WorldWideScience

Sample records for values regulatory monitoring

  1. Franchise Values, Regulatory Monitoring, and Capital Requirements in Optimal Bank Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Harr, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that financial deregulation is likely to make standard prudential regulatory instruments less effective in curbing excessive risk-taking incentives among banks. This has interesting implications for optimal bank regulation. When there is an increase in competition...

  2. Regulatory focus and human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keller Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article connects two approaches to the study of human motivation and behavior: The Schwartz model of human values and Higgins’ regulatory focus theory. Considering a prominent model of human motivation - the Rubicon Model of Action Phases - reveals that although both approaches refer to goals and standards as crucial constructs, human values are specifically relevant concerning the so-called deliberation and evaluation phases whereas selfregulatory orientations are specifically relevant concerning the volitional phases (i.e., planning and action. It may be due to the selective focus on specific aspects of human motivation that up to date hardly any (empirical work has tried to connect human values and selfregulatory orientations. The reported studies assessed the relation between the endorsement of values proposed in the Schwartz model of human values and individual differences in the two self-regulatory orientations (promotion and prevention proposed in regulatory focus theory. Findings reveal that prevention-focused self-regulation is positively related to conservation values (security, conformity and negatively related to values reflecting openness to change (stimulation, self-direction. Moreover, promotion-focused self-regulation was positively related to self-enhancement values (power, achievement and negatively related to values reflecting self-transcendence (universalism, benevolence. In addition, the observed relations were found using different instruments to measure human values and self-regulatory orientations. In combination, the observed findings support the proposed two-dimensional structure of the value system as well as fundamental assumptions of regulatory focus theory.

  3. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only

  4. Followers feel valued - When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; Sassenberg, K.; van Yperen, N.W.; Wisse, B.

    2013-01-01

    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason

  5. Followers feel valued : When leaders' regulatory focus makes leaders exhibit behavior that fits followers' regulatory focus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, Melvyn; Sassenberg, K.; Van Yperen, Nico W.; Wisse, Barbara

    When do followers feel valued by their leader? We propose that leaders' regulatory focus can make followers feel valued when leaders' regulatory focus is the same as followers' regulatory focus, that is, when there is regulatory fit between leaders and followers. We further propose that the reason

  6. Safeguards inventory and process monitoring regulatory comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaluzzi, Jack M. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gibbs, Philip W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-06-27

    Detecting the theft or diversion of the relatively small amount of fissile material needed to make a nuclear weapon given the normal operating capacity of many of today’s running nuclear production facilities is a difficult task. As throughput increases, the ability of the Material Control and Accountability (MC&A) Program to detect the material loss decreases because the statistical measurement uncertainty also increases. The challenge faced is the ability of current accounting, measurement, and material control programs to detect small yet significant losses under some regulatory approaches can decrease to the point where it is extremely low if not practically non-existent at normal operating capacities. Adding concern to this topic is that there are variations among regulatory bodies as far as what is considered a Significant Quantity (SQ). Some research suggests that thresholds should be lower than those found in any current regulation which if adopted would make meeting detection goals even more difficult. This paper reviews and compares the current regulatory requirements for the MA elements related to physical inventory, uncertainty of the Inventory Difference (ID), and Process Monitoring (PM) in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Rosatom of the Russian Federation and the Chinese Atomic Energy Agency (CAEA) of China. The comparison looks at how the regulatory requirements for the implementation of various MA elements perform across a range of operating capacities in example facilities.

  7. Advances in ambulatory monitoring: regulatory considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, David; Aguel, Felipe; Brockman, Randall; Cheng, James; Demian, Cindy; Ho, Charles; Jensen, Donald; Mallis, Elias

    2004-01-01

    Conventional ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) (Holter) monitoring involves 2 or 3 surface leads recorded with electrode positions and signal characteristics that are different from diagnostic quality 12-lead ECGs due to the limitations imposed by technology on the ambulatory recorders. The rapid pace of technological development for medical devices, particularly electrocardiography, has now enabled the recording of diagnostic quality 12-lead ECG waveforms for extended time periods. This capability allows Holter recording to become another source for diagnostic 12-lead ECG records on a par with other modalities such as resting ECG and exercise stress testing. Additionally, other diagnostic techniques such as S-T segment analysis and Q-T interval analysis that rely on diagnostic quality waveforms can now be applied. All of these enhancements to the traditional Holter modality have altered the regulatory perspective of these devices, since the enhancements may represent a new intended use for the device.

  8. Development of regulatory technical rationale for risk monitoring program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chang Hyun; Kim, Ju Youl; Kim, Yoon Ik; Yang, Hui Chang; Lee, Yong Suk; Ahn, Kwang Won; Kim, Se Hyung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In Korea, the risk monitoring program will be developed and applied to each plants till 2003 by the severe accident management plan to enhance the safety functions of the nuclear power plants. Through this plan, the risk monitoring for the full power and low power and shutdown operation will be performed. Therefore the development of consistent risk monitoring system and overall regulatory guides for the risk monitoring program are necessary. The objective of this study is the development of regulatory technical rationales for the nuclear power plant risk monitoring program and the derivation of the requirements need for the development of risk monitoring system. Through this the improvement of regulatory effectiveness to assure the safe operation of nuclear power plant, is expected.

  9. Assessing the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, S.; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2013-01-01

    Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems are designed for assisting owners and operators with information and forecasts concerning the fitness for purpose of structures and building systems. The benefit associated with the implementation of SHM may in some cases be intuitively anticipated...... of the structure over its life-cycle as well as the costs associated with monitoring and possible remedial actions. The suggested approach is illustrated through two case studies concerning the monitoring of welded details in steel structures subjected to fatigue loading. The case studies address the effect...... of the uncertainty associated with the performance of SHM on the value of SHM. Moreover, in order to illustrate the potential of the application of approach for monitoring of structural systems an optimal strategy for SHM is determined for a system comprised of three welded details. © 2013 Taylor & Francis Group...

  10. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Alex L [Albuquerque, NM; Manginell, Ronald P [Albuquerque, NM; Moorman, Matthew W [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-05-04

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  11. On the value of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Thöns, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    in the fields of SHM and the quantification of value of information as well as the identification of typical situations in structural engineering in which SHM has the potential to provide value beyond its costs. Subsequently, the theoretical framework which allows for the quantification of the value...... of information collected through SHM systems is developed and elaborated. It is shown how the value of information can be quantified to support the assessment and optimization of decisions on whether and how to implement SHM. To illustrate the use of the developed theoretical framework for evaluating the benefit...... of SHM an example is provided. The example addresses the life-cycle benefit maximization for offshore jacket structures subject to fatigue crack growth utilizing monitoring of near field fatigue stresses as a means of optimizing risk based inspection and maintenance strategies....

  12. Regulatory standards and other guidelines for goundwater monitoring programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.F.; Schmidt, A.J.; Selby, K.B.

    1989-07-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information on regulatory programs relevant to a groundwater monitoring program. The information provides a framework within which planners and decisions makers can systematically consider the maze of specific requirements and guidance as they develop a groundwater strategy for the Hanford Site. Although this report discusses legislation and regulations as they pertain to groundwater monitoring activities, it is not intended as a legal opinion. Rather, it is provided as a guide to the relationships among the various regulatory programs related to groundwater. Federal and state environmental pollution control statutes and regulations that have been reviewed in this document include the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); Washington's Hazardous Waste Management Act; Washington's Solid Waste Management Act; the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability, and Compensation Act (CERCLA); the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA); the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The implications and details of these regulations as they may apply to Hanford are discussed. The information contained within this report can be used to develop the Hanford Site's groundwater quality protection programs, assess regulatory compliance, and characterize the Hanford Site for potential remediation and corrective actions. 5 refs., 14 tabs.

  13. Environmental regulatory guide for radiological effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is obligated to regulate its own activities so as to provide radiation protection for both workers and the public.'' Presidential Executive Order 12088, Federal Compliance with Pollution Control Standards,'' further requires the heads of executive agencies to ensure that all Federal facilities and activities comply with applicable pollution control standards and to take all actions necessary for the prevention, control, and abatement of environmental pollution. This regulatory guide describes the elements of an acceptable effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance program for DOE sites involving radioactive materials. These elements are applicable to all DOE and contractor activities for which the DOE exercises environmental, safety, and health responsibilities, and are intended to be applicable over the broad range of DOE facilities and sites. In situations where the high-priority elements may not provide sufficient coverage of a specific monitoring or surveillance topic, the document provides additional guidance. The high-priority elements are written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed, and the guidance is written as procedures and activities that should'' be performed. The regulatory guide both incorporates and expands on requirements embodied in DOE 5400.5 and DOE 5400.1. 221 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Watershed monitoring and modelling and USA regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B G; Boner, M C

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the Columbus program was to implement a comprehensive watershed monitoring-network including water chemistry, aquatic biology and alternative sensors to establish water environment health and methods for determining future restoration progress and early warning for protection of drinking water supplies. The program was implemented to comply with USA regulatory requirements including Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) rules of the Clean Water Act (CWA) and Source Water Assessment and Protection (SWAP) rules under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). The USEPA Office of Research and Development and the Water Environment Research Foundation provided quality assurance oversight. The results obtained demonstrated that significant wet weather data is necessary to establish relationships between land use, water chemistry, aquatic biology and sensor data. These measurements and relationships formed the basis for calibrating the US EPA BASINS Model, prioritizing watershed health and determination of compliance with water quality standards. Conclusions specify priorities of cost-effective drainage system controls that attenuate stormwater flows and capture flushed pollutants. A network of permanent long-term real-time monitoring using combination of continuous sensor measurements, water column sampling and aquatic biology surveys and a regional organization is prescribed to protect drinking water supplies and measure progress towards water quality targets.

  15. Continuous auditing & continuous monitoring : Continuous value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hillo, Rutger; Weigand, Hans; Espana, S; Ralyte, J; Souveyet, C

    2016-01-01

    Advancements in information technology, new laws and regulations and rapidly changing business conditions have led to a need for more timely and ongoing assurance with effectively working controls. Continuous Auditing (CA) and Continuous Monitoring (CM) technologies have made this possible by

  16. Regulatory monitoring systems of fortified salt and wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Wijngaart, Annoek; Bégin, France; Codling, Karen; Randall, Philip; Johnson, Quentin W

    2013-06-01

    Considerable efforts have been made over the past decade to address vitamin and mineral deficiencies. An increasing number of countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are adopting mandatory food fortification as one of the primary strategies to overcome these deficiencies. Experience shows that fortified foods can reach large parts of the population, including the poor, if the fortification is done on a mandatory rather than a voluntary basis and if the food vehicle is widely consumed. To review the importance of regulatory monitoring as an essential component of food fortification efforts in selected ASEAN countries, with special focus on the available information on regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour. The role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification programs was discussed during a joint regional meeting of the World Health Organization, UNICEF, the Flour Fortification Initiative, the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, the Micronutrient Initiative, and the World Bank on regulatory monitoring of salt and wheat flour fortification programs in Asia, which took place in Manila, Philippines, on 27-29 September 2011. This paper reviews the regulatory monitoring systems of selected ASEAN countries that participated in this meeting. Problems and challenges in regulatory monitoring systems for iodized salt and fortified wheat flour in selected ASEAN countries are identified, and a description of the role of regulatory monitoring in strengthening food fortification initiatives, particularly of salt and flour, and highlights of areas for improvement are presented. Regulatory monitoring consists of monitoring activities conducted at the production level, at customs warehouses, and at retail stores by concerned regulatory authorities, and at the production level by producers themselves, as part of quality control and assurance efforts. Unless there are appropriate enforcement and quality

  17. Review of Legislation and Regulatory Framework in Ukraine with Regard to Environmental Radiation Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldammer, Wolfgang; Batandjieva, Borislava (Private Consultants (Ukraine)); Nasvit, Oleg (National Security and Defence Council of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine)); German, Olga (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    The aim of this review is to compare the current legal basis and regulatory framework in Ukraine to the relevant international safety requirements and to identify shortcomings, such as deficiencies and internal contradictions. However, no assessment of its practical implementation is made beyond the aspects related to environmental radiation monitoring. The report focuses on 13 areas present in the in the Ukrainian legislation and regulatory framework: R-1 Radiation monitoring R-2 Definition of responsibilities R-3 Normal situations R-4 Emergencies R-5 Long-term monitoring R-6 Intervention in cases of lasting exposure R-7 Use of monitoring data R-8 Record keeping R-9 Reporting to the regulatory authority R-10 Public information R-11 Human and financial resources R-12 Transboundary aspects R-13 Quality assurance. For each topic a description of the current situation and an evaluation is carried out. Ranking is then supplied supported by its evaluation. In brief these categories are: A: The national legal and regulatory documents are harmonised in substance with the international safety requirements; B: Substantial differences exist between the national and international requirements which should be addressed with the view to harmonise the legislation; C: Substantial deficiencies exist in the legal and/or regulatory bases which results in no or at least partial compliance with international safety requirements. P: In addition practical issues are also provided to indicates where practical implementation of the legislation and regulatory basis is not adequate in all respects. This report then presents main observations and conclusions of the review. On this basis, the report derives general suggestions for improvement of the legal and regulatory bases. These should be considered by the Ukrainian Government and the regulatory authorities within an action plan to improve the legal basis for radiological monitoring of the environment and to facilitate its implementation

  18. The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring in tethered cord surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Eelco W.; Haitsma, Esther; Ophuis, Charlotte M. C. Oude; Journee, Henricus L.

    The value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) with surgical detethering in dysraphic patients has been questioned. A retrospective analysis of our series of 65 patients is presented with special focus on technical set-up and outcome. All patients were diagnosed with a tethered

  19. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A.; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Background: New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Methods: Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec’s (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Results: Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology’s value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology—as a health intervention and as an economic commodity—and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Conclusion: Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy. PMID:28949463

  20. Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Pascale; Miller, Fiona A; Daudelin, Geneviève; Denis, Jean-Louis

    2017-01-25

    New technologies constitute an important cost-driver in healthcare, but the dynamics that lead to their emergence remains poorly understood from a health policy standpoint. The goal of this paper is to clarify how entrepreneurs, investors, and regulatory agencies influence the value of emerging health technologies. Our 5-year qualitative research program examined the processes through which new health technologies were envisioned, financed, developed and commercialized by entrepreneurial clinical teams operating in Quebec's (Canada) publicly funded healthcare system. Entrepreneurs have a direct influence over a new technology's value proposition, but investors actively transform this value. Investors support a technology that can find a market, no matter its intrinsic value for clinical practice or healthcare systems. Regulatory agencies reinforce the "double" value of a new technology-as a health intervention and as an economic commodity-and provide economic worth to the venture that is bringing the technology to market. Policy-oriented initiatives such as early health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage with evidence may provide technology developers with useful input regarding the decisions they make at an early stage. But to foster technologies that bring more value to healthcare systems, policy-makers must actively support the consideration of health policy issues in innovation policy.

  1. Missing Value Monitoring Enhances the Robustness in Proteomics Quantitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matafora, Vittoria; Corno, Andrea; Ciliberto, Andrea; Bachi, Angela

    2017-04-07

    In global proteomic analysis, it is estimated that proteins span from millions to less than 100 copies per cell. The challenge of protein quantitation by classic shotgun proteomic techniques relies on the presence of missing values in peptides belonging to low-abundance proteins that lowers intraruns reproducibility affecting postdata statistical analysis. Here, we present a new analytical workflow MvM (missing value monitoring) able to recover quantitation of missing values generated by shotgun analysis. In particular, we used confident data-dependent acquisition (DDA) quantitation only for proteins measured in all the runs, while we filled the missing values with data-independent acquisition analysis using the library previously generated in DDA. We analyzed cell cycle regulated proteins, as they are low abundance proteins with highly dynamic expression levels. Indeed, we found that cell cycle related proteins are the major components of the missing values-rich proteome. Using the MvM workflow, we doubled the number of robustly quantified cell cycle related proteins, and we reduced the number of missing values achieving robust quantitation for proteins over ∼50 molecules per cell. MvM allows lower quantification variance among replicates for low abundance proteins with respect to DDA analysis, which demonstrates the potential of this novel workflow to measure low abundance, dynamically regulated proteins.

  2. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research site monitoring for compliance with ethics regulatory standards: review of experience from Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Joseph; Ecuru, Julius; Nakwagala, Frederick; Kutyabami, Paul

    2013-06-05

    On site monitoring of research is one of the most effective ways to ensure compliance during research conduct. However, it is least carried out primarily for two reasons: presumed high costs both in terms of human resources and finances; and the lack of a clear framework for undertaking site monitoring. In this paper we discuss a model for research site monitoring that may be cost effective and feasible in low resource settings. This was a retrospective review of research site monitoring reports covering a period of four years. The monitoring was conducted by the Uganda National Council for Science and Technology, the National Drug Authority and the National HIV/AIDS Research and Ethics Committee over the period 2007 to 2010.The monitoring team was usually three members comprising of two experts in research ethics and an assistant. A total of 28 site monitoring visits covering 40 research projects were reviewed. 25% of the site monitoring reports revealed violation of the regulatory requirement for valid ethical approval. 36% of the site reports showed some instances of informed consent violation, 28% showed violation of the rights and welfare of research participants, 38% revealed that sites did not report SAEs to regulatory authorities and many sites lacked adequate GCP and GCLP. However, most of the sites monitored had adequate facilities to conduct the respective studies and good working practices. This model employed by the monitoring teams to evaluate research compliance is effective in auditing ethical practice. Compliance monitoring is feasible and affordable in a resource limited setting. Research protocol non compliance is still a major problem in Uganda, and there is need for a pro-active approach to this vice by all stake holders if ethical conduct of research is to be achieved.

  4. Regulatory environment and its impact on the market value of investor-owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwanathan, Raman

    While other regulated industries have one by one been exposed to competitive reform, electric power, for over eighty years, has remained a great monopoly. For all those years, the vertically integrated suppliers of electricity in the United States have been assigned exclusive territorial (consumer) franchises and have been closely regulated. This environment is in the process change because the electric power industry is currently undergoing some dramatic adjustments. Since 1992, a number of states have initiated regulatory reform and are moving to allow retail customers to choose their energy supplier. There has also been a considerable federal government role in encouraging competition in the generation and transmission of electricity. The objective of this research is to investigate the reaction of investors to the prevailing regulatory environment in the electric utility industry by analyzing the market-to-book value for investor-owned electric utilities in the United States as a gauge of investor concern or support for change. In this study, the variable of interest is the market valuation of utilities, as it captures investor confidence to changes in the regulatory environment. Initially a classic regression model is analyzed on the full sample (of the 96 investor-owned utilities for the years 1992 through 1996), providing a total number of 480 (96 firms over 5 years) observations. Later fixed- and random-effects models are analyzed for the same full-sample model specified in the previous analysis. Also, the analysis is carried forward to examine the impact of the size of the utility and its degree of reliability on nuclear power generation on market values. In the period of this study, 1992--1996, the financial security markets downgraded utilities that were still operating in a regulated environment or had a substantial percentage of their power generation from nuclear power plants. It was also found that the financial market was sensitive to the size of

  5. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  6. Inferring gene regulatory networks by singular value decomposition and gravitation field algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Wu, Jia-nan; Huang, Yan-xin; Liu, Gui-xia; Zhou, You; Zhou, Chun-guang

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is of utmost interest and has become a challenge computational problem in system biology. However, every existing inference algorithm from gene expression profiles has its own advantages and disadvantages. In particular, the effectiveness and efficiency of every previous algorithm is not high enough. In this work, we proposed a novel inference algorithm from gene expression data based on differential equation model. In this algorithm, two methods were included for inferring GRNs. Before reconstructing GRNs, singular value decomposition method was used to decompose gene expression data, determine the algorithm solution space, and get all candidate solutions of GRNs. In these generated family of candidate solutions, gravitation field algorithm was modified to infer GRNs, used to optimize the criteria of differential equation model, and search the best network structure result. The proposed algorithm is validated on both the simulated scale-free network and real benchmark gene regulatory network in networks database. Both the Bayesian method and the traditional differential equation model were also used to infer GRNs, and the results were used to compare with the proposed algorithm in our work. And genetic algorithm and simulated annealing were also used to evaluate gravitation field algorithm. The cross-validation results confirmed the effectiveness of our algorithm, which outperforms significantly other previous algorithms.

  7. Translating Mechanism of Regulatory Action of Tolerogenic Dendritic Cells to Monitoring Endpoints in Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S. Suwandi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerogenic dendritic cells (tolDCs have reached patients with autoimmune and inflammatory disease, at least in clinical trials. The safety of tolDCs as intervention therapy has been established, but the capacity to modulate autoimmune response in vivo remains to be demonstrated. Studies have revealed a diversity of regulatory mechanisms that tolDCs may employ in vivo. These mechanisms differ between various types of modulated tolDC. The most often foreseen action of tolDCs is through regulatory polarization of naïve T cells or activation of existing regulatory T cells, which should ultimately diminish autoimmune inflammation. Yet, selection of a target autoantigen remains critical to expedite tissue specific tolerance induction, while measuring immune modulation incited by tolDCs in vivo provides a great challenge. We will discuss the regulatory action of different types of tolDCs and the possible methods to monitor immunological efficacy endpoints for the next generation clinical trials.

  8. The clinical and pathogenetic value of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Avdeeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T regulatory cells (Tregs play a key role in the immune system due to the suppression of a hyperimmune response to autoantigens and opportunistic enteric microorganisms. In recent years, there has been evidence that Tregs can suppress various immunoinflammatory responses to a wide range of physiological and pathological stimuli, including microorganisms, tumor cells, allogeneic grafts, and fetal cells.Tregs express a broad spectrum of membrane molecules that determine their functional activity and make it possible to identify these cells; however, none has discovered a universal surface marker that would distinguish this cell subpopulation from a pool of T lymphocytes. The most specific intracellular marker for Tregs is the nuclear transcription factor Foxp3 that is of fundamental importance in the development of Tregs and their inhibitory function.The results of the vast majority of studies indicate that there are increased numbers of Tregs in the synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA; however, the data on the level of this cell population in their peripheral blood are very contradictory. The majority of investigators have observed a decrease in the percentage of circulating Tregs while other studies have revealed its increase or no differences from the corresponding value of healthy donors or patients with osteoarthritis. It is believed that a quantitative defect in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+CD127 regulatory cells is especially characteristic of early RA and associated with the risk of the latter in asymptomatic patients positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. The use of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic agents is accompanied by a certain change in the level and functional activity of Tregs, which is responsible for the therapeutic effect of the medicaments.Thus, an important part is assigned to Tregs in the pathogenesis of autoimmune rheumatic diseases, RA in particular. The decrease in the level

  9. Field calibrations of a low-cost aerosol sensor at a regulatory monitoring site in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holstius, D. M.; Pillarisetti, A.; Smith, K. R.; Seto, E.

    2014-04-01

    Health effects attributed to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) now rank it among the risk factors with the highest health burdens in the world, but existing monitoring infrastructure cannot adequately characterize spatial and temporal variability in urban PM2.5 concentrations, nor in human population exposures. The development and evaluation of more portable and affordable monitoring instruments based on low-cost sensors may offer a means to supplement and extend existing infrastructure, increasing the density and coverage of empirical measurements and thereby improving exposure science and control. Here, we report on field calibrations of a custom-built, battery-operated aerosol monitoring instrument we developed using low-cost, off-the-shelf optical aerosol sensors. We calibrated our instruments using 1 h and 24 h PM2.5 data from a class III US EPA Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) PM2.5 β-attenuation monitor in continuous operation at a regulatory monitoring site in Oakland, California. We observed negligible associations with ambient humidity and temperature; linear corrections were sufficient to explain 60% of the variance in 1 h reference PM2.5 data and 72% of the variance in 24 h data. Performance at 1 h integration times was comparable to commercially available optical instruments costing considerably more. These findings warrant further exploration of the circumstances under which this class of aerosol sensors may profitably be deployed to generate improved PM2.5 data sets.

  10. Do Currently Available Blood Glucose Monitors Meet Regulatory Standards? 1-Day Public Meeting in Arlington, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C.; Reyes, Juliet S.

    2013-01-01

    Blood glucose monitors (BGMs) are approved by regulatory agencies based on their performance during strict testing conducted by their manufacturers. However, after approval, there is uncertainty whether BGMs maintain the accuracy levels that were achieved in the initial data. The availability of inaccurate BGM systems pose a public health problem because their readings serve as a basis for treatment decisions that can be incorrect. Several articles have concluded that BGMs in the marketplace may not consistently provide accurate results in accordance with the regulatory standards that led to approval. To address this growing concern, Diabetes Technology Society organized and conducted a 1-day public meeting on May 21, 2013, in Arlington, VA, presided by its president, David Klonoff, M.D., FACP, Fellow AIMBE, to determine whether BGMs on the market meet regulatory standards. The meeting consisted of four sessions in which Food and Drug Administration diabetes experts as well as leading academic clinicians and clinical chemists participated: (1) How is BGM performance determined? (2) Do approved BGMs perform according to International Organization for Standardization standards? (3) How do approved BGMs perform when used by patients and health care professionals? (4) What could be the consequence of poor BGM performance? PMID:23911191

  11. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: The Value of Publishing Negative Scientific Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Gary A; Foster, John R; Laast, Victoria A; Francke, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Historically it has been easier to publish positive scientific results than negative data not supporting the research hypothesis. This appears to be increasing, with fewer negative studies appearing in the literature across many disciplines. Failure to recognize the value of negative results has important implications for the toxicology community. Implications include perpetuating scientific fields based upon selective or occasionally erroneous, positive results. One example is decreased vaccination rates and increased measles infections that can lead to childhood mortality following one erroneous positive study linking vaccination to adverse effects despite multiple negative studies. Publication of negative data that challenges existing paradigms enhances progress by stopping further investment in scientifically barren topics, decreases the use of animals, and focuses research in more fruitful areas. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) publishes both positive and negative rodent data. Retrospective analysis of the NTP database has provided insights on the carcinogenic process and in the gradual acceptance of using fewer animals in safety studies. This article proposes that careful publication of both positive and negative data can enhance product safety assessment, add robustness to safety determinations in the regulatory decision-making process, and should be actively encouraged by those determining journal editorial policy. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  12. The value of close monitoring in vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, M; Koaik, Y; Sabri, A

    2017-03-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy is a well-established treatment modality for patients with vestibular problems. Performing vestibular rehabilitation therapy in a closely monitored setting may result in a better outcome than a home exercise programme. A retrospective study was conducted of patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation therapy between June 2005 and November 2012 in a tertiary university hospital. The Dynamic Gait Index, the main outcome measure, was utilised before and after the rehabilitation programme. The magnitude of improvement for all patients was analysed, mainly to compare the home exercise group with the closely monitored therapy group. Only 32 patients underwent the vestibular rehabilitation therapy programme. In all patients, there was significant improvement in the mean Dynamic Gait Index score (from 11.75 to 17.38; p rehabilitation therapy resulted in improved performance status. More studies are needed to establish the efficiency of vestibular rehabilitation therapy and compare closely monitored therapy with tailored home exercise rehabilitation.

  13. Reference values for generic instruments used in routine outcome monitoring: the leiden routine outcome monitoring study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulte-van Maaren Yvonne WM

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI, Mood & Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire −30 (MASQ-D30, Short Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36, and Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Short Form (DAPP-SF are generic instruments that can be used in Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM of patients with common mental disorders. We aimed to generate reference values usually encountered in 'healthy' and ‘psychiatrically ill’ populations to facilitate correct interpretation of ROM results. Methods We included the following specific reference populations: 1294 subjects from the general population (ROM reference group recruited through general practitioners, and 5269 psychiatric outpatients diagnosed with mood, anxiety, or somatoform (MAS disorders (ROM patient group. The outermost 5% of observations were used to define limits for one-sided reference intervals (95th percentiles for BSI, MASQ-D30 and DAPP-SF, and 5th percentiles for SF-36 subscales. Internal consistency and Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analyses were performed. Results Mean age for the ROM reference group was 40.3 years (SD=12.6 and 37.7 years (SD=12.0 for the ROM patient group. The proportion of females was 62.8% and 64.6%, respectively. The mean for cut-off values of healthy individuals was 0.82 for the BSI subscales, 23 for the three MASQ-D30 subscales, 45 for the SF-36 subscales, and 3.1 for the DAPP-SF subscales. Discriminative power of the BSI, MASQ-D30 and SF-36 was good, but it was poor for the DAPP-SF. For all instruments, the internal consistency of the subscales ranged from adequate to excellent. Discussion and conclusion Reference values for the clinical interpretation were provided for the BSI, MASQ-D30, SF-36, and DAPP-SF. Clinical information aided by ROM data may represent the best means to appraise the clinical state of psychiatric outpatients.

  14. Worldwide Regulatory Guidance Values Applied to Direct Contact Surface Soil Pesticide Contamination: Part I—Carcinogenic Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron A Jennings

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory agencies worldwide have developed regulatory guidance values (RGVs for nearly 800 pesticides. Analysis of the residential surface soil guidance values applied to the most frequently regulated current-use agriculture, home, and garden pesticides is presented. Part I concentrates on values applied to atrazine, simazine, and trifluralin. These are unique among commonly used pesticides because they are generally considered to be human carcinogens. Their use has been banned in much of the world, but they are commonly used in the United States. Regulatory guidance values applied to these 3 pesticides vary by 8.6, 5.5, and 5.1 orders of magnitude. Risk model coefficient–bounded set uncertainty analysis is applied to help analyze this variability. Cancer risk model uncertainty bounds appear to contain 36.3%, 43.0%, and 49.5% of the RGVs. Most of the remaining values appear to exceed a lifetime cancer incidence risk of 1 × 10 −6 and may not be adequately protective of human health.

  15. A representative value for 24-hour monitored ambulatory blood pressure.

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, W. S.; Park, H.J.; Lee, E Y; Choi, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Several shorter-term alternatives for whole-day ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure using Pressurometer III or conventional sphygmomanometer were evaluated in 12 male patients with mild hypertension. Averages of BP reading at 8 AM once, 3 consecutive-readings either with Pressurometer or manually, serial readings for 2-hour intervals from 8-10 AM and 2-4 PM were compared with that of 24-hour ambulatory, non-invasive BP readings by Pressurometer. Both systolic and diastolic 2-hour BP avera...

