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Sample records for values remained stable

  1. Working conditions remain stable in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.; Hooftman, W.

    2008-01-01

    Despite significant changes in the national questionnaires on work and health, the quality of work as well as health complaints in the Netherlands appear to be relatively stable. Pace of work seems to be on the increase again and more people are working in excess of their contractual hours.

  2. Stable isotopes, niche partitioning and the paucity of elasmosaur remains in the Maastrichtian type area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulp, Anne S.; Janssen, Renée; Van Baal, Remy R.; Jagt, John W M; Mulder, Eric W A; Vonhof, Hubert B.

    2017-01-01

    Remains of elasmosaurid plesiosaurs are exceedingly rare in the type-Maastrichtian strata (Late Cretaceous, southeast Netherlands and northeast Belgium), in stark contrast to relatively common skeletal remains of mosasaurs. Here, we present an analysis of δ13C stable isotope values for tooth enamel

  3. Levels of acute phase proteins remain stable after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Myunghee C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers play an important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Little information is available, however, on time course of serum markers of inflammation after stroke. Methods First ischemic stroke patients ≥40 years old had levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, and fibrinogen measured in plasma samples drawn at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after stroke. Levels were log-transformed as needed, and parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to test for evidence of a trend in levels over time. Levels of hsCRP and SAA were also compared with levels in a comparable population of stroke-free participants. Results Mean age of participants with repeated measures (n = 21 was 65.6 ± 11.6 years, and 13 (61.9% were men, and 15 (71.4% were Hispanic. Approximately 75% of patients (n = 15 had mild strokes (NIH Stroke Scale score 0–5. There was no evidence of a time trend in levels of hsCRP, SAA, or fibrinogen for any of the markers during the 28 days of follow-up. Mean log(hsCRP was 1.67 ± 1.07 mg/L (median hsCRP 6.48 mg/L among stroke participants and 1.00 ± 1.18 mg/L (median 2.82 mg/L in a group of 1176 randomly selected stroke-free participants from the same community (p = 0.0252. Conclusion Levels of hsCRP are higher in stroke patients than in stroke-free subjects. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis, including hsCRP, appear to be stable for at least 28 days after first ischemic stroke.

  4. Does the centre of mass remain stable during complex human postural equilibrium tasks in weightlessness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapley, Paul; Pozzo, Thierry

    In normal gravity conditions the execution of voluntary movement involves the displacement of body segments as well as the maintenance of a stable reference value for equilibrium control. It has been suggested that centre of mass (CM) projection within the supporting base (BS) is the stabilised reference for voluntary action, and is conserved in weightlessness. The purpose of this study was to determine if the CM is stabilised during whole body reaching movements executed in weightlessness. The reaching task was conducted by two cosmonauts aboard the Russian orbital station MIR, during the Franco-Russian mission ALTAIR, 1993. Movements of reflective markers were recorded using a videocamera, successive images being reconstructed by computer every 40ms. The position of the CM, ankle joint torques and shank and thigh angles were computed for each subject pre- in- and post-flight using a 7-link mathematical model. Results showed that both cosmonauts adopted a backward leaning posture prior to reaching movements. Inflight, the CM was displaced throughout values in the horizontal axis three times those of pre-flight measures. In addition, ankle dorsi flexor torques inflight increased to values double those of pre- and post-flight tests. This study concluded that CM displacements do not remain stable during complex postural equilibrium tasks executed in weightlessness. Furthermore, in the absence of gravity, subjects changed their strategy for producing ankle torque during spaceflight from a forward to a backward leaning posture.

  5. Stable computation of generalized singular values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drmac, Z.; Jessup, E.R. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study floating-point computation of the generalized singular value decomposition (GSVD) of a general matrix pair (A, B), where A and B are real matrices with the same numbers of columns. The GSVD is a powerful analytical and computational tool. For instance, the GSVD is an implicit way to solve the generalized symmetric eigenvalue problem Kx = {lambda}Mx, where K = A{sup {tau}}A and M = B{sup {tau}}B. Our goal is to develop stable numerical algorithms for the GSVD that are capable of computing the singular value approximations with the high relative accuracy that the perturbation theory says is possible. We assume that the singular values are well-determined by the data, i.e., that small relative perturbations {delta}A and {delta}B (pointwise rounding errors, for example) cause in each singular value {sigma} of (A, B) only a small relative perturbation {vert_bar}{delta}{sigma}{vert_bar}/{sigma}.

  6. Efforts to standardize wildlife toxicity values remain unrealized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, David B; Fairbrother, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife toxicity reference values (TRVs) are routinely used during screening level and baseline ecological risk assessments (ERAs). Risk assessment professionals often adopt TRVs from published sources to expedite risk analyses. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed ecological soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) to provide a source of TRVs that would improve consistency among risk assessments. We conducted a survey and evaluated more than 50 publicly available, large-scale ERAs published in the last decade to evaluate if USEPA's goal of uniformity in the use of wildlife TRVs has been met. In addition, these ERAs were reviewed to understand current practices for wildlife TRV use and development within the risk assessment community. The use of no observed and lowest observed adverse effect levels culled from published compendia was common practice among the majority of ERAs reviewed. We found increasing use over time of TRVs established in the Eco-SSL documents; however, Eco-SSL TRV values were not used in the majority of recent ERAs and there continues to be wide variation in TRVs for commonly studied contaminants (e.g., metals, pesticides, PAHs, and PCBs). Variability in the toxicity values was driven by differences in the key studies selected, dose estimation methods, and use of uncertainty factors. These differences result in TRVs that span multiple orders of magnitude for many of the chemicals examined. This lack of consistency in TRV development leads to highly variable results in ecological risk assessments conducted throughout the United States. Copyright © 2012 SETAC.

  7. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... intense exercise is carried out in hypoxia and monitored the influence of muscle metabolism for changes in arterial variables. METHODS: On two separate days, in random order, 30 min cycling exercise was performed in either hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia at an intensity that was exhaustive in the hypoxic...

  8. Stable strontium isotopic ratios from archaeological organic remains from the Thorsberg peat bog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; Grupe, Gisela

    2007-01-01

    Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog.......Pilot study analysing stable strontium isotopic ratios from Iron Age textile and leather finds from the Thorsberg peat bog....

  9. Impacts of global warming on phenology of spring leaf unfolding remain stable in the long run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huanjiong; Rutishauser, This; Tao, Zexing; Zhong, Shuying; Ge, Quansheng; Dai, Junhu

    2017-02-01

    The impact of spring temperature forcing on the timing of leaf unfolding of plants (temperature sensitivity, S T ) is one important indicator of how and to what degree plant species track climate change. Fu et al. (Nature 526:104-107, 2015) found that S T has significantly decreased from the 1980-1994 to the 1999-2013 period for seven mid-latitude tree species in Europe. However, long-term changes in S T over the past 60 years are still not clear. Here, using in situ observations of leaf unfolding for seven dominant European tree species, we analyze the temporal change in S T over decadal time scales extending the data series back to 1951. Our results demonstrate that S T shows no statistically significant change within shifting 30-year windows from 1951 to 2013 and remains stable between 1951-1980 and 1984-2013 (3.6 versus 3.7 days °C -1 ). This result suggests that the significant decrease in S T over the past 33 years could not be sustained when examining the trends of phenological responses in the long run. Therefore, we could not conclude that tree spring phenology advances will slow down in the future, and the S T changes in warming scenarios are still uncertain.

  10. Role of stable isotope analyses in reconstructing past life-histories and the provenancing human skeletal remains: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehrawat Jagmahender Singh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the present scenario of use of stable isotopes (mainly δ13C, δ15N, δ18O, 87Sr to trace past life behaviours like breast feeding and weaning practices, the geographic origin, migration history, paleodiet and subsistence patterns of past populations from the chemical signatures of isotopes imprinted in human skeletal remains. This approach is based on the state that food-web isotopic signatures are seen in the human bones and teeth and such signatures can change parallely with a variety of biogeochemical processes. By measuring δ13C and δ15N isotopic values of subadult tissues of different ages, the level of breast milk ingestion at particular ages and the components of the complementary foods can be assessed. Strontium and oxygen isotopic analyses have been used for determining the geographic origins and reconstructing the way of life of past populations as these isotopes can map the isotopic outline of the area from where the person acquired water and food during initial lifetime. The isotopic values of strontium and oxygen values are considered specific to geographical areas and serve as reliable chemical signatures of migration history of past human populations (local or non-local to the site. Previous isotopic studies show that the subsistence patterns of the past human populations underwent extensive changes from nomadic to complete agricultural dependence strategies. The carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of local fauna of any archaeological site can be used to elucidate the prominence of freshwater resources in the diet of the past human populations found near the site. More extensive research covering isotopic descriptions of various prehistoric, historic and modern populations is needed to explore the role of stable isotope analysis for provenancing human skeletal remains and assessing human migration patterns/routes, geographic origins, paleodiet and subsistence practices of past populations.

  11. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donner, E.; Scheckel, K.; Sekine, R.; Popelka-Filcoff, R.S.; Bennett, J.W.; Brunetti, G.; Naidu, R.; McGrath, S.P.; Lombi, E.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that biosolids Ag concentrations have decreased significantly over recent decades. XANES revealed the importance of reduced-sulfur binding environments for Ag speciation in materials ranging from freshly produced sludge to biosolids weathered under ambient environmental conditions for more than 50 years. Isotopic dilution with 110m Ag showed that Ag was predominantly non-labile in both fresh and aged biosolids (13.7% mean lability), with E-values ranging from 0.3 to 60 mg/kg and 5 mM CaNO 3 extractable Ag from 1.2 to 609 μg/kg (0.002–3.4% of the total Ag). This study indicates that at the time of soil application, biosolids Ag will be predominantly Ag-sulfides and characterised by low isotopic lability. - Highlights: • Biosolids silver (Ag) concentrations appear to have decreased in recent decades. • Ag 2 S dominates Ag speciation in freshly produced sludge. • Ag 2 S is also the dominant species in aged biosolids. • Upon land application biosolids will mainly contain Ag-sulfides and have low isotopic lability. - Analysis of historic and contemporary biosolids from three continents indicated decreasing wastewater silver releases, and non-labile, extremely stable silver speciation

  12. The Incidence of Postconcussion Syndrome Remains Stable Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Karen M; Crawford, Susan; Brooks, Brian L; Turley, Brenda; Mikrogianakis, Angelo

    2015-12-01

    Improving our knowledge about the natural history and persistence of symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury is a vital step in improving the provision of health care to children with postconcussion syndrome. The purposes of this study were to (1) determine the incidence and persistence of symptoms after mild traumatic brain injury and (2) ascertain whether Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), symptom criteria for postconcussion syndrome in adults are appropriate for use in children. A tertiary care pediatric emergency department was the setting for this study. This was a prospective observational follow-up cohort study of children (ages 2 to 18 years) with mild traumatic brain injury. Data were collected in person during the acute presentation, and subsequent follow-up was performed by telephone at 7-10 days and 1, 2, and 3 months postinjury. Postconcussion Symptom Inventory for parents and children was used. The DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for postconcussion syndrome were explored using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. A total of 467 children (62.5% boys, median age 12.04, range 2.34-18.0) with mild traumatic brain injury participated. The median time until symptom resolution was 29.0 days (95% confidence intervals: 26.09-31.91). Three months after injury, 11.8% of children with mild traumatic brain injury remained symptomatic. Receiver operating curve characteristic analysis of the postconcussion syndrome criteria successfully classified symptomatic participants at three months postinjury; the adolescent receiver operating characteristic curve was excellent with the area under the curve being 0.928 (P children presenting to the emergency room with a mild traumatic brain injury remain symptomatic at 3 months postinjury. This is the first study to demonstrate stable incidence rates of postconcussion syndrome in children and that modified DSM-IV criteria can be used to successfully classify

  13. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Pestle

    Full Text Available Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond, the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a sample preparation, and b analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration. These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite

  14. Quantifying inter-laboratory variability in stable isotope analysis of ancient skeletal remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestle, William J; Crowley, Brooke E; Weirauch, Matthew T

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values

  15. Impact of contamination and pre-treatment on stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic composition of charred plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiglova, Petra; Snoeck, Christophe; Nitsch, Erika; Bogaard, Amy; Lee-Thorp, Julia

    2014-12-15

    Stable isotope analysis of archaeological charred plants has become a useful tool for interpreting past agricultural practices and refining ancient dietary reconstruction. Charred material that lay buried in soil for millennia, however, is susceptible to various kinds of contamination, whose impact on the grain/seed isotopic composition is poorly understood. Pre-treatment protocols have been adapted in distinct forms from radiocarbon dating, but insufficient research has been carried out on evaluating their effectiveness and necessity for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. The effects of previously used pre-treatment protocols on the isotopic composition of archaeological and modern sets of samples were investigated. An archaeological sample was also artificially contaminated with carbonates, nitrates and humic acid and subjected to treatment aimed at removing the introduced contamination. The presence and removal of the contamination were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and δ(13)C and δ(15)N values. The results show a ca 1‰ decrease in the δ(15)N values of archaeological charred plant material caused by harsh acid treatments and ultra-sonication. This change is interpreted as being caused by mechanical distortion of the grains/seeds rather than by the removal of contamination. Furthermore, specific infrared peaks have been identified that can be used to detect the three types of contaminants studied. We argue that it is not necessary to try to remove humic acid contamination for stable isotope analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of crushing the grains/seeds before pre-treatment are discussed. We recommend the use of an acid-only procedure (0.5 M HCl for 30 min at 80 °C followed by three rinses in distilled water) for cleaning charred plant remains. This study fills an important gap in plant stable isotope research that will enable future researchers to evaluate potential sources of isotopic change and pre

  16. Nuclear fuel market: Supplies remaining stable and secured in the mean range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, U.; Dibbert, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Installation of additional power plant will keep the demand for uranium at a level allowing a constant uranium production during the next few years to come, although production will have to be kept lower than demand, as inventories have to be cut in order to achieve a favourable price structure. Prospects on a mean-term basis show that natural uranium supplies are ensured, at favourable purchaser prices. Concluded contracts for new nuclear power plant indicate a better plant capacity utilization in uranium production to be attainable by the 1990s. Conversion capacity, however, is expected to remain as excessive as presently for quite a long period still, although reprocessing produces increasing amounts of recovered uranium to be converted. The capacity for uranium separative work is favourable for the customers. Existing and projected production facilities already today ensure safe supplies beyond the turn of the millenium, under conditions by far better in terms of long-term competing energy sources. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Atazanavir intracellular concentrations remain stable during pregnancy in HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focà, Emanuele; Calcagno, Andrea; Bonito, Andrea; Simiele, Marco; Domenighini, Elisabetta; D'Avolio, Antonio; Quiros Roldan, Eugenia; Trentini, Laura; Casari, Salvatore; Di Perri, Giovanni; Castelli, Francesco; Bonora, Stefano

    2017-11-01

    Atazanavir (300 mg) boosted by ritonavir (100 mg) is the preferred third drug in pregnancy. However, there is still discordance on atazanavir dose increase during the third trimester. To evaluate plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir concentrations in HIV-infected women during pregnancy and after delivery. This was an observational study. HIV-infected pregnant patients treated with atazanavir/ritonavir plus either tenofovir/emtricitabine or abacavir/lamivudine had been prospectively enrolled after having signed a written informed consent form. Plasma and intracellular atazanavir and ritonavir Ctrough (24 ± 3 h after drug intake) were measured at each visit during the first, second and third trimesters and post-partum using validated HPLC-MS and HPLC-photodiode array methods (with direct evaluation of cellular volume). Data are described as median (IQR) and compared through non-parametric tests. Twenty-five patients were enrolled; at baseline, the median age was 32 years (27-35). All patients had plasma HIV RNA  0.05). This is the first demonstration that intracellular atazanavir exposure remains unchanged during pregnancy supporting the standard 300/100 mg atazanavir/ritonavir dosing throughout pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Health Benefits In 2016: Family Premiums Rose Modestly, And Offer Rates Remained Stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Gary; Rae, Matthew; Long, Michelle; Damico, Anthony; Whitmore, Heidi; Foster, Gregory

    2016-10-01

    The annual Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust Employer Health Benefits Survey found that in 2016, average annual premiums (employer and worker contributions combined) were $6,435 for single coverage and $18,142 for family coverage. The family premium in 2016 was 3 percent higher than that in 2015. On average, workers contributed 18 percent of the premium for single coverage and 30 percent for family coverage. The share of firms offering health benefits (56 percent) and of workers covered by their employers' plans (62 percent) remained statistically unchanged from 2015. Employers continued to offer financial incentives for completing wellness or health promotion activities. Almost three in ten covered workers were enrolled in a high-deductible plan with a savings option-a significant increase from 2014. The 2016 survey included new questions on cost sharing for specialty drugs and on the prevalence of incentives for employees to seek care at alternative settings. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  19. Cognitive performance of detoxified alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome patients remains stable over two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Borsutzky, Sabine; Steingass, Hans-P; Markowitsch, Hans J

    2008-07-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption is assumed to promote cognitive decline, eventually increasing the risk of dementia. However, little is known about the time course of cognitive functions in patients with chronic alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome (KS). Therefore, we assessed neuropsychological performance in 20 detoxified chronic KS inpatients at time 1 (T1) with a follow-up after two years (T2). The neuropsychological tests assessed verbal and visual short- and long-term memory, working memory, basic executive functions, language, general knowledge, and visual-spatial abilities. Surveys with caregivers and medical records provided information about current and previous disease-related parameters, drinking history, additional pathologies, as well as psychosocial and cognitive therapy within the two-year period. At both sessions, the majority of the KS patients' results were inferior to those of normal subjects. Comparing T1 and T2 revealed no significant decline in any of the investigated functions. Instead, general knowledge, visual long-term memory, and verbal fluency improved slightly after two years, though they still remained within pathological range. Comparing most improved and most deteriorated patients, better outcome occurred more frequently in men than women and was associated with higher premorbid education and fewer detoxifications in the past. In this sample of detoxified KS patients there was no indication of accelerated cognitive decline or onset of dementia-like symptoms over two years.

  20. Patterns in Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (15N, 13ddC) are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step toward developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter 15dN values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4‰, and 13dC values from −26.4 to −15.6‰over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends toward lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher 15dN and 13dC values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the 15dN of subsurface and surface particulate m

  1. Net Stable Funding Ratio: Impact on Funding Value Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Siadat, Medya; Hammarlid, Ola

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the relationship between Funding Value Adjustment (FVA) and Net Stable Funding Ratio (NSFR). FVA is defined in a consistent way with NSFR such that the new framework of FVA monitors the costs due to keeping NSFR at an acceptable level, as well. In addition, the problem of choosing the optimal funding strategy is formulated as a shortest path problem where the proposed FVA framework is applied in the optimization process. The solution provides us with the optimal f...

  2. Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) remained stable for four years in a mouse colony housed in individually ventilated cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Matthias; Greweling, Marina C; Tischer, Sabine; Singh, Mahavir; Blöcker, Helmut; Monner, David A; Müller, Werner

    2009-10-01

    As recommendations for specific pathogen-free housing change, mouse facilities need to re-derive their colonies repeatedly in order to eliminate specified bacteria or viruses. This paper describes the establishment of a new mouse facility using as starting point a small colony of CD-1 mice colonized with the Charles River altered Schaedler flora (CRASF) housed in individually ventilated cages (IVCs). The import of new strains was performed exclusively via embryo transfer using CD-1 mice as recipients. The integrity of the CRASF in caecum samples of the original CD-1 colony and of three inbred mouse lines imported into the colony was proven by a quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction approach. Furthermore, we searched for bacterial contaminants in the gut flora using non-specific 16S rRNA primers. The bacterial sequences found were closely related to but not exclusively sequences of altered Schaedler flora (ASF) members, suggesting that the ASF is heterogeneous rather than restricted to the eight defined bacteria. Moreover, no pathogens were found, neither using the non-specific 16S rRNA primers nor in routine quarterly health monitoring. As one effect of this defined gut flora, interleukin-10 knockout mice are devoid of colitis in our facility. In conclusion, our approach building up a mouse facility using foster mothers and embryo transfer as well as a strict barrier system and IVCs is suitable to maintain a colony free from contaminating bacteria over the long term. CRASF remained stable for seven mouse generations and was efficiently transferred to the imported mouse strains.

  3. The discount rate and the value of remaining years of life

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwick, John

    2008-01-01

    We back out an estimate of a personal discount rate of between 3 and 4 percent for a person with a life expectancy of 74 years who dies at age 30 (or 40) and has a value of statistical life of $6.3 million. Central to these calculations is the series generated by Murphy and Topel of value of life years (the dollar value of consumption plus the dollar value of leisure, with some smoothing for income in retirement). We employ the Makeham "model" of life expectancy in our calculations.

  4. Teachers’ remaining career opportunities : The role of value fit and school climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beurden, J; van Veldhoven, M.J.P.M.; Nijendijk, K; van de Voorde, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    In light of an aging teacher population, this study investigates the influence of school climate and personschool (P-S) value fit on teachers' perspectives regarding their career futures. The results, based on a sample of 147 teachers, indicate that P-S value fit is positively associated with

  5. Stable Isotopic signatures of Adélie penguin remains provide long-term paleodietary records in Northern Victoria Land (Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, Sandra; Baroni, Carlo; Fallick, Anthony Edward; Baneschi, Ilaria; Salvatore, Maria Cristina; Zanchetta, Giovanni; Dallai, Luigi

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotopes geochemistry of carbon and nitrogen provides a powerful tools for investigating in animal dietary patterns and shifts during the past. The signature of C and N isotopes provide direct information about the diet of an individual and its dietary patterns, especially when the dietary sources consist of prey from different trophic levels (i.e. different C and N isotopic composition) (DeNiro and Epstein 1978, Minawaga and Wada 1984, Koch et al. 1994, Hobson 1995). By analyzing the isotopic composition of penguin remains, we present a new detailed Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) paleodietary record for the area of Terra Nova Bay (Victoria Land, Ross Sea). Adélie penguins primarily feed on fish (mainly the silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum) and krill (Euphausia superba, Euphausia cristallorophias) (Ainley 2002, Lorenzini et al. 2009) that belonging to two different trophic levels. Consequently, they are characterized by different isotopic signatures. Specifically, we analyzed 13C/12C and 15N/14N ratios of more than one thousand of modern and fossil Adélie penguin eggshell and guano samples collected from ornithogenic soils (penguin guano-formed) dated back to ≈7,200 years BP (Baroni and Orombelli 1994, Lambert et al. 2002, Baroni and Hall 2004, Hall et al. 2006). The expanded database of stable isotope values obtained from Adélie penguin remains define a detailed paleodietary record with an excellent temporal continuity over all the investigated time period. Our data indicate a significant dietary shift between fish and krill, with a gradual decrease from past to present time in the proportion of fish compared to krill in Adélie penguin diet. From 7200 yrs BP to 2000 yrs BP, δ13C and δ15N values indicate fish as the most eaten prey. The dietary contribution of lower-trophic prey in penguin diet started becoming evident not earlier than 2000 yrs BP, when the δ13C values reveal a mixed diet based on fish and krill consumption. Modern

  6. The value of conflict in stable social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramukkul, Pensri; Svenkeson, Adam; West, Bruce J.; Grigolini, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    A cooperative network model of sociological interest is examined to determine the sensitivity of the global dynamics to having a fraction of the members behaving uncooperatively, that is, being in conflict with the majority. We study a condition where in the absence of these uncooperative individuals, the contrarians, the control parameter exceeds a critical value and the network is frozen in a state of consensus. The network dynamics change with variations in the percentage of contrarians, resulting in a balance between the value of the control parameter and the percentage of those in conflict with the majority. We show that, as a finite-size effect, the transmission of information from a network B to a network A, with a small fraction of lookout members in A who adopt the behavior of B, becomes maximal when both networks are assigned the same critical percentage of contrarians.

  7. Remain stable.; Schoen stabil bleiben.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teroerde, Michael; Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Eckoldt, Hans-Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Magnetstromversorgung

    2013-11-15

    In the German power grid the increasing photovoltaic power plants and wind turbines provide due to their volatile energy supply high demands on the control of the power grid. In the case of malfunctions in the network short-term energy storage could participate in the grid control. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) belongs to the efficient short-term energy storage. A SMES system was investigated at DESY in Hamburg. [German] Im deutschen Stromnetz stellen die zunehmenden Photovoltaik- und Windkraftanlagen aufgrund ihrer stark schwankenden Energieeinspeisung hohe Anforderungen an die Regelung des Stromnetzes. Bei eventuell auftretenden Stoerungen im Netz koennten Kurzzeitenergiespeicher an der Netzregelung teilnehmen. Zu den effizienten Kurzzeitspeichern gehoeren supraleitende magnetische Energiespeicher (SMES). Ein SMES-System wurde bei DESY in Hamburg untersucht.

  8. Motor function declines over time in human immunodeficiency virus and is associated with cerebrovascular disease, while HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder remains stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Elicer, Isabel; Byrd, Desiree; Clark, Uraina S; Morgello, Susan; Robinson-Papp, Jessica

    2018-04-25

    HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent in the combined antiretroviral therapy (CART) era, especially the milder forms. Despite these milder phenotypes, we have shown that motor abnormalities persist and have quantified them with the HIV Dementia Motor Scale (HDMS). Our objectives were to replicate, in an independent sample, our prior findings that the HDMS is associated with cognitive impairment in HIV, while adding consideration of age-associated comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease, and to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cognitive and motor dysfunction. We included all participants enrolled in the Manhattan HIV Brain Bank (MHBB) from January 2007 to May 2017 who had complete baseline data (N = 164). MHBB participants undergo standardized longitudinal assessments including documentation of comorbidities and medications, blood work, the HDMS, and neurocognitive testing. We found that motor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and cerebrovascular disease were significantly associated with each other at baseline. Cerebrovascular disease independently predicted cognitive impairment in a multivariable model. Longitudinal analysis in a subset of 78 participants with ≥ 4 years of follow-up showed a stable cognition but declining motor function. We conclude that the HDMS is a valid measurement of motor dysfunction in HIV-infected patients and is associated with cognitive impairment and the presence of cerebrovascular disease. Cognitive impairment is mild and stable in CART-treated HIV; however, motor function declines over time, which may be related to the accrual of comorbidities such as cerebrovascular disease. Further research should examine the mechanisms underlying motor dysfunction in HIV and its clinical impact.

  9. Successive substitution one-leg hybrid P-stable LMM for initial value ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper derives P-stable successive substitution one-leg hybrid linear multistep methods for the numerical solution of second order initial value problems in ordinary differential equations without explicit first order derivative. The methods are demonstrated by a numerical example also considered by Fatunla, et al (1997) ...

  10. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2018-02-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral genome was similar to the HHV-6B HST strain. FISH analysis using a HHV-6 DNA probe showed one signal in each cell, detected at the distal end of the long arm of chromosome 9. This was consistent with a digital PCR assay, validating one copy of the viral DNA. Because exposure of HUV-EC-C to chemicals did not cause viral reactivation, long term cell culture of HUV-EC-C was carried out to assess the stability of viral integration. The growth rate was altered depending on passage numbers, and morphology also changed during culture. SNP microarray profiles showed some differences between low and high passages, implying that the HUV-EC-C genome had changed during culture. However, no detectable change was observed in chromosome 9, where HHV-6B integration and the viral copy number remained unchanged. Our results suggest that integrated HHV-6B is stable in HUV-EC-C despite genome instability.

  11. Is There a Stable Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng

    The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, a western invention, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value foundation for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary...... Chinese consumers collected in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets in Guangzhou, China, selling organic food. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms “Universalism......” and when Universalism is controlled, no other values increases explained variance. The value-attitude and the attitude-behavior relationships for organic vegetables are significant at both times and are not significantly different between the two time points. However, contrary to what we expected...

  12. How Stable is the Value Basis for Organic Food Consumption in China?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Zhou, Yanfeng; Huang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    The objective this paper is to investigate whether a solid and stable value base exists in China for buying organic food, and which values that might be. We study the stability of the value basis for buying organic food in China by means of two surveys with ordinary Chinese consumers collected...... in 2009 (n = 529) and 2012 (n = 478) outside supermarkets selling organic food in Guangzhou, China. Consistent with previous studies in Western countries, we find that the attitude towards buying organic vegetables is related to the value type Schwarz terms "Universalism" and when Universalism...... is controlled, no other values increase explained variance. The value-attitude and the attitude-behavior relationships for organic vegetables are significant at both times and are not significantly different between the two time points. However, contrary to what we expected, the studied behavior (purchase...

  13. Oxygen consumption remains stable while ammonia excretion is reduced upon short time exposure to high salinity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Caridae: Palaemonidae, a recent freshwater colonizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina A. Freire

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Palaemonid shrimps occur in the tropical and temperate regions of South America and the Indo-Pacific, in brackish/freshwater habitats, and marine coastal areas. They form a clade that recently (i.e., ~30 mya invaded freshwater, and one included genus, Macrobrachium Bate, 1868, is especially successful in limnic habitats. Adult Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 dwell in coastal freshwaters, have diadromous habit, and need brackish water to develop. Thus, they are widely recognized as euryhaline. Here we test how this species responds to a short-term exposure to increased salinity. We hypothesized that abrupt exposure to high salinity would result in reduced gill ventilation/perfusion and decreased oxygen consumption. Shrimps were subjected to control (0 psu and experimental salinities (10, 20, 30 psu, for four and eight hours (n = 8 in each group. The water in the experimental containers was saturated with oxygen before the beginning of the experiment; aeration was interrupted before placing the shrimp in the experimental container. Dissolved oxygen (DO, ammonia concentration, and pH were measured from the aquaria water, at the start and end of each experiment. After exposure, the shrimp’s hemolymph was sampled for lactate and osmolality assays. Muscle tissue was sampled for hydration content (Muscle Water Content, MWC. Oxygen consumption was not reduced and hemolymph lactate did not increase with increased salinity. The pH of the water decreased with time, under all conditions. Ammonia excretion decreased with increased salinity. Hemolymph osmolality and MWC remained stable at 10 and 20 psu, but osmolality increased (~50% and MWC decreased (~4% at 30 psu. The expected reduction in oxygen consumption was not observed. This shrimp is able to tolerate significant changes in water salt concentrations for a few hours by keeping its metabolism in aerobic mode, and putatively shutting down branchial salt uptake to avoid massive salt

  14. Reexamining the Efficacy and Value of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Patients With Stable Ischemic Heart Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weintraub, William S.; Boden, William E.

    2017-01-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continues to be performed frequently for patients with stable ischemic heart disease, despite uncertain efficacy. Individual randomized trial data and meta-analyses have not demonstrated that PCI in addition to optimal medical therapy reduces the incidence of death or myocardial infarction in patients with stable disease. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial did not show benefit for cardiovascular outcomes or mortality but did find a modest improvement in quality of life that did not persist at 3 years. Long-term follow-up from COURAGE (up to 15 years) found no differences in mortality, consistent with other published literature. How PCI could reduce long-term mortality or prevent myocardial infarction is not clear because sites of future plaque rupture leading to myocardial infarction are unpredictable and PCI can only treat localized anatomic segments of obstructive atherosclerosis. In addition, PCI is expensive, and the value to society of PCI for stable disease has not been demonstrated. The ISCHEMIA trial will assess the role of PCI for stable ischemic heart disease using newer technology and in patients with greater ischemic burden than in COURAGE. After nearly a decade, the COURAGE trial and other studies have given us pause to critically reexamine the role of PCI for patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Until further research can show that PCI can reduce cardiovascular events in these patients, a first-line strategy of optimal medical therapy is known to be safe, effective, and noninferior to PCI, and our practice should more closely follow this strategy. PMID:27380178

  15. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  16. Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung F Kim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do dopamine neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta receive inputs from the same or different dopamine neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of dopamine neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of dopamine neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term and stable (long-term memories of object values.

  17. Evaluating cleansing effects on trace elements and stable isotope values in feathers of oiled birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Sonia; Moreno, Roćio; Jover, Lluis; Sanpera, Carola

    2010-01-01

    Feathers of seabirds are widely used as a nondestructive tissue for pollution monitoring of trace elements, as well as convenient samples for trophic ecology studies by means of stable isotope analysis (SIA). Nevertheless, feathers can be occasionally impregnated with oil from deliberate ship discharges and from massive oil spill accidents. The feather structure makes them effective traps for particles and are subject to external contamination. It is unknown to what extent the oil adhered to feathers can change trace element concentrations or stable isotope signatures. This study has two primary objectives: (1) to assess if there are differences between trace element concentrations and stable isotope signatures of oiled and clean feathers, and (2) to determine if the cleansing of oiled feathers using commonly applied techniques such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH) washes in combination with an organic solvent (hexane) is more effective than using NaOH alone. In order to do this, we analysed trace elements (Se, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn) and stable isotopes (delta(13)C and delta(15)N) of individual feathers of yellow-legged gulls (Larus michahellis) which were affected by the 2002 Prestige oil spill in Galicia (NW Spain). Two sets of feathers were analysed, one group were oil-free (Control group) and the other had oil adhered to its surface (Oiled group). We expected to find differences between control and oiled feathers when cleaning exclusively with NaOH and no differences when using hexane. Our results did not show significant differences between Control and Oiled groups as a consequence of the cleansing method used. Unexpectedly, the additional cleansing with hexane resulted in decreasing selenium concentrations and increasing zinc and delta(15)N values in all groups of feathers.

  18. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Fabiene Maria; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Moreira, Marcelo Zacharias; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i) freshly processed (control); preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii) 15 and (iii) 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv) 15 and (v) 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi) 15 and (vii) 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%), C(%) and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls). We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  19. Preservation Methods Alter Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values in Crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiene Maria Jesus

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis (SIA is an important tool for investigation of animal dietary habits for determination of feeding niche. Ideally, fresh samples should be used for isotopic analysis, but logistics frequently demands preservation of organisms for analysis at a later time. The goal of this study was to establish the best methodology for preserving forest litter-dwelling crickets for later SIA analysis without altering results. We collected two cricket species, Phoremia sp. and Mellopsis doucasae, from which we prepared 70 samples per species, divided among seven treatments: (i freshly processed (control; preserved in fuel ethanol for (ii 15 and (iii 60 days; preserved in commercial ethanol for (iv 15 and (v 60 days; fresh material frozen for (vi 15 and (vii 60 days. After oven drying, samples were analyzed for δ15N, δ13C values, N(%, C(% and C/N atomic values using continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All preservation methods tested, significantly impacted δ13C and δ15N and C/N atomic values. Chemical preservatives caused δ13C enrichment as great as 1.5‰, and δ15N enrichment as great as 0.9‰; the one exception was M. doucasae stored in ethanol for 15 days, which had δ15N depletion up to 1.8‰. Freezing depleted δ13C and δ15N by up to 0.7 and 2.2‰, respectively. C/N atomic values decreased when stored in ethanol, and increased when frozen for 60 days for both cricket species. Our results indicate that all preservation methods tested in this study altered at least one of the tested isotope values when compared to fresh material (controls. We conclude that only freshly processed material provides adequate SIA results for litter-dwelling crickets.

  20. Microbial enterotypes, inferred by the prevotella-to-bacteroides ratio, remained stable during a 6-month randomized controlled diet intervention with the new nordic diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Licht, Tine Rask; Poulsen, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old......, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did...

  1. A Novel In Situ Method for Producing a Dispersion of a Ceramic Phase into Copper That Remains Stable at 0.9 T M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellan, Enzo; Ischia, Gloria; Molinari, Alberto; Raj, Rishi

    2013-10-01

    We apply an in situ approach, whereby a polymer is incorporated into copper and evolves within the metal into the ceramic phase, to create a dispersion of hard particles in a metal. All constituents for the ceramic phase are contained within the organic polymer. The temperature for this polymer to ceramic conversion lies in the 1073 K to 1273 K (800 °C to 1000 °C) range. The process produces a nanoscale dispersion of the ceramic, which leads to high microhardness that remains unaltered at temperatures up to 1223 K (950 °C) (0.9 T M). Apparently, the introduction of the ceramic phase leads to the retention of copper crystallite size of a few hundred nm, despite exposure to heat treatments at these very high temperatures. We call these materials polymer-derived metal-matrix composites.

  2. Edge effects on foliar stable isotope values in a Madagascan tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E Crowley

    Full Text Available Edge effects represent an inevitable and important consequence of habitat loss and fragmentation. These effects include changes in microclimate, solar radiation, or temperature. Such abiotic effects can, in turn, impact biotic factors. They can have a substantial impact on species, communities, and ecosystems. Here we examine clinal variations in stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for trees along an edge-interior gradient in the dry deciduous forest at Ankarafantsika National Park. We predicted that soil respiration and differences in solar irradiance would result in stratified δ¹³C values where leaves collected close to the forest floor would have lower δ¹³C values than those growing higher up in the canopy. We also anticipated that plants growing at the savannah-forest boundary would have higher δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values than plants growing in the forest interior. As expected, we detected a small but significant canopy effect. Leaves growing below 2 m from the forest floor exhibit δ¹³C values that are, on average, 1.1‰ lower than those growing above this threshold. We did not, however, find any relationship between foliar δ¹³C and distance from the edge. Unpredictably, we detected a striking positive relationship between foliar δ¹⁵N values and increasing distance into the forest interior. Variability in physiology among species, anthropogenic influence, organic input, and rooting depth cannot adequately explain this trend. Instead, this unexpected relationship most likely reflects decreasing nutrient or water availability, or a shift in N-sources with increasing distance from the savannah. Unlike most forest communities, the trees at Ampijoroa are growing in nutrient-limited sands. In addition to being nutrient poor, these well-drained soils likely decrease the amount of soil water available to forest vegetation. Continued research on plant responses to edge effects will improve our understanding of the conservation

  3. Prognostic value of atrial pacing and thallium-201 scintigraphy in patients with stable chest pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratmann, H.G.; Mark, A.L.; Walter, K.E.; Williams, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    The value of atrial pacing and thallium-201 scintigraphy for assessing risk of subsequent cardiac events was examined in 210 patients with stable chest pain. Follow-up information was complete in 195 patients (mean age 61 years). Over an average follow-up of 19 months, cardiac events occurred in 38 patients--unstable angina in 20, nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in 6 and death from cardiac causes in 12. A history of previous myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension or peripheral vascular disease at the time of pacing was not associated with an increased frequency of subsequent cardiac events. Six of 38 patients with later cardiac events had a history of congestive heart failure, compared with 8 of 157 without cardiac events (p less than 0.05). Neither pacing-induced angina, ST depression, nor the presence of a fixed perfusion defect was significantly more frequent in patients with cardiac events as a whole compared with patients without such events. Reversible defects and abnormal scans (reversible or fixed defects) were present, respectively, in 19 and 31 of 38 patients with cardiac events, compared with 42 and 79 patients, respectively, of the 157 patients without cardiac events (both p less than 0.01). In patients who developed unstable angina, a reversible defect was seen in 13 and an abnormal scan in 16 (both p less than 0.01 compared with patients without cardiac events). In 12 patients who died from a primary cardiac event, fixed defects were present in 8 and an abnormal scan in 11 (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.01, respectively, compared with patients without cardiac events)

  4. Carbon and Nitrogen Stable Isotope Values for Plants and Mammals in a Semi-Desert Region of Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Davie

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information exists on the isotopic signatures of plants and animals in Mongolia, limiting the application of stable isotope analysis to wildlife biology studies. Here we present plant and mammal carbon (δ 13 C and nitrogen (δ 15 N isotope values from a desert-steppe region of southeastern Mongolia. We analyzed 11 samples from 11 plant species and 93 samples from 24 mammal species across Ikh Nart Nature Reserve, and compared these numbers to isotope values reported from other areas of Mongolia. Our plant and mammal 13 C and 15 N values were similar to those from a similar arid steppe region and more enriched than those from less arid habitats. Habitat variation within and between study sites has an important infl uence on δ 13 C and δ 15 N variation. Our results supplement current knowledge of isotopic variation in Mongolia and provide a reference for future stable isotope research in Mongolia and similar Asian steppe ecosystems.

