alternative to economic valuation of cultural impacts based upon an ordinal index tied to environmental impacts. Chapter 4 details the the influence of various cultural, environmental, and economic outcome information provided

  12. Conflicted Heritage: Values, Visions and Practices in the Management and Preservation of Cultural and Environmental Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Kearsley

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cultural heritage has become of great importance in a number of areas, including self-identity, community identity and as an economic sector through cultural tourism. Most definitions of heritage now accept that it is a perceptual construct with many meanings, both for those who identify and manage it and for those who consume it in various ways. Because heritage can be seen in many lights, the potential for conflict between users, managers and those who own heritage is high. This article examines the nature of heritage and heritage landscapes and discusses the many symbolic and economic benefits that can ensue; the changing nature of the markets for heritage is described. The various monetary and opportunity costs of heritage are discussed and the resultant conflicts outlined. The article goes on to examine the contradictions and conflicts inherent in the concept of authenticity and the issues involved in various modes of interpretation. Here the article asks that if heritage is accepted as that which ‘we’ wish to preserve, then who are ‘we’? This question is explored in the context of the impacts of tourism upon heritage in Southern New Zealand, including the impacts of recent development, perceptions of crowding and the nature of wilderness. Inter-cultural perceptions are explained through the differing perceptions of, and attitudes to, the natural world held by Maori and by others. The article concludes by noting that, while much heritage research is still based upon the product and its presentation, future studies will need to learn more on consumers, their attitudes , expectations and values.

  13. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Bibliography of Effects of Commercial Navigation Traffic in Large Waterways

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    aossage Physical force 12. launders Z1975) predicted ehio-Senerated bow-wave height (H) in deip vater vith the following equatiov: -kv (I/I) 0 ( V2 /2g...Ventilatory and Cough Frequencies in the Bluegill Lepomi8 maehrochirus and Brook Trout Salvelinus fonti- naZis ," Environmental Pollution Agency, Vol 34, pp

  14. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Erguler

    Full Text Available The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations.

  15. Microbial forensics: predicting phenotypic characteristics and environmental conditions from large-scale gene expression profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minseung Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tantalizing question in cellular physiology is whether the cellular state and environmental conditions can be inferred by the expression signature of an organism. To investigate this relationship, we created an extensive normalized gene expression compendium for the bacterium Escherichia coli that was further enriched with meta-information through an iterative learning procedure. We then constructed an ensemble method to predict environmental and cellular state, including strain, growth phase, medium, oxygen level, antibiotic and carbon source presence. Results show that gene expression is an excellent predictor of environmental structure, with multi-class ensemble models achieving balanced accuracy between 70.0% (±3.5% to 98.3% (±2.3% for the various characteristics. Interestingly, this performance can be significantly boosted when environmental and strain characteristics are simultaneously considered, as a composite classifier that captures the inter-dependencies of three characteristics (medium, phase and strain achieved 10.6% (±1.0% higher performance than any individual models. Contrary to expectations, only 59% of the top informative genes were also identified as differentially expressed under the respective conditions. Functional analysis of the respective genetic signatures implicates a wide spectrum of Gene Ontology terms and KEGG pathways with condition-specific information content, including iron transport, transferases, and enterobactin synthesis. Further experimental phenotypic-to-genotypic mapping that we conducted for knock-out mutants argues for the information content of top-ranked genes. This work demonstrates the degree at which genome-scale transcriptional information can be predictive of latent, heterogeneous and seemingly disparate phenotypic and environmental characteristics, with far-reaching applications.

  16. Large-Scale Modelling of the Environmentally-Driven Population Dynamics of Temperate Aedes albopictus (Skuse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erguler, Kamil; Smith-Unna, Stephanie E.; Waldock, Joanna; Proestos, Yiannis; Christophides, George K.; Lelieveld, Jos; Parham, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive vector species. It is a proven vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses, with the potential to host a further 24 arboviruses. It has recently expanded its geographical range, threatening many countries in the Middle East, Mediterranean, Europe and North America. Here, we investigate the theoretical limitations of its range expansion by developing an environmentally-driven mathematical model of its population dynamics. We focus on the temperate strain of Ae. albopictus and compile a comprehensive literature-based database of physiological parameters. As a novel approach, we link its population dynamics to globally-available environmental datasets by performing inference on all parameters. We adopt a Bayesian approach using experimental data as prior knowledge and the surveillance dataset of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, as evidence. The model accounts for temperature, precipitation, human population density and photoperiod as the main environmental drivers, and, in addition, incorporates the mechanism of diapause and a simple breeding site model. The model demonstrates high predictive skill over the reference region and beyond, confirming most of the current reports of vector presence in Europe. One of the main hypotheses derived from the model is the survival of Ae. albopictus populations through harsh winter conditions. The model, constrained by the environmental datasets, requires that either diapausing eggs or adult vectors have increased cold resistance. The model also suggests that temperature and photoperiod control diapause initiation and termination differentially. We demonstrate that it is possible to account for unobserved properties and constraints, such as differences between laboratory and field conditions, to derive reliable inferences on the environmental dependence of Ae. albopictus populations. PMID:26871447

  17. Large-scale environmental variables and transition to deep convection in cloud resolving model simulations: A vector representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruby Leung

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  18. Large-scale Environmental Variables and Transition to Deep Convection in Cloud Resolving Model Simulations: A Vector Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2012-11-01

    Cloud resolving model simulations and vector analysis are used to develop a quantitative method of assessing regional variations in the relationships between various large-scale environmental variables and the transition to deep convection. Results of the CRM simulations from three tropical regions are used to cluster environmental conditions under which transition to deep convection does and does not take place. Projections of the large-scale environmental variables on the difference between these two clusters are used to quantify the roles of these variables in the transition to deep convection. While the transition to deep convection is most sensitive to moisture and vertical velocity perturbations, the details of the profiles of the anomalies vary from region to region. In comparison, the transition to deep convection is found to be much less sensitive to temperature anomalies over all three regions. The vector formulation presented in this study represents a simple general framework for quantifying various aspects of how the transition to deep convection is sensitive to environmental conditions.

  19. Open source large-scale high-resolution environmental modelling with GEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baarsma, Rein; Alberti, Koko; Marra, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek

    2016-04-01

    Many environmental, topographic and climate data sets are freely available at a global scale, creating the opportunities to run environmental models for every location on Earth. Collection of the data necessary to do this and the consequent conversion into a useful format is very demanding however, not to mention the computational demand of a model itself. We developed GEMS (Global Environmental Modelling System), an online application to run environmental models on various scales directly in your browser and share the results with other researchers. GEMS is open-source and uses open-source platforms including Flask, Leaflet, GDAL, MapServer and the PCRaster-Python modelling framework to process spatio-temporal models in real time. With GEMS, users can write, run, and visualize the results of dynamic PCRaster-Python models in a browser. GEMS uses freely available global data to feed the models, and automatically converts the data to the relevant model extent and data format. Currently available data includes the SRTM elevation model, a selection of monthly vegetation data from MODIS, land use classifications from GlobCover, historical climate data from WorldClim, HWSD soil information from WorldGrids, population density from SEDAC and near real-time weather forecasts, most with a ±100m resolution. Furthermore, users can add other or their own datasets using a web coverage service or a custom data provider script. With easy access to a wide range of base datasets and without the data preparation that is usually necessary to run environmental models, building and running a model becomes a matter hours. Furthermore, it is easy to share the resulting maps, timeseries data or model scenarios with other researchers through a web mapping service (WMS). GEMS can be used to provide open access to model results. Additionally, environmental models in GEMS can be employed by users with no extensive experience with writing code, which is for example valuable for using models

  20. Environmental Factors Affecting Large-Bodied Coral Reef Fish Assemblages in the Mariana Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Benjamin L; Williams, Ivor D.; Oliver J Vetter; Williams, Gareth J

    2012-01-01

    Large-bodied reef fishes represent an economically and ecologically important segment of the coral reef fish assemblage. Many of these individuals supply the bulk of the reproductive output for their population and have a disproportionate effect on their environment (e.g. as apex predators or bioeroding herbivores). Large-bodied reef fishes also tend to be at greatest risk of overfishing, and their loss can result in a myriad of either cascading (direct) or indirect trophic and other effects....

  1. Valor ambiental em uma perspectiva heterodoxa institucional-ecológica: an institutional-ecological heterodox perspective Environmental value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício de Carvalho Amazona

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho discute a perspectiva de valoração ambiental a partir de fundamentos heterodoxos, numa abordagem aqui denominada institucional-ecológica. Inicia-se pela identificação das principais limitações da abordagem neoclássica e suas correspondentes proposições de valoração, particularmente tendo-se em vista o desafio posto pelo critério de Desenvolvimento Sustentável. Em seguida, busca resgatar princípios propositivos de abordagens heterodoxas, particularmente nas formulações do campo teórico institucionalista e do campo teórico da economia ecológica, como elementos de potencial integração analítica para a constituição de uma conceituação heterodoxa de valores ambientais. Por fim, o trabalho propõe, a partir de uma discussão sobre o processo de formação e internalização dos valores ambientais e desse potencial de integração analítica, bases de constituição de uma abordagem institucional-ecológica para interpretação da valoração ambiental e, dentro dessa perspectiva, discute ao final qual o escopo de aplicação dos métodos de valoração correntemente utilizados pela Economia Ambiental Neoclássica.This article discusses an environmental valuation perspective, based on heterodox foundations, in an approach here called institutional-ecological. First, it is identified the main limits of neoclassical approach and its corresponding valuation propositions, specially having in mind the challenge placed by Sustainable Development criteria. After, it seeks to bring up propositive principles from heterodox approaches, particularly from formulations in the institutionalist field and ecological economics field. These are considered elements potentially able to analytical integration for the constitution of a heterodox framework for environmental values. Finally, based on a discussion on the process of environmental values constitution and internalization and on the so claimed analytical integration

  2. An Environmental Critique: Impact of Socialist Ideology on the Ecological and Cultural Sensitivity of Belgrade’s Large-Scale Residential Settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladan Djokić

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates the stance that sustainable approaches in architecture, although usually associated to contemporary practice, have a very complex relationship with the history of architecture and urbanism. By adopting an interpretative framework, the paper highlights the environmental aspects of the architectural practice of Belgrade’s large-scale residential settlements created under the cultural influences of socialist ideology. The socialist system enabled systematic implementation of the principles of the Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM on a large urban scale, in contrast to capitalist countries where these principles were applied on a smaller scale. The paper starts with the premise that these cultural influences, together with the integration of the principles of modernism, caused the rejection and the loss of traditional and ambience values in architecture. Research has shown that these values play a very important role in meeting the needs of ecological and cultural sensitivity in architecture. In its final consequences, the results of research have revealed that, although widely criticized for its break with tradition and the loss of ambience values, residential architecture in Belgrade during the socialist era included significant aspirations of the architectural practice directed at the improvement of aspects of sustainability, and especially aspects of ecological and cultural sensitivity.

  3. Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan P; Port, Jesse A; Yamahara, Kevan M; Crowder, Larry B

    2014-01-01

    The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA) is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible.

  4. Using environmental DNA to census marine fishes in a large mesocosm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Kelly

    Full Text Available The ocean is a soup of its resident species' genetic material, cast off in the forms of metabolic waste, shed skin cells, or damaged tissue. Sampling this environmental DNA (eDNA is a potentially powerful means of assessing whole biological communities, a significant advance over the manual methods of environmental sampling that have historically dominated marine ecology and related fields. Here, we estimate the vertebrate fauna in a 4.5-million-liter mesocosm aquarium tank at the Monterey Bay Aquarium of known species composition by sequencing the eDNA from its constituent seawater. We find that it is generally possible to detect mitochondrial DNA of bony fishes sufficient to identify organisms to taxonomic family- or genus-level using a 106 bp fragment of the 12S ribosomal gene. Within bony fishes, we observe a low false-negative detection rate, although we did not detect the cartilaginous fishes or sea turtles present with this fragment. We find that the rank abundance of recovered eDNA sequences correlates with the abundance of corresponding species' biomass in the mesocosm, but the data in hand do not allow us to develop a quantitative relationship between biomass and eDNA abundance. Finally, we find a low false-positive rate for detection of exogenous eDNA, and we were able to diagnose non-native species' tissue in the food used to maintain the mesocosm, underscoring the sensitivity of eDNA as a technique for community-level ecological surveys. We conclude that eDNA has substantial potential to become a core tool for environmental monitoring, but that a variety of challenges remain before reliable quantitative assessments of ecological communities in the field become possible.

  5. I Am What I Am, by Looking Past the Present : The Influence of Biospheric Values and Past Behavior on Environmental Self-Identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Werff, Ellen; Steg, Linda; Keizer, Kees

    A strong environmental self-identity increases the likelihood of a wide range of proenvironmental actions. But which factors influence identity and can we strengthen it? We propose that the environmental self-identity depends on biospheric values and on past behavior and that the strength of one's

  6. What is the strategic value of occupational and environmental medicine? Observations from the United States and Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, E A

    1996-11-01

    The world of work is changing rapidly. Occupational health and safety and environmental health increasingly are seen as a joint product with goods and services, requiring line-management responsibility. This new specialty is encouraged to be strategic rather than tactical to optimize its value in the core business of industry-related medical needs. Because employers, governments, and workers bear major costs, they have a strategic interest in outcomes. Strategic opportunities exist for reduction of the impact of occupational injury and disease; stewardship of the environment, product, and process; the reduction of non-occupational health care costs; for having occupational and environmental health and safety follow best business practices and be prominent in the leadership of change; for optimizing human relations/labor policies and practices; and for meeting regulatory requirements. The strategic position of the specialty can be strengthened through discussion, dialogue and vision development, role definition, establishment and use of performance indicators, improved career structures and training, and a proactive approach to qualify initiatives, research, marketing, and strategic alliances.

  7. SUSTAINABLE MILK PRODUCTION IN DIFFERENT DAIRY CATTLE SYSTEMS AND VALORISATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAIN ON THE BASIS OF ADDED VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Cassandro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this review is to estimate milk yield and predicted methane emissions added values in local and cosmopolitan cow breeds reared in Italian circumstances. Nowadays it is well known that over the next 50 years, the world’s farmers will be asked to produce more food than has been produced in the past thousand years, and in this concern it will be in environmentally sustainable way. The review will higlight the differences between intensive and extensive agricultural systems and this will be discussed and evaluated in dairy cattle production system context. In conclusion, animal genetic resources need to be evaluated not only per unit of output but for other direct and indirect output units related to social and human returns supporting different animal production systems, intensive or extensive ones. The intensive and extensive farming systems are not replaceable to each other, but they should be combined in order to respond to different social and environmental needs, so, to define the best sustainable production system. Moreover, both systems should also consider the modern demands that nowadays agriculture requires as, guarantee for food security. Therefore each system, intensive or extensive, should improve the animal products technological characteristics and at the same time reduce the carbon footprint.

  8. Large-volume and room-temperature gamma spectrometer for environmental radiation monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Coulon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of a room-temperature gamma spectrometer is an issue in environmental radiation monitoring. To monitor radionuclides released around a nuclear power plant, suitable instruments giving fast and reliable information are required. High-pressure xenon (HPXe chambers have range of resolution and efficiency equivalent to those of other medium resolution detectors such as those using NaI(Tl, CdZnTe, and LaBr3:Ce. An HPXe chamber could be a cost-effective alternative, assuming temperature stability and reliability. The CEA LIST actively studied and developed HPXe-based technology applied for environmental monitoring. Xenon purification and conditioning was performed. The design of a 4-L HPXe detector was performed to minimize the detector capacitance and the required power supply. Simulations were done with the MCNPX2.7 particle transport code to estimate the intrinsic efficiency of the HPXe detector. A behavioral study dealing with ballistic deficits and electronic noise will be utilized to provide perspective for further analysis.

  9. Environmental analysis of a potential district heating network powered by a large-scale cogeneration plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravina, Marco; Panepinto, Deborah; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2017-05-01

    Among the solutions for the achievement of environmental sustainability in the energy sector, district heating (DH) with combined heat and power (CHP) systems is increasingly being used. The Italian city of Turin is in a leading position in this field, having one of the largest DH networks in Europe. The aim of this work is the analysis of a further development of the network, addressed to reduce the presence of pollutants in a city that has long been subject to high concentration levels. The environmental compatibility of this intervention, especially in terms of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, is evaluated. The pollutants dispersion is estimated using the CALPUFF model. The forecasting scenario is created firstly by simulating the energy production of the main generation plants in response to the estimated heat demand, and secondly by investigating the amount and the dispersion of pollutants removed due to the elimination of the centralized residential heaters. The results show a future reduction in ground level average NOx concentration ranging between 0.2 and 4 μg/m3. The concentration of PM remains almost unchanged. Measures are then taken to lower the uncertainty in the simulation scenarios. This study provides important information on the effects of a change of the energy configuration on air quality in an urban area. The proposed methodological approach is comprehensive and repeatable.

  10. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Biological and Environmental Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program Office (BER),

    2009-09-30

    In May 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for BER-funded research over the subsequent three to five years. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. Chief among them: scientific progress in BER-funded research is limited by current allocations of computational resources. Additionally, growth in mission-critical computing -- combined with new requirements for collaborative data manipulation and analysis -- will demand ever increasing computing, storage, network, visualization, reliability and service richness from NERSC. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. It also presents a number of"case studies" as significant representative samples of the needs of science teams within BER. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this"case study" format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and 3-5 year computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel,"multi-core" environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years.

  11. The BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories in Africa--a standardized framework for large-scale environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgens, Norbert; Schmiedel, Ute; Haarmeyer, Daniela H; Dengler, Jürgen; Finckh, Manfred; Goetze, Dethardt; Gröngröft, Alexander; Hahn, Karen; Koulibaly, Annick; Luther-Mosebach, Jona; Muche, Gerhard; Oldeland, Jens; Petersen, Andreas; Porembski, Stefan; Rutherford, Michael C; Schmidt, Marco; Sinsin, Brice; Strohbach, Ben J; Thiombiano, Adjima; Wittig, Rüdiger; Zizka, Georg

    2012-01-01

    The international, interdisciplinary biodiversity research project BIOTA AFRICA initiated a standardized biodiversity monitoring network along climatic gradients across the African continent. Due to an identified lack of adequate monitoring designs, BIOTA AFRICA developed and implemented the standardized BIOTA Biodiversity Observatories, that meet the following criteria (a) enable long-term monitoring of biodiversity, potential driving factors, and relevant indicators with adequate spatial and temporal resolution, (b) facilitate comparability of data generated within different ecosystems, (c) allow integration of many disciplines, (d) allow spatial up-scaling, and (e) be applicable within a network approach. A BIOTA Observatory encompasses an area of 1 km(2) and is subdivided into 100 1-ha plots. For meeting the needs of sampling of different organism groups, the hectare plot is again subdivided into standardized subplots, whose sizes follow a geometric series. To allow for different sampling intensities but at the same time to characterize the whole square kilometer, the number of hectare plots to be sampled depends on the requirements of the respective discipline. A hierarchical ranking of the hectare plots ensures that all disciplines monitor as many hectare plots jointly as possible. The BIOTA Observatory design assures repeated, multidisciplinary standardized inventories of biodiversity and its environmental drivers, including options for spatial up- and downscaling and different sampling intensities. BIOTA Observatories have been installed along climatic and landscape gradients in Morocco, West Africa, and southern Africa. In regions with varying land use, several BIOTA Observatories are situated close to each other to analyze management effects.

  12. A large-scale environmental flow experiment for riparian restoration in the Colorado River delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Schlatter, Karen; Gomez-Sapiens, Martha; Lundgren, Erick; Grabau, Matthew R.; Ramirez-Hernandez, Jorge; Rodriguez-Burgeueno, J. Eliana; Flessa, Karl W.

    2017-01-01

    Managing streamflow is a widely-advocated approach to provide conditions necessary for seed germination and seedling establishment of trees in the willow family (Salicaceae). Experimental flow releases to the Colorado River delta in 2014 had a primary objective of promoting seedling establishment of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) and Goodding's willow (Salix gooddingii). We assessed seed germination and seedling establishment of these taxa as well as the non-native tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) and native seepwillow shrubs (Baccharis spp.) in the context of seedling requirements and active land management (land grading, vegetation removal) at 23 study sites along 87 river km. In the absence of associated active land management, experimental flows to the Colorado River delta were minimally successful at promoting establishment of new woody riparian seedlings, except for non-native Tamarix. Our results suggest that the primary factors contributing to low seedling establishment varied across space, but included low or no seed availability in some locations for some taxa, insufficient soil moisture availability during the growing season indicated by deep groundwater tables, and competition from adjacent vegetation (and, conversely, availability of bare ground). Active land management to create bare ground and favorable land grades contributed to significantly higher rates of Salicaceae seedling establishment in a river reach with high groundwater tables. Our results provide insights that can inform future environmental flow deliveries to the Colorado River delta and its ecosystems and other similar efforts to restore Salicaceae taxa around the world.

  13. The reversible process concept applied to the environmental management of large river systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoros, Claude; Rostan, Jean-Claude; Pautou, Guy; Bravard, Jean-Paul

    1987-09-01

    The wetland ecosystems occurring within alluvial floodplains change rapidly. Within the ecological successions, the life span of pioneer and transient stages may be measured in several years or decades depending on the respective influences of allogenic (water dynamics, erosion, and deposition) and autogenic developmental processes (population dynamics, eutrophication, and terrestrialization). This article emphasizes the mechanisms that are responsible for the ecosystem changes and their importance to environmental management. Two case studies exemplify reversible and irreversible successional processes in reference to different spatial and temporal scales. On the scale of the former channels, the standing-water ecosystems with low homeostasis may recover their previous status after human action on the allogenic processes. On the scale of a whole reach of the floodplain, erosion and deposition appear as reversible processes that regenerate the ecological successions. The concepts of stability and reversibility are discussed in relation to different spatiotemporal referential frameworks and different levels of integration. The reversible process concept is also considered with reference to the energy inputs into the involved subsystems. To estimate the probability of ecosystem regeneration or the cost of restoration, a concept of “degrees of reversibility” is proposed.

  14. Planktonic protistan communities in lakes along a large-scale environmental gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomich, Maryia; Kauserud, Håvard; Logares, Ramiro; Rasconi, Serena; Andersen, Tom

    2017-04-01

    Despite their obvious importance, our knowledge about the eukaryotic microbial diversity of inland waters is still limited and poorly documented. We applied 18S rDNA amplicon sequencing to provide a comprehensive analysis of eukaryotic diversity in 74 low-productivity lakes along a 750 km longitudinal transect (5.40-18.52°E) across southern Scandinavia. We detected a wide diversity of pelagic microbial eukaryotes, classified into 1882 operational taxonomic units (OTUs). The highest OTU richness was found in traditional phytoplankton groups like Dinoflagellata, Chrysophyceae, Chlorophyta and Cryptophyta. A total of 53.6% OTUs were primarily autotrophic, while 19.4% of the heterotrophic OTUs belonged to putative parasitic taxa. Except for a longitudinal trend in the relative influence of mixotrophs, there were no significant associations between major functional groups (autotrophs, heterotrophs and parasites) and spatial and environmental variables. Community dissimilarity increased significantly with increasing geographical distance between lakes. In accordance with earlier, microscopy-based surveys in this region, we demonstrate distinct gradients in protistan diversity and community composition, which are better explained by spatial structure than local environment. The strong association between longitude and protistan diversity is probably better explained by differences in regional species pools due to differences in landscape productivity than by dispersal limitation or climatic constraints. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. State Environmental Policy Act (SEPA) Checklist for the 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility Closure Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Hanford Site, located northwest of the city of Richland, Washington, houses reactors, chemical-separation systems, and related facilities used for the production of special nuclear materials, as well as for activities associated with nuclear energy development. The 105-DR Large Sodium Fire Facility (LSFF), which was in operation from about 1972 to 1986, was a research laboratory that occupied the former ventilation supply room on the southwest side of the 105-DR Reactor facility. The LSFF was established to provide means of investigating fire and safety aspects associated with large sodium or other metal alkali fires in the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) facilities. The 105-DR Reactor facility was designed and built in the 1950's and is located in the 100-D Area of the Hanford Site. The building housed the DR defense reactor, which was shut down in 1964. The LSFF is subject to the regulatory requirements for the storage and treatment of dangerous wastes. Clean closure is the proposed method of closure for the LSFF. Closure will be conducted pursuant to the requirements of the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-610 (Ecology 1989). This closure plan presents a description of the facility, the history of wastes managed, and the procedures that will be followed to close the LSFF as an Alkali Metal Treatment Facility. No future use of the LSFF is expected.

  16. Smoking, dietary restraint, gender, and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in a large university sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Lumb, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the independent and interactive association between smoking, gender, dietary restraint and the relative reinforcing value of snack food in a university sample. Four hundred and three introductory psychology students completed questionnaires assessing age, gender, BMI, hunger, smoking status, nicotine dependence, dietary restraint, hedonic ratings and the relative reinforcing value of snack food and fruits and vegetables. The relative reinforcing value of snack food was determined by the number of button presses subjects would be willing to do to obtain (100g) of snack food versus 100g of fruits and vegetables. Multiple regression analyses yielded a significant three-way interaction of gender, restraint, and smoking in predicting the relative reinforcing value of snack food indicating that in female smokers, dietary restraint was inversely associated with the relative reinforcing value of snack food, whereas in male smokers, restraint was not significantly related with the reinforcing value of snacks. These findings remained significant after controlling for BMI, hunger, and hedonics, suggesting that there are gender differences in relationship between smoking, dietary restraint, and snack food reinforcement. Among female university students, smoking moderates the relationship between dietary restraint and food reinforcement whereby high-restraint female smokers appear to be at lower risk of over-consuming energy dense snack food compared to low-restraint female smokers, while high-restraint male smokers may not be at higher risk than low-restraint male smokers.

  17. Modeling growth of larval cod ( Gadus morhua) in large-scale seasonal and latitudinal environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Trond; Vikebø, Frode; Sundby, Svein; Huse, Geir; Fiksen, Øyvind

    2009-10-01

    The spawning strategy of cod has evolved through natural selection to give larvae a good start in life. Therefore, larval drift, growth, and survival are key processes to understand spawning strategies. Spawning of Northeast Arctic (NA) cod stretches from late February to early May over 1500 km along the Norwegian coast. Hatching occurs from late March to late May, a period when the number of daylight hours increases from 11 to 17. Larval feeding opportunities are constrained by prey abundance and environmental variables such as light, while temperature determines the maximum growth potential. Here, we model seasonal and latitudinal constraints on larval cod growth by combining predictions from a bio-physically coupled model providing input on nauplii production and development ( Calanus finmarchicus), a 3D physical model (ROMS) providing flow- and temperature-fields, and an individual-based model (IBM) of larval cod physiology and feeding processes. Our aim is to investigate the relative significance of temperature, turbulence, light, and prey density on growth of larval cod by integrative modeling. The models suggest that larval cod experience lower growth if hatched early in the season (prior to mid-April) when the foraging hours are few. Larval cod hatched in early May experience higher temperatures, better growth conditions, and are less susceptible to prey limitation due to increased day-length. We also suggest that increased prey abundance is more valuable early in the spawning season compared to later, when larvae have better feeding conditions. The model quantifies the strong relationship between larval feeding and growth in relation to day-length, time of the season, and water temperature, and the seasonal and spatial appearance of prey.

  18. Large-scale environmental controls on microbial biofilms in high-alpine streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Battin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers are highly responsive to global warming and important agents of landscape heterogeneity. While it is well established that glacial ablation and snowmelt regulate stream discharge, linkage among streams and streamwater geochemistry, the controls of these factors on stream microbial biofilms remain insufficiently understood. We investigated glacial (metakryal, hypokryal, groundwater-fed (krenal and snow-fed (rhithral streams - all of them representative for alpine stream networks - and present evidence that these hydrologic and hydrogeochemical factors differentially affect sediment microbial biofilms. Average microbial biomass and bacterial carbon production were low in the glacial streams, whereas bacterial cell size, biomass, and carbon production were higher in the tributaries, most notably in the krenal stream. Whole-cell in situ fluorescence hybridization revealed reduced detection rates of the Eubacteria and higher abundance of α-Proteobacteria in the glacial stream, a pattern that most probably reflects the trophic status of this ecosystem. Our data suggest low flow during the onset of snowmelt and autumn as a short period (hot moment of favorable environmental conditions with pulsed inputs of allochthonous nitrate and dissolved organic carbon, and with disproportionately high microbial growth. Tributaries are relatively more constant and favorable environments than kryal streams, and serve as possible sources of microbes and organic matter to the main glacial channel during periods (e.g., snowmelt of elevated hydrologic linkage among streams. Ice and snow dynamics - and their impact on the amount and composition of dissolved organic matter - have a crucial impact on stream biofilms, and we thus need to consider microbes and critical hydrological episodes in future models of alpine stream communities.

  19. Large-scale environmental controls on microbial biofilms in high-alpine streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battin, T. J.; Wille, A.; Psenner, R.; Richter, A.

    Glaciers are highly responsive to global warming and important agents of landscape heterogeneity. While it is well established that glacial ablation and snowmelt regulate stream discharge, linkage among streams and streamwater geochemistry, the controls of these factors on stream microbial biofilms remain insufficiently understood. We investigated glacial (metakryal, hypokryal), groundwater-fed (krenal) and snow-fed (rhithral) streams - all of them representative for alpine stream networks - and present evidence that these hydrologic and hydrogeochemical factors differentially affect sediment microbial biofilms. Average microbial biomass and bacterial carbon production were low in the glacial streams, whereas bacterial cell size, biomass, and carbon production were higher in the tributaries, most notably in the krenal stream. Whole-cell in situ fluorescence hybridization revealed reduced detection rates of the Eubacteria and higher abundance of α-Proteobacteria in the glacial stream, a pattern that most probably reflects the trophic status of this ecosystem. Our data suggest low flow during the onset of snowmelt and autumn as a short period (hot moment) of favorable environmental conditions with pulsed inputs of allochthonous nitrate and dissolved organic carbon, and with disproportionately high microbial growth. Tributaries are relatively more constant and favorable environments than kryal streams, and serve as possible sources of microbes and organic matter to the main glacial channel during periods (e.g., snowmelt) of elevated hydrologic linkage among streams. Ice and snow dynamics - and their impact on the amount and composition of dissolved organic matter - have a crucial impact on stream biofilms, and we thus need to consider microbes and critical hydrological episodes in future models of alpine stream communities.

  20. Methods and Tools for Monitoring and Prediction of the Large-Scale Environmental Impact of Railway Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ELBERS, F. B. J.