  16. Prognostic value of Holter monitoring in congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Zareba, Wojciech; de Luna, Antoni Bayes

    2008-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an increasingly widespread, costly and deadly disease, frequently named as epidemics of the 21 century. Despite advancement in modern treatment, mortality rate in CHF patients remains high. Therefore, risk stratification in patients with CHF remains one of the major challenges of contemporary cardiology. Electrocardiographic parameters based on ambulatory Holter monitoring have been documented to be independent risk predictors of total mortality and progression of heart failure. Recent years brought an increased interest in evaluation of dynamic Holter-derived ECG markers reflecting changes in heart rate and ventricular repolarization behavior. It is widely accepted that structural changes reflecting myocardial substrate are better identified by means of imaging techniques, Holter monitoring on the other hand provides complementary information on myocardial vulnerability and autonomic nervous system. Therefore, combining the electrocardiographic stratification with assessment of myocardial substrate may provide the complex insight into interplay between factors contributing to death. The present article reviews the literature data on the prognostic role of various Holter-based ECG parameters, with special emphasis to dynamic ECG risk markers--heart rate variability, heart rate turbulence, repolarization dynamics and variability--in predicting mortality, as well as different modes of death in patients with CHF.

  17. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structura...

  18. Electrostatic discharges and their effect on the validity of registered values in intracranial pressure monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Juhler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    , the authors have tried to determine if the ICP monitors from major manufacturers were affected by electrostatic discharges (ESDs), if the changes were permanent or transient in nature, and if the changes were modified by the addition of different electrical appliances normally used in the neurointensive care......Object Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is used extensively in clinical practice, and as such, the accuracy of registered ICP values is paramount. Clinical observations of nonphysiological changes in ICP have called into question the accuracy of registered ICP values. Subsequently....... Results Five pressure monitors from 4 manufacturers were evaluated. Three monitors containing electrical circuitry at the tip of the transducer were all affected by ESDs. Clinically significant permanent changes in the reported ICP values for 1 pressure monitor were observed, as well as temporary...

  19. Uncertain added value of Global Trigger Tool for monitoring of patient safety in cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczak, Henriette; Neckelmann, Kirsten; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Monitoring patient safety is a challenging task. The lack of a golden standard has contributed to the recommendation and introduction of several methods. In 2000 the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established to monitor the clinical management of lung cancer. In 2008 the Global Trigger Tool...... (GTT) was recommended in Denmark as a tool for the monitoring of patient safety. Ideally, the recommendation of a new tool should be preceded by a critical assessment of its added value....

  20. Evaluation of spot and passive sampling for monitoring, flux estimation and risk assessment of pesticides within the constraints of a typical regulatory monitoring scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zulin; Troldborg, Mads; Yates, Kyari; Osprey, Mark; Kerr, Christine; Hallett, Paul D; Baggaley, Nikki; Rhind, Stewart M; Dawson, Julian J C; Hough, Rupert L

    2016-11-01

    In many agricultural catchments of Europe and North America, pesticides occur at generally low concentrations with significant temporal variation. This poses several challenges for both monitoring and understanding ecological risks/impacts of these chemicals. This study aimed to compare the performance of passive and spot sampling strategies given the constraints of typical regulatory monitoring. Nine pesticides were investigated in a river currently undergoing regulatory monitoring (River Ugie, Scotland). Within this regulatory framework, spot and passive sampling were undertaken to understand spatiotemporal occurrence, mass loads and ecological risks. All the target pesticides were detected in water by both sampling strategies. Chlorotoluron was observed to be the dominant pesticide by both spot (maximum: 111.8ng/l, mean: 9.35ng/l) and passive sampling (maximum: 39.24ng/l, mean: 4.76ng/l). The annual pesticide loads were estimated to be 2735g and 1837g based on the spot and passive sampling data, respectively. The spatiotemporal trend suggested that agricultural activities were the primary source of the compounds with variability in loads explained in large by timing of pesticide applications and rainfall. The risk assessment showed chlorotoluron and chlorpyrifos posed the highest ecological risks with 23% of the chlorotoluron spot samples and 36% of the chlorpyrifos passive samples resulting in a Risk Quotient greater than 0.1. This suggests that mitigation measures might need to be taken to reduce the input of pesticides into the river. The overall comparison of the two sampling strategies supported the hypothesis that passive sampling tends to integrate the contaminants over a period of exposure and allows quantification of contamination at low concentration. The results suggested that within a regulatory monitoring context passive sampling was more suitable for flux estimation and risk assessment of trace contaminants which cannot be diagnosed by spot

  1. Electrostatic discharges and their effect on the validity of registered values in intracranial pressure monitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius

    2013-01-01

    , the authors have tried to determine if the ICP monitors from major manufacturers were affected by electrostatic discharges (ESDs), if the changes were permanent or transient in nature, and if the changes were modified by the addition of different electrical appliances normally used in the neurointensive care....... Results Five pressure monitors from 4 manufacturers were evaluated. Three monitors containing electrical circuitry at the tip of the transducer were all affected by ESDs. Clinically significant permanent changes in the reported ICP values for 1 pressure monitor were observed, as well as temporary...... deflections for 2 other monitors. The monitors had different levels of sensitivity to discharges at low voltages. Conclusions These results explain some of the sudden shifts in ICP noted in the clinical setting. However, a clear deflection pattern related to the addition of electrical appliances was not found...

  2. Reconciling Estimates of the Value to Firms of Reduced Regulatory Delay in the Marketing of Their New Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmoth, Daniel R

    2015-12-01

    The prescription drug user fee program provides additional resources to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration at the expense of regulated firms. Those resources accelerate the review of new drugs. Faster approvals allow firms to realize profits sooner, and the program is supported politically by industry. However, published estimates of the value to firms of reduced regulatory delay vary dramatically. It is shown here that this variation is driven largely by differences in methods that correspond to differences in implicit assumptions about the effects of reduced delay. Theoretical modeling is used to derive an equation describing the relationship between estimates generated using different methods. The method likely to yield the most accurate results is identified. A reconciliation of published estimates yields a value to a firm for a one-year reduction in regulatory delay at the time of approval of about $60 million for a typical drug. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Exact p-value calculation for heterotypic clusters of regulatory motifs and its application in computational annotation of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roytberg Mikhail A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background cis-Regulatory modules (CRMs of eukaryotic genes often contain multiple binding sites for transcription factors. The phenomenon that binding sites form clusters in CRMs is exploited in many algorithms to locate CRMs in a genome. This gives rise to the problem of calculating the statistical significance of the event that multiple sites, recognized by different factors, would be found simultaneously in a text of a fixed length. The main difficulty comes from overlapping occurrences of motifs. So far, no tools have been developed allowing the computation of p-values for simultaneous occurrences of different motifs which can overlap. Results We developed and implemented an algorithm computing the p-value that s different motifs occur respectively k1, ..., ks or more times, possibly overlapping, in a random text. Motifs can be represented with a majority of popular motif models, but in all cases, without indels. Zero or first order Markov chains can be adopted as a model for the random text. The computational tool was tested on the set of cis-regulatory modules involved in D. melanogaster early development, for which there exists an annotation of binding sites for transcription factors. Our test allowed us to correctly identify transcription factors cooperatively/competitively binding to DNA. Method The algorithm that precisely computes the probability of simultaneous motif occurrences is inspired by the Aho-Corasick automaton and employs a prefix tree together with a transition function. The algorithm runs with the O(n|Σ|(m|ℋ MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFlecsaaa@3762@| + K|σ|K ∏i ki time complexity, where n is the length of the text, |Σ| is the alphabet size, m is the

  4. Diagnostic value and prognostic evaluation of dynamic video-electroencephalogram monitoring in children with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobo; Su, Ying; Liu, Wei; Jia, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Guilan

    2017-01-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic value of dynamic video-electroencephalogram (V-EEG) monitoring in children with epilepsy were investigated. From February 2014 to February 2016, in total 200 children with epilepsy were selected during their stay in the First Hospital of Qinghuangdao and were randomly allocated to a dynamic and a conventional V-EEG monitoring group (n=100). The detection rate of epileptiform discharges in the two groups was evaluated. The V-EEG monitoring index was used to select treatment methods for patients with epilepsy. After 3 months, the patients were rechecked. Disease features and incidence of epilepsy were recorded. There were no significant differences in the course of disease, seizure frequency and age between the two groups (P>0.05). The detection rate of epileptiform discharges in the dynamic V-EEG was significantly higher than in the routine monitoring group (P<0.01). The accuracy and specificity of monitoring in the V-EEG were significantly higher than in the routine monitoring group (P<0.01). Seizure frequency and number of epilepsy attacks in patients in the V-EEG group were significantly lower than in the routine monitoring group (P<0.01). Dynamic V-EEG can improve epilepsy detection rate. The high accuracy and specificity of dynamic V-EEG suggest that it may be of great clinical value in the diagnosis and prognosis of epilepsy. PMID:28962191

  5. Motivated response styles: the role of cultural values, regulatory focus, and self-consciousness in socially desirable responding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Ashok K; Shrum, L J; Chiu, Chi-Yue

    2009-04-01

    Three studies investigated the relations between cultural values and socially desirable responding, the processes that underlie them, and factors that influence the strength of the relations. Results indicated that individualism was associated with self-deceptive enhancement but not impression management, whereas collectivism was associated with impression management but not self-deceptive enhancement. Regulatory focus was found to mediate these relations. A promotion focus mediated the relation between individualism and self-deceptive enhancement, whereas a prevention focus mediated the relation between collectivism and impression management. This mediation pattern held regardless of whether individualism and collectivism were determined at the group level (Study 1) or measured at the individual level (Studies 2-3), whether socially desirable responding was operationalized as a scale measure (Studies 1-3) or as reactions to behavioral scenarios (Study 2), and across different measures of regulatory focus. This general mediation pattern was found to be moderated by type of self-consciousness (Study 3): The promotion focus mediation was stronger for participants low (vs. high) in private self-consciousness, and the prevention focus mediation was stronger for participants high (vs. low) in public self-consciousness. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  6. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  7. The science of value: Economic expertise and the valuation of human life in US federal regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    This article explores efforts to apply economic logic to human life. To do so, it looks at federal regulatory agencies, where government planners and policy makers have spent over a century trying to devise a scientifically sound way to measure the economic value of lives lost or saved by public programs. The methods they have drawn on, however, have changed drastically in the past 40 years, shifting from a 'human capital' approach based on models of economic productivity and producing relatively low dollar values to a 'willingness-to-pay' approach reflecting consumer choice and producing much higher values. Why, in an era of intense deregulatory pressures, did the valuation model that produced significantly higher estimates - making it easier to justify costly regulation - ultimately win out? This unlikely transition follows a shift in the nature of professional expertise dominating the federal bureaucracy during the 1970s and 1980s, as changing conceptions of health and safety regulation during this period gave academic economists the opportunity to make new claims about the exclusive authority of microeconomic theory for understanding the economic value of life in federal planning. Supporting this argument is a comparative case, the largely unsuccessful attempt to extend the willingness-to-pay model to the valuation of life in the courtroom. Pricing human life thus results not only from the renegotiation of moral boundaries around the economic logic of the market, but also from the reorganization of expert authority and the consolidation of scientific expertise around both the meaning and the measurement of value.

  8. Value of monitoring in asset management: A social costbenefit analysis approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zouch, M.; Courage, W.; Nápoles, O.M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework to investigate new monitoring techniques for infrastructures and assess their potential value for the network management. This framework is based on a social cost benefit analysis tool that aims to (i) assist decision makers in selecting and developing cost-effective new

  9. Helping Undergraduates Discover the Value of a Dollar through Self-Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Lance; Bliss, Donna L.; Goetz, Joseph W.; Moorman, Diann

    2010-01-01

    Many college undergraduates lack basic financial management knowledge and skills while bearing ever increasing debt burdens upon graduation. In order to encourage students to become aware of their spending patterns and weigh those patterns against personal values, a self-monitoring project was implemented as a class activity. The resulting effect…

  10. Diagnostic value and prognostic evaluation of dynamic video-electroencephalogram monitoring in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaobo; Su, Ying; Liu, Wei; Jia, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yanling; Zhang, Xinyang; Wang, Guilan

    2017-09-01

    The diagnostic and prognostic value of dynamic video-electroencephalogram (V-EEG) monitoring in children with epilepsy were investigated. From February 2014 to February 2016, in total 200 children with epilepsy were selected during their stay in the First Hospital of Qinghuangdao and were randomly allocated to a dynamic and a conventional V-EEG monitoring group (n=100). The detection rate of epileptiform discharges in the two groups was evaluated. The V-EEG monitoring index was used to select treatment methods for patients with epilepsy. After 3 months, the patients were rechecked. Disease features and incidence of epilepsy were recorded. There were no significant differences in the course of disease, seizure frequency and age between the two groups (P>0.05). The detection rate of epileptiform discharges in the dynamic V-EEG was significantly higher than in the routine monitoring group (Pmonitoring in the V-EEG were significantly higher than in the routine monitoring group (Pmonitoring group (P<0.01). Dynamic V-EEG can improve epilepsy detection rate. The high accuracy and specificity of dynamic V-EEG suggest that it may be of great clinical value in the diagnosis and prognosis of epilepsy.

  11. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  12. Monitoring Actuarial Present Values of Term Life Insurance By a Statistical Process Control Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidz Omar, M.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking performance of life insurance or similar insurance policy using standard statistical process control chart is complex because of many factors. In this work, we present the difficulty in doing so. However, with some modifications of the SPC charting framework, the difficulty can be manageable to the actuaries. So, we propose monitoring a simpler but natural actuarial quantity that is typically found in recursion formulas of reserves, profit testing, as well as present values. We shared some simulation results for the monitoring process. Additionally, some advantages of doing so is discussed.

  13. Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area: Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA)--Programmatic, Technical, and Regulatory Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupka, Kenneth M.; Martin, Wayne J.

    2001-07-23

    Natural attenuation processes are commonly used for remediation of contaminated sites. A variety of natural processes occur without human intervention at all sites to varying rates and degrees of effectiveness to attenuate (decrease) the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume, or concentration of organic and inorganic contaminants in soil, groundwater, and surface water systems. The objective of this review is to identify potential technical investments to be incorporated in the Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area Strategic Plan for monitored natural attenuation. When implemented, the technical investments will help evaluate and implement monitored natural attenuation as a remediation option at DOE sites. The outcome of this review is a set of conclusions and general recommendations regarding research needs, programmatic guidance, and stakeholder issues pertaining to monitored natural attenuation for the DOE complex.

  14. Passive sampling in regulatory chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds in the aquatic environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booij, K.; Robinson, C.D.; Burgess, R.M.; Mayer, P.; Roberts, C.A.; Ahrens, L.; Allan, I.J.; Brant, J.; Jones, L.; Kraus, U.R.; Larsen, M.M.; Lepom, P.; Petersen, J.; Pröfrock, D.; Roose, P.; Schäfer, S.; Smedes, F.; Tixier, C.; Vorkamp, K.; Whitehouse, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the EuropeanUnion, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of themarine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met bypassive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths

  15. Passive in-home health and wellness monitoring: overview, value and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Majd

    2009-01-01

    Modern sensor and communication technology, coupled with advances in data analysis and artificial intelligence techniques, is causing a paradigm shift in remote management and monitoring of chronic disease. In-home monitoring technology brings the added benefit of measuring individualized health status and reporting it to the care provider and caregivers alike, allowing timely and targeted preventive interventions, even in home and community based settings. This paper presents a paradigm for geriatric care based on monitoring older adults passively in their own living settings through placing sensors in their living environments or the objects they use. Activity and physiological data can be analyzed, archived and mined to detect indicators of early disease onset or changes in health conditions at various levels. Examples of monitoring systems are discussed and results from field evaluation pilot studies are summarized. The approach has shown great promise for a significant value proposition to all the stakeholders involved in caring for older adults. The paradigm would allow care providers to extend their services into the communities they serve.

  16. Passive Sampling in Regulatory Chemical Monitoring of Nonpolar Organic Compounds in the Aquatic Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booij, Kees; Robinson, Craig D; Burgess, Robert M; Mayer, Philipp; Roberts, Cindy A; Ahrens, Lutz; Allan, Ian J; Brant, Jan; Jones, Lisa; Kraus, Uta R; Larsen, Martin M; Lepom, Peter; Petersen, Jördis; Pröfrock, Daniel; Roose, Patrick; Schäfer, Sabine; Smedes, Foppe; Tixier, Céline; Vorkamp, Katrin; Whitehouse, Paul

    2016-01-05

    We reviewed compliance monitoring requirements in the European Union, the United States, and the Oslo-Paris Convention for the protection of the marine environment of the North-East Atlantic, and evaluated if these are met by passive sampling methods for nonpolar compounds. The strengths and shortcomings of passive sampling are assessed for water, sediments, and biota. Passive water sampling is a suitable technique for measuring concentrations of freely dissolved compounds. This method yields results that are incompatible with the EU's quality standard definition in terms of total concentrations in water, but this definition has little scientific basis. Insufficient quality control is a present weakness of passive sampling in water. Laboratory performance studies and the development of standardized methods are needed to improve data quality and to encourage the use of passive sampling by commercial laboratories and monitoring agencies. Successful prediction of bioaccumulation based on passive sampling is well documented for organisms at the lower trophic levels, but requires more research for higher levels. Despite the existence of several knowledge gaps, passive sampling presently is the best available technology for chemical monitoring of nonpolar organic compounds. Key issues to be addressed by scientists and environmental managers are outlined.

  17. Value of information: A roadmap to quantifying the benefit of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.; Chatzi, E.; Bismut, E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of value of information (VoI) enables quantification of the benefits provided by structural health monitoring (SHM) systems – in principle. Its implementation is challenging, as it requires an explicit modelling of the structural system’s life cycle, in particular of the decisions...... that are taken based on the SHM information. In this paper, we approach the VoI analysis through an influence diagram (ID), which supports the modelling process. We provide a simple example for illustration and discuss challenges associated with real-life implementation....

  18. Longitudinal noninvasive monitoring of transcription factor activation in cardiovascular regulatory nuclei using bioluminescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeffrey R; Infanger, David W; Braga, Valdir A; Zhang, Yulong; Sharma, Ram V; Engelhardt, John F; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-04-22

    The ability to monitor transcription factor (TF) activation in the central nervous system (CNS) has the potential to provide novel information regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying a wide range of neurobiological processes. However, traditional biochemical assays limit the mapping of TF activity to select time points. In vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as an attractive technology for visualizing internal molecular events in the same animal over time. Here, we evaluated the utility of BLI, in combination with virally mediated delivery of reporter constructs to cardiovascular nuclei, for monitoring of TF activity in these discrete brain regions. Following viral gene transfer of NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter to the subfornical organ (SFO), BLI enabled daily measurements of baseline TF activity in the same animal for 1 mo. Importantly, systemic endotoxin, a stimulator of NF-kappaB activity, induced dramatic and dose-dependent increases in NF-kappaB-dependent bioluminescence in the SFO up to 30 days after gene transfer. Cotreatment with a dominant-negative IkappaBalpha mutant significantly prevented endotoxin-dependent NF-kappaB activation, confirming the specificity of the bioluminescence signal. NF-kappaB-dependent luminescence signals were also stable and inducible 1 mo following delivery of luciferase reporter construct to the paraventricular nucleus or rostral ventrolateral medulla. Lastly, using targeted adenoviral delivery of an AP-1 responsive luciferase reporter, we showed similar baseline and endotoxin-induced AP-1 activity in these same brain regions as with NF-kappaB reporters. These results demonstrate that BLI, in combination with virally mediated gene transfer, is a powerful method for longitudinal monitoring and quantification of TF activity in targeted CNS nuclei in vivo.

  19. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs in the Atmospheric Environment: Regulatory Aspects and Monitoring in Japan and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tien Tsai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, so-called air toxics or toxic air pollutants, have been detected in the atmospheric air at low concentration levels, causing public concern about the adverse effect of long-term exposure to HAPs on human health. Most HAPs belong to volatile organic compounds (VOCs. More seriously, most of them are known carcinogens or probably carcinogenic to humans. The objectives of this paper were to report the regulatory aspects and environmental monitoring management of toxic VOCs designated by Japan and Korea under the Air Pollution Control Act, and the Clean Air Conservation Act, respectively. It can be found that the environmental quality standards and environmental monitoring of priority VOCs (i.e., benzene, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and dichloromethane have been set and taken by the state and local governments of Japan since the early 2000, but not completely established in Korea. On the other hand, the significant progress in reducing the emissions of some toxic VOCs, including acrylonitrile, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, 1,2-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene in Japan was also described as a case study in the brief report paper.

  20. A framework for quantifying and optimizing the value of seismic monitoring of infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omenzetter, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines a framework for quantifying and optimizing the value of information from structural health monitoring (SHM) technology deployed on large infrastructure, which may sustain damage in a series of earthquakes (the main and the aftershocks). The evolution of the damage state of the infrastructure without or with SHM is presented as a time-dependent, stochastic, discrete-state, observable and controllable nonlinear dynamical system. The pre-posterior Bayesian analysis and the decision tree are used for quantifying and optimizing the value of SHM information. An optimality problem is then formulated how to decide on the adoption of SHM and how to manage optimally the usage and operations of the possibly damaged infrastructure and its repair schedule using the information from SHM. The objective function to minimize is the expected total cost or risk.

  1. On the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for the Operation of Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael H.; Val, Dimitri V.

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper, an approach for the quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information building upon a framework for infrastructure system utility and decision analysis is developed and applied to the operation of wind parks. The quantification of the value of SHM...... facilitates a benefit and risk informed assessment and optimization of SHM strategies and encompasses models for the infrastructure functionality, the structural constituent and system risks and its management as well as the performance of SHM strategies. A wind park system model incorporating the structural...... wind turbine systems and its components is developed accounting for the wind park functionality, i.e. power production, its operation and its cascading damage and failure scenarios. This system model facilitates to quantify the expected benefits and risks throughout the service life accounting...

  2. Guidance values for surface monitoring of antineoplastic drugs in German pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierl, Rudolf; Böhlandt, Antje; Nowak, Dennis

    2009-10-01

    Antineoplastic drugs are widely used in anticancer therapy due to their cytotoxic activity but many of them are classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic to humans. In order to evaluate personal exposure, surface monitoring has been successfully applied for several years. In this study, we present a statistical description of our data set from 102 German pharmacies and propose 'threshold guidance values (TGVs)' to facilitate interpretation of monitoring results. Our database included 1008 results for platinum (PT) and 1237 for 5-fluorouracil (FU) collected in 102 pharmacies in Germany. Wipe sampling on site was performed with one validated procedure. PT concentrations were measured by voltammetry and FU by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Data were stratified into 10 locations and statistically evaluated. Contamination was detected on all surfaces in the pharmacies with high levels on storage shelves and floors. The median values for the different locations ranged from 0.20 to 1.70 pg cm(-2) (mean: 0.57 pg cm(-2)) for PT and from 2.50 to 10.00 pg cm(-2) (mean: 5.34 pg cm(-2)) for FU. The mean 75th percentiles were 3.92 pg cm(-2) (PT) and 28.90 pg cm(-2) (FU). The TGV 1 value was set at the median value and results below demonstrate good working practices. Contaminations above the TGV 2, which was assigned at the 75th percentile, show a clear need for optimizing the handling procedures. The introduction of TGVs helps to reduce occupational exposure and allows pharmacy personnel to benchmark their own contamination levels. This provides a basis for improvement in occupational safety precautions and for regular contamination controls.

  3. Application of real-time global media monitoring and 'derived questions' for enhancing communication by regulatory bodies: the case of human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, Priya; Fogd, Julianna; Morales, Daniel; Kurz, Xavier

    2017-05-02

    The benefit-risk balance of vaccines is regularly debated by the public, but the utility of media monitoring for regulatory bodies is unclear. A media monitoring study was conducted at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines during a European Union (EU) referral procedure assessing the potential causality of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) reported to the authorities as suspected adverse reactions. To evaluate the utility of media monitoring in real life, prospective real-time monitoring of worldwide online news was conducted from September to December 2015 with inductive content analysis, generating 'derived questions'. The evaluation was performed through the validation of the predictive capacity of these questions against journalists' queries, review of the EMA's public statement and feedback from EU regulators. A total of 4230 news items were identified, containing personal stories, scientific and policy/process-related topics. Explicit and implicit concerns were identified, including those raised due to lack of knowledge or anticipated once more information would be published. Fifty derived questions were generated and categorised into 12 themes. The evaluation demonstrated that providing the media monitoring findings to assessors and communicators resulted in (1) confirming that public concerns regarding CRPS and POTS would be covered by the assessment; (2) meeting specific information needs proactively in the public statement; (3) predicting all queries from journalists; and (4) altering the tone of the public statement with respectful acknowledgement of the health status of patients with CRSP or POTS. The study demonstrated the potential utility of media monitoring for regulatory bodies to support communication proactivity and preparedness, intended to support trusted safe and effective vaccine use. Derived questions seem to be a familiar and effective

  4. Mapping and monitoring High Nature Value farmlands: challenges in European landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Guerra, Carlos; Alonso, Joaquim; Honrado, João Pradinho; Jongman, Rob; McCracken, David

    2014-10-01

    The importance of low intensity farming for the conservation of biodiversity throughout Europe was acknowledged early in the 1990s when the concept of 'High Nature Value farmlands' (HNVf) was devised. HNVf has subsequently been given high priority within the EU Rural Development Programme. This puts a requirement on each EU Member State not only to identify the extent and condition of HNVf within their borders but also to track trends in HNVf over time. However, the diversity of rural landscapes across the EU, the scarcity of (adequate) datasets on biodiversity, land cover and land use, and the lack of a common methodology for HNVf mapping currently represent obstacles to the implementation of the HNVf concept across Europe. This manuscript provides an overview of the characteristics of HNVf across Europe together with a description of the development of the HNVf concept. Current methodological approaches for the identification and mapping of HNVf across EU-27 and Switzerland are then reviewed, the main limitations of these approaches highlighted and recommendations made as to how the identification, mapping and reporting of HNVf state and trends across Europe can potentially be improved and harmonised. In particular, we propose a new framework that is built on the need for strategic HNVf monitoring based on a hierarchical, bottom-up structure of assessment units, coincident with the EU levels of political decision and devised indicators, and which is linked strongly to a collaborative European network that can provide the integration and exchange of data from different sources and scales under common standards. Such an approach is essential if the scale of the issues facing HNVf landscapes are to be identified and monitored properly at the European level. This would then allow relevant agri-environmental measures to be developed, implemented and evaluated at the scale(s) required to maintain the habitats and species of high nature conservation value that are

  5. Utilization of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Rangeland Resources Monitoring in a Changing Regulatory Environment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rango, A.; Vivoni, E. R.; Browning, D. M.; Anderson, C.; Laliberte, A. S.

    2013-12-01

    now been acquired at Jornada. Most of our UAV flights have taken place over rangelands or watersheds in the western U.S. These flights have been successful used for classification of vegetation cover and type, measuring gaps between vegetation patches, identifing locations of potentially erosive soil, deriving digital elevation models, and monitoring plant phenology.. These measurements can be directly compared to more costly and time-intensive traditional techniques used in rangeland health determinations. New UAVs are becoming available with increased sensor payload capacity. At Jornada we have concentrated on flying at low altitudes (~215 m) to acquire hyperspatial resolutions with digital cameras of about 5-6 cm. We also fly a six band multispectral camera with spatial resolution of ~ 13 cm. We have recently acquired a larger Bat-4 UAV to go with the Bat-3 UAV. The major improvement associated with this upgrade is an increase in sensor payload from 1.4 kg to 14 kg. We are surveying the type of sensors that we could add to best increase our information content.

  6. Organohalogen diffuse contamination in Firenze and Prato groundwater bodies. investigative monitoring and definition of background values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Menichetti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the Environmental Protection Agency of Tuscany in the determination of background values start from 2009 with various substances such as metals, non-metals and inorganic, dioxins and various matrices such as soil, groundwater, inland surface waters and coastal marine sediments. The methodologies supplied in literature have been interpreted and integrated to meet the requirements of current legislation and needs for remediation, diffuse pollution and excavated earth in specific areas. The method for diffuse pollution described here focuses on the use of statistical and geostatistical tools and what we present in this paper are some early results of interest obtained from two case studies in the Florence and in the Prato area. The study has been carried out on concentrations of tetrachlorethylene in the two groundwater bodies by identifying a number of frequency classes in the distribution. Each class has been hypothesized as corresponding to a distinct process. The occurrence both in space and time of the classes has been analysed and discussed critically concluding for a background value that has been found similar between the two zones. The investigation conducted on two monitoring stations representing hot-spots, with values in excess on background value has enabled to map spatial distribution of concentrations and to separate plumes from diffuse pollution area. The two areas show some peculiarities: Florence area shows advanced dehalogenation and a clear spatial continuity, whereas in Prato area it is limited with poor spatial continuity suggesting a spreading with vertical motions from still active primary or secondary sources. Observing how the methodological structure would require, to be fully predictive, a greater number of samples, however, the present work want to constitute a first contribution for management of areas subject to diffuse pollution.

  7. Demonstrating the viability and value of community-based monitoring schemes in catchment science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Eleanor; Parkin, Geoff; Quinn, Paul; Large, Andy

    2016-04-01

    for the purpose of assessing the quality of citizen science observations. It has been found that citizen science observations are essential for capturing localised convective storms. Citizen scientists want their observations to be used to gain meaningful information and tackle local issues. Data has therefore been utilised to build, calibrate and validate hydrological models and support a range of catchment management applications. This has further demonstrated the value of citizen science, along with the social benefits it has to offer. Other communities are also beginning to source funding and implement their own monitoring schemes, indicating that they are both capable and self-motivated. Citizen science makes use of evolving and more readily available technology, providing catchment stakeholders with vital information. Although these types of observations present various challenges, it is argued that a citizen science approach is not intending to replace traditional techniques, rather they can be used to complement them, fill the gaps and/or provide an indication of catchment behaviour across space and through time.