  5. Small Tails Tell Tall Tales--Intra-Individual Variation in the Stable Isotope Values of Fish Fin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Hayden

    Full Text Available Fish fin is a widely used, non-lethal sample material in studies using stable isotopes to assess the ecology of fishes. However, fish fin is composed of two distinct tissues (ray and membrane which may have different stable isotope values and are not homogeneously distributed within a fin. As such, estimates of the stable isotope values of a fish may vary according to the section of fin sampled.To assess the magnitude of this variation, we analysed carbon (δ13C, nitrogen (δ15N, hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O stable isotopes of caudal fin from juvenile, riverine stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar and brown trout (Salmo trutta. Individual fins were sub-sectioned into tip, mid and base, of which a further subset were divided into ray and membrane.Isotope variation between fin sections, evident in all four elements, was primarily related to differences between ray and membrane. Base sections were13C depleted relative to tip (~1‰ with equivalent variation evident between ray and membrane. A similar trend was evident in δ2H, though the degree of variation was far greater (~10‰. Base and ray sections were 18O enriched (~2‰ relative to tip and membrane, respectively. Ray and membrane sections displayed longitudinal variation in 15N mirroring that of composite fin (~1‰, indicating that variation in15N values was likely related to ontogenetic variation.To account for the effects of intra-fin variability in stable isotope analyses we suggest that researchers sampling fish fin, in increasing priority, 1 also analyse muscle (or liver tissue from a subsample of fish to calibrate their data, or 2 standardize sampling by selecting tissue only from the extreme tip of a fin, or 3 homogenize fins prior to analysis.

  6. From the ground up: global nitrous oxide sources are constrained by stable isotope values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Snider

    Full Text Available Rising concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O in the atmosphere are causing widespread concern because this trace gas plays a key role in the destruction of stratospheric ozone and it is a strong greenhouse gas. The successful mitigation of N2O emissions requires a solid understanding of the relative importance of all N2O sources and sinks. Stable isotope ratio measurements (δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O, including the intramolecular distribution of 15N (site preference, are one way to track different sources if they are isotopically distinct. 'Top-down' isotope mass-balance studies have had limited success balancing the global N2O budget thus far because the isotopic signatures of soil, freshwater, and marine sources are poorly constrained and a comprehensive analysis of global N2O stable isotope measurements has not been done. Here we used a robust analysis of all available in situ measurements to define key global N2O sources. We showed that the marine source is isotopically distinct from soil and freshwater N2O (the continental source. Further, the global average source (sum of all natural and anthropogenic sources is largely controlled by soils and freshwaters. These findings substantiate past modelling studies that relied on several assumptions about the global N2O cycle. Finally, a two-box-model and a Bayesian isotope mixing model revealed marine and continental N2O sources have relative contributions of 24-26% and 74-76% to the total, respectively. Further, the Bayesian modeling exercise indicated the N2O flux from freshwaters may be much larger than currently thought.

  7. Value of routine investigations to predict loop diuretic down-titration success in stable heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Pieter; Verbrugge, Frederik H; Boonen, Levinia; Nijst, Petra; Dupont, Matthias; Mullens, Wilfried

    2018-01-01

    Guidelines advocate down-titration of loop diuretics in chronic heart failure (CHF) when patients have no signs of volume overload. Limited data are available on the expected success rate of this practice or how routine diagnostic tests might help steering this process. Fifty ambulatory CHF-patients on stable neurohumoral blocker/diuretic therapy for at least 3months without any clinical sign of volume overload were prospectively included to undergo loop diuretic down-titration. All patients underwent a similar pre-down-titration evaluation consisting of a dyspnea scoring, physical examination, transthoracic echocardiography (diastolic function, right ventricular function, cardiac filling pressures and valvular disease), blood sample (serum creatinine, plasma NT-pro-BNP and neurohormones). Loop diuretic maintenance dose was subsequently reduced by 50% or stopped if dose was ≤40mg furosemide equivalents. Successful down-titration was defined as a persistent dose reduction after 30days without weight increase >1.5kg or new-onset symptoms of worsening heart failure. At 30-day follow-up, down-titration was successful in 62% (n=31). In 12/19 patients exhibiting down-titration failure, this occurred within the first week. Physical examination, transthoracic echocardiography and laboratory analysis had limited predictive capability to detect patients with down-titration success/failure (positive likelihood-ratios below 1.5, or area under the curve [AUC] non-statically different from AUC=0.5). Loop diuretic down-titration is feasible in a majority of stable CHF patients in which the treating clinician felt continuation of loops was unnecessary to sustain euvolemia. Importantly, routine diagnostics which suggest euvolemia, have limited diagnostic impact on the post-test probability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis progression evaluated by coronary CT angiography in patients with stable angina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Hui; Gao, Yang; Hou, Zhihui; Lu, Bin; Schoepf, U.J.; Snyder, Alan N.; Duguay, Taylor M.; Wang, Ximing

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis burden by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to demonstrate its association with the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We retrospectively studied patients with stable angina who had undergone repeat CCTA due to recurrent or worsening symptoms. Lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden as well as coronary diameter stenosis were quantitatively analysed. The incidence of MACE during follow-up was determined. The final cohort consisted of 268 patients (mean age 52.9 ± 9.8 years, 71 % male) with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Patients with lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden (%) progression, as well as coronary diameter stenosis (%) progression had a significantly higher incidence of MACE than those without (all p < 0.05). The progression of lipid-rich plaque (HR = 1.601, p = 0.021), total plaque burden (HR = 2.979, p = 0.043) and coronary diameter stenosis (HR = 4.327, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACE (all p < 0.05). Patients presenting with recurrent or worsening symptoms associated with coronary artery disease who have coronary atherosclerosis progression on CCTA are at an increased risk of future MACE. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic value of coronary atherosclerosis progression evaluated by coronary CT angiography in patients with stable angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Hui [Shandong University, Department of CT, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Radiology, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Gao, Yang; Hou, Zhihui; Lu, Bin [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Department of Radiology, Fuwai Hospital, State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, National Centre for Cardiovascular Diseases, Beijing (China); Schoepf, U.J.; Snyder, Alan N.; Duguay, Taylor M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Wang, Ximing [Shandong University, Department of CT, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment of Cardio-Cerebral Vascular Diseases, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2018-03-15

    To investigate the progression of coronary atherosclerosis burden by coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and to demonstrate its association with the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). We retrospectively studied patients with stable angina who had undergone repeat CCTA due to recurrent or worsening symptoms. Lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden as well as coronary diameter stenosis were quantitatively analysed. The incidence of MACE during follow-up was determined. The final cohort consisted of 268 patients (mean age 52.9 ± 9.8 years, 71 % male) with a mean follow-up period of 4.6 ± 0.9 years. Patients with lipid-rich, fibrous, calcified and total plaque burden (%) progression, as well as coronary diameter stenosis (%) progression had a significantly higher incidence of MACE than those without (all p < 0.05). The progression of lipid-rich plaque (HR = 1.601, p = 0.021), total plaque burden (HR = 2.979, p = 0.043) and coronary diameter stenosis (HR = 4.327, p <0.001) were independent predictors of MACE (all p < 0.05). Patients presenting with recurrent or worsening symptoms associated with coronary artery disease who have coronary atherosclerosis progression on CCTA are at an increased risk of future MACE. (orig.)

  10. Stable carbon isotope analysis (δ13C values) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and their UV-transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfelder, Natalie; Bendig, Paul; Vetter, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are frequently detected in food and environmental samples. We used compound specific isotope analysis to determine the δ 13 C values of individual PBDEs in two technical mixtures. Within the same technical product (DE-71 or DE-79), BDE congeners were the more depleted in 13 C the higher brominated they were. In contrast, the products of light-induced hydrodebromination of BDE 47 and technical DE-79 were more enriched in 13 C because of more stable bonds between 13 C and bromine. As a result, the δ 13 C values of the irradiated solution progressed diametrically compared to those of the technical synthesis. The ratio of the δ 13 C values of BDE 47 to BDE 99 and of BDE 99 to BDE 153 are thus suggested as indicators to distinguish native technical products from transformation products. Ratios 1) is typical of transformation products. - Highlights: → δ 13 C values of PBDEs were determined by means of compound specific isotope analysis. → PBDEs in technical mixtures were the more depleted in 13 C the higher they were brominated. → Solutions of individual PBDEs and technical PBDE mixtures were irradiated by UV light. → δ 13 C values of irradiated PBDEs and technical PBDEs progressed diametrically. → Ratios of the δ 13 C values were used to distinguish native from transformed PBDEs. - Diametrically progressing δ 13 C values in technical mixtures and UV-transformation products of DE-79 may be useful for source appointment of PBDEs in environmental samples

  11. Prognostic Value of Plasma Pentraxin-3 Levels in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an inflammatory marker thought to be more specific to cardiovascular inflammation than C-reactive protein (CRP. Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of PTX3 in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD after drug eluting stent (DES implantation. Plasma PTX3 levels were measured before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and at 24 h post-PCI in 596 consecutive patients with stable CAD. Patients were followed up for a median of 3 years (range 1–5 for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs. We found that the post-PCI plasma PTX3 levels were significantly higher at 24 h after PCI than pre-PCI, patients with MACEs had higher post-PCI PTX3 levels compared with MACEs-free patients, patients with higher post-PCI PTX3 levels (median > 4.384 ng/mL had a higher risk for MACEs than those with PTX3 < 4.384 ng/mL, and post-PCI PTX3, cTnI, multiple stents, and age but not high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP were independently associated with the prevalence of MACEs after DES implantation. The present study shows that post-PCI PTX3 may be a more reliable inflammatory predictor of long-term MACEs in patients with stable CAD undergoing DES implantation than CRP. Measurement of post-PCI PTX3 levels could provide a rationale for risk stratification of patients with stable CAD after DES implantation.

  12. Stable isotope values in pup vibrissae reveal geographic variation in diets of gestating Steller sea lions Eumetopias jubatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Rick D.; Doll, Andrew C.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron M.; Stricker, Craig A.; Witteveen, Briana; Kline, Thomas C.; Kurle, Carolyn M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple factors, including limitation in food resources, have been proposed as possible causes for the lack of recovery of the endangered western segment of the Steller sea lion population in the United States. Because maternal body condition has important consequences on fetal development and neonatal survival, the diets of pregnant females may be particularly important in regulating population sizes. We used the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of vibrissae from Steller sea lion pups as an indirect indicator of maternal diets during gestation. Combining these data with isotope data from potential prey species in a Bayesian mixing model, we generated proportional estimates of dietary consumption for key prey. Our analysis indicated that females in the most westerly metapopulations relied heavily on Atka mackerel and squid, whereas females inhabiting the Gulf of Alaska region had a fairly mixed diet, and the metapopulation of Southeast Alaska showed a strong reliance on forage fish. These results are similar to previous data from scat collections; however, they indicate a possible under-representation of soft-bodied prey (squid) or prey with fragile skeletons (forage fish) from analyses of data from scats. This study supports the utility of stable isotope modeling in predicting diet composition in gestating adult female Steller sea lions during winter, using pup vibrissae.

  13. Diagnostic Value of Electrocardiographic T Wave Inversion in Lead aVL in Diagnosing Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Chronic Stable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem L. Farhan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The clinical value of T wave inversion in lead aVL in diagnosing coronary artery disease (CAD remains unclear. This study aims to investigate the correlation between aVL T wave inversion and CAD in patients with chronic stable angina.Methods: Electrocardiograms (ECGs of 257 consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography were analyzed. All patients had chronic stable angina. All patients with secondary T wave inversion had been excluded (66 patients. The remaining 191 patients constituted the study population. Detailed ECG interpretation and coronary angiographic findings were conducted by experienced cardiologists.Results: T wave inversion in aVL was identified in 89 ECGs (46.8% with definite ischemic Q-ST-T changes in different leads in 97 ECGs (50.8%. Stand alone aVL T wave inversion was found in 27 ECGs (14.1% while ischemic changes in other leads with normal aVL were identified in 36 ECGs (18.8%. The incidence of CAD was 86.3%. Single, two- and multi-vessel CAD were found in 38.8%, 28.5% and 32.7% of cases respectively. The prevalence of left main, left anterior descending, left circumflex and right coronary arteries were 4.7%, 61.2%, 29.3% and 44.5%, respectively. T wave inversion in aVL was found to be the only ECG variable significantly predicting mid segment left anterior descending artery (LAD lesions (Odds Ratio 2.93, 95% Confidence Interval 1.59-5.37, p=0.001.Conclusion: This study provides new information relating to T wave inversion in lead aVL to mid segment LAD lesions. Implication of this simple finding may help in bedside diagnosis of CAD typically mid LAD lesions. However, further studies are needed to corroborate this finding.

  14. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e., continuous culture experiments. We quantified linkages among δ13C, nutrients, carbonate chemistry, primary, and secondary production in temperate estuarine waters. Experimental culture vessels (9.1 L containing 33% whole and 67% filtered (0.2 μm seawater were amended with dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N and phosphorous (P in low (3 vessels; 5 μM N, 0.3 μM P, moderate (3 vessels; 25 μM N, 1.6 μM P, and high amounts (3 vessels; 50 μM N, 3.1 μM P. The parameters necessary to calculate carbonate chemistry, chlorophyll-a concentrations, and particulate δ13C values were measured throughout the 14 day experiments. Outflow lines from the experimental vessels fed 250 ml containers seeded with juvenile blue mussels (Mytilus edulis. Mussel subsamples were harvested on days 0, 7, and 14 and their tissues were analyzed for δ13C values. We consistently observed that particulate δ13C values were positively correlated with chlorophyll-a, carbonate chemistry, and to changes in the ratio of bicarbonate to dissolved carbon dioxide (HCO3-:CO2. While the relative proportion of HCO3- to CO2 increased over the 14 days, concentrations of each declined, reflecting the drawdown of carbon associated with enhanced production. Plankton δ13C values, like chlorophyll-a concentrations, increased over the course of each experiment, with the greatest increases in the moderate and high treatments. Trends in δ13C over time were also observed in the mussel tissues. Despite ecological variability and different plankton abundances the experiments consistently demonstrated how δ13C values in primary producers and consumers reflected nutrient availability, via its impact on carbonate chemistry. We

  15. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of linear and nonlinear indices of heart rate variability in stable angina patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pivatelli Flávio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decreased heart rate variability (HRV is related to higher morbidity and mortality. In this study we evaluated the linear and nonlinear indices of the HRV in stable angina patients submitted to coronary angiography. Methods We studied 77 unselected patients for elective coronary angiography, which were divided into two groups: coronary artery disease (CAD and non-CAD groups. For analysis of HRV indices, HRV was recorded beat by beat with the volunteers in the supine position for 40 minutes. We analyzed the linear indices in the time (SDNN [standard deviation of normal to normal], NN50 [total number of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration greater than 50ms] and RMSSD [root-mean square of differences] and frequency domains ultra-low frequency (ULF ≤ 0,003 Hz, very low frequency (VLF 0,003 – 0,04 Hz, low frequency (LF (0.04–0.15 Hz, and high frequency (HF (0.15–0.40 Hz as well as the ratio between LF and HF components (LF/HF. In relation to the nonlinear indices we evaluated SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2, approximate entropy (−ApEn, α1, α2, Lyapunov Exponent, Hurst Exponent, autocorrelation and dimension correlation. The definition of the cutoff point of the variables for predictive tests was obtained by the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve (ROC. The area under the ROC curve was calculated by the extended trapezoidal rule, assuming as relevant areas under the curve ≥ 0.650. Results Coronary arterial disease patients presented reduced values of SDNN, RMSSD, NN50, HF, SD1, SD2 and -ApEn. HF ≤ 66 ms2, RMSSD ≤ 23.9 ms, ApEn ≤−0.296 and NN50 ≤ 16 presented the best discriminatory power for the presence of significant coronary obstruction. Conclusion We suggest the use of Heart Rate Variability Analysis in linear and nonlinear domains, for prognostic purposes in patients with stable angina pectoris, in view of their overall impairment.

  16. Carbon Stable Isotope Values in Plankton and Mussels Reflect Changes in Carbonate Chemistry Associated with Nutrient Enhanced Net Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal ecosystems are inherently complex and potentially adaptive as they respond to changes in nutrient loads and climate. We documented the role that carbon stable isotope (δ13C) measurements could play in understanding that adaptation with a series of three Ecostat (i.e...

  17. Patterns in stable isotope values of nitrogen and carbon in particulate matter from the Northwest Atlantic Continental Shelf, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autumn Oczkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (δ15N, δ13C are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step towards developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter δ15N values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4 ‰, and δ13C values from -26.4 to -15.6 ‰ over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends towards lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher δ15N and δ13C values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the δ15N of subsurface and surface particulate matter (PM significantly increased with water depth (r2 = 0.41, df = 35, p < 0.001, while δ13C values did not change. There were significant positive correlation between δ15N and δ13C values for surface PM in each of the three marine ecoregions that make up the study area. Stable isotope dynamics on the shelf can inform both nearshore and open ocean research efforts, reflecting regional productivity patterns and, even possibly, large-scale climate fluctuations.

  18. Reservoir age variations and stable isotope values of bulk sediment in a core from the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Olsen, Jesper; Rasmussen, Peter

    The Limfjord is a sound in Northern Jutland, Denmark, connecting the North Sea with the Kattegat. A multi-proxy approach has been applied to a sediment core from Kilen, a former fjord arm near the town of Struer, to reveal the Limfjord’s development in more detail. In this paper, we concentrate...... on radiocarbon dating of shells and on stable isotope measurements of bulk sediment from 7400 to 1300 cal BP. Reservoir ages in coastal waters and estuaries can differ considerably from the global model ocean. The seas around Denmark have a reservoir age of c. 400 years, while a hardwater effect of a few...... of organic matter can thus be estimated. The d13C and C/N inferred salinity can be related to changes in Delta-R and other palaeoenvironmental proxies. An increasing marine influence throughout the largest part of the core is followed by large variations around 2000 cal BP....

  19. Optimising Refined Bleached Deodorized Palm Stearin For Its Crude Stearic Acid Iodine Value To Provide The Stable Specification Of Blended Stearic Acid Distillate Iodine Value

    OpenAIRE

    Ritonga, Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    On the commercial scale, the quality standard of Blended Stearic Acid Distilled (BSAD) couldn’t be achieved by normal distillation. BSAD iodine value is mostly higher than maximum quality standard (0.2 mg/100 g), with the same iodine value (0.80 g/100 g) of feed Hydrogenated Splitted RBDPS Fatty Acid or HSRBDPSFA, feed capacity 5.5 ton/hour with bottom flash distiller temperature reaching 213oC. The separation and reduction of chemical impurities (so sensitive to oxidation/temperature/heat ch...

  20. Effects of preservation methods of muscle tissue from upper-trophic level reef fishes on stable isotope values (δ (13)C and δ (15)N).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, Christopher D; Nelson, James A; Rozar, Katherine L; Adams, Charles S; Wall, Kara R; Switzer, Theodore S; Winner, Brent L; Hollander, David J

    2015-01-01

    Research that uses stable isotope analysis often involves a delay between sample collection in the field and laboratory processing, therefore requiring preservation to prevent or reduce tissue degradation and associated isotopic compositions. Although there is a growing literature describing the effects of various preservation techniques, the results are often contextual, unpredictable and vary among taxa, suggesting the need to treat each species individually. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of four preservation methods of muscle tissue from four species of upper trophic-level reef fish collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico (Red Grouper Epinephelus morio, Gag Mycteroperca microlepis, Scamp Mycteroperca phenax, and Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus). We used a paired design to measure the effects on isotopic values for carbon and nitrogen after storage using ice, 95% ethanol, and sodium chloride (table salt), against that in a liquid nitrogen control. Mean offsets for both δ (13)C and δ (15)N values from controls were lowest for samples preserved on ice, intermediate for those preserved with salt, and highest with ethanol. Within species, both salt and ethanol significantly enriched the δ (15)N values in nearly all comparisons. Ethanol also had strong effects on the δ (13)C values in all three groupers. Conversely, for samples preserved on ice, we did not detect a significant offset in either isotopic ratio for any of the focal species. Previous studies have addressed preservation-induced offsets in isotope values using a mass balance correction that accounts for changes in the isotope value to that in the C/N ratio. We tested the application of standard mass balance corrections for isotope values that were significantly affected by the preservation methods and found generally poor agreement between corrected and control values. The poor performance by the correction may have been due to preferential loss of lighter isotopes and

  1. Amino acid specific stable nitrogen isotope values in avian tissues: Insights from captive American kestrels and wild herring gulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Craig E.; Popp, B.N.; Fernie, K.J.; Ka'apu-Lyons, C.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Wallsgrove, N.

    2016-01-01

    Through laboratory and field studies, the utility of amino acid compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) in avian studies is investigated. Captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed an isotopically characterized diet and patterns in δ15N values of amino acids (AAs) were compared to those in their tissues (muscle and red blood cells) and food. Based upon nitrogen isotope discrimination between diet and kestrel tissues, AAs could mostly be categorized as source AAs (retaining baseline δ15N values) and trophic AAs (showing 15N enrichment). Trophic discrimination factors based upon the source (phenylalanine, Phe) and trophic (glutamic acid, Glu) AAs were 4.1 (muscle) and 5.4 (red blood cells), lower than those reported for metazoan invertebrates. In a field study involving omnivorous herring gulls (Larus argentatus smithsonianus), egg AA isotopic patterns largely retained those observed in the laying female’s tissues (muscle, red blood cells, and liver). Realistic estimates of gull trophic position were obtained using bird Glu and Phe δ15N values combined with β values (difference in Glu and Phe δ15N in primary producers) for aquatic and terrestrial food webs. Egg fatty acids were used to weight β values for proportions of aquatic and terrestrial food in gull diets. This novel approach can be applied to generalist species that feed across ecosystem boundaries.

  2. Delay Discounting Rates Are Temporally Stable in an Equivalent Present Value Procedure Using Theoretical and Area under the Curve Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Justin; McKay, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Temporal discounting rates have become a popular dependent variable in social science research. While choice procedures are commonly employed to measure discounting rates, equivalent present value (EPV) procedures may be more sensitive to experimental manipulation. However, their use has been impeded by the absence of test-retest reliability data.…

  3. Value of digit ratio 2D:4D, a biomarker of prenatal hormone exposure, is stable across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Urszula M; Jasienska, Grazyna

    2017-07-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) is used as a marker of prenatal hormone exposure and, consequently, as a predictor of many characteristics throughout a woman's lifespan. A previous study has suggested that values of 2D:4D vary across menstrual cycles and further questioned the reliability of a single measurement of 2D:4D among cycling women, while another study failed to confirm these results. However, these studies estimated the timing of cycle phases based on a date of menstruation reported by participants and also had small sample sizes. For our study, we evaluated potential changes in 2D:4D values across a menstrual cycle in a group of women among whom the phases of the menstrual cycle were determined by hormonal (luteinizing hormone based) ovulation tests. We studied 32 naturally cycling women aged 22-37 from rural Poland. Lengths of second and fourth digits were measured based on scans of both hands taken three times (i.e. in the follicular phase, peri-ovulatory phase and luteal phase of the cycle) for each participant. No differences in 2D:4D value across the menstrual cycle were detected either when right-hand, left-hand, and mean 2D:4D for both hands were analysed, nor when difference in the 2D:4D value between hands (D left-right ) was evaluated. We documented that 2D:4D is independent of the phase of the menstrual cycle and these findings suggest that among naturally cycling women, a value of 2D:4D can be reliably obtained from measurements taken during any day of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological variation, reference change value (RCV) and minimal important difference (MID) of inspiratory muscle strength (PImax) in patients with stable chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täger, Tobias; Schell, Miriam; Cebola, Rita; Fröhlich, Hanna; Dösch, Andreas; Franke, Jennifer; Katus, Hugo A; Wians, Frank H; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2015-10-01

    Despite the widespread application of measurements of respiratory muscle force (PImax) in clinical trials there is no data on biological variation, reference change value (RCV), or the minimal important difference (MID) for PImax irrespective of the target cohort. We addressed this issue for patients with chronic stable heart failure. From the outpatients' clinic of the University of Heidelberg we retrospectively selected three groups of patients with stable systolic chronic heart failure (CHF). Each group had two measurements of PImax: 90 days apart in Group A (n = 25), 180 days apart in Group B (n = 93), and 365 days apart in Group C (n = 184). Stability was defined as (a) no change in NYHA class between visits and (b) absence of cardiac decompensation 3 months prior, during, and 3 months after measurements. For each group, we determined within-subject (CVI), between-subject (CVG), and total (CVT) coefficient of variation (CV), the index of individuality (II), RCV, reliability coefficient, and MID of PImax. CVT was 8.7, 7.5, and 6.9 % for groups A, B, and C, respectively. The II and RCV were 0.21, 0.20, 0.16 and 13.6, 11.6, 10.8 %, respectively. The reliability coefficient and MID were 0.83, 0.87, 0.88 and 1.44, 1.06, 1.12 kPa, respectively. Results were similar between age, gender, and aetiology subgroups. In patients with stable CHF, measurements of PImax are highly stable for intervals up to 1 year. The low values for II suggest that evaluation of change in PImax should be performed on an individual (per patient) basis. Individually significant change can be assumed beyond 14 % (RCV) or 1.12 kPa (MID).

  5. High Order A-stable Continuous General Linear Methods for Solution of Systems of Initial Value Problems in ODEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda GuliburYAKUBU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate solutions to initial value systems of ordinary differential equations may be approximated efficiently by Runge-Kutta methods or linear multistep methods. Each of these has limitations of one sort or another. In this paper we consider, as a middle ground, the derivation of continuous general linear methods for solution of stiff systems of initial value problems in ordinary differential equations. These methods are designed to combine the advantages of both Runge-Kutta and linear multistep methods. Particularly, methods possessing the property of A-stability are identified as promising methods within this large class of general linear methods. We show that the continuous general linear methods are self-starting and have more ability to solve the stiff systems of ordinary differential equations, than the discrete ones. The initial value systems of ordinary differential equations are solved, for instance, without looking for any other method to start the integration process. This desirable feature of the proposed approach leads to obtaining very high accuracy of the solution of the given problem. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the novelty and reliability of the methods.

  6. Distribution of mean surface stable isotopes values in east Antarctica; observed changes with depth in coastal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorius, C.; Merlivat, L.

    1975-01-01

    Mean samples of the snow accumulated during the last ten years have been collected at 48 stations distributed along a 850km long axis in East Antarctica, starting from Dumont d'Urville towards Vostok. Up to 1000m elevations the mean deuterium values are rather constant (-150 per thousand); then they decrease with various parameters (distance, elevation) and in particular with the mean annual temperatures, according to a linear relationship (D per thousand=6,04T(degC)-51) for a temperature range from -20 to -55 deg C. The observed D per thousand-O per thousand relationship is discussed. Measurements along a 303m deep core (down to the bedrock) obtained in the control area show very large D changes with mean values varying between -150 and -360 per thousand; this last value characterizes present surface snow deposited about 800km upstream. The observed D variations may be explained by changes in the site of origin of the ice; mechanisms which could explain the presence of ice originating from further distances above less distant origin layers are discussed [fr

  7. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  8. Prognostic Value of High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T Compared with Risk Scores in Stable Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Moritz; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Kuhner, Manuel; Zelniker, Thomas; Mueller-Hennessen, Matthias; Vafaie, Mehrshad; Trenk, Dietmar; Neumann, Franz-Josef; Hochholzer, Willibald; Katus, Hugo A

    2017-05-01

    Risk stratification of patients with cardiovascular disease remains challenging despite consideration of risk scores. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in a low-risk outpatient population presenting for nonsecondary and secondary prevention. All-cause mortality, a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke (end point 2), and a composite of all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, stroke and rehospitalization for acute coronary syndrome, and decompensated heart failure (end point 3) were defined. The prognostic performance of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T on index visit was compared with the PROCAM score and 3 FRAMINGHAM subscores. In 693 patients with a median follow-up of 796 days, we observed 16 deaths, 32 patients with end point 2, and 83 patients with end point 3. All risk scores performed better in the prediction of all-cause mortality in nonsecondary prevention (area under the curve [AUC]: PROCAM: 0.922 vs 0.523, P = .001, consistent for all other scores). In secondary prevention, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T outperformed all risk scores in the prediction of all-cause mortality (ΔAUC: PROCAM: 0.319, P risk scores. Our findings on the prediction of all-cause mortality compared with the FRAMINGHAM-Hard Coronary Heart Disease score were confirmed in an independent validation cohort on 2046 patients. High-sensitivity troponin T provides excellent risk stratification regarding all-cause mortality and all-cause mortality, acute myocardial infarction, and stroke in a secondary prevention cohort in whom risk scores perform poorly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholesterol target value attainment and lipid-lowering therapy in patients with stable or acute coronary heart disease: Results from the Dyslipidemia International Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitt, Anselm K; Lautsch, Dominik; Ferrières, Jean; De Ferrari, Gaetano M; Vyas, Ami; Baxter, Carl A; Bash, Lori D; Ashton, Veronica; Horack, Martin; Almahmeed, Wael; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Poh, Kian Keong; Brudi, Philippe; Ambegaonkar, Baishali

    2017-11-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease. In the Dyslipidemia International Study II (DYSIS II), we determined LDL-C target value attainment, use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT), and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease (CHD) and those suffering from an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). DYSIS II included patients from 18 countries. Patients with either stable CHD or an ACS were enrolled if they were ≥18 years old and had a full lipid profile available. Data were collected at a physician visit (CHD cohort) or at hospital admission and 120 days later (ACS cohort). A total of 10,661 patients were enrolled, 6794 with stable CHD and 3867 with an ACS. Mean LDL-C levels were low at 88 mg/dl and 108 mg/dl for the CHD and ACS cohorts respectively, with only 29.4% and 18.9% displaying a level below 70 mg/dl. LLT was utilized by 93.8% of the CHD cohort, with a mean daily statin dosage of 25 ± 18 mg. The proportion of the ACS cohort treated with LLT rose from 65.2% at admission to 95.6% at follow-up. LLT-treated patients, who were female, obese, or current smokers, were less likely to achieve an LDL-C level of <70 mg/dl, while those with type 2 diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or those taking a higher statin dosage were more likely. Few of these very high-risk patients achieved the LDL-C target, indicating huge potential for improving cardiovascular outcome by use of more intensive LLT. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  11. The value of a mature, stable, and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating ER programs lessons learned in decommissioning of uranium recovery and other facilities in the USA - 59411

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Keith I.; Camper, Larry

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The history of decommissioning activities in the United States has demonstrated the value of a mature, stable and transparent regulatory framework in facilitating the timely completion of environmental remediation. Two examples are given as case studies. The first example relates to the history of uranium concentrate (yellowcake) production in the U.S. to support the initial development of civilian nuclear power in the U.S. in the 1950's, 60's, 70's and 80's. This yellowcake production, which took place mostly in the western U.S., was undertaken before laws and regulations to prevent contamination and protect public health and safety were fully developed. Significant contamination occurred in terms of both surface and ground water contamination. Although most conventional mills producing uranium during these early years entered decommissioning in the 70's and 80's, the vast majority are still remediating their sites because of persistent contamination in ground water. Had an effective regulatory framework been in place, much of this contamination would have been prevented and remediation accomplished more effectively. In contrast to this experience, a second example is provided related to development of the regulatory framework for decommissioning of non-uranium recovery facilities in the U.S. in the late 1990's and early 2000's

  12. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  13. Within-Site Variation in Feather Stable Hydrogen Isotope (δ2Hf) Values of Boreal Songbirds: Implications for Assignment to Molt Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Cameron J; Haché, Samuel; Bayne, Erin M; Sólymos, Péter; Foster, Kenneth R; Godwin, Christine M; Krikun, Richard; Pyle, Peter; Hobson, Keith A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding bird migration and dispersal is important to inform full life-cycle conservation planning. Stable hydrogen isotope ratios from feathers (δ2Hf) can be linked to amount-weighted long-term, growing season precipitation δ2H (δ2Hp) surfaces to create δ2Hf isoscapes for assignment to molt origin. However, transfer functions linking δ2Hp with δ2Hf are influenced by physiological and environmental processes. A better understanding of the causes and consequences of variation in δ2Hf values among individuals and species will improve the predictive ability of geographic assignment tests. We tested for effects of species, land cover, forage substrate, nest substrate, diet composition, body mass, sex, and phylogenetic relatedness on δ2Hf from individuals at least two years old of 21 songbird species captured during the same breeding season at a site in northeastern Alberta, Canada. For four species, we also tested for a year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf. A model including species as single predictor received the most support (AIC weight = 0.74) in explaining variation in δ2Hf. A species-specific variance parameter was part of all best-ranked models, suggesting variation in δ2Hf was not consistent among species. The second best-ranked model included a forage substrate × diet interaction term (AIC weight = 0.16). There was a significant year × species interaction effect on δ2Hf suggesting that interspecific differences in δ2Hf can differ among years. Our results suggest that within- and among-year interspecific variation in δ2Hf is the most important source of variance typically not being explicitly quantified in geographic assignment tests using non-specific transfer functions to convert δ2Hp into δ2Hf. However, this source of variation is consistent with the range of variation from the transfer functions most commonly being propagated in assignment tests of geographic origins for passerines breeding in North America.

  14. Predictive value of depression and anxiety for long-term mortality: differences in outcome between acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, Tom A. J.; Dulfer, Karolijn; Radhoe, Sumant; Bergmann, Michael J.; Daemen, Joost; van Domburg, Ron T.; Lenzen, Mattie J.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2018-01-01

    Since the early 2000s the treatment of choice for an acute myocardial infarction has moved from thrombolytic therapy to primary PCI (pPCI). As a result, the majority of patients undergoing PCI shifted from stable angina pectoris (SA) to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Additionally the previously

  15. Diagnostic and prognostic value of a careful symptom evaluation and high sensitive troponin in patients with suspected stable angina pectoris without prior cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Debbie Maria; Diederichsen, Axel C P; Hosbond, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    -TnI in stable chest pain patients without prior cardiovascular disease. METHODS: During a one-year period, 487 patients with suspected stable AP underwent invasive or CT-coronary angiography (significant stenosis ≥50%). At study inclusion, a careful symptom evaluation was obtained, and patients were classified...... as having typical AP, atypical AP, or non-cardiac chest pain. Hs-TnI was measured in all patients and divided into tertiles for analysis. Follow-up was a median of 4.9 years with cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, unstable AP, ischemic stroke, coronary.......07-5.79; p 12-2.01; p = 0.007) and experiencing future CVE (typical AP, HR: 2.64; 95% CI: 1.74-3.99; p = 0.001, hs-TnI, HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.06-1.49; p = 0.008). Patients in the lowest hs-TnI tertile, without typical AP (n = 107) had a 1.9% absolute risk of significant...

  16. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  17. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  18. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  19. Stable isotope and pen feeding trial studies confirm the value of horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus eggs to spring migrant shorebirds in Delaware Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haramis, G.M.; Link, W.A.; Osenton, P.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Weber, R.G.; Clark, N.A.; Teece, M.A.; Mizrahi, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used stable isotope (SI) methods in combination with pen feeding trials to determine the importance of eggs of the Atlantic horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus to migratory fattening of red knots Calidris canutus rufa and ruddy turnstones Arenaria interpres morinella during spring stopover in Delaware Bay. By manifesting measurable fractionation (ca +3?) and rapid turnover, blood plasma *15 nitrogen proved a functional marker for SI diet tracking during the short 3-week stopover. Blood samples from free-ranging knots (3 data sets) and turnstones (1 data set) produced similar convergence of plasma *15 N signatures with increasing body mass that indicated highly similar diets. Asymptotes deviated slightly (0.3? to 0.7?) from that of captive shorebirds fed a diet of only crab eggs during stopover, thus confirming a strong crab egg-shorebird linkage. The plasma *15N crab-egg diet asymptote was enriched ca +4.5? and therefore readily discriminated from that of either blue mussels Mytilus edulis or coquina clams Donax variabilis, the most likely alternative prey of knots in Delaware Bay. Crab eggs were highly palatable to captive knots and turnstones which achieved rates of mass gain (3?11 g/d) comparable to that of free-ranging birds. Peak consumption rates during hyperphagic events were 23,940 and 19,360 eggs/bird/d, respectively. The empirical conversions of eggs consumed to body mass gained (5,017 eggs/g for knots and 4,320 eggs/g for turnstones) indicate the large quantities of crab eggs required for the maintenance of these shorebird populations during stopover.

  20. Red Assembly: the work remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Witz

    installed. What to do at this limit, at the transgressive encounter between saying yes and no to history, remains the challenge. It is the very challenge of what insistently remains.

  1. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  2. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  3. Green business will remain green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    It all started with two words. Climate change. The carbon dioxide trading scheme, which was the politicians' idea on solving the number one global problem, followed. Four years ago, when the project was begun, there was no data for project initiation. Quotas for polluters mainly from energy production and other energy demanding industries were distributed based on spreadsheets, maximum output and expected future development of economies. Slovak companies have had a chance to profit from these arrangements since 2005. Many of them took advantage of the situation and turned the excessive quotas into an extraordinary profit which often reached hundreds of million Sk. The fact that the price of free quotas offered for sale dropped basically to 0 in 2006 only proved that the initial distribution was too generous. And the market reacted to the first official measurements of emissions. Slovak companies also contributed to this development. However, when planning the maximum emission volumes for 2008-2012 period, in spite of the fact that actual data were available, their expectations were not realistic. A glance at the figures in the proposal of the Ministry of Environment is sufficient to realize that there will be no major change in the future. And so for many Slovak companies business with a green future will remain green for the next five years. The state decided to give to selected companies even more free space as far as emissions are concerned. The most privileged companies can expect quotas increased by tens of percent. (author)

  4. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  5. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  6. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  7. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of dorsal spine age rings indicate temporal variation in the diet of striped marlin (Kajikia audax) in waters around Cabo San Lucas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Pachón, Tatiana A; Ortega-García, Sofia; Graham, Brittany

    2015-09-30

    Billfishes, such as marlin, are top pelagic predators that play an important role in maintaining the stability of marine food webs. Notwithstanding the importance of these species, there remain gaps in our knowledge on their movements, foraging, and trophic status in the early stage of life. We measured the δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in each annual growth band deposited in the dorsal spine from striped marlin caught off Cabo San Lucas, Mexico, to produce retrospective isotopic profiles that would enable us to detect any significant isotopic changes across development. The samples were analyzed using an elemental analyzer coupled to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer. There was no relationship between the size of striped marlin and the δ(15) N values. Differences in δ(15)N mean values across different age classes were not significant and the variation in δ(15)N values through the marlins' life cycle was less than 2‰. However, the mean δ(15)N values between individuals varied by up to 6‰. The δ(13)C values increased as a function of age, and the mean δ(13)C values varied significantly between age classes. Fin spines can be used to construct retrospective isotopic histories for the investigation of trophic dynamics and migratory histories in billfishes, for which population dynamics are often poorly known. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  9. On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajian Majid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].

  10. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  11. Determination of wine authenticity and geographical origin by measuring non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in wine ethanol with EIM-IRMS® methodology in combination with δ18O values obtained from wine water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smajlovic, Ivan; Glavanovic, Mirko; Sparks, Kimberlee L.; Sparks, Jed P.; Jovic, Slobodan

    2014-05-01

    Wine consumption has grown significantly in the last two decades, with the United States being the leading consumer of wine in the world. It is also the second largest wine producer and importer after the European Union, which consists of 27 European countries. The world has seen a significant increase in production from new world countries, especially the United States, Australia and Chile, and wine imports have grown significantly with this globalization. The quality and authenticity of products have become critical concerns. With the amount of wine being imported the need for verifying wine authenticity and understanding procedures used in wine making has become more important than ever. Understanding the origin of consumed wine in rapidly expanding global economy has become fundamental in order to control quality and protect consumers. In our previous scientific work we have shown that EIM-IRMS®, Ethanol Isotope Measurement - Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (EIM-IRMS®), is capable of providing unique molecular fingerprint that cannot be reproduced or counterfeited. Today we know that δ18O value from the wine water is one of the most important parameters which can give information about wine geographical origin. Earlier we have suggested that grape juice or grape pulp is a closed biochemical system in which all chemical compounds stand in dynamic equilibrium and are in direct connection with each other. Taking that into consideration we have concluded that if system is genuine and if no water, or no sugar has been added to the grape must or grape juice prior to alcoholic fermentation, then ethanol which is made in process of alcoholic fermentation will have specific δD value of non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes which will be in range from -205 to -215 ‰ vs. V-SMOW. In this work we will show that this value, which we named δDn (non-exchangeable hydrogen stable isotopes in ethanol), is very important because it can support or refute conclusions

  12. On random age and remaining lifetime for populations of items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finkelstein, M.; Vaupel, J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider items that are incepted into operation having already a random (initial) age and define the corresponding remaining lifetime. We show that these lifetimes are identically distributed when the age distribution is equal to the equilibrium distribution of the renewal theory. Then we...... develop the population studies approach to the problem and generalize the setting in terms of stationary and stable populations of items. We obtain new stochastic comparisons for the corresponding population ages and remaining lifetimes that can be useful in applications. Copyright (c) 2014 John Wiley...