    2000-03-01

    Due to environmental impact regulations there is a demand for methods and tools to determine noise reception levels near railway lines. Currently, a wide variety of methods and tools is available. Fast computers now enable us to develop powerful tools that combine simplified prediction methods with GIS systems. These new systems allow the study of noise reception levels and environmental impact on a large-scale (complete network, national or international), while more detailed and labour-intensive methods and tools are used when demanded by law. This paper presents a brief overview of the noise prediction methods and tools used in the Netherlands. The focus is on the advantages and restrictions of the different methods. Finally, the paper gives an overview of the actual advantages and restrictions of the recently extended Gerano method Gerano98 (Geographic Railway Noise). Gerano was originally based on the “basic Dutch calculation rules for railway noise”. Gerano98 was extended using simplified prediction schemes for the most relevant parts of the “detailed Dutch calculation rules for railway noise”. This most recent calculation method, combined with geographic input features, provides the possibility of determining noise impact and the noise measures to be taken on both the medium and large scale. Examples of the application of the methods and tools to specific (medium- and large-scale) projects are provided. The medium-scale project presents the results of a selection of the prefered line between Amsterdam and Zwolle. The large-scale project (the complete Dutch railway network) shows the results of the comparison of noise measures at source with noise barriers or housing insulation. For both projects the applicability and the usefulness of the methods in these situations is discussed. In conclusion four developments of the Gerano concept are described which have recently been finished or will be so in the near future.

  1. Measuring Children's Environmental Attitudes and Values in Northwest Mexico: Validating a Modified Version of Measures to Test the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneller, A. J.; Johnson, B.; Bogner, F. X.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the validation process of measuring children's attitudes and values toward the environment within a Mexican sample. We applied the Model of Ecological Values (2-MEV), which has been shown to be valid and reliable in 20 countries, including one Spanish speaking culture. Items were initially modified to fit the regional dialect,…

  2. What is the value given by consumers to nutritional label information? Results from a large investigation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus; Galasso, Francesca; Widhalm, Kurt; Berchialla, Paola; Baldi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition labels on prepackaged foods have been widely advocated as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population. The study is aimed at understanding how people value nutritional information on food labels, in particular for front-of-pack labeling. A phone-assisted survey of 7550 consumers in 16 European countries was conducted. People were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels, from the media to public institutions, and their commitment to healthy behavior. The value of pack labeling was estimated using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation technique. Older age groups (>45 years old), members of a larger family, people of low income or low education, and those who perceived themselves to be obese valued front-of-pack nutritional labeling. WTP estimates across all countries provided an average accepted added price of $4.32 to the overall yearly food expenditure (95% confidence interval, 3.33-3.68). Overall, perceived value of labeling is low. However, factors affecting the value for consumer of nutritional labeling appear to be strictly linked to the socioeconomic and health status of the respondents.

  3. Environmental Effects in Earth Rotation Data from the Large Laser-Gyroscope 'G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebauer, André; Schreiber, Ulrich; Klügel, Thomas

    2010-05-01

    Large laser gyroscopes allow the observation of the global rotation rate of the Earth and provide a direct reference to the instantaneous axis of rotation with high temporal resolution. This measurement method is independent and complementary to the VLBI technique, because it does not depend on external reference objects. Periodic signals from geophysical processes are analyzed in the measured datasets. Based on changes of the G ring laser hardware (see contribution Schreiber et al., this session) the instrumental sensitivity and stability improved significantly. Thus more geophysical processes both on global and local scale become visible. The time series of the measurements also contain irregular transient signals of different origin and magnitude. Several studies were carried out to identify the origin of these signals. First studies showed that the contribution of barometric loading is too small to account for the observed rotational signals. Then the effect of wind load on a local scale was studied. A detailed Finite-Element (FE) Model was developed with a dimension of about 10 km x 10 km and a minimum height of about 2 km. The topography is derived from a digital terrain model (DTM) of 25 m spatial resolution. Depending on the topography and land use the measured wind force loads the model. The results yields rotations in comparable order of magnitude as the observed ring laser data. The talk outlines the current state of ring laser data treatment.

  4. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF CHLORINE TRANSPORT AND FATE FOLLOWING A LARGE ENVIRONMENTAL RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, R.; Hunter, C.; Werth, D.; Chen, K.; Whiteside, M.; Mazzola, C.

    2011-05-10

    A train derailment occurred in Graniteville, South Carolina during the early morning of January 6, 2005, and resulted in the release of a large amount of cryogenic pressurized liquid chlorine to the environment in a short time period. A comprehensive evaluation of the transport and fate of the released chlorine was performed, accounting for dilution, diffusion, transport and deposition into the local environment. This involved the characterization of a three-phased chlorine release, a detailed determination of local atmospheric mechanisms acting on the released chlorine, the establishment of atmospheric-hydrological physical exchange mechanisms, and aquatic dilution and mixing. This presentation will provide an overview of the models used in determining the total air-to-water mass transfer estimated to have occurred as a result of the roughly 60 tons of chlorine released into the atmosphere from the train derailment. The assumptions used in the modeling effort will be addressed, along with a comparison with available observational data to validate the model results. Overall, model-estimated chlorine concentrations in the airborne plume compare well with human and animal exposure data collected in the days after the derailment.

  5. Comparison of two culture techniques used to detect environmental contamination with Salmonella enterica in a large-animal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Catriona H; Annandale, Cornelius H; Gouws, Johan; Morley, Paul S

    2015-08-13

    Salmonellosis is a common healthcare-associated infection in large-animal hospitals, and surveillance for Salmonella is an integral part of comprehensive infection control programmes in populations at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two culture techniques for recovery of Salmonella from environmental samples obtained in a large-animal referral veterinary hospital during a Salmonella outbreak. Environmental samples were collected using household cleaning cloths that were incubated overnight in buffered peptone water (BPW). Aliquots of BPW were then processed using two different selective enrichment and culture techniques. In the first technique (TBG-RV-XLT4) samples were incubated at 43 °C in tetrathionate broth and then Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth before plating on XLT4 agar. The second technique (SEL-XLD) involved incubation at 37 °C in selenite broth before plating on XLD agar. Salmonella was recovered from 49.7% (73/147) of samples using the TBG-RV-XLT4 technique, but only 10.2% (15/147) of samples using the SEL-XLD method. Fourteen samples (9.5%) were culture-positive using both methods, and 73 (49.7%) were culture-negative using both techniques. There were discordant results for 60 samples, including 59 that were only culture-positive using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and one sample that was only culture-positive using the SEL-XLD method. Salmonella was much more likely to be recovered using the TBG-RV-XLT4 method, and there appeared to be five times more false-negative results using the SEL-XLD technique. Environmental contamination with Salmonella may be underestimated by certain culture techniques, which may impair efforts to control spread in veterinary hospitals.

  6. The relevance of large scale environmental research infrastructures from the point of view of Ethics: the case of EMSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura; Best, Mairi; Franceschini, PierLuigi; Materia, Paola; Peppoloni, Silvia; Picard, John

    2014-05-01

    EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and Water Column Observatory) is a large-scale European Research Infrastructure (RI). It is a geographically distributed infrastructure composed of several deep-seafloor and water-column observatories, which will be deployed at key sites in European waters, spanning from the Arctic, through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea, with the basic scientific objective of real-time, long-term monitoring of environmental processes related to the interaction between the geosphere, biosphere and hydrosphere. EMSO is one of the environmental RIs on the ESFRI roadmap. The ESRFI Roadmap identifies new RIs of pan-European importance that correspond to the long term needs of European research communities. EMSO will be the sub-sea segment of the EU's large-scale Earth Observation program, Copernicus (previously known as GMES - Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) and will significantly enhance the observational capabilities of European member states. An open data policy compliant with the recommendations being developed within the GEOSS initiative (Global Earth Observation System of Systems) will allow for shared use of the infrastructure and the exchange of scientific information and knowledge. The processes that occur in the oceans have a direct impact on human societies, therefore it is crucial to improve our understanding of how they operate and interact. To encompass the breadth of these major processes, sustained and integrated observations are required that appreciate the interconnectedness of atmospheric, surface ocean, biological pump, deep-sea, and solid-Earth dynamics and that can address: • natural and anthropogenic change; • interactions between ecosystem services, biodiversity, biogeochemistry, physics, and climate; • impacts of exploration and extraction of energy, minerals, and living resources; • geo-hazard early warning capability for earthquakes, tsunamis, gas-hydrate release, and slope

  7. Achieving a paradigm shift in environmental and living resources management in the Gulf of Guinea: the large marine ecosystem approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwe, C N; Ibe, C A; Alo, B I; Yumkella, K K

    2003-01-01

    The Gulf of Guinea is situated in the narrow protrusion of eastern Equatorial Atlantic between latitudes 2 degrees S and 5 degrees N and longitudes 8 degrees W to 12 degrees E, spanning a coastline length of approximately 130 nautical miles. The dominant feature of this shallow ocean off the coast of countries in Western Africa is the Guinea Current. The distinctive bathymetry, hydrography, productivity and trophodynamics of this shallow ocean qualify it as a large marine ecosystem (LME) and is indeed recognized as the number 28 of the 64 delineated LMEs globally. This area is one of the world's productive marine areas that is rich in fishery resources, oil and gas reserves, precious minerals and an important global reservoir of marine biological diversity. Unfortunately, pollution from residential and industrial sources has affected the waters of the Gulf of Guinea resulting in habitat degradation, loss of biological diversity and productivity, and degenerating human health. In reversing this trend of marine environmental degradation, the countries of the region adopted an integrated and holistic approach using the LME concept to sustainably manage the environmental and living resources of the region. The concept is predicated on the fact that marine environmental pollution and living resources respect no political or geographical boundaries and so require a holistic and regional approach for its management. The Gulf of Guinea countries through the Global Environment facility funded regional/communal project on water pollution control and biodiversity conservation achieved a paradigm shift in living resources and environmental management in the region using the LME concept.

  8. Large- and small-scale environmental factors drive distributions of cool-adapted plants in karstic microrefugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bátori, Zoltán; Vojtkó, András; Farkas, Tünde; Szabó, Anna; Havadtői, Krisztina; Vojtkó, Anna E; Tölgyesi, Csaba; Cseh, Viktória; Erdős, László; Maák, István Elek; Keppel, Gunnar

    2017-01-01

    Dolines are small- to large-sized bowl-shaped depressions of karst surfaces. They may constitute important microrefugia, as thermal inversion often maintains cooler conditions within them. This study aimed to identify the effects of large- (macroclimate) and small-scale (slope aspect and vegetation type) environmental factors on cool-adapted plants in karst dolines of East-Central Europe. We also evaluated the potential of these dolines to be microrefugia that mitigate the effects of climate change on cool-adapted plants in both forest and grassland ecosystems. We compared surveys of plant species composition that were made between 2007 and 2015 in 21 dolines distributed across four mountain ranges (sites) in Hungary and Romania. We examined the effects of environmental factors on the distribution and number of cool-adapted plants on three scales: (1) regional (all sites); (2) within sites and; (3) within dolines. Generalized linear models and non-parametric tests were used for the analyses. Macroclimate, vegetation type and aspect were all significant predictors of the diversity of cool-adapted plants. More cool-adapted plants were recorded in the coolest site, with only few found in the warmest site. At the warmest site, the distribution of cool-adapted plants was restricted to the deepest parts of dolines. Within sites of intermediate temperature and humidity, the effect of vegetation type and aspect on the diversity of cool-adapted plants was often significant, with more taxa being found in grasslands (versus forests) and on north-facing slopes (versus south-facing slopes). There is large variation in the number and spatial distribution of cool-adapted plants in karst dolines, which is related to large- and small-scale environmental factors. Both macro- and microrefugia are therefore likely to play important roles in facilitating the persistence of cool-adapted plants under global warming. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  9. Materialism, Altruism, Environmental Values, Learning Strategies and Sustainable Claim on Purchase Intention of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) - A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syakir Shukor, Muhamad; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Chin, Thoo Ai; Zakuan, Norhayati; Merlinda Muharam, Farrah

    2017-06-01

    One of the toughest challenges in social marketing is behaviour intervention. Previous research have developed various models and theories to simultaneously examine behaviour changes and their effects. Due to resources scarcity and global warming, automakers have come out with an innovative idea of Energy Efficient Vehicle (EEV) which has been a great improvement in the automotive industry. This invention targets for behavioral change or behavioral adoption for consumers to adjust their preferences from conventional vehicle to EEV. High market growth in automotive industry have encouraged social marketers, policymakers, governments and academics to propose suitable intervention approach in motivating preferences toward EEV. This study will explore the causal model of Environmental Responsible Behaviour (ERB) in measuring the purchase intention of EEV in Malaysia. In specific, this study focuses on two types of EEV - hybrid car and fuel efficient car. This study will hopefully add onto the body of knowledge for value orientation that influences green behaviour. From the practical perspective, this study may provide insights in assisting the stakeholders and automotive industry players on promoting the pro-behaviour toward EEV.

  10. Largely ignored: The impact of the threshold value for a QALY on the importance of a transferability factor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Vemer (Pepijn); M.P.M.H. Rutten-van Mölken (Maureen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractRecently, several checklists systematically assessed factors that affect the transferability of costeffectiveness (CE) studies between jurisdictions. The role of the threshold value for a QALY has been given little consideration in these checklists, even though the importance of a factor

  11. Aortic augmentation index: reference values in a large unselected population by means of the SphygmoCor device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janner, Julie; Godtfredsen, Nina S; Ladelund, Steen

    2010-01-01

    Arterial stiffness and pulse wave reflection are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pulse wave analyses (PWAs) allow the estimation of the central augmentation index (AIx), a measurement of pulse wave reflection. To understand the predictive role of AIx, reference values for AIx are ne...

  12. The shared and unique values of optical, fluorescence, thermal and microwave satellite data for estimating large-scale crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large-scale crop monitoring and yield estimation are important for both scientific research and practical applications. Satellite remote sensing provides an effective means for regional and global cropland monitoring, particularly in data-sparse regions that lack reliable ground observations and rep...

  13. Valuing environmental sustainability attributes of food products in India and China: decomposing the value of New Zealand’s ‘Clean-Green’ brand

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Dr Peter; Saunders, Prof Caroline; Guenther, Meike; Rutherford, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Concerns about the general state of the environment have spurred growing consumer demands for food products that have sustainability attributes including information on the environmental impact of production processes. For New Zealand, assessing the role of the ‘Clean-Green’ brand in export market consumers purchase decisions is of crucial strategic importance. In a series of choice experiments concerning lamb and dairy product purchase decisions, this study estimates willingness to pay for e...

  14. The clinical value of whole blood point-of-care biomarkers in large animal emergency and critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliffe, Rolfe M; Buchanan, Ben R; Cook, Vanessa L; Divers, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the current medical literature and provide a clinical perspective of whole blood point-of-care (POC) biomarkers in large animal emergency and critical care practice. Original studies, reviews, and textbook chapters in the human and veterinary medical fields. POC biomarkers are tests used to monitor normal or disease processes at or near the patient. In both human and veterinary medicine these tools are playing an increasingly important role in the management of critical diseases. The most important whole blood POC biomarkers available for veterinary practitioners include l-lactate, cardiac troponin I, serum amyloid A, triglyceride, creatinine, and glucose, although many other tests are available or on the horizon. Whole blood POC biomarkers enable clinicians to provide improved management of critical diseases in large animals. These tools are especially useful for establishing a diagnosis, guiding therapy, and estimating disease risk and prognosis. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  15. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, Hugo J A; de Klerk, John M H; Fijnheer, Rob; Heggelman, Ben G F; Dubois, Stefan V.; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Kwee, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone

  16. Energy from the desert. Very large scale photovoltaic systems: socio-economic, financial, technical and environmental aspects. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurokawa, K.; Ito, M.; Komoto, K.; Vleuten, P. van der; Faiman, D. (eds.)

    2009-05-15

    This executive summary report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) summarises the objectives and concepts of very large scale photovoltaic power generation (VLS-PV) systems and takes a look at the socio-economic, financial and technical aspects involved as well as the environmental impact of such systems. Potential benefits for desert communities, agricultural development and desalination of water are topics that are looked at. The potential of VLS-PV, its energy payback time and CO{sub 2} emission rates are discussed. Case studies for the Sahara and the Gobi Dessert areas are discussed. A VLS-PV roadmap is proposed and scenarios are discussed. Finally, conclusions are drawn and recommendations are made.

  17. Ecological comparison of cellular stress responses among populations - normalizing RT-qPCR values to investigate differential environmental adaptations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koenigstein, Stefan; Pöhlmann, Kevin; Held, Christoph; Abele, Doris

    2013-01-01

    Rising temperatures and other environmental factors influenced by global climate change can cause increased physiological stress for many species and lead to range shifts or regional population extinctions...

  18. Comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) model using a large diverse set of natural, synthetic and environmental chemicals for binding to the androgen receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, H; Fang, H; Xie, Q; Perkins, R; Sheehan, D M; Tong, W

    2003-01-01

    A large number of natural, synthetic and environmental chemicals are capable of disrupting the endocrine systems of experimental animals, wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), some mimic the functions of the endogenous androgens, have become a concern to the public health. Androgens play an important role in many physiological processes, including the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. A common mechanism for androgen to produce both normal and adverse effects is binding to the androgen receptor (AR). In this study, we used Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA), a three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) technique, to examine AR-ligand binding affinities. A CoMFA model with r2 = 0.902 and q2 = 0.571 was developed using a large training data set containing 146 structurally diverse natural, synthetic, and environmental chemicals with a 10(6)-fold range of relative binding affinity (RBA). By comparing the binding characteristics derived from the CoMFA contour map with these observed in a human AR crystal structure, we found that the steric and electrostatic properties encoded in this training data set are necessary and sufficient to describe the RBA of AR ligands. Finally, the CoMFA model was challenged with an external test data set; the predicted results were close to the actual values with average difference of 0.637 logRBA. This study demonstrates the utility of this CoMFA model for real-world use in predicting the AR binding affinities of structurally diverse chemicals over a wide RBA range.

  19. Understanding the environmental impacts of large fissure eruptions: Aerosol and gas emissions from the 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption (Iceland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Schmidt, Anja; Mather, Tamsin A.; Pope, Francis D.; Witham, Claire; Baxter, Peter; Jóhannsson, Thorsteinn; Pfeffer, Melissa; Barsotti, Sara; Singh, Ajit; Sanderson, Paul; Bergsson, Baldur; McCormick Kilbride, Brendan; Donovan, Amy; Peters, Nial; Oppenheimer, Clive; Edmonds, Marie

    2017-08-01

    The 2014-2015 Holuhraun eruption in Iceland, emitted ∼11 Tg of SO2 into the troposphere over 6 months, and caused one of the most intense and widespread volcanogenic air pollution events in centuries. This study provides a number of source terms for characterisation of plumes in large fissure eruptions, in Iceland and elsewhere. We characterised the chemistry of aerosol particle matter (PM) and gas in the Holuhraun plume, and its evolution as the plume dispersed, both via measurements and modelling. The plume was sampled at the eruptive vent, and in two populated areas in Iceland. The plume caused repeated air pollution events, exceeding hourly air quality standards (350 μg/m3) for SO2 on 88 occasions in Reykjahlíð town (100 km distance), and 34 occasions in Reykjavík capital area (250 km distance). Average daily concentration of volcanogenic PM sulphate exceeded 5 μg/m3 on 30 days in Reykjavík capital area, which is the maximum concentration measured during non-eruptive background interval. There are currently no established air quality standards for sulphate. Combining the results from direct sampling and dispersion modelling, we identified two types of plume impacting the downwind populated areas. The first type was characterised by high concentrations of both SO2 and S-bearing PM, with a high Sgas/SPM mass ratio (SO2(g)/SO42-(PM) > 10). The second type had a low Sgas/SPM ratio (<10). We suggest that this second type was a mature plume where sulphur had undergone significant gas-to-aerosol conversion in the atmosphere. Both types of plume were rich in fine aerosol (predominantly PM1 and PM2.5), sulphate (on average ∼90% of the PM mass) and various trace species, including heavy metals. The fine size of the volcanic PM mass (75-80% in PM2.5), and the high environmental lability of its chemical components have potential adverse implications for environmental and health impacts. However, only the dispersion of volcanic SO2 was forecast in public warnings

  20. The role of interdisciplinary collaboration for stated preference methods to value marine environmental goods and ecosystem services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börger, Tobias; Bohnke-Henrichs, Anne; Hattam, Caroline; Piwowarczyk, Joanna; Schasfoort, Femke; Austen, Melanie C.

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing use of environmental valuation methods in coastal, marine and deep-sea settings, there is a growing need for the collaboration of natural scientists and environmental economists. Stated preference valuation methods in particular need to be based on sound natural science

  1. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2016-03-23

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima.

  2. Effects of environmental radiation on testes and spermatogenesis in wild large Japanese field mice (Apodemus speciosus) from Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Tsukasa; Ishiniwa, Hiroko; Onuma, Manabu; Shindo, Junji; Yokohata, Yasushi; Tamaoki, Masanori

    2016-03-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred after the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 released large quantities of radionuclides to the environment. The long-term effects of radioactive cesium (Cs) on biota are of particular concern. We investigated the accumulation of radioactive Cs derived from the FDNPP accident, and chronic effects of environmental radionuclides on male reproduction, in the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus). In 2013 and 2014, wild mice were captured at 2 sites in Fukushima Prefecture and at 2 control sites that were distant from Fukushima. Although the median concentrations of 134Cs and 137Cs in the mice from Fukushima exceeded 4,000 Bq/kg, there were no significant differences in the apoptotic cell frequencies or the frequencies of morphologically abnormal sperm among the capture sites. Thus, we conclude that radiation did not cause substantial male subfertility in Fukushima during 2013 and 2014, and radionuclide pollution levels in the study sites would not be detrimental to spermatogenesis of the wild mice in Fukushima.

  3. Environmental benefits and value chain economics at biogas production, phase II. Food waste and manure; Miljoenytte og verdikjedeoekonomi ved biogassproduksjon, fase II. Matavfall og husdyrgjoedsel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Hanne; Arnoey, Silje; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Morken, John; Briseid, Tormod; Hanssen, Ole Joergen; Soerby, Ivar

    2012-07-01

    The main objective has been to develop an environmental model and an economic model for the entire value chain for the production of biogas and digestate processing. The results will contribute to better decision making in the planning of new biogas plants in Norway. Shortened version.(eb)

  4. Prognostic value of PD-1 and TIM-3 on CD3+ T cells from diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Du, Hui; Xiao, Tai-wu; Liu, Ji-zhu; Liu, Guo-zhen; Wang, Jing-xia; Li, Guang-yao; Wang, Le-xin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 in CD3+ T cells in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A retrospective analysis was conducted on data from 46 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL and 30 healthy people. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 before and after chemotherapy. Compared to healthy control, the expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 in patients with DLBCL was increased in CD3+ T cells. There is no significant change of PD-1 and TIM-3 in patients with stage I/II DLBCL, however, they were markedly increased in patients with stage III/IV DLBCL. The expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 elevated in DLBCL patients with B symptoms, IPI score >2 points and high level of LDH and Ki-67. After four courses of standard chemotherapy, PD-1 and TIM-3 expression level decreased. The treatment efficiency is higher in patients with low expression of PD-1 and TIM-3 than in patients with high PD-1 and TIM-3 expression. DLBCL patients have high expression level of PD-1 and TIM-3, which are related to DLBCL staging. PD-1 and TIM-3 expression levels are also related to the efficiency of chemotherapy. PD-1 and TIM-3 expression levels may be used as an indicator of chemotherapeutic efficacy in patients with DLBCL. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Extreme value analysis of air pollution data and their comparison between two large urban regions of South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Droprinchinski Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen years of hourly atmospheric pollutant data (1996–2011 in the Metropolitan Area of São Paulo (MASP, and seven years (2005–2011 of data measured in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro (MARJ, were analyzed in order to study the extreme pollution events and their return period. In addition, the objective was to compare the air quality between the two largest Brazilian urban areas and provide information for decision makers, government agencies and civil society. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV and Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD were applied to investigate the behavior of pollutants in these two regions. Although GEV and GPD are different approaches, they presented similar results. The probability of higher concentrations for CO, NO, NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 was more frequent during the winter, and O3 episodes occur most frequently during summer in the MASP. On the other hand, there is no seasonally defined behavior in MARJ for pollutants, with O3 presenting the shortest return period for high concentrations. In general, Ibirapuera and Campos Elísios stations present the highest probabilities of extreme events with high concentrations in MASP and MARJ, respectively. When the regions are compared, MASP presented higher probabilities of extreme events for all analyzed pollutants, except for NO; while O3 and PM2.5 are those with most frequent probabilities of presenting extreme episodes, in comparison other pollutants. Keywords: Air pollutants, Extreme events, Megacities, Ozone, Particulate matter

  6. The Creative Use of Companion Values in Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development: Exploring the Educative Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Jim; Östman, Leif; Håkansson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Our paper addresses the emergence and evolution of values in educational settings. It builds upon and extends earlier work on companion meanings to develop a theory of the creative use of companion values and meanings in education. The recognition of companion values in educational practices highlight epistemological, ethical, and aesthetic…

  7. The influence of population dynamics and environmental conditions on salmon re-colonization after large-scale distrubance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pess, G. R.; Hilborn, R.; Kloehn, K.; Quinn, T.

    2010-12-01

    The transition from dispersal into unoccupied habitat to the establishment of a self-sustaining new population depends on the dynamics of the source and recipient populations, and the environmental conditions that facilitate or hinder exchange and successful reproduction. We used population growth rate, inter-annual variability estimates, habitat condition and size, hydrologic data, and an estimated dispersal effect to determine when colonizing pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) populations became self-sustaining after a long-term migration blockage (Hell’s Gate) was mitigated in the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada. We used pink salmon spawning data from 1947 to 1987 in 66 streams to define populations, population growth rates, and the level of dispersal to newly accessible habitats. We also quantified the distance from source populations, the amount of newly accessible habitat, and determined whether stream flow conditions impeded fish passage at Hell’s Gate. Population dynamics models fit to observed data indicated that the combination of an initially large source population in the Fraser River below Hell’s Gate, high intrinsic growth rates linked to favorable climate-driven conditions, a constant supply of dispersers, and large amounts of newly available habitat resulted in the development of self-sustaining pink salmon populations in the Fraser River upstream of the historic barrier. Self-sustaining populations were developed within years of barrier removal and have continued to help expand the overall population of Fraser River pink salmon. However, not all locations had the same productivity and the magnitude of exchange among them was partly mediated by river conditions that permit or impede passage. Both re-colonized abundance levels were reduced and population spatial structure shifted relative to historic population abundance and spatial structure estimates.

  8. Annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke and support for no-smoking policies at eight large Dutch workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, M. C.; de Vries, H.; Genders, R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To collect descriptive data on annoyance from environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), attitudes toward smoking at the workplace, and support for a no-smoking policy. DESIGN: Survey of eight large companies in four sectors of Dutch industry. SUBJECTS: A representative sample of smoking and non-smoking employees (n = 1480). RESULTS: Thirty- five per cent of non-smoking employees felt it was "annoying" to "very annoying" when their colleagues smoked during worktime, and 78% thought a smoky work environment was harmful to their health. About two-thirds of non-smokers "sometimes" to "often" experienced annoyance from ETS at their workplace. The individual solution approach (no explicit policy) is not only rejected by most nonsmokers but also by many smokers. In three sectors of industry, there was much support among employees for a smoking ban except for work areas designated for smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These results could encourage more companies to implement smoking restrictions and they may be used as reference data by companies wanting to develop effective no-smoking policies. 


 PMID:8910995

  9. Environmental assessment of the entire pork value chain in Catalonia - A strategy to work towards Circular Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; González-García, Sara; M Gasol, Carles; Moreira, María Teresa; Amores, Maria José; Marín, Desirée; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2017-07-01

    Pork industry in Catalonia plays a foremost and representative role in the Spanish pork sector. Beyond the economic benefits, conventional practices in the pork industry also imply a number of environmental impacts that need to be dealt with. In this context, the environmental performance of traditional linear pork chain in Catalonia was evaluated through a LCA approach. The outcomes of the analysis showed that both fodder production and transport activities were identified as the critical stages of the system. Accordingly, alternative schemes based on circular economy principles were proposed and potential environmental credits were estimated. Within this framework, comparative results highlighted the advantages of moving towards a closing loop production system, where resource efficiency and waste valorisation were prioritised over final disposal options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in vivo digestibility of moist, large rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic acid-based preservative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Young, A N; Bertram, M G

    2013-04-01

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large round bales composed of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sensitive to spontaneous heating and dry matter (DM) losses, as well as other undesirable changes with respect to forage fiber, protein, and energy density. Various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, normally for use on hays that are not desiccated adequately in the field to facilitate safe bale storage. Our objectives for this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy of applying a commercial (buffered) propionic acid-based preservative at 3 rates (0, 0.6, and 1.0% of wet-bale weight) to hays baled at 3 moisture concentrations (19.6, 23.8, and 27.4%) on the subsequent storage characteristics and poststorage nutritive value of alfalfa-orchardgrass forages packaged in large rectangular (285-kg) bales, and then (2) evaluate the in vivo digestibility of these hays in growing lambs. Over a 73-d storage period, the preservative was effective at limiting spontaneous heating in these hays, and a clear effect of application rate was observed for the wettest (27.4%) bales. For drier hays, both acid-application rates (1.0 and 0.6%) yielded comparable reductions in heating degree days >30°C relative to untreated controls. Reductions in spontaneous heating could not be associated with improved recovery of forage DM after storage. In this study, most changes in nutritive value during storage were related to measures of spontaneous heating in simple linear regression relationships; this suggests that the modest advantages in nutritive value resulting from acid treatment were largely associated with perturbations of normal heating patterns during bale storage. Although somewhat erratic, apparent digestibilities of both DM (Y=-0.0080x + 55.6; R(2)=0.45) and

  11. Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis of its value chain in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svubure, O.

    2015-01-01

    Keywords: Irish potato, food security, stakeholder analysis, sustainability indicators, Cool Farm Tool-Potato, yield gap, resource use efficiency, LINTUL-POTATO model, Zimbabwe. Oniward Svubure (2015). Agronomic and environmental studies of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) and analysis

  12. High amphibian diversity related to unexpected environmental values in a biogeographic transitional area in north-western Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, J.M.; Berlanga-Robles, C.A.; Ruiz-Luna, A.