  8. Prioritizing association strength versus value: the influence of self-regulatory modes on means evaluation in single goal and multigoal contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orehek, Edward; Mauro, Romina; Kruglanski, Arie W; van der Bles, Anne Marthe

    2012-01-01

    Means of goal attainment are said to be multifinal when they are capable of attaining more than 1 goal at the same time. Such means have an advantage over unifinal means because they have the potential to attain greater overall value. However, they have the disadvantage (relative to unifinal means) of diluting the association between the means and each of the goals (Zhang, Fishbach, & Kruglanski, 2007). In turn,diluted association strength is often interpreted as reduced means’ instrumentality. Given these tradeoffs between value (favoring a multifinal option) and instrumentality (favoring the unifinal option), the question is under what conditions 1 or the other would be selected. Based on regulatory mode theory(Higgins, Kruglanski, & Pierro, 2003; Kruglanski et al., 2000), we predicted and found in 5 experiments that individuals operating in a locomotion self-regulatory mode prefer a unifinal to multifinal means,whereas individuals operating in an assessment mode prefer multifinal to unifinal means. Implications of these findings for self-regulatory phenomena are discussed.

  9. The Unites States Department of Agriculture Regulation of Veterinary Biological Products. The use of prelicensing evaluation and postlicensing monitoring to achieve regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, R E; Randall, D C

    1995-12-01

    The United Stated Department of Agriculture is responsible for regulating veterinary biological products in the United States, and the regulatory authority is provided in the Animal Virus-serum-Toxin Act of 1913. The act authorizes the Secretary of Agriculture to promulgate regulations for the production, testing, and marketing of veterinary biological products into, within, or from the United States. The current regulatory program consists of extensive prelicensing review of products, labeling, facilities, and personnel and a postlicensing monitoring system of unannounced in-depth inspections, premarketing control of product batches (serials), random check testing of finished product, and postmarketing epidemiological surveillance. This combination of regulatory oversight before and after licensure assures that pure, safe, potent, and effective veterinary biologics are available for use in the United States.

  10. Monitoring of Used Frying Oils and Frying Times for Frying Chicken Nuggets Using Peroxide Value and Acid Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Jin-Man

    2016-10-31

    This study was conducted to investigate the condition of frying oil used for frying chicken nuggets in a deep fryer. The acidification of the frying oils used, soybean oil (SB), canola oil (CA), palm oil (PA), and lard (LA), were determined as peroxide value, acid value, and fatty acid composition, after chicken nuggets were fried in them for 101 times. The acid value and peroxide value obtained were 5.14 mg KOH/g and 66.03 meq/kg in SB, 4.47 mg KOH/g and 71.04 meq/kg in CA, 2.66 mg KOH/g and 15.48 meq/kg in PA, and 5.37 mg KOH/g and 62.92 meq/kg in LA, respectively. The ranges of the major fatty acid contents were palmitic acid, 8.91-45.84%; oleic acid, 34.74-58.68%; linoleic acid, 10.32-18.65%; and stearic acid, 2.28-10.86%.Used frying oils for food except animal products have a legal limit for the freshness standard, set by the Food Codex regulations (AVnuggets. Based on the quality limits associated with food regulations stated, we suggested that the estimated frying times before acceptable freshness was exceeded were 41 for SB, 38 for LA, 53 for CA, and 109 for PA. This data may be useful in determining food quality regulations for frying oil used for animal products.

  11. Investigating the value of passive microwave observations for monitoring volcanic eruption source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montopoli, Mario; Cimini, Domenico; Marzano, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions inject both gas and solid particles into the Atmosphere. Solid particles are made by mineral fragments of different sizes (from few microns to meters), generally referred as tephra. Tephra from volcanic eruptions has enormous impacts on social and economical activities through the effects on the environment, climate, public health, and air traffic. The size, density and shape of a particle determine its fall velocity and thus residence time in the Atmosphere. Larger particles tend to fall quickly in the proximity of the volcano, while smaller particles may remain suspended for several days and thus may be transported by winds for thousands of km. Thus, the impact of such hazards involves local as well as large scales effects. Local effects involve mostly the large sized particles, while large scale effects are caused by the transport of the finest ejected tephra (ash) through the atmosphere. Forecasts of ash paths in the atmosphere are routinely run after eruptions using dispersion models. These models make use of meteorological and volcanic source parameters. The former are usually available as output of numerical weather prediction models or large scale reanalysis. Source parameters characterize the volcanic eruption near the vent; these are mainly the ash mass concentration along the vertical column and the top altitude of the volcanic plume, which is strictly related to the flux of the mass ejected at the emission source. These parameters should be known accurately and continuously; otherwise, strong hypothesis are usually needed, leading to large uncertainty in the dispersion forecasts. However, direct observations during an eruption are typically dangerous and impractical. Thus, satellite remote sensing is often exploited to monitor volcanic emissions, using visible (VIS) and infrared (IR) channels available on both Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellites. VIS and IR satellite imagery are very useful to monitor

  12. Indicator values for lichens on Quercus as a tool to monitor ammonia pollution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, K.; Olsen, H. B.; Søchting, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    conditions. The indicator values for nitrogenous nutrients significantly correlated with measured nitrogen content in Xanthoria parietina thalli sampled from the investigated Quercus trees. Indicator values for some species are critically evaluated, and it is suggested that indicator values can serve...

  13. Regulatory approach of the monitoring the effectiveness of maintenance at nuclear power plants program; Abordagem regulatoria do programa de monitoracao da eficacia da manutencao para usinas nucleoeletricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajgel, Stefan

    2009-03-15

    The electrical power generation using nuclear power plants requires this installation being safety, reliable and available for the working periods. For this purpose, an adequate, effective and well conducted maintenance program makes an essential and useful tool to the owner of the plant. However, it is necessary to follow the regulatory requirements for this program implementation which monitories this maintenance effectiveness. There are Brazilian norms requirements which must be followed. The international regulatory guides establish these requirements in good details but it is necessary to verify if this methodology for implementing can be totally applied here in Brazil. Then, the american guide NUMARC 93-01 which details how can be implemented a program for this monitoring, shows some methods for using. In this thesis, the Delphi and Probabilistic Safety Analysis were briefly included because they were preferred for implementing this monitoring.in a Brazilian plant. The results which are being obtained show that, looking the regulatory aspects, the NUMARC 93-01 follows our regulations and gives good results for the plant management. (author)

  14. Clinical value and influencing factors of intraoperative monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie SONG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2 monitoring has been widely used in clinic, which can monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and oxygen metabolism. Reverse puncture and catheterization through jugular vein for monitoring SjvO2 is easy to operate and can collect blood samples repeatedly. It is an effective method for real-time dynamic evaluation of cerebral oxygen supply-demand and neurological function. This article reviews the clinical significance and influencing factors of SjvO2 monitoring during operation. It notes in particular that SjvO2 can not be used as the only way to monitor CBF and oxygen metabolism, and a comprehensive evaluation should be done combining with the change of other parameters. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.10.014

  15. Progress of the COST Action TU1402 on the Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Limongelli, Maria Pina; Ivankovic, Ana Mandic

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information analyses and introduces the development, objectives and approaches of the COST Action TU1402 on this topic. SHM research and engineering has been focused on the extraction of loading, degradation and ...

  16. Nitrogen Dioxide Monitoring Site Design Values Table, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This table contains NO2 design values. A design value is a statistic that describes the air quality status of a given location relative to the level of the National...

  17. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  18. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Khader

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012. The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water

  19. Value of Free-Run Electromyographic Monitoring of Extraocular Cranial Nerves during Expanded Endonasal Surgery (EES) of the Skull Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    Objective To evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of extraocular cranial nerves (EOCN) III, IV, and VI during expanded endonasal surgery (EES) of the skull base in reducing iatrogenic cranial nerve (CN) deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 200 patients out of 990 who had at least one EOCN monitored during EES. We further separated patients into groups according to the specific CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as Group I and those who did not as Group II. Results A total of 696 EOCNs were monitored. The number of muscles supplied by EOCNs that had SG f-EMG activity was 88, including CN III = 46, CN IV = 21, and CN VI = 21. There were two deficits involving CN VI in patients who had SG f-EMG activity during surgery. There were 14 deficits observed, including CN III = 3, CN IV = 2, and CN VI = 9 in patients who did not have SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG monitoring of EOCN during EES can be useful in identifying the location of the nerve. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of EOCN during EES need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  20. Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

    2009-01-01

    On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

  1. Novice Interpretations of Progress Monitoring Graphs: Extreme Values and Graphical Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Kirsten W.; Christ, Theodore J.

    2017-01-01

    Curriculum-Based Measurement of Reading (CBM-R) is frequently used to monitor instructional effects and evaluate response to instruction. Educators often view the data graphically on a time-series graph that might include a variety of statistical and visual aids, which are intended to facilitate the interpretation. This study evaluated the effects…

  2. The diagnostic value of initial video-EEG monitoring in children--review of 1000 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Eishi; Pawlak, Carol; Shah, Aashit; Shah, Jagdish; Luat, Aimee F; Ahn-Ewing, Judy; Chugani, Harry T

    2005-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the clinical utility of initial video-EEG monitoring in a series of 1000 children suspected of epileptic disorders. The ages of patients (523 boys and 477 girls) ranged from 1 month to 17 years (median age: 7 years). The mean length of stay was 1.5 days (range: 1-10 days). Outcomes were classified as: 'useful-epileptic' (successful classification of epilepsy), 'useful-nonepileptic' (demonstration of nonepileptic habitual events), 'uneventful' (normal EEG without habitual events captured), and 'inconclusive' (inability to clarify the nature of habitual events with abnormal interictal EEG findings). A total of 315 studies were considered 'useful-epileptic'; 219 'useful-nonepileptic'; 224 'uneventful'; 242 'inconclusive'. Longer monitoring was associated with higher rate of a study classified as 'useful-epileptic' in all age groups (Chi square test: pepilepsy were assigned a specific diagnosis of epilepsy syndrome according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) classification. We found only 22 children with ictal EEG showing a seizure onset purely originating from a unilateral temporal region. Video-EEG monitoring may fail to capture habitual episodes. To maximize the utility of studies in the future, a video-EEG monitoring longer than 3 days should be considered in selected children such as adolescences with habitual events occurring on a less than daily basis. We recognize a reasonable clinical utility of the current ILAE classification in the present study. It may not be common to identify children with pure unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy solely based on video-EEG monitoring.

  3. Learning from your mistakes: The functional value of spontaneous error monitoring in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica L. Middleton

    2014-04-01

    Ex. 4.\t(T = umbrella “umbelella, umbrella”: Phonological error; DetCorr We used mixed effects logistic regression to assess whether the log odds of changing from error to correct was predicted by monitoring status of the error (DetCorr vs. NoDet; DetNoCorr vs. NoDet; whether the monitoring benefit interacted with direction of change (forward, backward; and whether effects varied by error type. Figure 1 (top shows that the proportion accuracy change was higher for DetCorr, relative to NoDet, consistent with a monitoring benefit. The difference in log odds was significant for semantic errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -1.73; z= -7.78; p < .001; backward: coeff = -0.92; z= -3.60; p < .001, and for phonological errors in both directions (forward: coeff. = -0.74; z= -2.73; p=.006; backward : coeff. = -.76; z = -2.73; p = .006. The difference between DetNoCorr and NoDet was not significant in any condition. Figure 1 (bottom shows that for Semantic errors, there was a directional asymmetry favoring the Forward condition (interaction: coeff. = .79; z = 2.32; p = .02. Phonological errors, in contrast, produced comparable effects in Forward and Backward direction. The results demonstrated a benefit for errors that were detected and corrected. This monitoring benefit was present in both the forward and backward direction, supporting the Strength hypothesis. Of greatest interest, the monitoring benefit for Semantic errors was greater in the forward than backward direction, indicating a role for learning.

  4. The Predictive Prognostic Values of Serum TNF-α in Comparison to SOFA Score Monitoring in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Abd Al-Maksoud Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of inflammatory markers to follow up critically ill patients is controversial. The short time frame, the need for frequent and serial measurement of biomarkers, the presence of soluble receptor and their relatively high cost are the major drawbacks. Our study’s objective is to compare the prognostic values of serum TNF-α and SOFA score monitoring in critically ill patients. Patients and Methods. A total of ninety patients were included in the study. Forty-five patients developed septic complication (sepsis group. Forty-five patients were critically ill without evidence of infectious organism (SIRS group. Patients’ data include clinical status, central venous pressure, and laboratory analysis were measured. A serum level of TNF-α and SOFA score were monitored. Results. Monitoring of TNF-α revealed significant elevation of TNF-α at 3rd and 5th days of ICU admission in both groups. Monitoring of SOFA score revealed significant elevation of SOFA scores in both groups throughout their ICU stay, particularly in nonsurvivors. Positive predictive ability of SOFA score was demonstrated in critically ill patients. Conclusion. Transient significant increase in serum levels of TNF-α were detected in septic patients. Persistent elevation of SOFA score was detected in nonsurvivor septic patients. SOFA score is an independent prognostic value in critically ill patients.

  5. Progress of the COST Action TU1402 on the Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Limongelli, Maria Pina; Ivankovic, Ana Mandic

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information analyses and introduces the development, objectives and approaches of the COST Action TU1402 on this topic. SHM research and engineering has been focused on the extraction of loading, degradation...... encompassing the infrastructure and the SHM systems, their functionality and thus require the interaction of several research disciplines. For progressing on these points, a scientific networking and dissemination project namely the COST Action TU1402 has been initiated....

  6. Progress of the COST Action TU1402 on the Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Limongelli, Maria Pina; Ivankovic, Ana Mandic

    2017-01-01

    This paper summarizes the development of Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information analyses and introduces the development, objectives and approaches of the COST Action TU1402 on this topic. SHM research and engineering has been focused on the extraction of loading, degradation and ...... encompassing the infrastructure and the SHM systems, their functionality and thus require the interaction of several research disciplines. For progressing on these points, a scientific networking and dissemination project namely the COST Action TU1402 has been initiated....

  7. Global monitoring of wetlands--the value of ENVISAT ASAR Global mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A; Wagner, W; Scipal, K; Pathe, C; Sabel, D; Wolski, P

    2009-05-01

    This paper elaborates on recent advances in the use of ScanSAR technologies for wetland-related research. Applications of active satellite radar systems include the monitoring of inundation dynamics as well as time series analyses of surface soil wetness. For management purposes many wetlands, especially those in dry regions, need to be monitored for short and long-term changes. Another application of these technologies is monitoring the impact of climate change in permafrost transition zones where peatlands form one of the major land cover types. Therefore, examples from boreal and subtropical environments are presented using the analysed ENVISAT ASAR Global mode (GM, 1 km resolution) data acquired in 2005 and 2006. In the case of the ENVISAT ASAR instrument, data availability of the rather coarse Global Mode depends on request priorities of other competing modes, but acquisition frequency may still be on average fortnightly to monthly depending on latitude. Peatland types covering varying permafrost regimes of the West Siberian Lowlands can be distinguished from each other and other land cover by multi-temporal analyses. Up to 75% of oligotrophic bogs can be identified in the seasonal permafrost zone in both years. The high seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of the subtropic Okavango Delta can also be captured by GM time series. Response to increased precipitation in 2006 differs from flood propagation patterns. In addition, relative soil moisture maps may provide a valuable data source in order to account for external hydrological factors of such complex wetland ecosystems.

  8. Extreme Value Theory Approach to Simultaneous Monitoring and Thresholding of Multiple Risk Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Li, J.; Liu, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments often encounter extreme settings with very few or no occurrences in reality.Inferences about risk indicators in such settings face the problem of insufficient data.Extreme value theory is particularly well suited for handling this type of problems.This paper uses a multivariate

  9. Value of free-run electromyographic monitoring of lower cranial nerves in endoscopic endonasal approach to skull base surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Mohanraj, Santhosh Kumar; Habeych, Miguel; Wichman, Kelley; Chang, Yue-Fang; Gardner, Paul; Snyderman, Carl; Crammond, Donald J; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2012-08-01

    Objective The main objective of this study was to evaluate the value of free-run electromyography (f-EMG) monitoring of cranial nerves (CNs) VII, IX, X, XI, and XII in skull base surgeries performed using endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to reduce iatrogenic CN deficits. Design We retrospectively identified 73 patients out of 990 patients who had EEA in our institution who had at least one CN monitored. In each CN group, we classified patients who had significant (SG) f-EMG activity as group I and those who did not as group II. Results We monitored a total of 342 CNs. A total of 62 nerves had SG f-EMG activity including CN VII = 18, CN IX = 16, CN X = 13, CN XI = 5, and CN XII = 10. No nerve deficit was found in the nerves that had significant activity during procedure. A total of five nerve deficits including (CN IX = 1, CN X = 2, CN XII = 2) were observed in the group that did not display SG f-EMG activity during surgery. Conclusions f-EMG seems highly sensitive to surgical manipulations and in locating CNs. It seems to have limited value in predicting postoperative neurological deficits. Future studies to evaluate the EMG of lower CNs during EEA procedures need to be done with both f-EMG and triggered EMG.

  10. The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Luo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility and the clinical value of the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT monitoring of blood concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA in patients treated with CsA were investigated after kidney transplantation. The validation method was performed to the EMIT determination of CsA blood concentration, the CsA whole blood ‘trough concentrations (C0 of patients in different time periods after renal transplantation were monitored, and combined with the clinical complications, the statistical results were analyzed and compared. EMIT was precise, accurate and stable, also with a high quality control. The mean postoperative blood concentration of CsA was as follows: 12 months, (185.6 ± 28.1ng/mL. The toxic reaction rate of CsA blood concentration within the recommended therapeutic concentration was 14. 1%, significantly lower than that of the none-recommended dose group (37.2% (P < 0.05; the transplantation rejection rate was 4.4%, significantly lower than that of the none-recommended dose group (22.5% (P < 0.05. Using EMIT to monitor the blood concentration of CsA as the routine laboratory method is feasible, and is able to reduce the CsA toxicity and rejection significantly, leading to achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Keywords: enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique, renal transplantation, cyclosporin A, blood concentration monitoring

  11. Why do some therapists not deal with outcome monitoring feedback? A feasibility study on the effect of regulatory focus and person–organization fit on attitude and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Kim; de Goede, Marije

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Despite research on its effectiveness, many therapists still have negative attitudes toward using outcome monitoring feedback. The current study aims to investigate how the perceived match between values of an individual and those of the organization (Person–Organization fit; PO fit), and

  12. Value of Gallium-67 Scanning in Monitoring Therapeutic Effectiveness in a Patient with Relapsing Polychondritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Che Chang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a 57-year-old man who had low-grade fever and painful, swollen and erythematous ears. Gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy (gallium scan performed prior to the commencement of treatment showed increased gallium uptake in bilateral external ears, neck, mediastinum and bilateral pulmonary hili. The results of ultrasonography of both ears were compatible with the diagnosis of chondritis. The patient's clinical condition and laboratory data improved after a course of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids. Gallium scan performed after treatment showed a diminished uptake in the external ears, neck, and mediastinum. Gallium scintigraphy is a valuable tool for evaluating inflammatory activity and monitoring therapeutic response in patients with relapsing polychondritis.

  13. The value of long-term environmental monitoring programs: an Ohio River case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohner, Timothy W; Dixon, Douglas A

    2013-11-01

    As a subset of environmental monitoring, fish sampling programs have been an important part of assessing the potential impacts of water withdrawals and effluent discharges on fish populations for many years. New environmental regulations often require that adverse environmental impacts to fish populations be minimized. Without long-term field data, population evaluations may incorrectly indicate adverse impacts where none exist or no impact where one is likely to occur. Several electric utility companies have funded the Ohio River Ecological Research Program, which has been in existence for over 40 years and consists of fish, habitat, and water quality studies at multiple power plant sites on the mainstem Ohio River. Sampling includes seasonal night-time electrofishing and daytime beach seining at three upstream and three downstream locations near each plant. The long-term nature of the program allows for the establishment of aquatic community indices to support evaluations of technology performance, the collaborative development of compliance metrics, and the assessment of fish population trends. Studies have concluded that the Ohio River fish community has improved in response to better water quality and that power plant fish entrainment and impingement and thermal discharges have had little or no measureable impact. Through collaboration and the use of long-term data, $6.3 million in monitoring costs have been saved during recent fish impingement studies. The ability to access a multiyear fish abundance database, with its associated data on age, growth, and fecundity, improves the quality of such evaluations and reduces the need for extensive field sampling at individual locations.

  14. On the Value of Monitoring Information for the Structural Integrity and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    facilitates the assessment of the value of information associated with SHM. The principal approach for the quantification of the value of SHM is formulated by modeling the fundamental decision of performing SHM or not in conjunction with their expected utilities. The expected utilities are calculated...... accounting for the probabilistic performance of a system in conjunction with the associated structural integrity and risk management actions throughout the life cycle, the associated benefits, structural risks, and costs and when performing SHM, the SHM information, their probabilistic outcomes, and costs...... and integrity management based on utility gains including or excluding SHM and inspection information. Studies of fatigue deteriorating structural systems and their characteristics (1) provide decision support for the performance of SHM, (2) explicate the influence of the structural component and system...

  15. Health-Based Cyanotoxin Guideline Values Allow for Cyanotoxin-Based Monitoring and Efficient Public Health Response to Cyanobacterial Blooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Farrer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and species and enumeration of cyanobacterial cells as a surrogate for cyanotoxin presence can overestimate risk and lead to unnecessary health advisories. In the absence of federal criteria for cyanotoxins in recreational water, the Oregon Health Authority (OHA developed guideline values for the four most common cyanotoxins in Oregon’s fresh waters (anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, microcystins, and saxitoxins. OHA developed three guideline values for each of the cyanotoxins found in Oregon. Each of the guideline values is for a specific use of cyanobacteria-affected water: drinking water, human recreational exposure and dog recreational exposure. Having cyanotoxin guidelines allows OHA to promote toxin-based monitoring (TBM programs, which reduce the number of health advisories and focus advisories on times and places where actual, rather than potential, risks to health exist. TBM allows OHA to more efficiently protect public health while reducing burdens on local economies that depend on water recreation-related tourism.

  16. Towards better service in restaurants by monitoring trends: Display of nutritional values on the menus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivkov Milan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Business obligations, the manner and pace of life today, and a large number of options when it comes to eating out, require that at least one meal is consumed outside the residence or using the services of catering and retail facilities. With this in mind, restaurants are forced to fight in the market and to differentiate the specific offer to attract a particular segment of the market. Differentiation is possible through monitoring the trends and timely adjustments to more demanding consumer needs. In this way, restaurateurs also contribute to greater customer satisfaction through quality service, which also has a positive effect on the restaurant and sales performance. Based on the results of the survey of 82 respondents, it was concluded that nutritional information shown within menus is of no importance, and also that such information does not affect the selection of dishes. Although nutritional information can be helpful in selecting more favourable and healthy food, neither men nor women care about it.

  17. Quick mapping by mobile sensors for landscape values monitoring and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Teresa Spanò

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Geomatics researches, applied to architecture and landscape, are becoming increasingly focused on development of innovation in survey techniques and digital data management. Quick techniques are sought, with a high level of automation and versatility, to support knowledge management and protection of cultural heritage, be it referred to artistic and architectural heritage or, overall, to whole varied landscape assets, in so such highest density in the country as to consider Heritage itself. The investigation and conservation initiatives in the field of landscape heritage must constantly deal with many conditions of risk exposure, and that is not always possible to make up with preventive protection, whether if it is a constant risk like that intrinsic to the status of the property, or sudden and unforeseen risks, or if it is only partially predictable, determined by an environmental emergency. In these test-sites, which have a typical vulnerability resulting from their intrinsic conditions of exposure to risk, is interesting to experiment and combine technological research with the public interest for the protection and preservation of the value of the asset. This paper is intended for the testing of systems for the expeditious acquisition of spatial data in a outstanding test site, an area of the Cinque Terre, devastated by the flood of autumn 2011.

  18. Reference values for mental health assessment instruments: objectives and methods of the Leiden Routine Outcome Monitoring Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-van Maaren, Yvonne W M; Carlier, Ingrid V E; Giltay, Erik J; van Noorden, Martijn S; de Waal, Margot W M; van der Wee, Nic J A; Zitman, Frans G

    2013-04-01

    Routine outcome monitoring (ROM) was developed to establish the outcome of psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatments through repeated assessments before, during and after treatment. Although standardization of psychiatric assessments and their reference values are essential for patient care, for various ROM instruments reference values are not available. The aim of the Leiden ROM Study is to generate reference values for 22 ROM instruments, covering generic and specific mood, anxiety and somatoform (MAS) disorders, for the general population. This article describes the extensive process of recruitment, as well as baseline characteristics of patient versus non-patient groups. Cross-sectional study in randomly selected participants aged 18-65 years from the Dutch population, included through general practitioners. Extensive demographic, psychosocial, mental health, and biological data from 1302 participants, recruited via general practitioners, were collected during a two-hour standardized assessment including observer-rated and self-report scales. These data will be compared with corresponding data from 7840 patients with psychopathology who were referred to secondary care. On-going quality control and calibration ensured maintenance of high quality during data collection. This reference group study for mental health assessments is the first study of this size carried out in the Netherlands. The results of this study are expected to be of value to secondary psychiatric care because they allow the indication of progress in health, treatment effect and possible termination of treatment. Additionally, the reference values can be used by primary care physicians as decision threshold for referral to specialized mental health care and vice versa. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Extreme dissolved oxygen variability in urbanised tropical wetlands: The need for detailed monitoring to protect nursery ground values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Alexia; Waltham, Nathan; Malerba, Martino; Sheaves, Marcus

    2017-11-01

    Little is known about levels of dissolved oxygen fish are exposed to daily in typical urbanised tropical wetlands found along the Great Barrier Reef coastline. This study investigates diel dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics in one of these typical urbanised wetlands, in tropical North Queensland, Australia. High frequency data loggers (DO, temperature, depth) were deployed for several days over the summer months in different tidal pools and channels that fish use as temporal or permanent refuges. DO was extremely variable over a 24 h cycle, and across the small-scale wetland. The high spatial and temporal DO variability measured was affected by time of day and tidal factors, namely water depth, tidal range and tidal direction (flood vs ebb). For the duration of the logging time, DO was mainly above the adopted threshold for hypoxia (50% saturation), however, for around 11% of the time, and on almost every logging day, DO values fell below the threshold, including a severe hypoxic event (cope with low DO periods. Despite the ability of fish to tolerate extreme conditions, continuing urban expansion is likely to lead to further water quality degradation and so potential loss of nursery ground value. There is a substantial discontinuity between the recommended DO values in the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality and the values observed in this wetland, highlighting the limited value of these guidelines for management purposes. Local and regional high frequency data monitoring programs, in conjunction with local exposure risk studies are needed to underpin the development of the management that will ensure the sustainability of coastal wetlands.

  20. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  1. Relative value of clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, rest radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring at discharge to predict 1 year survival after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M. Fioretti (Paolo); R.W. Brower (Ronald); M.L. Simoons (Maarten); H.J. ten Katen (Harald); A. Beelen (Anita); T. Baardman (Taco); J. Lubsen (Jacob); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractThe relative value of predischarge clinical variables, bicycle ergometry, radionuclide ventriculography and 24 hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring for predicting survival during the first year in 351 hospital survivors of acute myocardial infarction was assessed. Discriminant

  2. The Value of the Cerebroplacental Ratio for the Prediction of Intrapartum Fetal Monitoring in Low-Risk Term Pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Song, Guang; Zhao, Ge; Meng, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the use of fetal cerebroplacental ratio (CPR) to identify fetuses at high risk before labor due to the brain sparing phenomenon. Four hundred and seventy-six singleton pregnancies were enrolled in this study. The CPR was recorded within 1 week of delivery and labor was managed according to local protocols and guidelines. Intrapartum and neonatal outcome details were recorded. The CPR values of fetuses subsequently presenting category III intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) or category II EFM without improvement (category IIB EFM) or with progression to category III (category IIC EFM) were significantly lower. On multivariate logistic regression, CPR was independently associated with the risk of categories III EFM, IIB EFM and IIC EFM. CPR was also a predictor of categories III EFM, IIB EFM and IIC EFM. Fetal CPR could be used to identify fetuses at high risk before labor and to help guide intrapartum management decisions. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The value of Sentinel 1 and 2 for agricultural monitoring: lessons learned from a few case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzari, G.; Lobell, D. B.

    2016-12-01

    The exponential growth in the number of earth-observing satellites during the last few years, along with the advent of novel and powerful computational platforms and algorithms, has enabled significant progress toward agricultural monitoring from space. Among recently-deployed sensors from both the public and private sector, ESA's Sentinel 1 (radar) and 2 (optical) offer great promise for several agricultural applications, used both individually or in combination. We will present results from case studies in Africa and the United States where Sentinel 1 and 2 are used to estimate several agricultural variables including crop yield, crop type, and management practices (e.g. no-till) in different landscapes. Emphasis will be placed on comparisons with ground data collected at the field level, and on comparing the relative value of radar and optical data for assessing different outcomes.

  4. Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease and Diabetes Blood Glucose Monitoring Insulin Injection Resources Mental Health and Diabetes Healthy Holiday Eating Lifestyle Resources Improve Medication Taking Spanish Language Resources AADE7 Self-Care Behaviors ...

  5. Value of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrut, G; Hallab, M; Bouhanick, B; Chameau, A M; Marre, M; Fressinaud, P

    1994-03-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is currently proposed for measuring blood pressure in type I, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with incipient diabetic nephropathy. However, the value of this method, in comparison with conventional ones in detecting blood pressure differences between normotensive type I, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with or without microalbuminuria, is questionable. We obtained systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressures (SBP/DBP/MBP) in 10 hospitalized normotensive type I, insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria, and in 29 others without, using a mercury sphygmomanometer (method 1) and an automatic device (Dinamap; method 2) to obtain morning (9 to 11 AM) measurements, and ABPM (SpaceLabs 90207; method 3) to obtain daytime (7 AM to 10 PM) and nighttime (10 PM to 7 AM) measurements. During the daytime, SBP/DBP/MBP values were higher in microalbuminuric than in normoalbuminuric patients, whatever the blood pressure measurement method used (P = .034/.061/.033, two-factor ANOVA). Analysis of 24-h ABPM also showed higher SBP/DBP/MBP in microalbuminuric than in normoalbuminuric patients (P = .022/.040/.016), and demonstrated a defect in nocturnal SBP decrease in microalbuminuric compared with normoalbuminuric patients (P = .028). Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated nocturnal SBP as the only independent factor determining for microalbuminuria (F = 6.72). Thus ABPM, in relation to other methods, indicates above all that the most relevant blood pressure change in type I insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with microalbuminuria is a defect in nocturnal SBP decrease.