  13. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  14. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains energy and absorption data for XANES spectra indicated in Figure 1 of the manuscript. This dataset is associated with the following publication:...

  15. Non-labile silver species in biosolids remain stable throughout 50 years of weathering and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing commercial use of nanosilver has focussed attention on the fate of silver (Ag) in the wastewater release pathway. This paper reports the speciation and lability of Ag in archived, stockpiled, and contemporary biosolids from the UK, USA and Australia, and indicates that...

  16. Genetic evolution of HIV in patients remaining on a stable HAART regimen despite insufficient viral suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Thomas B; Pedersen, Anders; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    consistent HIV-RNA levels above 200 copies/ml were included in the study. The study period spanned at least 12 months and included 47 plasma samples from 17 patients that were sequenced and analysed with respect to evolutionary changes. At inclusion, the median CD4 count was 300 cells/ml (inter...

  17. Semen quality remains stable during 96 weeks of untreated human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Elisabeth; Wit, Ferdinand W.; Prins, Jan M.; Reiss, Peter; van der Veen, Fulco; Repping, Sjoerd

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate semen parameters during the natural course of asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. DESIGN: A longitudinal cohort study. SETTING: HIV outpatient clinic of the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. PATIENT(S): 55 men infected with

  18. Do Mechanical and Physicochemical Properties of Orthodontic NiTi Wires Remain Stable In Vivo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sarul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Exceptional properties of the NiTi archwires may be jeopardized by the oral cavity; thus its long-term effect on the mechanical and physiochemical properties of NiTi archwires was the aim of work. Material and Methods. Study group comprised sixty 0.016 × 0.022 NiTi archwires from the same manufacturer evaluated (group A after the first 12 weeks of orthodontic treatment. 30 mm long pieces cut off from each wire prior to insertion formed the control group B. Obeying the strict rules of randomization, all samples were subjected to microscopic evaluation and nanoindentation test. Results. Both groups displayed substantial presence of nonmetallic inclusions. Heterogeneity of the structure and its alteration after usage were found in groups B and A, respectively. Conclusions. Long-term, reliable prediction of biomechanics of NiTi wires in vivo is impossible, especially new archwires from the same vendor display different physiochemical properties. Moreover, manufacturers have to decrease contamination in the production process in order to minimize risk of mutual negative influence of nickel-titanium archwires and oral environment.

  19. Contribution to the study of the determination of the remaining flow in deviation SHP (Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plants): the incorporation of the economic value of environmental resources; Contribuicao ao estudo da determinacao da vazao remanescente em PCHS (Pequenas Centrais Hidreletricas) de desvio: a incorporacao do valor economico de recursos ambientais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Henrique Machado Moreira [Schlumberger, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: henriquemmsantos@yahoo.com.br; Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI/GEE/ISSE), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos], e-mail: afonsohms@gmail.com; Ribeiro Junior, Leopoldo Uberto, e-mail: leopoldo_junior@yahoo.com.br; Nascimento, Jose Guilherme Antloga do, e-mail: jgan@brasilpch.com.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper seems to develop the economic analysis of Small Hydro Plants - SHP, incorporating in this analysis evaluations of priceless losses for the society, as the environmental damages, taking SHP Paraitinga as the study case. It involves questions related to environmental valuation, economics, and engineering, presenting the concept of the Economic Valuation of Environmental Resources. The main valuation methods are presented. In the economic analysis, the concept of willingness to pay is verified by using demand function, that involves the elasticity and the price. The price is calculated based on costs and the elasticity is calculated based on the essentially of the goods or services, which could be reached by market observation. Only the remaining outflow definition, in the stretch of reduced outflow of the project will be studied. After these studies and valuations, some scenarios will be adopted for the developed model, on current values and projections. A comparison of the present work and the methodology of commitment programming are carried out. Finally the results will be analyzed, trying to get the 'optimum outflow', aiming at balancing power, tourism and environmental interests. (author)

  20. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  1. The Relationship between Delinquent Behavior and Work Values of Noninstitutionalized Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, David A.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the work values of delinquent youth differ from those of other youth, and if so, how. Results showed that even as delinquency increases, work values tend to remain stable. Other factors (gender, race, and suspension from school) appear to have a greater impact on work values than does delinquency itself.…

  2. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  3. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  4. Prediction of the remaining lifetime of stainless steels under conditions of stress corrosion cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandler, M.; Vehovar, L.; Dolecek, V.; Rotnik, U.

    2003-01-01

    The prediction of the lifetime of metal structures and equipment under conditions of stress corrosion is very complicated because of the complexity of this process of degradation. Recently a new method, based on the so-called corrosion elongation curves, has been found, which can be used to predict the time to failure under these conditions. By upgrading of these curves (and thus obtaining Upgraded Corrosion Elongation Curves - UCEC's) it has been possible to obtain a precise definition of the time needed for the initiation of the corrosion crack, and for its stable growth. It is upon this basis that diagrams for the prediction of remaining lifetime (DPRL's) have been developed. DPRL's can also be used to predict the values of various critical parameters which have to be achieved if a stress corrosion crack is to occur. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  5. Fish remains and humankind: part two

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew K G Jones

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The significance of aquatic resources to past human groups is not adequately reflected in the published literature - a deficiency which is gradually being acknowledged by the archaeological community world-wide. The publication of the following three papers goes some way to redress this problem. Originally presented at an International Council of Archaeozoology (ICAZ Fish Remains Working Group meeting in York, U.K. in 1987, these papers offer clear evidence of the range of interest in ancient fish remains across the world. Further papers from the York meeting were published in Internet Archaeology 3 in 1997.

  6. Authentic leadership: becoming and remaining an authentic nurse leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lin G

    2012-11-01

    This article explores how chief nurse executives became and remained authentic leaders. Using narrative inquiry, this qualitative study focused on the life stories of participants. Results demonstrate the importance of reframing, reflection in alignment with values, and the courage needed as nurse leaders progress to authenticity.

  7. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  8. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  9. Kadav Moun PSA (:60) (Human Remains)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-02-18

    This is an important public health announcement about safety precautions for those handling human remains. Language: Haitian Creole.  Created: 2/18/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 2/18/2010.

  10. The Annuity Puzzle Remains a Puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peijnenburg, J.M.J.; Werker, Bas; Nijman, Theo

    We examine incomplete annuity menus and background risk as possible drivers of divergence from full annuitization. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, we find that full annuitization remains optimal if saving is possible after retirement. This holds irrespective of whether real or

  11. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-01-01

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp's Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains

  12. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  13. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  14. Industry remains stuck in a transitional mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garb, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    The near future for industry remains foggy for several obvious reasons. The shake-up of the Soviet Union and how the pieces will reform remains unclear. How successful efforts are to privatize government oil company operations around the world has yet to be determined. A long sought peace in the Middle East seems to be inching closer, but will this continue? If it does continue, what impact will it have on world energy policy? Will American companies, which are now transferring their attention to foreign E and P, also maintain an interest in domestic activities? Is the U.S. economy really on the upswing? We are told that the worst of the recession is over, but try telling this to thousands of workers in the oil patch who are being released monthly by the big players in domestic operations. This paper reports that 1992 should be a better year than 1991, if measured in opportunity. There are more exploration and acquisition options available, both domestically and internationally, than there have been in years. Probably more opportunities exist than there are players-certainly more than can be funded with current financial resources

  15. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  16. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  17. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  18. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Ermini, Luca; Jónsson, Hákon

    2014-01-01

    the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach...... to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial...... community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using...

  19. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed

  20. Political, energy events will remain interwoven

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that it is possible to discuss the significance of political and energy events separately, but, in truth, they are intricately interwoven. Furthermore, there are those who will argue that since the two are inseparable, the future is not predictable; so why bother in the endeavor. It is possible that the central point of the exercise may have been missed-yes, the future is unpredictable exclamation point However, the objective of prediction is secondary. The objective of understanding the dynamic forces of change is primary exclamation point With this view of recent history, it is perhaps appropriate to pause and think about the future of the petroleum industry. The future as shaped by political, energy, economic, environmental and technological forces will direct our lives and markets during this decade. Most importantly, what will be the direction that successful businesses take to remain competitive in a global environment? These are interesting issues worthy of provocative thoughts and innovative ideas

  1. Nuclear remains an economic and ecologic asset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc, Boris

    2015-01-01

    The author herein outlines the several benefits of nuclear energy and nuclear industry for France. He first outlines that France possesses 97 per cent of de-carbonated electricity thanks to nuclear energy (77 pc) and renewable energies (20 pc, mainly hydraulic), and that renewable energies must be developed in the building and transport sectors to be able to get rid of the environmentally and financially costly fossil energies. He outlines that reactor maintenance and the nuclear fuel cycle industry are fields of technological leadership for the French nuclear industry which is, after motor industry and aircraft industry, the third industrial sector in France. He indicates that nuclear electricity is to remain the most competitive one, and that nuclear energy and renewable energies must not be opposed to it but considered as complementary in the struggle against climate change, i.e. to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to get rid of the prevalence of fossil energies

  2. Population cycles: generalities, exceptions and remaining mysteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Population cycles are one of nature's great mysteries. For almost a hundred years, innumerable studies have probed the causes of cyclic dynamics in snowshoe hares, voles and lemmings, forest Lepidoptera and grouse. Even though cyclic species have very different life histories, similarities in mechanisms related to their dynamics are apparent. In addition to high reproductive rates and density-related mortality from predators, pathogens or parasitoids, other characteristics include transgenerational reduced reproduction and dispersal with increasing-peak densities, and genetic similarity among populations. Experiments to stop cyclic dynamics and comparisons of cyclic and noncyclic populations provide some understanding but both reproduction and mortality must be considered. What determines variation in amplitude and periodicity of population outbreaks remains a mystery. PMID:29563267

  3. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Pourmand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61% patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8% the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%. A total of 166 (41.5% patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5% had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2% developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8% remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45% patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55% didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  4. The Human Remains from HMS Pandora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Steptoe

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1977 the wreck of HMS Pandora (the ship that was sent to re-capture the Bounty mutineers was discovered off the north coast of Queensland. Since 1983, the Queensland Museum Maritime Archaeology section has carried out systematic excavation of the wreck. During the years 1986 and 1995-1998, more than 200 human bone and bone fragments were recovered. Osteological investigation revealed that this material represented three males. Their ages were estimated at approximately 17 +/-2 years, 22 +/-3 years and 28 +/-4 years, with statures of 168 +/-4cm, 167 +/-4cm, and 166cm +/-3cm respectively. All three individuals were probably Caucasian, although precise determination of ethnicity was not possible. In addition to poor dental hygiene, signs of chronic diseases suggestive of rickets and syphilis were observed. Evidence of spina bifida was seen on one of the skeletons, as were other skeletal anomalies. Various taphonomic processes affecting the remains were also observed and described. Compact bone was observed under the scanning electron microscope and found to be structurally coherent. Profiles of the three skeletons were compared with historical information about the 35 men lost with the ship, but no precise identification could be made. The investigation did not reveal the cause of death. Further research, such as DNA analysis, is being carried out at the time of publication.

  5. SMART POINT CLOUD: DEFINITION AND REMAINING CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Poux

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  6. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  7. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  8. What remains of the Arrow oil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergy, G.; Owens, E.

    1993-01-01

    In February 1970, the tanker Arrow became grounded 6.5 km off the north shore of Chedabucto Bay, Nova Scotia, and nearly 72,000 bbl of Bunker C fuel oil were released from the vessel during its subsequent breakup and sinking. The oil was washed ashore in various degrees over an estimated 305 km of the bay's 604-km shoreline, of which only 48 km were cleaned. In addition, the tanker Kurdistan broke in two in pack ice in March 1979 in the Cabot Strait area, spilling ca 54,000 bbl of Bunker C, some of which was later found at 16 locations along the northeast and east shorelines of Chedabucto Bay. In summer 1992, a systematic ground survey of the bay's shorelines was conducted using Environment Canada Shoreline Cleanup Assessment Team (SCAT) procedures. Standard observations were made of oil distribution and width, thickness, and character of the oil residues in 419 coastal segments. Results from the survey are summarized. Oil was found to be present on 13.3 km of the shoreline, with heavy oiling restricted to 1.3 km primarily in the areas of Black Duck Cove and Lennox Passage. Some of this residual oil was identified as coming from the Arrow. Natural weathering processes account for removal of most of the spilled oil from the bay. Oil remaining on the shore was found in areas outside of the zone of physical wave action, in areas of nearshore mixing where fine sediments are not present to weather the oil through biophysical processes, or in crusts formed by oil weathered on the surface. The systematic description of oiled shorelines using the SCAT methodology proved very successful, even for such an old spill. 6 refs

  9. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  10. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  11. A naive Bayes model for robust remaining useful life prediction of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Selina S.Y.; Xing, Yinjiao; Tsui, Kwok L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Robustness of RUL predictions for lithium-ion batteries is analyzed quantitatively. • RUL predictions of the same battery over cycle life are evaluated. • RUL predictions of batteries over different operating conditions are evaluated. • Naive Bayes (NB) is proposed for predictions under constant discharge environments. • Its robustness and accuracy are compared with that of support vector machine (SVM). - Abstract: Online state-of-health (SoH) estimation and remaining useful life (RUL) prediction is a critical problem in battery health management. This paper studies the modeling of battery degradation under different usage conditions and ambient temperatures, which is seldom considered in the literature. Li-ion battery RUL prediction under constant operating conditions at different values of ambient temperature and discharge current are considered. A naive Bayes (NB) model is proposed for RUL prediction of batteries under different operating conditions. It is shown in this analysis that under constant discharge environments, the RUL of Li-ion batteries can be predicted with the NB method, irrespective of the exact values of the operating conditions. The case study shows that the NB generates stable and competitive prediction performance over that of the support vector machine (SVM). This also suggests that, while it is well known that the environmental conditions have big impact on the degradation trend, it is the changes in operating conditions of a Li-ion battery over cycle life that makes the Li-ion battery degradation and RUL prediction even more difficult

  12. Selected PET radiomic features remain the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamada, Shizuka; Kobayashi, Masato; Narita, Norihiko; Kimura, Hirohiko; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2018-04-17

    We investigated whether PET radiomic features are affected by differences in the scanner, scan protocol, and lesion location using 18 F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MR scans. SUV, TMR, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and homogeneity strongly correlated between PET/CT and PET/MR images. SUVs were significantly higher on PET/MR 0-2 min and PET/MR 0-10 min than on PET/CT in gynecological cancer ( p = 0.008 and 0.008, respectively), whereas no significant difference was observed between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images in oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer. TMRs on PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min increased in this order in gynecological cancer and oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer. In contrast to conventional and histogram indices, 4 textural features (entropy, homogeneity, SRE, and LRE) were not significantly different between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images. 18 F-FDG PET radiomic features strongly correlated between PET/CT and PET/MR images. Dixon-based attenuation correction on PET/MR images underestimated tumor tracer uptake more significantly in oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer than in gynecological cancer. 18 F-FDG PET textural features were affected less by differences in the scanner and scan protocol than conventional and histogram features, possibly due to the resampling process using a medium bin width. Eight patients with gynecological cancer and 7 with oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer underwent a whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and regional PET/MR scan in one day. PET/MR scans were performed for 10 minutes in the list mode, and PET/CT and 0-2 min and 0-10 min PET/MR images were reconstructed. The standardized uptake value (SUV), tumor-to-muscle SUV ratio (TMR), skewness, kurtosis, entropy, homogeneity, short-run emphasis (SRE), and long-run emphasis (LRE) were compared between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images.

  13. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  14. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; GROVE, E.

    2001-01-01

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed

  15. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  16. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  17. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  18. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  19. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  20. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  1. Remaining life diagnosis method and device for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Michiyoshi.

    1996-01-01

    A neutron flux measuring means is inserted from the outside of a reactor pressure vessel during reactor operation to forecast neutron-degradation of materials of incore structural components in the vicinity of portions to be measured based on the measured values, and the remaining life of the reactor is diagnosed by the forecast degraded state. In this case, the neutron fluxes to be measured are desirably fast and/or medium neutron fluxes. As the positions where the measuring means is to be inserted, for example, the vicinity of the structural components at the periphery of the fuel assembly is selected. Aging degradation characteristics of the structural components are determined by using the aging degradation data for the structural materials. The remaining life is analyzed based on obtained aging degradation characteristics and stress evaluation data of the incore structural components at portions to be measured. Neutron irradiation amount of structural components at predetermined positions can be recognized accurately, and appropriate countermeasures can be taken depending on the forecast remaining life thereby enabling to improve the reliability of the reactor. (N.H.)

  2. Effectiveness of training programmes used in two stables of thoroughbred race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szarska, E; Cywińska, A; Ostaszewski, P; Kowalska, A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the training methods used in two stables and their effects on selected blood parameters and race results. A total number of 36 thoroughbred race horses was examined in two groups, trained by two trainers. Twenty-four horses (group A) were trained at Sluzewiec and the remaining twelve horses (group B) were kept and trained in a private stable. The experiment lasted for five months. The activities of CPK (creatine phosphokinase) and AST (aspartate aminotransferase) and the concentration of LA (lactic acid) were determined. The speed was controlled and recorded by a Garmin GPS system. The analysis of the General Handicap rating demonstrated that the training methods used in stable A were more effective and resulted in better classification of these horses. Training methods in both stables were evaluated and compared on the basis of maximal speeds during training sessions and related post exercise LA concentrations. The main differences between training methods used in both stables concerned the workload and the time of work with the rider. Analysis of the values measured in individual horses from stable B have shown that AST and CK activities were high not only in all young, 2-year-old horses but also in three older ones. This seems to confirm the lack of balance and proper movement coordination in these horses, resulting in high activities of muscle enzymes.

  3. The first millennium AD climate fluctuations in the Tavoliere Plain (Apulia, Italy): New preliminary data from the 14C AMS-dated plant remains from the archaeological site of Faragola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentino, G.; Caracuta, V.; Volpe, G.; Turchiano, M.; Quarta, G.; D'Elia, M.; Calcagnile, L.

    2010-01-01

    The identification of ancient climate fluctuations represents an hard challenge for studies intended to outline the human-environment interaction in fragile ecosystems. The aim of this work is to test the potentialities of carbon stable isotopic content of AMS-dated archaeological plant remains as tool to infer variations in rainfall/temperature regimes. The results obtained in the analysis of the carbon stable isotopic content of 10 plant remains selected among the archaeobotanical remains collected at the archaeological site in Faragola (Apulia, Italy) and radiocarbon-dated by AMS are presented. The variation of δ 13 C values was considered on a chronological scale covering a time range comprised between the II century BC and the VII century AD. The obtained patterns were also compared with local and global-scale palaeoclimatic records.

  4. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  5. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  6. Stable carbon isotope analyses of nanogram quantities of particulate organic carbon (pollen) with laser ablation nano combustion gas chromatography/isotope ratio mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Roij, Linda; Sluijs, Appy; Laks, Jelmer J.; Reichart, Gert-Jan

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Analyses of stable carbon isotope ratios (δ13C values) of organic and inorganic matter remains have been instrumental for much of our understanding of present and past environmental and biological processes. Until recently, the analytical window of such analyses has been limited to

  7. Concentration of stable elements in food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montford, M.A.; Shank, K.E.; Hendricks, C.; Oakes, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    Food samples were taken from commercial markets and analyzed for stable element content. The concentrations of most stable elements (Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hf, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, V, Zn, Zr) were determined using multiple-element neutron activation analysis, while the concentrations of other elements (Cd, Hg, Ni, Pb) were determined using atomic absorption. The relevance of the concentrations found are noted in relation to other literature values. An earlier study was extended to include the determination of the concentration of stable elements in home-grown products in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Comparisons between the commercial and local food-stuff values are discussed

  8. Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, W David; Kurle, Carolyn M; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    In this editorial, we provide a brief introduction and summarize the 10 research articles included in this Special Issue on Applications of stable isotope analysis in mammalian ecology. The first three articles report correction and discrimination factors that can be used to more accurately estimate the diets of extinct and extant mammals using stable isotope analysis. The remaining seven applied research articles use stable isotope analysis to address a variety of wildlife conservation and management questions from the oceans to the mountains.

  9. Preschool Children’s Memory for Word Forms Remains Stable Over Several Days, but Gradually Decreases after Six Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Ruth Gordon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on word learning has focused on children’s ability to identify a target object when given the word form after a minimal number of exposures to novel word-object pairings. However, relatively little research has focused on children’s ability to retrieve the word form when given the target object. The exceptions involve asking children to recall and produce forms, and children typically perform near floor on these measures. In the current study, 3- to 5-year-old children were administered a novel test of word form that allowed for recognition memory and manual responses. Specifically, when asked to label a previously trained object, children were given three forms to choose from: the target, a minimally different form, and a maximally different form. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at three post-training delays: 10 minutes (short-term, 2 to 3 days (long-term, and 6 months to 1 year (very long-term. However, children performed worse at the very long-term delay than the other time points, and the length of the very long-term delay was negatively related to performance. When in error, children were no more likely to select the minimally different form than the maximally different form at all time points. Overall, these results suggest that children remember word forms that are linked to objects over extended post-training intervals, but that their memory for the forms gradually decreases over time without further exposures. Furthermore, memory traces for word forms do not become less phonologically specific over time; rather children either identify the correct form, or they perform at chance.

  10. Protein remains stable at unusually high temperatures when solvated in aqueous mixtures of amino acid based ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chevrot, Guillaume; Fileti, Eudes Eterno; Chaban, Vitaly V.

    2016-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the thermal stability and real-time denaturation of a model mini-protein in four solvents: (1) water, (2) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium alaninate [EMIM][ALA] (5 mol% in water), (3) methioninate [EMIM][MET] (5 mol% in water), and (4) tryptophanat...... (AAILs) than in water. This thermal stability was correlated with the thermodynamics and shear viscosity of the AAIL-containing mixtures. These results suggest that AAILs are generally favorable for protein conservation. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]...

  11. Thymidylate synthase protein expression levels remain stable during paclitaxel and carboplatin treatment in non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jan Nyrop; Santoni-Rugiu, Eric; Sørensen, Jens Benn

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thymidylate synthase (TS) is a potential predictive marker for efficacy of treatment with pemetrexed. The current study aimed at investigating whether TS expression changes during non-pemetrexed chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), thus making rebiopsy necessary for dec...

  12. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Wal, van de M.D.; Bosch, G.; Stumpel, J.B.G.; Heijboer, A.C.; Leeuwen, van J.P.T.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Kik, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  13. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, G; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded dragons fed a diet low in vitamin D can use stored vitamin D and its metabolites to maintain plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations after discontinuing UVb exposure. Blood samples of healthy adult female bearded dragons, exposed to UVb radiation for over 6 months were collected (day 0) after which UVb exposure was discontinued for 83 days and blood was collected. Blood plasma was analysed for concentrations of total Ca, total P, ionized Ca, uric acid, 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). There was no significant change in plasma 25(OH)D(3) and 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) concentrations during the study. While total Ca and P in whole blood was found to significantly decrease over time (P dragons, previously exposed to UVb, are able to maintain blood vitamin D metabolite concentrations when UVb exposure is discontinued for a period of up to 83 days. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Blood vitamin D(3) metabolite concentrations of adult female bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) remain stable after ceasing UVb exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D G A B; van de Wal, M D; Bosch, Guido; Stumpel, J B G; Heijboer, A C; van Leeuwen, J P T M; Hendriks, W H; Kik, M

    Vitamin D deficiency can lead to several health problems collectively called metabolic bone disease (MBD). One commonly kept reptile species prone to develop MBD if managed incorrectly is the bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). This study aimed to determine the extent to which adult female bearded

  15. Validation of ICD-9 Codes for Stable Miscarriage in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinley, Kelly E; Falck, Ailsa; Kallan, Michael J; Datner, Elizabeth M; Carr, Brendan G; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2015-07-01

    International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes have not been validated for identifying cases of missed abortion where a pregnancy is no longer viable but the cervical os remains closed. Our goal was to assess whether ICD-9 code "632" for missed abortion has high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) in identifying patients in the emergency department (ED) with cases of stable early pregnancy failure (EPF). We studied females ages 13-50 years presenting to the ED of an urban academic medical center. We approached our analysis from two perspectives, evaluating both the sensitivity and PPV of ICD-9 code "632" in identifying patients with stable EPF. All patients with chief complaints "pregnant and bleeding" or "pregnant and cramping" over a 12-month period were identified. We randomly reviewed two months of patient visits and calculated the sensitivity of ICD-9 code "632" for true cases of stable miscarriage. To establish the PPV of ICD-9 code "632" for capturing missed abortions, we identified patients whose visits from the same time period were assigned ICD-9 code "632," and identified those with actual cases of stable EPF. We reviewed 310 patient records (17.6% of 1,762 sampled). Thirteen of 31 patient records assigned ICD-9 code for missed abortion correctly identified cases of stable EPF (sensitivity=41.9%), and 140 of the 142 patients without EPF were not assigned the ICD-9 code "632"(specificity=98.6%). Of the 52 eligible patients identified by ICD-9 code "632," 39 cases met the criteria for stable EPF (PPV=75.0%). ICD-9 code "632" has low sensitivity for identifying stable EPF, but its high specificity and moderately high PPV are valuable for studying cases of stable EPF in epidemiologic studies using administrative data.

  16. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  17. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  18. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  19. Strontium stable isotope behaviour accompanying basalt weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, K. W.; Parkinson, I. J.; Gíslason, S. G. R.

    2016-12-01

    The strontium (Sr) stable isotope composition of rivers is strongly controlled by the balance of carbonate to silicate weathering (Krabbenhöft et al. 2010; Pearce et al. 2015). However, rivers draining silicate catchments possess distinctly heavier Sr stable isotope values than their bedrock compositions, pointing to significant fractionation during weathering. Some have argued for preferential release of heavy Sr from primary phases during chemical weathering, others for the formation of secondary weathering minerals that incorporate light isotopes. This study presents high-precision double-spike Sr stable isotope data for soils, rivers, ground waters and estuarine waters from Iceland, reflecting both natural weathering and societal impacts on those environments. The bedrock in Iceland is dominantly basaltic, d88/86Sr ≈ +0.27, extending to lighter values for rhyolites. Geothermal waters range from basaltic Sr stable compositions to those akin to seawater. Soil pore waters reflect a balance of input from primary mineral weathering, precipitation and litter recycling and removal into secondary phases and vegetation. Rivers and ground waters possess a wide range of d88/86Sr compositions from +0.101 to +0.858. Elemental and isotope data indicate that this fractionation primarily results from the formation or dissolution of secondary zeolite (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.10), but also carbonate (d88/86Sr ≈ +0.22) and sometimes anhydrite (d88/86Sr ≈ -0.73), driving the residual waters to heavier or lighter values, respectively. Estuarine waters largely reflect mixing with seawater, but are also be affected by adsorption onto particulates, again driving water to heavy values. Overall, these data indicate that the stability and nature of secondary weathering phases, exerts a strong control on the Sr stable isotope composition of silicate rivers. [1] Krabbenhöft et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74, 4097-4109. [2] Pearce et al. (2015) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 157, 125-146.

  20. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-10-01

    A fine modelling of the material' behaviour can be necessary to study the mechanical strength of nuclear power plant' components under cyclic loads. Ratchetting is one of the last phenomena for which numerical models have to be improved. We discuss in this paper on use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening to improve the description of ratchetting in biaxial loading tests. It's well known that Chaboche elastoplastic model with two non linear kinematic hardening variables initially proposed by Armstrong and Frederick, usually over-predicts accumulation of ratchetting strain. Burlet and Cailletaud proposed in 1987 a non linear kinematic rule with a radial evanescence remain term. The two models lead to identical formulation for proportional loadings. In the case of a biaxial loading test (primary+secondary loading), Burlet and Cailletaud model leads to accommodation, when Chaboche one's leads to ratchetting with a constant increment of strain. So we can have an under-estimate with the first model and an over-estimate with the second. An easy method to improve the description of ratchetting is to combine the two kinematic rules. Such an idea is already used by Delobelle in his model. With analytical results in the case of tension-torsion tests, we show in a first part of the paper, the interest of radial evanescence remain term in the non linear kinematic rule to describe ratchetting: we give the conditions to get adaptation, accommodation or ratchetting and the value of the strain increment in the last case. In the second part of the paper, we propose to modify the elastoplastic Chaboche model by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters which can be identified independently on biaxial loading tests. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. We use the experimental results on the austenitic steel 316L at room

  1. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of the prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.; Akhmadshaev, A.Sh.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the work results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) of prehistoric bone remains of dinosaurs and ancient bones of bear, archantrop found out on the territory of Uzbekistan are presents. A bone of dinosaur from Mongolia, standard a bone of the person and soils taken from a surface and from of the femoral joint of a dinosaur were also subject to INAA. The INAA method determines of contents of about 30 elements in bones and soils in an interval 0.043-3600 mg / kg. Among found elements Ca (46 %), Sc, Cr, Fe (up to 2.2 g/kg), Ni, Zn, Sr (up to 3.6 g/kg), Sb, Ba, Sb and some others are mainly found in bones. The contents of some elements in bones of dinosaurs reach very high values 280-3200 mg / kg, and are mainly lanthanides La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb and Lu. In our opinion, lanthanides and some other elements, like As, Br, and Mo in bones were formed as a result of fission of uranium and transuranium elements. Because content of uranium in bones of dinosaurs is very high, up to 180 mg / kg, and those of thorium is 20 mg/ kg. However U and Th in soils are 4.8 mg/kg and 3.7 mg / kg, respectively. The content of uranium in bones of the archantrop is 1.53 mg / kg, while U in standard bone of the human is less than 0,016 mg/kg. (author)

  3. Fundamentals of the LISA stable flight formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhurandhar, S V; Nayak, K Rajesh; Koshti, S; Vinet, J-Y

    2005-01-01

    The joint NASA-ESA mission, LISA, relies crucially on the stability of the three-spacecraft constellation. Each of the spacecraft is in heliocentric orbit forming a stable triangle. In this paper we explicitly show with the help of the Clohessy-Wiltshire equations that any configuration of spacecraft lying in the planes making angles of ±60 0 with the ecliptic and given suitable initial velocities within the plane, can be made stable in the sense that the inter-spacecraft distances remain constant to first order in the dimensions of the configuration compared with the distance to the Sun. Such analysis would be useful in order to carry out theoretical studies on the optical links, simulators, etc

  4. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF

  5. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  6. Exact simulation of max-stable processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.

  7. Flotsam samples can help explain the δ13C and δ15N values of invertebrate resting stages in lake sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hardenbroek, Maarten; Rinta, Päivi; Wooller, Matthew J.; Schilder, Jos; Stötter, Tabea; Heiri, Oliver

    2018-06-01

    The stable isotopic composition of chitinous remains of Cladocera (water fleas) and freshwater Bryozoa (moss animals) preserved in lake sediment records can provide supporting insights into past environmental and ecosystem changes in lakes. Here we explore whether analyses of these remains isolated from lake flotsam can provide information on the driving variables affecting the isotopic composition of these remains. We collected flotsam in 53 lakes and found enough material in 33 lakes to measure the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δ13C and δ15N values, respectively) of resting stages. These values were compared with lake characteristics, water chemistry measurements, and the isotopic composition of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in the lakes. Mean δ13C values of cladoceran ephippia and SOM were correlated and both were also negatively correlated with deep water methane concentrations and indicators of lake stratification. This supports the findings of previous studies that methane-derived carbon can provide a significant proportion of carbon entering planktonic food webs. Mean δ15N values of bryozoan statoblasts and SOM were correlated, suggesting that both reflect the δ15N values of phytoplankton. Our results provide information on how environmental variables in lakes can influence the δ13C and δ15N values in resting stages, but flotsam samples can also potentially be used to assess seasonal stable isotope variability of resting stages. Both types of information are important to improve palaeoenvironmental interpretations of stable isotope records based on these remains in lake sediments.

  8. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  9. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  10. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  11. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  12. A Bayesian Framework for Remaining Useful Life Estimation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The estimation of remaining useful life (RUL) of a faulty component is at the center of system prognostics and health management. It gives operators a potent tool in...

  13. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effec...

  14. Penguin Proxies: Deciphering Millennial-Scale Antarctic Ecosystem Change using Amino Acid Stable Isotope Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelson, C.; McMahon, K.; Emslie, S. D.; Patterson, W. P.; McCarthy, M. D.; Polito, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Southern Ocean ecosystem is undergoing rapid environmental change due to ongoing and historic anthropogenic impacts such as climate change and marine mammal harvesting. These disturbances may have cascading effects through the Antarctic food webs, resulting in profound shifts in the sources and cycling of organic matter supporting higher-trophic organisms, such as penguins. For example, bulk stable isotope analyses of modern and ancient preserved penguin tissues suggest variations in penguin feeding ecology throughout the Holocene with dramatic isotopic shifts in the last 200 years. However, it is not clear whether these isotopic shifts resulted from changes at the base of the food web, dietary shifts in penguins, or some combination of both factors. Newly developed compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis of individual amino acids (CSIA-AA) may provide a powerful new tool to tease apart these confounding variables. Stable nitrogen isotope values of trophic amino acids (e.g., glutamic acid) increase substantially with each trophic transfer in the food web, while source amino acid (e.g., phenylalanine) stable nitrogen isotope values remain relatively unchanged and reflect ecosystem baselines. As such, we can use this CSIA-AA approach to decipher between baseline and dietary shifts in penguins over time from modern and ancient eggshells of Pygoscelis penguins in the Antarctic Peninsula and the Ross Sea regions of Antarctica. In order to accurately apply this CSIA-AA approach, we first characterized the trophic fractionation factors of individual amino acids between diet and penguin consumers in a long-term controlled penguin feeding experiment. We then applied these values to modern and ancient eggshells from the Antarctic Peninsula and Ross Sea to evaluate shifts in penguin trophic dynamics as a function of climate and anthropogenic interaction throughout much of the Holocene. This work develops a cutting edge new molecular geochemistry approach

  15. Mechanical Properties of Stable Glasses Using Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Sarah; Liu, Tianyi; Jiang, Yijie; Ablajan, Keyume; Zhang, Yue; Walsh, Patrick; Turner, Kevin; Fakhraai, Zahra

    Glasses with enhanced stability over ordinary, liquid quenched glasses have been formed via the process of Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) by using a sufficiently slow deposition rate and a substrate temperature slightly below the glass transition temperature. These stable glasses have been shown to exhibit higher density, lower enthalpy, and better kinetic stability over ordinary glass, and are typically optically birefringent, due to packing and orientational anisotropy. Given these exceptional properties, it is of interest to further investigate how the properties of stable glasses compare to those of ordinary glass. In particular, the mechanical properties of stable glasses remain relatively under-investigated. While the speed of sound and elastic moduli have been shown to increase with increased stability, little is known about their hardness and fracture toughness compared to ordinary glasses. In this study, glasses of 9-(3,5-di(naphthalen-1-yl)phenyl)anthracene were deposited at varying temperatures relative to their glass transition temperature, and their mechanical properties measured by nanoindentation. Hardness and elastic modulus of the glasses were compared across substrate temperatures. After indentation, the topography of these films were studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in order to further compare the relationship between thermodynamic and kinetic stability and mechanical failure. Z.F. and P.W. acknowledge funding from NSF(DMREF-1628407).

  16. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  17. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  18. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  19. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  20. The production of stable isotopes in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urgel, M; Iglesias, J; Casas, J; Saviron, J M; Quintanilla, M

    1965-07-01

    The activities developed in the field of the production of stable isotopes by means of ion-exchange chromatography and thermal diffusion techniques are reported. The first method was used to study the separation of the nitrogen and boron isotopes, whereby the separation factor was determined by the break through method. Values ranging from 1,028 to 1,022 were obtained for the separation factor of nitrogen by using ammonium hydroxide solutions while the corresponding values as obtained for boron amounted to 1,035-1,027 using boric acid solutions. Using ammonium chloride or acetate and sodium borate, respectively, resulted in the obtention of values for the separation factor approaching unity. The isotopic separation has been carried out according to the method of development by displacement. The separation of the isotopes of the noble gases, oxygen, nitrogen and carbon has been accomplished resorting to the method of thermal diffusion. (Author) 16 refs.

  1. Stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction is controlled by reoxidation of intermediates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald; Einsiedl, Florian

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial sulfate reduction is one of the most important respiration processes in anoxic habitats and is often assessed by analyzing the results of stable isotope fractionation. However, stable isotope fractionation is supposed to be influenced by the reduction rate and other parameters, such as temperature. We studied here the mechanistic basics of observed differences in stable isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction. Batch experiments with four sulfate-reducing strains ( Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, Desulfobacca acetoxidans, Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, and strain TRM1) were performed. These microorganisms metabolize different carbon sources (lactate, acetate, formate, and toluene) and showed broad variations in their sulfur isotope enrichment factors. We performed a series of experiments on isotope exchange of 18O between residual sulfate and ambient water. Batch experiments were conducted with 18O-enriched (δ 18O water = +700‰) and depleted water (δ 18O water = -40‰), respectively, and the stable 18O isotope shift in the residual sulfate was followed. For Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans, which are both characterized by low sulfur isotope fractionation ( ɛS > -13.2‰), δ 18O values in the remaining sulfate increased by only 50‰ during growth when 18O-enriched water was used for the growth medium. In contrast, with Desulfobacca acetoxidans and strain TRM1 ( ɛS factor ( ɛS exchange with water during sulfate reduction. However, this neither takes place in the sulfate itself nor during formation of APS (adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate), but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway. These may in turn be partially reoxidized to form sulfate. This reoxidation leads to an incorporation of oxygen from water into the "recycled" sulfate changing the overall 18O isotopic composition of the remaining sulfate fraction. Our study shows that such incorporation of 18O is correlated with the

  2. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of a remaining lifetime management system for NPPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.C.; Regano, M.; Hevia Ruperez, F.

    1994-01-01

    The interest evinced by Spain nuclear power plants in providing a tool to support remaining lifetime management led to UNESA's application to OCIDE in 1992, and the latter's approval, for financing the project to develop a Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System for LWR nuclear power plants. This project is currently being developed under UNESA leadership, and the collaboration of three Spanish engineering companies and a research centre. The paper will describe its objectives, activities, current status and prospects. The project is defined in two phases, the first consisting of the identification and analysis of the main ageing phenomena and their significant parameters and specification of the Remaining Lifetime Evaluation System (RLES), and the second implementation of a pilot application of the RLES to verify its effectiveness. (Author)

  4. Remaining life assessment of a high pressure turbine rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Ninh; Little, Alfie

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes finite element and fracture mechanics based modelling work that provides a useful tool for evaluation of the remaining life of a high pressure (HP) steam turbine rotor that had experienced thermal fatigue cracking. An axis-symmetrical model of a HP rotor was constructed. Steam temperature, pressure and rotor speed data from start ups and shut downs were used for the thermal and stress analysis. Operating history and inspection records were used to benchmark the damage experienced by the rotor. Fracture mechanics crack growth analysis was carried out to evaluate the remaining life of the rotor under themal cyclic loading conditions. The work confirmed that the fracture mechanics approach in conjunction with finite element modelling provides a useful tool for assessing the remaining life of high temperature components in power plants.

  5. The observation of a stable dibaryon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhbazyan, B.A.; Sashin, V.A.; Kecheryan, A.O.; Martynov, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    V 0 -particle which is unambiguously interpreted as a weak decay of the stable dibaryon value of cross section H→p+Σ - ,Σ→n+π - is observed. Its mass is M H =(2218+-12) MeV c 2 with a standard deviation S=12 MeV/c 2 and the error of the mean σ=2.8 MeV/c 2 . The investigation has been performed at the Laboratory of High energies, JINR. 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  6. Methodology for Extraction of Remaining Sodium of Used Sodium Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Kim, Jongman; Cho, Youngil; Jeong, Jiyoung

    2014-01-01

    Sodium used as a coolant in the SFR (Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor) reacts easily with most elements due to its high reactivity. If sodium at high temperature leaks outside of a system boundary and makes contact with oxygen, it starts to burn and toxic aerosols are produced. In addition, it generates flammable hydrogen gas through a reaction with water. Hydrogen gas can be explosive within the range of 4.75 vol%. Therefore, the sodium should be handled carefully in accordance with standard procedures even though there is a small amount of target sodium remainings inside the containers and drums used for experiment. After the experiment, all sodium experimental apparatuses should be dismantled carefully through a series of draining, residual sodium extraction, and cleaning if they are no longer reused. In this work, a system for the extraction of the remaining sodium of used sodium drums has been developed and an operation procedure for the system has been established. In this work, a methodology for the extraction of remaining sodium out of the used sodium container has been developed as one of the sodium facility maintenance works. The sodium extraction system for remaining sodium of the used drums was designed and tested successfully. This work will contribute to an establishment of sodium handling technology for PGSFR. (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor)

  7. Predicting the Remaining Useful Life of Rolling Element Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hooghoudt, Jan Otto; Jantunen, E; Yi, Yang

    2018-01-01

    Condition monitoring of rolling element bearings is of vital importance in order to keep the industrial wheels running. In wind industry this is especially important due to the challenges in practical maintenance. The paper presents an attempt to improve the capability of prediction of remaining...