    2014-01-01

    Amphibian diversity and distribution patterns in Sinaloa state (north-western Mexico) were assessed from the Global Amphibian Assessment database (GAA-2010). A geographic information system (GIS) was used to evaluate diversity based on distribution maps of 41 species, associated with environmental

  13. The Efficacy of a Green Chemistry Laboratory-Based Pedagogy: Changes in Environmental Values of Malaysia Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpudewan, Mageswary; Ismail, Zurida; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2012-01-01

    Every day, climate change due to greenhouse emissions, pollution and other environmental degradation appears to make the news. Rather than doing something about the environment, namely in the developing countries where populations frequently are less educated about the long-term impact of human actions, they tend to disregard these problems. There…

  14. Transforming participatory science into socioecological praxis: valuing marginalized environmental knowledges in the face of the neoliberalization of nature and science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Burke; Nik Heynen

    2014-01-01

    Citizen science and sustainability science promise the more just and democratic production of environmental knowledge and politics. In this review, we evaluate these participatory traditions within the context of (a) our theorization of how the valuation and devaluation of nature, knowledge, and people help to produce socio-ecological hierarchies, the uneven...

  15. Identification of threatened areas of environmental value in the Conservation Area of Mexico City, and setting priorities for their protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenia Saavedra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Almost 60% of the Conservation Area of Mexico City is to the south within the Valley of Mexico; there is an extensive area of forests, scrub, wetlands, grasslands and agricultural zones. It is important for the city’s sustainability because of the environmental services provided such as aquifer recharge, carbon sequestration and biodiversity. It is being threatened by human activities despite a program of ecological regulation; this is partly because environmental problems are not always immediately visible to the government and general public in terms of the need for prompt action. The present study uses spatial evidence to identify and prioritize threatened environmentally valuable areas. Data from a variety of sources are combined, and information geo-referenced with Geographical Information Systems is verified in the field. The resultant maps show that the most threatened ecologically valuable areas are as follows: the oak wood and scrub relicts east of Milpa Alta; the forests west of Cuajimalpa, Álvaro Obregón and Magdalena Contreras; the forests of the Pelado and Malacatepec volcanoes in Tlalpan; and the forests of the Tláloc and Chichinautzin volcanoes in Milpa Alta. These results could be used by decision makers to design timely strategies to protect the Conservation Area and its supply of environmental services to Mexico City.

  16. Environmental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawsan M. Aboul Ezz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotifers are one of the most common, abundant components of plankton in the coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea, which means that they can be used as bio-indicators and provide useful information on the long-term dynamics of the El-Mex Bay ecosystem. Rotifera species were quantitatively and qualitatively assessed in the El-Mex Bay, west of Alexandria at eight stations to study spatial, temporal, dominance, and abundance of the rotifer community and their relation with changes in environmental conditions. Samples were collected seasonally from autumn 2011 to autumn 2012. Ecological parameters were determined and correlated with total rotifers abundance to gain information about the forces that structure the rotifer community in this dynamic environment. A total of 38 rotifer species were identified belonging to 16 genera within 12 families and 3 orders under one class and contributed about 12.1% of the total zooplankton in the study area with an average of 1077 specimens/m3. Maximum density was observed in summer 2012 with an average of 1445 specimens/m3. During autumn 2011 rotifers appeared in low density (434 specimens/m3. The predominant species Ascomorpha saltans, Brachionus urceolaris, Synchaeta oblonga, Synchaeta okai, Synchaeta pectinata and Synchaeta tremula were recorded in all study stations of the bay. Salinity, temperature, depth, and chlorophyll-a concentration were the most important environmental factors co-related with the abundance of rotifers in the El-Mex Bay. A significant positive correlation between the total rotifer abundance and chlorophyll-a was observed during winter 2012 and summer 2012 (r = 0.763 and r = 0.694, respectively, at p ⩽ 0.05.

  17. The interplay of science, values, and experiences among scientists asked to evaluate the hazards of dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, G.L.; Lee, N.L.; Sund, K.G.; Pettygrove, S.D. [Health and Environmental Sciences Group, Ltd., Washington, DC (United States)

    1992-03-01

    To investigate the extent to which personal values and experiences among scientists might affect their assessment of risks from dioxin, radon, and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), we conducted an experiment through a telephone survey of 1461 epidemiologists, toxicologists, physicians, and general scientists. Each participant was read a vignette designed to reflect the mainstream scientific thinking on one of the three substances. For half of the participants (group A) the substance was named. For the other half (group B), the substance was not named but was identified only as Substance X, Y, or Z. Knowing the name of the substance had little effect on the scientists` evaluation of dioxin, although those who knew the substance to be dioxin were more likely to rate the substance as a serious environmental health hazard (51% vs. 42%, p = 0.062). For radon, those who knew they were being asked about ETS rather than substance X were significantly more likely to consider the substance an environmental health hazard (88% vs. 66%, p < 0.001), to consider the substance a serious environmental health hazard (70% vs. 33%, p < 0.001), to believe that background exposure required public health intervention (85% vs. 41%, p < 0.001), and to believe that above-background exposure required public health intervention (90% vs. 74%, p < 0.001). These findings suggest that values and experiences may be influencing health risk assessments for these substances, and indicate the need for more study of this phenomenon. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Should the cut-off values of the lymphocyte to monocyte ratio for prediction of prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma be changed in elderly patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Young Wha; Park, Chan-Sik; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Suh, Cheolwon; Huh, Jooryung

    2014-10-01

    A recent study suggested a prognostic role for the peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR) at diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Here, we investigated the significance of LMR in DLBCL patients in relation to advanced age. We examined the prognostic impact of LMR in 603 DLBCL treated with rituximab plus CHOP, using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for optimal cut-off values, and performed a subgroup analysis according to age. In elderly groups (age ≥ 70), absolute monocyte count was significantly increased, whereas LMR was significantly decreased compared to younger groups. Patients under 70 yr of age with LMR cut-off value (P = 0.059). Therefore, a new LMR cut-off value of 2.36 was selected in elderly patients, having observed that elderly patients with LMR cut-off value of LMR in elderly patients to distinguish high-risk from low-risk groups. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Foliar nutrient and metal levels of crops in the Mount Cameroon area-reference values for plant nutrition and environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J; Mbaka, G E; Ambebe, T F; Nkengafac, J N; Schlosser, S; Fangmeier, A

    2017-04-01

    The growing population number and traffic loads, increasing environmental pressures, agricultural intensification, and the establishment of Mount Cameroon National Park demand farsighted environmental management in the region and the definition of a favorable ecological status. Since plants grow in the interface between soils and the atmosphere they can be used as passive biomonitors for the environmental quality. At the same time, the accumulation of nutrients and pollutants in crops is linked to human health, so that foliar elemental levels can be used as an integrative measure for environmental pollution and impact assessment. In the present study, we collected leaf samples of plantain, cassava, cocoyam, and maize on 28 sites at the southern flanks of Mt. Cameroon and determined 20 chemical elements. Air pollution in the study area comes from biomass and waste burning mainly, but emissions from traffic and a large refinery were believed to also play a significant role. However, spatial patterns in foliar elemental concentrations reflected the geochemistry rather than specific sources of pollution. Significant differences in foliar metal and nutrient levels were observed between the four species, indicating a different demand and uptake of specific elements. The results were compared to published data on nutrient concentrations in the tested species and the so-called reference plant. The data can be used as a baseline for future studies in plant nutrition and the environmental monitoring in inner tropical regions where these crops are grown.

  20. Binary Classification of a Large Collection of Environmental Chemicals from Estrogen Receptor Assays by Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship and Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABSTRACT: There are thousands of environmental chemicals subject to regulatory decisions for endocrine disrupting potential. A promising approach to manage this large universe of untested chemicals is to use a prioritization filter that combines in vitro assays with in silico QSA...

  1. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: A study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin McKelvey; Michael Young; W. L. Knotek; K. J. Carim; T. M. Wilcox; T. M. Padgett-Stewart; Michael Schwartz

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing,...

  2. Investigating Student Use and Value of E-Learning Resources to Develop Academic Writing within the Discipline of Environmental Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taffs, Kathryn H.; Holt, Julienne I.

    2013-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in higher education to support student learning is expanding. However, student usage has been low and the value of e-learning resources has been under investigation. We reflect on best practices for pedagogical design of e-learning resources to support academic writing in environmental…

  3. Assessing the Value-Added by the Environmental Testing Process with the Aide of Physics/Engineering of Failure Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornford, S.; Gibbel, M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Code QT Test Effectiveness Program is funding a series of applied research activities focused on utilizing the principles of physics and engineering of failure and those of engineering economics to assess and improve the value-added by the various validation and verification activities to organizations.

  4. Effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on storage characteristics, nutritive value, and energy content for alfalfa hays packaged in large round bales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Bertram, M G

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hays from 2 cuttings harvested from the same field site were used to evaluate the effects of a propionic acid-based preservative on the storage characteristics and nutritive value of hays stored as large round bales. A total of 87 large round bales (diameter = 1.5m) were included in the study; of these, 45 bales served as controls, whereas 42 were treated with a commercial propionic acid-based preservative at mean application rates of 0.5±0.14 and 0.7±0.19% of bale weight, expressed on a wet (as is) or dry matter basis, respectively. Initial bale moisture concentrations ranged from 10.2 to 40.4%. Internal bale temperatures were monitored daily during an outdoor storage period, and heating characteristics were summarized for each bale as heating degree days (HDD) >30°C. For acid-treated bales, the regression relationship between HDD and initial bale moisture was best fitted to a quadratic model in which the linear term was dropped to improve fit (Y=2.02x(2) - 401; R(2)=0.77); control hays were best fitted to a nonlinear model in which the independent variable was squared [Y=4,112 - (4,549×e(-0.000559x*x)); R(2)=0.77]. Based on these regressions, acid-treated bales accumulated more HDD than control hays when the initial bale moisture was >27.7%; this occurred largely because acid treatment tended to prolong active heating relative to control hays. Linear regressions of recoveries of dry matter on HDD did not differ on the basis of treatment, yielding a common linear relationship of Y=-0.0066x+96.3 (R(2)=0.75). Regressions relating changes (post-storage - pre-storage) in concentrations of several nutritional components (neutral detergent fiber, lignin, ash, crude protein, and total digestible nutrients) with HDD for acid-treated hays typically exhibited more inflection points or were higher-ordered polynomial regressions than those of control hays. These more complex responses probably reflected the perturbation

  5. Detection of Crohn disease lesions of the small and large bowel in pediatric patients: diagnostic value of MR enterography versus reference examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccioni, Francesca; Al Ansari, Najwa; Mazzamurro, Fabrizio; Civitelli, Fortunata; Viola, Franca; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Catalano, Carlo

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to prospectively determine the accuracy of MR enterography in detecting Crohn disease lesions from the jejunum to the anorectal region in pediatric patients, in comparison with main reference investigations. Fifty consecutive children with known Crohn disease underwent MR enterography with oral contrast agent and gadolinium-chelate intravenous injection. Two radiologists detected and localized lesions by dividing the bowel into nine segments (450 analyzed segments in 50 patients). Ileocolonoscopy, barium studies, intestinal ultrasound, and capsule endoscopy were considered as first- and second-level reference examinations and were performed within 15 days of MR enterography. MR enterography detected lesions in 164 of 450 segments, with 155 true-positive and nine false-positive findings; overall sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for small- and large-bowel lesions were 94.5%, 97%, 94.5%, and 97%, respectively (ĸ = 0.93; 95% CI, 0.89-0.97). Sensitivity and specificity values were 88% and 97%, respectively, for the jejunum, 100% and 97% for the proximal-to-mid ileum, 100% and 100% for the distal ileum, 93% and 100% for the cecum, 70% and 97% for the ascending colon, 80% and 100% for the transverse colon, 100% and 92% for the descending colon, 96% and 90% for the sigmoid colon, and 96% and 88% for the rectum. From jejunum to rectum, the AUC value ranged between 0.916 (jejunum) and 1.00 (distal ileum). Perianal fistulas were diagnosed in 15 patients, and other complications were found in 13 patients. MR enterography showed an accuracy comparable to that of reference investigations, for both small- and large-bowel lesions. Because MR enterography is safer and more comprehensive than the reference examinations, it should be considered the primary examination for detecting Crohn disease lesions in children.

  6. The distribution of large herbivore hotspots in relation to environmental and anthropogenic correlates in the Mara region of Kenya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhola, Nina; Ogutu, Joseph O; Said, Mohamed Y; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Olff, Han; Fryxell, John

    2012-01-01

    .... We analyse changes in distributions of herbivore hotspots to understand their environmental and anthropogenic correlates using 50 aerial surveys conducted at a spatial resolution of 5 x 5 km(2) (n = 289 cells...

  7. Large-Scale Monitoring of Plants through Environmental DNA Metabarcoding of Soil: Recovery, Resolution, and Annotation of Four DNA Markers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fahner, Nicole A; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    .... Ecological monitoring often uses plant community composition to infer quality of sites but conventional aboveground surveys only capture a snapshot of the actively growing plant diversity. Environmental DNA (eDNA...

  8. Community-Oriented Biodiversity Environmental education: Its effect on knowledge, values, and behavior among rural fifth- and sixth-grade students in northeastern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapojnard, Sorrayut

    The goals of this study were to (a) develop and implement Community-Orient Biodiversity Environmental Education (COBEE) program in Buriram, northeastern Thailand; and (b) determine its effect on biodiversity-related knowledge, values, and behavior among rural fifth- and sixth-grade students. Local teachers, community leaders, and the author, in association with Thailand's Ministry of Education, together developed a multidisciplinary curriculum to study the community of Satuk, Buriram---its history, lifestyles, and economy, and how these were interconnected with biodiversity issues. The COBEE program provided intensive and ongoing teacher training workshops, supervisory visits, and support group meetings for teachers. Over the 1996--1997 academic year, teachers delivered the COBEE curriculum using both indoor and outdoor activities, including community studies, interviews with local people, developing a species inventory with descriptions of biology, habitats, and uses, and field trips to agricultural fields, local forests, and protected areas. Seven primary schools were randomly assigned as four experimental and three control schools. There were 218 and 198 fifth- and sixth-grade students in the experimental and control schools respectively. The Solomon four-group research design was used to compare students before and after the COBEE program. A set of survey instruments was developed to gather quantitative data. Qualitative data were collected from interviews, participant observations, and students' schoolwork. Three major findings are: (1) An environmental education program can be designed and implemented to produce positive effects not only on objectives identified as the foundation of environmental education (e.g., knowledge, attitudes, and behavior), but also on students' other academic attitudes and development. (2) Based on qualitative data, the relative success of COBEE indicates that curriculum, instruction, nature experience, and other facilitating

  9. Associations between Macrophyte Life Forms and Environmental and Morphometric Factors in a Large Sub-tropical Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenice Schneider

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Macrophyte assemblages are composed of species with different life forms and various ecological functions. Our aim was to investigate the potential environmental determinants of changes in the biomass of individual life forms and of the composition of the macrophyte assemblage in terms of life forms diversity. We sampled 23 waterbodies at low and high water levels in the Middle Paraná River floodplain. Macrophyte biomass samples were collected and classified in terms of life forms. We performed a redundancy analysis using the biomass of the various life forms to assess the importance of environmental variables to the composition of macrophyte life forms. Linear regressions were applied to investigate the environmental determinants of the biomasses of individual life forms. The degree of connectivity and the combination of depth, hydrology and nitrate were the main determinants of the composition in terms of life forms. The biomass of each individual life form was explained by different combinations of environmental variables, but the connectivity was the most important one. Our study shows that groups of species with similar life forms respond to environmental factors in particular ways, which might alter the biomass composition of life forms. Given that the ecosystem functioning depends on the functional characteristics of local communities, our findings about the relation between environmental changes and the community composition in terms of life forms (or functional composition can be a helpful tool for predicting changes on ecosystem processes (such as nutrient cycling against possible future scenarios.

  10. I: Biomarker quantification in fish exposed to crude oil as input to species sensitivity distributions and threshold values for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Steinar; Björkblom, Carina; Jonsson, Henrik; Godal, Brit F; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Lyng, Emily; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a suitable set of biomarker based methods for environmental monitoring in sub-arctic and temperate offshore areas using scientific knowledge on the sensitivity of fish species to dispersed crude oil. Threshold values for environmental monitoring and risk assessment were obtained based on a quantitative comparison of biomarker responses. Turbot, halibut, salmon and sprat were exposed for up to 8 weeks to five different sub-lethal concentrations of dispersed crude oil. Biomarkers assessing PAH metabolites, oxidative stress, detoxification system I activity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption, general cellular stress and histological changes were measured. Results showed that PAH metabolites, CYP1A/EROD, DNA adducts and histopathology rendered the most robust results across the different fish species, both in terms of sensitivity and dose-responsiveness. The reported results contributed to forming links between biomonitoring and risk assessment procedures by using biomarker species sensitivity distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Documenting Temporal Changes in Channel Geometry of the Buffalo RiverResulting from a Large-Scale Environmental Dredging Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Bajo, J. V.; Pfender, K.; Luther, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Buffalo River is classified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to loss of habitat, poor water quality, and contaminated bottom sediments. Much attention is being paid to restoring the environmental health of the river with the goal to address the environmental impairments and de-list the river. In support of this effort, an environmental dredging project taking place between 2011 and 2015 removed over 1 million cubic yards of highly contaminated sediment. To support this project, sounding surveys were conducted before, during, and after removal of sediment to determine the amount of sediment to be removed from different 'dredge cells' in the river. These digital data, available upon request from the United States Army Corps of Engineers and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, are being used to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) using ArcGIS 10.3.1. The DEMs are compared to show channel topography and generate cross sectional profiles. Findings show channel deepening of several meters along with channel widening >10m in some dredged portions of the river. Other areas show decrease in depth and suggest local slumping and redeposition of dredged sediment. The sounding data available throughout the stages of the environmental dredging project support an improved understanding of the temporal changes to Buffalo River's channel resulting from the dredging project. The findings also advance our fundamental understanding about the response by rivers to channel modifications.

  12. The accommodation of large strains in the upper lithosphere of the earth and other solids by self-similar fault systems: the geometrical origin of b-Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Geoffrey

    1983-09-01

    Plate tectonics has provided a method of visualizing the geometry of the deformation of the Earth’s lithosphere on a large scale. The description is so concise that for many purposes it provides an explanation of geological processes that overshadows the need to understand the driving processes. The mechanics of the zones between the plates are less well understood, particularly in continental regions where large areas are subject to deformation. Both continuous and discontinuous models have been tried but both have obvious drawbacks. In this paper concepts of geometrical self-similarity are adapted to provide a description of the multiscale faulting that must occur in such environments. The fractal geometry of Mandelbrot is applied to the problem of continental triple junctions and it is shown that certain arrays of faults can “stabilize” a junction where three faults meet. The conditions required to do this indicate that earthquakes of different sizes must occur in certain proportions. For simple assumptions and conditions of triaxial deformation the proportion is that which is observed globally for earthquakes. Thus, the b-value of unity found empirically by Gutenberg and Richter and others can be regarded as a consequence of three-dimensional self-similar fault geometry. The geometric description can be used to understand the way in which fault systems evolve. Earthquakes initiate and terminate in regions where fault systems bend, because the bends become zones subject to multiscale faulting. Movement on many faults in these regions distributes the stress concentration of a propagating rupture front and terminates motion. The multiple faults create offsets in the next fault to move. These offsets are the asperities that must break before a new earthquake occurs. The self-similar fault geometry requires that a substantial proportion of the deformation in a fault system occur on minor faults and not on the main faults. The proportion of the deformation

  13. Increased agronomic and environmental value provided by biochars with varied physiochemical properties derived from swine manure blended with rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongmin; Brookes, Philip C; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2014-11-05

    To compensate for the shortcomings of manure biochar, an lignocellulose-based feedstock (rice straw) was added into manure-based feedstock (swine manure) at 3:1, 1:1, and 1:3 (w/w) manure/straw ratios during biochar production within the pyrolysis temperature ranging from 300 to 700 °C. The results showed that the pyrolysis temperatures and the proportions of straw added both influenced the biochar properties. The overall properties of biochars at 300, 400, and 500 °C were thoroughly different from those at 600 and 700 °C by principal components analysis (PCA). The XRD, FTIR, and SEM spectra suggested that the addition of straw considerably changed the mineral crystals, functional groups, and porous structures in manure biochar, respectively. The Zn(II) adsorption batch experiments showed that the biochars with more proportions of manure had the largest Zn(II) adsorption capacity than other biochars at 300 °C, which was attributed to the mineral components, oxygen functional groups, and surface areas. To meet varied agronomic and environmental requirements, the different conditions including pyrolysis temperatures and proportions of straw added should be quantitated.

  14. ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbarst, Anthony B; Biwer, Bruce M; Cady, Ralph; Chen, Shih-Yew; Domotor, Stephen; Egidi, Philip; LePoire, David J; Mo, Tin; Peterson, Julie; Walker, Stuart

    2005-11-01

    Federal and state regulatory agencies that are concerned with issues of environmental management have adopted approaches toward policy-making that are dose- and risk-informed. To that end they (and others) have developed environmental models and computer codes to mimic the transport of contaminants along air, water, food-chain, and related pathways for estimating potential exposures, doses, and risks to individuals, populations, and ecosystems. Their calculations commonly find application in the planning of remediation, and thereafter in the demonstration of compliance with federal and state cleanup standards. As the models and codes have become more sophisticated, so also have requirements on the accuracy and level of detail of the numerical point values and probability distributions of environmental transfer factors and other parameters that serve as input parameters to them. In response to this growing need, the federal Interagency Steering Committee On Radiation Standards (ISCORS) and the Argonne National Laboratory have developed an on-line, national repository of information on parameter values and distributions of known provenance and demonstrated utility. The ISCORS Catalog of References to Parameter Values and Distributions Used in Environmental Pathway Modeling for Cleanup of Sites Contaminated with Radioactivity is a web-based, indexed compilation of references, compendia, databases, and other sources of peer-reviewed information on parameters. It does not itself contain numerical point values or distributions for any particular parameter, but rather it provides links or directions to sites or other published materials where such information can be obtained. Designed to be user-friendly, easily searchable, and readily up-dateable, the Catalog is being filled, after some initial priming, mainly through on-line submissions of proposed references by the Catalog users themselves. The relevant information on a proposed reference is submitted to ISCORS in a

  15. Is the nutritional value of grains in broiler chickens' diets affected by environmental factors of soybean (Glycine max) growing and the variety of maize (Zea maize) in Benin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houndonougbo, Mankpondji Frederic; Chwalibog, Andrzej; Chrysostome, C.A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    by soybean grains to supply mainly the dietary energy did not show an adverse effect of the diet on these variables. However, the variety of maize affected significantly the feed cost and the economic feed efficiency at starter phase. It can be concluded that under the particular conditions...... of this experiment, the environmental factors did not change significantly the nutritional value of soybean grains in chickens' diets. The grain of local variety of white maize were suitable at all ages, whereas the grains of DMR-ESRW were more economic in grower than starter broiler chickens feeding....

  16. Reference values of one-point carotid stiffness parameters determined by carotid echo-tracking and brachial pulse pressure in a large population of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriz, Olga; Aboyans, Victor; Minisini, Rosalba; Magne, Julien; Bertin, Nicole; Pirisi, Mario; Bossone, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Arterial stiffness can predict cardiovascular events, and the aim of this study was to produce age- and sex-specific reference values for echo-tracking carotid stiffness in healthy subjects. A total of 900 subjects (500 males, mean age 45.8±19 years) were enrolled. Common carotid artery stiffness and compliance, using a high-definition echo-tracking ultrasound system, were evaluated. To compare stiffness parameters across the different age groups, individual scores were transformed into T-scores, indicating how many standard deviation (s.d.) units an individual's score was above or below the mean that was observed in the group including same-sex individuals aged 36 to 44 years. Carotid stiffness was similar among genders, except compliance, which was lower in women (Pparameters increased significantly with age, but the opposite occurred for compliance. The T-score was found to increase significantly across all age groups, with a steeper increase in stiffness around the age of 60 years in women. For each T-score s.d., the corresponding carotid absolute values for arterial stiffness and compliance were obtained. In a multivariate model, carotid stiffness parameters were constantly and independently associated with age, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, heart rate and body mass index. Our study provides a normogram of carotid arterial stiffness and compliance indices obtained with the echo-tracking method in a large population of healthy subjects stratified by gender and age that can be used in clinical practice.

  17. A reappraisal of small- and large-fiber damage in carpal tunnel syndrome: New insights into the value of the EMLA test for improving diagnostic sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triki, Leila; Zouari, Hela G; Kammoun, Rim; Kammoun, Firas; Kammoun, Ines; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2017-12-01

    To reappraise the respective involvement of small- and large-fiber damage in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of autonomic tests compared to conventional nerve conduction study (NCS). Thirty-two manual workers complaining of at least unilateral CTS were enrolled. They underwent clinical interview and completed the symptom severity scale of the Boston CTS Questionnaire (sssBCTQ) and the Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory (NPSI). In addition, transcarpal NCS was performed to investigate large sensory and motor fibers of the median nerve, while small autonomic fibers were assessed by recording sympathetic skin reflexes (SSR) at the palm and by grading skin wrinkling in response to eutectic mixture of local anesthetic (EMLA) cream application at the pulp of the index finger. For each neurophysiological variable, sensitivity and specificity values for the diagnosis of CTS were calculated and clinical correlations were studied. Among 64 hands examined, 36 were clinically symptomatic, while 22 were clinically asymptomatic and served as controls. Among all the neurophysiological variables studied, only the values of transcarpal sensory nerve conduction velocity and the EMLA test grade were found to be more altered in clinically symptomatic hands, with also a trend towards prolonged distal motor latency. Overall, for the diagnosis of clinically symptomatic CTS, NCS, SSR, and the EMLA test had a sensitivity of 66.7%, 22.2%, and 69.4%, respectively, and a specificity of 72.7%, 90.9%, and 50%, respectively. Combining NCS and the EMLA test led to a sensitivity of 88.9% and a specificity of 45.4%. The sssBCTQ (r=-0.34, P=0.009) and the total NPSI score (r=-0.41, P=0.001) correlated to a more altered EMLA test grade, but not to any NCS or SSR variables. In symptomatic hands, burning sensation was associated with more severe small-fiber lesion, while other pain and sensory symptoms were rather found to be reduced in case of large

  18. Eco-environmental vulnerability assessment for large drinking water resource: a case study of Qiandao Lake Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qing; Li, Jun; Deng, Jinsong; Lin, Yi; Ma, Ligang; Wu, Chaofan; Wang, Ke; Hong, Yang

    2015-09-01

    The Qiandao Lake Area (QLA) is of great significance in terms of drinking water supply in East Coast China as well as a nationally renowned tourist attraction. A series of laws and regulations regarding the QLA environment have been enacted and implemented throughout the past decade with the aim of negating the harmful effects associated with expanding urbanization and industrialization. In this research, an assessment framework was developed to analyze the eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA from 1990-2010 by integrating fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) and geographical information systems (GIS) in an attempt to gain insights into the status quo of the QLA so as to review and evaluate the effectiveness of the related policies. After processing and analyzing the temporal and spatial variation of eco-environmental vulnerability and major environmental issues in the QLA, we found that the state of eco-environmental vulnerability of the QLA was acceptable, though a moderate deterioration was detected during the study period. Furthermore, analysis of the combination of vulnerability and water quality indicated that the water quality showed signs of declination, though the overall status remained satisfactory. It was hence concluded that the collective protection and treatment actions were effective over the study period, whereas immediately stricter measures would be required for protecting the drinking water quality from domestic sewage and industrial wastewater. Finally, the spatial variation of the eco-environmental vulnerability assessment also implied that specifically more targeted measures should be adopted in respective regions for long-term sustainable development of the QLA.

  19. Closed-loop recycling of construction and demolition waste in Germany in view of stricter environmental threshold values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Marcel; Jeske, Udo; Schebek, Liselotte

    2006-06-01

    Recycling of construction and demolition waste contributes decisively to the saving of natural mineral resources. In Germany, processed mineral construction and demolition waste from structural engineering is used nearly exclusively in civil engineering (earthwork and road construction sector) as open-loop recycling. Due to the planned stricter limit values for the protection of soil and water, however, this recycling path in civil engineering may no longer be applicable in the future. According to some new guidelines and standards adopted recently, recycled aggregates may also be used for concrete production in the structural engineering sector (closed-loop recycling). Wastes from the structural engineering sector can thus be kept in a closed cycle, and their disposal on a landfill can be avoided. The present report focuses on the determination of maximum waste volumes that may be handled by this new recycling option. Potential adverse effects on the saving of resources and climate protection have been analysed. For this purpose, materials flow analysis and ecobalancing methods have been used.

  20. Maintaining economic value of ecosystem services whilst reducing environmental cost: a way to achieve freshwater restoration in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mingli; Li, Zhongjie; Liu, Jiashou; Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Lek, Sovan; Zhang, Tanglin; Ye, Shaowen; Li, Wei; Yuan, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 μg/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular.

  1. HOW THE ROCKY FLATS ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY SITE DEVELOPED A NEW WASTE PACKAGE USING A POLYUREA COATING THAT IS SAFELY AND ECONOMICALLY ELIMINATING SIZE REDUCTION OF LARGE ITEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorr, Kent A.; Hogue, Richard S.; Kimokeo, Margaret K.

    2003-02-27

    One of the major challenges involved in closing the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is the disposal of extremely large pieces of contaminated production equipment and building debris. Past practice has been to size reduce the equipment into pieces small enough to fit into approved, standard waste containers. Size reducing this equipment is extremely expensive, and exposes workers to high-risk tasks, including significant industrial, chemical, and radiological hazards. RFETS has developed a waste package using a Polyurea coating for shipping large contaminated objects. The cost and schedule savings have been significant.

  2. ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEWS AND CASE STUDIES: The National Park Service Visual Resource Inventory: Capturing the Historic and Cultural Values of Scenic Views

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert G.; Meyer, Mark E.

    2016-08-30

    of the scenic values of views within and outside NPS units.

    Environmental Practice 18: 166–179 (2016)

  3. Maintaining economic value of ecosystem services whilst reducing environmental cost: a way to achieve freshwater restoration in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingli Lin

    Full Text Available Freshwater fisheries are central to food security in China and this remains one of the most important priorities for the growing human population. Thus, combining ecosystem restoration with economics is pivotal in setting successful conservation in China. Here, we have developed a practical management model that combines fishery improvement with conservation. For six years, a ban on fertilizer and a reduction of planktivorous fish stocking along with the introduction of both mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi and Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis was apparent in Wuhu Lake, a highly eutrophic lake located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze River. Annual fish yield decreased slightly after the change in management, whereas fisheries income increased 2.6 times. Mandarin fish and Chinese mitten crab accounted for only 16% of total fisheries production but for 48% of total fisheries income. During this six year period, water clarity increased significantly from 61 cm to 111 cm. Total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chlorophyll decreased significantly from 1.14 to 0.84 mg/L, 0.077 to 0.045 mg/L, and 21.45 to 11.59 μg/L respectively, and macrophyte coverage increased by about 30%. Our results showed that the ecological status of shallow lakes could be rapidly reversed from eutrophic to oligotrophic using simple biomanipulation, whilst maintaining fisheries economic value. It also offers a better approach to shallow fisheries lake management in Asia where traditionally the stocking of Chinese carp and use of fertilizers is still popular.