  6. Default values for assessment of potential dermal exposure of the hands to industrial chemicals in the scope of regulatory risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Warren, N.D.; Laitinen, J.; Hemmen, J.J. van

    2006-01-01

    Dermal exposure needs to be addressed in regulatory risk assessment of chemicals. The models used so far are based on very limited data. The EU project RISKOFDERM has gathered a large number of new measurements on dermal exposure to industrial chemicals in various work situations, together with

  7. The value of surrogate markers to monitor cholesterol absorption, synthesis and bioconversion to bile acids under lipid lowering therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellaard, Frans; von Bergmann, Klaus; Sudhop, Thomas; Lütjohann, Dieter

    2017-05-01

    Regulation of cholesterol (Chol) homeostasis is controlled by three main fluxes, i.e. intestinal absorption, de novo synthesis (ChS) and catabolism, predominantly as bile acid synthesis (BAS). High serum total Chol and LDL-Chol concentrations in particular are considered risk factors and markers for the development of atherosclerosis. Pharmaceutical treatments to lower serum Chol have focused on reducing absorption or ChS and increasing BAS. Monitoring of these three parameters is complex involving isotope techniques, cholesterol balance experiments and advanced mass spectrometry based analysis methods. Surrogate markers were explored that require only one single fasting blood sample collection. These markers were validated in specific, mostly physiological conditions and during statin treatment to inhibit ChS. They were also applied under cholesterol absorption restriction, but were not validated in this condition. We retrospectively evaluated the use of serum campesterol (Camp), sitosterol (Sit) and cholestanol (Cholol) as markers for cholesterol absorption, lathosterol (Lath) as marker for ChS and 7α-hydroxycholesterol (7α-OH-Ch) and 27-hydroxycholesterol (27-OH-Ch) as markers for BAS under conditions of Chol absorption restriction. Additionally, their values were corrected for Chol concentration (R_sterol or oxysterols). Thirty-seven healthy male omnivore subjects were studied under treatments with placebo (PLAC), ezetimibe (EZE) to inhibit cholesterol absorption, simvastatin (SIMVA) to reduce cholesterol synthesis and a combination of both (EZE+SIMVA). Results were compared to those obtained in 18 pure vegetarian subjects (vegans) whose dietary Chol intake is extremely low. Relative or fractional Chol absorption (FrChA) was measured with the continuous feeding stable isotope procedure, ChS and BAS with the cholesterol balance method. The daily Chol intake (DICh) was inventoried and the daily Chol absorption (DACh) calculated. Monitoring cholesterol

  8. Diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI for tumor characterization, differentiation and monitoring in pediatric patients with neuroblastic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Henning [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Li, Mengxia [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Mueller, Verena Rabea [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Paediatrics; Pabst, Thomas [Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Beer, Meinrad [Univ. Hospital Ulm (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2017-07-15

    We explored the diagnostic value of diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) for tumor characterization, differentiation and therapy monitoring in pediatric patients with extracranial neuroblastic tumors. All 29 patients (14 girls, median age: 3 years) with neuroblastoma (NB, n = 19), ganglioneuroblastoma (GNB, n = 4) and ganglioneuroma (GN, n = 6) who had had at least one in-house DWI examination since 2005 were identified and retrospectively analyzed. Two independent blinded readers measured ADC values (unit: 10-3 mm{sup 2}/s) and signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of the primary tumor and, if applicable, of the tumor after chemotherapy, metastases and tumor relapse. The pre-treatment ADC was 0.90 ± 0.23 in NB/GNB and 1.70 ± 0.36 in GN without overlap between the two entities for both readers, 0.67 ± 0.14 in metastases and 0.72 ± 0.18 in tumor relapse. With chemotherapy, mean ADC increased to 1.54 ± 0.33 in NB/GNB and to 1.23 ± 0.27 in metastases (p < 0.05). The median SIRs of various tumor lesions vs. liver, vs. muscle tissue and vs. adjacent tissue were significantly higher on DWI (range: 2.4 -9.9) than on ce-T1w (range: 1.0 - 1.8, all p < 0.05). The coefficient of variation (CV) was ≤ 8.0% for ADC and ≤ 16.4% for signal intensity data. Based on mean ADC, DWI distinguishes between NB/GNB and GN with high certainty and provides plausible quantitative data on tumor response to therapy. Lesion conspicuity, as measured by SIR, is superior on DWI, compared to ce-T1w. DWI as a noninvasive, radiation-free and widely available imaging technique should be an integral part of MR imaging for neuroblastic tumors and should undergo prospective evaluation in multicenter studies.

  9. Value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring to reduce neurological complications in patients undergoing anterior cervical spine procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumala, Parthasarathy D; Muralidharan, Aditya; Loke, Yoon K; Habeych, Miguel; Crammond, Donald; Balzer, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of reports of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and to assess the value of intraoperative monitoring (IOM), including somatosensory evoked potentials, transcranial motor evoked potentials and electromyography, in anterior cervical procedures. A search was conducted to collect a small database of relevant papers using key words describing disorders and procedures of interest. The database was then shortlisted using selection criteria and data was extracted to identify complications as a result of anterior cervical procedures for cervical spondylotic myelopathy and outcome analysis on a continuous scale. In the 22 studies that matched the screening criteria, only two involved the use of IOM. The average sample size was 173 patients. In procedures done without IOM a mean change in Japanese Orthopaedic Association score of 3.94 points and Nurick score by 1.20 points (both less severe post-operatively) was observed. Within our sub-group analysis, worsening myelopathy and/or quadriplegia was seen in 2.71% of patients for studies without IOM and 0.91% of patients for studies with IOM. Variations persist in the existing literature in the evaluation of complications associated with anterior cervical spinal procedures. Based on the review of published studies, sufficient evidence does not exist to make recommendations regarding the use of different IOM modalities to reduce neurological complications during anterior cervical procedures. However, future studies with objective measures of neurological deficits using a specific IOM modality may establish it as an effective and reliable indicator of injury during such surgeries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources: Distributed Resource Distribution Credit Pilot Programs--Revealing the Value to Consumers and Vendors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskovitz, D.; Harrington, C.; Shirley, W.; Cowart, R.; Sedano, R.; Weston, F.

    2002-10-01

    Designing and implementing credit-based pilot programs for distributed resources distribution is a low-cost, low-risk opportunity to find out how these resources can help defer or avoid costly electric power system (utility grid) distribution upgrades. This report describes implementation options for deaveraged distribution credits and distributed resource development zones. Developing workable programs implementing these policies can dramatically increase the deployment of distributed resources in ways that benefit distributed resource vendors, users, and distribution utilities. This report is one in the State Electricity Regulatory Policy and Distributed Resources series developed under contract to NREL (see Annual Technical Status Report of the Regulatory Assistance Project: September 2000-September 2001, NREL/SR-560-32733). Other titles in this series are: (1) Accommodating Distributed Resources in Wholesale Markets, NREL/SR-560-32497; (2) Distributed Resources and Electric System Re liability, NREL/SR-560-32498; (3) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation, NREL/SR-560-32500; (4) Distribution System Cost Methodologies for Distributed Generation Appendices, NREL/SR-560-32501.

  11. Focused parathyroidectomy without intra-operative parathormone monitoring: The value of PTH assay in preoperative ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration washout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kuzu

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: The higher level of PTH in preoperative ultrasound guided FNA washout is a considerable data to predict the correct localization of HP, particularly in circumstances of greater values than the serum PTH level. However, although its specificity is high, in cases of coexisting nodular thyroid disease, associated additional HP might be missed at focused parathyroidectomy without PTH monitoring, leading to recurrent disease.

  12. Value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BAO Teng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the clinical value of HBsAg level in dynamic monitoring of disease progression in patients with chronic HBV infection. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 1107 patients with different clinical stages of chronic HBV infection who had not received antiviral therapy at the time of hospitalization in The Second Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from May 2011 to December 2015, and according to the disease status, they were divided into HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, compensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-C group, decompensated liver cirrhosis group (LC-D group, and primary liver cancer (PLC group. These groups were compared in terms of HBsAg expression and the association between HBsAg and clinical features. An analysis of variance was used for comparison of continuous data between multiple groups, and the least significant difference t-test was used for further comparison between any two groups; the t-test was used for comparison of continuous data between two groups. The chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between these groups. Pearson correlation analysis was also performed. ResultsThere was a significant difference in serum HBsAg level between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=100.45, P<0.001. The HBeAg-positive CHB group had significantly higher levels of HBsAg and HBV DNA than the HBeAg-negative CHB group (t= 16.67 an 16.22, both P<0.001. There were significant differences in HBsAg and HBV DNA levels between the HBeAg-positive CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F= 42.92 and 27.38, both P<0.001, as well as between the HBeAg-negative CHB group, LC-C group, LC-D group, and PLC group (F=6.04 and 4.10, both P<0.05. HBV DNA level was significantly different across patients with different HBsAg levels (<1000 IU/ml, 1000-20 000 IU

  13. Science advancements key to increasing management value of life stage monitoring networks for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook salmon in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rachel C.; Windell, Sean; Brandes, Patricia L.; Conrad, J. Louise; Ferguson, John; Goertler, Pascale A. L.; Harvey, Brett N.; Heublein, Joseph; Isreal, Joshua A.; Kratville, Daniel W.; Kirsch, Joseph E.; Perry, Russell W.; Pisciotto, Joseph; Poytress, William R.; Reece, Kevin; Swart, Brycen G.

    2017-01-01

    A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition) at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration) influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winterrun Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage) and where (geographic domain) chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1) incorporate genetic run identification; (2) develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3) collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4) expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5) collect fish condition data; and (6) provide timely public access to monitoring data in open data

  14. Using colony monitoring devices to evaluate the impacts of land use and nutritional value of forage on honey bee health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Otto, Clint R.; Cornman, Robert S.; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    Colony monitoring devices used to track and assess the health status of honey bees are becoming more widely available and used by both beekeepers and researchers. These devices monitor parameters relevant to colony health at frequent intervals, often approximating real time. The fine-scale record of hive condition can be further related to static or dynamic features of the landscape, such as weather, climate, colony density, land use, pesticide use, vegetation class, and forage quality. In this study, we fit commercial honey bee colonies in two apiaries with pollen traps and digital scales to monitor floral resource use, pollen quality, and honey production. One apiary was situated in low-intensity agriculture; the other in high-intensity agriculture. Pollen traps were open for 72 h every two weeks while scales recorded weight every 15 min throughout the growing season. From collected pollen, we determined forage quantity per day, species identity using DNA sequencing, pesticide residues, amino acid content, and total protein content. From scales, we determined the accumulated hive weight change over the growing season, relating to honey production and final colony weight going into winter. Hive scales may also be used to identify the occurrence of environmental pollen and nectar dearth, and track phenological changes in plant communities. We provide comparisons of device-derived data between two apiaries over the growing season and discuss the potential for employing apiary monitoring devices to infer colony health in the context of divergent agricultural land use conditions.

  15. Monitoring and Sampling Strategy for (Manufactured) Nano Objects Agglomerates and Aggregates (NOAA); Potential Added Value of the NANODEVICE Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Lidén, G.; Asbach, C.; Berges, M.; Tongeren, M. van

    2014-01-01

    The production of nanomaterials and nano-enabled products is associated with the potential for workers' exposure to (manufactured) nano-objects' agglomerates and aggregates (NOAA). Workplace air monitoring studies have been conducted to assess the actual exposure; however, the methods and strategies

  16. The transmission color value: a novel egg quality measure for recording shell color used for monitoring the stress and health status of a brown layer flock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, K; Vaesen, I; Loffel, J; Kemps, B; Kamers, B; Perianu, C; Zoons, J; Darius, P; Decuypere, E; De Baerdemaeker, J; De Ketelaere, B

    2010-03-01

    Stress and diseases have the potential to influence the deposition of eggshell pigmentation during egg formation. Therefore, defining the shell color of eggs on a daily basis could be a representative method for monitoring stress or health status of a flock and maintaining good performance. A novel way of measuring eggshell color based on visible-near infrared transmission spectroscopy transmission spectra was defined: the transmission color value (TCV). The TCV was calculated as the ratio between the transmission at 643 nm (maximum absorbance of the pigmentation molecule protoporphyrin IX) and the transmission at 610 nm (a reference wavelength). Experiments were carried out to investigate the relevance of TCV for monitoring flock stress and health or even anticipating any factors unfavorable to performance. In 2 small experimental flocks, deliberate heat stress challenges were applied. A medium-scale experimental flock in an aviary was monitored on a daily basis during the whole productive period. From the deliberate heat stress challenges, it was seen that stress had a significant effect on eggshell pigmentation. This observation was confirmed in a daily monitored flock, in which, for example, an infectious bronchitis infection occurred. These stress situations were quickly reflected by an increased TCV value: more transmission due to less pigmentation and hence less absorbance at the pigmentation wavelength. Furthermore, for the observed problems in the daily monitoring, the TCV value signaled the problem earlier (4 d) than the average egg weight or even signaled when the other parameters did not signal anything. Measuring the TCV of all eggs produced on a daily basis provides relevant information on the stress or health status of a flock of brown layers. This could be used as an early detection of stress situations or emerging diseases, even before important quality and health damage can occur.

  17. Prioritizing Association Strength Versus Value : The Influence of Self-Regulatory Modes on Means Evaluation in Single Goal and Multigoal Contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orehek, Edward; Mauro, Romina; Kruglanski, Arie W.; van der Bles, Anne Marthe

    Means of goal attainment are said to be multifinal when they are capable of attaining more than 1 goal at the same time. Such means have an advantage over unifinal means because they have the potential to attain greater overall value. However, they have the disadvantage (relative to unifinal means)

  18. The Bright Elusive Butterfly of Value in Health Technology Development; Comment on “Providing Value to New Health Technology: The Early Contribution of Entrepreneurs, Investors, and Regulatory Agencies”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Greenhalgh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current system of health technology development is characterised by multiple misalignments. The “supply” side (innovation policy-makers, entrepreneurs, investors and the “demand” side (health policy-makers, regulators, health technology assessment, purchasers operate under different – and conflicting – logics. The system is less a “pathway” than an unstable ecosystem of multiple interacting sub-systems. “Value” means different things to each of the numerous actors involved. Supply-side dynamics are built on fictions; regulatory checks and balances are designed to assure quality, safety and efficacy, not to ensure that technologies entering the market are either desirable or cost-effective. Assessment of comparative and cost-effectiveness usually comes too late in the process to shape an innovation’s development. We offer no simple solutions to these problems, but in the spirit of commencing a much-needed public debate, we suggest some tentative ways forward. First, universities and public research funders should play a more proactive role in shaping the system. Second, the role of industry in forging long-term strategic partnerships for public benefit should be acknowledged (though not uncritically. Third, models of “responsible innovation” and public input to research priority-setting should be explored. Finally, the evidence base on how best to govern inter-sectoral health research partnerships should be developed and applied.

  19. Toxicity of a secondary-treated sewage effluent to marine biota in Bass Strait, Australia: development of action trigger values for a toxicity monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Merrin S; Stauber, Jennifer L; Binet, Monique T; Molloy, Robert; Gregory, David

    2008-01-01

    Melbourne Water's Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP) produces a secondary-treated sewage effluent which is chlorinated and discharged into Bass Strait at Boags Rocks, Victoria, Australia. Disappearance of the sensitive brown seaweed Hormosira banksii from rock platforms immediately adjacent to the shore-line discharge was identified in the early 1990s. Subsequently, Melbourne Water and CSIRO undertook an environmental impact assessment and review of land and marine effluent disposal options, which included ambient water quality monitoring, biological monitoring, bioaccumulation studies and toxicity testing of existing effluent to assess the nature and magnitude of the environmental effects. This paper presents data from the toxicity monitoring programs since 2001. Chronic toxicity testing using macroalgal germination and cell division (H. banksii), microalgal growth rate (Nitzschia closterium) and scallop larval development (Chlamys asperrima), confirmed that ammonia was the major cause of effluent toxicity. Results from this toxicity monitoring program were used to develop action trigger values for toxicity for each species, which were then used in a refined monitoring program in 2005-2007. An upgrade of the ETP is in progress to improve nitrification/denitrification in order to reduce ammonia concentrations and the toxicity of the effluent. Toxicity testing with a simulated upgraded effluent confirmed that ammonia concentrations and toxicity were reduced. Estimated "safe" dilutions of effluent, calculated using species sensitivity distributions, decreased from 1:140-300 for existing ETP effluent to 1:20 for nitrified effluent, further confirming that treatment improvements should reduce the impact on marine biota in the vicinity of the discharge.

  20. Monitoring floods and fires during the summer of 2011--The value of the Landsat satellite 40-year archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonescheit, Linda

    2012-01-01

    The summer of 2011 proved to be a season of extreme events. Heavy snowfall in the western mountains and excessive spring rains caused flooding along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers; whereas extended dry conditions enabled fires to rage out of control from Alaska and Canada, south to Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Georgia, and Mexico. The Landsat archive holds nearly 40 years of continuous global earth observation data. Landsat data are used by emergency responders to monitor change and damage caused by natural and man-made disasters. Decision makers rely on Landsat as they create plans for future environmental concerns.

  1. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine correlates with epigenetic regulatory mutations, but may not have prognostic value in predicting survival in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Seung-Shin; Ahn, Seo-Yeon; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Park, Hee Jeong; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hee Je; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Won, Jong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Michael, Szardenings; Minden, Mark D; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2017-01-31

    Stem cells display remarkably high levels of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Both TET2 and IDH1/2 mutations can impair the production of 5hmC, thus decreasing 5hmC levels. TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations are commonly observed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the implications of 5hmC on survival in normal karyotype AML patients have not been fully evaluated. The 5hmC levels were analyzed in 375 patients using ELISA. The levels of 5hmC in DNA samples were converted to a log scale for the analysis and correlations with TET2 and/or IDH1/2 mutations were evaluated. The median 5hmC level was 0.065% (range 0.001-0.999). Mutation rates were 13.1% for TET2mut, 6.7% for IDH1mut, and 13.9% for IDH2mut. The prevalence of TET2 and/or IDH1/2 was 33.1% (124/375). TET2 and IDH1/2 mutated patients had significantly lower levels of log(5hmC) compared with patients without TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations (p0.05). To identify its prognostic value, we sub-classified the levels of 5hmC into tertiles for 5hmC values. However, there was no significant association between the categories of 5hmC levels and survival or relapse risk (all p>0.05). Patients with TET2 or IDH1/2 mutations had lower levels of 5hmC. The 5hmC levels may not be predictive of survival in patients with normal karyotype AML.

  2. FDA's expanding postmarket authority to monitor and publicize food and consumer health product risks: the need for procedural safeguards to reduce "transparency" policy harms in the post-9/11 regulatory environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Sarah Taylor; Pippins, Raqiyyah R; Ngai, Jennifer W

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the expansion of FDA's discretionary authority in the post-9/11 period, particularly with respect to FDA's authority to monitor and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs, and other consumer health products. In addition, this article evaluates the need for FDA to establish procedural safeguards to reduce the significant risks of unintended and undue harm to people and regulated companies that can result from adverse publicity in the more "transparent" post 9/11 FDA regulatory environment. Specifically, Part I summarizes the amendments to the FDCA enacted during the post-9/11 period that have expanded FDA's postmarket authority to monitor, evaluate, and publicize potential health risks linked to food, dietary supplements, nonprescription drugs and other consumer health products marketed in the United States, in conjunction with FDA's Sentinel Initiative, Reportable Food Registry, and other adverse event reporting requirements. Part II discusses the convergence of FDA's expanded postmarket authority to publicize product-related risks with President Obama's transparency initiative aimed at fostering "open government" through increased public access to government information. In addition, Part II considers the nature of the procedural safeguards needed in the post-9/11 FDA regulatory environment, in view of FDA's historical record and illustrative cases that help expose how adverse "transparency" surrounding FDA warning letters, recalls and safety alerts concerning products in the marketplace can have undue and unintended prejudicial and harmful effects for the people and companies that are legally responsible for such products. Finally, based on these analysis, this article concludes with some observations concerning the nature of the procedural safeguards needed to reduce the significant risks of "transparency" policy harms in the pos-9/11 regulatory environment.

  3. Opinion Paper: 'Likelihood-ratio' and 'odds' applied to monitoring of patients as a supplement to 'reference change value' (RCV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Per Hyltoft; Sandberg, Sverre; Iglesias, Natàlia

    2007-01-01

    varies with this. Consequently, the likelihood ratio for change increases with growing measured difference and when used together with the pre-test odds or pre-test probability, the post-test odds and post-test probability, related to the clinical situation, can be calculated. Results: One example...... that post-test odds and probability depends on both the pre-test probability and the measured difference. A second example is monitoring women in a follow-up after treatment of breast cancer, using the tumour marker CA 15-3. The within-subject biological variation is estimated to 14.9% and for differences......-test odds depending on time. Conclusions: The concept presented here expands the earlier concept of RCVs by making it possible to have an estimate of the post-test odds for a certain difference to occur based on likelihood ratios and pre-test odds. Clin Chem Lab Med 2008;46....

  4. The added value of an electronic monitoring and alerting system in the management of medication-overuse headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tassorelli, Cristina; Jensen, Rigmor; Allena, Marta

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic disabling condition associated with a high rate of relapse. METHODS: We evaluated whether the adoption of electronic-assisted monitoring, advice and communication would improve the outcome over a follow-up of 6 months in a controlled...... regarding the number of days/month with intake of acute drugs and the level of disability [Migraine Disability Assessment Score: Comoestas group - 42.5 ± 53.6 (35.5-49.3) and Classic group - 27.5 ± 56.1 (20.6-34.3) (p tool improved the outcome...... of patients suffering from MOH after withdrawal from overused drugs. Information and communication technology represents a valid aid for optimizing the management of chronic conditions at risk of worsening or of relapsing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (no. NCT02435056)....

  5. On the value of electrical resistivity tomography for monitoring leachate injection in solid state anaerobic digestion plants at farm scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueurce, Axelle; Clément, Rémi; Moreau, Sylvain; Peu, Pascal

    2016-10-01

    Agricultural waste is a valuable resource for solid state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) thanks to its high solid content (>15%). Batch mode SSAD with leachate recirculation is particularly appropriate for such substrates. However, for successful degradation, the leachate must be evenly distributed through the substrate to improve its moisture content. To study the distribution of leachate in agricultural waste, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed. First, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to check the reliability of this method to monitor infiltration of the leachate throughout the solid. Two representative mixtures of agricultural wastes were prepared: a "winter" mixture, with cattle manure, and a "summer" mixture, with cattle manure, wheat straw and hay. The influence of density and water content on electrical resistivity variations was assessed in the two mixtures. An increase in density was found to lead to a decrease in electrical resistivity: at the initial water content, resistivity decreased from 109.7 to 19.5Ω·m in the summer mixture and from 9.8 to 2.7Ω·m in the "winter" mixture with a respective increased in density of 0.134-0.269, and 0.311-0.577. Similarly, resistivity decreased with an increase in water content: for low densities, resistivity dropped from 109.7 to 7.1Ω·m and 9.8 to 4.0Ω·m with an increase in water content from 64 to 90w% and 74 to 93w% for "summer" and "winter" mixtures respectively. Second, a time-lapse ERT was performed in a farm-scale SSAD plant to monitor leachate infiltration. Results revealed very heterogeneous distribution of the leachate in the waste, with two particularly moist areas around the leachate injection holes. However, ERT was successfully applied in the SSAD plant, and produced a reliable 3D map of leachate infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Science Advancements Key to Increasing Management Value of Life Stage Monitoring Networks for Endangered Sacramento River Winter-Run Chinook Salmon in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Johnson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2017v15iss3art1A robust monitoring network that provides quantitative information about the status of imperiled species at key life stages and geographic locations over time is fundamental for sustainable management of fisheries resources. For anadromous species, management actions in one geographic domain can substantially affect abundance of subsequent life stages that span broad geographic regions. Quantitative metrics (e.g., abundance, movement, survival, life history diversity, and condition at multiple life stages are needed to inform how management actions (e.g., hatcheries, harvest, hydrology, and habitat restoration influence salmon population dynamics. The existing monitoring network for endangered Sacramento River winter-run Chinook Salmon (SRWRC, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha in California’s Central Valley was compared to conceptual models developed for each life stage and geographic region of the life cycle to identify relevant SRWRC metrics. We concluded that the current monitoring network was insufficient to diagnose when (life stage and where (geographic domain chronic or episodic reductions in SRWRC cohorts occur, precluding within- and among-year comparisons. The strongest quantitative data exist in the Upper Sacramento River, where abundance estimates are generated for adult spawners and emigrating juveniles. However, once SRWRC leave the upper river, our knowledge of their identity, abundance, and condition diminishes, despite the juvenile monitoring enterprise. We identified six system-wide recommended actions to strengthen the value of data generated from the existing monitoring network to assess resource management actions: (1 incorporate genetic run identification; (2 develop juvenile abundance estimates; (3 collect data for life history diversity metrics at multiple life stages; (4 expand and enhance real-time fish survival and movement monitoring; (5 collect fish condition data; and

  7. I: Biomarker quantification in fish exposed to crude oil as input to species sensitivity distributions and threshold values for environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanni, Steinar; Björkblom, Carina; Jonsson, Henrik; Godal, Brit F; Liewenborg, Birgitta; Lyng, Emily; Pampanin, Daniela M

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a suitable set of biomarker based methods for environmental monitoring in sub-arctic and temperate offshore areas using scientific knowledge on the sensitivity of fish species to dispersed crude oil. Threshold values for environmental monitoring and risk assessment were obtained based on a quantitative comparison of biomarker responses. Turbot, halibut, salmon and sprat were exposed for up to 8 weeks to five different sub-lethal concentrations of dispersed crude oil. Biomarkers assessing PAH metabolites, oxidative stress, detoxification system I activity, genotoxicity, immunotoxicity, endocrine disruption, general cellular stress and histological changes were measured. Results showed that PAH metabolites, CYP1A/EROD, DNA adducts and histopathology rendered the most robust results across the different fish species, both in terms of sensitivity and dose-responsiveness. The reported results contributed to forming links between biomonitoring and risk assessment procedures by using biomarker species sensitivity distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  9. Short-term biological variation of clinical chemical values in dumeril's monitors (Varanus dumerili)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Howell, Jennifer R.

    2007-01-01

    for that animal. Only for potassium and AST did the index of individuality suggest that the use of reference values may be warranted. Uric acid, globulin, glucose, and amylase fell in a gray zone, where population-based ranges should be used with caution. The critical difference indicates the difference between...... two consecutive analytical results that may be safely ascribed to natural variation. In the present study critical difference varied from 7 and 11%, respectively, for sodium and chloride to 75 and 125% for uric acid and AST....

  10. Economic Value of Improved Accuracy for Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose Devices for Type 1 Diabetes in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, R Brett; Breton, Marc D; Ott, Markus; Koa, Helena; Beamer, Bruce; Campbell, Jonathan D

    2015-08-14

    The objective was to simulate and compare clinical and economic outcomes of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) devices along error ranges and strip price. We programmed a type 1 diabetes natural history and treatment cost-effectiveness model. In phase 1, using past evidence from in silico modeling validated by the Food and Drug Administration, we associated changes in SMBG error to changes in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and separately, changes in severe hypoglycemia requiring an inpatient stay. In phase 2, using Markov cohort simulation modeling, we estimated clinical and economic outcomes from the Canadian payer perspective. The primary comparison was a SMBG device with strip price $0.73 Canadian dollars (CAD) and 10% error (exceeding accuracy requirements by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013) versus a SMBG device with strip price $0.60 CAD and 15% error (accuracy meeting ISO 15197:2013). Outcomes for the average patient, were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), and budget impact. Assuming benefits translate into HbA1c improvements only, the ICER with 10% error versus 15% was $11 500 CAD per QALY. Assuming the benefits translate into reduced severe hypoglycemia requiring an inpatient stay only, an SMBG device with 10% error dominated (ie, less costly, more effective) an SMBG device with 15% error. The 3-year budget impact findings ranged from $0.004 CAD per member per month for HbA1c improvements to cost-savings for severe hypoglycemia reductions. From efficiency (cost-effectiveness) and affordability (budget impact) payer perspectives, investing in devices with improved accuracy (less error) appears to be an efficient and affordable strategy. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  11. Assuring quality in microplastic monitoring: About the value of clean-air devices as essentials for verified data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesch, Charlotte; Elert, Anna Maria; Wörner, Manuel; Braun, Ulrike; Klein, Roland; Paulus, Martin

    2017-07-14

    Avoiding aerial microfibre contamination of environmental samples is essential for reliable analyses when it comes to the detection of ubiquitous microplastics. Almost all laboratories have contamination problems which are largely unavoidable without investments in clean-air devices. Therefore, our study supplies an approach to assess background microfibre contamination of samples in the laboratory under particle-free air conditions. We tested aerial contamination of samples indoor, in a mobile laboratory, within a laboratory fume hood and on a clean bench with particles filtration during the examining process of a fish. The used clean bench reduced aerial microfibre contamination in our laboratory by 96.5%. This highlights the value of suitable clean-air devices for valid microplastic pollution data. Our results indicate, that pollution levels by microfibres have been overestimated and actual pollution levels may be many times lower. Accordingly, such clean-air devices are recommended for microplastic laboratory applications in future research work to significantly lower error rates.