  8. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

  9. Remaining childless : Causes and consequences from a life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keizer, R.

    2010-01-01

    Little is know about childless individuals in the Netherlands, although currently one out of every five Dutch individuals remains childless. Who are they? How did they end up being childless? How and to what extent are their life outcomes influenced by their childlessness? By focusing on individual

  10. Molecular genetic identification of skeletal remains of apartheid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Truth and Reconciliation Commission made significant progress in examining abuses committed during the apartheid era in South Africa. Despite information revealed by the commission, a large number of individuals remained missing when the commission closed its proceedings. This provided the impetus for the ...

  11. Palmar, Patellar, and Pedal Human Remains from Pavlov

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trinkaus, E.; Wojtal, P.; Wilczyński, J.; Sázelová, Sandra; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 2017, June (2017), s. 73-101 ISSN 1545-0031 Institutional support: RVO:68081758 Keywords : Gravettian * human remains * isolated bones * anatomically modern humans * Upper Paleolithic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology OBOR OECD: Archaeology http://paleoanthro.org/media/journal/content/PA20170073.pdf

  12. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Pearce

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1 what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2 what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  13. Robotics to enable older adults to remain living at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Alan J; Adair, Brooke; Miller, Kimberly; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving.

  14. Dinosaur remains from the type Maastrichtian: An update

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weishampel, David B.; Mulder, Eric W A; Dortangs, Rudi W.; Jagt, John W M; Jianu, Coralia Maria; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Peeters, Hans H G; Schulp, Anne S.

    1999-01-01

    Isolated cranial and post-cranial remains of hadrosaurid dinosaurs have been collected from various outcrops in the type area of the Maastrichtian stage during the last few years. In the present contribution, dentary and maxillary teeth are recorded from the area for the first time. Post-cranial

  15. Stable monopole-antimonopole string background in SU(2) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole and antimonopole strings is stable, provided that the distance between the two strings is less than a critical value. The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus the magnetic confinement of color in QCD

  16. Late Glacial Tropical Savannas in Sundaland Inferred From Stable Carbon Isotope Records of Cave Guano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurster, C. M.; Bird, M. I.; Bull, I.; Dungait, J.; Bryant, C. L.; Ertunç, T.; Hunt, C.; Lewis, H. A.; Paz, V.

    2008-12-01

    During the Last Glacial Period (LGP), reduced global sea level exposed the continental shelf south of Thailand to Sumatra, Java, and Borneo to form the contiguous continent of Sundaland. However, the type and extent of vegetation that existed on much of this exposed landmass during the LGP remains speculative. Extensive bird and bat guano deposits in caves throughout this region span beyond 40,000 yr BP, and contain a wealth of untapped stratigraphic palaeoenvironmental information. Stable carbon isotope ratios of insectivorous bird and bat guano contain a reliable record of the animal's diet and, through non-specific insect predation, reflect the relative abundance of major physiological pathways in plants. Various physiological pathways of carbon fixation in plants yield differing stable carbon isotope ratios. Stable carbon isotope values of C3 plants are lower than C4 vegetation due to different enzymatic discriminations of the heavy isotope through the carbon fixing pathways. In tropical locales, grasses nearly always follow the C4 photosynthetic pathway, whereas tropical rainforest uses C3 photosynthesis, providing a proxy for vegetation and therefore climate change in the past. Here we discuss four guano stable-isotope records, based on insect cuticle and n-alkane analysis, supplemented by pollen analysis. All sites suggest a C3 dominated ecosystem for the Holocene, consistent with the wet tropical forest vegetation present at all locations. Two sites from Palawan Island, Philippines, record stable carbon isotope values of guano that document a drastic change from C3 (forest) to C4 (savanna) dominated ecosystems during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). A third location, at Niah Great Cave, Malaysia, indicates C3-dominant vegetation throughout the record, but does display variation in stable carbon isotope values likely linked to humidity changes. A fourth location, Batu Caves in Peninsular Malaysia, also indicates open vegetation during the LGM. Vegetation

  17. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  18. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  19. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased…

  20. Safety provision for nuclear power plants during remaining running time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, Alexander; Hentschel, Anja

    2012-01-01

    With the phasing-out of the industrial use of nuclear energy for the power generation, the risk of the nuclear power plants has not been eliminated in principle, but only for a limited period of time. Therefore, the remaining nine nuclear power plants must also be used for the remaining ten years according to the state of science and technology. Regulatory authorities must substantiate the safety requirements for each nuclear power plant and enforce these requirements by means of various regulatory measures. The consequences of Fukushima must be included in the assessment of the safety level of nuclear power plants in Germany. In this respect, the regulatory authorities have the important tasks to investigate and assess the security risks as well as to develop instructions and orders.

  1. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bratati Sen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, which is unparallel in the history of ancient and mediaeval forts and fortifications in India. Several other structures like the Jay-Chandi Temple Complex, a huge well, numerous tanks and remains of an ancient bridge add to the uniqueness of the Fort in the entire eastern region.

  2. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  3. Study on remain actinides recovery in pyro reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharto, Bambang

    1996-01-01

    The spent fuel reprocessing by dry process called pyro reprocessing have been studied. Most of U, Pu and MA (minor actinides) from the spent fuel will be recovered and be fed back to the reactor as new fuel. Accumulation of remain actinides will be separated by extraction process with liquid cadmium solvent. The research was conducted by computer simulation to calculate the stage number required. The calculation's results showed on the 20 stages extractor more than 99% actinides can be separated. (author)

  4. US GAAP vs. IFRS – A COMPARISON OF REMAINING DIFFERENCES

    OpenAIRE

    Mihelčić, Eva

    2008-01-01

    In spite of the on-going harmonization process, there are still some differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Currently, companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange, which are reporting according to IFRS, must still prepare the reconciliation to US GAAP, to show the financial statements compliant with US GAAP as well. This article presents an overview of the remaining major differences between US GAAP and IFRS, descriptive as well as table-wise. First, the standards compared are shortly intr...

  5. Structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania, Orissa

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Bratati

    2013-01-01

    The fortifications of mediaeval India occupy an eminent position in the history of military architecture. The present paper deals with the preliminary study of the structural remains at the early mediaeval fort at Raibania in the district of Balasore in Orissa. The fort was built of stone very loosely kept together. The three-walled fortification interspersed by two consecutive moats, a feature evidenced at Raibania, w...

  6. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Calibration of C-14 dates: some remaining uncertainties and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burleigh, R.

    1975-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the interpretation of radiocarbon dates in terms of calendar years. An outline is given of the factors that make such correlations necessary and of the work that has so far been done to make them possible. The calibration of the C-14 timescale very largely depends at present on the bristlecone pine chronology, but it is clear that many detailed uncertainties still remain. These are discussed. (U.K.)

  8. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  9. Remaining useful life estimation based on discriminating shapelet extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Simon; Chebel-Morello, Brigitte; Zerhouni, Noureddine

    2015-01-01

    In the Prognostics and Health Management domain, estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of critical machinery is a challenging task. Various research topics including data acquisition, fusion, diagnostics and prognostics are involved in this domain. This paper presents an approach, based on shapelet extraction, to estimate the RUL of equipment. This approach extracts, in an offline step, discriminative rul-shapelets from an history of run-to-failure data. These rul-shapelets are patterns that are selected for their correlation with the remaining useful life of the equipment. In other words, every selected rul-shapelet conveys its own information about the RUL of the equipment. In an online step, these rul-shapelets are compared to testing units and the ones that match these units are used to estimate their RULs. Therefore, RUL estimation is based on patterns that have been selected for their high correlation with the RUL. This approach is different from classical similarity-based approaches that attempt to match complete testing units (or only late instants of testing units) with training ones to estimate the RUL. The performance of our approach is evaluated on a case study on the remaining useful life estimation of turbofan engines and performance is compared with other similarity-based approaches. - Highlights: • A data-driven RUL estimation technique based on pattern extraction is proposed. • Patterns are extracted for their correlation with the RUL. • The proposed method shows good performance compared to other techniques

  10. Direct dating of Early Upper Palaeolithic human remains from Mladec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Eva M; Teschler-Nicola, Maria; Kutschera, Walter; Steier, Peter; Trinkaus, Erik; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2005-05-19

    The human fossil assemblage from the Mladec Caves in Moravia (Czech Republic) has been considered to derive from a middle or later phase of the Central European Aurignacian period on the basis of archaeological remains (a few stone artefacts and organic items such as bone points, awls, perforated teeth), despite questions of association between the human fossils and the archaeological materials and concerning the chronological implications of the limited archaeological remains. The morphological variability in the human assemblage, the presence of apparently archaic features in some specimens, and the assumed early date of the remains have made this fossil assemblage pivotal in assessments of modern human emergence within Europe. We present here the first successful direct accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of five representative human fossils from the site. We selected sample materials from teeth and from one bone for 14C dating. The four tooth samples yielded uncalibrated ages of approximately 31,000 14C years before present, and the bone sample (an ulna) provided an uncertain more-recent age. These data are sufficient to confirm that the Mladec human assemblage is the oldest cranial, dental and postcranial assemblage of early modern humans in Europe and is therefore central to discussions of modern human emergence in the northwestern Old World and the fate of the Neanderthals.

  11. Postmortem Scavenging of Human Remains by Domestic Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananya Suntirukpong, M.D.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Crime scene investigators, forensic medicine doctors and pathologists, and forensic anthropologists frequently encounter postmortem scavenging of human remains by household pets. Case presentation: The authors present a case report of a partially skeletonized adult male found dead after more than three months in his apartment in Thailand. The body was in an advanced stage of decomposition with nearly complete skeletonization of the head, neck, hands, and feet. The presence of maggots and necrophagous (flesh eating beetles on the body confirmed that insects had consumed much of the soft tissues. Examination of the hand and foot bones revealed canine tooth puncture marks. Evidence of chewing indicated that one or more of the decedent’s three house cats had fed on the body after death. Recognizing and identifying carnivore and rodent activity on the soft flesh and bones of human remains is important in interpreting and reconstructing postmortem damage. Thorough analysis may help explain why skeletal elements are missing, damaged, or out of anatomical position. Conclusion: This report presents a multi-disciplinary approach combining forensic anthropology and forensic medicine in examining and interpreting human remains.

  12. Your alliances are too stable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, David; Bamford, James

    2005-06-01

    A 2004 McKinsey survey of more than 30 companies reveals that at least 70% of them have major alliances that are underperforming and in need of restructuring. Moreover, JVs that broaden or otherwise adjust their scope have a 79% success rate, versus 33% for ventures that remain essentially unchanged. Yet most firms don't routinely evaluate the need to overhaul their alliances or intervene to correct performance problems. That means corporations are missing huge opportunities: By revamping just one large alliance, a company can generate 100 million dololars to 300 million dollars in extra income a year. Here's how to unlock more value from alliances: (1) Launch the process. Don't wait until your venture is in the middle of a crisis; regularly scan your major alliances to determine which need restructuring. Once you've targeted one, designate a restructuring team and find a senior sponsor to push the process along. Then delineate the scope of the team's work. (2) Diagnose performance. Evaluate the venture on the following performance dimensions: ownership and financials, strategy, operations, governance, and organization and talent. Identify the root causes of the venture's problems, not just the symptoms, and estimate how much each problem is costing the company. (3) Generate restructuring options. Based on the diagnosis, decide whether to fix, grow, or exit the alliance. Assuming the answer is fix or grow, determine whether fundamental or incremental changes are needed, using the five performance dimensions above as a framework. Then assemble three or four packages of restructuring options, test them with shareholders, and gain parents' approval. (4) Execute the changes. Embark on a widespread and consistent communication effort, building support among executives in the JV and the parent companies. So the process stays on track, assign accountability to certain groups or individuals.

  13. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  14. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  15. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  16. Stable isotope signatures reflect dietary diversity in European forest moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc-Oliver; Seifert, Carlo Lutz; Lehner, Lisamarie; Truxa, Christine; Wanek, Wolfgang; Fiedler, Konrad

    2016-01-01

    Information on larval diet of many holometabolous insects remains incomplete. Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stable isotope analysis in adult wing tissue can provide an efficient tool to infer such trophic relationships. The present study examines whether moth feeding guild affiliations taken from literature are reflected in isotopic signatures. Non-metric multidimensional scaling and permutational analysis of variance indicate that centroids of dietary groups differ significantly. In particular, species whose larvae feed on mosses or aquatic plants deviated from those that consumed vascular land plants. Moth δ(15)N signatures spanned a broader range, and were less dependent on species identity than δ(13)C values. Comparison between moth samples and ostensible food sources revealed heterogeneity in the lichenivorous guild, indicating only Lithosia quadra as an obligate lichen feeder. Among root-feeding Agrotis segetum, some specimens appear to have developed on crop plants in forest-adjacent farm land. Reed-feeding stem-borers may partially rely on intermediary trophic levels such as fungal or bacterial growth. Diagnostic partitioning of moth dietary guilds based on isotopic signatures alone could not be achieved, but hypotheses on trophic relationships based on often vague literature records could be assessed with high resolution. Hence, the approach is well suited for basic categorization of moths where diet is unknown or notoriously difficult to observe (i.e. Microlepidoptera, lichen-feeders).

  17. Optimal stability polynomials for numerical integration of initial value problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; Ahmadia, Aron

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding optimally stable polynomial approximations to the exponential for application to one-step integration of initial value ordinary and partial differential equations. The objective is to find the largest stable step

  18. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah B Vander Zanden

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C and nitrogen (δ15N isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H and oxygen (δ18O isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applications using δ2H and, to a lesser extent, δ18O values have demonstrated potential for these elements to provide novel insights in modern food web studies. We explore the advantages and challenges associated with three applications of δ2H and δ18O values in food web studies. First, large δ2H differences between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystem end members can permit the quantification of energy inputs and nutrient fluxes between these two sources, with potential applications for determining allochthonous vs. autochthonous nutrient sources in freshwater systems and relative aquatic habitat utilization by terrestrial organisms. Next, some studies have identified a relationship between δ2H values and trophic position, which suggests that this marker may serve as a trophic indicator, in addition to the more commonly used δ15N values. Finally, coupled measurements of δ2H and δ18O values are increasing as a result of reduced analytical challenges to measure both simultaneously and may provide additional ecological information over single element measurements. In some organisms, the isotopic ratios of these two elements are tightly coupled, whereas the isotopic disequilibrium in other organisms may offer insight into the diet and physiology of individuals. Although a coherent framework for interpreting δ2H and δ18O data in the context of food web studies is emerging, many fundamental uncertainties remain. We highlight directions for targeted research that

  19. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...

  20. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  1. Yellow Fever Remains a Potential Threat to Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Pedro F C; Monath, Thomas P

    2016-08-01

    Yellow fever (YF) remains a serious public health threat in endemic countries. The recent re-emergence in Africa, initiating in Angola and spreading to Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda, with imported cases in China and Kenya is of concern. There is such a shortage of YF vaccine in the world that the World Health Organization has proposed the use of reduced doses (1/5) during emergencies. In this short communication, we discuss these and other problems including the risk of spread of YF to areas free of YF for decades or never before affected by this arbovirus disease.

  2. The Artificial Leaf: Recent Progress and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Symes

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of a device that uses solar energy to split water into H2 and O2 is highly attractive in terms of producing hydrogen as a carbon-neutral fuel. In this mini review, key research milestones that have been reached in this field over the last two decades will be discussed, with special focus on devices that use earth-abundant materials. Finally, the remaining challenges in the development of such “artificial leaves” will be highlighted.

  3. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  4. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  5. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  6. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  7. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  8. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  9. Recovery actinide values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horwitz, E.P.; Delphin, W.H.; Mason, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for partitioning and recovering actinide values from acidic waste solutions resulting from reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels by adding hydroxylammonium nitrate and hydrazine to the waste solution to adjust the valence of the neptunium and plutonium values in the solution to the +4 oxidation state, thus forming a feed solution and contacting the feed solution with an extractant of di-hexoxyethyl phosphoric acid in an organic diluent whereby the actinide values, most of the rare earth values and some fission product values are taken up by the extractant. Separation is achieved by contacting the loaded extractant with two aqueous strip solutions, a nitric acid solution to selectively strip the americium, curium and rare earth values and an oxalate solution of tetramethylammonium hydrogen oxalate and oxalic acid or trimethylammonium hydrogen oxalate to selectively strip the neptunium, plutonium and fission product values. Uranium values remain in the extractant and may be recovered with a phosphoric acid strip. The neptunium and plutonium values are recovered from the oxalate by adding sufficient nitric acid to destroy the complexing ability of the oxalate, forming a second feed, and contacting the second feed with a second extractant of tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate in an inert diluent whereby the neptunium and plutonium values are selectively extracted. The values are recovered from the extractant with formic acid. (author)

  10. Remaining useful life assessment of lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chao; Ye, Hui; Jain, Gaurav; Schmidt, Craig

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a prognostic study on lithium-ion batteries in implantable medical devices, in which a hybrid data-driven/model-based method is employed for remaining useful life assessment. The method is developed on and evaluated against data from two sets of lithium-ion prismatic cells used in implantable applications exhibiting distinct fade performance: 1) eight cells from Medtronic, PLC whose rates of capacity fade appear to be stable and gradually decrease over a 10-year test duration; and 2) eight cells from Manufacturer X whose rates appear to be greater and show sharp increase after some period over a 1.8-year test duration. The hybrid method enables online prediction of remaining useful life for predictive maintenance/control. It consists of two modules: 1) a sparse Bayesian learning module (data-driven) for inferring capacity from charge-related features; and 2) a recursive Bayesian filtering module (model-based) for updating empirical capacity fade models and predicting remaining useful life. A generic particle filter is adopted to implement recursive Bayesian filtering for the cells from the first set, whose capacity fade behavior can be represented by a single fade model; a multiple model particle filter with fixed-lag smoothing is proposed for the cells from the second data set, whose capacity fade behavior switches between multiple fade models.

  11. Fossil human remains from Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Fernández Peris, Josep; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Quam, Rolf; Carretero, José Miguel; Barciela González, Virginia; Blasco, Ruth; Cuartero, Felipe; Sañudo, Pablo

    2012-05-01

    Systematic excavations carried out since 1989 at Bolomor Cave have led to the recovery of four Pleistocene human fossil remains, consisting of a fibular fragment, two isolated teeth, and a nearly complete adult parietal bone. All of these specimens date to the late Middle and early Late Pleistocene (MIS 7-5e). The fibular fragment shows thick cortical bone, an archaic feature found in non-modern (i.e. non-Homo sapiens) members of the genus Homo. Among the dental remains, the lack of a midtrigonid crest in the M(1) represents a departure from the morphology reported for the majority of Neandertal specimens, while the large dimensions and pronounced shoveling of the marginal ridges in the C(1) are similar to other European Middle and late Pleistocene fossils. The parietal bone is very thick, with dimensions that generally fall above Neandertal fossils and resemble more closely the Middle Pleistocene Atapuerca (SH) adult specimens. Based on the presence of archaic features, all the fossils from Bolomor are attributed to the Neandertal evolutionary lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determination of Remaining Useful Life of Gas Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meor Said Mior Azman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to determine the remaining useful life of gas turbine blade, using service-exposed turbine blades. This task is performed using Stress Rupture Test (SRT under accelerated test conditions where the applied stresses to the specimen is between 400 MPa to 600 MPa and the test temperature is 850°C. The study will focus on the creep behaviour of the 52000 hours service-exposed blades, complemented with creep-rupture modelling using JMatPro software and microstructure examination using optical microscope. The test specimens, made up of Ni-based superalloy of the first stage turbine blades, are machined based on International Standard (ISO 24. The results from the SRT will be analyzed using these two main equations – Larson-Miller Parameter and Life Fraction Rule. Based on the results of the remaining useful life analysis, the 52000h service-exposed blade has the condition to operate in the range of another 4751 hr to 18362 hr. The microstructure examinations shows traces of carbide precipitation that deteriorate the grain boundaries that occurs during creep process. Creep-rupture life modelling using JMatPro software has shown good agreement with the accelerated creep rupture test with minimal error.

  13. A method for defleshing human remains using household bleach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Robert W; Berryman, Hugh E

    2012-03-01

    Medical examiners and forensic anthropologists are often faced with the difficult task of removing soft tissue from the human skeleton without damaging the bones, teeth and, in some cases, cartilage. While there are a number of acceptable methods that can be used to remove soft tissue including macerating in water, simmering or boiling, soaking in ammonia, removing with scissors, knife, scalpel or stiff brush, and dermestid beetles, each has its drawback in time, safety, or potential to damage bone. This technical report using the chest plate of a stabbing victim presents a safe and effective alternative method for removing soft tissue from human remains, in particular the chest plate, following autopsy, without damaging or separating the ribs, sternum, and costal cartilage. This method can be used to reveal subtle blunt force trauma to bone, slicing and stabbing injuries, and other forms of trauma obscured by overlying soft tissue. Despite the published cautionary notes, when done properly household bleach (3-6% sodium hypochlorite) is a quick, safe, and effective method for examining cartilage and exposing skeletal trauma by removing soft tissue from human skeletal remains. 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  14. Duplex Alu Screening for Degraded DNA of Skeletal Human Remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Haß

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The human-specific Alu elements, belonging to the class of Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs, have been shown to be a powerful tool for population genetic studies. An earlier study in this department showed that it was possible to analyze Alu presence/absence in 3000-year-old skeletal human remains from the Bronze Age Lichtenstein cave in Lower Saxony, Germany. We developed duplex Alu screening PCRs with flanking primers for two Alu elements, each combined with a single internal Alu primer. By adding an internal primer, the approximately 400–500 bp presence signals of Alu elements can be detected within a range of less than 200 bp. Thus, our PCR approach is suited for highly fragmented ancient DNA samples, whereas NGS analyses frequently are unable to handle repetitive elements. With this analysis system, we examined remains of 12 individuals from the Lichtenstein cave with different degrees of DNA degradation. The duplex PCRs showed fully informative amplification results for all of the chosen Alu loci in eight of the 12 samples. Our analysis system showed that Alu presence/absence analysis is possible in samples with different degrees of DNA degradation and it reduces the amount of valuable skeletal material needed by a factor of four, as compared with a singleplex approach.

  15. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  16. Stable glomerular filtration rate in normotensive IDDM patients with stable microalbuminuria. A 5-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, E R; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Hommel, E

    1997-01-01

    patients with persistent microalbuminuria (mean urinary albumin excretion [UAE] 84 mg/24 h [range 30-300]) were followed prospectively for 5 years of clinical examinations that included the measurement of GFR (51Cr-labeled EDTA clearance) at least once a year. The mean GFR at baseline was 120 +/- 18 ml x....... Out of 40 patients, 14 progressed to diabetic nephropathy (UAE > 300 mg/24 h). These patients had a significant reduction in GFR (mean -2.2 +/- 3.8 ml x min-1 x year-1; P = 0.05), while GFR remained stable in the remaining 26 patients with nonprogressive microalbuminuria (change in GFR 0.5 +/- 2.1 ml...

  17. Highly efficient DNA extraction method from skeletal remains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Zupanič Pajnič

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper precisely describes the method of DNA extraction developed to acquire high quality DNA from the Second World War skeletal remains. The same method is also used for molecular genetic identification of unknown decomposed bodies in routine forensic casework where only bones and teeth are suitable for DNA typing. We analysed 109 bones and two teeth from WWII mass graves in Slovenia. Methods: We cleaned the bones and teeth, removed surface contaminants and ground the bones into powder, using liquid nitrogen . Prior to isolating the DNA in parallel using the BioRobot EZ1 (Qiagen, the powder was decalcified for three days. The nuclear DNA of the samples were quantified by real-time PCR method. We acquired autosomal genetic profiles and Y-chromosome haplotypes of the bones and teeth with PCR amplification of microsatellites, and mtDNA haplotypes 99. For the purpose of traceability in the event of contamination, we prepared elimination data bases including genetic profiles of the nuclear and mtDNA of all persons who have been in touch with the skeletal remains in any way. Results: We extracted up to 55 ng DNA/g of the teeth, up to 100 ng DNA/g of the femurs, up to 30 ng DNA/g of the tibias and up to 0.5 ng DNA/g of the humerus. The typing of autosomal and YSTR loci was successful in all of the teeth, in 98 % dekalof the femurs, and in 75 % to 81 % of the tibias and humerus. The typing of mtDNA was successful in all of the teeth, and in 96 % to 98 % of the bones. Conclusions: We managed to obtain nuclear DNA for successful STR typing from skeletal remains that were over 60 years old . The method of DNA extraction described here has proved to be highly efficient. We obtained 0.8 to 100 ng DNA/g of teeth or bones and complete genetic profiles of autosomal DNA, Y-STR haplotypes, and mtDNA haplotypes from only 0.5g bone and teeth samples.

  18. Toward Practical Secure Stable Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riazi M. Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Stable Matching (SM algorithm has been deployed in many real-world scenarios including the National Residency Matching Program (NRMP and financial applications such as matching of suppliers and consumers in capital markets. Since these applications typically involve highly sensitive information such as the underlying preference lists, their current implementations rely on trusted third parties. This paper introduces the first provably secure and scalable implementation of SM based on Yao’s garbled circuit protocol and Oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our scheme can securely compute a stable match for 8k pairs four orders of magnitude faster than the previously best known method. We achieve this by introducing a compact and efficient sub-linear size circuit. We even further decrease the computation cost by three orders of magnitude by proposing a novel technique to avoid unnecessary iterations in the SM algorithm. We evaluate our implementation for several problem sizes and plan to publish it as open-source.

  19. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high-abundance, naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56. All requests for the loan of samples should be submitted with a summary of the purpose of the loan to: Iotope Distribution Office, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box X, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831. Requests from non-DOE contractors and from foreign institutions require DOE approval

  20. Stable isotopes and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krouse, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Whereas traditionally, stable isotope research has been directed towards resource exploration and development, it is finding more frequent applications in helping to assess the impacts of resource utilization upon ecosystems. Among the many pursuits, two themes are evident: tracing the transport and conversions of pollutants in the environment and better understanding of the interplay among environmental receptors, e.g. food web studies. Stable isotope data are used primarily to identify the presence of pollutants in the environment and with a few exceptions, the consequence of their presence must be assessed by other techniques. Increasing attention has been given to the isotopic composition of humans with many potential applications in areas such as paleodiets, medicine, and criminology. In this brief overview examples are used from the Pacific Rim to illustrate the above concepts. 26 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  1. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  2. Towards stable acceleration in LINACS

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrovskiy, A D

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-stable and -reproducible high-energy particle beams with short bunches are needed in novel linear accelerators and, in particular, in the Compact Linear Collider CLIC. A passive beam phase stabilization system based on a bunch compression with a negative transfer matrix element R56 and acceleration at a positive off-crest phase is proposed. The motivation and expected advantages of the proposed scheme are outlined.

  3. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Eugen DUMITRASCU; Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we ...

  4. TMI in perspective: reactor containment stands up, difficult decisions remain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corey, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Co. is increasing its commitment to nuclear energy after reviewing the performance of the Three Mile Island reactor containment systems. Both the reactor vessel and the secondary containment remained intact and no radiation was reported in the soil or water. The public discussion of energy options which followed the accident will benefit both the public and technical community even if there is a temporary slowdown in nuclear power development. The realities of energy supplies have become evident; i.e., that nuclear and coal are the only available options for the short-term. The discussion should also lead to better personnel training, regulatory reforms, risk-sharing insurance, and international standards. The public hysteria triggered by the accident stemmed partly from the combination of unfortunate incidents and the media coverage, which led to hasty conclusions

  5. On use of radial evanescence remain term in kinematic hardening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the interest which lies in non-linear kinematic hardening rule with radial evanescence remain term as proposed for modelling multiaxial ratchetting. From analytical calculations in the case of the tension/torsion test, this ratchetting is compared with that proposed by Armstrong and Frederick. A modification is then proposed for Chaboche's elastoplastic model with two non-linear kinematic variables, by coupling the two types of hardening by means of two scalar parameters. Identification of these two parameters returns to speculate on the directions of strain in order to adjust the ratchetting to experimental observations. Using biaxial ratchetting tests on stainless steel 316 L specimens at ambient temperature, it is shown that satisfactory modelling of multiaxial ratchetting is obtained. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs

  6. Psychotherapy for Borderline Personality Disorder: Progress and Remaining Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links, Paul S; Shah, Ravi; Eynan, Rahel

    2017-03-01

    The main purpose of this review was to critically evaluate the literature on psychotherapies for borderline personality disorder (BPD) published over the past 5 years to identify the progress with remaining challenges and to determine priority areas for future research. A systematic review of the literature over the last 5 years was undertaken. The review yielded 184 relevant abstracts, and after applying inclusion criteria, 16 articles were fully reviewed based on the articles' implications for future research and/or clinical practice. Our review indicated that patients with various severities benefited from psychotherapy; more intensive therapies were not significantly superior to less intensive therapies; enhancing emotion regulation processes and fostering more coherent self-identity were important mechanisms of change; therapies had been extended to patients with BPD and posttraumatic stress disorder; and more research was needed to be directed at functional outcomes.

  7. [Alcohol and work: remaining sober and return to work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittadini, G; Bandirali, M

    2007-01-01

    One of the most complex alcohol-driven problems is the job loss and the subsequent attempts to return to a professional activity. In order to better understand the issue, an epidemiologic investigation was carried out on a group of 162 alcoholics whilst hospitalised in a specialised clinic. The outcome shows the importance of remaining sober to keep or to be returned to one's own job. Unfortunately, local resources at hand, first of all joining an auto-mutual-help group, re still too little known and thus clearly underemployed. Therefore, an informative action within companies is highly desirable. Those alcoholics suffering from serious illnesses, especially mental ones represent a different issue. For these people a higher involvement of public authorities is desirable in creating protected job openings.

  8. Differential Decomposition Among Pig, Rabbit, and Human Remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dautartas, Angela; Kenyhercz, Michael W; Vidoli, Giovanna M; Meadows Jantz, Lee; Mundorff, Amy; Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe

    2018-03-30

    While nonhuman animal remains are often utilized in forensic research to develop methods to estimate the postmortem interval, systematic studies that directly validate animals as proxies for human decomposition are lacking. The current project compared decomposition rates among pigs, rabbits, and humans at the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility across three seasonal trials that spanned nearly 2 years. The Total Body Score (TBS) method was applied to quantify decomposition changes and calculate the postmortem interval (PMI) in accumulated degree days (ADD). Decomposition trajectories were analyzed by comparing the estimated and actual ADD for each seasonal trial and by fuzzy cluster analysis. The cluster analysis demonstrated that the rabbits formed one group while pigs and humans, although more similar to each other than either to rabbits, still showed important differences in decomposition patterns. The decomposition trends show that neither nonhuman model captured the pattern, rate, and variability of human decomposition. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Premortal data in the process of skeletal remains identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Nadica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The basic task of a forensic examiner during the exhumation of mass graves or in mass accidents is to establish identity of a person. The results obtained through these procedures depend on the level of perceptibility of post mortal changes and they are compared with premortal data obtained from family members of those missing or killed. Experience with exhumations has shown significant differences between the results obtained through exhumation and the premortal data. The aim of the study was to suggest the existance of the difference between premortal data and the results obtained by exhumation regarding the some parameters, as well as to direct premortal data colection to the specific skeletal forms. Methods. We performed comparative analysis of the results of exhumation of skeletal remains in a mass grave and the premortal data concerning the identified persons. The least number of individuals in this mass grave was calculated according to the upper parts of the right femur and it helped in calculating the smallest number of individuals in mass graves to be 48. A total of 27 persons were identified. Sex was determined by metrics and morphology of the pelvis. Personal age in the moment of death was determined by morphology features of groin symphisis and morphology of sternal edge of ribs and other parts of scelets observations. The hight was calculated as average results of length of long bones and Rollet coefficients. Results. There was a complete match in terms of sex and age matched within an interval that could be established based on the skeletal remains. All the other parameters were different, however, which made identification significantly more difficult. Conclusion. The premortal data is an important element of identification process and it should be obtained by the forensic doctor and directed towards more detailed examination of the skeletal system.

  10. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varricchio, David J; Balanoff, Amy M; Norell, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  11. Reidentification of avian embryonic remains from the cretaceous of mongolia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Varricchio

    Full Text Available Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record.

  12. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2005-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. (author). 52 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  14. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  15. New findings of dinosaur remains and considerations on the age of the guichon formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M; Perea, D; Veroslasky, G; Rinderknecht, A; Ubilla, M.; Leucuona, G.

    2008-01-01

    The first known dinosaur remains from the Guichon Formation are reviewed herein, demonstrating that they have a limited bio stratigraphic value. New materials (comprising abundant bones and several eggshell fragments) are described, representing the first record of sauropod dinosaurs from the Guichon Formation. The bone belong to a derived titanosaurian (Eutitanosauria) while the eggshells are refered to the oogenus Sphaerovum Mones 1980. Bio stratigraphic implications of these materials are discussed, allowing to propose a Late Cretaceous age for this unit

  16. Feasibility Study on the Use of the Seeding Growth Technique in Producing a Highly Stable Gold Nanoparticle Colloidal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han Tan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs are synthesized successfully using a seeding growth technique. The size of the nanoparticles is determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and it is observed that the size of the nanoparticles ranges from 7 to 30 nm. The TEM images and optical absorption spectra of the Au NPs reveal that the suspension is well dispersed and consistent with the particle size. The feasibility of the seeding growth technique is investigated using Turbiscan Classic MA 2000 screening stability tester. Based on the peak thickness kinetics and mean value kinetics, the backscattered light profiles indicate that the suspension is highly stable without particle sedimentation as well as negligible agglomeration. In addition, the Au NPs are proven to remain stable over a period of 2 months. Particle sedimentation eventually occurs due to the weight of nanoparticles. It is concluded that the seeding growth technique is feasible in synthesizing stable Au NPs. Controlling the stability, size and shape of Au NPs are technologically important because of the strong correlation between these parameters and the optical, electrical, and catalytic properties of the nanoparticles.

  17. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  18. How stable 'should' epigenetic modifications be? Insights from adaptive plasticity and bet hedging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Spencer, Hamish G; Donohue, Kathleen; Sultan, Sonia E

    2014-03-01

    Although there is keen interest in the potential adaptive value of epigenetic variation, it is unclear what conditions favor the stability of these variants either within or across generations. Because epigenetic modifications can be environmentally sensitive, existing theory on adaptive phenotypic plasticity provides relevant insights. Our consideration of this theory suggests that stable maintenance of environmentally induced epigenetic states over an organism's lifetime is most likely to be favored when the organism accurately responds to a single environmental change that subsequently remains constant, or when the environmental change cues an irreversible developmental transition. Stable transmission of adaptive epigenetic states from parents to offspring may be selectively favored when environments vary across generations and the parental environment predicts the offspring environment. The adaptive value of stability beyond a single generation of parent-offspring transmission likely depends on the costs of epigenetic resetting. Epigenetic stability both within and across generations will also depend on the degree and predictability of environmental variation, dispersal patterns, and the (epi)genetic architecture underlying phenotypic responses to environment. We also discuss conditions that favor stability of random epigenetic variants within the context of bet hedging. We conclude by proposing research directions to clarify the adaptive significance of epigenetic stability. © 2013 The Author(s). Evolution © 2013 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  20. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  1. Spot market activity remains weak as prices continue to fall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    A summary of financial data for the uranium spot market in November 1996 is provided. Price ranges for the restricted and unrestricted markets, conversion, and separative work are listed, and total market volume and new contracts are noted. Transactions made are briefly described. Deals made and pending in the spot concentrates, medium and long-term, conversion, and markets are listed for U.S. and non-U.S. buyers. Spot market activity increased in November with just over 1.0 million lbs of U3O8 equivalent being transacted compared to October's total of 530,000 lbs of U3O8 equivalent. The restricted uranium spot market price range slipped from $15.50-$15.70/lb U3O8 last month to $14.85/lb - $15.25/lb U3O8 this month. The unrestricted uranium spot market price range also slipped to $14.85/lb - $15.00/lb this month from $15.00/lb - $15.45/lb in October. Spot prices for conversion and separative work units remained at their October levels

  2. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  3. Factors influencing home care nurse intention to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Patterson, Erin; Rowe, Alissa; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; MacDonald, Geraldine; Cranley, Lisa; Squires, Mae

    2014-11-01

    To identify factors affecting Canadian home care nurse intention to remain employed (ITR). In developed nations, healthcare continues to shift into community settings. Although considerable research exists on examining nurse ITR in hospitals, similar research related to nurses employed in home care is limited. In the face of a global nursing shortage, it is important to understand the factors influencing nurse ITR across healthcare sectors. A qualitative exploratory descriptive design was used. Focus groups were conducted with home care nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Six categories of influencing factors were identified by home care nurses as affecting ITR: job characteristics; work structures; relationships/communication; work environment; nurse responses to work; and employment conditions. Findings suggest the following factors influence home care nurse ITR: having autonomy; flexible scheduling; reasonable and varied workloads; supportive work relationships; and receiving adequate pay and benefits. Home care nurses did not identify job satisfaction as a single concept influencing ITR. Home care nursing management should support nurse autonomy, allow flexible scheduling, promote reasonable workloads and create opportunities for team building that strengthen supportive relationships among home care nurses and other health team members. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Kuhn

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea. Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat. The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene.

  5. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  6. Using contractors to decommission while remaining as licensee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankine, A.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last few years the role of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has changed from one involved in research and development in the field of nuclear power and associated technology, to one of managing the liabilities left over from its previous mission. This period has also seen two significant portions of the organization move to the private sector with sale of the Facilities Services Division to PROCORD and the privatization of AEA Technology. The new UKAEA is therefore a focused liabilities management organization, making the best use of expertise in the private sector in carrying out its mission, but retaining adequate internal resource and expertise to fulful its role and responsibilities as the licensee. UKAEA continues to be committed to giving the highest priority to meeting high standards of safety and environmental protection required of the holder of the Nuclear Site Licence under the Nuclear Installations Act. This paper describes the safety management system within the UKAEA which ensures that UKAEA remains the proper and effective licensee and gives some examples of how this has worked in practice. (author)

  7. President's message: We must remain committed to scientific integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhaden, Michael

    2012-02-01

    During the third week of February our global community of Earth and space scientists witnessed the shocking fall from grace of an accomplished AGU member who betrayed the principles of scientific integrity. In doing so he compromised AGU's credibility as a scientific society, weakened the public's trust in scientists, and produced fresh fuel for the unproductive and seemingly endless ideological firestorm surrounding the reality of the Earth's changing climate. Peter Gleick resigned as chair of AGU's Task Force on Scientific Ethics on 16 February, prior to admitting in a blog post that he obtained documents from the Heartland Institute under false pretenses. His transgression cannot be condoned, regardless of his motives. It is a tragedy that requires us to stop and reflect on what we value as scientists and how we want to be perceived by the public. Here are a few things that come immediately to mind:

  8. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  9. Oxidant and solvent stable alkaline protease from Aspergillus flavus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increase in agricultural practices has necessitated the judicious use of agricultural wastes into value added products. In this study, an extracellular, organic solvent and oxidant stable, serine protease was produced by Aspergillus flavus MTCC 9952 under solid state fermentation. Maximum protease yield was obtained ...

  10. Exhaled nitric oxide in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beg Mohammed F S; Alzoghaibi, Mohammad A; Habib, Syed S; Abba, Abdullah A

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is elevated in nonsmoking subjects with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and compare it with the results in patients with asthma and a control population. Pulmonology Clinic at a University Hospital. Twenty five control subjects, 25 steroid naive asthmatics and 14 COPD patients were studied. All the patients were nonsmokers and stable at the time of the study. All subjects completed a questionnaire and underwent spirometry. Exhaled nitric oxide was measured online by chemiluminescence, using single-breath technique. All the study subjects were males. Subjects with stable COPD had significantly higher values of FENO than controls (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 22.00 + -6.69; P =0.0001) but lower than the subjects with asthma (56.54+ - 28.01 vs 84.78+ - 39.32 P 0.0285). The FENO values in COPD subjects were inversely related to the FEV 1 /FVC ratio. There was a significant overlap between the FENO values in COPD and the control subjects. There is a significant elevation in FENO in patients with stable COPD, but the elevation is less than in asthmatic subjects. Its value in clinical practice may be limited by the significant overlap with control subjects. (author)

  11. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.; Padoan, S. A.; Sang, H.