  4. Assessing Environmental Justice in Large Hydropower Projects: The Case of São Luiz do Tapajós in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Ernst Emil Hess

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electricity supply in a sustainable manner is one of the greatest challenges for human society today. Hydropower is by far the most important renewable electricity technology, but equally far from uncontroversial. Indeed, it is situated at the crossroad of socio-environmentalism trends, as strongly promoted by some as opposed by other environmentalist arguments, organisations and movements. This paper suggests Environmental Justice as an alternative approach on how to incorporate sustainability into energy planning, particularly in hydropower projects. Whereas several methods have been developed to assess Environmental Justice in an urban context, little attention has been given to electricity projects so far. A qualitative method to assess hydropower projects regarding their performance in Environmental Justice is discussed and illustrated in the case of the large hydropower project São Luiz do Tapajós in the Brazilian Amazon. As will be shown, fundamental change is necessary in Brazil if energy planning in general and hydropower projects in particular are to meet the principles of Environmental Justice.

  5. Are arrival date and body mass after spring migration influenced by large-scale environmental factors in a migratory seabird?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lesley eSzostek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the timing of migratory events have been observed recently in many migratory species, most likely in response to climatic change. In the common tern Sterna hirundo we examined such changes in spring arrival date and body mass based on a 19 year individual-based longitudinal data from a transponder marked colony from 1994 - 2012. Although no long-term trend was observed in either trait, strong inter-annual and age-specific variation in arrival date and mass was evident. We investigated whether environmental factors such as (i global climate phenomena North Atlantic and Southern Oscillation Indices NAOI and SOI, or (ii local factors, such as food abundance in the wintering and breeding area, represented by fish stock or marine primary productivity, could explain this variation. We found that 2-year-old birds on their first spring migration advanced arrival relative to spring NAOI and delayed arrival relative to sprat Sprattus sprattus abundance. The arrival date of 3-year-olds also advanced in relation to NAOI and delayed in relation to winter SOI. In contrast, adults delayed arrival with NAOI and advanced relative to SOI. Within age groups, earlier annual arrival coincided with higher mass, indicating that a fast and/or early migration did not come at a cost to body condition. Changes in arrival mass relative to environmental covariates were found only in 2-year-olds on their first spring migration: in these birds arrival mass was positively related to herring Clupea harengus and sprat abundance in the breeding area as well as spring NAOI and negatively related to SOI. In conclusion, traits related to migration of common terns were linked with environmental conditions, but showed no long-term trends over the past two decades. Age-related differences were marked, suggesting that common terns might be subject to differing environmental constraints or respond differently to conditions during their annual cycle depending on age.

  6. Assessing the general safety and tolerability of vildagliptin: value of pooled analyses from a large safety database versus evaluation of individual studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweizer A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Anja Schweizer1, Sylvie Dejager2, James E Foley3, Wolfgang Kothny31Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 2Novartis Pharma SAS, Rueil-Malmaison, France; 3Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USAAim: Analyzing safety aspects of a drug from individual studies can lead to difficult-to-interpret results. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess the general safety and tolerability, including incidences of the most common adverse events (AEs, of vildagliptin based on a large pooled database of Phase II and III clinical trials.Methods: Safety data were pooled from 38 studies of ≥12 to ≥104 weeks' duration. AE profiles of vildagliptin (50 mg bid; N = 6116 were evaluated relative to a pool of comparators (placebo and active comparators; N = 6210. Absolute incidence rates were calculated for all AEs, serious AEs (SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths.Results: Overall AEs, SAEs, discontinuations due to AEs, and deaths were all reported with a similar frequency in patients receiving vildagliptin (69.1%, 8.9%, 5.7%, and 0.4%, respectively and patients receiving comparators (69.0%, 9.0%, 6.4%, and 0.4%, respectively, whereas drug-related AEs were seen with a lower frequency in vildagliptin-treated patients (15.7% vs 21.7% with comparators. The incidences of the most commonly reported specific AEs were also similar between vildagliptin and comparators, except for increased incidences of hypoglycemia, tremor, and hyperhidrosis in the comparator group related to the use of sulfonylureas.Conclusions: The present pooled analysis shows that vildagliptin was overall well tolerated in clinical trials of up to >2 years in duration. The data further emphasize the value of a pooled analysis from a large safety database versus assessing safety and tolerability from individual studies.Keywords: type 2 diabetes, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, edema, safety, vildagliptin

  7. Different predictive values of interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT in germinal center like and non-germinal center like diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Paik, Jin Ho; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun; Song, Yoo Sung

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a pathologically heterogeneous disease with different prognoses according to its molecular profiles. Despite the broad usage of (18)F-fluoro-2-dexoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), previous studies that have investigated the value of interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT in DLBCL have given the controversial results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT in DLBCL according to germinal center B cell-like (GCB) and non-GCB molecular profiling. We enrolled 118 newly diagnosed DLBCL patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP). Interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT scans performed after 2 or 3 cycles of R-CHOP treatment were evaluated based on the Lugano response criteria. Patients were grouped as GCB or non-GCB molecular subtypes according to immunohistochemistry results of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1, based on Hans' algorithm. In total 118 DLBCL patients, 35 % were classified as GCB, and 65 % were classified as non-GCB. Interim PET/CT was negative in 70 %, and positive in 30 %. During the median follow-up period of 23 months, the positive interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT group showed significantly inferior progression free survival (PFS) compared to the negative interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT group (P = 0.0004) in entire patients. A subgroup analysis according to molecular profiling demonstrated significant difference of PFS between the positive and negative interim (18)F-FDG PET groups in GCB subtype of DLBCL (P = 0.0001), but there was no significant difference of PFS between the positive and negative interim (18)F-FDG PET groups in non-GCB subtype of DLBCL. Interim (18)F-FDG PET/CT scanning had a significant predictive value for disease progression in patients with the GCB subtype of DLBCL treated with R-CHOP, but not in those with the non-GCB subtype. Therefore, molecular profiles of DLBCL should be

  8. Demonstrating a new framework for the comparison of environmental impacts from small- and large-scale hydropower and wind power projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Aase, Anne Guri; Hagen, Dagmar; Sundt, Håkon; Barton, David N; Lujala, Päivi

    2014-07-01

    Climate change and the needed reductions in the use of fossil fuels call for the development of renewable energy sources. However, renewable energy production, such as hydropower (both small- and large-scale) and wind power have adverse impacts on the local environment by causing reductions in biodiversity and loss of habitats and species. This paper compares the environmental impacts of many small-scale hydropower plants with a few large-scale hydropower projects and one wind power farm, based on the same set of environmental parameters; land occupation, reduction in wilderness areas (INON), visibility and impacts on red-listed species. Our basis for comparison was similar energy volumes produced, without considering the quality of the energy services provided. The results show that small-scale hydropower performs less favourably in all parameters except land occupation. The land occupation of large hydropower and wind power is in the range of 45-50 m(2)/MWh, which is more than two times larger than the small-scale hydropower, where the large land occupation for large hydropower is explained by the extent of the reservoirs. On all the three other parameters small-scale hydropower performs more than two times worse than both large hydropower and wind power. Wind power compares similarly to large-scale hydropower regarding land occupation, much better on the reduction in INON areas, and in the same range regarding red-listed species. Our results demonstrate that the selected four parameters provide a basis for further development of a fair and consistent comparison of impacts between the analysed renewable technologies. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor Burden Assessed by the Maximum Standardized Uptake Value and Greatest Diameter on FDG-PET Predicts Prognosis in Untreated Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Xuan Canh; Lee, Won Woo; Amin, Amr Mohamed; Eo, Jae Seon; Kim, Sang Eun; Lee, Jong Seok [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    It is uncertain whether the tumor burden as assessed using FDG-PET has prognostic significance in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The authors undertook this study to determine whether a parameter that reflects both FDG uptake magnitude and the greatest tumor diameter is a prognostic indicator in DLBCL. Forty-two DLBCL patients (age, 57.4{+-}15.5 years; male/female=25/17; stage I/II/III/IV=5/17/10/10) who underwent FDG-PET before chemotherapy were enrolled. A lesion with the highest maximum standardized uptake value (MaxSUV) on the PET image was selected, and size-incorporated MaxSUV (SIMaxSUV) of mass was calculated as MaxSUV x greatest diameter (mm) on the transaxial PET image. Median follow-up duration was 20.0 months. Twelve (28.6%=12/42) patients experienced disease progression, and 10 (23.8%=10/42) died during follow-up. Among six variables [Ann Arbor stage, %Ki-67 expression, International Prognostic Index (IPI), MaxSUV, greatest diameter, and SIMaxSUV] investigated, only SIMaxSUV was found to be a single determinant of progression-free and overall survivals by multivariate analyses (p<0.05). These results suggest that SIMaxSUV, a new FDG-PET parameter that incorporates FDG uptake magnitude and the greatest tumor diameter, may be a useful indicator of prognosis in untreated DLBCL.

  10. Does the presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT have any prognostic value in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Hugo J.A.; Nievelstein, Rutger A.J.; Kwee, Thomas C. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Utrecht (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Fijnheer, Rob [Meander Medical Center, Department of Hematology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heggelman, Ben G.F. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Dubois, Stefan V. [Meander Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prognostic value of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at computed tomography (CT) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 105 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone CT and bone marrow biopsy (BMB) before R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, Oncovin, and prednisolone) chemo-immunotherapy. Cox regression analyses were used to determine the associations of cortical bone status at CT (absence vs. presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction), BMB findings (negative vs. positive for lymphomatous involvement), and dichotomized National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) strata (low risk vs. high risk) with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Univariate Cox regression analysis indicated that cortical bone status at CT was no significant predictor of either PFS or OS (p = 0.358 and p = 0.560, respectively), whereas BMB findings (p = 0.002 and p = 0.013, respectively) and dichotomized NCCN-IPI risk strata (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively) were significant predictors of both PFS and OS. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only the dichotomized NCCN-IPI score was an independent predictive factor of PFS and OS (p = 0.004 and p = 0.003, respectively). The presence of tumor-induced cortical bone destruction at CT was not found to have any prognostic implications in newly diagnosed DLBCL. (orig.)

  11. Forecasting Large-Scale Habitat Suitability of European Bustards under Climate Change: The Role of Environmental and Geographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alba; Delgado, M. Paula; Arroyo, Beatriz; Traba, Juan; Morales, Manuel B.

    2016-01-01

    We modelled the distribution of two vulnerable steppe birds, Otis tarda and Tetrax tetrax, in the Western Palearctic and projected their suitability up to the year 2080. We performed two types of models for each species: one that included environmental and geographic variables (space-included model) and a second one that only included environmental variables (space-excluded model). Our assumption was that ignoring geographic variables in the modelling procedure may result in inaccurate forecasting of species distributions. On the other hand, the inclusion of geographic variables may generate an artificial constraint on future projections. Our results show that space-included models performed better than space-excluded models. While distribution of suitable areas for T. tetrax in the future was approximately the same as at present in the space-included model, the space-excluded model predicted a pronounced geographic change of suitable areas for this species. In the case of O. tarda, the space-included model showed that many areas of current presence shifted to low or medium suitability in the future, whereas a northward expansion of intermediate suitable areas was predicted by the space-excluded one. According to the best models, current distribution of these species can restrict future distribution, probably due to dispersal constraints and site fidelity. Species ranges would be expected to shift gradually over the studied time period and, therefore, we consider it unlikely that most of the current distribution of these species in southern Europe will disappear in less than one hundred years. Therefore, populations currently occupying suitable areas should be a priority for conservation policies. Our results also show that climate-only models may have low explanatory power, and could benefit from adjustments using information on other environmental variables and biological traits; if the latter are not available, including the geographic predictor may improve the

  12. Forecasting Large-Scale Habitat Suitability of European Bustards under Climate Change: The Role of Environmental and Geographic Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Alba; Delgado, M Paula; Arroyo, Beatriz; Traba, Juan; Morales, Manuel B

    2016-01-01

    We modelled the distribution of two vulnerable steppe birds, Otis tarda and Tetrax tetrax, in the Western Palearctic and projected their suitability up to the year 2080. We performed two types of models for each species: one that included environmental and geographic variables (space-included model) and a second one that only included environmental variables (space-excluded model). Our assumption was that ignoring geographic variables in the modelling procedure may result in inaccurate forecasting of species distributions. On the other hand, the inclusion of geographic variables may generate an artificial constraint on future projections. Our results show that space-included models performed better than space-excluded models. While distribution of suitable areas for T. tetrax in the future was approximately the same as at present in the space-included model, the space-excluded model predicted a pronounced geographic change of suitable areas for this species. In the case of O. tarda, the space-included model showed that many areas of current presence shifted to low or medium suitability in the future, whereas a northward expansion of intermediate suitable areas was predicted by the space-excluded one. According to the best models, current distribution of these species can restrict future distribution, probably due to dispersal constraints and site fidelity. Species ranges would be expected to shift gradually over the studied time period and, therefore, we consider it unlikely that most of the current distribution of these species in southern Europe will disappear in less than one hundred years. Therefore, populations currently occupying suitable areas should be a priority for conservation policies. Our results also show that climate-only models may have low explanatory power, and could benefit from adjustments using information on other environmental variables and biological traits; if the latter are not available, including the geographic predictor may improve the

  13. Forecasting Large-Scale Habitat Suitability of European Bustards under Climate Change: The Role of Environmental and Geographic Variables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Estrada

    Full Text Available We modelled the distribution of two vulnerable steppe birds, Otis tarda and Tetrax tetrax, in the Western Palearctic and projected their suitability up to the year 2080. We performed two types of models for each species: one that included environmental and geographic variables (space-included model and a second one that only included environmental variables (space-excluded model. Our assumption was that ignoring geographic variables in the modelling procedure may result in inaccurate forecasting of species distributions. On the other hand, the inclusion of geographic variables may generate an artificial constraint on future projections. Our results show that space-included models performed better than space-excluded models. While distribution of suitable areas for T. tetrax in the future was approximately the same as at present in the space-included model, the space-excluded model predicted a pronounced geographic change of suitable areas for this species. In the case of O. tarda, the space-included model showed that many areas of current presence shifted to low or medium suitability in the future, whereas a northward expansion of intermediate suitable areas was predicted by the space-excluded one. According to the best models, current distribution of these species can restrict future distribution, probably due to dispersal constraints and site fidelity. Species ranges would be expected to shift gradually over the studied time period and, therefore, we consider it unlikely that most of the current distribution of these species in southern Europe will disappear in less than one hundred years. Therefore, populations currently occupying suitable areas should be a priority for conservation policies. Our results also show that climate-only models may have low explanatory power, and could benefit from adjustments using information on other environmental variables and biological traits; if the latter are not available, including the geographic

  14. Local Assessment With Potential and/or Used in Environmental Tourism in Large-Field kill City Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cadija Duarte Jafar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The city of Campo Grande has natural attractions that can be used in the so-called environmental tourism. However, most areas with such potential do not have proper infrastructure to shelter visitors or their physical structure is deteriorated. The critical evaluation of these places using criteria of tourist potential indicates that most of the areas of the city do not have adequate infrastructure for the reception of the visitors or their physical structure is spoiled and only five areas have adequate conditions (high potential.

  15. Valores humanos como explicadores de atitudes ambientais e intenção de comportamento pró-ambiental Human values as predictors of environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Artur Peçanha de Miranda Coelho

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os valores humanos têm sido apontados como importantes para o entendimento e predição de atitudes e comportamentos pró-ambientais. Embora a literatura saliente a relação destes três construtos, nenhuma informação foi encontrada considerando amostras brasileiras. Este estudo buscou contribuir para preencher esta lacuna. O estudo contou com a participação de 208 estudantes universitários, sendo a maioria de uma universidade privada (63,8%, do sexo feminino (73,4% e com idade média de 28 anos (DP = 7,0. Estes responderam a dois instrumentos: Questionário dos Valores de Schwartz e Escala de Atitudes Ecocêntricas e Antropocêntricas, além de uma pergunta acerca da intenção de se engajar em comportamento pró-ambiental e questões demográficas. Os resultados corroboraram estudos prévios, indicando que os valores de autotranscendência, especificamente os de orientação universalista, predizem atitudes e comportamentos pró-ambientais. Os resultados são discutidos, propondo a utilização dos valores humanos como facilitadores na promoção de comportamentos em prol do ambiente.Human values have been pointed out as important predictors of environmental attitudes and pro-environmental behaviors. Although the literature supports the relationship between these three constructs, no information was found considering Brazilian samples. This study aimed to contribute to this gap. Participated in this study a number of 208 undergraduate students; most of them were from a private university (63.8%, female (73.4% and with mean age of 28 years (SD = 7.0. They answered the Schwartz Values Survey and the Echocentric and Anthropocentric Attitudes Scale, an item to measure intention of pro-environment behaviors, and demographic questions. Results support previous studies. Specifically, self-transcendence values were the most important to explain pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. These findings are discussed regarding the possibility of

  16. Environmental characteristics and student physical activity in PE class: findings from two large urban areas of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skala, Katherine A; Springer, Andrew E; Sharma, Shreela V; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Kelder, Steven H

    2012-05-01

    Physical education (PE) classes provide opportunities for children to be active. This study examined the associations between specific environmental characteristics (teacher characteristics; class size, duration and location; and lesson context) and elementary school-aged children's moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA) during PE. Environmental characteristics and student activity levels were measured in 211 third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade PE classes in 74 Texas public schools using SOFIT direct observation. Students engaged in less than half their PE class time in MVPA (38%), while approximately 25% of class time was spent in classroom management. Percent time in MVPA was significantly higher in outdoor classes compared with indoors (41.4% vs. 36.1%, P = .037). Larger (P = .044) and longer (P = .001) classes were negatively associated with percentage of MVPA and positively correlated with time spent in management (P class size, location, and lesson contexts. These findings hold important policy implications for PE class organization and the need for strategies that maximize children's MVPA. Further research is needed to test the causal association of these factors with student MVPA.

  17. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  18. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, E.R.; van Stralen, K.J.; le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, Catharina Jacoba Maria

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case–control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  19. Cultivating a Value for Non-Human Interests through the Convergence of Animal Welfare, Animal Rights, and Deep Ecology in Environmental Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Kopnina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While the original objective of environmental education (EE and education for sustainable development (ESD acquired an awareness of the natural world and its current plight, animal welfare (AW, animal rights (AR, and deep ecology (DE have often been absent within EE and ESD. AW and AR focus their attention on individual animals, while the DE perspective recognizes the intrinsic value of the environment. In this article, we shall discuss how the integration of these three approaches within EE/ESD can and should be improved, with particular reference to the ethical underpinnings of educational scholarship and practice. This article will argue that these three positions are well placed to enhance the democratic practices of EE/ESD through the adoption of an inclusive pluralism that embraces representation of non-human species and recognizes their interests.

  20. The quality and value of seasonal precipitation forecasts for an early warning of large-scale droughts and floods in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliefernicht, Jan; Seidel, Jochen; Salack, Seyni; Waongo, Moussa; Laux, Patrick; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal precipitation forecasts are a crucial source of information for an early warning of hydro-meteorological extremes in West Africa. However, the current seasonal forecasting system used by the West African weather services in the framework of the West African Climate Outlook forum (PRESAO) is limited to probabilistic precipitation forecasts of 1-month lead time. To improve this provision, we use an ensemble-based quantile-quantile transformation for bias correction of precipitation forecasts provided by a global seasonal ensemble prediction system, the Climate Forecast System Version 2 (CFS2). The statistical technique eliminates systematic differences between global forecasts and observations with the potential to preserve the signal from the model. The technique has also the advantage that it can be easily implemented at national weather services with low capacities. The statistical technique is used to generate probabilistic forecasts of monthly and seasonal precipitation amount and other precipitation indices useful for an early warning of large-scale drought and floods in West Africa. The evaluation of the statistical technique is done using CFS hindcasts (1982 to 2009) in a cross-validation mode to determine the performance of the precipitation forecasts for several lead times focusing on drought and flood events depicted over the Volta and Niger basins. In addition, operational forecasts provided by PRESAO are analyzed from 1998 to 2015. The precipitation forecasts are compared to low-skill reference forecasts generated from gridded observations (i.e. GPCC, CHIRPS) and a novel in-situ gauge database from national observation networks (see Poster EGU2017-10271). The forecasts are evaluated using state-of-the-art verification techniques to determine specific quality attributes of probabilistic forecasts such as reliability, accuracy and skill. In addition, cost-loss approaches are used to determine the value of probabilistic forecasts for multiple users

  1. Influence of environmental factors on the abundance of Anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water streams in Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butafa Charles

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main vector of malaria in Solomon Islands is Anopheles farauti, which has a mainly coastal distribution. In Northern Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, high densities of An. farauti are supported by large brackish streams, which in the dry season are dammed by localized sand migration. The factors controlling the high larval productivity of these breeding sites have not been identified. Accordingly the influence of environmental factors on the presence and density of An. farauti larvae was assessed in three large naturally dammed streams. Methods Larval sites were mapped and anopheline larvae were collected monthly for 12 months (July 2007 to June 2008 from three streams using standard dippers. Larval collections were made from 10 locations spaced at 50 m intervals along the edge of each stream starting from the coast. At each collection point, floating filamentous algae, aquatic emergent plants, sun exposure, and salinity were measured. These environmental parameters along with rainfall were correlated with larval presence and density. Results The presence and abundance of An. farauti larvae varied between streams and was influenced by the month of collection, and distance from the ocean (p 0.001. Larvae were more frequently present and more abundant within 50 m of the ocean during the dry season when the streams were dammed. The presence and density of larvae were positively associated with aquatic emergent plants (presence: p = 0.049; density: p = 0.001. Although filamentous algae did not influence the presence of larvae, this factor did significantly influence the density of larvae (p Conclusion This study has demonstrated that the presence and abundance An. farauti larvae are influenced by environmental factors within the large streams. Understanding these parameters will allow for targeted cost effective implementation of source reduction and larviciding to support the frontline malaria control measures i.e. indoor

  2. Incorporating Environmental Objectives into the Design Process of Large Made-to-Order Projects. A Case Study of Two Design Teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Stoyell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmetal performance needs to be considered during the conceptual design of Large Made-to-Order products and processes. This paper presents work from a case-study of two such companies based on the study of current practice. Key design activities are modeled using an IDEFO based methodology to investigate opportunities for improvement and to isolate the main barriers against achieving clean design. A system for the transfer of client level environmental objectives to the design team is proposed in order to achieve clean design.

  3. Sampling large geographic areas for rare species using environmental DNA: a study of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus occupancy in western Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, K S; Young, M K; Knotek, W L; Carim, K J; Wilcox, T M; Padgett-Stewart, T M; Schwartz, M K

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the efficacy of environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling to delineate the distribution of bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in headwater streams in western Montana, U.S.A. Surveys proved fast, reliable and sensitive: 124 samples were collected across five basins by a single crew in c. 8 days. Results were largely consistent with past electrofishing, but, in a basin where S. confluentus were known to be scarce, eDNA samples indicated that S. confluentus were more broadly distributed than previously thought. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  4. Large scale pantelleritic ash flow eruptions during the Late Miocene in central Kenya and evidence for significant environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, L.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J. M.; Wijbrans, J. R.; van Gorp, W.; Macdonald, R.

    2016-10-01

    In the area south-east of Mount Kenya, four previously unrecorded peralkaline rhyolitic (pantelleritic) ash flow tuffs have been located. These predominantly greyish welded and non-welded tuffs form up to 12 m thick units, which are sometimes characterized by a basal vitrophyre. The four flow units yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging from 6.36 to 8.13 Ma, indicating a period of 1.8 Ma of pantelleritic volcanic activity during the Late Miocene in central Kenya. Tentative compositional and age correlations with other known tuff deposits suggest that the pantelleritic tuffs originally covered 40,000 km2 in central Kenya, extending much further than earlier recorded Pliocene tuffs. This newly identified magmatic phase occurred between the phonolitic flood eruptions (16-8 Ma) and the Pliocene tuff eruptions (6-4 Ma). The occurrence of multiple ash flow tuff deposits up to 150 km away from the inferred eruptive center(s) in the central sector of the Kenya Rift, indicates multi-cyclic peralkaline supereruptions during the Late Miocene. By analogy with more recent pantelleritic eruptions, the tuffs are thought to have been sulfur-rich; during eruption, they formed stratospheric aerosols, with significant environmental impact. The timing of the eruptions coincides with the shift towards more savannah-dominated environments in East Africa.

  5. Stereo-electronic, vibrational, and environmental contributions to polarizabilities of large molecular systems: a feasible anharmonic protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Giovannini, Tommaso; Piccardo, Matteo; Bloino, Julien; Cappelli, Chiara; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-06-10

    Reliable computations of linear and non-linear optical properties of molecular systems in condensed phases require a proper account of stereo-electronic, vibrational, and environmental effects. In the framework of density functional theory, these effects can be accurately introduced using second-order vibrational perturbation theory in conjunction with polarizable continuum models. We illustrate the combination of an anharmonic description of the ground-state potential energy surface with solvation effects treated with the polarizable continuum model (PCM) in the calculation of the electronic, zero-point, and pure vibrational polarizabilities of selected systems. The description of the solvation environment is enriched by taking into account the dynamical aspects of the solute-solvent interactions through the inclusion of both electronic and vibrational non-equilbrium effects, as well as the direct effect of the solvent on the electric field that generates the molecular response (local field effect). This treatment yields accurate results which can be directly compared with experimental findings without the need of empirical corrections.

  6. The halophilic alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophilus adapts to multiple environmental extremes using a large repertoire of Na(K)/H antiporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Cook, Gregory M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2009-10-01

    Natranaerobius thermophilus is an unusual extremophile because it is halophilic, alkaliphilic and thermophilic, growing optimally at 3.5 M Na(+), pH(55 degrees C) 9.5 and 53 degrees C. Mechanisms enabling this tripartite lifestyle are essential for understanding how microorganisms grow under inhospitable conditions, but remain unknown, particularly in extremophiles growing under multiple extremes. We report on the response of N. thermophilus to external pH at high salt and elevated temperature and identify mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. N. thermophilus exhibited cytoplasm acidification, maintaining an unanticipated transmembrane pH gradient of 1 unit over the entire extracellular pH range for growth. N. thermophilus uses two distinct mechanisms for cytoplasm acidification. At extracellular pH values at and below the optimum, N. thermophilus utilizes at least eight electrogenic Na(+)(K(+))/H(+) antiporters for cytoplasm acidification. Characterization of these antiporters in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc showed overlapping pH profiles (pH 7.8-10.0) and Na(+) concentrations for activity (K(0.5) values 1.0-4.4 mM), properties that correlate with intracellular conditions of N. thermophilus. As the extracellular pH increases beyond the optimum, electrogenic antiport activity ceases, and cytoplasm acidification is achieved by energy-independent physiochemical effects (cytoplasmic buffering) potentially mediated by an acidic proteome. The combination of these strategies allows N. thermophilus to grow over a range of extracellular pH and Na(+) concentrations and protect biomolecules under multiple extreme conditions.

  7. The halophilic alkalithermophile Natranaerobius thermophilus adapts to multiple environmental extremes using a large repertoire of Na+(K+)/H+ antiporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesbah, Noha M; Cook, Gregory M; Wiegel, Juergen

    2009-01-01

    Natranaerobius thermophilus is an unusual extremophile because it is halophilic, alkaliphilic and thermophilic, growing optimally at 3.5 M Na+, pH55°C 9.5 and 53°C. Mechanisms enabling this tripartite lifestyle are essential for understanding how microorganisms grow under inhospitable conditions, but remain unknown, particularly in extremophiles growing under multiple extremes. We report on the response of N. thermophilus to external pH at high salt and elevated temperature and identify mechanisms responsible for this adaptation. N. thermophilus exhibited cytoplasm acidification, maintaining an unanticipated transmembrane pH gradient of 1 unit over the entire extracellular pH range for growth. N. thermophilus uses two distinct mechanisms for cytoplasm acidification. At extracellular pH values at and below the optimum, N. thermophilus utilizes at least eight electrogenic Na+(K+)/H+ antiporters for cytoplasm acidification. Characterization of these antiporters in antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc showed overlapping pH profiles (pH 7.8–10.0) and Na+ concentrations for activity (K0.5 values 1.0–4.4 mM), properties that correlate with intracellular conditions of N. thermophilus. As the extracellular pH increases beyond the optimum, electrogenic antiport activity ceases, and cytoplasm acidification is achieved by energy-independent physiochemical effects (cytoplasmic buffering) potentially mediated by an acidic proteome. The combination of these strategies allows N. thermophilus to grow over a range of extracellular pH and Na+ concentrations and protect biomolecules under multiple extreme conditions. PMID:19708921

  8. Decision Support Framework Implementation Of The Web-Based Environmental Decision Analysis DASEES: Decision Analysis For A Sustainable Environment, Economy, And Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solutions to pervasive environmental problems often are not amenable to a straightforward application of science-based actions. These problems encompass large-scale environmental policy questions where environmental concerns, economic constraints, and societal values conflict ca...