  12. Continuous glucose monitors: use of waveform versus glycemic values in the improvements of glucose control, quality of life, and fear of hypoglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Tomas C; Yucha, Carolyn B

    2014-05-01

    How patients are benefitting from continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) remains poorly understood. The focus on numerical glucose values persists, even though access to the glucose waveform and rate of change may contribute more to improved control. This pilot study compared outcomes of patients using CGMs with or without access to the numerical values on their CGM. Ten persons with type 1 diabetes, naïve to CGM use, enrolled in a 12-week study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either unmodified CGM receivers, or to CGM receivers that had their numerical values obscured but otherwise functioned normally. HbA1c, quality of life (QLI-D), and fear of hypoglycemia (HFS) were assessed, at baseline and at week 12. Baseline HbA1c for the entire group was 7.46 ± 1.27%. At week 12 the experimental group HbA1c reduction was 1.5 ± 0.9% (p control group's reduction was 0.06 ± 0.61% (p > .05). Repeated measures testing revealed no significant difference in HbA1c reduction between groups. Both groups had reductions in HFS; these reductions were statistically significant within groups (p quality of life. The display of a numerical glucose value did not improve control when compared to numerically blinded units. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  13. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  14. The clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with laryngopharyngeal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muderris, Togay; Gokcan, M Kursat; Yorulmaz, Irfan

    2009-02-01

    To determine the clinical value of pharyngeal pH monitoring for the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) by using a double-probe, triple-sensor catheter in patients with symptoms of LPR. Prospective review of pH values recorded at the pharyngeal sensor, with the sensor placed in the proximal esophagus in patients with suspected LPR. Tertiary care university hospital. Thirty-three consecutive patients with symptoms of LPR. A pH test result was considered abnormal if a single reflux episode was detected in the hypopharynx and if, in the proximal esophagus, the total percentage of time the pH value was below 4 was 1.0% or higher. Data obtained from sensors were compared to determine the validity of pharyngeal sensor. Correlation between patients' reflux finding scores, reflux finding indexes, and reflux episodes were analyzed. Of 33 patients, 17 had more than 1 reflux episode detected by the pharyngeal sensor and 19 had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor. Four patients who had pharyngeal reflux had a normal esophageal acid exposure time, and 6 patients who had pathological reflux detected by the proximal esophageal sensor did not experienced any pharyngeal reflux episode. Four patients would have had a false-negative test result and 6 subjects would have had a false-positive test result if a hypopharyngeal pH sensor was not implemented. The adjustable, bifurcated, triple-sensor pH probe allows identifying true hypopharyngeal reflux episodes. If single-probe, double-sensor pH monitoring is to be performed, the proximal probe should be placed in the pharynx, not in the upper esophagus.

  15. Initial interlaboratory validation of an analytical method for the determination of lead in canned tuna to be used for monitoring and regulatory purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, E C; Bello, F B B

    2003-06-01

    The Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) Standard Method 972.23 (dry ashing and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS)), applied to the analysis of lead in tuna, was validated in three selected local laboratories to determine the acceptability of the method to both the Codex Alimentarius Commission (Codex) and the European Union (EU) Commission for monitoring lead in canned tuna. Initial validation showed that the standard AOAC method as performed in the three participating laboratories cannot satisfy the Codex/EU proposed criteria for the method detection limit for monitoring lead in fish at the present regulation level of 0.5 mg x kg(-1). Modification of the standard method by chelation/concentration of the digest solution before FAAS analysis showed that the modified method has the potential to meet Codex/EU criteria on sensitivity, accuracy and precision at the specified regulation level.

  16. Magnetically insulated baffled probe for real-time monitoring of equilibrium and fluctuating values of space potentials, electron and ion temperatures, and densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, V I; Koepke, M E; Raitses, Y

    2010-10-01

    By restricting the electron-collection area of a cold Langmuir probe compared to the ion-collection area, the probe floating potential can become equal to the space potential, and thus conveniently monitored, rather than to a value shifted from the space potential by an electron-temperature-dependent offset, i.e., the case with an equal-collection-area probe. This design goal is achieved by combining an ambient magnetic field in the plasma with baffles, or shields, on the probe, resulting in species-selective magnetic insulation of the probe collection area. This permits the elimination of electron current to the probe by further adjustment of magnetic insulation which results in an ion-temperature-dependent offset when the probe is electrically floating. Subtracting the floating potential of two magnetically insulated baffled probes, each with a different degree of magnetic insulation, enables the electron or ion temperature to be measured in real time.

  17. Weight Watching and the Effect of Landscape on Honeybee Colony Productivity: Investigating the Value of Colony Weight Monitoring for the Beekeeping Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecocq, Antoine; Kryger, Per; Vejsnæs, Flemming; Bruun Jensen, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, a gradual departure away from traditional agricultural practices has resulted in alterations to the composition of the countryside and landscapes across Europe. In the face of such changes, monitoring the development and productivity of honey bee colonies from different sites can give valuable insight on the influence of landscape on their productivity and might point towards future directions for modernized beekeeping practices. Using data on honeybee colony weights provided by electronic scales spread across Denmark, we investigated the effect of the immediate landscape on colony productivity. In order to extract meaningful information, data manipulation was necessary prior to analysis as a result of different management regimes or scales malfunction. Once this was carried out, we were able to show that colonies situated in landscapes composed of more than 50% urban areas were significantly more productive than colonies situated in those with more than 50% agricultural areas or those in mixed areas. As well as exploring some of the potential reasons for the observed differences, we discuss the value of weight monitoring of colonies on a large scale.

  18. Prognostic value of serum AFP, AFP-L3, and GP73 in monitoring short-term treatment response and recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma after radiofrequency ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan-Ya; Wang, Cong; Li, Wei; Wang, Guan-Jun; Cui, Guo-Zhen; He, Hua; Zhao, Heng-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive fraction of AFP (AFP-L3), and Golgi protein 73 (GP73) levels have been widely used as tumor markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to investigate whether these tumor markers could be used to monitor short-term treatment response and recurrence of HCC in patients undergoing radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Between July 2012 and July 2013, 53 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed HCC were prospectively enrolled in this study. Among these, 32 patients underwent RFA, after which they were followed up prospectively at the First Hospital of Jilin University in China. AFP, AFP-L3, and GP-73 values pre-RFA were not associated with tumor size, whereas AFP and GP-73 levels tended to be associated with tumor number, the presence of vascular invasion, deterioration of liver function, advanced-stage disease, and a poor performance status. GP-73 levels were dramatically elevated in the patients with hepatitis C-associated HCC. Neither pre-RFA nor 1-month post-RFA tumor marker values were associated with short-term outcome. The short-term recurrence rate of AFP-positive patients measured 1 month post-RFA was obviously higher than that of AFP-negative patients. AFP and GP-73 values were associated with clinical variables representing tumor growth and invasiveness, and the AFP value measured 1 month post-RFA was a strong predictor of short-term recurrence in patients with HCC.

  19. Bedside Glucose Monitoring-Is it Safe? A New, Regulatory-Compliant Risk Assessment Evaluation Protocol in Critically Ill Patient Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Jeffrey Anton; Slingerland, Robbert Jan; Fokkert, Marion; Roman, Alain; Tran, Nam Khoa; Clarke, William; Sartori, David Alan; Palmieri, Tina Louise; Malic, Andrei; Lyon, Martha Elizabeth; Lyon, Andrew William

    2017-04-01

    New data have emerged from ambulatory and acute care settings about adverse patient events, including death, attributable to erroneous blood glucose meter measurements and leading to questions over their use in critically ill patients. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration published new, more stringent guidelines for glucose meter manufacturers to evaluate the performance of blood glucose meters in critically ill patient settings. The primary objective of this international, multicenter, multidisciplinary clinical study was to develop and apply a rigorous clinical accuracy assessment algorithm, using four distinct statistical tools, to evaluate the clinical accuracy of a blood glucose monitoring system in critically ill patients. Observational study. Five international medical and surgical ICUs. All patients admitted to critical care settings in the centers. None. Glucose measurements were performed on 1,698 critically ill patients with 257 different clinical conditions and complex treatment regimens. The clinical accuracy assessment algorithm comprised four statistical tools to assess the performance of the study blood glucose monitoring system compared with laboratory reference methods traceable to a definitive standard. Based on POCT12-A3, the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute standard for hospitals about hospital glucose meter procedures and performance, and Parkes error grid clinical accuracy performance criteria, no clinically significant differences were observed due to patient condition or therapy, with 96.1% and 99.3% glucose results meeting the respective criteria. Stratified sensitivity and specificity analysis (10 mg/dL glucose intervals, 50-150 mg/dL) demonstrated high sensitivity (mean = 95.2%, SD = ± 0.02) and specificity (mean = 95. 8%, SD = ± 0.03). Monte Carlo simulation modeling of the study blood glucose monitoring system showed low probability of category 2 and category 3 insulin dosing error, category 2 = 2.3% (41/1,815) and category 3

  20. Micro Electrochemical pH Sensor Applicable for Real-Time Ratiometric Monitoring of pH Values in Rat Brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Limin; Tian, Yang

    2016-02-16

    To develop in vivo monitoring meter for pH measurements is still the bottleneck for understanding the role of pH plays in the brain diseases. In this work, a selective and sensitive electrochemical pH meter was developed for real-time ratiometric monitoring of pH in different regions of rat brains upon ischemia. First, 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ) was employed and optimized as a selective pH recognition element to establish a 2H(+)/2e(-) approach over a wide range of pH from 5.8 to 8.0. The pH meter demonstrated remarkable selectivity toward pH detection against metal ions, amino acids, reactive oxygen species, and other biological species in the brain. Meanwhile, an inner reference, 6-(ferrocenyl)hexanethiol (FcHT), was selected as a built-in correction to avoid the environmental effect through coimmobilization with 1,2-NQ. In addition, three-dimensional gold nanoleaves were electrodeposited onto the electrode surface to amplify the signal by ∼4.0-fold and the measurement was achieved down to 0.07 pH. Finally, combined with the microelectrode technique, the microelectrochemical pH meter was directly implanted into brain regions including the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex and successfully applied in real-time monitoring of pH values in these regions of brain followed by global cerebral ischemia. The results demonstrated that pH values were estimated to 7.21 ± 0.05, 7.13 ± 0.09, and 7.27 ± 0.06 in the striatum, hippocampus, and cortex in the rat brains, respectively, in normal conditions. However, pH decreased to 6.75 ± 0.07 and 6.52 ± 0.03 in the striatum and hippocampus, upon global cerebral ischemia, while a negligible pH change was obtained in the cortex.

  1. Lon protease modulates virulence traits in Erwinia amylovora by direct monitoring of major regulators and indirectly through the Rcs and Gac-Csr regulatory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Ancona, Veronica; Zhao, Youfu

    2017-05-16

    Lon, an ATP-dependent protease in bacteria, influences diverse cellular processes by degrading damaged, misfolded and short-lived regulatory proteins. In this study, we characterized the effects of lon mutation and determined the molecular mechanisms underlying Lon-mediated virulence regulation in Erwinia amylovora, an enterobacterial pathogen of apple. Erwinia amylovora depends on the type III secretion system (T3SS) and the exopolysaccharide (EPS) amylovoran to cause disease. Our results showed that mutation of the lon gene led to the overproduction of amylovoran, increased T3SS gene expression and the non-motile phenotype. Western blot analyses showed that mutation in lon directly affected the accumulation and stability of HrpS/HrpA and RcsA. Mutation in lon also indirectly influenced the expression of flhD, hrpS and csrB through the accumulation of the RcsA/RcsB proteins, which bind to the promoter of these genes. In addition, lon expression is under the control of CsrA, possibly at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Although mutation in csrA abolished both T3SS and amylovoran production, deletion of the lon gene in the csrA mutant only rescued amylovoran production, but not T3SS. These results suggest that CsrA might positively control both T3SS and amylovoran production partly by suppressing Lon, whereas CsrA may also play a critical role in T3SS by affecting unknown targets. © 2017 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  2. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  6. 75 FR 33853 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... are acceptable to the NRC staff for implementing specific parts of the NRC's regulations, techniques... Draft Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at...: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-1240, ``Condition Monitoring Program...

  7. 75 FR 18241 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... the NRC staff for implementing specific parts of the NRC's regulations, techniques that the staff uses... Regulatory Guides in the ``Regulatory Guides'' collection of the NRC's Electronic Reading Room at http://www...: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-8036, ``Personnel Monitoring Device...

  8. Stimulus-Evoked Electromyographic Monitoring During Minimally Invasive Transpedicular Implantation of Screws in Lumbosacral Spine: Threshold Value, Methodology and Clinical Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfen; Vázquez-Barquero, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Stimulus-evoked electromyography (EMG) has been developed to increase the safety of transpedicular placement of screws. There is more consensus about this monitoring method in open surgery. Alarm thresholds for minimally invasive surgery are based on referential value for open surgery. Nevertheless, there are no uniform alarm criteria on this modality for minimally invasive surgery. Using an analysis of alarm threshold, methodology and clinical effectiveness on stimulus-evoked EMG monitoring for minimally invasive transpedicular implantation of screws in the lumbosacral spine, this study aims to reflect and recommend for optimizing accuracy. Using a selection of studies, an analysis of the pedicle breach rates and breach-related clinical complication rates was made between studies on minimally invasive surgery by applying different thresholds. A second analysis of the pedicle breach rates and breach-related clinical complication rates was made between studies on open and minimally invasive surgery by applying the same threshold. In minimally invasive surgery, stimulus-evoked EMG has an acceptable accuracy in the detection of clinical relevant pedicle breaches. Suction limitation may alter the stimulation threshold. No significant differences in clinical effectiveness were observed between studies by applying thresholds of 5 mA, 7 mA, and 12 mA. However, a low threshold of 5 mA seems inappropriate for the tap stimulation. In minimally invasive surgery, continuous stimulation of instrumentation devices is recommended. A minimum 5-mA threshold should be used for stimulation of the pedicle access needle. Use of higher-stimulation thresholds during tapping and incorporation of an adapted continuous suction system may optimize the accuracy of stimulus-evoked EMG. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety system status monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J.R.; Morgenstern, M.H.; Rideout, T.H.; Cowley, P.J.

    1984-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has studied the safety aspects of monitoring the preoperational status of safety systems in nuclear power plants. The goals of the study were to assess for the NRC the effectiveness of current monitoring systems and procedures, to develop near-term guidelines for reducing human errors associated with monitoring safety system status, and to recommend a regulatory position on this issue. A review of safety system status monitoring practices indicated that current systems and procedures do not adequately aid control room operators in monitoring safety system status. This is true even of some systems and procedures installed to meet existing regulatory guidelines (Regulatory Guide 1.47). In consequence, this report suggests acceptance criteria for meeting the functional requirements of an adequate system for monitoring safety system status. Also suggested are near-term guidelines that could reduce the likelihood of human errors in specific, high-priority status monitoring tasks. It is recommended that (1) Regulatory Guide 1.47 be revised to address these acceptance criteria, and (2) the revised Regulatory Guide 1.47 be applied to all plants, including those built since the issuance of the original Regulatory Guide.

  10. Predictive value of [{sup 18}F]-fluoride PET for monitoring bone remodeling in patients with orthopedic conditions treated with a Taylor spatial frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Crespo, Alejandro [Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Hospital Physics, Nuclear Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Frederik [Nykoepings Hospital, Department of Radiology, Nykoeping (Sweden); Karlsson Thur, Charlotte; Lundblad, Henrik [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Stockholm (Sweden); Sundin, Anders [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2017-03-15

    The Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) is used to correct orthopedic conditions such as correction osteotomies in delayed fracture healing and pseudarthrosis. Long-term TSF-treatments are common and may lead to complications. Current conventional radiological methods are often unsatisfactory for therapy monitoring. Hence, an imaging technique capable of quantifying bone healing progression would be advantageous. A cohort of 24 patients with different orthopedic conditions, pseudarthrosis (n = 10), deformities subjected to correction osteotomy (n = 9), and fracture (n = 5) underwent dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluoride (Na{sup 18}F) PET/CT at 8 weeks and 4 months, respectively, after application of a TSF. Parametric images, corresponding to the net transport rate of [{sup 18}F]-fluoride from plasma to bone, K{sub i} were calculated. The ratio of the maximum K{sub i} at PET scan 2 and 1 (anti K{sub i,max}) as well as the ratio of the maximum Standard Uptake Value at PET scan 2 and 1 (SUV {sub max}) were calculated for each individual. Different treatment end-points were scored, and the overall treatment outcome score was compared with the osteoblastic activity progression as scored with anti K{sub i,max} or SUV {sub max}. anti K{sub i,max} and SUV {sub max} were not correlated within each orthopedic group (p > 0.1 for all groups), nor for the pooled population (p = 0.12). The distribution of anti K{sub i,max} was found significantly different among the different orthopedic groups (p = 0.0046) - also for SUV {sub max} (p = 0.022). The positive and negative treatment predictive values for anti K{sub i,max} were 66.7 % and 77.8 %, respectively. Corresponding values for SUV {sub max} were 25 % and 33.3 % The anti K{sub i,max} obtained from dynamic [{sup 18}F]-fluoride-PET imaging is a promising predictive factor to evaluate changes in bone healing in response to TSF treatment. (orig.)

  11. Emerging hybridity: comparing UK healthcare regulatory arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnival, Joy; Walshe, Kieran; Boaden, Ruth

    2017-06-19

    Purpose Healthcare regulation is one means to address quality challenges in healthcare systems and is carried out using compliance, deterrence and/or improvement approaches. The four countries of the UK provide an opportunity to explore and compare different regulatory architecture and models. The purpose of this paper is to understand emerging regulatory models and associated tensions. Design/methodology/approach This paper uses qualitative methods to compare the regulatory architecture and models. Data were collected from documents, including board papers, inspection guidelines and from 48 interviewees representing a cross-section of roles from six organisational regulatory agencies. The data were analysed thematically using an a priori coding framework developed from the literature. Findings The findings show that regulatory agencies in the four countries of the UK have different approaches and methods of delivering their missions. This study finds that new hybrid regulatory models are developing which use improvement support interventions in parallel with deterrence and compliance approaches. The analysis highlights that effective regulatory oversight of quality is contingent on the ability of regulatory agencies to balance their requirements to assure and improve care. Nevertheless, they face common tensions in sustaining the balance in their requirements connected to their roles, relationships and resources. Originality/value The paper shows through its comparison of UK regulatory agencies that the development and implementation of hybrid models is complex. The paper contributes to research by identifying three tensions related to hybrid regulatory models; roles, resources and relationships which need to be managed to sustain hybrid regulatory models.

  12. m-government legal and regulatory framework

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wondwossen Mulugeta

    CURRENT E-GOVERNMENT. REGULATORY ELEMENTS. In an attempt to regulate the e-Government and. ICT related initiatives the Ethiopian government has been engaged in producing some regulatory and legal documents. These legal document include: e-Signature law, e-Commerce law, data protection act, value ...

  13. Value of serum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radiofrequency ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Qin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the clinical value of three serum tumor markers, Golgi protein 73 (GP73, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and AFP-L3, in the diagnosis of liver cancer and recurrence monitoring after radio frequency ablation. MethodsA total of 174 patients who visited our hospital from July 2012 to October 2013 were included in the study, consisting of 86 patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 39 with liver cirrhosis, 29 with hepatitis, and 20 healthy controls. Among the patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer, 37 were followed up for three months after the radiofrequency ablation. Serum levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 were measured by ELISA, electrochemiluminescence, and affinity adsorption chromatography, respectively. Nonparametric tests were performed on the results of serum samples from the four groups which showed skewed distribution and were represented by median (quartile interval [M(P25-P75]. Overall comparison was made by Kruskal-Wallis H test, and comparison between groups was made by Mann-Whitney U test. Pair-matching rank-sum test was performed using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, and categorical data were analyzed by χ2 test. ResultsThe levels of GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05. The positive rates of GP73 and AFP-L3 in the liver cancer group were significantly higher than those in other groups (all P<0.05, and the positive rates of the two markers were significantly higher than that of AFP among patients with liver cancer (P<0.05. Thirty-seven patients with newly diagnosed liver cancer were reexamined three months after radiofrequency ablation, and the preoperational AFP-L3 level in the patients who had recurrence was significantly higher than that in the patients without recurrence (P<0.05. ConclusionSerum GP73, AFP, and AFP-L3 show great values in the diagnosis of liver cancer. AFP-L3 can be used as an indicator for the identification of

  14. 3 CFR - Regulatory Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory Review Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 30, 2009 Regulatory Review Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies For well over two decades, the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA) at...

  15. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency and the regu...... attempted to answer this question by investigating what the use of the term `value' leads to in ethical discourses, i.e., what moral implications it has for ethics to focus on the concept of value....... parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  16. Monitoring of Dual CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene Deletion and Cholesterol Accumulation Using High-Resolution Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization in a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwoo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in fluorescence microscopy, coupled with CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology, provide opportunities for understanding gene regulation at the single-cell level. The application of direct imaging shown here provides an in situ side-by-side comparison of CRISPR/Cas9-edited cells and adjacent unedited cells. We apply this methodology to the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR gene in Y-1 adrenal cells and MA-10 testis cells. StAR is a gatekeeper protein that controls the access of cholesterol from the cytoplasm to the inner mitochondria. The loss of this mitochondrial cholesterol transfer mediator rapidly increases lipid droplets in cells, as seen in StAR−/− mice. Here, we describe a dual CRISPR/Cas9 strategy marked by GFP/mCherry expression that deletes StAR activity within 12 h. We used single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization (sm-FISH imaging to directly monitor the time course of gene editing in single cells. We achieved StAR gene deletion at high efficiency dual gRNA targeting to the proximal promoter and exon 2. Seventy percent of transfected cells showed a slow DNA deletion as measured by PCR, and loss of Br-cAMP stimulated transcription. This DNA deletion was seen by sm-FISH in both loci of individual cells relative to non-target Cyp11a1 and StAR exon 7. sm-FISH also distinguishes two effects on stimulated StAR expression without this deletion. Br-cAMP stimulation of primary and spliced StAR RNA at the gene loci were removed within 4 h in this dual CRISPR/Cas9 strategy before any effect on cytoplasmic mRNA and protein occurred. StAR mRNA disappeared between 12 and 24 h in parallel with this deletion, while cholesterol ester droplets increased fourfold. These alternative changes match distinct StAR expression processes. This dual gRNA and sm-FISH approach to CRISPR/Cas9 editing facilitates rapid testing of editing strategies and immediate assessment of single-cell adaptation responses without the

  17. The value of liquid biopsy in diagnosis and monitoring of diffuse large b-cell lymphoma: recent developments and future potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Vincent; Jardin, Fabrice; Tilly, Herve

    2017-06-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) represent a heterogeneous subset of non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) that demonstrate many molecular alterations and somatic mutations, all of which are targets for the recent development of biomarkers that use various molecular biological techniques. These non-invasive emerging biomarkers will be used in the next few years to better monitor the response to immunochemotherapeutic treatments with the aim of completely eradicating the disease in order to cure it. Areas covered: In this review, the authors conducted a literature search to identify and summarize the major advances in liquid biopsy techniques for DLBCL that are useful for diagnosis and monitoring minimal residual disease (MRD). The authors report on the major technological leaps represented by the main MRD tools (sequencing of clone-specific rearrangements of immunoglobulin genes and sequencing of somatic mutations in circulating tumor plasma DNA) and present the expected future developments and the impact of these new tools on clinical practice. Expert commentary: The monitoring of somatic mutations in tumor plasma cell-free DNA represents a promising tool for liquid biopsy, which will in the future allow non-invasive monitoring that will be used at any time to follow the response to the treatment.

  18. A new approach to monitoring the social environment for natural resource management and policy: The case of US national forest benefits and values

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; D. N. Celarier

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach for monitoring the social environment for natural resource management and policy, based on content analysis of online news media stories. Content analysis of the media has repeatedly been shown to produce results that are closely correlated with attitude surveys and opinion polls. Computer methods were used to analyse almost 30,000...

  19. What Value "Value Added"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  20. The value of end-tidal CO2 monitoring when comparing three methods of conscious sedation for children undergoing painful procedures in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, L S; Berns, S D; Houck, C S; Boenning, D A

    1997-06-01

    Many studies have evaluated conscious sedation regimens commonly used in pediatric patients. Recent advances in capnography equipment now enable physicians to assess respiratory parameters, specifically end-tidal CO2 (et-CO2), more accurately in spontaneously breathing sedated children than was possible in the earlier studies. This study was designed to: 1) compare the safety and efficacy of intravenous fentanyl, intravenous fentanyl combined with midazolam, and intramuscular meperidine-promethazine-chlorpromazine (MPC) compound when used for painful emergency department (ED) procedures: and 2) to determine whether the addition of et-CO2 monitoring enabled earlier identification of respiratory depression in this population. Forty-two children requiring analgesia and sedation for painful ED procedures were randomly assigned to receive either fentanyl, fentanyl-midazolam, or MPC compound. Vital signs, oxygen saturation, and et-CO2 were monitored continuously. Pain, anxiety, and sedation scores were recorded every five minutes. Respiratory depression (O2 saturation or = 50) occurred in 20% of fentanyl, 23% of fentanyl-midazolam, and 11% of MPC patients (P = NS). Of those patients manifesting respiratory depression, 6/8 were detected by increased et-CO2 only. MPC patients required significantly longer periods of time to meet discharge criteria than fentanyl and fentanyl-midazolam patients (P depression. End-tidal CO2 monitoring provided an earlier indication of respiratory depression than pulse oximetry and respiratory rate alone. MPC administration resulted in a significantly delayed discharge from the ED.

  1. Commentary: Insufficient regulatory supervision prior to release of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-05-27

    . Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/jbsc/034/02/0167-0168. Keywords. Field trials; GM crops; monitoring; regulatory supervision; risk assesment. Author Affiliations. Pushpa Mittra Bhargava1. Anveshna, 1-7-24, ...

  2. Value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose in non-insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) levels provides important information regarding glycemic control for patients with diabetes, and is recommended by European and American diabetes organizations as an essential adjunct to periodic glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level monitoring. The benefits of SMBG in improving glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes and those with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who are being treated with insulin are well recognized. In contrast, the potential role of SMBG in patients with T2DM not treated with insulin remains controversial, which may lead to underutilization of SMBG in this population. Structured SMBG, introduced as part of a treatment intervention, has been associated with modest but significant improvements in HbA1c levels in patients with T2DM who are not taking insulin as part of their management plan. Patient-obtained readings provide valuable real-time feedback on glucose responses to meals and exercise, and provide the patient with guidance on the day-to-day management of their diabetes. Studies have shown that when patients perform self-monitoring as part of their treatment interventions, support through appropriate educational initiatives is critical to ensure that patients understand the rationale for SMBG. Patients should be trained in correct testing technique and data recording for SMBG, as well as target blood glucose and goal HbA1c levels so that they will know when their SMBG readings are out of range. Technology has a potential role in facilitating SMBG-based interventions by improving patient-physician communication and optimizing glycemic control through the use of remote data uploading, data analysis tools, and, perhaps, even text messaging. This review outlines the benefits of SMBG in the management of patients with T2DM not treated with insulin, and highlights strategies for improving the effectiveness of SMBG-based treatment interventions in this population.

  3. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sale, Michael J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Eddlemon, Gerald K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in

  4. Questioning the value of {sup 99m}Tc-HYNIC-annexin V based response monitoring after docetaxel treatment in a mouse model for hereditary breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beekman, Chantal A.C.; Buckle, Tessa; Leeuwen, Anne C. van; Valdes Olmos, Renato A. [Division of Diagnostic Oncology, Netherland Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verheij, Marcel [Division of Radiotherapy, Netherland Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rottenberg, Sven [Division of Molecular Biology, Netherland Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Leeuwen, Fijs W.B. van, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.n [Division of Diagnostic Oncology, Netherland Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital (NKI-AVL), Plesmanlaan 121, 1066CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Annexin V imaging is suggested to provide a good indication of cancer treatment efficacy. To study the accuracy of {sup 99m}Tc-AnxV imaging, we monitored chemo-sensitive and chemo-resistant tumors in a mouse breast cancer model after treatment with docetaxel. Sensitive tumors showed a slight peak in {sup 99m}Tc-AnxV uptake one day post-treatment, while uptake in resistant tumors remained constant. In contrast to immunohistochemical analysis, {sup 99m}Tc-AnxV imaging could not be used to predict tumor response, due to large variation between animals.

  5. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than 0....... In conclusion, the CD4 cell counts and the presence of p24 antigen in serum had a very limited predictive value for the presence of OI in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  6. Regulatory Information By Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory, compliance, & enforcement information for various business, industry and government sectors, listed by NAICS code. Sectors include agriculture, automotive, petroleum manufacturing, oil & gas extraction & other manufacturing

  7. The value of Doppler LiDAR systems to monitor turbulence intensity during storm events in order to enhance aviation safety in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Finger, David C.

    2017-04-01

    Turbulence and wind shear are a major natural hazards for aviation safety in Iceland. The temporal and spatial scale of atmospheric turbulence is very dynamic, requiring an adequate method to detect and monitor turbulence with high resolution. The Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) system can provide continuous information about the wind field using the Doppler effect form emitted light signals. In this study, we use a Leosphere Windcube 200s LiDAR systems stationed near Reykjavik city Airport and at Keflavik International Airport, Iceland, to evaluate turbulence intensity by estimating eddy dissipation rate (EDR). For this purpose, we retrieved radial wind velocity observations from Velocity Azimuth Display (VAD) scans (360°scans at 15° and 75° elevation angle) to compute EDR. The method was used to monitor and characterize storm events in fall 2016 and the following winter. The preliminary result reveal that the LiDAR observations can detect and quantify atmospheric turbulence with high spatial and temporal resolution. This finding is an important step towards enhanced aviation safety in subpolar climate characterized by sever wind turbulence.

  8. Limitations of EMIT benzodiazepine immunoassay for monitoring compliance of patients with benzodiazepine therapy even after hydrolyzing glucuronide metabolites in urine to increase cross-reactivity: comparison of immunoassay results with LC-MS/MS values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R Brent; Floyd, Diana; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2015-02-01

    Benzodiazepines are widely prescribed, and compliance of patients with benzodiazepine therapy is often monitored using urine specimens. Although various commercially available benzodiazepines immunoassays are widely used for compliance monitoring, such immunoassays usually have low cross-reactivity with glucuronide metabolites. We studied the effect of hydrolyzing such glucuronide before analysis to reevaluate suitability of Enzyme multiplied immunoassay technique benzodiazepine immunoassay for monitoring compliance with benzodiazepine therapy. In 31 urine specimens collected from patients taking benzodiazepines, the true analyte concentrations were determined (after hydrolyzing glucuronide metabolites using beta-glucuronidase) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. These urine specimens were reanalyzed using EMIT benzodiazepine assay (Flex Reagent Cartridge; Siemens Diagnostics) and Vista analyzer. We observed false negative test results with EMIT in 11 of 31 specimens analyzed where liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry values were above the 200 ng/mL cutoff concentration, but EMIT benzodiazepine assay showed a negative result, indicating that despite hydrolysis of the specimen to liberate parent drug (glucuronide metabolite often has poor cross-reactivity), the false negative rate using EMIT assay was 35.5%. Patient compliance with benzodiazepine therapy must be monitored using a chromatographic method.