    2015-01-01

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  12. Use of stable isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F. K.

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research is considered to be one of the most important steps to achieve sustainable agriculture development. This paper is focused on the role of stable isotopes and their applications in agriculture for plant and animal production, and to study the relationship between soil, plant, air, water, nutrients and agricultural pests. Symbiotic N 2 fixation and efficient use of chemical and organic N fertilizers using 15 N were reported. Factors affecting 13 C values and application of carbon isotope discrimination to physiological and eco-physiological studies and selection of genotypes with improved water-use efficiency and drought tolerance and the recent progress in this field are reviewed. Moreover, the use of carbon isotope compositions in monitoring environmental changes and its various applications in food technology, animal production and entomology are discussed. (author)

  13. Multivariate max-stable spatial processes

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2015-02-11

    Max-stable processes allow the spatial dependence of extremes to be modelled and quantified, so they are widely adopted in applications. For a better understanding of extremes, it may be useful to study several variables simultaneously. To this end, we study the maxima of independent replicates of multivariate processes, both in the Gaussian and Student-t cases. We define a Poisson process construction and introduce multivariate versions of the Smith Gaussian extreme-value, the Schlather extremal-Gaussian and extremal-t, and the Brown–Resnick models. We develop inference for the models based on composite likelihoods. We present results of Monte Carlo simulations and an application to daily maximum wind speed and wind gust.

  14. Myocardial perfusion SPECT in stable angina;Place de la scintigraphie myocardique dans l'angor stable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, P.; Jacob, T. [HP Clairval, Service de medecine nucleaire, 13 - Marseille (France); Lecorff, G.; Bouvier, J.L.; Novella, P.; Bechet, V.; Pelet, V. [HP Clairval, Service de cardiologie, 13 - Marseille (France)

    2010-03-15

    We study the precise contribution of myocardial scintigraphy in the therapeutic management of stable coronary artery disease. Until recently, treatment was focused on revascularization, often by coronary angioplasty.Recent studies have challenged this practice by showing the absence of superiority of angioplasty compared to optimal medical therapy.The problem now is to define for each stable coronary artery disease, and individually, the best of both treatment options. In this spirit, the functional approach to coronary artery disease by myocardial perfusion scintigraphy is most interesting.The diagnostic performance, including sensitivity and negative predictive value, and the prognostic value of the technique are clearly established. Recent studies show that a therapeutic decision based on a functional approach to the patient is valid.We need to know this development in cardiology for best position in the multidisciplinary discussions, myocardial scintigraphy as a functional approach to stable coronary artery disease. (N.C.)

  15. Chromium Stable Isotope Fractionation - An Indicator of Hexavalent Chromium Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, A.; Johnson, T. M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    Chromium is a common anthropogenic contaminant in surface water and ground water, and is also of interest in oceanography. It is redox-active; the two common valences in natural waters are Cr(VI), which is highly soluble and toxic, and Cr(III), which is relatively insoluble. Redox reactions thus control Cr mobility in aqueous solutions, and reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) is the most important reaction controlling attenuation of Cr in groundwater. Our results show that Cr(VI) reduction favors the lighter isotopes and leads to enrichment of heavier isotopes in the remaining Cr(VI). Cr isotope measurements thus show great promise as indicators of Cr(VI) reduction. We report here the first measurements of the magnitude of Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction and variations in δ 53Cr values obtained from three contaminated sites. Experiments were conducted to measure Cr isotope fractionation during Cr(VI) reduction by suspensions of magnetite and unamended sediments from a local pond, Urbana, IL and San Francisco Estuary near Martinez, CA. Suspensions were incubated anaerobically with constant shaking, and complete Cr(VI) reduction occurred within a few days. Cr(VI) from intermediate time points in the experiments was purified via ion exchange and 53Cr/52Cr ratios were measured via TIMS with a double isotope spike. The instantaneous per mil fractionation, ɛ , was calculated assuming a Rayleigh fractionation model. The ɛ for Cr(VI) reduction on magnetite surfaces yielded a fractionation of -3.5 ‰ . The ɛ values for the pond and estuary sediments were -3.5 ‰ and -3.3 ‰ respectively. The size of this Cr isotope fractionation is encouraging, as current precision is 0.2 \\permil. δ 53Cr values in dissolved Cr(VI) from three contaminated sites range from 1.1 ‰ to 5.8 ‰ , suggesting that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred and has induced isotopic fractionation in these settings. δ 53Cr values measured from Cr(VI) in plating baths show little or no

  16. Mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-09-01

    rocks, living, cryopreserved and fossilized extremophiles and cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection of mineralized remains of morphotypes of filamentous cyanobacteria, mats and consortia in many carbonaceous meteorites. These well-preserved and embedded microfossils are consistent with the size, morphology and ultra-microstructure of filamentous trichomic prokaryotes and degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. EDAX elemental studies reveal that the forms in the meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes, and microbial cells. The eextensive protocols and methodologies that have been developed to protect the samples from contamination and to distinguish recent contaminants from indigenous microfossils are described recent bio-contaminants. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in the cells, filaments, trichomes, and hormogonia of recently living cyanobacteria. The results of comparative optical, ESEM and FESEM studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) of similar size, morphology and microstructure to microfossils found embedded in the Murchison CM2 and the Orgueil CI1 carbonaceous meteorites are presented

  17. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  18. Organic synthesis with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daub, G.H.; Kerr, V.N.; Williams, D.L.; Whaley, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some general considerations concerning organic synthesis with stable isotopes are presented. Illustrative examples are described and discussed. The examples include DL-2-amino-3-methyl- 13 C-butanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-valine- 13 C 3 ); methyl oleate-1- 13 C; thymine-2,6- 13 C 2 ; 2-aminoethanesulfonic- 13 C acid (taurine- 13 C); D-glucose-6- 13 C; DL-2-amino-3-methylpentanoic-3,4- 13 C 2 acid (DL-isoleucine- 13 C 2 ); benzidine- 15 N 2 ; and 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide- 15 N

  19. Stable isotopes - separation and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, I.M.

    1980-01-01

    In this review, methods used for the separation of stable isotopes ( 12 C, 13 C, 14 N, 15 N, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 34 S) will be described. The synthesis of labelled compounds, techniques for detection and assay, and areas of application will also be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen; to date, sulphur isotopes have only assumed a minor role. The field of deuterium chemistry is too extensive for adequate treatment; it will therefore be essentially excluded. (author)

  20. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  1. Clarifying some remaining questions in the anomaly puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xing; Parker, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    We discuss several points that may help to clarify some questions that remain about the anomaly puzzle in supersymmetric theories. In particular, we consider a general N=1 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The anomaly puzzle concerns the question of whether there is a consistent way in the quantized theory to put the R-current and the stress tensor in a single supermultiplet called the supercurrent, even though in the classical theory they are in the same supermultiplet. It was proposed that the classically conserved supercurrent bifurcates into two supercurrents having different anomalies in the quantum regime. The most interesting result we obtain is an explicit expression for the lowest component of one of the two supercurrents in 4-dimensional spacetime, namely the supercurrent that has the energy-momentum tensor as one of its components. This expression for the lowest component is an energy-dependent linear combination of two chiral currents, which itself does not correspond to a classically conserved chiral current. The lowest component of the other supercurrent, namely, the R-current, satisfies the Adler-Bardeen theorem. The lowest component of the first supercurrent has an anomaly, which we show is consistent with the anomaly of the trace of the energy-momentum tensor. Therefore, we conclude that there is no consistent way to construct a single supercurrent multiplet that contains the R-current and the stress tensor in the straightforward way originally proposed. We also discuss and try to clarify some technical points in the derivations of the two supercurrents in the literature. These latter points concern the significance of infrared contributions to the NSVZ β-function and the role of the equations of motion in deriving the two supercurrents. (orig.)

  2. Will southern California remain a premium market for natural gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, F.E.

    1991-01-01

    Average yearly demand for natural gas in southern California totalled just over 3 billion ft 3 /d in 1991 and is projected to increase to just over 3.2 billion ft 3 /d in 2000 and 3.4 billion ft 3 /d in 2010. In the core residential market, demand is being driven by population growth and offset by conservation measures. In the core commercial and industrial market, demand is driven by employment growth and offset by conservation. In the noncore market, natural gas use is expected to fall from 262 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 223 million ft 3 /d in 2010. Demand for natural gas for cogeneration is expected to either remain stagnant or decrease. The largest potential for market growth in southern California is for utility electric generation. Demand in this sector is expected to increase from 468 million ft 3 /d in 1991 to 1 billion ft 3 in 2010. Air quality concerns furnish a market opportunity for natural gas vehicles, and a substantial increase in natural gas demand might be obtained from even a modest market share of the region's 10 million vehicles. Existing pipeline capacity is sufficient to supply current average year requirements, and the need for new capacity hinges on the issues of satisfying high-year demand, meeting market growth, and accessing more desirable supply regions. Planned capacity additions of 2,150 million ft 3 /d, if completed, will bring substantial excess capacity to southern California in the late 1990s. The competitive advantages of various producing regions will then be greatly influenced by the rate designs used on the pipelines connecting them to the market. 4 tabs

  3. The broad spectrum revisited: evidence from plant remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ehud; Wetterstrom, Wilma; Nadel, Dani; Bar-Yosef, Ofer

    2004-06-29

    The beginning of agriculture is one of the most important developments in human history, with enormous consequences that paved the way for settled life and complex society. Much of the research on the origins of agriculture over the last 40 years has been guided by Flannery's [Flannery, K. V. (1969) in The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals, eds. Ucko, P. J. & Dimbleby, G. W. (Duckworth, London), pp. 73-100] "broad spectrum revolution" (BSR) hypothesis, which posits that the transition to farming in southwest Asia entailed a period during which foragers broadened their resource base to encompass a wide array of foods that were previously ignored in an attempt to overcome food shortages. Although these resources undoubtedly included plants, nearly all BSR hypothesis-inspired research has focused on animals because of a dearth of Upper Paleolithic archaeobotanical assemblages. Now, however, a collection of >90,000 plant remains, recently recovered from the Stone Age site Ohalo II (23,000 B.P.), Israel, offers insights into the plant foods of the late Upper Paleolithic. The staple foods of this assemblage were wild grasses, pushing back the dietary shift to grains some 10,000 years earlier than previously recognized. Besides the cereals (wild wheat and barley), small-grained grasses made up a large component of the assemblage, indicating that the BSR in the Levant was even broader than originally conceived, encompassing what would have been low-ranked plant foods. Over the next 15,000 years small-grained grasses were gradually replaced by the cereals and ultimately disappeared from the Levantine diet.

  4. Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-07-19

    Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.

  5. Leaf water stable isotopes and water transport outside the xylem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, M M; Farquhar, G D; Buckley, T N

    2017-06-01

    How water moves through leaves, and where the phase change from liquid to vapour occurs within leaves, remain largely mysterious. Some time ago, we suggested that the stable isotope composition of leaf water may contain information on transport pathways beyond the xylem, through differences in the development of gradients in enrichment within the various pathways. Subsequent testing of this suggestion provided ambiguous results and even questioned the existence of gradients in enrichment within the mesophyll. In this review, we bring together recent theoretical developments in understanding leaf water transport pathways and stable isotope theory to map a path for future work into understanding pathways of water transport and leaf water stable isotope composition. We emphasize the need for a spatially, anatomically and isotopically explicit model of leaf water transport. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: lessons learnt and lessons remaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D Woodrow; Cohen, Mitchell I

    2017-01-01

    The Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern refers to the electrocardiographic appearance in sinus rhythm, wherein an accessory atrioventricular pathway abbreviates the P-R interval and causes a slurring of the QRS upslope - the "delta wave". It may be asymptomatic or it may be associated with orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia; however, rarely, even in children, it is associated with sudden death due to ventricular fibrillation resulting from a rapid response by the accessory pathway to atrial fibrillation, which itself seems to result from orthodromic reciprocating tachycardia. Historically, patients at risk for sudden death were characterised by the presence of symptoms and a shortest pre- excited R-R interval during induced atrial fibrillation Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern and availability of catheter ablation, there has been a need to identify risk among asymptomatic patients. Recent guidelines recommend invasive evaluation for such patients where pre-excitation clearly does not disappear during exercise testing. This strategy has a high negative predictive value only. The accuracy of this approach is under continued investigation, especially in light of other considerations: Patients having intermittent pre-excitation, once thought to be at minimal risk may not be, and the role of isoproterenol in risk assessment.

  7. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of prehistoric and ancient bone remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasidov, A.; Osinskaya, N.S.; Khatamov, Sh.; Rakhmanova, T.

    2008-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to study the element contents in bones of prehistoric dinosaurs and bones of an ancient bear and an archantrop (ancient person), which were found on the territory of Uzbekistan. Concentrations of more than 25 elements were in the range of 0.043-3600 mg/kg. Multielement analyses of bone and soil samples were carried out by INAA using the WWR-SM research nuclear reactor. Results of measurements have shown that in the dinosaurs bones the concentration of the rare earth elements (REEs) were within 280-3200 mg/kg; the uranium content reached a very high value, up to 180 mg/kg, while in soils coating the dinosaurs bones this content was 4.2 mg/kg; in the bones of the archantrop it was 1.53 mg/kg and in the bones of a standard person its amount is less than 0.016 mg/kg. (author)

  8. Thermal effects of condensing water have remained local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.

    1997-01-01

    General eutrophication of the Gulf of Finland has played a major role in the biological changes that have taken place in the sea area off Loviisa nuclear power plant. The quantities of plant nutrients in the water are now 1.5 to 2 times greater than 20 years ago. Changes attributable to the thermal effects of the power plant's cooling waters have been relatively small, and they have been restricted to the immediate surroundings of the discharge area. The most distinct environmental effects have been discovered in the temperatures of sea water, in ice conditions and in water currents within the discharge area of cooling water. The most visible biological change that has a direct link to the thermal load resulting from the power plant is the more abundant aquatic flora near the discharge point of cooling water on the southwestern shores of the Haestholmsfjaerden. Similar growth of aquatic flora has also been discovered near the discharge outlet of Olkiluoto plant, although the nutrient contents of water there are only half of the values measured in the Loviisa area. Regular radiation monitoring of the areas surrounding the nuclear power plants began before the start up of the plants. The contents of radioactive substances discovered have been small and in agreement with the release data given by the power companies. (orig.)

  9. Stable cosmology in chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Oliosi, Michele; Watanabe, Yota

    2018-02-01

    The recently proposed chameleonic extension of bigravity theory, by including a scalar field dependence in the graviton potential, avoids several fine-tunings found to be necessary in usual massive bigravity. In particular it ensures that the Higuchi bound is satisfied at all scales, that no Vainshtein mechanism is needed to satisfy Solar System experiments, and that the strong coupling scale is always above the scale of cosmological interest all the way up to the early Universe. This paper extends the previous work by presenting a stable example of cosmology in the chameleon bigravity model. We find a set of initial conditions and parameters such that the derived stability conditions on general flat Friedmann background are satisfied at all times. The evolution goes through radiation-dominated, matter-dominated, and de Sitter eras. We argue that the parameter space allowing for such a stable evolution may be large enough to encompass an observationally viable evolution. We also argue that our model satisfies all known constraints due to gravitational wave observations so far and thus can be considered as a unique testing ground of gravitational wave phenomenologies in bimetric theories of gravity.

  10. Stable Heavy Hadrons in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Mackeprang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Several extensions to the SM feature heavy long-lived particles with masses of O(10^2-10^3 GeV) and mean lifetimes fulfilling $CT \\geq 10m$. Among such theories are supersymmetric scenarios as well as extra-dimensional models in which the heavy new particles are seen as Kaluza-Klein excitations of the well-known SM particles. Such particles will, from the point of view of a collider experiment be seen as stable. This thesis is concerned with the case where the exotic heavy particles emph{can} be considered stable while traversing the detector. Specifically the case is considered where the particles in question carry the charge of the strong nuclear force, commonly referred to as emph{colour charge}. A simulation kit has been developed using GEANT4. This framework is the current standard in experimental particle physics for the simulation of interactions of particles with matter, and it is used extensively for detector simulation. The simulation describes the interactions of these particles with matter which i...

  11. The Right to Remain Silent in Criminal Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianina Anemona Radu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal

  12. AIDS, individual behaviour and the unexplained remaining variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Alison

    2002-01-01

    From the start of the AIDS pandemic, individual behaviour has been put forward, implicitly or explicitly, as the main explanatory concept for understanding the epidemiology of HIV infection and in particular for the rapid spread and high prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa. This has had enormous implications for the international response to AIDS and has heavily influenced public health policy and strategy and the design of prevention and care interventions at national, community and individual level. It is argued that individual behaviour alone cannot possibly account for the enormous variation in HIV prevalence between population groups, countries and regions and that the unexplained remaining variation has been neglected by the international AIDS community. Biological vulnerability to HIV due to seriously deficient immune systems has been ignored as a determinant of the high levels of infection in certain populations. This is in sharp contrast to well proven public health approaches to other infectious diseases. In particular, it is argued that poor nutrition and co-infection with the myriad of other diseases of poverty including tuberculosis, malaria, leishmaniasis and parasitic infections, have been neglected as root causes of susceptibility, infectiousness and high rates of transmission of HIV at the level of populations. Vulnerability in terms of non-biological factors such as labour migration, prostitution, exchange of sex for survival, population movements due to war and violence, has received some attention but the solutions proposed to these problems are also inappropriately focused on individual behaviour and suffer from the same neglect of economic and political root causes. As the foundation for the international community's response to the AIDS pandemic, explanations of HIV/AIDS epidemiology in terms of individual behaviour are not only grossly inadequate, they are highly stigmatising and may in some cases, be racist. They have diverted attention from

  13. Immunosuppression Adherence in Stable Kidney Transplant Patients Converted From Immediate- to Prolonged-Release Tacrolimus in Clinical Practice: A Norwegian Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadollah Abedini, MD, PhD

    2018-02-01

    Conclusions. There was disparity between high, patient-perceived and low, actual adherence. Converting stable KTPs from IR-T to PR-T in routine practice did not impact long-term adherence to immunosuppression; renal function remained stable.

  14. England and Wales: Stable fertility and pronounced social status differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Sigle-Rushton

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available For nearly three decades, the total fertility rate in England and Wales has remained high relative to other European countries, and stable at about 1.7 births per woman. In this chapter, we examine trends in both period and cohort fertility throughout the twentieth century, and demonstrate some important differences across demographic and social groups in the timing and quantum of fertility. Breaking with a market-oriented and laissez-faire approach to work and family issues, the last 10 years have seen the introduction of new social and economic policies aimed at providing greater support to families with children. However, the effect of the changes is likely to be limited to families on the lower end of the income scale. Rather than facilitating work and parenthood, some policies create incentives for a traditional gendered division of labour. Fertility appears to have remained stable despite, rather than because of, government actions.

  15. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  16. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  17. Stable isotope mass spectrometry in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, Manju

    1997-01-01

    The stable isotope mass spectrometry plays an important role to evaluate the stable isotopic composition of hydrocarbons. The isotopic ratios of certain elements in petroleum samples reflect certain characteristics which are useful for petroleum exploration

  18. Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2006-01-01

    We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....

  19. Tempered stable laws as random walk limits

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2010-01-01

    Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.

  20. Stable States of Biological Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalov, V. I.; Sornette, D.; Yukalova, E. P.; Henry, J.-Y.; Cobb, J. P.

    2009-04-01

    A novel model of biological organisms is advanced, treating an organism as a self-consistent system subject to a pathogen flux. The principal novelty of the model is that it describes not some parts, but a biological organism as a whole. The organism is modeled by a five-dimensional dynamical system. The organism homeostasis is described by the evolution equations for five interacting components: healthy cells, ill cells, innate immune cells, specific immune cells, and pathogens. The stability analysis demonstrates that, in a wide domain of the parameter space, the system exhibits robust structural stability. There always exist four stable stationary solutions characterizing four qualitatively differing states of the organism: alive state, boundary state, critical state, and dead state.

  1. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)

  2. Super-stable Poissonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.

  3. Periodicity of the stable isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Boeyens, J C A

    2003-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all stable (non-radioactive) isotopes are formally interrelated as the products of systematically adding alpha particles to four elementary units. The region of stability against radioactive decay is shown to obey a general trend based on number theory and contains the periodic law of the elements as a special case. This general law restricts the number of what may be considered as natural elements to 100 and is based on a proton:neutron ratio that matches the golden ratio, characteristic of biological and crystal growth structures. Different forms of the periodic table inferred at other proton:neutron ratios indicate that the electronic configuration of atoms is variable and may be a function of environmental pressure. Cosmic consequences of this postulate are examined. (author)

  4. Stable massive particles at colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, M.; /Stockholm U.; Kraan, A.C.; /Pennsylvania U.; Milstead, D.A.; /Stockholm U.; Sjostrand, T.; /Lund U.; Skands, P.; /Fermilab; Sloan, T.; /Lancaster U.

    2006-11-01

    We review the theoretical motivations and experimental status of searches for stable massive particles (SMPs) which could be sufficiently long-lived as to be directly detected at collider experiments. The discovery of such particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics including the origin and composition of dark matter in the universe and the unification of the fundamental forces. This review describes the techniques used in SMP-searches at collider experiments and the limits so far obtained on the production of SMPs which possess various colour, electric and magnetic charge quantum numbers. We also describe theoretical scenarios which predict SMPs, the phenomenology needed to model their production at colliders and interactions with matter. In addition, the interplay between collider searches and open questions in cosmology such as dark matter composition are addressed.

  5. 76 FR 14057 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains and associated funerary... the human remains was made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository...

  6. The Myopic Stable Set for Social Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, Thomas; Herings, P. Jean-Jacques; Saulle, Riccardo; Seel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new solution concept for models of coalition formation, called the myopic stable set. The myopic stable set is defined for a very general class of social environments and allows for an infinite state space. We show that the myopic stable set exists and is non-empty. Under minor

  7. Effectiveness and risks of stable iodine prophylaxis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    The factors upon which the efficacy of stable iodine prophylaxis depends are reviewed, with particular reference to the dose of stable iodine, the timing of the dose, the influence of dietary iodine and the impact of the other prospective actions. The risks of stable iodine ingestion are estimated, and their application to the principle of Justification in outlined. (Author)

  8. Temperature and Humidity Control in Livestock Stables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Andersen, Palle; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes temperature and humidity control of a livestock stable. It is important to have a correct air flow pattern in the livestock stable in order to achieve proper temperature and humidity control as well as to avoid draught. In the investigated livestock stable the air flow...

  9. Motivation for entry, occupational commitment and intent to remain: a survey regarding Registered Nurse retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Kathleen M

    2010-11-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between Registered Nurses' motivation for entering the profession, occupational commitment and intent to remain with an employer until retirement. Identifying and supporting nurses who are strongly committed to their profession may be the single most influential intervention in combating the nursing shortage. An understanding of the characteristics these individuals possess could lead to a decline in the high attrition rates plaguing the profession. Using a survey design, Registered Nurses enrolled at the school of nursing and/or employed at the associated university medical centre of a large, not-for-profit state university were polled in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine how the variables of motivation for entry and occupational commitment could indicate intent to remain. The strongest indicators of intent to remain were normative commitment and age, with a 70% average rate of correctly estimating retention. Exp(B) values for normative commitment (1·09) and age (1·07) indicated that for each one-point increase on the normative commitment scale or one-point increase in age, the odds of remaining with an employer until retirement increased by 1·1%. Transformational changes in healthcare environments and nursing schools must be made to encourage loyalty and obligation, the hallmarks of normative commitment. Retention strategies should accommodate mature nurses as well as promote normative commitment in younger nurses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Combined radiographic and anthropological approaches to victim identification of partially decomposed or skeletal remains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo, C.; O'Connor, J.E.; McNulty, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Victim identification is the priority in any scenario involving the discovery of single or multiple human remains for both humanitarian and legal reasons. Such remains may be incomplete and in various stages of decomposition. In such scenarios radiography contributes to both primary and secondary methods of identification; the comparison of ante-mortem dental radiographs to post-mortem findings is a primary identification method whereas the analysis of post-mortem skeletal radiographs to help create a biological profile and identify other individuating features is a secondary method of identification. This review will introduce and explore aspects of victim identification with a focus on the anthropological and radiography-based virtual anthropology approaches to establishing a biological profile, identifying other individuating factors and ultimately restoring an individual's identity. It will highlight the potential contribution that radiography, and radiographers, can make to the identification process and contribute to increasing awareness amongst radiographers of the value of their professional role in such investigations

  11. The Insta-Dead: The rhetoric of the human remains trade on Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Huffer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a thriving trade, and collector community, around human remains that is facilitated by posts on new social media such as Instagram, Facebook, Etsy, and, until recently, eBay. In this article, we examine several thousand Instagram posts and perform some initial text analysis on the language and rhetoric of these posts to understand something about the function of this community, what they value and how they trade, buy, and sell, human remains. Our results indicate a well-connected network of collectors and dealers both specialist and generalist, with a surprisingly wide-reaching impact on the 'enthusiasts' who, through their rhetoric, support the activities of this collecting community, in the face of legal and ethical issues generated by its existence.

  12. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. > 9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and δ13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched δ13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, δ13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  13. Monitoring trichloroethene remediation at an iron permeable reactive barrier using stable carbon isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanStone, Nancy; Przepiora, Andrzej; Vogan, John; Lacrampe-Couloume, Georges; Powers, Brian; Perez, Ernesto; Mabury, Scott; Sherwood Lollar, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Stable carbon isotopic analysis, in combination with compositional analysis, was used to evaluate the performance of an iron permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the remediation of ground water contaminated with trichloroethene (TCE) at Spill Site 7 (SS7), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Wyoming. Compositional data indicated that although the PRB appeared to be reducing TCE to concentrations below treatment goals within and immediately downgradient of the PRB, concentrations remained higher than expected at wells further downgradient (i.e. >9 m) of the PRB. At two wells downgradient of the PRB, TCE concentrations were comparable to upgradient values, and delta13C values of TCE at these wells were not significantly different than upgradient values. Since the process of sorption/desorption does not significantly fractionate carbon isotope values, this suggests that the TCE observed at these wells is desorbing from local aquifer materials and was present before the PRB was installed. In contrast, three other downgradient wells show significantly more enriched delta13C values compared to the upgradient mean. In addition, delta13C values for the degradation products of TCE, cis-dichloroethene and vinyl chloride, show fractionation patterns expected for the products of the reductive dechlorination of TCE. Since concentrations of both TCE and degradation products drop to below detection limit in wells within the PRB and directly below it, these downgradient chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations are attributed to desorption from local aquifer material. The carbon isotope values indicate that this dissolved contaminant is subject to local degradation, likely due to in situ microbial activity.

  14. Compensatory changes in the function of the remaining kidney immediately after unilateral nephrectomy in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Khalil, M.; Youseif, H.

    2009-01-01

    Live kidney donation is an established form of organ donation but carries the risk of an unnecessary surgery in a normal individual for the benefit of the recipient. Despite a number of recent studies on the renal function of long-term kidney donors, little attention has been paid to the damaging effects of compensatory hyper-filtration on renal tubular cells immediately after donor nephrectomy. The present study therefore aimed to examine the immediate changes in renal function of the remaining kidney using a sheep model of unilateral nephrectomy. We used the gamma camera-based method to measure the glomerular filtration rate and the tubular excretion values after simultaneous injection of 99m Tc-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and 131 I-ortho-iodohippurate tracers. Compared were the differences in the functions between the remaining left kidney immediately after clamping the right renal pedicle and the baseline values that were measured one week before unilateral nephrectomy. After radionuclide data acquisition was completed, the right kidney was removed. The mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) increased by 52.3% from the baseline values (29.5±2.7 to 45.0±6.7 ml/min; n=40, p<0.001), while the mean effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) increased by 40% (225.5±27.8 to 357.8±38.94 ml/min; p<0.001), respectively. Mean filtration fraction was increased from 0.117 to 0.127 immediately after nephrectomy (p<0.001). We conclude that after unilateral nephrectomy the remaining kidney immediately compensates for the loss of a donated kidney by increasing glomerular filtration rate and effective renal plasma flow. (author)

  15. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  16. Stable boron nitride diamondoids as nanoscale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyta, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We predict the stability of diamondoids made up of boron and nitrogen instead of carbon atoms. The results are based on quantum-mechanical calculations within density functional theory (DFT) and show some very distinct features compared to the regular carbon-based diamondoids. These features are evaluated with respect to the energetics and electronic properties of the boron nitride diamondoids as compared to the respective properties of the carbon-based diamondoids. We find that BN-diamondoids are overall more stable than their respective C-diamondoid counterparts. The electronic band-gaps (E g ) of the former are overall lower than those for the latter nanostructures but do not show a very distinct trend with their size. Contrary to the lower C-diamondoids, the BN-diamondoids are semiconducting and show a depletion of charge on the nitrogen site. Their differences in the distribution of the molecular orbitals, compared to their carbon-based counterparts, offer additional bonding and functionalization possibilities. These tiny BN-based nanostructures could potentially be used as nanobuilding blocks complementing or substituting the C-diamondoids, based on the desired properties. An experimental realization of boron nitride diamondoids remains to show their feasibility. (paper)

  17. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  18. The human vascular endothelial cell line HUV-EC-C harbors the integrated HHV-6B genome which remains stable in long term culture

    OpenAIRE

    Shioda, Setsuko; Kasai, Fumio; Ozawa, Midori; Hirayama, Noriko; Satoh, Motonobu; Kameoka, Yousuke; Watanabe, Ken; Shimizu, Norio; Tang, Huamin; Mori, Yasuko; Kohara, Arihiro

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) is a common human pathogen that is most often detected in hematopoietic cells. Although human cells harboring chromosomally integrated HHV-6 can be generated in vitro, the availability of such cell lines originating from in vivo tissues is limited. In this study, chromosomally integrated HHV-6B has been identified in a human vascular endothelial cell line, HUV-EC-C (IFO50271), derived from normal umbilical cord tissue. Sequence analysis revealed that the viral gen...

  19. Quality not quantity for transglutaminase antibody 2: the performance of an endomysial and tissue transglutaminase test in screening coeliac disease remains stable over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, K; Wild, G; Sargur, R; Sanders, D S; Aziz, I; Hopper, A D; Egner, W

    2013-01-01

    National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) and European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidance for the diagnosis of coeliac disease has been published. However, there is some controversy regarding the advice on the use of stratifying levels of immunoglobulin (IgA) tissue transglutaminase antibody (TG2) test positivity in the absence of test standardization and the vagueness of the indication to test equivocal samples. Using repeat service audit, we demonstrate that a combination of TG2 followed by IgA endomysial antibodies (EMA) is the best strategy for all degrees of mucosal abnormality using our test combination. Reliance upon immunoassay titre is not as effective, and cannot be applied consistently across populations in the absence of assay standardization. Guidelines advocating the use of tests should involve experts in laboratory diagnostics and external quality assurance to ensure that errors of generalization do not occur and that test performance is achievable in routine diagnostic use. © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  20. Mitochondrial respiratory capacity remains stable despite a comprehensive and sustained increase in insulin sensitivity in obese patients undergoing gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M T; Larsen, S; Hansen, M

    2018-01-01

    will correlate with a corresponding change in mitochondrial respiratory capacity over the same time period. METHODS: Insulin sensitivity was evaluated using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp technique, and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity was evaluated by high-resolution respirometry...

  1. Sensory-specific appetite is affected by actively smelled food odors and remains stable over time in normal-wight women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, M.G.; Boesveldt, S.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding overconsumption starts with knowledge of how separate factors influence our eating behavior. Food cues such as food odors are known for their effect on general appetite and sensory-specific appetite (SSA). Active sniffing rather than passive exposure may induce satiation over time. The

  2. Moltex Energy's stable salt reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, R.; Laurie, J.

    2016-01-01

    A stable salt reactor is a molten salt reactor in which the molten fuel salt is contained in fuel rods. This concept was invented in 1951 and re-discovered and improved recently by Moltex Energy Company. The main advantage of using molten salt fuel is that the 2 problematic fission products cesium and iodine do not exist in gaseous form but rather in a form of a salt that present no danger in case of accident. Another advantage is the strongly negative temperature coefficient for reactivity which means the reactor self-regulates. The feasibility studies have been performed on a molten salt fuel composed of sodium chloride and plutonium/uranium/lanthanide/actinide trichloride. The coolant fluid is a mix of sodium and zirconium fluoride salts that will need low flow rates. The addition of 1 mol% of metal zirconium to the coolant fluid reduces the risk of corrosion with standard steels and the addition of 2% of hafnium reduces the neutron dose. The temperature of the coolant is expected to reach 650 Celsius degrees at the exit of the core. This reactor is designed to be modular and it will be able to burn actinides. (A.C.)

  3. Rare stable isotopes in meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.C.

    1981-01-01

    Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) using accelerators has been applied with success to cosmic ray exposure ages and terrestrial residence times of meteorites by measuring cosmogenic nuclides of Be, Cl, and I. It is proposed to complement this work with experiments on rare stable isotopes, in the hope of setting constraints on the processes of solar nebula/meteoritic formation. The relevant species can be classified as: a) daughter products of extinct nuclides (halflife less than or equal to 2 x 10 8 y) -chronology of the early solar system; b) products of high temperature astrophysical processes - different components incorporated into the solar nebula; and c) products of relatively low temperature processes, stellar winds and cosmic ray reactions - early solar system radiation history. The use of micron-scale primary ion beams will allow detailed sampling of phases within meteorites. Strategies of charge-state selection, molecular disintegration and detection should bring a new set of targets within analytical range. The developing accelerator field is compared to existing (keV energy) ion microprobes

  4. Stable piecewise polynomial vector fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Pessoa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Let $N={y>0}$ and $S={y<0}$ be the semi-planes of $mathbb{R}^2$ having as common boundary the line $D={y=0}$. Let $X$ and $Y$ be polynomial vector fields defined in $N$ and $S$, respectively, leading to a discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector field $Z=(X,Y$. This work pursues the stability and the transition analysis of solutions of $Z$ between $N$ and $S$, started by Filippov (1988 and Kozlova (1984 and reformulated by Sotomayor-Teixeira (1995 in terms of the regularization method. This method consists in analyzing a one parameter family of continuous vector fields $Z_{epsilon}$, defined by averaging $X$ and $Y$. This family approaches $Z$ when the parameter goes to zero. The results of Sotomayor-Teixeira and Sotomayor-Machado (2002 providing conditions on $(X,Y$ for the regularized vector fields to be structurally stable on planar compact connected regions are extended to discontinuous piecewise polynomial vector fields on $mathbb{R}^2$. Pertinent genericity results for vector fields satisfying the above stability conditions are also extended to the present case. A procedure for the study of discontinuous piecewise vector fields at infinity through a compactification is proposed here.

  5. Stable Structures for Distributed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen DUMITRASCU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For distributed applications, we define the linear, tree and graph structure types with different variants and modalities to aggregate them. The distributed applications have assigned structures that through their characteristics influence the costs of stages for developing cycle and the costs for exploitation, transferred to each user. We also present the quality characteristics of a structure for a stable application, which is focused on stability characteristic. For that characteristic we define the estimated measure indicators for a level. The influence of the factors of stability and the ways for increasing it are thus identified, and at the same time the costs of development stages, the costs of usage and the costs of maintenance to be keep on between limits that assure the global efficiency of application. It is presented the base aspects for distributed applications: definition, peculiarities and importance. The aspects for the development cycle of distributed application are detailed. In this article, we alongside give the mechanisms for building the defined structures and analyze the complexity of the defined structures for a distributed application of a virtual store.

  6. Reconstructing diet by stable isotope analysis: Two case studies from Bronze Age and Early Medieval Lower Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpelmayr, K.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis is nowadays a method frequently applied for the reconstruction of past human diets. The principles of this technique were developed in the late 1970s and 1980s, when it was shown that the isotopic composition of an animal's body reflected that of its diet. Given that the investigated material (often bone collagen) is well enough preserved, several aspects of diet can be investigated by carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures - expressed as δ13C- und δ15N-values - as e.g. whether nutrition was based on C3 or C4 plants. Furthermore, these signatures can be used for the detection of a marine component in the diet and they contain information about the trophic level of an individual. The goal of the work presented in this talk was to investigate certain aspects of diet using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of human and animal skeletal remains from Austrian archaeological sites. Two sites (both in Lower Austria) were selected for this study, the Bronze Age Cemetery of Gemeinlebarn and the Early Medieval settlement of Thunau/Gars am Kamp. Previous archaeological and anthropological examinations suggested that both sites were inhabited by socially differentiated populations. Hence, during the stable isotope analysis special attention was paid to the detection of variation in nutritional habits due to sociogenic or gender-related differences. δ13C- und δ15N-values were measured in collagen, extracted from bone samples, by means of elemental analyzer-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA-IRMS). The obtained stable isotope data were examined for significant differences between social groups and the sexes using statistical hypothesis testing (MANOVA and ANOVA). (author)

  7. Influence of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase on stable isotope fractionation during sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalo, Muna; Einsiedl, Florian; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Stichler, Willibald

    2008-03-01

    The stable isotopes of sulfate are often used as a tool to assess bacterial sulfate reduction on the macro scale. However, the mechanisms of stable isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen at the enzymatic level are not yet fully understood. In batch experiments with water enriched in 18O we investigated the effect of different nitrite concentrations on sulfur isotope fractionation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans. With increasing nitrite concentrations, we found sulfur isotope enrichment factors ranging from -11.2 ± 1.8‰ to -22.5 ± 3.2‰. Furthermore, the δ18O values in the remaining sulfate increased from approximately 50-120‰ when 18O-enriched water was supplied. Since 18O-exchange with ambient water does not take place in sulfate, but rather in intermediates of the sulfate reduction pathway (e.g. SO32-), we suggest that nitrite affects the steady-state concentration and the extent of reoxidation of the metabolic intermediate sulfite to sulfate during sulfate reduction. Given that nitrite is known to inhibit the production of the enzyme dissimilatory sulfite reductase, our results suggest that the activity of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase regulates the kinetic isotope fractionation of sulfur and oxygen during bacterial sulfate reduction. Our novel results also imply that isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction strongly depends on the cell internal enzymatic regulation rather than on the physico-chemical features of the individual enzymes.

  8. Estimation the remaining service-lifetime of wooden structure of geothermal cooling tower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effendi Tri Bahtiar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Similar with other construction materials, wood strength is decreasing when applied by long term loading. Wooden cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd was built in 1998 and it should be evaluated to avoid sudden structural failure. Evaluation conducted through several steps: wood species identification, the physical and mechanical properties testing, and estimation for remaining service-lifetime by generating mathematical models derived from creep test and reduction of cross sectional area of the wood. Identification result that the wood are redwood (Sequoia sempervirens and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii. The wood density value has degraded from the surface until 0.25 cm depth. Strength characteristics of the wood have considerably decreased, but the allowable stress for bending, tension parallel to grain, and shear were still higher than NDS2005 requirements. The allowable stress for compression parallel to grain was slightly lower than NDS, while compression perpendicular to grain was much lower. Average modulus of elasticity reduces become lower than the value stated by the code, but the minimum value of modulus of elasticity (Emin of redwood was still higher than the code value, while Emin of Douglas fir is slightly lower. Then, in accordance with those findings, the construction would not failure yet but the deformation and vibration will occur in higher rate than design planning. This research develops mathematical models for estimating the remaining service-lifetime of the wooden cooling tower structure in geothermal power plant based on the wood performance in resisting long term loading and its deterioration rate. The deterioration rate of wood member of cooling tower structure at Star Energy Geothermal (Wayang Windu Ltd is 0.0147 cm depth per year, so equation for the residual service life estimation is σlaterσtoday=bh2(b−0.0147T(h−0.0147T2, and σlater must be lower than allowable stress.