  9. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa packaged in large-round bales and wrapped in stretch film after extended time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Coffey, K P; Chow, E A

    2016-05-01

    The production of baled silage is attractive to producers because it offers advantages over dry hay, particularly by limiting risks associated with wet or unstable weather conditions. Our objectives were to test the effects of delayed wrapping on silage fermentation, storage characteristics, and the nutritive value of baled alfalfa silages. To accomplish this, large-round bales of alfalfa were wrapped in plastic film within 4h of baling (d 0), or after delays of 1, 2, or 3 d. A secondary objective was to evaluate a prototype bale wrap containing an O2-limiting barrier (OB) against an identical polyethylene wrap without the O2 barrier (SUN). Sixty-four 1.19×1.25-m bales of alfalfa were made from 4 field blocks at a mean moisture concentration of 59.1±4.3% with a mean initial wet bale weight of 473±26.4kg. Two bales per field block were assigned to each combination of bale wrap (SUN or OB) and wrapping time (0, 1, 2, or 3 d postbaling), and one bale of each pair was fitted with a thermocouple placed in the geometric center of each bale. All bales were sampled after a 97-d storage period. Internal bale temperatures, recorded at the time bales were wrapped, were greater for all bales with wrapping delays compared with bales wrapped on d 0 (54.9 vs. 34.9°C), and increased to a maximum of 63.9°C after a 3-d delay exhibiting a linear effect of time delay. Total silage fermentation acids (lactic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and isobutyric) were greatest when bales were wrapped on d 0 compared with all bales wrapped with time delays (4.64 vs. 2.26% of DM), and declined with linear and quadratic effects of wrapping delay. Total fermentation acids also were related quadratically to internal bale temperature by regression [y (% of DM)=0.0042x(2) - 0.50x + 17.1; R(2)=0.725]. Similar responses were observed for lactic acid, except that trends were linear, both for orthogonal contrasts evaluating length of wrapping delay, and in regressions on internal bale temperature [y

  10. Large-Scale Evaluation of Quality of Care in 6 Countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia Using Clinical Performance and Value Vignettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peabody, John W; DeMaria, Lisa; Smith, Owen; Hoth, Angela; Dragoti, Edmond; Luck, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: A significant determinant of population health outcomes is the quality of care provided for noncommunicable diseases, obstetric, and pediatric care. We present results on clinical practice quality in these areas as measured among nearly 4,000 providers working at more than 1,000 facilities in 6 Eastern European and Central Asian countries. Methods: This study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2013 in Albania, Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kirov Province in Russia, and Tajikistan. Using a probability proportional-to-size sampling technique, based on number of hospital beds, we randomly selected within each country 42 hospitals and their associated primary health care clinics. Physicians and midwives within each clinical area of interest were randomly selected from each hospital and clinic and asked how they would care for simulated patients using Clinical Performance and Value (CPV) vignettes. Facility administrators were also asked to complete a facility survey to collect structural measures of quality. CPV vignettes were scored on a scale of 0% to 100% for each provider. We used descriptive statistics and t tests to identify significant differences in CPV scores between hospitals and clinics and rural vs. urban facilities, and ANOVA to identify significant differences in CPV scores across countries. Results: We found that quality of care, as concurrently measured by performance on CPV vignettes, was generally poor and widely variable within and between countries. Providers in Kirov Province, Russia, had the highest overall performance, with an average score of 70.8%, while providers in Albania and Tajikistan had the lowest average score, each at 50.8%. The CPV vignettes with the lowest scores were for multiple noncommunicable disease risk factors and birth asphyxia. A considerable proportion (11%) of providers performed well on the CPV vignettes, regardless of country, facility, or structural resources available to them. Conclusions

  11. The prognostic value of baseline {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in steroid-naive large-vessel vasculitis: introduction of volume-based parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellavedova, L. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy); Carletto, M.; Maffioli, L.S. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, PET/CT Center - Nuclear Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Faggioli, P.; Sciascera, A.; Mazzone, A. [Ospedale Civile di Legnano, Internal Medicine Department, Legnano (Italy); Del Sole, A. [University of Milan, Department of Health Sciences, Milan (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to analyse if the result of a baseline {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) patients, is able to predict the course of the disease, not only in terms of presence/absence of final complications but also in terms of favourable/complicated progress (response to steroid therapy, time to steroid suspension, relapses, etc.). A total of 46 consecutive patients, who underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT between May 2010 and March 2013 for fever of unknown origin (FUO) or suspected vasculitis (before starting corticosteroid therapy), were enrolled. The diagnosis of LVV was confirmed in 17 patients. Considering follow-up results, positive LVV patients were divided into two groups, one characterized by favourable (nine) and the other by complicated progress (eight), on the basis of presence/absence of vascular complications, presence/absence of at least another positive PET/CT during follow-up and impossibility to comply with the tapering schedule of the steroid due to biochemical/symptomatic relapse. Vessel uptake in subjects of the two groups was compared in terms of intensity and extension. To evaluate the extent of active disease, we introduced two volume-based parameters: ''volume of increased uptake'' (VIU) and ''total lesion glycolysis'' (TLG). The threshold used to calculate VIU on vessel walls was obtained by the ''vessel to liver'' ratio by means of receiver-operating characteristic analysis and was set at 0.92 x liver maximum standardized uptake value in each patient. Measures of tracer uptake intensity were significantly higher in patients with complicated progress compared to those with a favourable one (p < 0.05). Measures of disease extension were even more significant and TLG emerged as the best parameter to separate the two groups of patients (p = 0.01). This pilot study shows that, in LVV patients, the

  12. Do we have to consider temperature-dependent material properties in large-scale environmental impact assessments of underground coal gasification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) can increase the world-wide coal reserves by utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. The UCG process involves combusting coal in situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from its high economic potentials, UCG may induce environmental impacts such as ground subsidence associated with groundwater pollution due to generation of hydraulic connectivities between the UCG reactor and adjacent aquifers. These changes overburden conductivity may introduce potential migration pathways for UCG contaminants such as organic (phenols, benzene, PAHs and heterocyclics) and inorganic (ammonia, sulphates, cyanides, and heavy metals) pollutants. Mitigation of potential environmental UCG impacts can be achieved by improving the understanding of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the rocks surrounding the UCG reactor. In the present study, a coupled thermo-mechanical model has been developed to carry out a parameter sensitivity analysis and assess permeability changes derived from volumetric strain increments in the UCG reactor overburden. Our simulation results demonstrate that thermo-mechanical rock behavior is mainly influenced by the thermal expansion coefficient, tensile strength and elastic modulus of the surrounding rock. A comparison of temperature-dependent and temperature-independent simulation results indicates high variations in the distribution of total displacements in the UCG reactor vicinity related to thermal stress, but only negligible differences in permeability changes. Hence, temperature-dependent thermo-mechanical parameters have to be considered in the assessment of near-field UCG impacts, while far-field models can achieve a higher computational efficiency by using temperature-independent thermo-mechanical parameters. Considering the findings of the present study in the large-scale assessment of

  13. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Is the Patent Paradox a Result of a Large Firm Perspective? - Differential Value of Small Firm Patents Over Time Explains the Patent Paradox

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seán M Coughlin

    2007-01-01

    .... The portfolio theory attempts to explain the patent paradox, based upon the assumption that the marginal expected gain in value from the addition of a patent to a well-crafted patent portfolio...

  15. Determination of trace metal baseline values in Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira sp., and other marine environmental biomonitors: a quality control method for a study in South Tyrrhenian coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mecozzi, Mauro; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the seagrass Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile leaves and in the brown algae Cystoseira sp. sampled along a 280-km transect in the Tyrrhenian Sea, from the Ustica to Linosa Islands (Sicily, Italy) with the aim to determine their control charts (baseline levels). By applying the Johnson's (Biometrika 36:149-175, 1949) probabilistic method, we determined the metal concentration overlap ranges in a group of five biomonitors. Here, we propose the use of the indexes of bioaccumulation with respect to the lowest (L'i) and the highest (L i) extreme values of the overlap metal concentration ranges. These indexes allow the identification of the most opportune organism (or a suite of them) to better managing particular environmental conditions. Posidonia leaves have generally high L i indexes for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn, and this suggests its use as biomonitor for baseline marine areas. Our results confirm the high aptitude of Patella as a good biomonitor for Cd levels in seawater. From this study, Ustica resulted with higher levels of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn than the other Sicilian Islands.

  16. Large-Scale Prediction of Seagrass Distribution Integrating Landscape Metrics and Environmental Factors: The Case of Cymodocea nodosa (Mediterranean–Atlantic)

    KAUST Repository

    Chefaoui, Rosa M.

    2015-05-05

    Understanding the factors that affect seagrass meadows encompassing their entire range of distribution is challenging yet important for their conservation. Here, we predict the realized and potential distribution for the species Cymodocea nodosa modelling its environmental niche in the Mediterranean and adjacent Atlantic coastlines. We use a combination of environmental variables and landscape metrics to perform a suite of predictive algorithms which enables examination of the niche and find suitable habitats for the species. The most relevant environmental variables defining the distribution of C. nodosa were sea surface temperature (SST) and salinity. We found suitable habitats at SST from 5.8 °C to 26.4 °C and salinity ranging from 17.5 to 39.3. Optimal values of mean winter wave height ranged between 1.2 and 1.5 m, while waves higher than 2.5 m seemed to limit the presence of the species. The influence of nutrients and pH, despite having weight on the models, was not so clear in terms of ranges that confine the distribution of the species. Landscape metrics able to capture variation in the coastline enhanced significantly the accuracy of the models, despite the limitations caused by the scale of the study. We found potential suitable areas not occupied by the seagrass mainly in coastal regions of North Africa and the Adriatic coast of Italy. The present study describes the realized and potential distribution of a seagrass species, providing the first global model of the factors that can be shaping the environmental niche of C. nodosa throughout its range. We identified the variables constraining its distribution as well as thresholds delineating its environmental niche. Landscape metrics showed promising prospects for the prediction of coastal species dependent on the shape of the coast. By contrasting predictive approaches, we defined the variables affecting the distributional areas that seem unsuitable for C. nodosa as well as those suitable habitats not

  17. Importance and nutritional value of large ciliates for the reproduction of Acartia clausi during the post spring-bloom period in the North Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Peters, J.

    2008-01-01

    Shipboard experiments were performed to examine the qualitative importance of large marine microzooplankton for the reproduction of Acartia clausi in the North Sea. Feeding and egg production were compared in 2 treatments in which females were fed natural seston or natural seston selectively...... enriched with large prey (> 20 mu m). The mineral (C, N) and lipid contents of the food suspensions were determined for size-fractionated samples to characterize the nutritional composition of prey. Large oligotrich ciliates and Strobiliidae dominated the seston biomass. Ciliates, particularly...... of the mineral and lipid content confirmed a high seston nutritional quality. The 20 to 48 mu m fraction reflected the composition of female diets and indicated an enrichment of N and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the diet compared to total seston. The fraction > 48 mu m consisted mostly of ciliates...

  18. Bad nights or bad bars? Multi-level analysis of environmental predictors of aggression in late-night large-capacity bars and clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Kathryn; Bernards, Sharon; Osgood, D Wayne; Wells, Samantha

    2006-11-01

    To clarify environmental predictors of bar-room aggression by differentiating relationships due to nightly variations versus across bar variations, frequency versus severity of aggression and patron versus staff aggression. Male-female pairs of researcher-observers conducted 1334 observations in 118 large capacity (> 300) bars and clubs in Toronto, Canada. Observers independently rated aspects of the environment (e.g. crowding) at every visit and wrote detailed narratives of each incident of aggression that occurred. Measures of severity of aggression for the visit were calculated by aggregating ratings for each person in aggressive incidents. Although bivariate analyses confirmed the significance of most environmental predictors of aggression identified in previous research, multivariate analyses identified the following key visit-level predictors (controlling for bar-level relationships): rowdiness/permissive environment and people hanging around after closing predicted both frequency and severity of aggression; sexual activity, contact and competition and people with two or more drinks at closing predicted frequency but not severity of aggression; lack of staff monitoring predicted more severe patron aggression, while having more and better coordinated staff predicted more severe staff aggression. Intoxication of patrons was significantly associated with more frequent and severe patron aggression at the bar level (but not at the visit level) in the multivariate analyses and negatively associated with severity of staff aggression at the visit level. The results demonstrate clearly the importance of the immediate environment (not just the type of bar or characteristics of usual patrons) and the importance of specific environmental factors, including staff behaviour, in predicting both frequency and severity of aggression.

  19. Using a detailed inventory of a large wastewater treatment plant to estimate the relative importance of construction to the overall environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Serni; Corominas, Lluís; Rigola, Miquel; Poch, Manel; Comas, Joaquim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to quantify the relative contribution to the overall environmental impact of the construction phase compared to the operational phase for a large conventional activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). To estimate these environmental impacts, a systematic procedure was designed to obtain the detailed Life Cycle Inventories (LCI) for civil works and equipment, taking as starting point the construction project budget and the list of equipment installed at the Girona WWTP, which are the most reliable information sources of materials and resources used during the construction phase. A detailed inventory is conducted by including 45 materials for civil works and 1,240 devices for the equipment. For most of the impact categories and different life spans of the WWTP, the contribution of the construction phase to the overall burden is higher than 5% and, especially for metal depletion, the impact of construction reaches 63%. When comparing to the WWTP inventories available in Ecoinvent the share of construction obtained in this work is about 3 times smaller for climate change and twice higher for metal depletion. Concrete and reinforcing steel are the materials with the highest contribution to the civil works phase and motors, pumps and mobile and transport equipment are also key equipment to consider during life cycle inventories of WWTPs. Additional robust inventories for similar WWTP can leverage this work by applying the factors (kg of materials and energy per m3 of treated water) and guidance provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Looking for effects of environmental contaminants in a large birth cohort: Summarizing results of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Per

    2017-03-01

    The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) includes about 113 000 pregnancies, recruited during the years 1999-2008. Using information from questionnaires and biological samples, a major purpose has been to estimate the association between exposures to environmental contaminants and disease occurrence in parents and children. The intention of this article is to describe the available data in MoBa together with a short synopsis of some recent MoBa-publications that relate to exposure assessment and associations between toxicants and health outcomes. The majority of these papers display negative results, in the sense that no strong associations between contaminants and health outcomes have been found, whereas others suggest adverse effects. The positive associations between fetal exposure to contaminants and child growth and development will need replication in other cohorts and further risk assessment. Large prospective pregnancy cohorts remain an important resource for surveillance and detection of effects of environmental hazards on human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The value of routine bone marrow biopsy in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma staged with PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzahrani, M; El-Galaly, T C; Hutchings, M

    2016-01-01

    value 91%. Concordant histological involvement of the BM by DLBCL was associated with worse overall survival and progression-free survival than discordant or no involvement in univariate and multivariate analyses. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with DLBCL, staging PET/CT can miss BM involvement...

  2. The cut-off values of anthropometric variables for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Malaysian older adults: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin,3 Mohd Azahadi Omar,4 Rosdinom Razali,5 Suzana Shahar2 1Nutrition Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3Biomedical Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 4Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Older adults are at risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and simple anthropometric measurements can be used to screen for this condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC for predicting the risk of MCI in older Malaysian adults.Methods: A total of 2,240 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population based cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the cut-off values of BMI and WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCI. Age, gender, years of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, depression, and medical conditions were used as confounding factors in this analysis.Results: A BMI cut-off value of 26 kg/m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.725; sensitivity 90.5%; specificity 38.8% was appropriate in identifying the risk of getting MCI in both men and women. The optimum WC cut-offs for likelihood of MCI were 90 cm (AUC 0.745; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 59.8% for men and 82 cm (AUC 0.714; sensitivity 84.3%; specificity 49.7% for women. The optimum calf circumference (CC cut-off values for identifying MCI were 29 cm (AUC 0.731; sensitivity 72.6%; specificity

  3. Large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass in Argentina. Part B. Environmental and socio-economic impacts on a regional level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands); Hilbert, J. [IIR, CIA Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria INTA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Petruzzi, H. [INTA Anguil, Instituto de Tecnologia Agropecuaria INTA, Anguil, La Pampa Province (Argentina)

    2009-10-15

    The feasibility of deploying a socio-economic and environmental impact analysis for large-scale bioenergy production on a regional level is analyzed, based on a set of defined criteria and indicators. The analysis is done for La Pampa province in Argentina. The case study results in conclusions in how far the criteria can be verified ex ante based on available methodologies and data sources. The impacts are analyzed for two bioenergy chains (soybeans and switchgrass) for a set of defined land use scenarios. The carbon stock change for switchgrass ranges from 0.2 to 1.2 ton C/ha/year and for soybean from -1.2 to 0 ton C/ha/year, depending on the scenario. The GHG emission reduction ranges from 88% to 133% for the switchgrass bioenergy chain (replacing coal or natural gas) and from 16% to 94% for the soybean bioenergy chain (replacing fossil fuel) for various lifetime periods. The annual soil loss, compared to the reference land use system is 2-10 ton/ha for the soybean bioenergy chain and 1-2 ton/ha for the switchgrass bioenergy chain. In total, nine sustainability principles are analyzed. In the case of switchgrass, most environmental benefits can be achieved when produced on suitable land of abandoned cropland. Soybean production for bioenergy shows a good overall sustainability performance if produced on abandoned cropland. The production of switchgrass on degraded grassland shows socio-economic and environmental benefits, which is not the case for soybean production. The production of bioenergy production on non-degraded grassland is not preferred. It is concluded that the scenario approach enables understanding of the complexity of the bioenergy chain and the underlying factors influencing the sustainability principles. It is difficult to give ex ante a final conclusion whether a bioenergy chain is sustainable or not as this depends not only on the previous land use system but also on other factors as the selection of the bioenergy crop, the suitable

  4. Urban environmental education: Principles in action | Clacherty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the value of environmental education in a natural environment is acknowledged, a case is made for urban environmental education. Principles underlying a programme derived largely from the British Urban Studies movement, in particular, the Art and the Built Environment project (Adams and Ward 1982), are ...

  5. Approaches in highly parameterized inversion—PEST++ Version 3, a Parameter ESTimation and uncertainty analysis software suite optimized for large environmental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, David E.; White, Jeremy T.; Hunt, Randall J.; Doherty, John E.

    2015-09-18

    The PEST++ Version 1 object-oriented parameter estimation code is here extended to Version 3 to incorporate additional algorithms and tools to further improve support for large and complex environmental modeling problems. PEST++ Version 3 includes the Gauss-Marquardt-Levenberg (GML) algorithm for nonlinear parameter estimation, Tikhonov regularization, integrated linear-based uncertainty quantification, options of integrated TCP/IP based parallel run management or external independent run management by use of a Version 2 update of the GENIE Version 1 software code, and utilities for global sensitivity analyses. The Version 3 code design is consistent with PEST++ Version 1 and continues to be designed to lower the barriers of entry for users as well as developers while providing efficient and optimized algorithms capable of accommodating large, highly parameterized inverse problems. As such, this effort continues the original focus of (1) implementing the most popular and powerful features of the PEST software suite in a fashion that is easy for novice or experienced modelers to use and (2) developing a software framework that is easy to extend.

  6. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu...... attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value....... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  7. An intercomparison of a large ensemble of statistical downscaling methods for Europe: Overall results from the VALUE perfect predictor cross-validation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jose Manuel; Maraun, Douglas; Widmann, Martin; Huth, Radan; Hertig, Elke; Benestad, Rasmus; Roessler, Ole; Wibig, Joanna; Wilcke, Renate; Kotlarski, Sven

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of both dynamical and statistical downscaling methods. This framework is based on a user-focused validation tree, guiding the selection of relevant validation indices and performance measures for different aspects of the validation (marginal, temporal, spatial, multi-variable). Moreover, several experiments have been designed to isolate specific points in the downscaling procedure where problems may occur (assessment of intrinsic performance, effect of errors inherited from the global models, effect of non-stationarity, etc.). The list of downscaling experiments includes 1) cross-validation with perfect predictors, 2) GCM predictors -aligned with EURO-CORDEX experiment- and 3) pseudo reality predictors (see Maraun et al. 2015, Earth's Future, 3, doi:10.1002/2014EF000259, for more details). The results of these experiments are gathered, validated and publicly distributed through the VALUE validation portal, allowing for a comprehensive community-open downscaling intercomparison study. In this contribution we describe the overall results from Experiment 1), consisting of a European wide 5-fold cross-validation (with consecutive 6-year periods from 1979 to 2008) using predictors from ERA-Interim to downscale precipitation and temperatures (minimum and maximum) over a set of 86 ECA&D stations representative of the main geographical and climatic regions in Europe. As a result of the open call for contribution to this experiment (closed in Dec. 2015), over 40 methods representative of the main approaches (MOS and Perfect Prognosis, PP) and techniques (linear scaling, quantile mapping, analogs, weather typing, linear and generalized regression, weather generators, etc.) were submitted, including information both data

  8. From Inky Pinky Ponky to Improving Student Understanding in Assessment: Exploring the Value of Supplemental Instruction in a Large First-Year Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianda Erasmus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large classes are a reality in many tertiary programmes in the South African context and this involves several challenges. One of these is the assessment process, including the provision of meaningful feedback and implementing strategies to support struggling students. Due to large student numbers, multiple-choice questions (MCQs are often used in tests, even though researchers have found possible negative consequences of using MCQs. Giving appropriate feedback has been identified as a strategy to remedy some of these negative consequences. This paper reports on action research in which an intervention strategy was implemented in a large first year Psychology class where Supplemental Instructors (SIs were used to give detailed feedback to students after assessments. The lecturer first modelled how to give feedback by discussing the MCQs in detail with the SIs and identifying possible errors in their reasoning and meta-cognitive processes. The SIs subsequently repeated this feedback process in their small-group sessions. After each assessment, students who performed poorly were advised to attend a certain number of SI sessions before the next test, and their attendance, even though voluntary, was monitored to determine the effectiveness of the intervention. Students’ performance in subsequent tests was compared and the results seem to indicate that attending SI sessions was mostly associated with improved test results. This strategy also appears to encourage attendance of SI sessions. In addition, students’ responses in a feedback survey indicate an overall positive perception of this practice. These results can inform other lecturers teaching large classes and contribute to quality enhancement in assessment and better support for students.

  9. Lupin (Lupinus albus) protein isolate (L-ISO) has adequate nutritional value and reduces large intestinal weight in rats after restricted and ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligari, Silvia; Chiesa, Giulia; Johnson, Stuart K; Camisassi, Davide; Gilio, Donatella; Marchesi, Marta; Parolini, Cinzia; Rubio, Luis A; Sirtori, Cesare R

    2006-01-01

    A protein isolate from white lupin (Lupinus albus; L-ISO) has potential as a novel human food ingredient, but its nutritional effects are unknown. We evaluated protein quality and effects on body composition in rats of isoenergic diets of L-ISO, lactalbumin, or casein with both restricted (10-day) and ad libitum (28-day)intake. The diets were equivalent in protein per se, but supplementation was used to balance essential amino acid levels. In both studies, the rats consumed similar amounts of each diet, and no effect of diet on the gain:feed ratio was observed--though gain:N ratio and net protein utilization were slightly lower for the L-ISO diet. Lower large intestinal weights after the L-ISO than after the lactalbumin diet were observed in both studies. The L-ISO diet resulted in lowered body fat percentage in the 10-day study but in an elevated level in the 28-day study. Liver composition (DNA, RNA, glycogen, and fat) and plasma levels of some amino acids (His, Thr, Ala, Pro, Tyr, Val and Met) were affected by diet, but no effects on plasma lipid, glucose, or uric acid were observed. The L-ISO diet did not affect feed intake and has adequate nutritional quality in rats whilst modifying large intestinal weight in a potentially beneficial manner--suggesting potential for this protein in human nutrition. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Assessing the value of cooperation and information exchange in large water resources systems by multi-agent optimization: the Zambezi river case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2012-04-01

    Many large-scale water resources systems are characterized by the presence of several and conflicting interests and are often managed by many independent decision-makers, belonging to different institutions or countries, who take into account only their own objectives causing downstream externalities. In this work we explore the use of multi-agent systems theory to conduct an optimization-based analysis of different levels of cooperation and information exchange in the large water reservoir system of the Zambezi River. The four largest reservoirs in the basin (Ithezhithezhi, Kafue-Gorge, Kariba and Cahora Bassa) are mainly operated for maximizing the economic revenue from hydropower energy production with considerably negative effects on the aquatic ecosystem in the Zambezi delta. We comparatively analyse the ideal situation in which a central decision-maker optimizes a global optimum and the more realistic case where all the decision-makers act independently and non-cooperatively. We then investigate how increasing levels of information exchange can help in mitigating the conflict generated by a non-cooperative setting.

  11. Utilization of large volume zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography for the analysis of polar pharmaceuticals in aqueous environmental samples: Benefits and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, Lise; Dierkes, Georg; Ternes, Thomas

    2017-12-11

    Benefits and limitations of HILIC were studied for the analysis of extreme polar organic contaminants in aqueous environmental matrices. A sensitive analytical method was developed and validated for the detection of 11 pharmaceuticals, 15 pharmaceutical metabolites and transformation products and the artificial sweetener acesulfame in aqueous environmental samples. The analytical method consisted of a simple and non-specific sample preparation based on freeze-drying followed by detection with large injection volume (70 μL) zwitterionic HILIC-ESI-MS/MS. Robustness studies showed a high sensitivity of the retention times and peak shapes to variations of the acetonitrile/water ratio of both the eluent and the diluent. Thus, a thorough sample and eluent preparation is required to obtain reproducible results. Extreme matrix effects of >200% were observed for emtricitabine and acyclovir, which could be traced to the co-elution of nitrate and chloride, respectively. These matrix effects and those of other analytes could be efficiently compensated by using deuterated, 13C and 15N-labeled internal standards. The developed method was able to detect the selected 27 analytes in treated wastewater, surface water and groundwater down to limit of quantification (LOQ) in the lower ng/L range. Appreciable concentrations were detected, ranging up to 110 μg/L (guanyl urea) in treated wastewater, up to 5.1 μg/L (oxipurinol) in surface water and up to 6.1 μg/L (acesulfame) in groundwater. In a German drinking water, only the X-ray contrast medium diatrizoate and the artificial sweetener acesulfame were quantified above LOQ with 0.19 μg/L and 0.35 μg/L, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Large reservoirs: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Bettoli, Phillip William

    2010-01-01

    Large impoundments, defined as those with surface area of 200 ha or greater, are relatively new aquatic ecosystems in the global landscape. They represent important economic and environmental resources that provide benefits such as flood control, hydropower generation, navigation, water supply, commercial and recreational fisheries, and various other recreational and esthetic values. Construction of large impoundments was initially driven by economic needs, and ecological consequences received little consideration. However, in recent decades environmental issues have come to the forefront. In the closing decades of the 20th century societal values began to shift, especially in the developed world. Society is no longer willing to accept environmental damage as an inevitable consequence of human development, and it is now recognized that continued environmental degradation is unsustainable. Consequently, construction of large reservoirs has virtually stopped in North America. Nevertheless, in other parts of the world construction of large reservoirs continues. The emergence of systematic reservoir management in the early 20th century was guided by concepts developed for natural lakes (Miranda 1996). However, we now recognize that reservoirs are different and that reservoirs are not independent aquatic systems inasmuch as they are connected to upstream rivers and streams, the downstream river, other reservoirs in the basin, and the watershed. Reservoir systems exhibit longitudinal patterns both within and among reservoirs. Reservoirs are typically arranged sequentially as elements of an interacting network, filter water collected throughout their watersheds, and form a mosaic of predictable patterns. Traditional approaches to fisheries management such as stocking, regulating harvest, and in-lake habitat management do not always produce desired effects in reservoirs. As a result, managers may expend resources with little benefit to either fish or fishing. Some locally

  13. GER values and environmental impact scores production of auxiliaries for the water chain; GER-waarden en milieu-impactscores productie van hulpstoffen in de waterketen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afman, M.; Bijleveld, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Mulder, M. [Mrabella Mulder Waste Water Management, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2012-03-15

    Alternative processes are available for both wastewater treatment at sewage works and drinking water preparation at water production plants. Some of these involve greater use of chemicals and auxiliary materials, and an important issue is therefore how the energy savings achieved with a particular option compare with the energy required to produce the auxiliaries in question. Against this background a study was carried out to assess the energy consumption of auxiliaries production. For the auxiliaries most frequently used the following were determined: (1) the energy impact of production, expressed as the Gross Energy Requirements (GER) of the materials in question, broken down into renewable versus non-renewable energy; and (2) the environmental impact of production, expressed as a single indicator according to the ReCiPe methodology. The report also provides 'user recommendations' for the calculated values (what they should and should not be used for) and an explanation of the methodology used. The study dovetails with the STOWA research programme 'The Energy Plant', a study exploring the potential for reducing the energy consumption of sewage works to such an extent as to make them net suppliers of energy [Dutch] Voor de behandeling van afvalwater in een rioolwaterzuiveringsinstallatie (RWZI) en de bereiding van drinkwater bij waterproductiebedrijven bestaan alternatieve processen. Sommige processen zorgen voor een hogere dosering van chemicaliën en hulpstoffen in het zuiveringsproces. Een belangrijk aandachtspunt hierbij is of de energiebesparing die behaald wordt met een zuiveringsvariant, opweegt tegen de energie-impact van de productie van de benodigde hulpstoffen. Om deze reden is een studie uitgevoerd gericht op het energieverbruik van de productie van de hulpstoffen. Van de meest gebruikte hulpstoffen zijn bepaald: (1) de energie-impact van de productie van de hulpstoffen, uitgedrukt in de GER-waarde (bruto primaire energie) van de

  14. Nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University: Formative, cross-sectional research to inform an environmental intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanla; Papadaki, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    Vending machine use has been associated with low dietary quality among children but there is limited evidence on its role in food habits of University students. We aimed to examine the nutritional value of foods sold in vending machines in a UK University and conduct formative research to investigate differences in food intake and body weight by vending machine use among 137 University students. The nutrient content of snacks and beverages available at nine campus vending machines was assessed by direct observation in May 2014. Participants (mean age 22.5 years; 54% males) subsequently completed a self-administered questionnaire to assess vending machine behaviours and food intake. Self-reported weight and height were collected. Vending machine snacks were generally high in sugar, fat and saturated fat, whereas most beverages were high in sugar. Seventy three participants (53.3%) used vending machines more than once per week and 82.2% (n 60) of vending machine users used them to snack between meals. Vending machine accessibility was positively correlated with vending machine use (r = 0.209, P = 0.015). Vending machine users, compared to non-users, reported a significantly higher weekly consumption of savoury snacks (5.2 vs. 2.8, P = 0.014), fruit juice (6.5 vs. 4.3, P = 0.035), soft drinks (5.1 vs. 1.9, P = 0.006), meat products (8.3 vs. 5.6, P = 0.029) and microwave meals (2.0 vs. 1.3, P = 0.020). No between-group differences were found in body weight. Most foods available from vending machines in this UK University were of low nutritional quality. In this sample of University students, vending machine users displayed several unfavourable dietary behaviours, compared to non-users. Findings can be used to inform the development of an environmental intervention that will focus on vending machines to improve dietary behaviours in University students in the UK. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. What Value "Value Added"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  16. Integrated application of river water quality modelling and cost-benefit analysis to optimize the environmental economical value based on various aquatic waste load reduction strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Yu; Fan, Chihhao

    2017-04-01

    improvements in BOD, SS and NH3-N were estimated as 36.2%, 27.7% and 29.2%, respectively. The net present value (i.e., economical-based environmental impact) becomes positive in the sixtieth year following the original government planning. We designed two scenarios for further comparison: (i) treatment efficiency improvement of pollution control facilities, and (ii) biogas-based power generation using livestock manure. If government budget is not a limiting factor, improving the efficiency of sewage treatment plants can make the occurrence of balance between payments and revenues (i.e., net present value in this study) three years earlier. For the biogas-based power generation scenario, if all pig farms with livestock number >2000 install the on-site power generation equipment, BOD will further improve by 9% and the time span of payback period will be shortened by 1 year. If all the manure waste from pig-farms is collected for subsequent electricity generation, the BOD river pollution index is estimated to improve to lightly-polluted category for more than half the length of Erhjen Creek. In short, water quality modelling technique not only can assess the contributions of related projects, but establish a practical pollution reduction strategy using cost-benefit analysis, which allows decision-maker to find a suitable pollution reduction plan to exhibit most benefits in river water quality.