  9. Monitoring of radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-02-01

    The guide specifies the requirements for the monitoring of radiation exposure in instances where radiation is used. In addition to workers, the guide covers students, apprentices and visitors. The guide shall also apply to exposure from natural radiation. However, the monitoring of radiation exposure in nuclear power plants is dealt with in YVL Guide 7.10 and 7.11. The guide defines the concepts relevant to the monitoring of radiation exposure and provides guidelines for determining the necessity of monitoring and subsequently arranging such in different operations. In addition, the guide specifies the criteria for the approval and regulatory control of the dosimetric service.

  10. Environmental monitoring plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. 52 refs., 10 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Value of syndromic surveillance in monitoring a focal waterborne outbreak due to an unusual Cryptosporidium genotype in Northamptonshire, United Kingdom, June - July 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S; Elliot, A J; Mallaghan, C; Modha, D; Hippisley-Cox, J; Large, S; Regan, M; Smith, G E

    2010-08-19

    The United Kingdom (UK) has several national syndromic surveillance systems. The Health Protection Agency (HPA)/NHS Direct syndromic surveillance system uses pre-diagnostic syndromic data from a national telephone helpline, while the HPA/QSurveillance national surveillance system uses clinical diagnosis data extracted from general practitioner (GP)-based clinical information systems. Data from both of these systems were used to monitor a local outbreak of cryptosporidiosis that occurred following Cryptosporidium oocyst contamination of drinking water supplied from the Pitsford Reservoir in Northamptonshire, United Kingdom, in June 2008. There was a peak in the number of calls to NHS Direct concerning diarrhoea that coincided with the incident. QSurveillance data for the local areas affected by the outbreak showed a significant increase in GP consultations for diarrhoea and gastroenteritis in the week of the incident but there was no increase in consultations for vomiting. A total of 33 clinical cases of cryptosporidiosis were identified in the outbreak investigation, of which 23 were confirmed as infected with the outbreak strain. However, QSurveillance data suggest that there were an estimated 422 excess diarrhoea cases during the outbreak, an increase of about 25% over baseline weekly levels. To our knowledge, this is the first time that data from a syndromic surveillance system, the HPA/QSurveillance national surveillance system, have been able to show the extent of such a small outbreak at a local level. QSurveillance, which covers about 38% of the UK population, is currently the only GP database that is able to provide data at local health district (primary care trust) level. The Cryptosporidium contamination incident described demonstrates the potential usefulness of this information, as it is unusual for syndromic surveillance systems to be able to help monitor such a small-scale outbreak.

  12. CD4 lymphocyte counts and serum p24 antigen of no diagnostic value in monitoring HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orholm, M; Nielsen, T L; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1990-01-01

    .200 x 10(9)/l, and 60% of patients without OI had CD4 counts less than 0.200 x 10(9)/l; 47 and 42% of patients with and without OI, respectively, had detectable p24 antigen in serum. Only 36% of the patients with OI presented the combination of CD4 cells less than 0.200 x 10(9)/l and p24 in serum......The diagnostic value of the CD4 cell counts and the HIV p24 antigen were evaluated in a consecutive series of 105 HIV-infected patients experiencing 128 episodes of pulmonary symptoms which required bronchoscopy. One-third of patients with opportunistic infection (OI) had CD4 counts greater than 0....... In conclusion, the CD4 cell counts and the presence of p24 antigen in serum had a very limited predictive value for the presence of OI in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary symptoms....

  13. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C. [Science Applications International Corp., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to fulfill the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1 and DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide DOE/EH 0173T. This Plan documents the background, organizational structure, and methods used for effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance at Sandia National Laboratories/California. The design, rationale, and historical results of the environmental monitoring system are discussed in detail. Throughout the Plan, recommendations for improvements to the monitoring system are made. This revision to the Environmental Monitoring Plan was written to document the changes made to the Monitoring Program during 1992. Some of the data (most notably the statistical analyses of past monitoring data) has not been changed.

  14. Foliar nutrient and metal levels of crops in the Mount Cameroon area-reference values for plant nutrition and environmental monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzaring, J; Mbaka, G E; Ambebe, T F; Nkengafac, J N; Schlosser, S; Fangmeier, A

    2017-04-01

    The growing population number and traffic loads, increasing environmental pressures, agricultural intensification, and the establishment of Mount Cameroon National Park demand farsighted environmental management in the region and the definition of a favorable ecological status. Since plants grow in the interface between soils and the atmosphere they can be used as passive biomonitors for the environmental quality. At the same time, the accumulation of nutrients and pollutants in crops is linked to human health, so that foliar elemental levels can be used as an integrative measure for environmental pollution and impact assessment. In the present study, we collected leaf samples of plantain, cassava, cocoyam, and maize on 28 sites at the southern flanks of Mt. Cameroon and determined 20 chemical elements. Air pollution in the study area comes from biomass and waste burning mainly, but emissions from traffic and a large refinery were believed to also play a significant role. However, spatial patterns in foliar elemental concentrations reflected the geochemistry rather than specific sources of pollution. Significant differences in foliar metal and nutrient levels were observed between the four species, indicating a different demand and uptake of specific elements. The results were compared to published data on nutrient concentrations in the tested species and the so-called reference plant. The data can be used as a baseline for future studies in plant nutrition and the environmental monitoring in inner tropical regions where these crops are grown.

  15. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  16. Maximizing the value of mobile health monitoring by avoiding redundant patient reports: prediction of depression-related symptoms and adherence problems in automated health assessment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Sussman, Jeremy B; Pfeiffer, Paul N; Silveira, Maria J; Singh, Satinder; Lavieri, Mariel S

    2013-07-05

    Interactive voice response (IVR) calls enhance health systems' ability to identify health risk factors, thereby enabling targeted clinical follow-up. However, redundant assessments may increase patient dropout and represent a lost opportunity to collect more clinically useful data. We determined the extent to which previous IVR assessments predicted subsequent responses among patients with depression diagnoses, potentially obviating the need to repeatedly collect the same information. We also evaluated whether frequent (ie, weekly) IVR assessment attempts were significantly more predictive of patients' subsequent reports than information collected biweekly or monthly. Using data from 1050 IVR assessments for 208 patients with depression diagnoses, we examined the predictability of four IVR-reported outcomes: moderate/severe depressive symptoms (score ≥10 on the PHQ-9), fair/poor general health, poor antidepressant adherence, and days in bed due to poor mental health. We used logistic models with training and test samples to predict patients' IVR responses based on their five most recent weekly, biweekly, and monthly assessment attempts. The marginal benefit of more frequent assessments was evaluated based on Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves and statistical comparisons of the area under the curves (AUC). Patients' reports about their depressive symptoms and perceived health status were highly predictable based on prior assessment responses. For models predicting moderate/severe depression, the AUC was 0.91 (95% CI 0.89-0.93) when assuming weekly assessment attempts and only slightly less when assuming biweekly assessments (AUC: 0.89; CI 0.87-0.91) or monthly attempts (AUC: 0.89; CI 0.86-0.91). The AUC for models predicting reports of fair/poor health status was similar when weekly assessments were compared with those occurring biweekly (P value for the difference=.11) or monthly (P=.81). Reports of medication adherence problems and days in bed were

  17. 76 FR 35922 - Notice of Issuance of Regulatory Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... specific parts of the agency's regulations, techniques that the staff uses in evaluating specific problems... licenses. Proposed Revision 1 of Regulatory Guide (RG) 8.4, ``Personnel Monitoring Device--Direct-Reading... provision, 10 CFR 34.47, ``Personnel Monitoring,'' that requires the use of a direct-reading pocket...

  18. NRC regulatory initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, T.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is addressing several low-level waste disposal issues that will be important to waste generators and to States and Compacts developing new disposal capacity. These issues include Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) waste, mixed waste, below regulatory concern (BRC) waste, and the low-level waste data base. This paper discusses these issues and their current status.

  19. Regulatory unbundling in telecommunications

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter

    2011-01-01

    Due to its dynamic nature, and the increasing importance of competitive sub-parts, the telecommunications sector provides particularly interesting insights for studying regulatory unbundling. Based on the theory of monopolistic bottle-necks the fallacies of overregulation by undue unbundling obligations are indicated. Neither the promotion of infrastructure competition by mandatory un-bundling of competitive subparts of telecommunications infrastructure, nor regulatory induced network fragmen...

  20. Canadian drug regulatory framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, L; Lazzaro, M; Petersen, C

    2007-03-01

    The role of regulatory drug submission evaluators in Canada is to critically assess both the data submitted and the sponsor's interpretation of the data in order to reach an evidence-, and context-based recommendation as to the potential benefits and potential harms (i.e., risks) associated with taking the drug under the proposed conditions of use. The purpose of this document is to outline the regulatory framework in which this assessment occurs, including: defining what "authorization to market a drug in Canada" means, in terms of the role of the sponsor, the responsibility of Health Canada in applying the Food and Drugs Act prior to and after marketing authorization, and the distinction between regulatory authorization versus physician authorization; highlighting organizational, process and legal factors within Health Canada related to authorization of clinical trials and authorization to market a drug; considerations during the review process, such as regulatory and scientific issues related to the drug, patient populations and trial designs; application of international guidelines, and decisions from other jurisdictions; regulatory realities regarding drug authorization, including the requirement for wording in the Product Monograph to accurately reflect the information currently available on the safe and effective use of a drug, and that hypothesis-confirming studies are essential to regulatory endorsement; current issues related to the review of therapies for dementia, such as assessing preventative treatments, and therapies that have symptomatic versus disease-modifying effects, statistical issues regarding missing data, and trial design issues.

  1. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  2. 78 FR 44279 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... July 23, 2013 Part XI Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its spring 2013 regulatory...

  3. 77 FR 8018 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XVIII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  4. 75 FR 79759 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Energy ###Semiannual Regulatory Agenda### ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (DOE) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Semiannual Regulatory Agenda 10 CFR Chs. II, III, and X 48 CFR Ch. 9 Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared and...

  5. 78 FR 1634 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... January 8, 2013 Part XVII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  6. 75 FR 79799 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Justice ###Semiannual Regulatory Agenda### ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (DOJ) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 8 CFR Ch. V 21 CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its fall 2010 regulatory...

  7. 77 FR 7972 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... February 13, 2012 Part XI Department of Justice Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... CFR Ch. I 27 CFR Ch. II 28 CFR Ch. I, V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Department of Justice is publishing its fall 2011 regulatory...

  8. 78 FR 44329 - Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... July 23, 2013 Part XVIII National Aeronautics and Space Administration Semiannual Regulatory Agenda #0... AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION 14 CFR Ch. V Regulatory Agenda AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: NASA's regulatory agenda describes those...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1209 - What are the monitoring requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... into compliance on the regulatory compliance date. Sources that elect to come into compliance before the regulatory compliance date must begin recording one-minute and hourly rolling average values... regulatory compliance date. Sources that elect to come into compliance before the regulatory compliance date...

  10. The impact of clinical trial monitoring approaches on data integrity and cost--a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Rasmus; Bihlet, Asger Reinstrup; Kalakou, Faidra; Andersen, Jeppe Ragnar

    2016-04-01

    Monitoring is a costly requirement when conducting clinical trials. New regulatory guidance encourages the industry to consider alternative monitoring methods to the traditional 100 % source data verification (SDV) approach. The purpose of this literature review is to provide an overview of publications on different monitoring methods and their impact on subject safety data, data integrity, and monitoring cost. The literature search was performed by keyword searches in MEDLINE and hand search of key journals. All publications were reviewed for details on how a monitoring approach impacted subject safety data, data integrity, or monitoring costs. Twenty-two publications were identified. Three publications showed that SDV has some value for detection of not initially reported adverse events and centralized statistical monitoring (CSM) captures atypical trends. Fourteen publications showed little objective evidence of improved data integrity with traditional monitoring such as 100 % SDV and sponsor queries as compared to reduced SDV, CSM, and remote monitoring. Eight publications proposed a potential for significant cost reductions of monitoring by reducing SDV without compromising the validity of the trial results. One hundred percent SDV is not a rational method of ensuring data integrity and subject safety based on the high cost, and this literature review indicates that reduced SDV is a viable monitoring method. Alternative methods of monitoring such as centralized monitoring utilizing statistical tests are promising alternatives but have limitations as stand-alone tools. Reduced SDV combined with a centralized, risk-based approach may be the ideal solution to reduce monitoring costs while improving essential data quality.

  11. The added diagnostic value of postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave index and nocturnal baseline impedance in refractory reflux disease studied with on-therapy impedance-pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazzoni, M; de Bortoli, N; Frazzoni, L; Tolone, S; Furnari, M; Martinucci, I; Mirante, V G; Marchi, S; Savarino, V; Savarino, E

    2017-03-01

    On-therapy impedance-pH monitoring in proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) yielded conflicting results. We aimed to assess the diagnostic value of postreflux swallow-induced peristaltic wave (PSPW) index and mean nocturnal baseline impedance (MNBI) in PPI-refractory heartburn. On-therapy impedance-pH tracings from 189 consecutive patients with PPI-refractory heartburn were blindly reviewed. Patients were subdivided into refractory reflux esophagitis (RRE), healed reflux esophagitis (HRE), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), and functional heartburn (FH) according to endoscopic and conventional impedance-pH findings. The diagnostic accuracy of PSPW index and MNBI in separating NERD from FH was assessed with receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) analysis. Objectively documented persistent reflux remission at 3-year follow-up in 53 patients who underwent laparoscopic fundoplication served to evaluate PSPW index and MNBI as independent predictors of PPI-refractory GERD confirmed by positive surgical outcome. Median PSPW index and MNBI values were significantly lower in 39 RRE (16%; 1145 Ω) than in 41 HRE (25%; 1741 Ω) and in 68 NERD (29%; 2374 Ω) patients, and in all three GERD subgroups compared to 41 FH cases (67%; 3488 Ω) (Prefractory GERD (odds ratio 0.6983, P=.012). At on-therapy impedance-pH monitoring, PSPW index and MNBI efficiently distinguish PPI-refractory NERD from FH. The PSPW index represents an independent predictor of PPI-refractory GERD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Prognostic value of ambulatory and home blood pressures compared with office blood pressure in the general population: follow-up results from the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sega, Roberto; Facchetti, Rita; Bombelli, Michele; Cesana, Giancarlo; Corrao, Giovanni; Grassi, Guido; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2005-04-12

    Studies in hypertensive patients suggest that ambulatory blood pressure (BP) is prognostically superior to office BP. Much less information is available in the general population, however. Obtaining this information was the purpose of the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. Office, home, and 24-hour ambulatory BP values were obtained in 2051 subjects between 25 and 74 years of age who were representative of the general population of Monza (Milan, Italy). Subjects were followed up for an average of 131 months, during which time cardiovascular and noncardiovascular fatal events were recorded (n=186). Office, home, and ambulatory BP values showed a significant exponential direct relationship with risk of cardiovascular or all-cause death. The goodness of fit of the relationship was greater for systolic than for diastolic BP and for night than for day BP, but its overall value was not better for home or ambulatory than for office BP. The slope of the relationship, however, was progressively greater from office to home and ambulatory BP. Home and night BP modestly improved the goodness of fit of the risk model when added to office BP. In the PAMELA population, risk of death increased more with a given increase in home or ambulatory than in office BP. The overall ability to predict death, however, was not greater for home and ambulatory than for office BP, although it was somewhat increased by the combination of office and outside-of-office values. Systolic BP was almost invariably superior to diastolic BP, and night BP was superior to day BP.

  13. Rationales for regulatory activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perhac, R.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The author provides an outline which touches on the types of concerns about risk evaluation which are addressed in the process of establishing regulatory guides. Broadly he says regulatory activity serves three broad constituents: (1) Paternalism (private risk); (2) Promotion of social welfare (public risks); (3) Protection of individual rights (public risks). He then discusses some of the major issues encountered in reaching a decision on what is an acceptable level of risk within each of these areas, and how one establishes such a level.

  14. Prediction of regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandelin, Albin

    2008-01-01

    Finding the regulatory mechanisms responsible for gene expression remains one of the most important challenges for biomedical research. A major focus in cellular biology is to find functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBS) responsible for the regulation of a downstream gene. As wet......-lab methods are time consuming and expensive, it is not realistic to identify TFBS for all uncharacterized genes in the genome by purely experimental means. Computational methods aimed at predicting potential regulatory regions can increase the efficiency of wet-lab experiments significantly. Here, methods...

  15. Value of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.; Chatzi, E.; Bismut, E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of value of information (VoI) enables quantification of the benefits provided by structural health monitoring (SHM) systems –in principle. Its implementation is challenging, as it requires an explicit modelling of the structural system’s life cycle, in particular of the decisions...

  16. Monitoring and evaluation of time delay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Blommaert, F.J.J.; Midden, C.J.H.

    2005-01-01

    In general, users act as if their behavior is controlled by a self-regulatory system (Carver & Scheier, 1998) during user-system interaction. The self-regulatory system is specified as a feedback control mechanism consisting of monitoring, evaluation, and action adjustment mechanisms. This

  17. Value Investing

    OpenAIRE

    Kubínyi, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor's thesis deals with value investing in the form defined by Benjamin Graham. In clarifying the theoretical aspects, particular attention is given to an intrinsic value of stocks and to its calculation methods. A way to overcome the deficiencies in the two most widely used models of calculation is introduced. It is value screening, which by defining of certain criteria makes an assumption of undervalued stocks. Then the investment approach of the most successful investor, Warren B...

  18. Functional footprinting of regulatory DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Jeff; Reik, Andreas; Chang, Kai-Hsin; Stehling-Sun, Sandra; Zhou, Yuanyue; Hinkley, Sarah J; Paschon, David E; Zhang, Lei; Psatha, Nikoletta; Bendana, Yuri R; O'Neil, Colleen M; Song, Alexander H; Mich, Andrea K; Liu, Pei-Qi; Lee, Gary; Bauer, Daniel E; Holmes, Michael C; Orkin, Stuart H; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Stamatoyannopoulos, George; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Stamatoyannopoulos, John A

    2015-10-01

    Regulatory regions harbor multiple transcription factor (TF) recognition sites; however, the contribution of individual sites to regulatory function remains challenging to define. We describe an approach that exploits the error-prone nature of genome editing-induced double-strand break repair to map functional elements within regulatory DNA at nucleotide resolution. We demonstrate the approach on a human erythroid enhancer, revealing single TF recognition sites that gate the majority of downstream regulatory function.

  19. 76 FR 3825 - Regulatory Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of January 18, 2011 Regulatory Compliance Memorandum for the Heads of Executive... accessible to the public, information concerning their regulatory compliance and enforcement activities, such... enforcement actions). Greater disclosure of regulatory compliance information fosters fair and consistent...

  20. Setting monitoring objectives for landscape-size areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Olson; Dean Angelides

    2000-01-01

    The setting of objectives for monitoring schemes for landscape-size areas should be a complex task in today's regulatory and sociopolitical atmosphere. The technology available today, the regulatory environment, and the sociopolitical considerations require multiresource inventory and monitoring schemes, whether tile ownership is industrial or for preservation....

  1. The added value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery (COGUIDE): a pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stens, J; Hering, J-P; van der Hoeven, C W P; Boom, A; Traast, H S; Garmers, L E; Loer, S A; Boer, C

    2017-09-01

    There is disagreement regarding the benefits of goal-directed therapy in moderate-risk abdominal surgery. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the addition of non-invasive cardiac index and pulse pressure variation monitoring to mean arterial pressure-based goal-directed therapy would reduce the incidence of postoperative complications in patients having moderate-risk abdominal surgery. In this pragmatic multicentre randomised controlled trial, we randomly allocated 244 patients by envelope drawing in a 1:1 fashion, stratified per centre. All patients had mean arterial pressure, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation measured continuously. In one group, healthcare professionals were blinded to cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values and were asked to guide haemodynamic therapy only based on mean arterial pressure (control group). In the second group, cardiac index and pulse pressure variation values were displayed and kept within target ranges following a pre-defined algorithm (CI-PPV group). The primary endpoint was the incidence of postoperative complications within 30 days. One hundred and seventy-five patients were eligible for final analysis. Overall complication rates were similar (42/94 (44.7%) vs. 38/81 (46.9%) in the control and CI-PPV groups, respectively; p = 0.95). The CI-PPV group had lower mean (SD) pulse pressure variation values (9.5 (2.0)% vs. 11.9 (4.6)%; p = 0.003) and higher mean (SD) cardiac indices (2.76 (0.62) l min-1 .m-2 vs. 2.53 (0.66) l min-1 .m-2 ; p = 0.004) than the control group. In moderate-risk abdominal surgery, we observed no additional value of cardiac index and pulse pressure variation-guided haemodynamic therapy to mean arterial pressure-guided volume therapy with regard to postoperative complications. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Characteristics of regulatory regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noralv Veggeland

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The overarching theme of this paper is institutional analysis of basic characteristics of regulatory regimes. The concepts of path dependence and administrative traditions are used throughout. Self-reinforcing or positive feedback processes in political systems represent a basic framework. The empirical point of departure is the EU public procurement directive linked to OECD data concerning use of outsourcing among member states. The question is asked: What has caused the Nordic countries, traditionally not belonging to the Anglo-Saxon market-centred administrative tradition, to be placed so high on the ranking as users of the Market-Type Mechanism (MTM of outsourcing in the public sector vs. in-house provision of services? A thesis is that the reason may be complex, but might be found in an innovative Scandinavian regulatory approach rooted in the Nordic model.

  3. Contamination monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamares, A.L. [Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1997-06-01

    By virture of Republic Act 2067, as amended the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), now renamed Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) is the government agency charged with the regulations and control of radioactive materials in the Philippines. The protection against the hazards of non-ionizing radiation is being monitored by the Radiological Health Service (RHS) of the Department of Health pursuant to the provision of Presidental Decree 480. The RHS issues licenses for possession, handling, and use of x-ray machines and equipment, both industrial and medical, and provide radiation protection training to x-ray technologists and technicians. As part of its regulatory function, the PNRI is charged with the responsibility of assuring that the radiation workers and the public are protected from the hazards associated with the possession, handling, production, manufacturing, and the use of radioactive materials and atomic energy facilities in the Philippines. The protection of radiation workers from the hazards of ionizing radiation has always been a primary concern of PNRI and by limiting the exposure of radiation workers, the risk to population is kept to within acceptable level. In this paper, the following items are described: radiation protection program, radiation protection services, radiation control, and problems encountered/recommendation. (G.K.)

  4. Regulatory functions of microtubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, J M; Samoylov, V I

    2013-01-01

    This mini-review summarizes literature and original data about the role of microtubules in interphase animal cells. Recent data have shown that functioning of microtubules is essential for such diverse phenomena as directional cell movements, distribution of organelles in the cytoplasm, and neuronal memory in the central nervous system. It is suggested that microtubules can act as an important regulatory system in eukaryotic cells. Possible mechanisms of these functions are discussed.

  5. Regulatory aspects on nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz, Vanessa; Conniot, João; Matos, Ana I; Peres, Carina; Zupancic, Eva; Moura, Liane; Silva, Liana C; Florindo, Helena F; Gaspar, Rogério S

    2015-12-18

    Nanomedicines have been in the forefront of pharmaceutical research in the last decades, creating new challenges for research community, industry, and regulators. There is a strong demand for the fast development of scientific and technological tools to address unmet medical needs, thus improving human health care and life quality. Tremendous advances in the biomaterials and nanotechnology fields have prompted their use as promising tools to overcome important drawbacks, mostly associated to the non-specific effects of conventional therapeutic approaches. However, the wide range of application of nanomedicines demands a profound knowledge and characterization of these complex products. Their properties need to be extensively understood to avoid unpredicted effects on patients, such as potential immune reactivity. Research policy and alliances have been bringing together scientists, regulators, industry, and, more frequently in recent years, patient representatives and patient advocacy institutions. In order to successfully enhance the development of new technologies, improved strategies for research-based corporate organizations, more integrated research tools dealing with appropriate translational requirements aiming at clinical development, and proactive regulatory policies are essential in the near future. This review focuses on the most important aspects currently recognized as key factors for the regulation of nanomedicines, discussing the efforts under development by industry and regulatory agencies to promote their translation into the market. Regulatory Science aspects driving a faster and safer development of nanomedicines will be a central issue for the next years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  8. Regulatory and Radiological Assessment of Co-60 Teletherapy Unit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calculations and measurements were carried out on the structural shielding design of the cobalt-60 unit by standard methods. Personnel Monitoring reports on four (4) staff members were also compared with calculated and measured results. The results obtained and measurements made, all fall below the regulatory ...

  9. Enhancing Self-Regulatory Skills through an Intervention Embedded in a Middle School Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digiacomo, Gregory; Chen, Peggy P.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a self-regulatory intervention strategy designed to improve middle-school students' calibration accuracy, self-regulatory skills, and math achievement. Focusing on self-monitoring and self-reflection as the two key processes of this intervention in relation to improving students' math achievement and overall…

  10. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    behavior. This paper attempt to test such a claim. This is done via unique and privileged access to top-level managers in a Fortune 250 company. This company is special in having very well-defined, long-running values that are in opposition to a narrowly defined homo-economics rationality. These values...... involving vignettes and games. Their results were compared to their actual knowledge of the content of the company corporate values. The results were tested against hypotheses on expected rational behavior and a control group consisting of similar level managers from other companies. This study makes...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  11. Meeting Regulatory Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Michael Fred

    2017-02-01

    The world is experiencing change at an unprecedented pace, as reflected in social, cultural, economic, political, and technological advances around the globe. Regulatory agencies, like the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), must also transform in response to and in preparation for these changes. In 2014, the NRC staff commenced Project Aim 2020 to transform the agency by enhancing efficiency, agility, and responsiveness, while accomplishing NRC's safety and security mission. Following Commission review and approval in 2015, the NRC began implementing the approved strategies, including strategic workforce planning to provide confidence that NRC will have employees with the right skills and talents at the right time to accomplish the agency's mission. Based on the work conducted so far, ensuring an adequate pipeline of radiation protection professionals is a significant need that NRC shares with states and other government agencies, private industry, academia, as well as international counterparts. NRC is working to ensure that sufficient radiation protection professionals will be available to fulfill its safety and security mission and leverage the work of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, the Health Physics Society, the Organization of Agreement States, the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Nuclear Energy Agency, and others.

  12. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with type 2 diabetes: Design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP Study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelsovsky Zhihong

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. Methods/design The Structured Testing Program (STeP study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c ≥ 7.5%, non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG. A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. Discussion The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of

  13. Monitoring Antifungal Resistance in a Global Collection of Invasive Yeasts and Molds: Application of CLSI Epidemiological Cutoff Values and Whole-Genome Sequencing Analysis for Detection of Azole Resistance in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Mariana; Deshpande, Lalitagauri M; Davis, Andrew P; Rhomberg, Paul R; Pfaller, Michael A

    2017-10-01

    The activity of 7 antifungal agents against 3,557 invasive yeasts and molds collected in 29 countries worldwide in 2014 and 2015 was evaluated. Epidemiological cutoff values (ECVs) published in the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M59 document were applied for species with no clinical breakpoints. Echinocandin susceptibility rates were 95.9% to 100.0% for the 5 most common Candida species, except for the rates for Candida parapsilosis to anidulafungin (88.7% susceptible, 100.0% wild type). Rates of fluconazole resistance ranged from 8.0% for Candida glabrata to 0.4% for Candida albicans Seven Candida species displayed 100.0% wild-type amphotericin B MIC results, and Candida dubliniensis and Candida lusitaniae exhibited wild-type echinocandin MIC results. The highest fluconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole MIC values for Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii were 8 μg/ml, 0.12 μg/ml, and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were 100.0% wild type for caspofungin and amphotericin B, but 3 (0.8%) of these isolates were non-wild type to itraconazole (2 isolates) or voriconazole (1 isolate). Mutations in FKS hot spot (HS) regions were detected among 13/20 Candida isolates displaying echinocandin MICs greater than the ECV (16 of these 20 isolates were C. glabrata). Most isolates carrying mutations in FKS HS regions were resistant to 2 or more echinocandins. Five fluconazole-nonsusceptible C. albicans isolates were submitted to whole-genome sequencing analysis. Gain-of-function, Erg11 heterozygous, and Erg3 homozygous mutations were observed in 1 isolate each. One isolate displayed MDR1 promoter allele alterations associated with azole resistance. Elevated levels of expression of MDR1 or CDR2 were observed in 3 isolates and 1 isolate, respectively. Echinocandin and azole resistance is still uncommon among contemporary fungal isolates; however, mechanisms of resistance to antifungals were observed among Candida spp., showing that

  14. The value of episodic, intensive blood glucose monitoring in non-insulin treated persons with Type 2 Diabetes: design of the Structured Testing Program (STeP) study, a cluster-randomised, clinical trial [NCT00674986].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, William; Fisher, Lawrence; Schikman, Charles; Hinnen, Deborah; Parkin, Christopher; Jelsovsky, Zhihong; Amstutz, Linda; Schweitzer, Matthias; Wagner, Robin

    2010-05-18

    The value and utility of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) in non-insulin treated T2DM has yet to be clearly determined. Findings from studies in this population have been inconsistent, due mainly to design differences and limitations, including the prescribed frequency and timing of SMBG, role of the patient and physician in responding to SMBG results, inclusion criteria that may contribute to untoward floor effects, subject compliance, and cross-arm contamination. We have designed an SMBG intervention study that attempts to address these issues. The Structured Testing Program (STeP) study is a 12-month, cluster-randomised, multi-centre clinical trial to evaluate whether poorly controlled (HbA1c >or= 7.5%), non-insulin treated T2DM patients will benefit from a comprehensive, integrated physician/patient intervention using structured SMBG in US primary care practices. Thirty-four practices will be recruited and randomly assigned to an active control group (ACG) that receives enhanced usual care or to an enhanced usual care group plus structured SMBG (STG). A total of 504 patients will be enrolled; eligible patients at each site will be randomly selected using a defined protocol. Anticipated attrition of 20% will yield a sample size of at least 204 per arm, which will provide a 90% power to detect a difference of at least 0.5% in change from baseline in HbA1c values, assuming a common standard deviation of 1.5%. Differences in timing and degree of treatment intensification, cost effectiveness, and changes in patient self-management behaviours, mood, and quality of life (QOL) over time will also be assessed. Analysis of change in HbA1c and other dependent variables over time will be performed using both intent-to-treat and per protocol analyses. Trial results will be available in 2010. The intervention and trial design builds upon previous research by emphasizing appropriate and collaborative use of SMBG by both patients and physicians. Utilization of per

  15. Regulatory elements in molecular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doane, Ashley S; Elemento, Olivier

    2017-05-01

    Regulatory elements determine the connectivity of molecular networks and mediate a variety of regulatory processes ranging from DNA looping to transcriptional, posttranscriptional, and posttranslational regulation. This review highlights our current understanding of the different types of regulatory elements found in molecular networks with a focus on DNA regulatory elements. We highlight technical advances and current challenges for the mapping of regulatory elements at the genome-wide scale, and describe new computational methods to uncover these elements via reconstructing regulatory networks from large genomic datasets. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2017, 9:e1374. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1374 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of veterinary medicine regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M V

    2013-08-01

    An effective animal medicine regulatory programme includes a systematic, evidence-based means of documenting the safety and effectiveness of products before they are produced, marketed or used in a particular country or region. The programme must also include adequate monitoring and controls over the use of these substances. It is clearthat such programmes provide veterinarians, farmers and other animal medicine users with greater assurance that veterinary drugs and biologicals will be safe and effective in preventing and mitigating disease. It is important that these regulatory controls include programmes to ensure that human food obtained from treated animals is safe and that all potential toxicological and microbiological hazards that may be associated with the use of veterinary medicines have been adequately evaluated. There is a great need worldwide for veterinary medicines that provide needed therapies for vast numbers of animals and animal species and, in the case of food-producing animals, for medicinal products that enhance the productivity and efficiency of food production and ensure food safety when they are used in accordance with their approval specifications. The public health mission of regulatory agencies succeeds when they are able to put into the hands of the user an approved, safe and effective, well-manufactured and appropriately labelled medicine, and when there are adequate controls in place to assure proper compliance.