  9. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana; Rapčanová, Anna; Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter; Veis, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ 13 C and δ 15 N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in 13 C and 15 N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ 13 C and δ 15 N values. These data were compared to previously published δ 13 C and δ 15 N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied

  10. Stable isotope composition of human fingernails from Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grolmusová, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.grolmusova@geology.sk [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Rapčanová, Anna [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); Michalko, Juraj; Čech, Peter [State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Veis, Pavel [Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia); State Geological Institute of Dionýz Štúr, Laboratory of Isotope Geology, Mlynská dolina 1, 817 04 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2014-10-15

    Stable isotope composition of human fingernails has proven to be useful for documenting human dietary information and geographical patterns in archeological, forensic, anthropological and biological studies. Therefore, it is of interest to detect all factors influencing the stable isotopic composition in the certain regions in the world. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data of human fingernail keratin from 52 individuals from Slovakia were reported in this study. The online combustion and continuous flow isotope-ratio mass spectrometer Delta V Advantage was used for δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N analysis of fingernail keratin samples from 24 vegetarian and 28 omnivorous individuals. A group of people with frequent meat consumption showed enrichment in {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotopes in fingernails. A similar trend was observed with increasing seafood in an individual's diet. Moreover a significant difference was revealed between smokers and nonsmokers for both δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values. These data were compared to previously published δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N fingernail values from across the globe. This study brings new information on the stable isotope signature of individuals from Slovakia and characterizes the Central European region for the first time. The stable isotope composition of fingernails is influenced by the frequency of meat and seafood consumption as well as smoking. - Highlights: • This study deals with stable isotope analyses of fingernails from Slovak volunteers. • δ{sup 13}C and δ{sup 15}N values of vegetarian and omnivore fingernails were compared. • Influence of sex, diet and smoking was studied.

  11. The value of what others value : How personal and group values relate to pro-environmental attitudes and behaviours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Thijs; Steg, Emmalina; Johnson, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Personal values are considered stable predictors of environmental attitudes and behaviours (e.g., Steg et al., 2014). In addition, group values are often used to characterize groups and compare them with each other (e.g., Schwartz & Bardi, 2001). However, only little is known about the influence of

  12. Stability, reliability and validity of social value orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, René

    2004-01-01

    Social value orientations are often regarded as stable individual differences in otherregarding preferences - the concern for equality and joint outcomes - affecting the propensity to cooperate in experimental social dilemma situations. Despite the widespread use of measures of social value

  13. Time Remains

    OpenAIRE

    Gryb, Sean; Thebault, Karim

    2014-01-01

    On one popular view, the general covariance of gravity implies that change is relational in a strong sense, such that all it is for a physical degree of freedom to change is for it to vary with regard to a second physical degree of freedom. At a quantum level, this view of change as relative variation leads to a fundamentally timeless formalism for quantum gravity. Here, we will show how one may avoid this acute 'problem of time'. Under our view, duration is still regarded as relative, but te...

  14. The hippocampus remains activated over the long term for the retrieval of truly episodic memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Harand

    Full Text Available The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail. Hippocampal activation decreased over time for initially episodic, later semantic memories, but remained stable for consistently episodic ones, at least in its posterior part. For both types of memories, neocortical activations were observed at both delays, notably in the ventromedial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These activations may reflect a gradual reorganization of memory traces within neural networks. Our data indicate maintenance and strengthening of hippocampal and cortico-cortical connections in the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memories over time, in line with the Multiple Trace theory (Nadel and Moscovitch, 1997. At variance, memories becoming semantic over time consolidate through strengthening of cortico-cortical connections and progressive disengagement of the hippocampus.

  15. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.

    1999-01-31

    The Pennsylvania State University program in advanced thermally stable coal-based jet fuels has five broad objectives: (1) Development of mechanisms of degradation and solids formation; (2) Quantitative measurement of growth of sub-micrometer and micrometer-sized particles suspended in fuels during thermal stressing; (3) Characterization of carbonaceous deposits by various instrumental and microscopic methods; (4) Elucidation of the role of additives in retarding the formation of carbonaceous solids; (5) Assessment of the potential of production of high yields of cycloalkanes by direct liquefaction of coal. Future high-Mach aircraft will place severe thermal demands on jet fuels, requiring the development of novel, hybrid fuel mixtures capable of withstanding temperatures in the range of 400--500 C. In the new aircraft, jet fuel will serve as both an energy source and a heat sink for cooling the airframe, engine, and system components. The ultimate development of such advanced fuels requires a thorough understanding of the thermal decomposition behavior of jet fuels under supercritical conditions. Considering that jet fuels consist of hundreds of compounds, this task must begin with a study of the thermal degradation behavior of select model compounds under supercritical conditions. The research performed by The Pennsylvania State University was focused on five major tasks that reflect the objectives stated above: Task 1: Investigation of the Quantitative Degradation of Fuels; Task 2: Investigation of Incipient Deposition; Task 3: Characterization of Solid Gums, Sediments, and Carbonaceous Deposits; Task 4: Coal-Based Fuel Stabilization Studies; and Task 5: Exploratory Studies on the Direct Conversion of Coal to High Quality Jet Fuels. The major findings of each of these tasks are presented in this executive summary. A description of the sub-tasks performed under each of these tasks and the findings of those studies are provided in the remainder of this volume

  16. Age and Value Orientations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Kh. Kukubayeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with value orientations and their role in men’s lives, particularly, in young people’s lives. This notion was introduced by the American theoretical sociologist T. Parsons, one of the creators of modern theoretical sociology. The scientist made an attempt to construct the structural and analytical theory of social action, combining personal interests (needs and aims and situation, it takes place in. The issue of value orientations remains acute for psychology. Herein we have considered several most important works, relating to the considered issue. Age aspects of young people’s value orientations are of peculiar interest to us. When analyzing this phenomenon, one should take into consideration the psychological formations, inhere for a certain age. In fact every age has its unique structure, which may change when passing from one development stage to another. Basing on this fact, we’ve considered the values, depending on the age features of the youth, relying upon the works of the scientists, working with different categories of the youth, such as: teenagers, students, children of different nationalities. It is not surprising that most scientists have come to the conclusion that the chief role in value orientation belongs to a family, originates in relations with parents and teachers. The positive reinforcement to the future develops throughout life in accordance with a lifestyle of a family, society and political situation in a state.Life orientations as a type of value orientations show different types of young people’s preferences. Value structure of its consciousness has its own specific character, depending on the age peculiarities. The dynamics of the transition from one age to another is accompanied with the reappraisal of values, eventually, influencing the life strategy of the future generation

  17. Value Chain Responsibility in Emerging Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Colette; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) and value chain responsibility (VCR) have gained increasing importance for firms. The literature on these topics reports on CSR practices for established firms with existing technologies and stable value chains. This raises questions about the viability of CSR

  18. Chaotic and stable perturbed maps: 2-cycles and spatial models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, E.; Haroutunian, J.

    2010-06-01

    As the growth rate parameter increases in the Ricker, logistic and some other maps, the models exhibit an irreversible period doubling route to chaos. If a constant positive perturbation is introduced, then the Ricker model (but not the classical logistic map) experiences period doubling reversals; the break of chaos finally gives birth to a stable two-cycle. We outline the maps which demonstrate a similar behavior and also study relevant discrete spatial models where the value in each cell at the next step is defined only by the values at the cell and its nearest neighbors. The stable 2-cycle in a scalar map does not necessarily imply 2-cyclic-type behavior in each cell for the spatial generalization of the map.

  19. Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.

  20. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2014-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author)

  2. Stable isotope geochemistry: definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2015-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author).

  3. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2012-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 89 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2008-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2009-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeolimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteroic waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 56 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2016-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author).

  7. Stable isotope geochemistry : definitions, terminology, measurement and some applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, K.

    2013-01-01

    In 1936, Alfred Nier produced the first precise measurement of isotope abundance ratios and his design still remains the basis of stable isotope mass spectrometry. With this gift from the physicists for routine measurement of isotope ratios, earth scientists began to explore the natural variations of isotopes. Thus began a new era in geoscience research with the hydrological cycle and marine palaeoclimatic research being the first topics to be investigated. Stable isotope measurements have been applied to many fundamental problems in geochemistry, petrology, and paleoclimatology, as well as related fields in archaeology, anthropology, physical chemistry, biology and forensic sciences. These applications can be broadly classified into four main types: 1. Thermometry: Formation temperatures of rock and mineral systems are determined on the basis of temperature-dependent fractionations of the isotopic ratios between two or more cogenetic phases. 2. Tracers: Reservoirs like the ocean, the mantle, meteoric waters and organic matter have distinct stable isotope signatures that can be used to trace the origin of rocks, fluids, contaminants etc. 3. Reaction mechanism: Distinctions can be made between diffusion and recrystallization, open and closed systems and bacterial and thermogenic processes. 4. Chemostratigraphy: Abrupt changes (excursions) in the stable isotope ratios of ocean sediments and certain terrestrial materials can be used as stratigraphic markers. (author). 91 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Metrology for stable isotope reference materials: 13C/12C and 18O/16O isotope ratio value assignment of pure carbon dioxide gas samples on the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite-CO2 scale using dual-inlet mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Abneesh; Michael Verkouteren, R

    2018-05-25

    Isotope ratio measurements have been conducted on a series of isotopically distinct pure CO 2 gas samples using the technique of dual-inlet isotope ratio mass spectrometry (DI-IRMS). The influence of instrumental parameters, data normalization schemes on the metrological traceability and uncertainty of the sample isotope composition have been characterized. Traceability to the Vienna PeeDee Belemnite(VPDB)-CO 2 scale was realized using the pure CO 2 isotope reference materials(IRMs) 8562, 8563, and 8564. The uncertainty analyses include contributions associated with the values of iRMs and the repeatability and reproducibility of our measurements. Our DI-IRMS measurement system is demonstrated to have high long-term stability, approaching a precision of 0.001 parts-per-thousand for the 45/44 and 46/44 ion signal ratios. The single- and two-point normalization bias for the iRMs were found to be within their published standard uncertainty values. The values of 13 C/ 12 C and 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios are expressed relative to VPDB-CO 2 using the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] notation, respectively, in parts-per-thousand (‰ or per mil). For the samples, value assignments between (-25 to +2) ‰ and (-33 to -1) ‰ with nominal combined standard uncertainties of (0.05, 0.3) ‰ for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively were obtained. These samples are used as laboratory reference to provide anchor points for value assignment of isotope ratios (with VPDB traceability) to pure CO 2 samples. Additionally, they serve as potential parent isotopic source material required for the development of gravimetric based iRMs of CO 2 in CO 2 -free dry air in high pressure gas cylinder packages at desired abundance levels and isotopic composition values. Graphical abstract CO 2 gas isotope ratio metrology.

  9. Alaska Northern Fur Seal Foraging Habitat Model Stable Isotope Data, 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data sets were used by Zeppelin et al. (2015) to model northern fur seal foraging habitats based on stable isotope values measured in plasma and red blood...

  10. Melting point of high-purity germanium stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavva, V. A.; Bulanov, A. D.; Kut'in, A. M.; Plekhovich, A. D.; Churbanov, M. F.

    2018-05-01

    The melting point (Tm) of germanium stable isotopes 72Ge, 73Ge, 74Ge, 76Ge was determined by differential scanning calorimetry. With the increase in atomic mass of isotope the decrease in Tm is observed. The decrease was equal to 0.15 °C per the unit of atomic mass which qualitatively agrees with the value calculated by Lindemann formula accounting for the effect of "isotopic compression" of elementary cell.

  11. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs.

  12. Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs

  13. Geochemistry of the stable isotopes of silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douthitt, C B [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena (USA). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1982-08-01

    One hundred thirty two new measurements of the relative abundances of the stable isotopes of silicon in terrestrial materials are presented. The total variation of delta/sup 30/Si found is 6.2 parts per thousand, centered on the mean of terrestrial mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks, delta/sup 30/Si = -0.4 parts per thousand. Igneous rocks show limited variation; coexisting minerals exhibit small, systematic silicon isotopic fractionations that are roughly 1/3 the magnitude of concomitant oxygen isotopic fractionations at 1150/sup 0/C. In both igneous minerals and rocks, delta/sup 30/Si shows a positive correlation with silicon content, as does delta/sup 18/O. Opal from both sponge spicules and sinters is light, with delta/sup 30/Si = -2.3 and -1.4 parts per thousand respectively. Large delta/sup 30/Si values of both positive and negative sign are reported for the first time from clay minerals, opaline phytoliths, and authigenic quartz. All highly fractionated samples were precipitated from solution at low temperatures; however, aqueous silicon is not measurably fractionated relative to quartz at equilibrium. A kinetic isotope fractionation of approximately 3.5 parts per thousand is postulated to occur during the low temperature precipitation of opal and, possibly, poorly ordered phyllosilicates, with the silicate phase being enriched in /sup 28/Si. This fractionation, coupled with a Rayleigh precipitation model, is capable of explaining most non-magmatic delta/sup 30/Si variations.

  14. STABLE ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY OF MASSIVE ICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurij K. Vasil’chuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarises stable-isotope research on massive ice in the Russian and North American Arctic, and includes the latest understanding of massive-ice formation. A new classification of massive-ice complexes is proposed, encompassing the range and variabilityof massive ice. It distinguishes two new categories of massive-ice complexes: homogeneousmassive-ice complexes have a similar structure, properties and genesis throughout, whereasheterogeneous massive-ice complexes vary spatially (in their structure and properties andgenetically within a locality and consist of two or more homogeneous massive-ice bodies.Analysis of pollen and spores in massive ice from Subarctic regions and from ice and snow cover of Arctic ice caps assists with interpretation of the origin of massive ice. Radiocarbon ages of massive ice and host sediments are considered together with isotope values of heavy oxygen and deuterium from massive ice plotted at a uniform scale in order to assist interpretation and correlation of the ice.

  15. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III [Los Alamos National Laboratory, NM (United States); Lodwig, S.N. [Centralia College, WA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the {alpha}-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids.

  16. Stereoselective synthesis of stable-isotope-labeled amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkefer, C.J.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A. III; Lodwig, S.N.

    1994-01-01

    For magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopies to reach their full potential, they must be used in combination with sophisticated site-specific stable isotope labeling of biological macromolecules. Labeled amino acids are required for the study of the structure and function of enzymes and proteins. Because there are 20 common amino acids, each with its own distinguishing chemistry, they remain a synthetic challenge. The Oppolzer chiral auxiliary provides a general tool with which to approach the synthesis of labeled amino acids. By using the Oppolzer auxiliary, amino acids can be constructed from several small molecules, which is ideal for stable isotope labeling. In addition to directing the stereochemistry at the α-carbon, the camphorsultam can be used for stereo-specific isotope labeling at prochiral centers in amino acids. By using the camphorsultam auxiliary we have the potential to synthesize virtually any isotopomer of all of the common amino acids

  17. Stable lead isotopes as a tracer in coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stukas, V.J.; Wong, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    The natural abundances of the stable isotopes of lead are used to identify natural and industrial sources of lead in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada. The 206 Pb/ 207 Pb ratios, used to characterize the lead source, had values of approx. 1.24 for coastal oceanic water, approx. 1.22 for fjord waters receiving lead from mine tailings, and approx. 1.163 for waters near urban centers. The lead concentration data are in agreement with presently accepted seawater values

  18. General population exposure of stable lead and 210Pb to residents of New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogen, D.C.; Welford, G.A.; Morse, R.

    1975-12-01

    Stable lead and 210 Pb intake, ingestion, and inhalation by residents of New York City were determined. Measurement of excreta samples provided data to establish a mass balance of stable lead and 210 Pb. These results indicate that no more than 5 μg of stable lead and 0.1 pCi of 210 Pb are retained daily by residents of New York City. Analyses of bone samples have provided estimates of the skeletal burden of stable lead and 210 Pb. Using the ICRP model, intake data, and assuming 100 percent skeletal deposition, the calculated stable lead and 210 Pb values are in good agreement with the experimental results. The data indicate that inhalation is the principle source of stable lead to residents in New York City

  19. Method and device for forecasting remaining lifetime for material constituting light water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Nakada, Kiyotomo; Shimanuki, Sei; Kida, Toshitaka; Fuse, Motomasa; Shigenaka, Naoto; Kuniya, Jiro; Izumiya, Masakiyo; Hattori, Shigeo; Saito, Takashi.

    1994-01-01

    A pressure vessel of a light water type reactor comprises a crack development sensor at the inside and a crack development monitor at the outside to monitor the development of cracks detected by the crack progress sensor. In addition, the reactor also comprises, at the outside thereof, a dissolved oxygen meter, a dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and a conductivity meter for reactor water. A computer is connected, on line, to the crack development monitor, the dissolved oxygen meter, the dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and the conductivity meter. A crack development rate measured by the crack development monitor, as well as the dissolved oxygen concentration, the dissolved peroxide hydrogen concentration and the conductivity of reactor water measured at the outside of the reactor by the dissolved oxygen meter, the dissolved hydrogen peroxide meter and the conductivity meter are inputted to the computer. The computer calculates the effective dissolved oxygen concentration for each portion of the plant based on these measured values. Further, the period of time till the crack reaches a predetermined limit value is calculated based on the measured values. Then, the period of time is displayed as a remaining life time of the materials due to stress corrosion crackings. (I.N.)

  20. Sparse and stable Markowitz portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Joshua; Daubechies, Ingrid; De Mol, Christine; Giannone, Domenico; Loris, Ignace

    2009-07-28

    We consider the problem of portfolio selection within the classical Markowitz mean-variance framework, reformulated as a constrained least-squares regression problem. We propose to add to the objective function a penalty proportional to the sum of the absolute values of the portfolio weights. This penalty regularizes (stabilizes) the optimization problem, encourages sparse portfolios (i.e., portfolios with only few active positions), and allows accounting for transaction costs. Our approach recovers as special cases the no-short-positions portfolios, but does allow for short positions in limited number. We implement this methodology on two benchmark data sets constructed by Fama and French. Using only a modest amount of training data, we construct portfolios whose out-of-sample performance, as measured by Sharpe ratio, is consistently and significantly better than that of the naïve evenly weighted portfolio.

  1. Stable organic thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaojia; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Wang, Cheng-Yin; Park, Youngrak; Kippelen, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can be fabricated at moderate temperatures and through cost-effective solution-based processes on a wide range of low-cost flexible and deformable substrates. Although the charge mobility of state-of-the-art OTFTs is superior to that of amorphous silicon and approaches that of amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs), their operational stability generally remains inferior and a point of concern for their commercial deployment. We report on an exhaustive characterization of OTFTs with an ultrathin bilayer gate dielectric comprising the amorphous fluoropolymer CYTOP and an Al2O3:HfO2 nanolaminate. Threshold voltage shifts measured at room temperature over time periods up to 5.9 × 105 s do not vary monotonically and remain below 0.2 V in microcrystalline OTFTs (μc-OTFTs) with field-effect carrier mobility values up to 1.6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Modeling of these shifts as a function of time with a double stretched-exponential (DSE) function suggests that two compensating aging mechanisms are at play and responsible for this high stability. The measured threshold voltage shifts at temperatures up to 75°C represent at least a one-order-of-magnitude improvement in the operational stability over previous reports, bringing OTFT technologies to a performance level comparable to that reported in the scientific literature for other commercial TFTs technologies. PMID:29340301

  2. Applications of stable isotopes in clinical pharmacology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, Reinout C A; Stellaard, Frans; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kosterink, Jos G W

    2011-01-01

    This review aims to present an overview of the application of stable isotope technology in clinical pharmacology. Three main categories of stable isotope technology can be distinguished in clinical pharmacology. Firstly, it is applied in the assessment of drug pharmacology to determine the

  3. Stable isotopes and biomarkers in microbial ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschker, H.T.S.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The use of biomarkers in combination with stable isotope analysis is a new approach in microbial ecology and a number of papers on a variety of subjects have appeared. We will first discuss the techniques for analysing stable isotopes in biomarkers, primarily gas chromatography-combustion-isotope

  4. Modelling stable atmospheric boundary layers over snow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis entitled:

    Modelling Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layers over Snow

    H.A.M. Sterk

    Wageningen, 29th of April, 2015

    Summary

    The emphasis of this thesis is on the understanding and forecasting of the Stable Boundary Layer (SBL) over snow-covered surfaces. SBLs

  5. Gas phase thermal diffusion of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eck, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    The separation of stable isotopes at Mound Facility is reviewed from a historical perspective. The historical development of thermal diffusion from a laboratory process to a separation facility that handles all the noble gases is described. In addition, elementary thermal diffusion theory and elementary cascade theory are presented along with a brief review of the uses of stable isotopes

  6. Insights into Ancient Human Populations and their Environment through Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artifacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information concerning incidence of disease, population interactions, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopes have long been used to interpret diet and trophic interactions in modern ecosystems. We suggest that the isotope compositions of a commonly overlooked material, human hair, is an ideal tool to be used in gleaning information, especially on human diets, about ancient civilizations. Hair can be well-preserved and is amenable to routine measurements of 13C, 15N and 34S isotope analyses and distinguishing sources of nutrition. We have isotopically characterized hair from both modern and ancient individuals. There is a wide diversity in isotope values owing, at least partially, to the levels of seafood, corn-fed animals and other grains in diet. Using these isotope tracers, new information regarding historical figures (George Washington, 1799 AD) to perhaps the most ancient of mummies, the Chinchorro of Chile (more than 7000 BP) as well as the Moche of Peru (1500 BP) and the best preserved mummy, the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP), have been deciphered. It appears that the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites represents a significant approach for understanding ancient human communities and their environments, as well as new perspectives on our use of our own modern nutritional sources.

  7. Structure of acid-stable carmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio

    2002-02-01

    Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.

  8. Influence of different fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, I. V.; Klein, O. I.; Kulikova, N. A.; Stepanova, E. V.; Koroleva, O. V.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recently, many farmers have converted to low-disturbance tillage land cultivation as disk or plow fields can result in water and wind erosion of soil. So, crop residue and plant crowns and roots are left to hold the soil. However, low-disturbance tillage can be a challenge to manage since the key to crop production still requires good seed-to-soil contact. Therefore, decomposition of stubble in agricultural soils in situ is an issue of the day of modern agriculture. The aim of the present study was to compare different organic and inorganic fertilizer supplements on decomposition of cereal stubble remains in chernozem soil. Materials and methods Field trials were conducted in Krasnodar region, Russia. To promote stubble decomposition, a biopreparation that was cultural liquid obtained during cultivation of white-rot fungi Coriolus hirsutus 075 (Wulf Ex. Fr.) Quel. was used at the dosage of 150 ml/ha. The other tested supplements included ammonium nitrate (34 kg/ha), commercially available humate LignohumateTM (0.2 kg/ha) and combination of Lignohumate and biopreparation. Test plots were treated once after wheat harvesting. Non-treated ploughed plot was used as a blank. Soil samples were collected within 2 and 14 weeks after soil treatment. To control soil potential for stubble remains decomposition enzymatic activity is soil was determined. To perform soil analysis, stubble remains were carefully separated from soils followed by soil extraction with 0.14 M phosphate buffer pH 7.1 and analysis of the extracts for laccase and peroxidase activities [1,2]. Estimation of stubble decomposition in soil was performed by cellulose contents determination [3]. Results and discussion The obtained results demonstrated after 14 weeks of treatment increase of soil enzymatic activity due to soil supplementation was observed. Introduction of ammonium nitrate resulted in 108% of peroxidise activity as compared to blank. That value for Lignohumate variant was estimated

  9. Trophic position of soil nematodes in boreal forests as indicated by stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudrin, Alexey; Tsurikov, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Despite the well-developed trophic classification of soil nematodes, their position in soil food webs is still little understood. Observed deviations from the typical feeding strategy indicate that a simplified trophic classification probably does not fully reflect actual trophic interactions. Furthermore, the extent and functional significance of nematodes as prey for other soil animals remains unknown. Stable isotope analysis (SIA) is powerful tool for investigating the structure of soil food webs, but its application to the study of soil nematodes has been limited to only a few studies. We used stable isotope analysis to gain a better understanding of trophic links of several groups of soil nematodes in two boreal forests on albeluvisol. We investigated four taxonomic groups of nematodes: Mononchida, Dorylaimida, Plectidae and Tylenchidae (mostly from the genus Filenchus), that according to the conventional trophic classification represent predators, omnivores, bacterivores and root-fungal feeders, respectively. To assess the trophic position of nematodes, we used a comparison against a set of reference species including herbivorous, saprophagous and predatory macro-invertebrates, oribatid and mesostigmatid mites, and collembolans. Our results suggest that trophic position of the investigated groups of soil nematodes generally corresponds to the conventional classification. All nematodes were enriched in 13C relative to Picea abies roots and litter, and mycorrhizal fungal mycelium. Root-fungal feeders Tylenchidae had δ15N values similar to those of earthworms, enchytraeids and Entomobrya collembolans, but slightly lower δ13C values. Bacterivorous Plectidae were either equal or enriched in 15N compared with saprophagous macroinvertebrates and most mesofauna species. Omnivorous Dorylaimida and predatory Mononchida were further enriched in 15N and their isotopic signature was similar to that of predatory arthropods. These data confirm a clear separation of

  10. Health professionals and the meaning they apply to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirlene Pereira Gomes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors aim to investigate the meanings attributed by health professionals working in the Family Health Strategy to women‟s remaining in violent conjugal relationships. The research is based in the method of Grounded Theory. Interviews were held between May and August 2012 with 52 professionals who work in Family Health in a city in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. It is indicated that violence is related to the threats made, to the partner‟s involvement in drug trafficking, to economic and emotional dependence, to the valuing of marriage, to the belief in female submission, and to shame. The professionals indicate the need for strategies in defense of a life free from violence for women: psycho-social support; educational activities regarding the social construction of gender; and articulation of policies based on intersectoriality.

  11. Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Gas Turbine Engine using Autoregressive Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsan Shazaib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas turbine (GT engines are known for their high availability and reliability and are extensively used for power generation, marine and aero-applications. Maintenance of such complex machines should be done proactively to reduce cost and sustain high availability of the GT. The aim of this paper is to explore the use of autoregressive (AR models to predict remaining useful life (RUL of a GT engine. The Turbofan Engine data from NASA benchmark data repository is used as case study. The parametric investigation is performed to check on any effect of changing model parameter on modelling accuracy. Results shows that a single sensory data cannot accurately predict RUL of GT and further research need to be carried out by incorporating multi-sensory data. Furthermore, the predictions made using AR model seems to give highly pessimistic values for RUL of GT.

  12. Why does the need of HEU for high flux research reactors remain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, W.

    1991-01-01

    It has shown that high performance high flux reactors need an ongoing supply of highly enriched uranium. The new fuel materials in their highly enriched version offer prospective for advanced and better neutron sources vital for the future of neutron research. This is another very attractive result of the RERTR programme. One-sided restriction would only provide marginal or no values for research. If we adopt the sometimes expressed views that high enriched RERTR developed fuel should only be made available when unique benefits to mankind could be obtained, then certainly basic research at the forefront belongs to this category. HEU would only pose theoretical difficulties, if it would remain under proper safeguards and obviously this is the way to be pursued. (orig.)

  13. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  14. Zooxanthellae Harvested by Ciliates Associated with Brown Band Syndrome of Corals Remain Photosynthetically Competent▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E.; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae. PMID:17259357

  15. Zooxanthellae harvested by ciliates associated with brown band syndrome of corals remain photosynthetically competent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulstrup, Karin E; Kühl, Michael; Bourne, David G

    2007-03-01

    Brown band syndrome is a new coral affliction characterized by a local accumulation of yet-unidentified ciliates migrating as a band along the branches of coral colonies. In the current study, morphologically intact zooxanthellae (= Symbiodinium) were observed in great numbers inside the ciliates (>50 dinoflagellates per ciliate). Microscale oxygen measurements and variable chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis along with microscopic observations demonstrated that zooxanthellae within the ciliates are photosynthetically competent and do not become compromised during the progression of the brown band zone. Zooxanthellae showed similar trends in light acclimation in a comparison of rapid light curve and steady-state light curve measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. Extended light exposure of steady-state light curves resulted in higher quantum yields of photosystem II. The brown band tissue exhibited higher photosynthetically active radiation absorptivity, indicating more efficient light absorption due to a higher density of zooxanthellae in the ciliate-dominated zone. This caused relatively higher gross photosynthesis rates in the zone with zooxanthella-containing ciliates compared to healthy coral tissue. The observation of photosynthetically active intracellular zooxanthellae in the ciliates suggests that the latter can benefit from photosynthates produced by ingested zooxanthellae and from photosynthetic oxygen production that alleviates diffusion limitation of oxic respiration in the densely populated brown band tissue. It remains to be shown whether the zooxanthellae form a stable symbiotic association with the ciliate or are engulfed incidentally during grazing on coral tissue and then maintained as active inside the ciliate for a period before being digested and replaced by new zooxanthellae.

  16. Complex cobordism and stable homotopy groups of spheres

    CERN Document Server

    Ravenel, Douglas C

    2003-01-01

    Since the publication of its first edition, this book has served as one of the few available on the classical Adams spectral sequence, and is the best account on the Adams-Novikov spectral sequence. This new edition has been updated in many places, especially the final chapter, which has been completely rewritten with an eye toward future research in the field. It remains the definitive reference on the stable homotopy groups of spheres. The first three chapters introduce the homotopy groups of spheres and take the reader from the classical results in the field though the computational aspects

  17. In the digital era, architectural distortion remains a challenging radiological task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleiman, W.I.; McEntee, M.F.; Lewis, S.J.; Rawashdeh, M.A.; Georgian-Smith, D.; Heard, R.; Tapia, K.; Brennan, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare readers' performance in detecting architectural distortion (AD) compared with other breast cancer types using digital mammography. Materials and methods: Forty-one experienced breast screen readers (20 US and 21 Australian) were asked to read a single test set of 30 digitally acquired mammographic cases. Twenty cases had abnormal findings (10 with AD, 10 non-AD) and 10 cases were normal. Each reader was asked to locate and rate any abnormalities. Lesion and case-based performance was assessed. For each collection of readers (US; Australian; combined), jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC), figure of merit (FOM), and inferred receiver operating characteristic (ROC), area under curve (Az) were calculated using JAFROC v.4.1 software. Readers' sensitivity, location sensitivity, JAFROC, FOM, ROC, Az scores were compared between cases groups using Wilcoxon's signed ranked test statistics. Results: For lesion-based analysis, significantly lower location sensitivity (p=0.001) was shown on AD cases compared with non-AD cases for all reader collections. The case-based analysis demonstrated significantly lower ROC Az values (p=0.02) for the first collection of readers, and lower sensitivity for the second collection of readers (p=0.04) and all-readers collection (p=0.008), for AD compared with non-AD cases. Conclusions: The current work demonstrates that AD remains a challenging task for readers, even in the digital era. - Highlights: • Architectural Distortion interpretation remains challenging for readers even with digital acquisition. • Significantly lower location sensitivity and sensitivity values for the AD were shown.

  18. Stable Isotopic Insights into the Foraging Ecology of an Endangered Marine Predator, the Hawaiian Petrel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, A. E.; Ostrom, P. H.; James, H. F.

    2010-12-01

    Seabirds play vital roles in their ecosystems, both as predators in their oceanic foraging grounds and conduits of marine nutrients to island nesting sites. Despite growing evidence that food availability limits seabird populations, characterization of the diet and even foraging locations of some seabird species remains elusive. Here, we use stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes to study the foraging ecology of an endangered and poorly known seabird, the Hawaiian petrel (Pterodroma sandwichensis). This species nests solely on the main Hawaiian Islands but forages widely across the NE Pacific, sometimes traveling over 10,000km on single foraging trips. δ13C and δ15N values vary with trophic level and at the base of food webs throughout the marine range of the Hawaiian petrel. Thus, we are able to use isotope signatures in modern and ancient petrel tissues to track spatial and temporal variation in foraging location and diet. We find strong evidence of foraging segregation between populations, with hatch-year birds from the island of Hawaii exhibiting feather δ15N and δ13C values over 3‰ and 1 ‰ higher, respectively, than those found in Maui and Kauai hatch-year birds. There is also significant variation in δ15N values between feathers from Kauai, Hawaii, and Maui adults, indicating additional foraging segregation during the winter molt. To distinguish between the effects of trophic level and foraging location, we relate our data to those from seabirds with known diet and foraging location, as well as to previous characterizations of isoscapes in the NE Pacific and at-sea observations of our study species. Finally, we track Hawaiian petrel foraging ecology back in time through examination of stable isotope values in historical feathers and ancient bone collagen. We find that, despite a species-wide decline in δ15N values (consistent with trophic level decline), populations have maintained divergent isotopic niches through at least the past 1

  19. Why nurses chose to remain in the workforce: Portraits of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki; Jones, Bronwyn; Hendricks, Joyce

    2016-01-01

    This study explored why nurses chose to remain in the Western Australian workforce and to develop insights into the role of resilience of nurses and to identify the key characteristics of resilience displayed by these nurses. Nursing is a stressful profession. Prolific quantitative research which measures job stress and resilience has been implemented; however, there is a dearth of qualitative studies which hear the personal narratives as to why nurses remain and thrive in a stressful workplace. Vignettes of nursing resilience reveal underlying themes of resilience where personal stories and events are presented as narrative. Portraiture recognises the inherent value of the nurses' stories giving attention to the nature of their resilience. Interpretation illuminates the portraits or verbal canvasses of the told experience, reflecting success and positivity despite disarray in healthcare settings. Eight themes were identified. The portraits highlight a sometimes imperceptible theme of resilience within nursing. Nurses are resilient; they rely on the social support of colleagues, family and friends to continue to bear their mantle of responsibility. They take pride in their work and accomplishments and give to others altruistically. They laugh, they love nursing and they keep the needs of their patients, clients, residents or students foremost. This paper describes the hallmarks of resilience demonstrated by nurses. Resilience and its relationship to coping in times of adversity are captured within the portraits presented.

  20. Influence of remaining fission products in low-decontaminated fuel on reactor core characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Shigeo

    2002-07-01

    Design study of core, fuel and related fuel cycle system with low-decontaminated fuel has been performed in the framework of the feasibility study (F/S) on commercialized fast reactor cycle systems. This report summarizes the influence on core characteristics of remaining fission products (FPs) in low-decontaminated fuel related to the reprocessing systems nominated in F/S phase I. For simple treatment of the remaining FPs in core neutronics calculation the representative nuclide method parameterized by the FP equivalent coefficient and the FP volume fraction was developed, which enabled an efficient evaluation procedure. As a result of the investigation on the sodium cooled fast reactor with MOX fuel designed in fiscal year 1999, it was found that the pyrochemical reprocessing with molten salt (the RIAR method) brought the largest influence. Nevertheless, it was still within the allowable range. Assuming an infinite-times recycling, the alternations in core characteristics were evaluated as follows: increment of burnup reactivity by 0.5%Δk/kk', decrement of breeding ratio by 0.04, increment of sodium void reactivity by 0.1x10 -2 Δk/kk' and decrement of Doppler constant (in absolute value) by 0.7x10 -3 Tdk/dT. (author)

  1. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ...: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park... in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains... made by University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in...

  2. On the joint statistics of stable random processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E

    2011-01-01

    A utilitarian continuous bi-variate random process whose first-order probability density function is a stable random variable is constructed. Results paralleling some of those familiar from the theory of Gaussian noise are derived. In addition to the joint-probability density for the process, these include fractional moments and structure functions. Although the correlation functions for stable processes other than Gaussian do not exist, we show that there is coherence between values adopted by the process at different times, which identifies a characteristic evolution with time. The distribution of the derivative of the process, and the joint-density function of the value of the process and its derivative measured at the same time are evaluated. These enable properties to be calculated analytically such as level crossing statistics and those related to the random telegraph wave. When the stable process is fractal, the proportion of time it spends at zero is finite and some properties of this quantity are evaluated, an optical interpretation for which is provided. (paper)

  3. Au55, a stable glassy cluster: results of ab initio calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Vollath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Structure and properties of small nanoparticles are still under discussion. Moreover, some thermodynamic properties and the structural behavior still remain partially unknown. One of the best investigated nanoparticles is the Au55 cluster, which has been analyzed experimentally and theoretically. However, up to now, the results of these studies are still inconsistent. Consequently, we have carried out the present ab initio study of the Au55 cluster, using up-to-date computational concepts, in order to clarify these issues. Our calculations have confirmed the experimental result that the thermodynamically most stable structure is not crystalline, but it is glassy. The non-crystalline structure of this cluster was validated by comparison of the coordination numbers with those of a crystalline cluster. It was found that, in contrast to bulk materials, glass formation is connected to an energy release that is close to the melting enthalpy of bulk gold. Additionally, the surface energy of this cluster was calculated using two different theoretical approaches resulting in values close to the surface energy for bulk gold. It shall be emphasized that it is now possible to give a confidence interval for the value of the surface energy.

  4. Ballooning stable high beta tokamak equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Takashi; Azumi, Masafumi; Kurita, Gen-ichi; Takizuka, Tomonori; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1981-04-01

    The second stable regime of ballooning modes is numerically studied by using the two-dimensional tokamak transport code with the ballooning stability code. Using the simple FCT heating scheme, we find that the plasma can locally enter this second stable regime. And we obtained equilibria with fairly high beta (β -- 23%) stable against ballooning modes in a whole plasma region, by taking into account of finite thermal diffusion due to unstable ballooning modes. These results show that a tokamak fusion reactor can operate in a high beta state, which is economically favourable. (author)

  5. Development of stable isotope manufacturing in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokidychev, A.; Pokidycheva, M.

    1999-01-01

    For the past 25 years, Russia has relied heavily on the electromagnetic separation process for the production of middle and heavy mass stable isotopes. The separation of most light isotopes had been centered in Georgia which, after the collapse of the USSR, left Russia without this capability. In the mid-1970s, development of centrifuge technology for the separation of stable isotopes was begun. Alternative techniques such as laser separation, physical-chemical methods, and ion cyclotron resonance have also been investigated. Economic considerations have played a major role in the development and current status of the stable isotope enrichment capabilities of Russia

  6. Towards effective and stable probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarullina, D R; Damshkaln, L G; Bruslik, N L; Konovalova, O A; Ilinskaya, O N; Lozinsky, V I

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms, generally either lactobacilli or bifidobacteria, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host [1]. Due to the growing evidence of health benefits associated with their use, probiotics are of increasing interest and represent now a significant growth area in the functional foods industry [2]. However, to be effective, orally administered probiotics should survive preparation of dosage forms and passage through acidic environment of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Reaching the intestine, these microorganisms should be able to establish themselves, remain viable and perform their beneficial actions. In this context, oral formulations have to protect probiotic bacteria from gastric acidity and delay their release in the small intestine in order to allow their complete release in the colon. To evaluate effects of starch formulations of lactobacilli on their survival in gastric environment and probiotic properties. Nineteen Lactobacillus strains belonging to the species L. fermentum (14 strains), L. plantarum (4 strains), and L. rhamnosus (1 strain), were isolated from dairy products and probiotics, and were used in this study. Lactobacilli were cultured in de Man, Rogosa, Sharpe (MRS) broth (Merck, Germany) under microaerobic conditions at 37°C.Amylolytic activity of lactobacilli, cultured for 3-5 days on MRS agar supplemented with 1% soluble potato starch (SPS), was determined with iodine reagent (0.01 M I2-KI solution).Loading in starch was performed with L. plantarum 8PA3 bacteria ("Dry lactobacterin", Perm, Russia), which were resuspended to the concentration 1010 cells/mL in 10 mL of 0.85% NaCl solution and added to 90 mL of 2.5% SPS solution. Resulting mixture was frozen at -18°C and then lyophilized (Martin Christ Alpha 1-2 LDplus, Germany).Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of formulated L. plantarum 8PA3 cells were acquired in air by a Solver P47H atomic force microscope (NT

  7. Stable Isotopes and Oral Tori in Greenlandic Norse and Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumann, M.; Lynnerup, N.; Scott, G. R.

    2017-01-01

    Palatine (PT) and mandibular torus (MT) have long been of interest to dental researchers and anthropologists, but their aetiology remains unresolved. Some combination of genetic and environmental factors influences their expression, but the relative role of each remains contentious. Previous...... research has shown that the Greenlandic Norse exhibit exceptionally high frequencies and pronounced expressions of PT and MT. In this regard, they are significantly different from genetically related medieval Scandinavian populations, so environmental factors have to be considered. An earlier study...... that estimated stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions for a Greenlandic Norse sample makes it possible to compare directly PT and MT expression with the relative degree of marine protein intake. For comparative purposes, parallel observations were made on a Greenlandic Inuit sample. Some researchers...