  17. Environmental genomics of "Haloquadratum walsbyi" in a saltern crystallizer indicates a large pool of accessory genes in an otherwise coherent species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhuis Henk

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mature saturated brine (crystallizers communities are largely dominated (>80% of cells by the square halophilic archaeon "Haloquadratum walsbyi". The recent cultivation of the strain HBSQ001 and thesequencing of its genome allows comparison with the metagenome of this taxonomically simplified environment. Similar studies carried out in other extreme environments have revealed very little diversity in gene content among the cell lineages present. Results The metagenome of the microbial community of a crystallizer pond has been analyzed by end sequencing a 2000 clone fosmid library and comparing the sequences obtained with the genome sequence of "Haloquadratum walsbyi". The genome of the sequenced strain was retrieved nearly complete within this environmental DNA library. However, many ORF's that could be ascribed to the "Haloquadratum" metapopulation by common genome characteristics or scaffolding to the strain genome were not present in the specific sequenced isolate. Particularly, three regions of the sequenced genome were associated with multiple rearrangements and the presence of different genes from the metapopulation. Many transposition and phage related genes were found within this pool which, together with the associated atypical GC content in these areas, supports lateral gene transfer mediated by these elements as the most probable genetic cause of this variability. Additionally, these sequences were highly enriched in putative regulatory and signal transduction functions. Conclusion These results point to a large pan-genome (total gene repertoire of the genus/species even in this highly specialized extremophile and at a single geographic location. The extensive gene repertoire is what might be expected of a population that exploits a diverse nutrient pool, resulting from the degradation of biomass produced at lower salinities.

  18. The value of liquid biopsy in diagnosis and monitoring of diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: recent developments and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Vincent; Jardin, Fabrice; Tilly, Herve

    2017-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) represent a heterogeneous subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that demonstrate many molecular alterations and somatic mutations, all of which are targets for the recent development of biomarkers that use various molecular biological techniques. These non-invasive emerging biomarkers will be used in the next few years to better monitor the response to immunochemotherapeutic treatments with the aim of completely eradicating the disease in order to cure it. Areas covered: In this review, the authors conducted a literature search to identify and summarize the major advances in liquid biopsy techniques for DLBCL that are useful for diagnosis and monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). The authors report on the major technological leaps represented by the main MRD tools (sequencing of clone-specific rearrangements of immunoglobulin genes and sequencing of somatic mutations in circulating tumor plasma DNA) and present the expected future developments and the impact of these new tools on clinical practice. Expert commentary: The monitoring of somatic mutations in tumor plasma cell-free DNA represents a promising tool for liquid biopsy, which will in the future allow non-invasive monitoring that will be used at any time to follow the response to the treatment.

  19. The predictive value of serum S100A9 and response to etanercept is not confirmed in a large UK rheumatoid arthritis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samantha Louise; Plant, Darren; Eyre, Stephen; Hyrich, Kimme; Morgan, Ann W; Wilson, Anthony G; Isaacs, John D; Barton, Anne

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to correlate protein concentrations of S100A9 in pretreatment serum samples with response to the tumour-necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor drugs etanercept in a large UK replication cohort. Pretreatment serum samples from patients with RA (n = 236) about to commence treatment with etanercept had S100A9 serum concentration measured using an ELISA. Following the experimental procedure, S100A9 concentrations were analysed with respect to EULAR response. No evidence of association between S100A9 concentration and EULAR response to the TNF-inhibitor biologic drug etanercept was observed following multinomial logistic regression analysis (non-responder vs moderate responder, P = 0.957; and non-responder vs good responder, P = 0.316). Furthermore, no significant associations were observed when correlating pretreatment S100A9 concentrations with clinical parameters of disease activity (P > 0.05). In the largest replication cohort conducted to date, no evidence for association was observed to support the use of S100A9 as a clinical biomarker predictive of response to the TNF-inhibitor biologic drug etanercept.

  20. Large scale patterns of antimicrofouling defenses in the hard coral Pocillopora verrucosa in an environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian coast of the Red Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wahl

    Full Text Available Large scale patterns of ecologically relevant traits may help identify drivers of their variability and conditions beneficial or adverse to the expression of these traits. Antimicrofouling defenses in scleractinian corals regulate the establishment of the associated biofilm as well as the risks of infection. The Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast features a pronounced thermal and nutritional gradient including regions and seasons with potentially stressful conditions to corals. Assessing the patterns of antimicrofouling defenses across the Red Sea may hint at the susceptibility of corals to global change. We investigated microfouling pressure as well as the relative strength of 2 alternative antimicrofouling defenses (chemical antisettlement activity, mucus release along the pronounced environmental gradient along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast in 2 successive years. Microfouling pressure was exceptionally low along most of the coast but sharply increased at the southernmost sites. Mucus release correlated with temperature. Chemical defense tended to anti-correlate with mucus release. As a result, the combined action of mucus release and chemical antimicrofouling defense seemed to warrant sufficient defense against microbes along the entire coast. In the future, however, we expect enhanced energetic strain on corals when warming and/or eutrophication lead to higher bacterial fouling pressure and a shift towards putatively more costly defense by mucus release.

  1. Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of synthetic musks in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Ureta, O; Olivares, M; Navarro, P; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2012-03-02

    This work describes the optimisation, validation and application of membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) together with a large volume injection (LVI) in a programmable temperature vaporisation (PTV) injector coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the quantification of ten synthetic musk fragrances (musks) in surface and wastewater samples. Regarding the MASE, musks were extracted from 150 mL of aqueous samples to 200 μL of n-hexane hold in home-made low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. The extraction took 240 min and the performance of the method made possible the direct analysis of the extracts by LVI-PTV-GC-MS without needing any further treatment and avoiding losses of analytes. During the optimisation of LVI-PTV set-up, the response surfaces of every analyte signal against the cryo-focussing temperature, injection speed and vent time were built. Finally, the figures of merit of the whole procedure allowed the analysis of most of the musks owing to the low method detection limits (between 4 and 25 ng L⁻¹) and good precisions (<20%). In fact, this method was successfully applied to the analysis of musks in surface and wastewater samples. Galaxolide and tonalide are the main two synthetic musks observed in most of the analysed environmental water samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human choices and environmental constraints: deciphering the variability of large game procurement from Mousterian to Aurignacian times (MIS 5-3) in southwestern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discamps, Emmanuel; Jaubert, Jacques; Bachellerie, François

    2011-09-01

    The evolution in the selection of prey made by past humans, especially the Neandertals and the first anatomically modern humans, has been widely debated. Between Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5 and 3, the accuracy of absolute dating is still insufficient to precisely correlate paleoclimatic and archaeological data. It is often difficult, therefore, to estimate to what extent changes in species procurement are correlated with either climate fluctuations or deliberate cultural choices in terms of subsistence behavior. Here, the full development of archeostratigraphy and Bayesian statistical analysis of absolute dates allows the archeological and paleoclimatic chronologies to be compared. The variability in hunted fauna is investigated using multivariate statistical analysis of quantitative faunal lists of 148 assemblages from 39 archeological sequences from MIS 5 through MIS 3. Despite significant intra-technocomplex variability, it is possible to identify major shifts in the human diet during these stages. The integration of archeological data, paleoclimatic proxies and the ecological characteristics of the different species of prey shows that the shifts in large game hunting can be explained by an adaptation of the human groups to climatic fluctuations. However, even if Middle and Early Upper Paleolithic men adapted to changes in their environment and to contrasting landscapes, they ultimately belonged to the ecosystems of the past and were limited by environmental constraints.

  3. The value of metabolic imaging by using PET-CT for making therapeutic plan in patients with diffuse large b cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation after systemic chemotherapy with R-CHOP regimen can improve disease free survival in patients with stage III or IV. Recently, accurate staging is very important to make a plan for management of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We evaluated if metabolic imaging by using PET-CT can play more additive role to manage DLBCL than anatomic imaging. Twenty three patients (age 58.3{+-}15.3 years, M: F=17: 6) who had pathologically diagnosed DLBCL according to WHO classification were enrolled in this study. All of them underwent diagnostic work up for anatomic staging along the NCCN practice guideline version 2001 and also got metabolic staging using PET-CT before therapy. After 3 and/or 6 cycles of R-CHOP, PET-CT was repeated for the determination of further management. We compared diagnostic performance of anatomic and metabolic staging with pathologic findings and result of bone marrow biopsy. The primary biopsies were done in head and neck (13/23), chest (1/23), and abdomen (9/23). Metabolic imaging had more accurate to find biopsy site than anatomic imaging (100% vs 81.8%, respectively). The concordant rate between anatomic and metabolic staging was 39.1% (9/23) of patients. Metabolic imaging leaded upstaging in 60.8% (14/23) of patients. After adding metabolic staging, therapeutic plan were changed in 64.2% of patients having upstaging. PET-CT had 73.9% of concordance and 26.1% of dis-concordance in bone marrow biopsies. Although metabolic assessment by using PET-CT will be unable to replace bone marrow biopsy, it should be needed to make therapeutic plans in patients with DLBCL.

  4. Two- and three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography in large swine used as model for transcatheter heart valve therapies: standard planes and values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sündermann, Simon H; Cesarovic, Nikola; Falk, Volkmar; Bettex, Dominique

    2016-05-01

    Swine models are widely used to develop new techniques and materials for the treatment of heart valve disease like aortic valve and mitral valve transcatheter interventions and to train physicians in these techniques. Transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) is crucial in these models. We defined standard planes of 2D and 3D TOE in healthy pigs undergoing transcatheter heart valve interventions. Twenty healthy pigs (weight 56-106 kg) underwent different mitral and aortic valve interventions (transcatheter aortic valve implantations, implantations of a mitral band, bicuspidization of the aortic valve, trans-septal punctures). For image guidance of the procedures, an adult TOE probe was introduced under direct vision in the oesophagus. Before the procedure itself was performed, a standardized protocol was used to determine normal values for anatomical and functional echocardiographic parameters. Positioning of the probe was possible in all animals and ideal when achieving a distance from the front teeth (incisors) of 40-60 cm. Anteflexion and lateroflexion of the probe was necessary to achieve optimal imaging quality. 2D visualization of all relevant cardiac structures was possible. The aortic annulus diameter was 24.1 ± 2.5 mm, the sinus of valsalva diameter was 30.6 ± 4 mm and the sinotubular junction diameter was 25.2 ± 4 mm. The ascending aorta had a diameter of 24 ± 4 mm and the descending aorta a diameter of 16 ± 5 mm. The mitral valve anterior-posterior diameter was 31.8 ± 4 mm and the commissure to commissure diameter was 40.5 ± 5 mm resulting in a mitral valve area of 10.7 ± 1.5 cm(2). 3D visualization was possible for the aortic and the mitral valve. None of the animals showed any pathology except one that had a dilated left ventricle and moderate mitral valve insufficiency. Left and right ventricular dimensions and the anatomy of the aortic-, mitral-, tricuspid and pulmonary valve as well as of the aorta were comparable with those of the human

  5. O valor do diploma nas práticas de recrutamento de grandes empresas The value of the diploma in the recruitment practices of large companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Salheb Alves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos mostram que diplomas de nível superior facilitam o acesso a posições de trabalho mais bem remuneradas e são uma fonte importante de prestígio e honra social no Brasil. Não obstante, uma ampla literatura afirma hoje a diminuição da importância do diploma nos processos de contratação, argumentando que ele seria cada vez menos suficiente para se conseguir um emprego. Este artigo examina os processos de seleção de engenheiros recém-formados por oito grandes empresas da região de Campinas. Com base em entrevistas com os principais atores da seleção e em observações das rodadas iniciais de uma seleção realizada por firma de consultoria contratada por uma das empresas, o estudo mostra que o peso do diploma obtido em uma universidade de prestígio ainda é a variável mais importante na decisão de contratação, definindo não apenas a obtenção do emprego, mas também o acesso às vagas que levam às posições gerenciais, mais bem remuneradas e mais prestigiosas. Ao final, discute as implicações teóricas e o que esses resultados sugerem em termos de políticas públicas.Studies show that higher level diplomas make access to well-paid jobs easier and are an important source of prestige and social honor in Brazil. However, a broad literature today indicates a reduction of the importance of the diploma in hiring processes and argues that having a diploma becomes less and less sufficient for getting a job. This article examines the processes of selection of recently graduated engineers by eight large companies in the region of Campinas. Based on interviews with the main actors of the selection processes and on observation of the initial steps of a selection carried out by a consultancy company hired by one of the companies, the study shows that the weight of a diploma from a prestigious university is still the most important variable for the hiring decision, as it defines not only whether it will be possible to get the

  6. Value of Surveillance Studies for Patients With Stage I to II Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in the Rituximab Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiniker, Susan M.; Pollom, Erqi L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Khodadoust, Michael S. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Kozak, Margaret M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Xu, Guofan; Quon, Andrew [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Advani, Ranjana H. [Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States); Hoppe, Richard T., E-mail: rhoppe@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford Cancer Institute, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Background: The role of surveillance studies in limited-stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) in the rituximab era has not been well defined. We sought to evaluate the use of imaging (computed tomography [CT] and positron emission tomography [PET]-CT) scans and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in surveillance of patients with stage I to II DLBCL. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who received definitive treatment between 2000 and 2013. Results: One hundred sixty-two consecutive patients with stage I to II DLBCL were treated with chemotherapy +/− rituximab, radiation, or combined modality therapy. The 5-year rates of overall survival (OS) and freedom from progression (FFP) were 81.2% and 80.8%, respectively. Of the 162 patients, 124 (77%) were followed up with at least 1 surveillance PET scan beyond end-of-treatment scans; of those, 94 of 124 (76%) achieved a complete metabolic response on PET scan after completion of chemotherapy, and this was associated with superior FFP (P=.01, HR=0.3) and OS (P=.01, HR 0.3). Eighteen patients experienced relapse after initial response to therapy. Nine relapses were initially suspected by surveillance imaging studies (8 PET, 1 CT), and 9 were suspected clinically (5 by patient-reported symptoms and 4 by symptoms and physical examination). No relapses were detected by surveillance LDH. The median duration from initiation of treatment to relapse was 14.3 months among patients with relapses suspected by imaging, and 59.8 months among patients with relapses suspected clinically (P=.077). There was no significant difference in OS from date of first therapy or OS after relapse between patients whose relapse was suspected by imaging versus clinically. Thirteen of 18 patients underwent successful salvage therapy after relapse. Conclusions: A complete response on PET scan immediately after initial chemotherapy is associated with superior FFP and OS in stage I to II DLBCL. The use of PET scans as

  7. NASA's Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment: A large-scale study of environmental change in Western North America and its implications for ecological systems and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Hayes, D. J.; Griffith, P. C.; Larson, E. K.; Wickland, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change in high northern latitudes is unfolding faster than anywhere else on Earth, resulting in widespread changes in landscape structure and ecosystem function in the Arctic-Boreal Region (ABR). Recognizing its sensitivity, vulnerability and global importance, national- and international-level scientific efforts are now advancing our ability to observe, understand and model the complex, multi-scale processes that drive the ABR's natural and social systems. Long at the edge of our mental map of the world, environmental change in the ABR is increasingly becoming the focus of numerous policy discussions at the highest levels of decision-making. To improve our understanding of environmental change and its impacts in the ABR, the Terrestrial Ecology Program of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is planning its next major field campaign for Western Canada and Alaska. The field campaign will be based on the Arctic-Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE) concept as described in the Revised Executive Summary from the ABoVE Scoping Study Report. The original Scoping Study Report provided the proof-of-concept demonstration of scientific importance and feasibility for this large-scale study. In early 2013, NASA announced the selection of the ABoVE Science Definition Team, which is charged with developing the Concise Experiment Plan for the campaign. Here, we outline the conceptual basis for ABoVE and present the compelling rationale explaining the scientific and societal importance of the study. We present the current status of the planning process, which includes development of the science questions to drive ABoVE research; the study design for the field campaign to address them; and the interagency and international collaborations necessary for implementation. The ABoVE study will focus on 1) developing a fuller understanding of ecosystem vulnerability to climate change in the ABR, and 2) providing the scientific information required to

  8. Environmental labelling as a marketing concept to create added value for flower chains: How to create a horticultural chain based on responsive consumer information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.; Lans, van der I.A.; Zimmerman, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the possibility to create markets for environmentally friendly grown flowers and plants by combining a push and a pull strategy. Consumer research revealed that the main pull should come from a target segment (one-fifth of the population) of heavy flower users that are either

  9. Comparison of Bispectral Index™ values during the flotation restricted environmental stimulation technique and results for stage I sleep: a prospective pilot investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, C Michael; McClain, Jesse V; Burger, Amanda

    2017-11-29

    To determine whether Bispectral Index™ values obtained during flotation-restricted environment stimulation technique have a similar profile in a single observation compared to literature-derived results found during sleep and other relaxation-induction interventions. Bispectral Index™ values were as follows: awake-state, 96.6; float session-1, 84.3; float session-2, 82.3; relaxation-induction, 82.8; stage I sleep, 86.0; stage II sleep, 66.2; and stages III-IV sleep, 45.1. Awake-state values differed from float session-1 (%difference 12.7%; Cohen's d = 3.6) and float session-2 (%difference 14.8%; Cohen's d = 4.6). Relaxation-induction values were similar to float session-1 (%difference 1.8%; Cohen's d = 0.3) and float session-2 (%difference 0.5%; Cohen's d = 0.1). Stage I sleep values were similar to float session-1 (%difference 1.9%; Cohen's d = 0.4) and float session-2 (%difference 4.3%; Cohen's d = 1.0). Stage II sleep values differed from float session-1 (%difference 21.5%; Cohen's d = 4.3) and float session-2 (%difference 19.6%; Cohen's d = 4.0). Stages III-IV sleep values differed from float session-1 (%difference 46.5%; Cohen's d = 5.6) and float session-2 (%difference 45.2%; Cohen's d = 5.4). Bispectral Index™ values during flotation were comparable to those found in stage I sleep and nadir values described with other relaxation-induction techniques.

  10. Comparison of American Fisheries Society (AFS) standard fish sampling techniques and environmental DNA for characterizing fish communities in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Christina R.; Bonar, Scott A.; Amberg, Jon J.; Ladell, Bridget; Rees, Christopher B.; Stewart, William T.; Gill, Curtis J.; Cantrell, Chris; Robinson, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Recently, methods involving examination of environmental DNA (eDNA) have shown promise for characterizing fish species presence and distribution in waterbodies. We evaluated the use of eDNA for standard fish monitoring surveys in a large reservoir. Specifically, we compared the presence, relative abundance, biomass, and relative percent composition of Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides and Gizzard Shad Dorosoma cepedianum measured through eDNA methods and established American Fisheries Society standard sampling methods for Theodore Roosevelt Lake, Arizona. Catches at electrofishing and gillnetting sites were compared with eDNA water samples at sites, within spatial strata, and over the entire reservoir. Gizzard Shad were detected at a higher percentage of sites with eDNA methods than with boat electrofishing in both spring and fall. In contrast, spring and fall gillnetting detected Gizzard Shad at more sites than eDNA. Boat electrofishing and gillnetting detected Largemouth Bass at more sites than eDNA; the exception was fall gillnetting, for which the number of sites of Largemouth Bass detection was equal to that for eDNA. We observed no relationship between relative abundance and biomass of Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad measured by established methods and eDNA copies at individual sites or lake sections. Reservoirwide catch composition for Largemouth Bass and Gizzard Shad (numbers and total weight [g] of fish) as determined through a combination of gear types (boat electrofishing plus gillnetting) was similar to the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species in spring and fall field sampling. However, no similarity existed between proportions of fish caught via spring and fall boat electrofishing and the proportion of total eDNA copies from each species. Our study suggests that eDNA field sampling protocols, filtration, DNA extraction, primer design, and DNA sequencing methods need further refinement and testing before incorporation into standard

  11. Many and small or large and few? A comparison of the environmental effects of different strategies for the development of hydropower plants.; Mange og smaa eller store og faa? En sammenligning av miljoevirkningene ved ulike strategier for utvikling av vannkraft.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Tor Haakon; Sundt, Haakon; Ruud, Audun

    2012-11-01

    This study compared the cumulative environmental impact of 27 small hydro power plants to the environmental impact of an average of three large hydropower plants, which range from the small farms and the average of the major producing about as much energy. Based on the empirical basis used in this study are the environmental impacts of large hydropower fewer and less severe than the cumulative environmental impacts from the 27 small plants. The results are, however marginal in favor of big hydro power plants and suffers from uncertainties due to lack of precision in the raw data, limitations of the methodic of accumulating environmental effects of many small facilities and extensive use of discretion in the transition between the scientific description of the environmental impacts and impact classes (Statens Vegvesen, 2006). The input data in the study has primarily been published available environmental impact assessment (KU). The results must therefore be said to have limited power statement in order to draw general conclusions. The identified environmental effects are to some extent, different from the type and size, so that an individual valuation and political or administrative priorities will to a large extent determine the preferred strategy for the development of hydropower. From 2012 promoted the production stimulating action as a result of common certificate market with Sweden. Small hydro power plants has so far been a priority in Norway, but when Norway implements EU Water Framework Directive in all areas of precipitation, one should be aware of our findings, especially regarding the potential in expanding of existing hydropower plants. (auth)

  12. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  13. CONTRATACION SANTANDER WATER SOURCES, A PEDAGOGICAL TOOL TO STRENGTHEN ENVIRONMENTAL STEWARDSHIP VALUES IN EIGHTH GRADE STUDENTS ITIS (INSTITUTE TECHNIC INDUSTRY SALESIANO 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oralinda Ruiz Quintero

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The following study reveals how from ecological activities, students and parents can be persuaded to gain a better conception of the environment and its conservation; the development of these activities were obtained with the help of workshops, seminars, field trips, surveys, and talks to the community, at the end, the students shared their knowledge with the residents of Contratacion. In addition, these results were analyzed using participatory observations, in the diaries of field work and environmental commitment.

  14. The δ30Si peak value discovered in middle Proterozoic chert and its implication for environmental variations in the ancient ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T P; Gao, J F; Tian, S H; Fan, C F; Zhao, Y; Wan, D F; Zhou, J X

    2017-03-08

    The silicon isotope composition of chert has recently been used to study the historic evolution of the global ocean. It has been suggested that Precambrian cherts have much higher δ 30 Si values than Phanerozoic cherts do and that the former show an increasing trend from 3.5 to 0.85 Ga, reflecting a decrease in ocean temperatures. However, cherts have various origins, and their isotopic compositions might be reset by metamorphic fluid circulation; thus, different types of cherts should be distinguished. Here, we present a new set of δ 30 Si data for cherts from early and middle Proterozoic carbonate rocks from Northern China. We found that cherts of 1.355-1.325 Ga show a peak range of 2.2-3.9‰. Based on these results, we propose that from the Archean to the middle Proterozoic, there was a drastic decrease in silicon content and an increase in the δ 30 Si value in ocean water due to a temperature decrease and biological activity increase. After that period, the silicon content of the ocean was limited to a low level by a high degree of biological absorption, and their δ 30 Si values varied in a small range around a significantly lower value.

  15. GUIDANCE FOR STATISTICAL DETERMINATION OF APPROPRIATE PERCENT MINORITY AND PERCENT POVERTY DISTRIBUTIONAL CUTOFF VALUES USING CENSUS DATA FOR AND EPA REGION II ENVIRONMENTAL JUSTICE PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to assist Region H by providing a statistical analysis identifying the areas with minority and below poverty populations known as "Community of Concern" (COC). The aim was to find a cutoff value as a threshold to identify a COC using demographic data...

  16. Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Towards sustainable conversation: Developing environmental education processes. ... Southern African Journal of Environmental Education ... paper highlights the importance of seeing environmental education as a process and considers the value of conversation and storytelling in environmental education processes.

  17. Manipulating environmental stresses and stress tolerance of microalgae for enhanced production of lipids and value-added products-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bailing; Wan, Chun; Mehmood, Muhammad Aamer; Chang, Jo-Shu; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Xinqing

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have promising potential to produce lipids and a variety of high-value chemicals. Suitable stress conditions such as nitrogen starvation and high salinity could stimulate synthesis and accumulation of lipids and high-value products by microalgae, therefore, various stress-modification strategies were developed to manipulate and optimize cultivation processes to enhance bioproduction efficiency. On the other hand, advancements in omics-based technologies have boosted the research to globally understand microalgal gene regulation under stress conditions, which enable further improvement of production efficiency via genetic engineering. Moreover, integration of multi-omics data, synthetic biology design, and genetic engineering manipulations exhibits a tremendous potential in the betterment of microalgal biorefinery. This review discusses the process manipulation strategies and omics studies on understanding the regulation of metabolite biosynthesis under various stressful conditions, and proposes genetic engineering of microalgae to improve bioproduction via manipulating stress tolerance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  19. A Study on the Teachers' Professional Knowledge and Competence in Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kuo-Shu; Wu, Tung-Ju; Chen, Hui-Bing; Li, Yi-Bin

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of technology and economy has largely enhanced the quality of life. Nevertheless, various social and environmental problems have emerged. It would be the key solution to develop environmental education in order to have people present the environmental knowledge and the attitudes and value to concern about the environment and…

  20. A Study of genetic and environmental influences on maternal and paternal CBCL syndrome scores in a large sample of 3-year-old Dutch twins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, E.M.; Hudziak, J.J.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Dolan, C.V.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Background. There is increasing evidence that behavioral problems are common in very young children, yet little is known about the etiology of individual differences in these problems. It is unclear to what degree environmental and genetic factors influence the development of early child

  1. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  2. Are personal values related to sustainable attribute choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone; Sirieix, Lucie; Remaud, Hervé

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A cross-cultural study with large representative samples analyses to what degree Schwartz’s personal values and environmental concerns are related to consumers’ choices of wine with sustainable characteristics. Methodology: Across seven countries, the attribute importance and willingness...

  3. Environmental managment without environmental valuation?

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    1996-01-01

    There is a rising tendency for environmental economics to be viewed as exclusively concerned with valuing everything in monetary terms and there are certainly some among its ranks whose own self-interest leads them to preach that line in public. However, acceptance of the many valid criticisms of monetary valuation and our limited understanding of environmental systems makes this extreme untenable as all economists will admit (if some only in private) and which ecological-economics recognise...

  4. Clock Genes Explain a Large Proportion of Phenotypic Variance in Systolic Blood Pressure and This Control Is Not Modified by Environmental Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Aslibekyan, Stella; Scheer, Frank A J L; Smith, Caren E; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Jacques, Paul; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Arnett, Donna K; Ordovás, José M

    2016-01-01

    Diurnal variation in blood pressure (BP) is regulated, in part, by an endogenous circadian clock; however, few human studies have identified associations between clock genes and BP. Accounting for environmental temperature may be necessary to correct for seasonal bias. We examined whether environmental temperature on the day of participants' assessment was associated with BP, using adjusted linear regression models in the Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN) (n = 819) and the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (BPRHS) (n = 1,248) cohorts. We estimated phenotypic variance in BP by 18 clock genes and examined individual single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations with BP using an additive genetic model, with further consideration of environmental temperature. In GOLDN, each additional 1 °C increase in environmental temperature was associated with 0.18 mm Hg lower systolic BP [SBP; β ± SE = -0.18 ± 0.05 mm Hg; P = 0.0001] and 0.10mm Hg lower diastolic BP [DBP; -0.10 ± 0.03 mm Hg; P = 0.001]. Similar results were seen in the BPRHS for SBP only. Clock genes explained a statistically significant proportion of the variance in SBP [V G/V P ± SE = 0.071 ± 0.03; P = 0.001] in GOLDN, but not in the BPRHS, and we did not observe associations between individual SNPs and BP. Environmental temperature did not influence the identified genetic associations. We identified clock genes that explained a statistically significant proportion of the phenotypic variance in SBP, supporting the importance of the circadian pathway underlying cardiac physiology. Although temperature was associated with BP, it did not affect results with genetic markers in either study. Therefore, it does not appear that temperature measures are necessary for interpreting associations between clock genes and BP. Trials related to this study were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00083369 (Genetic and Environmental Determinants of Triglycerides) and NCT01231958 (Boston Puerto

  5. Composting of urban solid wastes: agronomic value of environmental impact. Application for potatoes production; Compost de RSU: valor agronomico vs impacto ambiental. Aplicacion en la produccion de patata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastiao, M. J.; Queda, A. C. C.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of mixed Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) compost (still allowed in Portugal for agricultural purposes) on potato production and to assess the risk of heavy metal contamination of vegetables and soils. Three types of soils from the Setubal region were tested. Significant increases in potato production were obtained in poor sandy soils even at low compost application rates (15 t/ha year). There was no significant intake of heavy metals by the tubers grown with compost in all the tests performed. Four years of compost application increased copper concentration in the three types of soils, Zinc and lead accumulation was also observed in some of the experimental fields. Nevertheless, the detected amounts are still far below the limit values indicated in Portuguese and EU legislation for agricultural soils. The gradual change from MSW to bio-waste compost already in progress in our country will certainly reduce our concerns about compost utilisation in agriculture. (Author)

  6. Environmental life cycle assessment of a large-scale grid-connected PV power plant. Case study Moura 62 MW PV power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomalainen, Kiti

    2006-01-15

    An environmental life cycle assessment has been conducted for a 62 MW grid-connected photovoltaic installation to study the role of BOS components in the total environmental load. Also the influence of the current electricity supply has been investigated. For an alternative approach a net output approach has been used, where all electricity requirements are supplied by the photovoltaic installation itself. The components taken into account are monocrystalline silicon cells in frameless modules, steel support structures in concrete foundations, inverters, transformers, cables, transports and construction of roads and buildings. For stationary inert products without intrinsic energy requirements, such as cables, inverters, support structures etc., only raw material acquisition and processing are taken into account, since they are considered the most dominant stages in the life cycle. The results confirm a minor environmental load from BOS components compared to the module life cycle, showing approximately ten to twenty percent impact of the total. Uncertainties lie in the approximations for electronic devices as well as in the emissions from silicon processing. Concerning the electricity supply, the results differ considerably depending on which system perspective is used. In the net output approach the impacts decrease with approximately ninety percent from the traditional approach. Some increases are also shown in toxicity categories due to the increased module production needed for the enlargement of the installation.

  7. Environmental signaling and regulation of mushroom formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelkmans, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018514

    2016-01-01

    Mushrooms are of great value as a food source. The Netherlands has a large share of the European white button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) production. This market will increase in the future due to larger demand for high quality food with a growing world population. Environmental factors play a role

  8. How can facility managers add value?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; van der Voordt, Theo

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing interest in the concept of added value of facilities management (FM) and corporate real estate management (CREM), and how to attain and measure it. There is a wide variety of definitions in use, and recognition of different types of added value, such as user value......, customer value, financial value, environmental value and relationship value....