  17. Regulatory Submission Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides administrative support to the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI’s), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), Protocol Support Office (PSO). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Performs regulatory submission/administrative duties for the Protocol Support Office, NCI/CCR Assists with the preparation of documents to include protocols, investigator brochures, consent forms, and submissions to the FDA Maintains revision logs and tracking versions of the documents Provides accurate filing of pertinent regulatory documents Provides administrative support related to document control requirements including filing of master documents, formatting and typing of various document Attends regulatory and administrative meetings for taking and typing of minutes, reports and summaries Communicates with clinical, administrative and management personnel to gather or convey information Edits and prepares material for final review Participates in planning functions Works in conjunction with other administrative staff to accomplish program requirements Acts as liaison coordinating tasks/deadlines between the Clinical Research ARC and the Branch This position is located in Rockville, Maryland.

  18. Steering healthcare service delivery: a regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gyan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore regulation in India's healthcare sector and makes recommendations needed for enhancing the healthcare service. The literature was reviewed to understand healthcare's regulatory context. To understand the current healthcare system, qualitative data were collected from state-level officials, public and private hospital staff. A patient survey was performed to assess service quality (QoS). Regulation plays a central role in driving healthcare QoS. India needs to strengthen market and institutional co-production based approaches for steering its healthcare in which delivery processes are complex and pose different challenges. This study assesses current healthcare regulation in an Indian state and presents a framework for studying and strengthening regulation. Agile regulation should be based on service delivery issues (pull approach) rather than monitoring and sanctions based regulatory environment (push approach). Healthcare pitfalls across the world seem to follow similar follies. India's complexity and experience is useful for emerging and developed economies. The author reviewed around 70 publications and synthesised them in healthcare regulatory contexts. Patient's perception of private providers could be a key input towards steering regulation. Identifying gaps across QoS dimensions would be useful in taking corrective measures.

  19. The interplay between societal concerns and the regulatory frame on GM crops in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Reheul, Dirk; De Waele, Danny; Van Speybroeck, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Recapitulating how genetic modification technology and its agro-food products aroused strong societal opposition in the European Union, this paper demonstrates how this opposition contributed to shape the European regulatory frame on GM crops. More specifically, it describes how this opposition contributed to a de facto moratorium on the commercialization of new GM crop events in the end of the nineties. From this period onwards, the regulatory frame has been continuously revised in order to slow down further erosion of public and market confidence. Various scientific and technical reforms were made to meet societal concerns relating to the safety of GM crops. In this context, the precautionary principle, environmental post-market monitoring and traceability were adopted as ways to cope with scientific uncertainties. Labeling, traceability, co-existence and public information were installed in an attempt to meet the general public request for more information about GM agro-food products, and the specific demand to respect the consumers' and farmers' freedom of choice. Despite these efforts, today, the explicit role of public participation and/or ethical consultation during authorization procedures is at best minimal. Moreover, no legal room was created to progress to an integral sustainability evaluation during market procedures. It remains to be seen whether the recent policy shift towards greater transparency about value judgments, plural viewpoints and scientific uncertainties will be one step forward in integrating ethical concerns more explicitly in risk analysis. As such, the regulatory frame stands open for further interpretation, reflecting in various degrees a continued interplay with societal concerns relating to GM agro-food products. In this regard, both societal concerns and diversely interpreted regulatory criteria can be inferred as signaling a request - and even a quest - to render more explicit the broader-than-scientific dimension of the actual

  20. Shared Value

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Mette; Kampmann, Hack; Nielsen, Michalis; Larsen, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    This project investigates the kind of value being presented when two seemingly different organisations - Red Bull and The Royal Theatre (Det Kongelige Teater) comes together to collaborate and present the Red Bull Cliff Diving 2015 series in Copenhagen in June 2015. The project draws on theories on Axiology, Experience Economy, Branding and Content Marketing, Culture Theory and Public Private Partnerships, all in relation to Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimers’ theory of “Cultural Industry: En...

  1. 78 FR 62417 - Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... Part 324 RIN 3064-AD95 Regulatory Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III... Capital Rules: Regulatory Capital, Implementation of Basel III, Capital Adequacy, Transition Provisions...

  2. Regulatory mark; Marco regulatorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter is based on a work performed in distinct phases. The first phase consisted in of the analysis regulatory legislation existent in Brazil for the sugar-alcohol sector since the beginning of the X X century. This analysis allowed the identification of non existent points and legal devices related to the studied aspects, and that were considered as problematic for the sector expansion. In the second phase, related treaties and international agreements was studied and possible obstacles for the brazilian bio ethanol exportation for the international market. Initiatives were examined at European Union, United States of America, Caribbean and countries of the sub-Saharan Africa. In this phase, policies were identified related to the incentives and adoption of use of bio fuels added to the gasoline in countries or group of countries considered as key for the consolidation of bio ethanol as a world commodity.

  3. Regulatory considerations for biosimilars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjani Nellore

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is considerable interest in the legislative debate around generic biological drugs or "biosimilars" in the EU and US due to the large, lucrative market that it offers to the industry. While some countries have issued a few regulatory guidelines as well as product specific requirements, there is no general consensus as to a single, simple mechanism similar to the bioequivalence determination that leads to approval of generic small molecules all over the world. The inherent complex nature of the molecules, along with complicated manufacturing and analytical techniques to characterize them make it difficult to rely on a single human pharmacokinetic study for assurance of safety and efficacy. In general, the concept of comparability has been used for evaluation of the currently approved "similar" biological where a step by step assessment on the quality, preclinical and clinical aspects is made. In India, the focus is primarily on the availability and affordability of life-saving drugs. In this context every product needs to be evaluated on its own merit irrespective of the innovator brand. The formation of the National Biotechnology Regulatory Authority may provide a step in the right direction for regulation of these complex molecules. However, in order to have an efficient machinery for initial approval and ongoing oversight with a country-specific focus, cooperation with international authorities for granting approvals and continuous risk-benefit review is essential. Several steps are still needed for India to be perceived as a country that leads the world in providing quality biological products.

  4. O vídeo-EEG dia no diagnóstico de eventos paroxísticos na infância The diagnostic value of short-term video-EEG monitoring in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Freitas

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: este estudo tem como objetivo investigar o valor do vídeo-EEG dia numa população pediátrica, com queixas clínicas diversas, verificando os benefícios e as limitações deste método. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: um protocolo prospectivo, desenvolvido na Universidade de São Paulo, analisou 38 pacientes consecutivos (quatro meses a 17 anos; média 6,9 anos. Todos os pacientes foram encaminhados para elucidação do seu quadro clínico. Estes foram classificados, segundo sua queixa clínica principal, em: dúvidas sobre a classificação das crises/ síndromes epilépticas em 22 pacientes (grupo I; diagnóstico diferencial entre eventos epilépticos e não epilépticos em oito (grupo II; e diagnóstico diferencial entre declínio cognitivo e estado de mal epiléptico (EME não convulsivo em oito pacientes (grupo III. RESULTADOS: episódios clínicos foram registrados em 36 pacientes (94,7%. No grupo I, as crises epilépticas foram reclassificadas em 11/22 (50% pacientes e confirmadas em oito (36,4%. Deste grupo, um paciente apresentou distúrbio do sono, e dois não apresentaram eventos clínicos durante a monitorização. A classificação sindrômica foi modificada em nove pacientes (40,9%. No grupo II, quatro pacientes (50% apresentaram eventos epilépticos. A deterioração cognitiva estava associada com EME em cinco crianças (62,5% do grupo III. Mudanças na conduta terapêutica e diagnóstica, como conseqüência da monitorização, ocorreram em 21/38 (55,3% pacientes. CONCLUSÃO: em nossa série, o vídeo-EEG dia estabeleceu o diagnóstico na maioria dos pacientes, relacionando os dados clínicos com os eletrencefalográficos. Este procedimento foi bem tolerado pelas crianças, incluindo lactentes e aquelas com doenças psiquiátricas.OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to investigate the value of short-term video-EEG monitoring in a pediatric population with distinct clinical complaints in order to verify the benefits

  5. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Bertoldo, N A; Blake, R G; Campbell, C G; Grayson, A R; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Rosene, C A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R; Jones, H E

    2012-03-02

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality; (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work; and (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. LLNL prepares the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for ensuring that environmental monitoring work, which is integral to the implementation of LLNL's Environmental Management System, is conducted appropriately. Furthermore, the Environmental Monitoring Plan helps LLNL ensure compliance with DOE Order 231.1 Change 2, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting

  6. Handbook for value-impact assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaberlin, S.W.; Burnham, J.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Mullen, M.F.; Nesse, R.J.; Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Triplett, M.B.; Weakley, S.A.; Wusterbarth, A.R.

    1983-12-01

    The basic purpose of this handbook is to document a set of systematic procedures for providing information that can be used in performing value-impact assessments of Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory actions. The handbook describes a structured but flexible process for performing the assessment. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the value-impact assessment process. Chapter 2 describes the attributes most frequently affected by proposed NRC actions, provides guidance concerningthe appropriate level of effort to be devoted to the assessment, suggests a standard format for documenting the assessment, and discusses the treatment of uncertainty. Chapter 3 contains detailed methods for evaluating each of the attributes affected by a regulatory action. The handbook has five appendixes containing background information, technical data, and example applications of the value-impact assessment procedures. This edition of the handbook focuses primarily on assessing nuclear power reactor safety issues.

  7. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2000-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  8. Disclosure as a regulatory tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2006-01-01

    The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law.......The chapter analyses how disclure can be used as a regulatory tool and analyses how it has been applied so far in the area of financial market law and consumer law....

  9. Regulatory focus in groupt contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faddegon, Krispijn Johannes

    2009-01-01

    The thesis examines the influence of group processes on the regulatory focus of individual group members. It is demonstrated that the group situation can affect group members' regulatory focus both in a top-down fashion (via the identitiy of the group) and in a bottom-up fashion (emerging from the

  10. Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about...

  11. The Evolutionary Dynamics of Biofuel Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    and multipolarity. Empirically, I do so by examining the evolutionary dynamics of governance in biofuel value chains, with specific focus on the key regulatory and institutional features that facilitated their emergence and expansion. First, I examine the formation, evolution, and governance of three national....../regional value chains (in Brazil, the US, and the EU); then, I provide evidence to support a trend towards the increasing but still partial formation of a global biofuel value chain and examine its governance traits....

  12. Dismantlement of nuclear facilities decommissioned from the Russian navy: Enhancing regulatory supervision of nuclear and radiation safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneve, M.K.

    2013-03-01

    The availability of up to date regulatory norms and standards for nuclear and radiation safety, relevant to the management of nuclear legacy situations, combined with effective and efficient regulatory procedures for licensing and monitoring compliance, are considered to be extremely important. Accordingly the NRPA has set up regulatory cooperation programs with corresponding authorities in the Russian Federation. Cooperation began with the civilian regulatory authorities and was more recently extended to include the military authority and this joint cooperation supposed to develop the regulatory documents to improve supervision over nuclear and radiation safety while managing the nuclear military legacy facilities in Northwest Russia and other regions of the country. (Author)

  13. Regulatory component analysis: a semi-blind extraction approach to infer gene regulatory networks with imperfect biological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Xuan, Jianhua; Shih, Ie-Ming; Clarke, Robert; Wang, Yue

    2012-08-01

    With the advent of high-throughput biotechnology capable of monitoring genomic signals, it becomes increasingly promising to understand molecular cellular mechanisms through systems biology approaches. One of the active research topics in systems biology is to infer gene transcriptional regulatory networks using various genomic data; this inference problem can be formulated as a linear model with latent signals associated with some regulatory proteins called transcription factors (TFs). As common statistical assumptions may not hold for genomic signals, typical latent variable algorithms such as independent component analysis (ICA) are incapable to reveal underlying true regulatory signals. Liao et al. [1] proposed to perform inference using an approach named network component analysis (NCA), the optimization of which is achieved by a least-squares fitting approach with biological knowledge constraints. However, the incompleteness of biological knowledge and its inconsistency with gene expression data are not considered in the original NCA solution, which could greatly affect the inference accuracy. To overcome these limitations, we propose a linear extraction scheme, namely regulatory component analysis (RCA), to infer underlying regulatory signals even with partial biological knowledge. Numerical simulations show a significant improvement of our proposed RCA over NCA, not only when signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) is low, but also when the given biological knowledge is incomplete and inconsistent to gene expression data. Furthermore, real biological experiments on E. coli are performed for regulatory network inference in comparison with several typical linear latent variable methods, which again demonstrates the effectiveness and improved performance of the proposed algorithm.

  14. Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark A. Carl

    2006-07-11

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) engaged in numerous projects outlined under the scope of work discussed in the United States Department of Energy (DOE) grant number DE-FC26-04NT15456 awarded to the IOGCC. Numerous projects were completed that were extremely valuable to state oil and gas agencies as a result of work performed utilizing resources provided by the grant. There are numerous areas in which state agencies still need assistance. This additional assistance will need to be addressed under future scopes of work submitted annually to DOE's Project Officer for this grant. This report discusses the progress of the projects outlined under the grant scope of work for the 2005-2006 areas of interest, which are as follows: Area of Interest No. 1--Regulatory Streamlining and Improvement: This area of interest continues to support IOGCC's regulatory streamlining efforts that include the identification and elimination of unnecessary duplications of efforts between and among state and federal programs dealing with exploration and production on public lands. Area of Interest No. 2--Technology: This area of interest seeks to improve efficiency in states through the identification of technologies that can reduce costs. Area of Interest No. 3--Training and Education: This area of interest is vital to upgrading the skills of regulators and industry alike. Within the National Energy Policy, there are many appropriate training and education opportunities. Education was strongly endorsed by the President's National Energy Policy Development group. Acting through the governors offices, states are very effective conduits for the dissemination of energy education information. While the IOGCC favors the development of a comprehensive, long-term energy education plan, states are also supportive of immediate action on important concerns, such as energy prices, availability and conservation. Area of Interest No. 4--Resource Assessment and

  15. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  16. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  17. Clinical and regulatory considerations in pharmacogenetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Robert N; Marek, Elizabeth; Rogers, Hobart; Pacanowski, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Both regulatory science and clinical practice rely on best available scientific data to guide decision-making. However, changes in clinical practice may be driven by numerous other factors such as cost. In this review, we reexamine noteworthy examples where pharmacogenetic testing information was added to drug labeling to explore how the available evidence, potential public health impact, and predictive utility of each pharmacogenetic biomarker impacts clinical uptake. Advances in the field of pharmacogenetics have led to new discoveries about the genetic basis for variability in drug response. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the value of pharmacogenetic testing strategies and has been proactive about incorporating pharmacogenetic information into the labeling of both new drugs and drugs already on the market. Although some examples have readily translated to routine clinical practice, clinical uptake of genetic testing for many drugs has been limited. Both regulatory science and clinical practice rely on data-driven approaches to guide decision making; however, additional factors are also important in clinical practice that do not impact regulatory decision making, and these considerations may result in heterogeneity in clinical uptake of pharmacogenetic testing. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  19. Groundwater contamination from waste management sites: The interaction between risk-based engineering design and regulatory policy: 1. Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massmann, Joel; Freeze, R. Allan

    1987-02-01

    This paper puts in place a risk-cost-benefit analysis for waste management facilities that explicitly recognizes the adversarial relationship that exists in a regulated market economy between the owner/operator of a waste management facility and the government regulatory agency under whose terms the facility must be licensed. The risk-cost-benefit analysis is set up from the perspective of the owner/operator. It can be used directly by the owner/operator to assess alternative design strategies. It can also be used by the regulatory agency to assess alternative regulatory policy, but only in an indirect manner, by examining the response of an owner/operator to the stimuli of various policies. The objective function is couched in terms of a discounted stream of benefits, costs, and risks over an engineering time horizon. Benefits are in the form of revenues for services provided; costs are those of construction and operation of the facility. Risk is defined as the cost associated with the probability of failure, with failure defined as the occurrence of a groundwater contamination event that violates the licensing requirements established for the facility. Failure requires a breach of the containment structure and contaminant migration through the hydrogeological environment to a compliance surface. The probability of failure can be estimated on the basis of reliability theory for the breach of containment and with a Monte-Carlo finite-element simulation for the advective contaminant transport. In the hydrogeological environment the hydraulic conductivity values are defined stochastically. The probability of failure is reduced by the presence of a monitoring network operated by the owner/operator and located between the source and the regulatory compliance surface. The level of reduction in the probability of failure depends on the probability of detection of the monitoring network, which can be calculated from the stochastic contaminant transport simulations. While

  20. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  1. Healthcare regulatory concepts in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Robson Rocha de; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon

    2012-06-01

    The healthcare regulatory concepts used in Brazilian scientific publications on healthcare management were reviewed. A typo-logical classification for regulatory concepts was developed from the most current ideas in five disciplines: life sciences, law, economics, sociology and political science. Four ideas stood out: control, balance, adaptation and direction, with greatest emphasis on the technical nature of regulation. The political nature of regulation was secondary. It was considered that dis-cussion of healthcare regulatory concepts was connected with comprehension of the role that the state plays in this sector. De-finition of the forms of state intervention is the key convergence point between the different ways of conceptualizing healthcare regulation.

  2. XcisClique: analysis of regulatory bicliques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grene Ruth

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modeling of cis-elements or regulatory motifs in promoter (upstream regions of genes is a challenging computational problem. In this work, set of regulatory motifs simultaneously present in the promoters of a set of genes is modeled as a biclique in a suitably defined bipartite graph. A biologically meaningful co-occurrence of multiple cis-elements in a gene promoter is assessed by the combined analysis of genomic and gene expression data. Greater statistical significance is associated with a set of genes that shares a common set of regulatory motifs, while simultaneously exhibiting highly correlated gene expression under given experimental conditions. Methods XcisClique, the system developed in this work, is a comprehensive infrastructure that associates annotated genome and gene expression data, models known cis-elements as regular expressions, identifies maximal bicliques in a bipartite gene-motif graph; and ranks bicliques based on their computed statistical significance. Significance is a function of the probability of occurrence of those motifs in a biclique (a hypergeometric distribution, and on the new sum of absolute values statistic (SAV that uses Spearman correlations of gene expression vectors. SAV is a statistic well-suited for this purpose as described in the discussion. Results XcisClique identifies new motif and gene combinations that might indicate as yet unidentified involvement of sets of genes in biological functions and processes. It currently supports Arabidopsis thaliana and can be adapted to other organisms, assuming the existence of annotated genomic sequences, suitable gene expression data, and identified regulatory motifs. A subset of Xcis Clique functionalities, including the motif visualization component MotifSee, source code, and supplementary material are available at https://bioinformatics.cs.vt.edu/xcisclique/.

  3. Monitoring the effectiveness evaluation of investment projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skopin Alex O.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The article raised the question of monitoring regulatory evaluation of the effectiveness of regional investment projects. This is justified by the fact that the current regulatory framework defined indicators for measuring the effectiveness of regional investment projects, but these figures are usually used only at the design stage of the project, an interim assessment of the effectiveness of a sufficiently simplified and based on the level of exploration investment.

  4. The Danish Regulatory Reform of Telecommunications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skouby, Knud Erik

    1998-01-01

    An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark......An overview of the liberalisation process and regulatory reform of telecommunications in Denmark...

  5. Pharmacodynamics of T cell function for monitoring pharmacologic immunosuppression after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carmen; Millán, Olga; Rovira, Montserrat; Fernández-Avilés, Francesc; López, Anna; Suárez-Lledó, María; Carreras, Enric; Urbano-Ispízua, Álvaro; Brunet, Mercè

    2017-04-01

    Information on pharmacodynamic monitoring after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-SCT) to evaluate individual responses to immunosuppressive drugs is scarce. We studied the relationship between a panel of pharmacodynamic markers monitored during the first 3 months after transplant and the occurrence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Lymphocyte activation assessed by intracellular ATP concentration in CD4(+) T cells, a high percentage of CD8(+) effector T cells, and a low percentage of CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells correlated significantly with GVHD. A cutoff value of 0.5 for the CD8(+) effector T/Treg ratio provided the most accurate diagnosis of GVHD (sensitivity 58.8%, specificity 91%). These pharmacodynamic markers may provide an efficient complement to standard pharmacokinetic monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs after allo-SCT.

  6. Future water quality monitoring - Adapting tools to deal with mixtures of pollutants in water resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altenburger, R.; Ait-Aissa, S.; Antczak, P.; Backhaus, T.; Barcelo, D.; Seiler, T.; Brion, F.; Focks, A.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental quality monitoring of water resources is challenged with providing the basis for safeguarding the environment against adverse biological effects of anthropogenic chemical contamination from diffuse and point sources. While current regulatory efforts focus on monitoring and assessing a

  7. Regulatory Snapshots: integrative mining of regulatory modules from expression time series and regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana P Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Explaining regulatory mechanisms is crucial to understand complex cellular responses leading to system perturbations. Some strategies reverse engineer regulatory interactions from experimental data, while others identify functional regulatory units (modules under the assumption that biological systems yield a modular organization. Most modular studies focus on network structure and static properties, ignoring that gene regulation is largely driven by stimulus-response behavior. Expression time series are key to gain insight into dynamics, but have been insufficiently explored by current methods, which often (1 apply generic algorithms unsuited for expression analysis over time, due to inability to maintain the chronology of events or incorporate time dependency; (2 ignore local patterns, abundant in most interesting cases of transcriptional activity; (3 neglect physical binding or lack automatic association of regulators, focusing mainly on expression patterns; or (4 limit the discovery to a predefined number of modules. We propose Regulatory Snapshots, an integrative mining approach to identify regulatory modules over time by combining transcriptional control with response, while overcoming the above challenges. Temporal biclustering is first used to reveal transcriptional modules composed of genes showing coherent expression profiles over time. Personalized ranking is then applied to prioritize prominent regulators targeting the modules at each time point using a network of documented regulatory associations and the expression data. Custom graphics are finally depicted to expose the regulatory activity in a module at consecutive time points (snapshots. Regulatory Snapshots successfully unraveled modules underlying yeast response to heat shock and human epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, based on regulations documented in the YEASTRACT and JASPAR databases, respectively, and available expression data. Regulatory players involved in

  8. Anti-regulatory T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-01-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host...... responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells—termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)—that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune......-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles...

  9. Regulatory Reform as a Normative Concept: an Opportunity for the Development of Constitutive Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory reform, as part of public sector reform, concerns the change of the way of using regulation as a policy instrument. Since it started for the purpose of facilitating the operation of the business sector through simplifying the regulatory system in order to achieve increased competitiveness in the global market, it still has many opponents criticising its neoliberal background. This paper seeks to show how the regulatory reform programme has “transcended” its primary purpose because its reach has expanded even to noneconomic policy sectors – constitutive policies. Such broader interpretational framework of the objectives of regulatory reform allows access to the regulatory process for a much greater number of actors, particularly for noneconomic interest groups, and the benefits of the regulatory reform programme have spread among the broader ranks of the community. The implication of opening the regulatory process is an opportunity for other value systems, competing with neoliberalism, to affect regulatory reform. The paper especially emphasizes the governance approach to the research on regulatory reform, as the one which can outline and analyse its above-mentioned positive aspects. The essential thesis of the paper is that regulatory reform, as a specific normative concept, if understood within a broader interpretational framework, stimulates the development of constitutive policies in the sense that it places them higher on the policy priority scale of a regulatory state, and that this is exactly what should be the dominant logic of its introduction.

  10. Regulatory facility guide for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, S.S.; Bock, R.E.; Francis, M.W.; Gove, R.M.; Johnson, P.E.; Kovac, F.M.; Mynatt, J.O. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Rymer, A.C. [Transportation Consulting Services, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1994-02-28

    The Regulatory Facility Guide (RFG) has been developed for the DOE and contractor facilities located in the state of Ohio. It provides detailed compilations of international, federal, and state transportation-related regulations applicable to shipments originating at destined to Ohio facilities. This RFG was developed as an additional resource tool for use both by traffic managers who must ensure that transportation operations are in full compliance with all applicable regulatory requirements and by oversight personnel who must verify compliance activities.

  11. Rhadinoviral interferon regulatory factor homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sandra; Schulz, Thomas F

    2017-07-26

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), or human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is a gammaherpesvirus and the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The KSHV genome contains genes for a unique group of proteins with homology to cellular interferon regulatory factors, termed viral interferon regulatory factors (vIRFs). This review will give an overview over the oncogenic, antiapoptotic and immunomodulatory characteristics of KSHV and related vIRFs.

  12. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  13. Groundwater monitoring of hydraulic fracturing in California: Recommendations for permit-required monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, B. K.; Beller, H. R.; Carroll, S.; Cherry, J. A.; Jackson, R. B.; Jordan, P. D.; Madrid, V.; Morris, J.; Parker, B. L.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Varadharajan, C.; Vengosh, A.

    2015-12-01

    California recently passed legislation mandating dedicated groundwater quality monitoring for new well stimulation operations. The authors provided the State with expert advice on the design of such monitoring networks. Factors that must be considered in designing a new and unique groundwater monitoring program include: Program design: The design of a monitoring program is contingent on its purpose, which can range from detection of individual well leakage to demonstration of regional impact. The regulatory goals for permit-required monitoring conducted by operators on a well-by-well basis will differ from the scientific goals of a regional monitoring program conducted by the State. Vulnerability assessment: Identifying factors that increase the probability of transport of fluids from the hydrocarbon target zone to a protected groundwater zone enables the intensity of permit-required monitoring to be tiered by risk and also enables prioritization of regional monitoring of groundwater basins based on vulnerability. Risk factors include well integrity; proximity to existing wellbores and geologic features; wastewater disposal; vertical separation between the hydrocarbon and groundwater zones; and site-specific hydrogeology. Analyte choice: The choice of chemical analytes in a regulatory monitoring program is guided by the goals of detecting impact, assuring public safety, preventing resource degradation, and minimizing cost. Balancing these goals may be best served by tiered approach in which targeted analysis of specific chemical additives is triggered by significant changes in relevant but more easily analyzed constituents. Such an approach requires characterization of baseline conditions, especially in areas with long histories of oil and gas development. Monitoring technology: Monitoring a deep subsurface process or a long wellbore is more challenging than monitoring a surface industrial source. The requirement for monitoring multiple groundwater aquifers across

  14. Monitoring for structural assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Van Balen, Koenraad; Schueremans, Luc

    2009-01-01

    The architectural preservation process is generally based on a sequence of anamnesis and analysis, diagnosis, therapy, control and prognosis. The importance of structural monitoring within this process is generally accepted. Ongoing research at the Building Materials and Building Technology Division of the Civil Engineering Department in collaboration with the RLICC of K.U.Leuven focuses on different non-destructive monitoring techniques and their value within the preventive conservation of t...

  15. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Christopher; Castilla-Sanchez, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009) for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70%) in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  16. Using Inequality Measures to Incorporate Environmental Justice into Regulatory Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan I. Levy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Formally evaluating how specific policy measures influence environmental justice is challenging, especially in the context of regulatory analyses in which quantitative comparisons are the norm. However, there is a large literature on developing and applying quantitative measures of health inequality in other settings, and these measures may be applicable to environmental regulatory analyses. In this paper, we provide information to assist policy decision makers in determining the viability of using measures of health inequality in the context of environmental regulatory analyses. We conclude that quantification of the distribution of inequalities in health outcomes across social groups of concern, considering both within-group and between-group comparisons, would be consistent with both the structure of regulatory analysis and the core definition of environmental justice. Appropriate application of inequality indicators requires thorough characterization of the baseline distribution of exposures and risks, leveraging data generally available within regulatory analyses. Multiple inequality indicators may be applicable to regulatory analyses, and the choice among indicators should be based on explicit value judgments regarding the dimensions of environmental justice of greatest interest.

  17. Appetitive and regulatory processes in young adolescent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E.; de Jong, Peter J.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol (mis)use develops because of an imbalance between a fast automatic appetitive system in which stimuli are valued in terms of their emotional and motivational significance and a slower controlled regulatory system which acts on deliberate

  18. Appetitive and regulatory processes in young adolescent drinkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemel-Ruiter, M.E.; de Jong, P.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Dual-process models of addiction propose that alcohol (mis)use develops because of an imbalance between a fast automatic appetitive system, in which stimuli are valued in terms of their emotional and motivational significance and a slower controlled regulatory system, which acts on deliberate

  19. Regulatory natural killer cell expression in atopic childhood asthma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Different subsets of natural killer (NK) cells were found to play a role in pathogenesis of allergy. We sought to investigate the expression of regulatory NK cells (CD56+CD16+CD158+) in atopic children with bronchial asthma in order to outline the value of these cells as biomarkers of disease severity and/or ...