  8. Stable isotope distribution in continental Maastrichtian vertebrates from the Haţeg Basin, South Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Csiki, Zoltan; Grigorescu, Dan

    2010-05-01

    and behaviour of the vertebrates. The large difference observed between the delta 18O and delta 13C of the eggshells and the surrounding mudstones, as well as the preservation of the 9 ‰ difference between the oxygen isotope composition of the Telmatosaurus eggshell and tooth enamel, indicate that diagenesis have not significantly altered the primary isotopic signal. Stable isotope compositions of both calcretes and phosphatic remains suggest warmer conditions during the deposition of the Tuştea sequence than during the deposition of the Sibişel sequence. The intra-tooth delta 18O patterns for Zalmoxes and Allodaposuchus show different magnitudes of isotopic variation, with lower values for Tuştea and higher for Sibişel. The calculated delta 18O body water enrichment for Kallokibotion bajazidi is similar to that found in the living turtle taxa. By contrast, in the case of Allodaposuchus, the isotopic enrichment is higher than for recent taxa. This suggests that, for Allodaposuchus, the body water was less buffered by a watery environment, which probably indicates more time spent outside water (i.e. more terrestrial habit). The delta 18O values for the teeth of Telmatosaurus and Zalmoxes are similar to those of Allodaposuchus, suggesting that, at the investigated sites, the body temperature of both dinosaurs was similar to that of the crocodile. The isotopic composition of calcretes, teeth and eggshells indicates a C3 vegetation and diet with delta 13C values between -27 to -29 ‰ (PDB) and the absence of large-scale habitat partitioning between the dinosaurs.

  9. Value-based genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun; Pan, Kathy; Fakih, Marwan; Pal, Sumanta; Salgia, Ravi

    2018-03-20

    Advancements in next-generation sequencing have greatly enhanced the development of biomarker-driven cancer therapies. The affordability and availability of next-generation sequencers have allowed for the commercialization of next-generation sequencing platforms that have found widespread use for clinical-decision making and research purposes. Despite the greater availability of tumor molecular profiling by next-generation sequencing at our doorsteps, the achievement of value-based care, or improving patient outcomes while reducing overall costs or risks, in the era of precision oncology remains a looming challenge. In this review, we highlight available data through a pre-established and conceptualized framework for evaluating value-based medicine to assess the cost (efficiency), clinical benefit (effectiveness), and toxicity (safety) of genomic profiling in cancer care. We also provide perspectives on future directions of next-generation sequencing from targeted panels to whole-exome or whole-genome sequencing and describe potential strategies needed to attain value-based genomics.

  10. Stable Isotope Group 1982 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences during 1982, in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and mass spectrometer instrumentation, is described

  11. Bartolome Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17'S, 90 deg 33' W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15'S, 90 deg, 05' W. Urvina Bay (Isabela...

  12. Stable Isotope Group 1983 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.

    1984-06-01

    The work of the Stable Isotope Group of the Institute of Nuclear Sciences in the fields of isotope geology, isotope hydrology, geochronology, isotope biology and related fields, and mass spectrometer instrumentation, during 1983, is described

  13. Stable atomic hydrogen: Polarized atomic beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niinikoski, T.O.; Penttilae, S.; Rieubland, J.M.; Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    We have carried out experiments with stable atomic hydrogen with a view to possible applications in polarized targets or polarized atomic beam sources. Recent results from the stabilization apparatus are described. The first stable atomic hydrogen beam source based on the microwave extraction method (which is being tested ) is presented. The effect of the stabilized hydrogen gas density on the properties of the source is discussed. (orig.)

  14. A Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate lifetime prediction of critical components in a system is important to maintaining the system’s reliable operation. To this end, many lifetime prediction methods have been developed to handle various failure-related data collected in different situations. Among these methods, machine learning and Bayesian updating are the most popular ones. In this article, a Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method that combines least-squares support vector machine with Bayesian inference is developed for predicting the remaining useful life of a microwave component. A degradation model describing the change in the component’s power gain over time is developed, and the point and interval remaining useful life estimates are obtained considering a predefined failure threshold. In our case study, the radial basis function neural network approach is also implemented for comparison purposes. The results indicate that the Bayesian least-squares support vector machine method is more precise and stable in predicting the remaining useful life of this type of components.

  15. Tracing carbon flow in an arctic marine food web using fatty acid-stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, S M; Wooller, M J; Springer, A M; Iverson, S J; McRoy, C P; Divoky, G J

    2008-08-01

    Global warming and the loss of sea ice threaten to alter patterns of productivity in arctic marine ecosystems because of a likely decline in primary productivity by sea ice algae. Estimates of the contribution of ice algae to total primary production range widely, from just 3 to >50%, and the importance of ice algae to higher trophic levels remains unknown. To help answer this question, we investigated a novel approach to food web studies by combining the two established methods of stable isotope analysis and fatty acid (FA) analysis--we determined the C isotopic composition of individual diatom FA and traced these biomarkers in consumers. Samples were collected near Barrow, Alaska and included ice algae, pelagic phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, seabirds, pinnipeds and cetaceans. Ice algae and pelagic phytoplankton had distinctive overall FA signatures and clear differences in delta(13)C for two specific diatom FA biomarkers: 16:4n-1 (-24.0+/-2.4 and -30.7+/-0.8 per thousand, respectively) and 20:5n-3 (-18.3+/-2.0 and -26.9+/-0.7 per thousand, respectively). Nearly all delta(13)C values of these two FA in consumers fell between the two stable isotopic end members. A mass balance equation indicated that FA material derived from ice algae, compared to pelagic diatoms, averaged 71% (44-107%) in consumers based on delta(13)C values of 16:4n-1, but only 24% (0-61%) based on 20:5n-3. Our estimates derived from 16:4n-1, which is produced only by diatoms, probably best represented the contribution of ice algae relative to pelagic diatoms. However, many types of algae produce 20:5n-3, so the lower value derived from it likely represented a more realistic estimate of the proportion of ice algae material relative to all other types of phytoplankton. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential value of compound-specific isotope analysis of marine lipids to trace C flow through marine food webs and provide a foundation for future work.

  16. Unit of stable isotopic N15 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabrera de Bisbal, Evelin; Paredes U, Maria

    1997-01-01

    active roots. The location of areas with higher density of absorbent roots and the way as they vary with the stations. The inorganic fertilizers can be substituted, in certain measure, by other sources of nutriments that are available in the town or that are less expensive. As well as the leguminous and other families, in symbiosis with the appropriate microorganisms can use the atmospheric N 2 directly. The N 1 5 isotopic techniques are really reliable to obtain quantitative and integrated fixed nitrogen values, either in natural or agricultural systems. Besides the supply of nutriments, the water is one of the main restrictive factors for the domestic agricultural production. The application of radiation techniques using neutron probe and gamma densitometers allows the development of methods to handle rain waters under agricultural drought conditions or to improve the efficiency of the irrigation use of water. The Stable Isotopes N 1 5 Analysis Laboratory, of the Laboratory Unit of the Agroecologic Resources Investigations Institute (IIRA), of CENIAP, provides from its foundation, a valuable service support to the investigation of nitrogen fertilization, aswell as alternative nitrogen sources (biological fixation), and in the development of water handling methods. The laboratory was installed in 1989, with the collaboration of the International Atomic Energy Agency. This laboratory is in capacity to analyze N 1 5 in water, land and vegetable tissue. The number of samples analyzed through these eight years of activities is 2000, being beneficiaries of this service diverse national agricultural research institutions (UCV, IVIC, LUZ and FONAIAP). The projects that have been assisted by the laboratory cover the areas previously mentioned, promoting the generation and deepening of knowledge, which helps to obtain a maximum efficiency in the use of nitrogen fertilizers and water, in the main domestic cropping systems [es

  17. Local Search Approaches in Stable Matching Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Walsh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The stable marriage (SM problem has a wide variety of practical applications, ranging from matching resident doctors to hospitals, to matching students to schools or, more generally, to any two-sided market. In the classical formulation, n men and n women express their preferences (via a strict total order over the members of the other sex. Solving an SM problem means finding a stable marriage where stability is an envy-free notion: no man and woman who are not married to each other would both prefer each other to their partners or to being single. We consider both the classical stable marriage problem and one of its useful variations (denoted SMTI (Stable Marriage with Ties and Incomplete lists where the men and women express their preferences in the form of an incomplete preference list with ties over a subset of the members of the other sex. Matchings are permitted only with people who appear in these preference lists, and we try to find a stable matching that marries as many people as possible. Whilst the SM problem is polynomial to solve, the SMTI problem is NP-hard. We propose to tackle both problems via a local search approach, which exploits properties of the problems to reduce the size of the neighborhood and to make local moves efficiently. We empirically evaluate our algorithm for SM problems by measuring its runtime behavior and its ability to sample the lattice of all possible stable marriages. We evaluate our algorithm for SMTI problems in terms of both its runtime behavior and its ability to find a maximum cardinality stable marriage. Experimental results suggest that for SM problems, the number of steps of our algorithm grows only as O(n log(n, and that it samples very well the set of all stable marriages. It is thus a fair and efficient approach to generate stable marriages. Furthermore, our approach for SMTI problems is able to solve large problems, quickly returning stable matchings of large and often optimal size, despite the

  18. Changes of stable isotopes carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 in different tissues of cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fengmei; Yu Hongxia; Wu Wei; Yang Shuming

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis is a potential tool for tracing food origin. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition in different tissues of two varieties of cattle under the same culture condition were investigated. δ 13 C and δ 15 N values of different defatted muscle and crude fat, cattle tail hair, blood, liver and feed were determined by isotope ratio mass spectrometry, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen composition was not affected by cattle variety; the δ 13 C values between different defatted muscle, blood, liver and cattle hair were not significantly different, but δ 15 N value in the liver was much higher than other muscle and the δ 13 C values didn't show difference among all the crude fat samples. So these results indicated that isotope fractionation in the various tissue was discrepant. (authors)

  19. Stable Isotopes of Precipitation During Tropical Sumatra Squalls in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shaoneng; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Kurita, Naoyuki; Wang, Xianfeng; Rubin, Charles Martin

    2018-04-01

    Sumatra Squalls, organized bands of thunderstorms, are the dominant mesoscale convective systems during the intermonsoon and southwest monsoon seasons in Singapore. To understand how they affect precipitation isotopes, we monitored the δ value of precipitation daily and continuously (every second and integrated over 30 s) during all squalls in 2015. We found that precipitation δ18O values mainly exhibit a "V"-shape pattern and less commonly a "W"-shape pattern. Variation in δ18O values during a single event is about 1 to 6‰ with the lowest values mostly observed in the stratiform zone, which agrees with previous observations and modeling simulations. Reevaporation can significantly affect δ values, especially in the last stage of the stratiform zone. Daily precipitation is characterized by periodic negative shifts in δ value, largely associated with the squalls rather than moisture source change. The shifts can be more than 10‰, larger than intraevent variation. Initial δ18O values of events are highly variable, and those with the lowest values also have the lowest initial values. Therefore, past convective activities in the upwind area can significantly affect the δ18O, and convection at the sampling site has limited contribution to isotopic variability. A significant correlation between precipitation δ18O value and regional outgoing longwave radiation and rainfall in the Asian monsoon region and western Pacific suggests that regional organized convection probably drives stable isotopic compositions of precipitation. A drop in the frequency of the squalls in 2015 is related to weak organized convection in the region caused by El Niño.

  20. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of chondrites and silicate planetary reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Ronny; Merdian, Alexandra; Holmden, Chris; Kleinhanns, Ilka C.; Haßler, Kathrin; Wille, Martin; Reitter, Elmar

    2016-06-01

    The depletion of chromium in Earth's mantle (∼2700 ppm) in comparison to chondrites (∼4400 ppm) indicates significant incorporation of chromium into the core during our planet's metal-silicate differentiation, assuming that there was no significant escape of the moderately volatile element chromium during the accretionary phase of Earth. Stable Cr isotope compositions - expressed as the ‰-difference in 53Cr/52Cr from the terrestrial reference material SRM979 (δ53/52CrSRM979 values) - of planetary silicate reservoirs might thus yield information about the conditions of planetary metal segregation processes when compared to chondrites. The stable Cr isotopic compositions of 7 carbonaceous chondrites, 11 ordinary chondrites, 5 HED achondrites and 2 martian meteorites determined by a double spike MC-ICP-MS method are within uncertainties indistinguishable from each other and from the previously determined δ53/52CrSRM979 value of -0.124 ± 0.101‰ for the igneous silicate Earth. Extensive quality tests support the accuracy of the stable Cr isotope determinations of various meteorites and terrestrial silicates reported here. The uniformity in stable Cr isotope compositions of samples from planetary silicate mantles and undifferentiated meteorites indicates that metal-silicate differentiation of Earth, Mars and the HED parent body did not cause measurable stable Cr isotope fractionation between these two reservoirs. Our results also imply that the accretionary disc, at least in the inner solar system, was homogeneous in its stable Cr isotopic composition and that potential volatility loss of chromium during accretion of the terrestrial planets was not accompanied by measurable stable isotopic fractionation. Small but reproducible variations in δ53/52CrSRM979 values of terrestrial magmatic rocks point to natural stable Cr isotope variations within Earth's silicate reservoirs. Further and more detailed studies are required to investigate whether silicate

  1. Stable isotope ratios of marijuana. I. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes describe growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jason B; Hurley, Janet M; Ehleringer, James R

    2009-01-01

    There remains significant uncertainty in illicit marijuana cultivation. We analyzed the delta(13)C and delta(15)N of 508 domestic samples from known U.S.A. counties, 31 seized from a single location, 5 samples grown in Mexico and Colombia, and 10 northwest border seizures. For a subset, inflorescences and leaves were analyzed separately. These data revealed a strong correspondence, with inflorescences having slightly higher delta(13)C and delta(15)N values than leaves. A framework for interpreting these results is introduced and evaluated. Samples identified as outdoor-grown by delta(13)C were generally recorded as such by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). DEA-classified indoor-grown samples had the most negative delta(13)C values, consistent with indoor cultivation, although many were also in the outdoor-grown domain. Delta(15)N indicated a wide range of fertilizers across the dataset. Samples seized at the single location suggested multiple sources. Northwest border delta(13)C values suggested indoor growth, whereas for the Mexican and Colombian samples they indicated outdoor growth.

  2. Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchagin, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist

  3. The stable model semantics under the any-world assumption

    OpenAIRE

    Straccia, Umberto; Loyer, Yann

    2004-01-01

    The stable model semantics has become a dominating approach to complete the knowledge provided by a logic program by means of the Closed World Assumption (CWA). The CWA asserts that any atom whose truth-value cannot be inferred from the facts and rules is supposed to be false. This assumption is orthogonal to the so-called the Open World Assumption (OWA), which asserts that every such atom's truth is supposed to be unknown. The topic of this paper is to be more fine-grained. Indeed, the objec...

  4. Decoupling the IT Value-chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    using an IT-based value chain framework. The cross case analysis suggest that a stable pattern emerges and the new role of ES in managing business processes is discussed. The paper suggests that two important architectural structures emerge and it is proposed that the management of these structures...

  5. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 ° C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 ° C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 ° C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 ° C, 0 ° C, 6 ° C and 24 ° C upon storage for one year.

  6. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  7. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  8. The friction coefficient of shoulder joints remains remarkably low over 24 h of loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K; Durney, Krista M; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2015-11-05

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Eight human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean±standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. The Friction Coefficient of Shoulder Joints Remains Remarkably Low Over 24 h of Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian K.; Durney, Krista M.; Hung, Clark T.; Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2015-01-01

    The frictional response of whole human joints over durations spanning activities of daily living has not been reported previously. This study measured the friction of human glenohumeral joints during 24 h of reciprocal loading in a pendulum testing device, at moderate (0.2 mm/s, 4320 cycles) and low (0.02 mm/s, 432 cycles) sliding speeds, under a 200 N load. The effect of joint congruence was also investigated by testing human humeral heads against significantly larger mature bovine glenoids. Six human joints and six bovine joints were tested in four combinations: human joints tested at moderate (hHCMS, n=6) and low speed (hHCLS, n=3), human humeral heads tested against bovine glenoids at moderate speed (LCMS, n=3), and bovine joints tested at moderate speed (bHCMS, n=3). In the first half hour the mean ± standard deviation of the friction coefficient was hHCMS: 0.0016±0.0011, hHCLS: 0.0012±0.0002, LCMS: 0.0008±0.0002 and bHCMS: 0.0024±0.0008; in the last four hours it was hHCMS: 0.0057±0.0025, hHCLS: 0.0047±0.0017, LCMS: 0.0012±0.0003 and bHCMS: 0.0056±0.0016. The initial value was lower than the final value (pfriction coefficient of natural human shoulders remains remarkably low (averaging as little as 0.0015 and no greater than 0.006) for up to 24 h of continuous loading. The sustained low friction coefficients observed in incongruent joints (~0.001) likely represent rolling rather than sliding friction. PMID:26472306

  10. Expanding the isotopic toolbox: Applications of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios to food web studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hannah B Vander Zanden; David X Soto; Gabriel J Bowen; Keith A Hobson; Keith A Hobson

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicat...

  11. Expanding the Isotopic Toolbox: Applications of Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Ratios to Food Web Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vander Zanden, Hannah B.; Soto, David X.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Hobson, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of stable carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotopes in tissues of organisms has formed the foundation of isotopic food web reconstructions, as these values directly reflect assimilated diet. In contrast, stable hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) isotope measurements have typically been reserved for studies of migratory origin and paleoclimate reconstruction based on systematic relationships between organismal tissue and local environmental water. Recently, innovative applicatio...

  12. Active Fault Tolerant Control of Livestock Stable Ventilation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gholami, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

    Modern stables and greenhouses are equipped with different components for providing a comfortable climate for animals and plant. A component malfunction may result in loss of production. Therefore, it is desirable to design a control system, which is stable, and is able to provide an acceptable d...... are not included, while due to the physical limitation, the input signal can not have any value. In continuing, a passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC) based on state feedback is proposed to track a reference signal while the control inputs are bounded....... of fault. Designing a fault tolerant control scheme for the climate control system. In the first step, a conceptual multi-zone model for climate control of a live-stock building is derived. The model is a nonlinear hybrid model. Hybrid systems contain both discrete and continuous components. The parameters...... affine (PWA) components such as dead-zones, saturation, etc or contain piecewise nonlinear models which is the case for the climate control systems of the stables. Fault tolerant controller (FTC) is based on a switching scheme between a set of predefined passive fault tolerant controller (PFTC...

  13. Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook

    2015-10-01

    Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endemism hotspots are linked to stable climatic refugia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Susan; Noss, Reed

    2017-01-01

    Centres of endemism have received much attention from evolutionists, biogeographers, ecologists and conservationists. Climatic stability is often cited as a major reason for the occurrences of these geographic concentrations of species which are not found anywhere else. The proposed linkage between endemism and climatic stability raises unanswered questions about the persistence of biodiversity during the present era of rapidly changing climate. The current status of evidence linking geographic centres of endemism to climatic stability over evolutionary time was examined. The following questions were asked. Do macroecological analyses support such an endemism-stability linkage? Do comparative studies find that endemic species display traits reflecting evolution in stable climates? Will centres of endemism in microrefugia or macrorefugia remain relatively stable and capable of supporting high biological diversity into the future? What are the implications of the endemism-stability linkage for conservation? Recent work using the concept of climate change velocity supports the classic idea that centres of endemism occur where past climatic fluctuations have been mild and where mountainous topography or favourable ocean currents contribute to creating refugia. Our knowledge of trait differences between narrow endemics and more widely distributed species remains highly incomplete. Current knowledge suggests that centres of endemism will remain relatively climatically buffered in the future, with the important caveat that absolute levels of climatic change and species losses in these regions may still be large. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Petrography and stable isotope geochemistry of Oligocene-Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas: Implications for paleoclimate and paleoenvironment near sea-level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Conan; Fan, Majie; Jesmok, Greg; Upadhyay, Deepshikha; Tripati, Aradhna

    2018-05-01

    Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the southern Texas Gulf Coastal Plains contain abundant continental carbonates that are useful for reconstructing terrestrial paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in a region near sea-level. Our field observations and thin section characterizations of the Oligocene and Miocene continental carbonates in south Texas identified three types of pedogenic carbonates, including rhizoliths, carbonate nodules, and platy horizons, and two types of groundwater carbonates, including carbonate-cemented beds and carbonate concretions, with distinctive macromorphologic and micromorphologic features. Based on preservations of authigenic microfabrics and variations of carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions, we suggest these carbonates experienced minimal diagenesis, and their stable isotopic compositions reflect paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in south Texas. Our Oligocene and Miocene carbonate clumped isotope temperatures (T(Δ47)) are 23-28 °C, slightly less than or comparable to the range of modern mean annual and mean warm season air temperature (21-27 °C) in the study area. These T(Δ47) values do not show any dependency on carbonate-type, or trends through time suggesting that groundwater carbonates were formed at shallow depths. These data could indicate that air temperature in south Texas was relatively stable since the early Oligocene. The reconstructed paleo-surface water δ18O values are similar to modern surface water which could indicate that meteoric water δ18O values also remained stable since the early Oligocene. Mean pedogenic carbonate δ13C values increased - 4.6‰ during the late Miocene, most likely reflecting an expansion of C4 grassland in south Texas. This study provides the first mid- and late Cenozoic continental records of paleoclimate and paleoecology in a low-latitude, near sea-level region.

  16. Nuclear Power Remains Important Energy Option for Many Countries, IAEA Ministerial Conference Concludes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    expansion of nuclear power takes place in a way which results in maximum safety, reliability and efficiency, and guards against the proliferation of nuclear weapons. We will remain a reliable partner for all of our Member States.'' ''We are far from achieving our environmental goal of limiting increases in average world temperature. Bolder and more innovative efforts are required, and nuclear energy can and must be part of the solution,'' said OECD Secretary-General Angel Gurria in a message. ''But it is essential to do so in a safe and economically competitive manner. Only thus, will it be possible to take advantage of the long-term, carbon-free security of supply and stable prices that nuclear energy has to offer.'' 38 ministers were among 500 participants representing 89 countries and 7 international organisations at the Conference, held 27-29 June in St. Petersburg. The concluding statement said nuclear power, as a stable base-load source of electricity complements other energy sources including renewables, and many states look to it to reduce the impact of volatile fossil fuel prices and mitigate climate change. At the same time, participants emphasised the need for high levels of nuclear safety. ''It is fully recognised that nuclear accidents have no borders and nuclear safety must be robust, effective and transparent,'' the statement said, adding that global nuclear safety had been strengthened through comprehensive safety reassessments by IAEA Member States, and through additional measures to improve plant safety, regulatory oversight, emergency preparedness and international collaboration. Participants reaffirmed their commitment to the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety to strengthen the global nuclear safety framework, and emphasised the IAEA's central role in international cooperation on nuclear safety and the peaceful use of nuclear energy, including the generation of electricity. The significant contribution of the OECD/NEA to safety and economic analyses of

  17. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  18. Stable Chimeras and Independently Synchronizable Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Sul; Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2017-08-01

    Cluster synchronization is a phenomenon in which a network self-organizes into a pattern of synchronized sets. It has been shown that diverse patterns of stable cluster synchronization can be captured by symmetries of the network. Here, we establish a theoretical basis to divide an arbitrary pattern of symmetry clusters into independently synchronizable cluster sets, in which the synchronization stability of the individual clusters in each set is decoupled from that in all the other sets. Using this framework, we suggest a new approach to find permanently stable chimera states by capturing two or more symmetry clusters—at least one stable and one unstable—that compose the entire fully symmetric network.

  19. On some topological properties of stable measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Krabbe

    1996-01-01

    Summary The paper shows that the set of stable probability measures and the set of Rational Beliefs relative to a given stationary measure are closed in the strong topology, but not closed in the topology of weak convergence. However, subsets of the set of stable probability measures which...... are characterized by uniformity of convergence of the empirical distribution are closed in the topology of weak convergence. It is demonstrated that such subsets exist. In particular, there is an increasing sequence of sets of SIDS measures who's union is the set of all SIDS measures generated by a particular...... system and such that each subset consists of stable measures. The uniformity requirement has a natural interpretation in terms of plausibility of Rational Beliefs...

  20. Punishment in public goods games leads to meta-stable phase transitions and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of cooperation has been a perennial problem in evolutionary biology because cooperation can be undermined by selfish cheaters who gain an advantage in the short run, while compromising the long-term viability of the population. Evolutionary game theory has shown that under certain conditions, cooperation nonetheless evolves stably, for example if players have the opportunity to punish cheaters that benefit from a public good yet refuse to pay into the common pool. However, punishment has remained enigmatic because it is costly and difficult to maintain. On the other hand, cooperation emerges naturally in the public goods game if the synergy of the public good (the factor multiplying the public good investment) is sufficiently high. In terms of this synergy parameter, the transition from defection to cooperation can be viewed as a phase transition with the synergy as the critical parameter. We show here that punishment reduces the critical value at which cooperation occurs, but also creates the possibility of meta-stable phase transitions, where populations can ‘tunnel’ into the cooperating phase below the critical value. At the same time, cooperating populations are unstable even above the critical value, because a group of defectors that are large enough can ‘nucleate’ such a transition. We study the mean-field theoretical predictions via agent-based simulations of finite populations using an evolutionary approach where the decisions to cooperate or to punish are encoded genetically in terms of evolvable probabilities. We recover the theoretical predictions and demonstrate that the population shows hysteresis, as expected in systems that exhibit super-heating and super-cooling. We conclude that punishment can stabilize populations of cooperators below the critical point, but it is a two-edged sword: it can also stabilize defectors above the critical point.

  1. Highly selective and stable carbon dioxide uptake in polyindole-derived microporous carbon materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Muhammad; Tiwari, Jitendra N; Kemp, K Christain; Yousuf, Muhammad; Kim, Kwang S

    2013-05-21

    Adsorption with solid sorbents is considered to be one of the most promising methods for the capture of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from power plant flue gases. In this study, microporous carbon materials used for CO₂ capture were synthesized by the chemical activation of polyindole nanofibers (PIF) at temperatures from 500 to 800 °C using KOH, which resulted in nitrogen (N)-doped carbon materials. The N-doped carbon materials were found to be microporous with an optimal adsorption pore size for CO₂ of 0.6 nm and a maximum (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller) BET surface area of 1185 m(2) g(-1). The PIF activated at 600 °C (PIF6) has a surface area of 527 m(2) g(-1) and a maximum CO₂ storage capacity of 3.2 mmol g(-1) at 25 °C and 1 bar. This high CO₂ uptake is attributed to its highly microporous character and optimum N content. Additionally, PIF6 material displays a high CO₂ uptake at low pressure (1.81 mmol g(-1) at 0.2 bar and 25 °C), which is the best low pressure CO₂ uptake reported for carbon-based materials. The adsorption capacity of this material remained remarkably stable even after 10 cycles. The isosteric heat of adsorption was calculated to be in the range of 42.7-24.1 kJ mol(-1). Besides the excellent CO₂ uptake and stability, PIF6 also exhibits high selectivity values for CO₂ over N₂, CH₄, and H₂ of 58.9, 12.3, and 101.1 at 25 °C, respectively, and these values are significantly higher than reported values.

  2. 75 FR 5108 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY AGENCY: National Park Service... funerary objects in the possession and control of the University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository professional staff in consultation with...

  3. Stable isotope deltas: Tiny, yet robust signatures in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Willi A.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    2012-01-01

    Although most of them are relatively small, stable isotope deltas of naturally occurring substances are robust and enable workers in anthropology, atmospheric sciences, biology, chemistry, environmental sciences, food and drug authentication, forensic science, geochemistry, geology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology to study a variety of topics. Two fundamental processes explain the stable isotope deltas measured in most terrestrial systems: isotopic fractionation and isotope mixing. Isotopic fractionation is the result of equilibrium or kinetic physicochemical processes that fractionate isotopes because of small differences in physical or chemical properties of molecular species having different isotopes. It is shown that the mixing of radioactive and stable isotope end members can be modelled to provide information on many natural processes, including 14C abundances in the modern atmosphere and the stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic compositions of the oceans during glacial and interglacial times. The calculation of mixing fractions using isotope balance equations with isotope deltas can be substantially in error when substances with high concentrations of heavy isotopes (e.g. 13C, 2H, and 18O ) are mixed. In such cases, calculations using mole fractions are preferred as they produce accurate mixing fractions. Isotope deltas are dimensionless quantities. In the International System of Units (SI), these quantities have the unit 1 and the usual list of prefixes is not applicable. To overcome traditional limitations with expressing orders of magnitude differences in isotope deltas, we propose the term urey (symbol Ur), after Harold C. Urey, for the unit 1. In such a manner, an isotope delta value expressed traditionally as−25 per mil can be written as−25 mUr (or−2.5 cUr or−0.25 dUr; the use of any SI prefix is possible). Likewise, very small isotopic differences often expressed in per meg ‘units’ are easily included (e.g. either+0.015 ‰ or+15 per meg

  4. Stable isotope tracing of Ni and Cu pollution in North-East Norway: Potentials and drawbacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šillerová, Hana; Chrastný, Vladislav; Vítková, Martina; Francová, Anna; Jehlička, Jan; Gutsch, Marissa R; Kocourková, Jana; Aspholm, Paul E; Nilsson, Lars O; Berglen, Tore F; Jensen, Henning K B; Komárek, Michael

    2017-09-01

    The use of Ni and Cu isotopes for tracing contamination sources in the environment remains a challenging task due to the limited information about the influence of various biogeochemical processes influencing stable isotope fractionation. This work focuses on a relatively simple system in north-east Norway with two possible endmembers (smelter-bedrock) and various environmental samples (snow, soil, lichens, PM 10 ). In general, the whole area is enriched in heavy Ni and Cu isotopes highlighting the impact of the smelting activity. However, the environmental samples exhibit a large range of δ 60 Ni (-0.01 ± 0.03‰ to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and δ 65 Cu (-0.06 ± 0.06‰ to -3.94 ± 0.3‰) values which exceeds the range of δ 60 Ni and δ 65 Cu values determined in the smelter, i.e. in feeding material and slag (δ 60 Ni from 0.56 ± 0.06‰ to 1.00 ± 0.06‰ and δ 65 Cu from -1.67 ± 0.04‰ to -1.68 ± 0.15‰). The shift toward heavier Ni and Cu δ values was the most significant in organic rich topsoil samples in the case of Ni (δ 60 Ni up to 1.71 ± 0.02‰) and in lichens and snow in the case of Cu (δ 65 Cu up to -0.06 ± 0.06‰ and -0.24 ± 0.04‰, respectively). These data suggest an important biological and biochemical fractionation (microorganisms and/or metal uptake by higher plants, organo-complexation etc.) of Ni and Cu isotopes, which should be quantified separately for each process and taken into account when using the stable isotopes for tracing contamination in the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Faster and Simpler Approximation of Stable Matchings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Paluch

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We give a 3 2 -approximation algorithm for finding stable matchings that runs in O(m time. The previous most well-known algorithm, by McDermid, has the same approximation ratio but runs in O(n3/2m time, where n denotes the number of people andm is the total length of the preference lists in a given instance. In addition, the algorithm and the analysis are much simpler. We also give the extension of the algorithm for computing stable many-to-many matchings.

  6. Moving stable solitons in Galileon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoumi, Ali; Xiao Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Despite the no-go theorem Endlich et al. (2011) which rules out static stable solitons in Galileon theory, we propose a family of solitons that evade the theorem by traveling at the speed of light. These domain-wall-like solitons are stable under small fluctuations-analysis of perturbation shows neither ghost-like nor tachyon-like instabilities, and perturbative collision of these solitons suggests that they pass through each other asymptotically, which maybe an indication of the integrability of the theory itself.

  7. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  8. Stable isotopes in Lithuanian bioarcheological material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skipityte, Raminta; Jankauskas, Rimantas; Remeikis, Vidmantas

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of bioarcheological material of ancient human populations allows us to understand the subsistence behavior associated with various adaptations to the environment. Feeding habits are essential to the survival and growth of ancient populations. Stable isotope analysis is accepted tool in paleodiet (Schutkowski et al, 1999) and paleoenvironmental (Zernitskaya et al, 2014) studies. However, stable isotopes can be useful not only in investigating human feeding habits but also in describing social and cultural structure of the past populations (Le Huray and Schutkowski, 2005). Only few stable isotope investigations have been performed before in Lithuanian region suggesting a quite uniform diet between males and females and protein intake from freshwater fish and animal protein. Previously, stable isotope analysis has only been used to study a Stone Age population however, more recently studies have been conducted on Iron Age and Late medieval samples (Jacobs et al, 2009). Anyway, there was a need for more precise examination. Stable isotope analysis were performed on human bone collagen and apatite samples in this study. Data represented various ages (from 5-7th cent. to 18th cent.). Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis on medieval populations indicated that individuals in studied sites in Lithuania were almost exclusively consuming C3 plants, C3 fed terrestrial animals, and some freshwater resources. Current investigation demonstrated social differences between elites and country people and is promising in paleodietary and daily life reconstruction. Acknowledgement I thank prof. dr. G. Grupe, Director of the Anthropological and Palaeoanatomical State Collection in Munich for providing the opportunity to work in her laboratory. The part of this work was funded by DAAD. Antanaitis-Jacobs, Indre, et al. "Diet in early Lithuanian prehistory and the new stable isotope evidence." Archaeologia Baltica 12 (2009): 12-30. Le Huray, Jonathan D., and Holger

  9. Unconditionally stable microwave Si-IMPATT amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddik, M.M.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation has been the development of an improved understanding of the design and analysis of microwave reflection amplifiers employing the negative resistance property of the IMPATT devices. Unconditionally stable amplifier circuit using a Silicon IMPATT diode is designed. The problems associated with the design procedures and the stability criterion are discussed. A computer program is developed to perform the computations. The stable characteristics of a reflection-type Si-IMPATT amplifier, such as gain, frequency and bandwidth are examined. It was found that at large signal drive levels, 7 dB gain with bandwidth of 800 MHz at 22,5 mA was obtained. (author)

  10. Tennessee's forest land area was stable 1999-2005 but early successional forest area declined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt

    2008-01-01

    A new analysis of the most recent (2005) annualized moving average data for Tennessee indicates that the area of forest land in the State remained stable between 1999 and 2005. Although trends in forest land area vary from region to region within the State, Tennessee neither lost nor gained forest land between 1999 and 2005. However, Tennessee had more than 2.5 times...

  11. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, J.V.; Shaw, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    [ 35 S]Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100 degree C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered

  12. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  13. Effects of euthanasia method on stable-carbon and stable-nitrogen isotope analysis for an ectothermic vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Meredith A

    2013-04-30

    Stable isotope analysis is a critical tool for understanding ecological food webs; however, results can be sensitive to sample preparation methods. To limit the possibility of sample contamination, freezing is commonly used to euthanize invertebrates and preserve non-lethal samples from vertebrates. For destructive sampling of vertebrates, more humane euthanasia methods are preferred to freezing and it is essential to evaluate how these euthanasia methods affect stable isotope results. Stable isotope ratios and elemental composition of carbon and nitrogen were used to evaluate whether the euthanasia method compromised the integrity of the sample for analysis. Specifically, the stable isotope and C:N ratios were compared for larval wood frogs (Rana sylvatica  =  Lithobates sylvaticus), an ectothermic vertebrate, that had been euthanized by freezing with four different humane euthanasia methods: CO2, benzocaine, MS-222 (tricaine methanesulfonate), and 70% ethanol. The euthanasia method was not related to the δ(13)C or δ(15)N values and the comparisons revealed no differences between freezing and any of the other treatments. However, there were slight (non-significant) differences in the isotope ratios of benzocaine and CO2 when each was compared with freezing. The elemental composition was altered by the euthanasia method employed. The percentage nitrogen was higher in CO2 treatments than in freezing, and similar (non-significant) trends were seen for ethanol treatments relative to freezing. The resulting C:N ratios were higher for benzocaine treatments than for both CO2 and ethanol. Similar (non-significant) trends suggested that the C:N ratios were also higher for animals euthanized by freezing than for both CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods. The euthanasia method had a larger effect on elemental composition than stable isotope ratios. The percentage nitrogen and the subsequent C:N ratios were most affected by the CO2 and ethanol euthanasia methods, whereas

  14. VALUE ANALYSIS FROM A FINANCIAL STANDPOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAKİ RIZA BALCI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually, every product has its own value stream during its manufacturing process. It begins with “designing a new product” and ends with “after-sale supports”. Encountering waste along value stream is not easy task. Overproduction, inventory, motion, waiting, transportations, over-processing and defects will affect the analysis about value along value streams. Important point is to determine waste systematic in order to get a perfect stable value which suits customer expectations. New manufacturing philosophies change the business nature and seek waste with bigger lens, because of that, Accounting shifted its paradigm and can help to determine waste in a value stream. This article compiles and analyzes the literature to show how accounting helps to find waste, which affects the entire value stream and analysis about it.

  15. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable isotopes determination in some Romanian fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana Alina; Puscas, Romulus

    2011-09-01

    The characterisation of 45 Romanian single-strength fruit juices (apples, pears, plums and grapes) collected from different Transylvanian areas by means of stable isotope approach are presented and discussed in this study. We measured (2)H/(1)H, (18)O/(16)O ratios from water juice and (13)C/(12)C from pulp and compared these results with those already reported in the literature for single-strength juices, in order to see how the geographical and climatic conditions of Transylvania and the meteorological peculiarities of the year 2010 influence the isotopic composition of the investigated fruit juices. The δ(13)C mean values that we found for apple pulp picked up from different Transylvanian areas show slight differences, probably due to the environmental conditions of the plants. No significant correlation either between the variety of apple or the geographical origin and δ(13)C value was established.

  17. Stable structures of coalitions in competitive and altruistic military teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurangzeb, M.; Mikulski, D.; Hudas, G.; Lewis, F. L.; Gu, Edward

    2013-05-01

    In heterogeneous battlefield teams, the balance between team and individual objectives forms the basis for the internal topological structure of teams. The stability of team structure is studied by presenting a graphical coalitional game (GCG) with Positional Advantage (PA). PA is Shapley value strengthened by the Axioms of value. The notion of team and individual objectives is studied by defining altruistic and competitive contribution made by an individual; altruistic and competitive contributions made by an agent are components of its total or marginal contribution. Moreover, the paper examines dynamic team effects by defining three online sequential decision games based on marginal, competitive and altruistic contributions of the individuals towards team. The stable graphs under these sequential decision games are studied and found to be structurally connected, complete, or tree respectively.

  18. Review of the Dinosaur Remains from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. L. Clark

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dinosaurs are rare from the Middle Jurassic worldwide. The Isle of Skye, is the only place in Scotland thus far to have produced dinosaur remains. These remains consist mainly of footprints, but also several bones and teeth. These Bajocian and Bathonian remains represent an important collection of a basal eusauropod, early examples of non-neosauropod and possible basal titanosauriform eusauropods, and theropod remains that may belong to an early coelurosaur and a possible megalosaurid, basal tyrannosauroid, or dromaeosaurid. The footprints from here also suggest a rich and diverse dinosaur fauna for which further better diagnosable remains are likely to be found.

  19. Stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotopes in non-carbonate fractions of cold-seep carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dong; Peng, Yongbo; Peckmann, Jörn; Roberts, Harry; Chen, Duofu

    2017-04-01

    Sulfate-driven anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) supports chemosynthesis-based communities and limits the release of methane from marine sediments. This process promotes the formation of carbonates close to the seafloor along continental margins. The geochemical characteristics of the carbonate minerals of these rocks are increasingly understood, questions remain about the geochemical characteristics of the non-carbonate fractions. Here, we report stable carbon, nitrogen and sulfur isotope patterns in non-carbonate fractions of seep carbonates. The authigenic carbonates were collected from three modern seep provinces (Black Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and South China Sea) and three ancient seep deposits (Marmorito, northern Italy, Miocene; SR4 deposit of the Lincoln Creek Formation and Whiskey Creek, western Washington, USA, Eocene to Oligocene). The δ13C values of non-carbonate fractions range from ˜-25‰ to -80‰ VPDB. These values indicate that fossil methane mixed with varying amounts of pelagic organic matter is the dominant source of carbon in these fractions. The relatively small offset between the δ34S signatures of the non-carbonate fractions and the respective sulfide minerals suggests that locally produced hydrogen sulfide is the main source of sulfur in seep environments. The δ15N values of the non-carbonate fractions are generally lower than the corresponding values of deep-sea sediments, suggesting that organic nitrogen is mostly of a local origin. This study reveals the potential of using δ13C, δ15N, δ34S values to discern seep and non-seep deposits. In cases where δ13Ccarbonate values are only moderately low due to mixing processes and lipid biomarkers have been erased in the course of burial, it is difficult to trace back AOM owing to the lack of other records. This problem is even more pronounced when authigenic carbonate is not available in ancient seep environments. Acknowledgments: The authors thank BOEM and NOAA for their years' support

  20. Tapered composite likelihood for spatial max-stable models

    KAUST Repository

    Sang, Huiyan

    2014-05-01

    Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.