  9. From details to large scale: the representation of environmental positions follows a granularity gradient along the human hippocampal and entorhinal anterior-posterior axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe; Ladstein, Jarle; Hansen, Tor Ivar; Møller, Jarle Alexander; Witter, Menno P; Nadel, Lynn; Håberg, Asta K

    2015-01-01

    In rodents representations of environmental positions follow a granularity gradient along the hippocampal and entorhinal anterior-posterior axis; with fine-grained representations most posteriorly. To investigate if such a gradient exists in humans, functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during virtual environmental learning of the objects' positions and the association between the objects and room geometry. The Objects-room geometry binding led to increased activation throughout the hippocampus and in the posterior entorhinal cortex. Within subject comparisons related specifically to the level of spatial granularity of the object position encoding showed that activation in the posterior and intermediate hippocampus was highest for fine-grained and medium-grained representations, respectively. In addition, the level of fine granularity in the objects' positions encoded between subjects correlated with posterior hippocampal activation. For the anterior hippocampus increased activation was observed for coarse-grained representations as compared to failed encoding. Activation in anterior hippocampus correlated with the number of environments in which the objects positions were remembered when permitting a coarse representation of positions. In the entorhinal cortex, activation in the posterior part correlated with level of fine granularity for the objects' positions encoded between subjects, and activation in the posterior and intermediate entorhinal cortex increased for medium-grained representations. This demonstrates directly that positional granularity is represented in a graded manner along the anterior-posterior axis of the human hippocampus, and to some extent entorhinal cortex, with most fine-grained positional representations posteriorly. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pomp, E.R.; van Stralen, K.J.; le Cessie, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.P.; Rosendaal, F.R.; Doggen, C.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present

  11. The Genetic-Environmental Etiology of Parents' Perceptions and Self-Assessed Behaviours toward Their 5-Month-Old Infants in a Large Twin and Singleton Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Michel; Perusse, Daniel; Dionne, Ginette; Saysset, Valerie; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tarabulsy, George M.; Tremblay, Nathalie; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of parenting for the child's early socio-emotional development, parenting perceptions and behaviours, and their correlates, should be assessed as early as possible in the child's life. The goals of the present study were 1) to confirm, in two parallel population-based samples, including a large sample of twins, the…

  12. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Dell’Acqua

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data—such as municipality-level records of crop seeding—for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using “good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The

  13. A Novel Strategy for Very-Large-Scale Cash-Crop Mapping in the Context of Weather-Related Risk Assessment, Combining Global Satellite Multispectral Datasets, Environmental Constraints, and In Situ Acquisition of Geospatial Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Acqua, Fabio; Iannelli, Gianni Cristian; Torres, Marco A; Martina, Mario L V

    2018-02-14

    Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data-such as municipality-level records of crop seeding-for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity, etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using "good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem

  14. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  15. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  16. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  17. Valuing values: A history of wilderness economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; H. K. Cordell; N. C. Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964, economics as a science was hardly considered applicable to the types of human values set forth in this pathbreaking legislation. Economics was largely confined to the purchasing and labor decisions of households and firms as well the functioning of markets and economies. However, around this time, John Krutilla (1967) in his...

  18. Environmental policy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuru, Shigeto; Weidner, H. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This book deals in English with the most important features of Japanese environmental policy in a number of individual articles by different authors. The various sections report on: 1. History and organization of environmental policy; 2. The role of non-governmental actors in environmental policy (large industries); 3. Special features of environmental policies and problems; 4. Classical pollution control areas: Regulations and effects; 5. Environmental problems in a broader perspective (nature conservation); 6. Policy areas with influence on environmental quality; 7. Environmental monitoring and reporting; 8. Japanese environmental policy in an international perspective (preventive policies, developing countries). (HSCH).

  19. Environmental considerations in the organizational context : A pathway to pro-environmental behaviour at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruepert, Angela; Keizer, Kees; Steg, Linda; Maricchiolo, Fridanna; Carrus, Giuseppe; Dumitru, Adina; Garcia Mira, Ricardo; Stancu, Alexandra; Moza, Daniela

    Encouraging pro-environmental behaviour at work can result in a significant reduction in environmental problems. Research revealed that general environmental considerations such as biospheric values and environmental self-identity are important antecedents of private pro-environmental behaviour.

  20. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Valuing Wildlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Efroymson; H.I. Jager; W.W. Hargrove

    2010-01-01

    One of the central problems of land and water management is "the way in which scarce resources are allocated among alternative uses and users. The question is, of course, fundamental to economic models and modes of thought in ecology"(Rapport and Turner 1977). Many questions that are at the heart of environmental scape ecology and EcoRAs (the primary topics...

  2. Metro nature, environmental health, and economic value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen L. Wolf; Alicia S.T. Robbins

    2015-01-01

    Background: Nearly 40 years of research provides an extensive body of evidence about human health, well-being, and improved function benefits associated with experiences of nearby nature in cities.Objectives: We demonstrate the numerous opportunities for future research efforts that link metro nature, human health and well-being outcomes,...

  3. The large-scale deployment of fish aggregation devices alters environmentally-based migratory behavior of skipjack tuna in the Western Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuefang Wang

    Full Text Available Fish aggregation devices (FADs have been used extensively in the tuna purse seine fishery since the 1980s. This long-term modification of natural habitat has generated discussions as to whether FADs impact movement patterns of tuna species. We examined this question using data collected from the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis fishery. We used the longitudinal gravitational center of catch (G to examine temporal variability in skipjack movement in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, and related this to El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events. We found that in most cases G for free-swimming school sets changed with the onset of ENSO events, while G for floating-object-associated school sets remained relatively constant. This suggests that skipjack exhibit distinguishable behavioral strategies in response to ENSO events: they either react by moving long distances or they associate with floating objects. There has been no previous attempt to evaluate the interaction between FADs and the environmentally-determined movement of skipjack; this study shows evidence of an interaction, which should be considered when managing skipjack populations.

  4. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  5. Effectiveness of low emission zones: large scale analysis of changes in environmental NO2, NO and NOx concentrations in 17 German cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Morfeld

    Full Text Available Low Emission Zones (LEZs are areas where the most polluting vehicles are restricted from entering. The effectiveness of LEZs to lower ambient exposures is under debate. This study focused on LEZs that restricted cars of Euro 1 standard without appropriate retrofitting systems from entering and estimated LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx ( = NO2+NO.Continuous half-hour and diffuse sampler 4-week average NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations measured inside and outside LEZs in 17 German cities of 6 federal states (2005-2009 were analysed as matched quadruplets (two pairs of simultaneously measured index values inside LEZ and reference values outside LEZ, one pair measured before and one after introducing LEZs with time differences that equal multiples of 364 days by multiple linear and log-linear fixed-effects regression modelling (covariables: e.g., wind velocity, amount of precipitation, height of inversion base, school holidays, truck-free periods. Additionally, the continuous half-hour data was collapsed into 4-week averages and pooled with the diffuse sampler data to perform joint analysis.More than 3,000,000 quadruplets of continuous measurements (half-hour averages were identified at 38 index and 45 reference stations. Pooling with diffuse sampler data from 15 index and 10 reference stations lead to more than 4,000 quadruplets for joint analyses of 4-week averages. Mean LEZ effects on NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations (reductions were estimated to be at most -2 µg/m(3 (or -4%. The 4-week averages of NO2 concentrations at index stations after LEZ introduction were 55 µg/m(3 (median and mean values or 82 µg/m(3 (95th percentile.This is the first study investigating comprehensively the effectiveness of LEZs to reduce NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations controlling for most relevant potential confounders. Our analyses indicate that there is a statistically significant, but rather small reduction of NO2, NO, and NOx concentrations associated with LEZs.

  6. Emerging sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Sachdeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred values are different from secular values in that they are often associated with violations of the cost-benefit logic of rational choice models. Previous work on sacred values has been largely limited to religious or territorial conflicts deeply embedded in historical contexts. In this work we find that the Iranian nuclear program, a relatively recent development, is treated as sacred by some Iranians, leading to a greater disapproval of deals which involve monetary incentives to end the program. Our results suggest that depending on the prevalence of such values, incentive-focused negotiations may backfire.

  7. A robust and effective time-independent route to the calculation of Resonance Raman spectra of large molecules in condensed phases with the inclusion of Duschinsky, Herzberg-Teller, anharmonic, and environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egidi, Franco; Bloino, Julien; Cappelli, Chiara; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-01-14

    We present an effective time-independent implementation to model vibrational resonance Raman (RR) spectra of medium-large molecular systems with the inclusion of Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) effects and a full account of the possible differences between the harmonic potential energy surfaces of the ground and resonant electronic states. Thanks to a number of algorithmic improvements and very effective parallelization, the full computations of fundamentals, overtones, and combination bands can be routinely performed for large systems possibly involving more than two electronic states. In order to improve the accuracy of the results, an effective inclusion of the leading anharmonic effects is also possible, together with environmental contributions under different solvation regimes. Reduced-dimensionality approaches can further enlarge the range of applications of this new tool. Applications to imidazole, pyrene, and chlorophyll a1 in solution are reported, as well as comparisons with available experimental data.

  8. An assessment of the influence of bioenergy and marketed land amenity values on land uses in the midwestern US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk-Won Choi; Brent Sohngen; Ralph. Alig

    2011-01-01

    There is substantial concern that bioenergy policies could swamp other considerations, such as environmental values, and lead to large-scale conversions of land from forest to crops. This study examines how bioenergy and marketed environmental rents for forestland potentially influence land use in the Midwestern US. We hypothesize that current land uses reflect market...

  9. Standardized uptake value for (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose is correlated with a high International Prognostic Index and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, B E; Vural, G U

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) correlates with the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the presence of extranodal involvement in patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL). 77 patients (age: 57.2±18.5, 40F, 37M) with DLBCL who underwent FDG PET/CT for initial staging were included. SUVmax of the predominant lesions were compared to Ann Arbor stage, IPI scores, the presence of extranodal involvement and the number extranodal sites. PET/CT detected nodal (n:25) and extranodal involvement (n:52) in all the patients. In 27 patients, extranodal disease could only be detected by PET. SUVmax of the predominant lesion in patients with extranodal disease was significantly higher than that of the patients who had only nodal disease (25±12 vs. 15.3±10 respectively, p=0.001). SUVmax significantly correlated with IPI scores; the average SUVmax was significantly correlated with the IPI: Mean SUVmax of the predominant lesion was 13.9±9.5 in patients with low risk (IPI=0-1), 14.2±8.8 in low-intermediate risk group (IPI=2) whereas 26.6±9.5 in high-intermediate risk group (IPI=3) and 25±13.6 in high risk group patients (IPI=4-5) (p=0.002). SUVmax was not correlated with clinical stage, the number of extranodal sites and serum LDH levels. FDG uptake correlates with IPI and the presence of extranodal involvement in DLBCL. PET is a powerful method to detect extranodal disease in DLBCL. The correlation of SUVmax with these prognostic factors may highlight the importance of pretreatment FDG uptake as a metabolic marker of poor prognosis for patients with DLBCL. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Spit for Science: Launching a longitudinal study of genetic and environmental influences on substance use and emotional health at a large US university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle eDick

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Finding genes involved in complex behavioral outcomes, and understanding the pathways by which they confer risk, is a challenging task, necessitating large samples that are phenotypically well characterized across time. We describe an effort to create a university-wide research project aimed at understanding how genes and environments impact alcohol use and related substance use and mental health outcomes across time in college students. Nearly 70% of the incoming freshman class (N=2715 completed on-line surveys, with 80% of the students from the fall completing spring follow-ups. 98% of eligible participants also gave DNA. The participants closely approximated the university population in terms of gender and racial/ethnic composition. Here we provide initial results on alcohol use outcomes from the first wave of the sample, as well as associated predictor variables. We discuss the potential for this kind of research to advance our understanding of genetic and environment influences on substance use and mental health outcomes.

  11. JOINT ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL OPTIMIZATION OF HYBRID POWER SUPPLY FOR LARGE SCALE RO-DESALINATION PLANT: WITH AND WITHOUT CO2 SEQUESTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMAN A. TORA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a multi- objective optimization approach is introduced to define a hybrid power supply system for a large scale RO- desalination plant. The target is to integrate a number of locally available energy resources to generate the electricity demand of the RO- desalination plant with minimizing both the electricity generation cost and the greenhouse gas emissions whereby carbon dioxide sequestration may be an option. The considered energy resources and technologies are wind turbines, solar PV, combined cycles with natural gas turbines, combined cycles with coal gasification, pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization, and biomass combined heat and power CHP. These variable energy resources are investigated under different constraints on the renewable energy contribution. Likewise, the effect of carbon dioxide sequestration is included. Accordingly, five scenarios have been analyzed. Trade- offs between the minimum electricity generation cost and the minimum greenhouse gas emissions have been determined and represented in Pareto curves using the constraint method (. The results highlight that among the studied fossil fuel technologies, the integrated combined cycle natural gas turbines can provide considerable fraction of the needed power supply. Likewise, wind turbines are the most effective technology among renewable energy options. When CO2 sequestration applied, the costs increase and significant changes in the optimum combination of renewable energy resources have been monitored. In that case, solar PV starts to appreciably compete. The optimum mix of energy resources extends to include biomass CHP as well.

  12. Spatial heterogeneity of stream environmental conditions and macroinvertebrates community in an agriculture dominated watershed and management implications for a large river (the Liao River, China) basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Niu, Cuijuan; Chen, Yushun; Yin, Xuwang

    2014-04-01

    Understanding the effects of watershed land uses (e.g., agriculture, urban industry) on stream ecological conditions is important for the management of large river basins. A total of 41 and 56 stream sites (from first to fourth order) that were under a gradient of watershed land uses were monitored in 2009 and 2010, respectively, in the Liao River Basin, Northeast China. The monitoring results showed that a total of 192 taxa belonging to four phyla, seven classes, 21 orders and 91 families were identified. The composition of macroinvertebrate community in the Liao River Basin was dominated by aquatic insect taxa (Ephemeroptera and Diptera), Oligochaeta and Molluscs. The functional feeding group GC (Gatherer/Collector) was dominant in the whole basin. Statistical results showed that sites with less watershed impacts (lower order sites) were characterized by higher current velocity and habitat score, more sensitive taxa (e.g., Ephemeroptera), and the substrate was dominated by high percentage of cobble and pebble. The sites with more impacts from agriculture and urban industry (higher order sites) were characterized by higher biochemical (BOD5) and chemical oxygen demand (COD), more tolerant taxa (e.g., Chironominae), and the substrate was dominated by silt and sand. Agriculture and urban-industry activities have reduced habitat condition, increased organic pollutants, reduced macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity, and sensitive taxa in streams of the lower Liao River Basin. Restoration of degraded habitat condition and control of watershed organic pollutants could be potential management priorities for the Basin.

  13. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    behavior. This paper attempt to test such a claim. This is done via unique and privileged access to top-level managers in a Fortune 250 company. This company is special in having very well-defined, long-running values that are in opposition to a narrowly defined homo-economics rationality. These values...... involving vignettes and games. Their results were compared to their actual knowledge of the content of the company corporate values. The results were tested against hypotheses on expected rational behavior and a control group consisting of similar level managers from other companies. This study makes...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  14. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  15. The influence of large-scale environmental changes on carbon export in the North Pacific Ocean using satellite and shipboard data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Joaquim I.; Gomes, Helga do R.; Limsakul, Atsamon; Saino, Toshiro

    2004-01-01

    The subarctic Pacific Ocean experiences strong climate-modulated seasonal, interannual to decadal variations in meteorological and physical oceanographic conditions, which can have a profound influence on biological processes and carbon cycling in the region. Inorganic nitrate, a major nutrient controlling phytoplankton growth, is key to understanding the export of organic matter out of the euphotic zone. Its supply to the region is driven largely by winter convective mixing. Using satellite data for a 5-year period beginning in 1997, we provide evidence of strong interannual variations in the supply of inorganic nitrate and new production in the subarctic Pacific in association with the El-Niño of 1997 and the transition to La-Niña conditions thereafter. These satellite based climatologies allowed us to view and describe large changes in nitrate distribution and new production along the entire breadth of the subarctic Pacific basin. In addition, our accessibility to a 25-year database of shipboard measurements focused primarily in the Oyashio waters, a region representative of the western subarctic Pacific, enabled us to demonstrate that El-Niño/La-Niña changes in this region differed from those observed in the eastern subarctic Pacific. Thus, in addition to the primary motive of verifying the changes that we observed in our satellite-derived maps, this exercise allowed us to obtain a clear picture of the mechanistic connections between the atmosphere and the oceans and the biological response to these changes. The results from this study make a compelling case that the primary driver for the observed interannual variations in biological production in the western subarctic Pacific is the strength of the wintertime monsoonal winds. This anomalous intensification of the southeastward wind stress appears to be particularly strong during El-Niño years when the Aleutian Low intensifies and moves southeastwards, causing disturbances in the pressure gradient between

  16. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  17. Environmental microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briški, Felicita; Vuković Domanovac, Marija

    2017-10-01

    For most people, microorganisms are out of sight and therefore out of mind but they are large, extremely diverse group of organisms, they are everywhere and are the dominant form of life on planet Earth. Almost every surface is colonized by microorganisms, including our skin; however most of them are harmless to humans. Some microorganisms can live in boiling hot springs, whereas others form microbial communities in frozen sea ice. Among their many roles, microorganisms are necessary for biogeochemical cycling, soil fertility, decomposition of dead plants and animals and biodegradation of many complex organic compounds present in the environment. Environmental microbiology is concerned with the study of microorganisms in the soil, water and air and their application in bioremediation to reduce environmental pollution through the biological degradation of pollutants into non-toxic or less toxic substances. Field of environmental microbiology also covers the topics such as microbially induced biocorrosion, biodeterioration of constructing materials and microbiological quality of outdoor and indoor air.

  18. Sustainable Development of Slow Fashion Businesses: Customer Value Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojin Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available As an alternative to the prevalent fast fashion model, slow fashion has emerged as a way of enhancing sustainability in the fashion industry, yet how slow fashion can enhance profitability is still largely unknown. Based on a customer value creation framework, this study empirically tested a structural model that specified the slow fashion attributes that contribute to creating perceived customer value, which subsequently increases a consumer’s intention to buy and pay a price premium for slow fashion products. An analysis of 221 U.S. consumer data revealed that delivering exclusive product value is significantly critical in creating customer value for slow fashion, and customer value, in turn, positively affects consumers’ purchase intentions. Further analysis also revealed that different slow fashion attributes distinctively affect customer value. This provides potential strategies on which slow fashion businesses can focus to secure an economically sustainable business model, thereby continuously improving environmental and social sustainability with the slow fashion ideal.

  19. Radioactive isotopes in soils of Rio de Janeiro state: reference values, spatial distribution and correlation with environmental factors; Isotopos radioativos em solos do Estado do Rio de Janeiro: valores de referencia, distribuicao espacial e correlacao com fatores ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Carlos Araujo

    2016-07-01

    In the Rio de Janeiro State is located most of the Brazilian facilities for nuclear power generation and in the north region of the State is located a facility for concentration of heavy metals containing in monazite sand, which contain thorium and uranium associated. In addition, phosphate fertilizers, which contain natural radionuclides, are intensively used for agricultural purposes. A regional scale study was carried out in the state of Rio de Janeiro aimed to determine the levels of {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 137}Cs in surface soils, their geographic distribution, quality reference values (QRV) and the external dose which the population is potentially exposed. With this aim, 263 samples of surface soil were collected in the overall State, representing all soil and geology types, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 40}K, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra concentrations were within the world average values for soils. The activity concentration varied from 12 to 1029 Bq kg{sup -1} to {sup 40}K (geometric mean 111 Bq kg{sup -1}), from 3.5 to 100 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra (geometric mean 30 Bq kg{sup -1}) and from 5.4 to 314 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra (geometric mean 67 Bq kg{sup -1}). Higher concentrations were found in soils with igneous and metamorphic origin (Leptosol and Cambisol), while the lowest concentration were observed to the Podzol, of sedimentary origin. The lowest concentrations of {sup 226}Ra were observed in soils occurring on a rock with a high grade of metamorphism (granulite). The QRV values were calculated, according to Brazilian law in the 75{sup th} and 90{sup th} percentiles. However, due to the large dispersion of concentration data, when values of VRQs for each soil class are compared, significant differences among them are found. The results put in the view the restriction of using the 75{sup th} percentile and a unique QRV by radionuclide to all soil classes. Therefore, values of QRVs are suggested based on

  20. China's Environmental Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sternfeld

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article discusses the environmental challenges of China‘s economic boom and its social consequences. Although the country has a relatively long history of institutionalized environmental policy, it is in the implementation at local level where it faces large implementation deficits. Environmental damage causes not only high economic costs, but also affects social stability.

  1. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV{sub mean} of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV{sub mean} of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV{sub mean} of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.

  2. Shared Value

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Mette; Kampmann, Hack; Nielsen, Michalis; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the kind of value being presented when two seemingly different organisations - Red Bull and The Royal Theatre (Det Kongelige Teater) comes together to collaborate and present the Red Bull Cliff Diving 2015 series in Copenhagen in June 2015. The project draws on theories on Axiology, Experience Economy, Branding and Content Marketing, Culture Theory and Public Private Partnerships, all in relation to Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimers’ theory of “Cultural Industry: En...

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniko Miler-Virc

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ISO 14001 prescribes the requirements for a system, not environmental performance itself. Similarly, certification is of the management system itself, not environmental performance. An audit is not conducted to ascertain whether your flue gas emissions are less than X part per million nitrous oxide or that your wastewater effluent contains less that Y milligrams of bacteria per litre. Consequently, the procces of auditing the system for compliance to the standard entails checking to see that all of the necessary components of a functioning system are present and working properly.           A company can have a complete and fully functional EMS as prescribed by ISO 14001 without being certified. As certification can add to the time and expense of EMS development, it is important for you to establish, in advance, whether certification is of net benefit to you. Although most companies that develop an EMS do in fact certify, there are cases where certification does not add immediate value. Certification is not always beneficial to small and medium sized companies. Certification is not always necessary for companies with one or two large clients with environmental demands who are satisfied that you have a functional EMS (second-party declaration. Whatever decision you make, it is important to remember that just as a driver′s licence does not automatically make you a good driver, ISO 14001 certification does not automatically make your company environmentally benign or ensure that you will continually improve environmental performance. The system is only as good as the people who operate it.

  4. Energy efficiency ground-source energy system, Environmental Protection Law, article 'Heat and cold storage, value for money'; Energierendement bodemenergiesysteem, Wet milieubeheer, artikel 'WKO, waar voor je geld'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambregts, E.G.M.; Teunissen, P.O.M.; Beukenhorst, E.

    2013-01-15

    Upscaling of ground-source energy systems can contribute to heat and cold storage systems and thus reduce CO2 emission for the Amsterdam municipality. Based on the results of the project 'Heat and cold storage; Value for money' a proposal was made to the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment to include a regulation 'energy efficiency heat and cold storage' in the Environmental Protection Law [Dutch] In het kader van de CO2 doelstelling van Amsterdam om 40% CO2 te reduceren in 2025 t.o.v. van 1990 wordt de verdere opschaling van de techniek bodemenergiesysteem gezien als een techniek die in belangrijke mate kan bijdragen aan de pijler 'transitie duurzame warmte en koude'. Op landelijk en gemeentelijk niveau werd gesignaleerd dat (open) bodemenergiesystemen in de exploitatiefase veelal onvoldoende functioneerden. In dit rapport wordt op basis van de resultaten van het project 'WKO, waar voor je geld' een voorstel aan het Ministerie van I en M gedaan om een voorschrift 'energierendement wko' op te nemen in het Activiteitenbesluit Wet milieubeheer.

  5. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk......We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities....

  6. Storage characteristics, nutritive value, energy content, and in-vivo digestibility of moist large-rectangular bales of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay treated with a propionic-acid-based preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unstable weather, poor drying conditions, and unpredictable rainfall events often place valuable hay crops at risk. Recent research with large-round bales comprised of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) has shown that these large-bale packages are particularly sens...

  7. Membrane-assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for the determination of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds in environmental water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, Arantza; Navarro, Patricia; Prieto, Ailette; Rodil, Rosario; Olivares, Maitane; Fernández, Luis-Ángel; Zuloaga, Olatz

    2012-03-01

    Membrane-assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection in a programmable temperature vaporisation injector using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis was optimised for the simultaneous determination of a variety of endocrine disrupting compounds in environmental water samples (estuarine, river and wastewater). Among the analytes studied, certain hormones, alkylphenols and bisphenol A were included. The nature of membranes, extraction solvent, extraction temperature, solvent volume, extraction time, ionic strength and methanol addition were evaluated during the optimisation of the extraction. Matrix effects during the extraction step were studied in different environmental water samples: estuarine water, river water and wastewater (influent and effluent). Strong matrix effects were observed for most of the compounds in influent and effluent samples. Different approaches were studied in order to correct or minimise matrix effects, which included the use of deuterated analogues, matrix-matched calibration, standard addition calibration, dilution of the sample and clean-up of the extract using solid-phase extraction (SPE). The use of deuterated analogues corrected satisfactorily matrix effect for estuarine and effluent samples for most of the compounds. However, in the case of influent samples, standard addition calibration and dilution of the sample were the best approaches. The SPE clean-up provided similar recoveries to those obtained after correction with the corresponding deuterated analogue but better chromatographic signal was obtained in the case of effluent samples. Method detection limits in the 5-54 ng L(-1) range and precision, calculated as relative standard deviation, in the 2-25% range were obtained.

  8. The Value Landscape in Ecosystem Services: Value, Value Wherefore Art Thou Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam P. Hejnowicz

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services has risen to become one of the preeminent global policy discourses framing the way we conceive and articulate environment–society relations, integral to the form and function of a number of far-reaching international policies such as the Aichi 2020 Biodiversity Targets and the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals. Value; its pursuit, definition, quantification, monetization, multiplicity and uncertainty, both in terms of meaning and attribution, is fundamental to the economic foundations of ecosystem services and a core feature driving its inclusion across multiple policy domains such as environmental management and conservation. Distilling current knowledge and developments in this arena are thus highly prescient. In this article, we cast a critical eye over the evidence base and aim to provide a comprehensive synthesis of what values are, why they are important and the methodological approaches employed to elicit them (including their pros and cons and the arguments for and against. We also illustrate the current ecosystem service value landscape, highlight some of the fundamental challenges in discerning and applying values, and outline future research activities. In so doing, we further advance ecosystem valuation discourse, contribute to wider debates linking ecosystem services and sustainability and strengthen connections between ecosystem services and environmental policy.

  9. Study of environmental health problems in Korea using integrated environmental health indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2013-07-25

    We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008-2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll's taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0-1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28-0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects.

  10. Study of Environmental Health Problems in Korea Using Integrated Environmental Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Seulkee; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the usefulness of environmental health indicators for the evaluation of environmental health in Korea. We also assessed the association between environmental contamination and health outcomes by integrating indicators into a composite measure. We selected health-related environmental indicators and environment-related health status indicators. The data were obtained from published statistical data from the period 2008–2009. Both synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators were calculated using Strahll’s taxonometric methods. The range of values determined by this method is 0–1, with higher values representing a better situation in the given area. The study area consisted of 16 large administrative areas within Korea. The arithmetic mean of the synthesized measure of environmental indicators was 0.348 (SD = 0.151), and that of the synthesized measure of health status indicators was 0.708 (SD = 0.107). The correlation coefficient between the synthesized measures of environmental indicators and health status indicators was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.28–0.88). Comparisons between local communities based on integrated indicators may provide useful information for decision-makers, allowing them to identify priorities in pollutant mitigation policies or in improvement actions for public health. Integrated indicators are also useful to describe the relationships between environmental contamination and health effects. PMID:23892549

  11. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  12. Forest Values of national park neighbors in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2005-01-01

    Global environmental concern and action have increased markedly over the past few decades. Rather than resulting in uniform environmental values across the globe, we argue that distinct environmentalisms are socially constructed in different places through the complex interactions between the global environmental values and locally unique historical, political, and...

  13. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Varadhan, S R S

    2016-01-01

    The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.

  14. Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7 ± 8.1% (MK) to 107.6 ± 10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W) ≈ K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques.

  15. Valuing Puget Sound’s Valued Ecosystems Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    tively new field of “ecological economics” incorporates a combination of utilitarian and “ecologistic” values. More broadly, the writings of Aldo ... Leopold have become a touch- stone for many contemporary thinkers on environmental ethics, values and aesthetics. In his much cited essay, The Land...Ethic, Leopold said, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it

  16. SOURCES OF ENTERPRISE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Mădălina Ion

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The value of the enterprise has an increased importance in business valuation, so maximizing it becomes a priority for the interested parties, such as its shareholders or investors. The purpose of this article is the analysis of the sources of enterprise value and its factors, in order to understand the causes of the decrease or the possibilities for maximizing the enterprise value, passing over the main concepts in the literature. The analysis refers to the listed companies on the Bucharest Stock Exchange (BVB from the energy sector, including the largest Romanian company as per its capitalization, OMV Petrom. The research took into account the fact that the analysis of a large company with a long history is facilitated by the existence of multi-annual information, unlike the firms in the early life cycle operating in an emerging market.

  17. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Hollander, Frank den

    2008-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory and applications of large deviations, a branch of probability theory that describes the probability of rare events in terms of variational problems. By focusing the theory, in Part A of the book, on random sequences, the author succeeds in conveying the main ideas behind large deviations without a need for technicalities, thus providing a concise and accessible entry to this challenging and captivating subject. The selection of modern applications, described in Part B of the book, offers a good sample of what large deviation theory is able to achieve

  18. Large Mines and the Community: Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large Mines and the Community: Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain ... and multilateral agencies), mining company officials, staff of government mining and development agencies, and academics and researchers in economic, social, environmental, and natural resource issues.

  19. Cigarette smoking complements the prognostic value of baseline plasma Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy: a large-scale retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jia-Wei; Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Mao, Yan-Ping; Li, Wen-Fei; Guo, Rui; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun; Sun, Ying

    2016-03-29

    We evaluated the combined prognostic value of cigarette smoking and baseline plasma Epstein-Barr virus deoxyribonucleic acid (EBV DNA) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Of consecutive patients, 1501 with complete data were eligible for retrospective analysis. Smoking index (SI; cigarette packs per day times smoking duration [years]), was used to evaluate the cumulative effect of smoking. Primary end-point was overall survival (OS); progression-free survival (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS) were secondary end-points. Both cigarette smoking and baseline plasma EBV DNA load were associated with poorer survival (P smoking and baseline plasma EBV DNA were independent prognostic factors for survival outcomes. Combined interpretation of EBV DNA with smoking led to the refinement of the risks stratification for patient subsets, especially with improved risk discrimination in patients with high baseline plasma EBV DNA.