  1. Tapered composite likelihood for spatial max-stable models

    KAUST Repository

    Sang, Huiyan; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    Spatial extreme value analysis is useful to environmental studies, in which extreme value phenomena are of interest and meaningful spatial patterns can be discerned. Max-stable process models are able to describe such phenomena. This class of models is asymptotically justified to characterize the spatial dependence among extremes. However, likelihood inference is challenging for such models because their corresponding joint likelihood is unavailable and only bivariate or trivariate distributions are known. In this paper, we propose a tapered composite likelihood approach by utilizing lower dimensional marginal likelihoods for inference on parameters of various max-stable process models. We consider a weighting strategy based on a "taper range" to exclude distant pairs or triples. The "optimal taper range" is selected to maximize various measures of the Godambe information associated with the tapered composite likelihood function. This method substantially reduces the computational cost and improves the efficiency over equally weighted composite likelihood estimators. We illustrate its utility with simulation experiments and an analysis of rainfall data in Switzerland.

  2. Boundary Between Stable and Unstable Regimes of Accretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blinova A. A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the boundary between stable and unstable regimes of accretion and its dependence on different parameters. Simulations were performed using a “cubed sphere" code with high grid resolution (244 grid points in the azimuthal direction, which is twice as high as that used in our earlier studies. We chose a very low viscosity value, with alpha-parameter α=0.02. We observed from the simulations that the boundary strongly depends on the ratio between magnetospheric radius rm (where the magnetic stress in the magnetosphere matches the matter stress in the disk and corotation radius rcor (where the Keplerian velocity in the disk is equal to the angular velocity of the star. For a small misalignment angle of the dipole field, Θ = 5°, accretion is unstable if rcor/rm> 1.35, and is stable otherwise. In cases of a larger misalignment angle of the dipole, Θ = 20°, instability occurs at slightly larger values, rcor/rm> 1.41

  3. 2H Stable Isotope Analysis of Tooth Enamel: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holobinko, Anastasia; Kemp, Helen; Meier-Augenstein, Wolfram; Prowse, Tracy; Ford, Susan

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotope analysis of biogenic tissues such as tooth enamel and bone mineral has become a well recognized and increasingly important method for determining provenance of human remains, and has been used successfully in bioarchaeological studies as well as forensic investigations (Lee-Thorp, 2008; Meier-Augenstein and Fraser, 2008). Particularly, 18O and 2H stable isotopes are well established proxies as environmental indicators of climate (temperature) and source water and are therefore considered as indicators of geographic life trajectories of animals and humans (Hobson et al., 2004; Schwarcz and Walker, 2006). While methodology for 2H analysis of human hair, fingernails, and bone collagen is currently used to determine geographic origin and identify possible migration patterns, studies involving the analysis of 2H in tooth enamel appear to be nonexistent in the scientific literature. The apparent lack of research in this area is believed to have two main reasons. (1) Compared to the mineral calcium hydroxylapatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, in tooth enamel forming bio-apatite carbonate ions replace some of the hydroxyl ions at a rate of one CO32 replacing two OH, yet published figures for the degree of substitution vary (Wopenka and Pasteris, 2005). (2) Most probably due to the aforementioned no published protocols exist for sample preparation and analytical method to obtain δ2H-values from the hydroxyl fraction of tooth enamel. This dilemma has been addressed through a pilot study to establish feasibility of 2H stable isotope analysis of ground tooth enamel by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) coupled on-line to a high-temperature conversion elemental analyzer (TC/EA). An array of archaeological and modern teeth has been analyzed under different experimental conditions, and results from this pilot study are being presented. References: Lee-Thorp, J.A. (2008) Archaeometry, 50, 925-950 Meier-Augenstein, W. and Fraser, I. (2008) Science & Justice

  4. Uptake of radionuclides and stable elements from paddy soil to rice: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.; Shang, Z.R.; Choi, Y.H.

    2009-01-01

    The critical paths for radionuclides and the critical foods in Asian countries differ from those in Western countries because agricultural products and diets are different. Consequently, safety assessments for Asian countries must consider rice as a critical food. As most rice is produced under flooded conditions, the uptake of radionuclides by rice is affected by soil conditions. In this report, we summarize radionuclide and stable element soil-to-plant transfer factors (TFs) for rice. Field observation results for fallout 137 Cs and stable Cs TFs indicated that while fallout 137 Cs had higher TF than stable Cs over several decades, the GM (geometric mean) values were similar with the GM of TF value for 137 Cs being 3.6 x 10 -3 and that for stable Cs being 2.5 x 10 -3 . Although there are some limitations to the use of TF for stable elements under some circumstances, these values can be used to evaluate long-term transfer of long-lived radionuclides in the environment. The compiled data showed that TF values were higher in brown rice than in white rice because distribution patterns for elements were different in the bran and white parts of rice grains.

  5. petrography, compositional characteristics and stable isotope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Subsurface samples of the predominantly carbonate Ewekoro Formation, obtained from Ibese core hole within the Dahomey basin were used in this study. Investigations entail petrographic, elemental composition as well as stable isotopes (carbon and oxygen) geochemistry in order to deduce the different microfacies and ...

  6. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  7. TOF for heavy stable particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Searching for heavy stable particle production in a new energy region of hadron-hadron collisions is of fundamental theoretical interest. Observation of such particles produced in high energy collisions would indicate the existence of stable heavy leptons or any massive hadronic system carrying new quantum numbers. Experimentally, evidence of its production has not been found for PP collisions either at FNAL or at the CERN ISR for √S = 23 and 62 GeV respectively. However, many theories beyond the standard model do predict its existence on a mass scale ranging from 50 to a few hundred GeV. If so, it would make a high luminosity TeV collider an extremely ideal hunting ground for searching the production of such a speculated object. To measure the mass of a heavy stable charged particle, one usually uses its time of flight (TOF) and/or dE/dX information. For heavy neutral particle, one hopes it may decay at some later time after its production. Hence a pair of jets or a jet associated with a high P/sub t/ muon originated from some places other than the interacting point (IP) of the colliding beams may be a good signal. In this note, we examine the feasibility of TOF measurement on a heavy stable particle produced in PP collisions at √S = 1 TeV and a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 with a single arm spectrometer pointing to the IP

  8. Axisymmetric MHD stable sloshing ion distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, H.L.; Dominguez, N.; Roslyakov, G.V.

    1986-07-01

    The MHD stability of a sloshing ion distribution is investigated in a symmetric mirror cell. Fokker-Planck calculations show that stable configurations are possible for ion injection energies that are at least 150 times greater than the electron temperture. Special axial magnetic field profiles are suggested to optimize the favorable MHD properties

  9. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, J.G.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    Numerical integration of Maxwell's equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit finite difference

  10. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2008-01-01

    htmlabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell''s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction

  11. Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G. Verwer (Jan); M.A. Botchev

    2009-01-01

    textabstractNumerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit –

  12. Method of producing thermally stable uranium carbonitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugajin, M.; Takahashi, I.

    1975-01-01

    A thermally stable uranium carbonitride can be produced by adding tungsten and/or molybdenum in the amount of 0.2 wt percent or more, preferably 0.5 wt percent or more, to a pure uranium carbonitride. (U.S.)

  13. Champion Island, Galapagos Stable Oxygen Calibration Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Galapagos Coral Stable Oxygen Calibration Data. Sites: Bartolome Island: 0 deg, 17 min S, 90 deg 33 min W. Champion Island: 1 deg, 15 min S, 90 deg, 05 min W. Urvina...

  14. 26 S proteasomes function as stable entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendil, Klavs B; Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Tanaka, Keiji

    2002-01-01

    , shuttles between a free state and the 26-S proteasome, bringing substrate to the complex. However, S5a was not found in the free state in HeLa cells. Besides, all subunits in PA700, including S5a, exchanged at similar low rates. It therefore seems that 26-S proteasomes function as stable entities during...

  15. Formal derivation of a stable marriage algorithm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the well-known Stable Marriage Problem is considered once again. The name of this programming problem comes from the terms in which it was first described [2]: A certain community consists of n men and n women. Each person ranks those of the opposite sex in accordance with his or

  16. Diet in pottery-making societies from Central Chile: The contribution of stable isotope analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falabella, Fernanda; Planella, M.Teresa; Aspillaga, Eugenio; Sanhueza, Lorena; Tykot, Robert H

    2007-01-01

    This is the first time that stable carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotope analyses of human bones and teeth have been used to reconstruct subsistence and settlement patterns of prehispanic ceramic societies from Central Chile. Isotope analyses, unlike the evidence from botanical, faunal and artifactual remains from archaeological sites, and from dental and skeletal pathologies, gave information of which resources were really eaten by each individual during the last years of their life. The human data were evaluated against isotopic values of marine and terrestrial resources from central Chile. These results were interpreted taking into consideration different lines of paleodiet evidence. The main contributions are: empirical evidence of dietary differences according to cultural groups; low dependence on marine foods for most people living on the coast; indirect evidence of mobility strategies that show differences between Early and Late Intermediate societies; increased dependence on maize with time, especially among the Aconcagua people; gender differences in maize consumption for the same Aconcagua groups, men showing the greatest levels of maize intake. The results support some hypotheses, such as the difference in dietary patterns between contemporary Bato and Lolleo groups, contradict others, such as the supposed importance of marine diet for coastal inhabitants, and open new research questions for the future [es

  17. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sora L; Tinker, M Tim; Estes, James A; Koch, Paul L

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15)N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ(15)N values increased throughout life, 2) δ(15)N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3) δ(15)N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13)C(shark-diet) and Δ(15)N(shark-diet) equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  18. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.L.; Tinker, M. Tim; Estes, J.A.; Koch, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level), as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements) is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1) δ15N values increased throughout life, 2) δ15N values increased to a plateau at ~5 years of age, and 3) δ15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ13Cshark-diet and Δ15Nshark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively). We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%), within-individuals (40%), and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%). Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and individual dietary

  19. Ontogenetic and among-individual variation in foraging strategies of northeast Pacific white sharks based on stable isotope analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sora L Kim

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence for individuality in dietary preferences and foraging behaviors within populations of various species. This is especially important for apex predators, since they can potentially have wide dietary niches and a large impact on trophic dynamics within ecosystems. We evaluate the diet of an apex predator, the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias, by measuring the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of vertebral growth bands to create lifetime records for 15 individuals from California. Isotopic variations in white shark diets can reflect within-region differences among prey (most importantly related to trophic level, as well as differences in baseline values among the regions in which sharks forage, and both prey and habitat preferences may shift with age. The magnitude of isotopic variation among sharks in our study (>5‰ for both elements is too great to be explained solely by geographic differences, and so must reflect differences in prey choice that may vary with sex, size, age and location. Ontogenetic patterns in δ(15N values vary considerably among individuals, and one third of the population fit each of these descriptions: 1 δ(15N values increased throughout life, 2 δ(15N values increased to a plateau at ∼5 years of age, and 3 δ(15N values remained roughly constant values throughout life. Isotopic data for the population span more than one trophic level, and we offer a qualitative evaluation of diet using shark-specific collagen discrimination factors estimated from a 3+ year captive feeding experiment (Δ(13C(shark-diet and Δ(15N(shark-diet equal 4.2‰ and 2.5‰, respectively. We assess the degree of individuality with a proportional similarity index that distinguishes specialists and generalists. The isotopic variance is partitioned among differences between-individual (48%, within-individuals (40%, and by calendar year of sub-adulthood (12%. Our data reveal substantial ontogenetic and

  20. Phosphorylcholine functionalized dendrimers for the formation of highly stable and reactive gold nanoparticles and their glucose conjugation for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Lan; Lv Liping; Xu Jianping; Ji Jian

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylcholine (PC)-functionalized poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were prepared and used as both reducing and stabilizing agents for synthesis of highly stable and reactive gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Biomimetic PC-functionalized PAMAM dendrimers-stabilized gold nanoparticles (Au DSNPs) were formed by simply mixing the PC modified amine-terminated fifth-generation PAMAM dendrimers (G5-PC) with AuCl 4 − ions by controlling the pH, no additional reducing agents or other stabilizers were needed. The obtained Au DSNPs were shown to be spherical, with particle diameters ranging from 5 to 12 nm, the sizes and growth kinetics of Au DSNPs could be tuned by changing the pH and the initial molar ratio of dendrimers to gold as indicated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis data. The prepared Au DSNPs showed excellent stability including: (1) stable at wide pH (7–13) values; (2) stable at high salt concentrations up to 2 M NaCl; (3) non-specific protein adsorption resistance. More importantly, surface functionalization could be performed by introducing desired functional groups onto the remained reactive amine groups. This was exemplified by the glucose conjugation. The glucose conjugated Au DSNPs showed bio-specific interaction with Concanavalin A (Con A), which induced aggregation of the Au NPs. Colorimetric detection of Con A based on the plasmon resonance of the glucose conjugated Au DSNPs was realized. A limit of detection (LOD) for Con A was 0.6 μM, based on a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 3. These findings demonstrated that the PC modified Au DSNPs could potentially serve as a versatile nano-platform for the biomedical applications.

  1. 76 FR 53162 - Acceptance of Public Submissions Regarding the Study of Stable Value Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... definition, would this decision influence the availability of SVFs to investors? Would this designation... (``SVCs'') fall within the definition of a swap. Section 719(d) of the Dodd-Frank Act also requires that the Commissions, in making that determination, jointly consult with the Department of Labor, the...

  2. Mean or green : Which values can promote stable pro-environmental behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Judith I. M.; Steg, Linda

    In most cases, pro-environmental behavior does not maximize individual interests, but mainly benefits other people or the environment. We propose that although acting on the basis of egoistic considerations may result in pro-environmental behavior, altruistic and biospheric considerations provide

  3. 77 FR 60113 - Acceptance of Public Submissions Regarding the Study of Stable Value Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., and clearly indicated on written submissions. All comments must be submitted in English, or if not, accompanied by an English translation. Comments will be posted as received to www.cftc.gov . You should submit... not? Is additional guidance necessary with regard to SVCs in this context? If so, what further...

  4. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  5. The Nature of Stable Insomnia Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Design: Longitudinal. Setting: Urban, community-based. Participants: Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). Interventions: None. Measurements and results: At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the “neither criterion” phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. Conclusions: By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With

  6. Value-based pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  7. Development of a Safety Management Web Tool for Horse Stables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälä, Jarkko; Kolstrup, Christina Lunner; Pinzke, Stefan; Rautiainen, Risto; Saastamoinen, Markku; Särkijärvi, Susanna

    2015-11-12

    Managing a horse stable involves risks, which can have serious consequences for the stable, employees, clients, visitors and horses. Existing industrial or farm production risk management tools are not directly applicable to horse stables and they need to be adapted for use by managers of different types of stables. As a part of the InnoEquine project, an innovative web tool, InnoHorse, was developed to support horse stable managers in business, safety, pasture and manure management. A literature review, empirical horse stable case studies, expert panel workshops and stakeholder interviews were carried out to support the design. The InnoHorse web tool includes a safety section containing a horse stable safety map, stable safety checklists, and examples of good practices in stable safety, horse handling and rescue planning. This new horse stable safety management tool can also help in organizing work processes in horse stables in general.

  8. Stable isotopes in speleothems as proxies of past environmental changes in the Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoetl, C.; Burns, S.J.; Mangini, A.

    2002-01-01

    This short communication presents preliminary results and interpretations from an ongoing research project in the Obir Cave of southeast Austria. This cave system hosts abundant calcite dripstones many of which are actively forming today. The stable isotopic composition of a Holocene stalagmite dated by U-series TIMS techniques shows rather stable values throughout most of the last eight millennia, except for the last few hundred years when both C and O isotope values strongly increase (probably due to changes in the cave air circulation as a result of mining activity). (author)

  9. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E Butler

    Full Text Available Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243, the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits. Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57. Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  10. Investigating the Relationship between Stable Personality Characteristics and Automatic Imitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Emily E; Ward, Robert; Ramsey, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Automatic imitation is a cornerstone of nonverbal communication that fosters rapport between interaction partners. Recent research has suggested that stable dimensions of personality are antecedents to automatic imitation, but the empirical evidence linking imitation with personality traits is restricted to a few studies with modest sample sizes. Additionally, atypical imitation has been documented in autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but the mechanisms underpinning these behavioural profiles remain unclear. Using a larger sample than prior studies (N=243), the current study tested whether performance on a computer-based automatic imitation task could be predicted by personality traits associated with social behaviour (extraversion and agreeableness) and with disorders of social cognition (autistic-like and schizotypal traits). Further personality traits (narcissism and empathy) were assessed in a subsample of participants (N=57). Multiple regression analyses showed that personality measures did not predict automatic imitation. In addition, using a similar analytical approach to prior studies, no differences in imitation performance emerged when only the highest and lowest 20 participants on each trait variable were compared. These data weaken support for the view that stable personality traits are antecedents to automatic imitation and that neural mechanisms thought to support automatic imitation, such as the mirror neuron system, are dysfunctional in autism spectrum disorders or schizophrenia. In sum, the impact that personality variables have on automatic imitation is less universal than initial reports suggest.

  11. Tracking ENSO with tropical trees: Progress in stable isotope dendroclimatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, M. N.; Poussart, P. F.; Saleska, S. R.; Schrag, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    The terrestrial tropics remain an important gap in the growing proxy network used to characterize past ENSO behavior. Here we describe a strategy for development of proxy estimates of paleo-ENSO, via proxy rainfall estimates derived from stable isotope (δ18O) measurements made on tropical trees. The approach applies a new model of oxygen isotopic composition of alpha-cellulose (Roden et al., 2000), a rapid method for cellulose extraction from raw wood (Brendel et al., 2000), and continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (Brand, 1996) to develop proxy chronological, rainfall and growth rate estimates from tropical trees, even those lacking annual rings. The promise and pitfalls of the approach are illustrated in pilot datasets from the US, Costa Rica, Brazil, and Peru, which show isotopic cycles of 4-6 per mil, and interannual anomalies of up to 8 per mil. Together with the mature ENSO proxies (corals, extratropical tree-rings, varved sediments, and ice cores), replicated and well-dated stable isotope chronologies from tropical trees may eventually improve our understanding of ENSO history over the past several hundred years.

  12. Topical tazarotene vs. coal tar in stable plaque psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, U.; Kaur, I.; Dogra, S.; De, D.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of topical tazarotene has not previously been compared with the conventional topical treatment of crude coal tar (CCT) in stable plaque psoriasis. In this nonblinded side-to-side comparison study, patients with chronic stable plaque psoriasis, who had bilaterally symmetrical plaques on the limbs, applied 0.1% tazarotene gel on the right side and 5% CCT ointment on the left side once daily for 12 weeks followed by an 8-week treatment-free follow up period. Severity of psoriatic lesions and response to treatment was evaluated by scoring erythema, scaling and induration (ESI). Of 30 patients recruited, 27 could be assessed. In the per-protocol analysis, the mean percentage reduction in ESI score at the end of the treatment period was 74.15% {+-} 9.43 and 77.37% {+-} 10.93 with tazarotene and CCT, respectively (P {gt} 0.05). A reduction in ESI score of {gt} 75% was seen in 11 (40.74%) and 16 (59.26%) patients with tazarotene and CCT, respectively, at the end of 12 weeks. Side-effects were seen in 48.14% of patients treated with tazarotene, but in no patient treated with CCT. Tazarotene 0.1% gel has comparable clinical efficacy to CCT 5% ointment. CCT ointment remains a cost-effective therapy for plaque psoriasis.

  13. Hydrothermally stable molecular separation membranes from organically linked silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A highly hydrothermally stable microporous network material has been developed that can be applied in energy-efficient molecular sieving. The material was synthesized by employing organically bridged monomers in acid-catalysed sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation, and is composed of covalently bonded organic and inorganic moieties. Due to its hybrid nature, it withstands higher temperatures than organic polymers and exhibits high solvolytical and acid stability. A thin film membrane that was prepared with the hybrid material was found to be stable in the dehydration of n-butanol at 150C for almost two years. This membrane is the first that combines a high resistance against water at elevated temperatures with a high separation factor and permeance. It therefore has high potential for energy-efficient molecular separation under industrial conditions, including the dehydration of organic solvents. The organically bridged monomers induce increased toughness in the thin film layer. This suppresses hydrolysis of Si-O-Si network bonds and results in a high resistance towards stress-induced cracking. The large non-hydrolysable units thus remain well incorporated in the surrounding matrix such that the material combines high (pore) structural and mechanical stability. The sol mean particle size was found to be a viable parameter to tune the thickness of the membrane layer and thus optimize the separation performance. We anticipate that other hybrid organosilicas can be made in a similar fashion, to yield a whole new class of materials with superior molecular sieving properties and high hydrothermal stability.

  14. The 2007 Analysis of Information Remaining on Disks Offered for Sale on the Second Hand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Jones

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available All organisations, whether in the public or private sector, increasingly use computers and other devices that contain computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their business, their employees or their customers. Individual home users also increasingly use computers and other devices containing computer hard disks for the storage and processing of information relating to their private, personal affairs. It continues to be clear that the majority of organisations and individual home users still remain ignorant or misinformed of the volume and type of information that is stored on the hard disks that these devices contain and have not considered, or are unaware of, the potential impact of this information becoming available to their competitors or to people with criminal intent.This is the third study in an ongoing research effort that is being conducted into the volume and type of information that remains on computer hard disks offered for sale on the second hand market.  The purpose of the research has been to gain an understanding of the information that remains on the disk and to determine the level of damage that could, potentially be caused, if the information fell into the wrong hands.  The study examines disks that have been obtained in a number of countries to determine whether there is any detectable national or regional variance in the way that the disposal of computer disks is addressed and to compare the results for any other detectable regional or temporal trends.The first study was carried out in 2005 and was repeated in 2006 with the scope extended to include additional countries. The studies were carried out by British Telecommunications, the University of Glamorgan in the UK and Edith Cowan University in Australia. The basis of the research was to acquire a number of second hand computer disks from various sources and then determine whether they still contained information relating to a

  15. Regression to fuzziness method for estimation of remaining useful life in power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamaniotis, Miltiadis; Grelle, Austin; Tsoukalas, Lefteri H.

    2014-10-01

    Mitigation of severe accidents in power plants requires the reliable operation of all systems and the on-time replacement of mechanical components. Therefore, the continuous surveillance of power systems is a crucial concern for the overall safety, cost control, and on-time maintenance of a power plant. In this paper a methodology called regression to fuzziness is presented that estimates the remaining useful life (RUL) of power plant components. The RUL is defined as the difference between the time that a measurement was taken and the estimated failure time of that component. The methodology aims to compensate for a potential lack of historical data by modeling an expert's operational experience and expertise applied to the system. It initially identifies critical degradation parameters and their associated value range. Once completed, the operator's experience is modeled through fuzzy sets which span the entire parameter range. This model is then synergistically used with linear regression and a component's failure point to estimate the RUL. The proposed methodology is tested on estimating the RUL of a turbine (the basic electrical generating component of a power plant) in three different cases. Results demonstrate the benefits of the methodology for components for which operational data is not readily available and emphasize the significance of the selection of fuzzy sets and the effect of knowledge representation on the predicted output. To verify the effectiveness of the methodology, it was benchmarked against the data-based simple linear regression model used for predictions which was shown to perform equal or worse than the presented methodology. Furthermore, methodology comparison highlighted the improvement in estimation offered by the adoption of appropriate of fuzzy sets for parameter representation.

  16. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown – A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eGaume

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence has shown efficacy of brief intervention (BI for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings, and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale is disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content, and exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness.We searched Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications for original research or reviews on active ingredients (or components, or mechanisms of face-to-face BIs (and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing [BMI] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among Emergency Room patients, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such.Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  17. Risk and ethical concerns of hunting male elephant: behavioural and physiological assays of the remaining elephants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarryne Burke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hunting of male African elephants may pose ethical and risk concerns, particularly given their status as a charismatic species of high touristic value, yet which are capable of both killing people and damaging infrastructure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We quantified the effect of hunts of male elephants on (1 risk of attack or damage (11 hunts, and (2 behavioural (movement dynamics and physiological (stress hormone metabolite concentrations responses (4 hunts in Pilanesberg National Park. For eleven hunts, there were no subsequent attacks on people or infrastructure, and elephants did not break out of the fenced reserve. For three focal hunts, there was an initial flight response by bulls present at the hunting site, but their movements stabilised the day after the hunt event. Animals not present at the hunt (both bulls and herds did not show movement responses. Physiologically, hunting elephant bulls increased faecal stress hormone levels (corticosterone metabolites in both those bulls that were present at the hunts (for up to four days post-hunt and in the broader bull and breeding herd population (for up to one month post-hunt. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: As all responses were relatively minor, hunting male elephants is ethically acceptable when considering effects on the remaining elephant population; however bulls should be hunted when alone. Hunting is feasible in relatively small enclosed reserves without major risk of attack, damage, or breakout. Physiological stress assays were more effective than behavioural responses in detecting effects of human intervention. Similar studies should evaluate intervention consequences, inform and improve best practice, and should be widely applied by management agencies.

  18. Mechanisms of action of brief alcohol interventions remain largely unknown - a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaume, Jacques; McCambridge, Jim; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale are disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content; exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness. Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications were searched for original research or review on active ingredients (components or mechanisms) of face-to-face BIs [and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing (BMI)] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among patients in the emergency room, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such. Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions.

  19. Method for estimating capacity and predicting remaining useful life of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Chao; Jain, Gaurav; Tamirisa, Prabhakar; Gorka, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction. • A state projection scheme is derived for capacity estimation. • The Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used for the RUL prediction. • Results with 10 years’ continuous cycling data verify the effectiveness of the method. - Abstract: Reliability of lithium-ion (Li-ion) rechargeable batteries used in implantable medical devices has been recognized as of high importance from a broad range of stakeholders, including medical device manufacturers, regulatory agencies, physicians, and patients. To ensure Li-ion batteries in these devices operate reliably, it is important to be able to assess the capacity of Li-ion battery and predict the remaining useful life (RUL) throughout the whole life-time. This paper presents an integrated method for the capacity estimation and RUL prediction of Li-ion battery used in implantable medical devices. A state projection scheme from the author’s previous study is used for the capacity estimation. Then, based on the capacity estimates, the Gauss–Hermite particle filter technique is used to project the capacity fade to the end-of-service (EOS) value (or the failure limit) for the RUL prediction. Results of 10 years’ continuous cycling test on Li-ion prismatic cells in the lab suggest that the proposed method achieves good accuracy in the capacity estimation and captures the uncertainty in the RUL prediction. Post-explant weekly cycling data obtained from field cells with 4–7 implant years further verify the effectiveness of the proposed method in the capacity estimation

  20. Selective logging: does the imprint remain on tree structure and composition after 45 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osazuwa-Peters, Oyomoare L.; Chapman, Colin A.; Zanne, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging of tropical forests is increasing in extent and intensity. The duration over which impacts of selective logging persist, however, remains an unresolved question, particularly for African forests. Here, we investigate the extent to which a past selective logging event continues to leave its imprint on different components of an East African forest 45 years later. We inventoried 2358 stems ≥10 cm in diameter in 26 plots (200 m × 10 m) within a 5.2 ha area in Kibale National Park, Uganda, in logged and unlogged forest. In these surveys, we characterized the forest light environment, taxonomic composition, functional trait composition using three traits (wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter) and forest structure based on three measures (stem density, total basal area and total above-ground biomass). In comparison to unlogged forests, selectively logged forest plots in Kibale National Park on average had higher light levels, different structure characterized by lower stem density, lower total basal area and lower above-ground biomass, and a distinct taxonomic composition driven primarily by changes in the relative abundance of species. Conversely, selectively logged forest plots were like unlogged plots in functional composition, having similar community-weighted mean values for wood density, maximum height and maximum diameter. This similarity in functional composition irrespective of logging history may be due to functional recovery of logged forest or background changes in functional attributes of unlogged forest. Despite the passage of 45 years, the legacy of selective logging on the tree community in Kibale National Park is still evident, as indicated by distinct taxonomic and structural composition and reduced carbon storage in logged forest compared with unlogged forest. The effects of selective logging are exerted via influences on tree demography rather than functional trait composition. PMID:27293697

  1. Generation issues in Eastern Canada: the more that changes, the more it remains the same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, G.

    2004-01-01

    Key issues in a changing world such as reliability, adequate supply maintained to meet growth, environment considerations, costs, risk regulation, political, environmental, financial, technology were discussed. It was recognized that Quebec has a stable framework comprising independent forecasting of needs, independent regulation and oversight for procurement of new supply, blended prices, and demonstrated means of meeting transmission investments in response to crisis. (author)

  2. Data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques stochastic models, methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Si, Xiao-Sheng; Hu, Chang-Hua

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, and shows how to utilize the condition monitoring data to predict the remaining useful life of stochastic degrading systems and to schedule maintenance and logistics plans. It is also the first book that describes the basic data-driven remaining useful life prognosis theory systematically and in detail. The emphasis of the book is on the stochastic models, methods and applications employed in remaining useful life prognosis. It includes a wealth of degradation monitoring experiment data, practical prognosis methods for remaining useful life in various cases, and a series of applications incorporated into prognostic information in decision-making, such as maintenance-related decisions and ordering spare parts. It also highlights the latest advances in data-driven remaining useful life prognosis techniques, especially in the contexts of adaptive prognosis for linear stochastic degrading systems, nonlinear degradation modeling based pro...

  3. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  4. On the symmetric α-stable distribution with application to symbol error rate calculations

    KAUST Repository

    Soury, Hamza

    2016-12-24

    The probability density function (PDF) of the symmetric α-stable distribution is investigated using the inverse Fourier transform of its characteristic function. For general values of the stable parameter α, it is shown that the PDF and the cumulative distribution function of the symmetric stable distribution can be expressed in terms of the Fox H function as closed-form. As an application, the probability of error of single input single output communication systems using different modulation schemes with an α-stable perturbation is studied. In more details, a generic formula is derived for generalized fading distribution, such as the extended generalized-k distribution. Later, simpler expressions of these error rates are deduced for some selected special cases and compact approximations are derived using asymptotic expansions.

  5. A model for a stable coronal loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoven, G.V.; Chiuderi, C.; Giachetti, R.

    1977-01-01

    We present here a new plasma-physics model of a stable active-region arch which corresponds to the structure observed in the EUV. Pressure gradients are seen, so that the equilibrium magnetic field must depart from the force-free form valid in the surrounding corona. We take advantage of the data and of the approximate cylindrical symmetry to develop a modified form of the commonly assumed sheared-spiral structure. The dynamic MHD behavior of this new pressure/field model is then evaluated by the Newcomb criterion, taken from controlled-fusion physics, and the results show short-wavelength stability in a specific parameter range. Thus we demonstrate the possibility, for pressure profiles with widths of the order of the magnetic-field scale, that such arches can persist for reasonable periods. Finally, the spatial proportions and magnetic fields of a characteristic stable coronal loop are described

  6. Utilization of stable isotopes in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-11-01

    The ten lectures given at this round table are presented together with a discussion. Five lectures, relating to studies in which deuterium oxide was employed as a tracer of body water, dealt with pulmonary water measurements in man and animals, the total water pool in adipose subjects, and liquid compartments in children undergoing hemodyalisis. The heavy water is analysed by infrared spectrometry and a new double spectrodoser is described. Two studies using 13 C as tracer, described the diagnosis of liver troubles and diabetes respectively. A general review of the perspectives of the application of stable isotopes in clinical medicine is followed by a comparison of the use of stable and radioactive isotopes in France [fr

  7. Stable isotope enrichment: Current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities

  8. Stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralikrishna, Narra; Srinivas, Kota; Kumar, Kalva Bharath; Sadanandam, Abbagani

    2016-10-01

    In the present investigation we report stable plastid transformation in Scoparia dulcis L., a versatile medicinal herb via particle gun method. The vector KNTc, harbouring aadA as a selectable marker and egfp as a reporter gene which were under the control of synthetic promoter pNG1014a, targets inverted repeats, trnR / t rnN of the plastid genome. By use of this heterologous vector, recovery of transplastomic lines with suitable selection protocol have been successfully established with overall efficiency of two transgenic lines for 25 bombarded leaf explants. PCR and Southern blot analysis demonstrated stable integration of foreign gene into the target sequences. The results represent a significant advancement of the plastid transformation technology in medicinal plants, which relevantly implements a change over in enhancing and regulating of certain metabolic pathways.

  9. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  10. Formation of stable radicals during perfluoroalkane radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allayarov, S.R.; Demidov, S.V.; Kiryukhin, D.P.; Mikhajlov, A.I.; Barkalov, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    Accumulation and stabilization kinetics of perfluoroalkyls during α-radiolysis ( 60 Co) of perfluoralkanes (PFA) in a wide temperature range for different PFA fractions differing in the average molecular weight, is investigated. It is noted that low temperature (PFA) radiolysis (77 K) is of a linear nature of accumulation of stabilized radicals up to doses of approximately 700 KGy. In the case of PFA radiolysis at 300 K radiation yields of stable radicals are somewhat lower than at 47 K and at doses of 200-300 KGy, their accumulation ceases. It is shown that kinetics of formation and accumulation of stable radicals does not depend on molecular mass and PFA fraction viscosity. Perfluoroalkyl stability is explained by intra molecular conformation spheric insulation of the free valency. Perfluoroalkyl stability in different PFA fractions in a wide time range in different media is investigated

  11. Stable isotope enrichment - current and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracy, J.G.; Aaron, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates the Isotope Enrichment Facility for the purpose of providing enriched stable isotopes, selected radioactive isotopes (including the actinides), and isotope-related materials and services for use in various research applications. ORNL is responsible for isotope enrichment and the distribution of approximately 225 nongaseous stable isotopes from 50 multi-isotopic elements. Many enriched isotope products are of prime importance in the fabrication of nuclear targets and the subsequent production of special radionuclides. State-of-the-art techniques to achieve special isotopic, chemical, and physical requirements are performed at ORNL. This report describes the status and capabilities of the Isotope Enrichment Facility and the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory as well as emphasizing potential advancements in enrichment capabilities. (orig.)

  12. Optimization of Parameters of Asymptotically Stable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Guerman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with numerical methods of parameter optimization for asymptotically stable systems. We formulate a special mathematical programming problem that allows us to determine optimal parameters of a stabilizer. This problem involves solutions to a differential equation. We show how to chose the mesh in order to obtain discrete problem guaranteeing the necessary accuracy. The developed methodology is illustrated by an example concerning optimization of parameters for a satellite stabilization system.

  13. Multi-Stable Morphing Cellular Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    stiffness on critical buckling load and arch stres - ses. It should be noted that although the arches in these studies snapped-through, they did not...switch roles in moving the VMT back from the second to the first stable equilibrium state. A prototype is designed and fabricated and the transition...pulling forward on the insert on the right blade and assisting its deployment. During this process the cable 3-4-1 goes slack and plays no role , but if

  14. The nature of stable insomnia phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Vivek; Roth, Thomas; Drake, Christopher L

    2015-01-01

    We examined the 1-y stability of four insomnia symptom profiles: sleep onset insomnia; sleep maintenance insomnia; combined onset and maintenance insomnia; and neither criterion (i.e., insomnia cases that do not meet quantitative thresholds for onset or maintenance problems). Insomnia cases that exhibited the same symptom profile over a 1-y period were considered to be phenotypes, and were compared in terms of clinical and demographic characteristics. Longitudinal. Urban, community-based. Nine hundred fifty-four adults with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition based current insomnia (46.6 ± 12.6 y; 69.4% female). None. At baseline, participants were divided into four symptom profile groups based on quantitative criteria. Follow-up assessment 1 y later revealed that approximately 60% of participants retained the same symptom profile, and were hence judged to be phenotypes. Stability varied significantly by phenotype, such that sleep onset insomnia (SOI) was the least stable (42%), whereas combined insomnia (CI) was the most stable (69%). Baseline symptom groups (cross-sectionally defined) differed significantly across various clinical indices, including daytime impairment, depression, and anxiety. Importantly, however, a comparison of stable phenotypes (longitudinally defined) did not reveal any differences in impairment or comorbid psychopathology. Another interesting finding was that whereas all other insomnia phenotypes showed evidence of an elevated wake drive both at night and during the day, the 'neither criterion' phenotype did not; this latter phenotype exhibited significantly higher daytime sleepiness despite subthreshold onset and maintenance difficulties. By adopting a stringent, stability-based definition, this study offers timely and important data on the longitudinal trajectory of specific insomnia phenotypes. With the exception of daytime sleepiness, few clinical differences are apparent across stable phenotypes.

  15. Strongly stable real infinitesimally symplectic mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cushman, R.; Kelley, A.

    We prove that a mapA εsp(σ,R), the set of infinitesimally symplectic maps, is strongly stable if and only if its centralizerC(A) insp(σ,R) contains only semisimple elements. Using the theorem that everyB insp(σ,R) close toA is conjugate by a real symplectic map to an element ofC(A), we give a new

  16. A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2014-01-01

    As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...

  17. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  18. Clinically stable angina pectoris is not necessarily associated with histologically stable atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, A. C.; Becker, A. E.; Koch, K. T.; Piek, J. J.; Teeling, P.; van der Loos, C. M.; David, G. K.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the extent of plaque inflammation in culprit lesions of patients with chronic stable angina. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Amsterdam reference centre. SUBJECTS: 89 consecutive patients who underwent directional coronary atherectomy, 58 of whom met the following

  19. Alternative stable states and the sustainability of forests, grasslands, and agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kirsten A.; Bauch, Chris T.; Anand, Madhur

    2016-01-01

    Endangered forest–grassland mosaics interspersed with expanding agriculture and silviculture occur across many parts of the world, including the southern Brazilian highlands. This natural mosaic ecosystem is thought to reflect alternative stable states driven by threshold responses of recruitment to fire and moisture regimes. The role of adaptive human behavior in such systems remains understudied, despite its pervasiveness and the fact that such ecosystems can exhibit complex dynamics. We develop a nonlinear mathematical model of coupled human–environment dynamics in mosaic systems and social processes regarding conservation and economic land valuation. Our objective is to better understand how the coupled dynamics respond to changes in ecological and social conditions. The model is parameterized with southern Brazilian data on mosaic ecology, land-use profits, and questionnaire results concerning landowner preferences and conservation values. We find that the mosaic presently resides at a crucial juncture where relatively small changes in social conditions can generate a wide variety of possible outcomes, including complete loss of mosaics; large-amplitude, long-term oscillations between land states that preclude ecosystem stability; and conservation of the mosaic even to the exclusion of agriculture/silviculture. In general, increasing the time horizon used for conservation decision making is more likely to maintain mosaic stability. In contrast, increasing the inherent conservation value of either forests or grasslands is more likely to induce large oscillations—especially for forests—due to feedback from rarity-based conservation decisions. Given the potential for complex dynamics, empirically grounded nonlinear dynamical models should play a larger role in policy formulation for human–environment mosaic ecosystems. PMID:27956605

  20. Alternative stable states and the sustainability of forests, grasslands, and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kirsten A; Bauch, Chris T; Anand, Madhur

    2016-12-20

    Endangered forest-grassland mosaics interspersed with expanding agriculture and silviculture occur across many parts of the world, including the southern Brazilian highlands. This natural mosaic ecosystem is thought to reflect alternative stable states driven by threshold responses of recruitment to fire and moisture regimes. The role of adaptive human behavior in such systems remains understudied, despite its pervasiveness and the fact that such ecosystems can exhibit complex dynamics. We develop a nonlinear mathematical model of coupled human-environment dynamics in mosaic systems and social processes regarding conservation and economic land valuation. Our objective is to better understand how the coupled dynamics respond to changes in ecological and social conditions. The model is parameterized with southern Brazilian data on mosaic ecology, land-use profits, and questionnaire results concerning landowner preferences and conservation values. We find that the mosaic presently resides at a crucial juncture where relatively small changes in social conditions can generate a wide variety of possible outcomes, including complete loss of mosaics; large-amplitude, long-term oscillations between land states that preclude ecosystem stability; and conservation of the mosaic even to the exclusion of agriculture/silviculture. In general, increasing the time horizon used for conservation decision making is more likely to maintain mosaic stability. In contrast, increasing the inherent conservation value of either forests or grasslands is more likely to induce large oscillations-especially for forests-due to feedback from rarity-based conservation decisions. Given the potential for complex dynamics, empirically grounded nonlinear dynamical models should play a larger role in policy formulation for human-environment mosaic ecosystems.