  20. The prognostic value of long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability on stroke in real-world practice: a dynamic cohort study in a large representative sample of Chinese hypertensive population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-ming; Kong, Qun-yu; Schoenhagen, Paul; Shen, Tian; He, Yu-song; Wang, Ji-wei; Zhao, Yan-ping; Shi, Dan-ni; Zhong, Bao-liang

    2014-12-20

    The prognostic significance of long-term visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) has not yet been validated in "real world" hypertensive patients. The aim of the current study is to explore the prognostic value of BPV on stroke in hypertensive patients. This was a dynamic prospective cohort study based on electronic medical records in Shanghai, China. Hypertensive patients (N=122,636) without history of stroke at baseline, were followed up from 2005 to 2011. The cohort comprised of 4522 stroke patients and 118,114 non-stroke patients during a mean follow-up duration of 48 months. BPV was measured by standard deviation (SD) and the coefficient of variation (CV) of blood pressure. The visit-to-visit variability of both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was independently associated with the occurrence of stroke [SD: the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of SBP and DBP were 1.042 (1.021 to 1.064) and 1.052 (1.040 to 1.065); CV: the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of SBP and DBP were 1.183 (1.010 to 1.356) and 1.151 (1.005 to 1.317), respectively]. The hazard ratio values increased along with an increase of the BPV levels of SBP and DBP. The increment effect remained significant after controlling the blood pressure control status of subjects. Increased BPV of both SBP and DBP, independent of the average blood pressure, is a predictor of stroke among community hypertensive patients in real-world clinical practice. The risk of stroke increased along with increased BPV. Stabilizing BPV might be a therapeutic target in hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Process and system innovation in the building and construction industry: Developing a model for integrated value chain and life cycle management of built objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, H.A.J. de; Vrijhoef, R.

    2004-01-01

    The building and construction industry has a large contribution and impact on society, e.g. economical and environmental, involving a vast spectrum of stakeholders. However, the value delivering performance of the industry has often been criticized. The predictability of the value, price and costs

  2. Environmental pollution studies

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Gerry

    1999-01-01

    This book examines a number of important contemporary environmental issues in an informative and easy-to-read style. The topics covered include sewage treatment, eutrophication, air pollution, acid rain, global warming and pollution from farming. A particularly valuable section of the book describes a range of tests that can be carried out on various environmental parameters. The procedures require relatively simple equipment and they have been pre-tested in a school laboratory. "Environmental Pollution Studies" will be of value to senior school pupils and students at college or university embarking on courses in environmental science.

  3. Large deviations

    CERN Document Server

    Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique

    2001-01-01

    This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow

  4. Environmental Aesthetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  5. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  6. How to derive biological information from the value of the normalization constant in allometric equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitaniemi, Pekka

    2008-04-09

    Allometric equations are widely used in many branches of biological science. The potential information content of the normalization constant b in allometric equations of the form Y = bX(a) has, however, remained largely neglected. To demonstrate the potential for utilizing this information, I generated a large number of artificial datasets that resembled those that are frequently encountered in biological studies, i.e., relatively small samples including measurement error or uncontrolled variation. The value of X was allowed to vary randomly within the limits describing different data ranges, and a was set to a fixed theoretical value. The constant b was set to a range of values describing the effect of a continuous environmental variable. In addition, a normally distributed random error was added to the values of both X and Y. Two different approaches were then used to model the data. The traditional approach estimated both a and b using a regression model, whereas an alternative approach set the exponent a at its theoretical value and only estimated the value of b. Both approaches produced virtually the same model fit with less than 0.3% difference in the coefficient of determination. Only the alternative approach was able to precisely reproduce the effect of the environmental variable, which was largely lost among noise variation when using the traditional approach. The results show how the value of b can be used as a source of valuable biological information if an appropriate regression model is selected.

  7. How to derive biological information from the value of the normalization constant in allometric equations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Kaitaniemi

    Full Text Available Allometric equations are widely used in many branches of biological science. The potential information content of the normalization constant b in allometric equations of the form Y = bX(a has, however, remained largely neglected. To demonstrate the potential for utilizing this information, I generated a large number of artificial datasets that resembled those that are frequently encountered in biological studies, i.e., relatively small samples including measurement error or uncontrolled variation. The value of X was allowed to vary randomly within the limits describing different data ranges, and a was set to a fixed theoretical value. The constant b was set to a range of values describing the effect of a continuous environmental variable. In addition, a normally distributed random error was added to the values of both X and Y. Two different approaches were then used to model the data. The traditional approach estimated both a and b using a regression model, whereas an alternative approach set the exponent a at its theoretical value and only estimated the value of b. Both approaches produced virtually the same model fit with less than 0.3% difference in the coefficient of determination. Only the alternative approach was able to precisely reproduce the effect of the environmental variable, which was largely lost among noise variation when using the traditional approach. The results show how the value of b can be used as a source of valuable biological information if an appropriate regression model is selected.

  8. Improving the firm's environmental conduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Koed Madsen, Tage

    2001-01-01

      It has recently been argued that growing societal pressures for better environmental conduct could induce environmental innovation, thereby entailing lower costs due to increased value and/or more efficient resource allocation. This has led to the claim that improved environmental conduct may...

  9. El valor económico de los bienes culturales y ambientales. Cultura, desarrollo y sostenibilidad/THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF CULTURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL GOODS. CULTURE, DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diana C Pérez-Bustamante; Ana Yábar Sterling

    2010-01-01

      Taking into account the discrepancies between value and price of the goods and services coming from the cultural sector in strict sense, the article shows that this type of cultural products - where...

  10. Added values of photovoltaic power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-15

    The structure, ownership and operation of electricity systems around the world are changing in response to industry restructuring, the availability of new technologies and increasing environmental awareness. At the same time, many countries have yet to provide basic energy services for their populations, particularly in areas not served by the electricity grid. Large-scale, central power generation and distribution which characterized the electricity industry for much of the 20{sup th} century is being challenged by new technologies, which are cleaner, faster to deploy and better matched to local requirements. Higher values are being placed on ancillary services, such as power system reliability and voltage stability, so that a simple comparison of energy cost is no longer appropriate as a measure of competitiveness. Solar photovoltaic electricity is unique amongst the new energy sources for the wide range of energy and non-energy benefits which can be provided, while the use of photovoltaic power systems as an integral part of a building provides the greatest opportunity for exploiting non-energy benefits and for adding value to the photovoltaic power system. This report documents the potential added values or non-energy benefits photovoltaic power systems can provide, the current state of market development and the key barriers faced by renewable energy technologies generally and photovoltaic power systems in particular. Means by which non-energy benefits may be used to overcome barriers to the use of photovoltaic power systems are then discussed, with specific attention to the use of building integrated photovoltaics. (author)

  11. The Competing Values of Hackers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mûller, Sune Dueholm; Ulrich, Frank

    2015-01-01

    overview of values underlying any written text. The technique allows for the creation of culture profiles of texts based on the competing values framework [2]. The article contributes to understanding an important but overlooked hotbed of creativity—the hacker community. It provides examples of how hackers......—by playing with technology—produce often unintended innovations. Furthermore, the article demonstrates the usefulness of semi-automated text analyses for the purpose of understanding the values and assumptions that are expressed in documents. We highlight the value of the technique in analyzing large volumes...

  12. Green Net Value Added as a Sustainability Metric Based on ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability measurement in economics involves evaluation of environmental and economic impact in an integrated manner. In this study, system level economic data are combined with environmental impact from a life cycle assessment (LCA) of a common product. We are exploring a costing approach that captures traditional costs but also incorporates externality costs to provide a convenient, easily interpretable metric. Green Net Value Added (GNVA) is a type of full cost accounting that incorporates total revenue, the cost of materials and services, depreciation, and environmental externalities. Two, but not all, of the potential environmental impacts calculated by the standard LCIA method (TRACI) could be converted to externality cost values. We compute externality costs disaggregated by upstream sectors, full cost, and GNVA to evaluate the relative sustainability of Bounty® paper towels manufactured at two production facilities. We found that the longer running, more established line had a higher GNVA than the newer line. The dominant factors contributing to externality costs are calculated to come from the stationary sources in the supply chain: electricity generation (27-35%), refineries (20-21%), pulp and paper making (15-23%). Health related externalities from Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Carbon Dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions appear largely driven by electricity usage and emissions by the facilities, followed by pulp processing and transport. Supply

  13. Managing conflict between large carnivores and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eeden, Lily M; Crowther, Mathew S; Dickman, Chris R; Macdonald, David W; Ripple, William J; Ritchie, Euan G; Newsome, Thomas M

    2018-02-01

    Large carnivores are persecuted globally because they threaten human industries and livelihoods. How this conflict is managed has consequences for the conservation of large carnivores and biodiversity more broadly. Mitigating human-predator conflict should be evidence-based and accommodate people's values while protecting carnivores. Despite much research into human and large-carnivore coexistence strategies, there have been few attempts to document the success of conflict-mitigation strategies on a global scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of global research on conflict mitigation related to large carnivores and humans. We focused on conflicts that arise from the threat large carnivores pose to livestock. We first used structured and unstructured searching to identify replicated studies that used before-after or control-impact design to measure change in livestock loss as a result of implementing a management intervention. We then extracted relevant data from these studies to calculate an overall effect size for each intervention type. Research effort and focus varied among continents and aligned with the histories and cultures that shaped livestock production and attitudes toward carnivores. Livestock guardian animals most effectively reduced livestock losses. Lethal control was the second most effective control, although its success varied the most, and guardian animals and lethal control did not differ significantly. Financial incentives have promoted tolerance of large carnivores in some settings and reduced retaliatory killings. We suggest coexistence strategies be location-specific, incorporate cultural values and environmental conditions, and be designed such that return on financial investment can be evaluated. Improved monitoring of mitigation measures is urgently required to promote effective evidence-based policy. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. The object of environmental ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petulla, Joseph M.

    1989-05-01

    Since the term “environmental ethics” began to be used a generation ago, it has covered many different kinds of environmental notions, problems, ethical systems, and forms of behavior. A variety of cases are presented and examined under two terms, environmental ethics and ecological morality, in an effort to illustrate different kinds of ethical objectives. In order to understand the connections between various strands of environmental ethics, personal and social values and subcultural norms of environmental ethics are examined under Christopher Stone's concept of moral pluralism. G. J. Warnock's notion of the “general object” of morality is proposed to integrate the variegated purposes of environmental ethics.

  15. Analysis of large value payment systems : liquidity, behaviour and disruptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, Ronald Hubertus

    2012-01-01

    Het centrale thema van dit proefschrift is hoe transactiegegevens van hoogwaardige betaalsystemen gebruikt kunnen worden om de liquiditeitspositie en het gedrag van financiele instelingen te monitoren en om te analyseren hoe gevoelig deze hoogwaardige betaalsystemen zijn voor verstoringen. Diverse

  16. Integrating social, economic, and ecological values across large landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica E. Halofsky; Megan K. Creutzburg; Miles A. Hemstrom

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Landscape Assessment Project (ILAP) was a multiyear effort to produce information, maps, and models to help land managers, policymakers, and others conduct mid- to broad-scale (e.g., watersheds to states and larger areas) prioritization of land management actions, perform landscape assessments, and estimate cumulative effects of management actions for...

  17. Powerball, Expected Value, and the Law of (Very) Large Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecklin, Christopher J.; Donnelly, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we consider some combinatorial and statistical aspects of the popular "Powerball" lottery game. It is not difficult for students in an introductory statistics course to compute the probabilities of winning various prizes, including the "jackpot" in the Powerball game. Assuming a unique jackpot winner, it is not difficult to find the…

  18. Managing the value chain in a large Nordic bank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kai; Stensgaard Mørch, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik D.

    2009-01-01

    The scope of the study is to analyze the relationship between employee satisfaction and motivation on one side and customer loyalty and customer profitability on the other in Danske Bank. Danske Bank is the leading financial institution in Denmark and one of the largest and highest rated...... in the Nordic region. Danske Bank has for many years measured and analyzed various aspects of business performance. In 2002 Danske Bank and Ennova, the partner of Danske Bank in performance measurement, teamed up with Center for Corporate Performance at The Aarhus School of business in order to set up...... a scientific approach to the analysis of performance measurement data. This lead to a project, from which some of the results are presented here. The main conclusion is that in Danske Bank there is a very significant relation between satisfied and motivated employees and the bottom line results of the bank...

  19. Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America, Canada, and Spain. Couverture du livre Large Mines and the Community : Socioeconomic and Environmental Effects in Latin America. Directeur(s) : Gary McMahon et Felix Remy. Maison(s) d'édition : Banque mondiale, CRDI.

  20. Environmental strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...... perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive...... situations. Instead, managers undertake careful consideration of the circumstances in which their company operates, paying special attention to their customers’ environmental preferences....

  1. The impact of large-scale renewable energy development on the poor: environmental and socio-economic impact of a geothermal power plant on a poor rural community in Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariita, N.O. [Kenya Electricity Generating Company Ltd., Naivasha (Kenya)

    2002-09-01

    The article assesses the local environmental and socio-economic impact of geothermal power plant on poor rural community in Kenya. The country's geothermal resources are located in the Rift Valley region - an environmentally and culturally fragile part of the country. Kenya's main geothermal plants are located in the middle of one of Rift Valley's major wildlife parks - a major tourist attraction. Over the last two decades, the surrounding area has also become a major centre for Kenya's flourishing commercial flower farming, which is now partially powered by geothermal energy. This article examines environmental and socio-economic impacts on the nomadic low-income rural Maasai community of the simultaneous development of geothermal energy, flower farming and wildlife/tourism industry. While the near-term environmental impacts have been minimal, the article warns of significant adverse impacts in the future if the competing demands of the fast growing geothermal energy, flower farming as well as wildlife/tourism sector are not adequately addressed. In the short-term, however, the socio-economic impact of geothermal energy development is likely to be the main source of conflict. The article ends by proposing policy and institutional measures that would ensure that the local Maasai community enjoys a wider range of socio-economic benefits as well as mitigate long-term adverse environmental impacts associated with geothermal energy development. (author)

  2. Valuing preferences over stormwater management outcomes including improved hydrologic function

    Science.gov (United States)

    LondoñO Cadavid, Catalina; Ando, Amy W.

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater runoff causes environmental problems such as flooding, soil erosion, and water pollution. Conventional stormwater management has focused primarily on flood reduction, while a new generation of decentralized stormwater solutions yields ancillary benefits such as healthier aquatic habitat, improved surface water quality, and increased water table recharge. Previous research has estimated values for flood reduction from stormwater management, but no estimates exist for the willingness to pay (WTP) for some of the other environmental benefits of alternative approaches to stormwater control. This paper uses a choice experiment survey of households in Champaign-Urbana, Illinois, to estimate the values of several attributes of stormwater management outcomes. We analyzed data from 131 surveyed households in randomly selected neighborhoods. We find that people value reduced basement flooding more than reductions in yard or street flooding, but WTP for basement flood reduction in the area only exists if individuals are currently experiencing significant flooding themselves. Citizens value both improved water quality and improved hydrologic function and aquatic habitat from runoff reduction. Thus, widespread investment in low impact development stormwater solutions could have very large total benefits, and stormwater managers should be wary of policies and infrastructure plans that reduce flooding at the expense of water quality and aquatic habitat.

  3. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  4. Environmental Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  5. Environmental Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's modeling community is working to gain insights into certain parts of a physical, biological, economic, or social system by conducting environmental assessments for Agency decision making to complex environmental issues.

  6. Contribution to the study of the determination of the remaining flow in deviation SHP (Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants): the incorporation of the economic value of environmental resources; Contribuicao ao estudo da determinacao da vazao remanescente em PCHS (Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas) de desvio: a incorporacao do valor economico de recursos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Henrique Machado Moreira [Schlumberger, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: henriquemmsantos@yahoo.com.br; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI/GEE/ISSE), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos], e-mail: afonsohms@gmail.com; Ribeiro Junior, Leopoldo Uberto, e-mail: leopoldo_junior@yahoo.com.br; Nascimento, Jose Guilherme Antloga do, e-mail: jgan@brasilpch.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper seems to develop the economic analysis of Small Hydro Plants - SHP, incorporating in this analysis evaluations of priceless losses for the society, as the environmental damages, taking SHP Paraitinga as the study case. It involves questions related to environmental valuation, economics, and engineering, presenting the concept of the Economic Valuation of Environmental Resources. The main valuation methods are presented. In the economic analysis, the concept of willingness to pay is verified by using demand function, that involves the elasticity and the price. The price is calculated based on costs and the elasticity is calculated based on the essentially of the goods or services, which could be reached by market observation. Only the remaining outflow definition, in the stretch of reduced outflow of the project will be studied. After these studies and valuations, some scenarios will be adopted for the developed model, on current values and projections. A comparison of the present work and the methodology of commitment programming are carried out. Finally the results will be analyzed, trying to get the 'optimum outflow', aiming at balancing power, tourism and environmental interests. (author)

  7. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  8. GENETIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS IN TROTTERS RACING PERFOMANCE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mato Čačić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Breeding goal and selection measures in breeding of trotter horses are subjected to horses production with the fastest possible speed in trotting. Evaluation of racing horses’ performances is important because of horse impact on horse industry. More valuable horses and larger prizing fond result in a higher attendance of hippodromes and more money paid in betting offices. Race horse industry notes a large number of data used in predictions during breeding of horses with better racing performances every year. Racing performances are affected by a large number of genetic and environmental (non-genetic factors caused by different environmental effects. Therefore, they are more variable. The major genetic and environmental parameters used in the models of breeding values racehorses in this case trotters are reviewed in this paper.

  9. Environmental Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelof, Anja Mølle; Schmidt, Ulrik; Svabo, Connie

    2017-01-01

    as its starting point to investigate liveness within a specific kind of contemporary performance: ‘environmental performances’. Environmental performances are arts practices that take environmental processes as their focus by framing activities of non-human performers such as clouds, wind and weeds - key...

  10. Environments perceived as obesogenic have lower residential property values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewnowski, Adam; Aggarwal, Anju; Rehm, Colin D; Cohen-Cline, Hannah; Hurvitz, Philip M; Moudon, Anne V

    2014-09-01

    Studies have tried to link obesity rates and physical activity with multiple aspects of the built environment. To determine the relation between residential property values and multiple perceived (self-reported) measures of the obesogenic environment. The Seattle Obesity Study (SOS) used a telephone survey of a representative, geographically distributed sample of 2,001 King County adults, collected in 2008-2009 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Home addresses were geocoded. Residential property values at the tax parcel level were obtained from the King County tax assessor. Mean residential property values within a 10-minute walk (833-m buffer) were calculated for each respondent. Data on multiple perceived measures of the obesogenic environment were collected by self-report. Correlations and multivariable linear regression analyses, stratified by residential density, were used to examine the associations among perceived environmental measures, property values, and BMI. Perceived measures of the environment such as crime, heavy traffic, and proximity to bars, liquor stores, and fast food were all associated with lower property values. By contrast, living in neighborhoods that were perceived as safe, quiet, clean, and attractive was associated with higher property values. Higher property values were associated, in turn, with lower BMIs among women. The observed associations between perceived environment measures and BMI were largely attenuated after accounting for residential property values. Environments perceived as obesogenic are associated with lower property values. Studies in additional locations need to explore to what extent other perceived environment measures can be reflected in residential property values. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Trends in environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, J.E. [Arthur D. Little of Canada Limited, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    Changes wrought by environmental regulations in the way companies produce, develop, and deliver their products and services were discussed. Some `tell-tale` signs of a vacuum of industry leadership in environmental affairs were identified. These included: lack of a `visible` corporate environmental policy, role confusion, limited action in response to plans, process myopia, poorly utilized data, hidden accomplishments, and an adversarial relationship with the regulatory bodies. Key trends in environmental management, and the necessary attributes for effective environmental management expected of the next generation of industry leaders were briefly described, including (1) the incorporation of environmental plans into the core of the business process, and into corporate strategy; (2) the formation of business-led, line-driven, rather than staff driven plans; and (3) increased measurement and broad dissemination of environmental successes, and their incorporation into the company`s strategic leverage. The overwhelming importance of commitment at the highest level, and the value of a business-oriented approach over a functional approach for effective environmental management were stressed.

  12. Work Values and College Major Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  13. (Environmental technology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boston, H.L.

    1990-10-12

    The traveler participated in a conference on environmental technology in Paris, sponsored by the US Embassy-Paris, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the French Environmental Ministry, and others. The traveler sat on a panel for environmental aspects of energy technology and made a presentation on the potential contributions of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to a planned French-American Environmental Technologies Institute in Chattanooga, Tennessee, and Evry, France. This institute would provide opportunities for international cooperation on environmental issues and technology transfer related to environmental protection, monitoring, and restoration at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The traveler also attended the Fourth International Conference on Environmental Contamination in Barcelona. Conference topics included environmental chemistry, land disposal of wastes, treatment of toxic wastes, micropollutants, trace organics, artificial radionuclides in the environment, and the use biomonitoring and biosystems for environmental assessment. The traveler presented a paper on The Fate of Radionuclides in Sewage Sludge Applied to Land.'' Those findings corresponded well with results from studies addressing the fate of fallout radionuclides from the Chernobyl nuclear accident. There was an exchange of new information on a number of topics of interest to DOE waste management and environmental restoration needs.

  14. Valuing future citizens' values regarding risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Patricia [Creighton Univ., Omaha (United States). College of Arts and Sciences/Philosophy

    2006-09-15

    Valuing present citizen's values regarding the risks they face is an important aspect of risk assessment and risk acceptability. Conferences like VALDOR are held for this reason. Governments like Sweden have national referendums on various risk-prone enterprises. The results of these referendums can determine the future of these programs. In the United States, when guidelines are set for determining acceptable levels of risk, the relevant federal agencies are often required to provide a comment period regarding proposed guidelines in order to ascertain the judgments, including the weights place on certain values, of individual members of society as well as stakeholder groups. After the comment period ends, the agency decides on the acceptable level of risk, taking into account the comments from present citizens. Do we also have a duty to value the not-yet-existing values of future citizens, especially if the risks created by the activities of present citizens extend into the future to citizens not yet living? If so, are there any circumstances which entitle us to de-value those not-yet-existing values. In this paper, I ground my discussion of the question of valuing future citizens' values in one of the areas of focus of the VALDOR conference: nuclear waste management and specifically the question facing the United States' program regarding an acceptable dose standard associated with the release of radioactivity into the biosphere from an underground repository. The underlying conference theme to which this discussion may be attached is community environmental justice as it applies to future citizens. I focus on the role that uncertainty plays is providing justice between present and future citizens.

  15. Heavy metal concentration of river sediment in the light of the environmental quality standard value of Japan from the river in and around the Tokyo Japan: A case study at the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2008-12-01

    The river sediment is basically composed of clastic materials derived from the surface of the Earth. Purpose of our study is clarify the quantitative estimation of ratio of influence given to river sediment of nature and human activity by using of heavy metals. We show the geochemical and geological characteristics of stream sediments from the Tama, Tsurumi, Edo and Ara Rivers that flow in Tokyo bay, Japan. We show research results of the degree of contamination in above four rivers that are the relativery polluted river in Japan. Sediment samples collected from various points along the upper and lower streams were subjected to content analysis and elution analysis (using liquate (flow) out test) on the heavy metals like Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As and Hg from the river sediment for the purpose of environment assessment. Content of Cd, CN, Pb, Cr(6+), As, and Hg except Pb was above the environmental quality limit in few locations of the Tsurumi river. However, in the down-river part (mouth region) Pb-concentration was 10 times higher than at the source regions as the result of human impact; for Hg the same tendency was detected at the all rivers. This study is the first research that investigated river sediment in the light of the envirnomental quality standard in Tokyo area, Japan.

  16. Environmental Requirements Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  17. Maslow and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  18. Applying the Water-Energy-Food Nexus to the Charcoal Value Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry K. Hoffmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Globally, natural resources are increasingly under pressure, especially due to population growth, economic growth and transformation as well as climate change. As a result, the water, energy, and food (WEF nexus approach has emerged to understand interdependencies and commonly manage resources within a multi-scale and multi-level framework. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the high and growing consumption of traditional biomass for cooking purposes - notably fuelwood and charcoal—is both a key source of energy and contributor for food security as well as a pressure on natural resources. Improving the bioenergy value chains is essential for limiting environmental degradation and for securing the livelihoods of millions of people. Although the WEF nexus approach entails large potential to address the complex problems arising along the bioenergy value chains, these are currently not considered. Based on the WEF nexus approach, we analyze the different steps within the charcoal value chain in Sub-Saharan Africa and highlight the respective interdependencies and the potential for improving overall socio-economic and environmental sustainability. We emphasize the water, energy and food related implications of vicious and virtuous production cycles, separated by value chain segments. We discuss the potential and major challenges for implementing more sustainable value chains. Furthermore, we underline the necessity of applying WEF nexus approaches to these value chains in order to optimize environmental and social outcomes.

  19. Assessing the Value of Housing Schemes through Sustainable Return on Investment: A Path towards Sustainability-Led Evaluations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Dean

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2016 United Nations (UN New Urban Agenda clearly reaffirms the concept that sustainable cities require intertwined environmental and social sustainability. The United Nations Sustainable Development Goal (SDG 11—“Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient, and sustainable”—sets (as a primary target the provision of sufficient affordable housing. Despite the central role that housing plays in ensuring sustainability and the importance of both environmental and social pillars in ensuring sustainable development, current evaluative methods that support decision making on social housing interventions fail to capture all of the socio-environmental value contained in the UN SDG 11. This paper addresses the issue by demonstrating how Sustainable Return on Investment can successfully describe and analyse a range of externalities related to the sustainable value generated by social housing regeneration schemes. To achieve this goal, a single case study strategy has been chosen. Two extant projects—a high-rise housing scheme and an environmental-led program developed by City West Housing Trust (a nonprofit housing association based in the Manchester area—have been assessed in order to monetise their social and environmental value through different methods. The findings show that, historically, the environmental and social value of regeneration schemes have been largely disregarded because of a gap in the evaluation methods, and that there is room for significant improvement for future evaluation exercises.

  20. Values and value education in Danish preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Based on video observations, interviews and joint pedagogue/researcher analyses carried out in three Danish child cares, this chapter presents three common values: democracy, care and discipline, which were communicated, expressed and negotiated through interactions between pedagogues (In this pa...... pedagogical implications for values education...

  1. European Values Study 1981-2017

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijkx, A.R.C.M.; Halman, L.C.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Values Study is a large-scale, cross-national, and longitudinal survey research program on basic human values providing insight into the ideas, beliefs, preferences, attitudes, values and opinions of citizens all over Europe. It is a unique research project on how Europeans think about

  2. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  3. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  5. Environmental Risk

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Identified Sites coverage, used to support the environmental quality program, references types and concentrations of contaminants, contaminated media and...

  6. Naturalizing sentimentalism for environmental ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasperbauer, Tyler Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Jesse Prinz and Shaun Nichols have argued that within metaethics, sentimentalism is the theory that best accords with empirical facts about human moral psychology. Recent findings in experimental moral psychology, they argue, indicate that emotions are psychologically central to our moral concepts....... One way of testing the empirical adequacy of sentimentalism is by looking at research on environmental values. A classic problem in environmental ethics is providing an account of the intrinsic value of nonhuman entities, which is often thought to be inconsistent with sentimentalism. However......, no supporters of sentimentalist accounts of environmental values have evaluated the empirical adequacy of their claims. The relevant evidence falls under two broad categories: (1) responses to nature itself and (2) moral evaluations of environmental behaviors. The evidence indicates that both valuing...

  7. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  8. Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathews, S; Gallegos, G; Berg, L L; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Cerruti, S; Doman, J L; Ferry, L S; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Kumamoto, G; Larson, J; MacQueen, D H; Paterson, L; Revelli, M A; Ridley, M; Rueppel, D; Wegrecki, A M; Wilson, K; Woollett, J

    2008-09-24

    , foodstuff, ambient radiation, and special status wildlife and plants (Chapter 6). Complete monitoring data, which are summarized in the body of the report, are provided in Appendix A. The remaining three chapters discuss the radiological impact on the public from LLNL operations (Chapter 7), LLNL's groundwater remediation program (Chapter 8), and quality assurance for the environmental monitoring programs (Chapter 9). The report uses Systeme International units, consistent with the federal Metric Conversion Act of 1975 and Executive Order 12770, Metric Usage in Federal Government Programs (1991). For ease of comparison to environmental reports issued prior to 1991, dose values and many radiological measurements are given in both metric and U.S. customary units. A conversion table is provided in the glossary.

  9. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international ...

  10. g in Middle Childhood: Moderate Genetic and Shared Environmental Influence Using Diverse Measures of General Cognitive Ability at 7, 9 and 10 Years in a Large Population Sample of Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Oliver S. P.; Arden, Rosalind; Plomin, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A 2003 paper in this journal reported results from a large sample of twins assessed at 2, 3 and 4 years of age on parent-administered tests and reports of their verbal and nonverbal ability. We found clear evidence for phenotypic general cognitive ability (g) that accounted for about 50% of the variance, for modest genetic influence on g (about…

  11. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    ICS. Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. Teitenberg, T.; Lewis, L. 2009. Environmental and natural resource economics. Pearson/Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass., USA. Yusuf, A.A. 2008. The distributional impact of environmental policy: the case of carbon tax and energy pricing reform in Indonesia. EEPSEA, Singapore. Research ...

  12. Environmental assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, M C; Tennant, J

    1997-11-01

    The significance, standard elements, components, and documentation of an environmental assessment in home care are discussed. This assessment is delineated within Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs and from a functional perspective. An Environmental Assessment Form that can be used as a documentation tool is included.

  13. Environmental Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Isak Worre

    2016-01-01

    This chapter intends to clarify and argue for the approach to re- search taken within the PhD thesis ‘Environmental Tectonics’ by elaborating on an architectural research methodology that is based on the objective of the thesis as described in the associated abstra- ct. Environmental sustainable...

  14. Environmental occurrences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.G.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the onsite and offsite releases of radioactive and regulated materials. The specific agencies notified of the releases depended on the type, amount, and location of the individual occurrences. The more significant of these off-normal environmental occurrences are summarized in this section.

  15. Environmentalism & Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Trevor; Cock, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Examines the tensions between the development of a holistic understanding of the diverse relations linking people and environments and the more dominant, technocratic orientation of environmental studies programs in higher education. Describes how the graduate environmental science program at Monash University (Australia) has dealt with these…

  16. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  17. Values: A Symposium Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  18. Applied extreme-value statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  19. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  20. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....