  20. An Overview of Process Monitoring Related to the Production of Uranium Ore Concentrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, Brent [Innovative Solutions Unlimited, LLC

    2014-04-01

    Uranium ore concentrate (UOC) in various chemical forms, is a high-value commodity in the commercial nuclear market, is a potential target for illicit acquisition, by both State and non-State actors. With the global expansion of uranium production capacity, control of UOC is emerging as a potentially weak link in the nuclear supply chain. Its protection, control and management thus pose a key challenge for the international community, including States, regulatory authorities and industry. This report evaluates current process monitoring practice and makes recommendations for utilization of existing or new techniques for managing the inventory and tracking this material.

  1. Legal and Regulatory Barriers to Reverse Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Virginia; Plum, Alexander J; Zervos, John

    Reverse innovation, or the importation of new, affordable, and efficacious models to high-income countries from the developing world, has emerged as a way to improve the health care system in the United States. Reverse innovation has been identified as a key emerging trend in global health systems in part because low-resourced settings are particularly good laboratories for low-cost/high-impact innovations that are developed out of necessity. A difficult question receiving scant attention is that of legal and regulatory barriers. The objective of this paper is to understand and elucidate the legal barriers faced by innovators bringing health interventions to the United States. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 9 key informants who have directly participated in the introduction of global health care approaches to the United States health system. A purposive sampling scheme was employed to identify participants. Phone interviews were conducted over one week in July 2016 with each participant and lasted an average of 35 minutes each. Purely legal barriers included questions surrounding tort liability, standard of care, and concerns around patient-administered self-care. Regulatory burdens included issues of international medical licensure, reimbursement, and task shifting and scope of work challenges among nonprofessionals (e.g. community health workers). Finally, perceived (i.e. not realized or experienced) legal and regulatory barriers to innovative modalities served as disincentives to bringing products or services developed outside of the United States to the United States market. Conflicting interests within the health care system, safety concerns, and little value placed on low-cost interventions inhibit innovation. Legal and regulatory barriers rank among, and contribute to, an anti-innovation atmosphere in healthcare for domestic and reverse innovators alike. Reverse innovation should be fostered through the thoughtful development of

  2. 76 FR 40200 - Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: The Board is issuing this agenda under the Regulatory Flexibility Act... rules the Board has selected for review under section 610(c) of the Regulatory Flexibility Act, and...

  3. Bioaccumulation in aquatic systems: methodological approaches, monitoring and assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, Sabine; Buchmeier, Georgia; Claus, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    , various scientific and regulatory aspects of bioaccumulation in aquatic systems and the relevant critical issues are discussed. Monitoring chemical concentrations in biota can be used for compliance checking with regulatory directives, for identification of chemical sources or event-related environmental...... for bioaccumulation assessment still need to be harmonised for different regulations and groups of chemicals. To create awareness for critical issues and to mutually benefit from technical expertise and scientific findings, communication between risk assessment and monitoring communities needs to be improved...

  4. Environmental Monitoring Plan - February 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bertoldo, N. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Blake, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fish, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Grayson, A. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Griffin, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Jones, H. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Patterson, L. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Revelli, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosene, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wegrecki, T M; Williams, R A; Wilson, K R

    2016-02-08

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 458.1, Radiation Protection oft/ic Pubile and the Environment. Specifically, environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the hiota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring is also a major component of compliance demonstration for permits and other regulatory requirements.

  5. Identification of regulatory modules in genome scale transcription regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qi; Grene, Ruth; Heath, Lenwood S; Li, Song

    2017-12-15

    In gene regulatory networks, transcription factors often function as co-regulators to synergistically induce or inhibit expression of their target genes. However, most existing module-finding algorithms can only identify densely connected genes but not co-regulators in regulatory networks. We have developed a new computational method, CoReg, to identify transcription co-regulators in large-scale regulatory networks. CoReg calculates gene similarities based on number of common neighbors of any two genes. Using simulated and real networks, we compared the performance of different similarity indices and existing module-finding algorithms and we found CoReg outperforms other published methods in identifying co-regulatory genes. We applied CoReg to a large-scale network of Arabidopsis with more than 2.8 million edges and we analyzed more than 2,300 published gene expression profiles to charaterize co-expression patterns of gene moduled identified by CoReg. We identified three types of modules in the Arabidopsis network: regulator modules, target modules and intermediate modules. Regulator modules include genes with more than 90% edges as out-going edges; Target modules include genes with more than 90% edges as incoming edges. Other modules are classified as intermediate modules. We found that genes in target modules tend to be highly co-expressed under abiotic stress conditions, suggesting this network struture is robust against perturbation. Our analysis shows that the CoReg is an accurate method in identifying co-regulatory genes in large-scale networks. We provide CoReg as an R package, which can be applied in finding co-regulators in any organisms with genome-scale regulatory network data.

  6. Regulatory physiology discipline science plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The focus of the Regulatory Physiology discipline of the Space Physiology and Countermeasures Program is twofold. First, to determine and study how microgravity and associated factors of space flight affect the regulatory mechanisms by which humans adapt and achieve homeostasis and thereby regulate their ability to respond to internal and external signals; and, second, to study selected physiological systems that have been demonstrated to be influenced by gravity. The Regulatory Physiology discipline, as defined here, is composed of seven subdisciplines: (1) Circadian Rhythms, (2) Endocrinology, (3) Fluid and Electrolyte Regulation, (4) Hematology, (5) Immunology, (6) Metabolism and Nutrition, and (7) Temperature Regulation. The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the area of regulatory physiology. It covers the research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended-Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied, and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, identifies science priorities, and defines critical questions in regulatory physiology. It contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters Program Offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational intramural and extramural research and development activities in this area.

  7. Anti-regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mads Hald

    2017-04-01

    Our initial understanding of immune-regulatory cells was based on the discovery of suppressor cells that assure peripheral T-cell tolerance and promote immune homeostasis. Research has particularly focused on the importance of regulatory T cells (Tregs) for immune modulation, e.g. directing host responses to tumours or inhibiting autoimmunity development. However, recent studies report the discovery of self-reactive pro-inflammatory T cells-termed anti-regulatory T cells (anti-Tregs)-that target immune-suppressive cells. Thus, regulatory cells can now be defined as both cells that suppress immune reactions as well as effector cells that counteract the effects of suppressor cells and support immune reactions. Self-reactive anti-Tregs have been described that specifically recognize human leukocyte antigen-restricted epitopes derived from proteins that are normally expressed by regulatory immune cells, including indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), tryptophan 2,6-dioxygenase (TDO), programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). These proteins are highly expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells under various physiological conditions, such as inflammation and stress. Therefore, self-reactive T cells that recognize such targets may be activated due to the strong activation signal given by their cognate targets. The current review describes the existing knowledge regarding these self-reactive anti-Tregs, providing examples of antigen-specific anti-Tregs and discussing their possible roles in immune homeostasis and their potential future clinical applications.

  8. Regulatory Expectations for Safety Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Su Jin; Oh, Jang Jin; Choi, Young Sung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The oversight of licensee's safety culture becomes an important issue that attracts great public and political concerns recently in Korea. Beginning from the intended violation of rules, a series of corruptions, documents forgery and disclosure of wrong-doings made the public think that the whole mindset of nuclear workers has been inadequate. Thus, they are demanding that safety culture shall be improved and that regulatory body shall play more roles and responsibilities for the improvements and oversight for them. This paper introduces, as an effort of regulatory side, recent changes in the role of regulators in safety culture, regulatory expectations on the desired status of licensee's safety culture, the pilot inspection program for safety culture and research activity for the development of oversight system. After the Fukushima accident in Japan 2011, many critics has searched for cultural factors that caused the unacceptable negligence pervaded in Japan nuclear society and the renewed emphasis has been placed on rebuilding safety culture by operators, regulators, and relevant institutions globally. Significant progress has been made in how to approach safety culture and led to a new perspective different from the existing normative assessment method both in operators and regulatory side. Regulatory expectations and oversight of them are based on such a new holistic concept for human, organizational and cultural elements to maintain and strengthen the integrity of defense in depth and consequently nuclear safety.

  9. Building the case for independent monitoring of food advertising on Australian television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Lesley; Hebden, Lana; Grunseit, Anne; Kelly, Bridget; Chapman, Kathy

    2013-12-01

    To provide an independent monitoring report examining the ongoing impact of Australian self-regulatory pledges on food and drink advertising to children on commercial television. Analysis of food advertisements across comparable sample time periods in April/May 2006, 2007, 2009, 2010 and 2011. The main outcome measure comprised change in the mean rate of non-core food advertisements from 2006 to 2011. Sydney free-to-air television channels. Televised food advertisements. In 2011 the rate of non-core food advertisements was not significantly different from that in 2006 or 2010 (3·2/h v. 4·1/h and 3·1/h), although there were variations across the intervening years. The rate of fast-food advertising in 2010 was significantly higher than in 2006 (1·8/h v. 1·1/h, P food advertising on Sydney television has remained essentially unchanged between 2006 and 2011, despite the implementation of two industry self-regulatory pledges. The current study illustrates the value of independent monitoring as a basic requirement of any responsive regulatory approach.

  10. The politics and bio-ethics of regulatory trust: case-studies of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John

    2008-12-01

    Drawing on case studies from the modern era of pharmaceutical regulation in the UK, US and Europe, I examine how the extent and distribution of trust between regulators, the pharmaceutical industry, and the medical profession about drug testing and monitoring influences knowledge and regulatory judgements about the efficacy and safety of prescription drugs. Introducing the concepts of 'acquiescent' and 'investigative' norms of regulatory trust, I demonstrate how investigative norms of regulatory trust-which deter pharmaceutical companies from assuming that their data analyses will be accepted without independent de-construction-drive up bioethical and regulatory standards of drug assessment in the interests of health. By contrast, acquiescent norms of regulatory trust, which are associated with industrial capture and professional closure of interests, promote permissive standards allowing patients to take pharmaceuticals with greater risks to health and less evidence of therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Brookhaven National Laboratory environmental monitoring plan for Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidu, J.R.; Paquette, D.; Lee, R. [and others

    1996-10-01

    As required by DOE Order 5400.1, each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials shall provide a written Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) covering effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, provides specific guidance regarding environmental monitoring activities.

  12. Liquid-containing Refluxes and Acid Refluxes May Be Less Frequent in the Japanese Population Than in Other Populations: Normal Values of 24- hour Esophageal Impedance and pH Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Osamu; Kohata, Yukie; Kawami, Noriyuki; Iida, Hiroshi; Kawada, Akiyo; Hosaka, Hiroko; Shimoyama, Yasuyuki; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Iwakiri, Katsuhiko; Inamori, Masahiko; Kusano, Motoyasu; Hongo, Micho

    2016-10-30

    Twenty-four-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring allows detection of all types of reflux episodes and is considered the best technique for identifying gastroesophageal refluxes. However, normative data for the Japanese population are lacking. This multicenter study aimed to establish the normal range of 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH data both in the distal and the proximal esophagus in Japanese subjects. Forty-two healthy volunteers (25 men and 17 women) with a mean ± standard deviation age of 33.3 ± 12.4 years (range: 22-72 years) underwent a combined 24-hour esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. According to the physical and pH properties, distal or proximal esophageal reflux events were categorized. Median 45 reflux events occurred in 24 hours, and the 95th percentile was 85 events. Unlike previous reports, liquid-containing reflux events are median 25/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 62/24 hours. Acidic reflux events were median 11/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Non-acidic gas reflux events were median 15/24 hours with the 95th percentile of 39/24 hours. Proximal reflux events accounted for 80% of the total reflux events and were mainly non-acidic gas refluxes. About 19% of liquid and mixed refluxes reached the proximal esophagus. Unlike previous studies, liquid-containing and acidic reflux events may be less frequent in the Japanese population. Non-acidic gas reflux events may be frequent and a cause of frequent proximal reflux events. This study provides important normative data for 24-hour impedance and pH monitoring in both the distal and the proximal esophagus in the Japanese population.

  13. Integrated Monitoring Plan for the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newcomer, D.R.; Thornton, E.C.; Hartman, M.J.; Dresel, P.E.

    1999-10-06

    Groundwater is monitored at the Hanford Site to fulfill a variety of state and federal regulations, including the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980; and Washington Administrative Code. Separate monitoring plans are prepared for various requirements, but sampling is coordinated and data are shared among users to avoid duplication of effort. The US Department of Energy manages these activities through the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project. This document is an integrated monitoring plan for the groundwater project. It documents well and constituent lists for monitoring required by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and its implementing orders; includes other, established monitoring plans by reference; and appends a master well/constituent/frequency matrix for the entire site. The objectives of monitoring fall into three general categories plume and trend tracking, treatment/storage/disposal unit monitoring, and remediation performance monitoring. Criteria for selecting Atomic Energy Act of 1954 monitoring networks include locations of wells in relation to known plumes or contaminant sources, well depth and construction, historical data, proximity to the Columbia River, water supplies, or other areas of special interest, and well use for other programs. Constituent lists were chosen based on known plumes and waste histories, historical groundwater data, and, in some cases, statistical modeling. Sampling frequencies were based on regulatory requirements, variability of historical data, and proximity to key areas. For sitewide plumes, most wells are sampled every 3 years. Wells monitoring specific waste sites or in areas of high variability will be sampled more frequently.

  14. Routine Radiological Environmental Monitoring Plan. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1999-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy manages the Nevada Test Site in a manner that meets evolving DOE Missions and responds to the concerns of affected and interested individuals and agencies. This Routine Radiological Monitoring Plan addressess complicance with DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 and other drivers requiring routine effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance on the Nevada Test Site. This monitoring plan, prepared in 1998, addresses the activities conducted onsite NTS under the Final Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision. This radiological monitoring plan, prepared on behalf of the Nevada Test Site Landlord, brings together sitewide environmental surveillance; site-specific effluent monitoring; and operational monitoring conducted by various missions, programs, and projects on the NTS. The plan provides an approach to identifying and conducting routine radiological monitoring at the NTS, based on integrated technical, scientific, and regulatory complicance data needs.

  15. Chemical quality and regulatory compliance of drinking water in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Jonsson, Gunnar St; Bartram, Jamie

    2016-11-01

    Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems. Compliance to the Icelandic Drinking Water Regulation (IDWR) was evaluated with regard to parametric values, minimum requirement of sampling, and limit of detection. Water quality compliance was divided according to health-related chemicals and indicators, and analyzed according to size. Samples from few individual locations were benchmarked against natural background levels (NBLs) in order to identify potential pollution sources. The results show that drinking compliance was 99.97% in health-related chemicals and 99.44% in indicator parameters indicating that Icelandic groundwater abstracted for drinking water supply is generally of high quality with no expected health risks. In 10 water supply systems, of the 74 tested, there was an indication of anthropogenic chemical pollution, either at the source or in the network, and in another 6 water supplies there was a need to improve the water intake to prevent surface water intrusion. Benchmarking against the NBLs proved to be useful in tracing potential pollution sources, providing a useful tool for identifying pollution at an early stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Subordinate regulatory mode and leader power: Interpersonal regulatory complementarity predicts task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamstra, M.R.W.; Orehek, E.; Holleman, M.

    2014-01-01

    This research examines the implications of locomotion regulatory mode (orientation toward making progress on goals) and assessment regulatory mode (orientation toward critically evaluating alternatives) for employees' performance. Regulatory mode theory suggests that, although these are both

  17. 78 FR 54502 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of..., Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission... or manipulative motivation for the trading activity at issue.\\4\\ Specifically, proposed Supplementary...

  18. 77 FR 14454 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... From the Trade Reporting Obligation Under the Trade Reporting and Compliance Engine (``TRACE... Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission...

  19. Policy and Regulatory Challenges in the Tourism Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    The choice of policy approach and regulatory framework in dealing with the collaborative economy rests on two fundamental factors—that government decisions should be based on good sound knowledge and that this knowledge should be above politics. In the newly emerging and rapidly growing...... collaborative economy, these conditions are difficult to meet. The dynamic restructuring of power relations, new stakeholders and information asymmetries can obscure what is really going on. Some authors offer valuable meso-level explorations of policy and regulatory issues in different sub...... and circulate in policy discussions about the collaborative economy at a macro-level. The rendering of the socio-political landscape as complex, dynamic and value-laden dictates that policy approaches and regulatory solutions are subjective and influenced by prevailing ideology, available knowledge and the path...

  20. Gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glegola, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the added value of gravity observations for hydrocarbon reservoir monitoring and characterization is investigated. Reservoir processes and reservoir types most suitable for gravimetric monitoring are identified. Major noise sources affecting time-lapse gravimetry are analyzed. The

  1. Application of Regulatory Focus Theory to Search Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowle, Elyse N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.; Updegraff, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Design/methodology/approach Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Findings Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. Research limitations/implications The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals’ state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals’ traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. Practical implications The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. Originality/value This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising. PMID:26430293

  2. The Political Economy of Regulatory Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to explain the broader evolution of British merger control. To this end it outlines a novel critical political economy perspective on regulation and regulatory change which differs from established political economy approaches, such as the regulatory capitalism/state perspectives......, in three main ways: it places regulatory ideas at the heart of the analysis, it differentiates between different degrees of regulatory change, and it links regulatory change in delineated issue areas with changing power balances between fractions of capital and labor. The application of this perspective...... regulatory and ideational shift, was premised on the ascendancy of transnational capital....

  3. Private equity and regulatory capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, D.; Charlier, E.

    2009-01-01

    Regulatory capital requirements for European banks have been put forward in the Basel II Capital Framework and subsequently in the capital requirements directive (CRD) of the EU. We provide a detailed discussion of the capital requirements for private equity investments under different approaches.

  4. Radiation practices and regulatory control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The general principles to be observed in the regulatory control of ionizing radiation use and practices are specified in the guide. It also takes into account of additions and alterations needed for for compliance with the European Union (EU) directives that have not been mentioned in other STUK/ST-guides. (6 refs.).

  5. Percent improvement in renal pelvis antero-posterior diameter (PI-APD): Prospective validation and further exploration of cut-off values that predict success after pediatric pyeloplasty supporting safe monitoring with ultrasound alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickard, M; Braga, L H; Oliveria, J-P; Romao, R; Demaria, J; Lorenzo, A J

    2016-08-01

    Renograms are frequently obtained post-pyeloplasty in patients with residual hydronephrosis to confirm adequate drainage. Recent evidence suggests that percent improvement in antero-posterior diameter (PI-APD) ≥38 is predictive of success. We sought to further explore PI-APD ranges that would allow identification of patients who would benefit from ultrasound (US) monitoring alone vs. post-operative renal scan, and those more likely to develop recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction (rUPJO). A single-center prospectively-collected pyeloplasty database (2008-2015) was queried (n = 151). Only patients with both pre- and post-operative APD measurements were included (n = 138). PI-APD was divided into 3 categories: PI-APD. Of 54 patients with renogram and US 46 (85%; p PI-APD. Of the 6 patients who developed rUPJO, all were in the PI-APD group (100%; p 40% PI-APD group. ≥40% PI-APD at the first post-operative visit strongly predicts pyeloplasty success, as up to 82% of these patients showed resolved hydronephrosis and 61% underwent non-invasive monitoring by US alone. Our data suggests that up to 85% of renograms may have been unnecessary. Finally, PI-APD permitted identification of all rUPJO cases. Stratification of patients based in PI-APD is a promising strategy for further minimizing radiation exposure while safely detecting children at risk for rUPJO. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobility Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schæbel, Anne-Lise; Dybbro, Karina Løvendahl; Andersen, Lisbeth Støvring

    2015-01-01

    Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby......Undersøgelse af digital monitorering af plejehjemsbeboeres vendinger under søvn på Fremtidens Plejehjem, Nørresundby...

  7. Interagency Wildeness Character Monitoring Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This database houses wilderness measures and measure values to support long-term monitoring of wilderness character on federal lands. It was created through a...

  8. Field evaluations of newly available "interference-free" monitors for nitrogen dioxide and ozone at near-road and conventional National Ambient Air Quality Standards compliance sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Alan R; Ollison, Will M

    2017-11-01

    Long-standing measurement techniques for determining ground-level ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) are known to be biased by interfering compounds that result in overestimates of high O3 and NO2 ambient concentrations under conducive conditions. An increasing near-ground O3 gradient (NGOG) with increasing height above ground level is also known to exist. Both the interference bias and NGOG were investigated by comparing data from a conventional Federal Equivalent Method (FEM) O3 photometer and an identical monitor upgraded with an "interference-free" nitric oxide O3 scrubber that alternatively sampled at 2 m and 6.2 m inlet heights above ground level (AGL). Intercomparison was also made between a conventional nitrogen oxide (NOx) chemiluminescence Federal Reference Method (FRM) monitor and a new "direct-measure" NO2 NOx 405 nm photometer at a near-road air quality measurement site. Results indicate that the O3 monitor with the upgraded scrubber recorded lower regulatory-oriented concentrations than the deployed conventional metal oxide-scrubbed monitor and that O3 concentrations 6.2 m AGL were higher than concentrations 2.0 m AGL, the nominal nose height of outdoor populations. Also, a new direct-measure NO2 photometer recorded generally lower NO2 regulatory-oriented concentrations than the conventional FRM chemiluminescence monitor, reporting lower daily maximum hourly average concentrations than the conventional monitor about 3 of every 5 days. Employing bias-prone instruments for measurement of ambient ozone or nitrogen dioxide from inlets at inappropriate heights above ground level may result in collection of positively biased data. This paper discusses tests of new regulatory instruments, recent developments in bias-free ozone and nitrogen dioxide measurement technology, and the presence/extent of a near-ground O3 gradient (NGOG). Collection of unbiased monitor inlet height-appropriate data is crucial for determining accurate design values and meeting

  9. Firms, regulatory uncertainty, and the natural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcus, A.; Aragon-Correa, J.A.; Pinkse, J.

    2011-01-01

    This introduction presents a framework managers can use to deal with regulatory uncertainty and also introduces and summarizes how the papers in this special issue address what managers can expect, do, and gain from regulatory uncertainty.

  10. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godino, Cosmo; Mendolicchio, Loredana; Figini, Filippo; Latib, Azeem; Sharp, Andrew Sp; Cosgrave, John; Calori, Giliola; Cera, Michela; Chieffo, Alaide; Castelli, Alfredo; Maseri, Attilio; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Colombo, Antonio

    2009-05-06

    Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT) is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR) occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1) Flow cytometry (FC) to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P) and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG) E1; 2) VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU) or % of inhibition (% inhibition). Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4-33.1%) and 3.5% (1.7-9.4%), respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5%) had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84-0.98, p Cut-off values of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  11. Environmental Monitoring Plan, Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallegos, G M; Blake, R G; Bertoldo, N A; Campbell, C G; Coty, J; Folks, K; Grayson, A R; Jones, H E; Nelson, J C; Revelli, M A; Wegrecki, T; Williams, R A; Wilson, K

    2010-01-27

    The purpose of environmental monitoring is to promote the early identification of, and response to, potential adverse environmental impacts associated with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) operations. Environmental monitoring supports the Integrated Safety Management System (ISMS), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 Environmental Management Systems standard, and U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. Specifically, in conformance with DOE Order 450.1A, Attachment 1, paragraph 1(b)(5), environmental monitoring enables LLNL to detect, characterize, and respond to releases from LLNL activities; assess impacts; estimate dispersal patterns in the environment; characterize the pathways of exposure to members of the public; characterize the exposures and doses to individuals and to the population; and to evaluate the potential impacts to the biota in the vicinity of LLNL. Environmental monitoring also serves to demonstrate compliance with permits and other regulatory requirements. The Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) addresses the sample collection and analytical work supporting environmental monitoring to ensure the following: (1) A consistent system for collecting, assessing, and documenting environmental data of known and documented quality. (2) A validated and consistent approach for sampling and analysis of samples to ensure laboratory data meets program-specific needs and requirements within the framework of a performance-based approach for analytical laboratory work. (3) An integrated sampling approach to avoid duplicative data collection. Until its cancellation in January 2003, DOE Order 5400.1 required the preparation of an environmental monitoring plan. Neither DOE Order 450.1A nor the ISO 14001 standard are as prescriptive as DOE Order 5400.1, in that neither expressly requires an EMP. However, LLNL continues to prepare the EMP because it provides an organizational framework for

  12. Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althouse, P E; Biermann, A; Brigdon, S L; Brown, R A; Campbell, C G; Christofferson, E; Clark, L M; Folks, K J; Gallegos, G M; Gouveia, F J; Grayson, A; Harrach, R J; Hoppes, W G; Jones, H; Mathews, S; Merrigan, J R; Peterson, S R; Revelli, M; Rueppel, D; Sanchez, L; Tate, P J; Vellinger, R J; Ward, B; Williams, R

    2006-01-10

    Environmental monitoring personnel from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) prepared this ''Environmental Monitoring Plan'' (EMP) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' (DOE 1991) and applicable portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 (see WSS B93 and B94 in Appendix B). ''Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance'' is followed as a best management practice; under Work Smart Standards, LLNL complies with portions of DOE Orders 5400.1 and 5400.5 as shown in Appendix B. This document is a revision of the May 1999 EMP (Tate et al. 1999) and is current as of March 1, 2002. LLNL is one of the nation's premier applied-science national security laboratories. Its primary mission is to ensure that the nation's nuclear weapons remain safe, secure, and reliable, and to prevent the spread and use of nuclear weapons worldwide. LLNL's programs in advanced technologies, energy, environment, biosciences, and basic science apply LLNL's unique capabilities and enhance the competencies needed for this national security mission. LLNL's mission also involves working with industrial and academic partners to increase national competitiveness and improve science education. LLNL's mission is dynamic and has changed over the years to meet new national needs. In keeping with the Laboratory's mission, the environment, safety, and health (ES&H) have top priority. LLNL's policy is to perform work in a manner that protects the health and safety of employees and the public, preserves the quality of the environment, and prevents property damage. The environment, safety, and health are to be priority considerations in the planning and execution of all work activities at the Laboratory (LLNL 2001

  13. 76 FR 64043 - Iowa Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 915 Iowa Regulatory Program AGENCY...), are announcing receipt of a proposed amendment to the Iowa regulatory program (Iowa program) under the... regulatory program by updating its adoption by reference of applicable portions of the Code of Federal...

  14. Drug regulatory systems must foster innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, H.; Moors, E.H.M.; Leufkens, H.G.

    2011-01-01

    We support M.A. Hamburg’s plea for increased funding of regulatory science (“Advancing regulatory science,” Editorial, 25 February, p. 987). We also share her ambition to modernize the regulatory system and bring 21st-century science and technology to drug development and drug evaluations

  15. 78 FR 1708 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... rulemaking actions pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (Pub. L. 96-354, 94 Stat. 1164) (Sept. 19... of a Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis is required. The Commission's complete RFA agenda will be...

  16. 78 FR 44407 - Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Ch. II Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION... rulemaking actions pursuant to the Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) (Pub. L. No. 96-354, 94 Stat. 1164) (Sep... of a Regulatory Flexibility Act analysis is required. The Commission's complete RFA agenda will be...

  17. 47 CFR 27.10 - Regulatory status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory status. 27.10 Section 27.10... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.10 Regulatory status. The following rules apply concerning the regulatory status in the frequency bands specified in § 27.5. (a) Single authorization...

  18. 40 CFR 92.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 92.6 Section 92... Regulations for Locomotives and Locomotive Engines § 92.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this part 92 are intended to...

  19. 40 CFR 94.6 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regulatory structure. 94.6 Section 94... for Compression-Ignition Marine Engines § 94.6 Regulatory structure. This section provides an overview of the regulatory structure of this part. (a) The regulations of this Part 94 are intended to control...

  20. Regulatory modules in the developing heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habets, Petra E. M. H.; Moorman, Antoon F. M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.

    2003-01-01

    Fragments of regulatory DNA of cardiac genes drive reporter gene expression in sometimes unexpected subdomains of the heart. These patterns have revealed that the regulatory DNA of genes consists of distinct subfragments (regulatory modules) that are active in different regions of the developing

  1. Normative premises in regulatory theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuels, W.J.

    The concern of this article is to identify a ubiquitous problem (with a multiplicity of manifestations) inevitably encountered in the art of regulatory analysis. The problem is one of circularity; the analyst assumes something about the object to be determined that governs the determination. Thus, the first steps in analysis often carry commitments that significantly prefigure the decisional results. Typically, the assumption takes the form of an implicit antecedent normative premise embedded in a tool or concept. While normative premises are necessary and inevitable, the argument here is that they should be made as explicit as possible. This article attempts to answer two questions: (1) whater are we really doing when we use certain techniques of regulatory analysis; (2) in what ways do normative premises condition the conclusions reached. 33 references.

  2. 75 FR 17793 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region III Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region III Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Tuesday, May 18, 2010, at 10 a.m...

  3. 78 FR 36011 - Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  4. 75 FR 18245 - Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... ADMINISTRATION Public Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board.... Small Business Administration (SBA) Region IX Regulatory Fairness Board and the SBA Office of the National Ombudsman will hold a National Regulatory Fairness Hearing on Monday, April 26, 2010, at 1:30 p.m...

  5. 78 FR 30384 - Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... ADMINISTRATION Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing; Region X Regulatory Fairness Board AGENCY: U.S... Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National Ombudsman is issuing this notice to announce the location, date and time of the Regional Small Business Regulatory Fairness hearing...

  6. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the...

  7. Sensors for environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David Russell; Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Ho, Clifford Kuofei; Davis, Mary Jo (Science Applications International Corporation, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-09-01

    This report surveys the needs associated with environmental monitoring and long-term environmental stewardship. Emerging sensor technologies are reviewed to identify compatible technologies for various environmental monitoring applications. The contaminants that are considered in this report are grouped into the following categories: (1) metals, (2) radioisotopes, (3) volatile organic compounds, and (4) biological contaminants. Regulatory drivers are evaluated for different applications (e.g., drinking water, storm water, pretreatment, and air emissions), and sensor requirements are derived from these regulatory metrics. Sensor capabilities are then summarized according to contaminant type, and the applicability of the different sensors to various environmental monitoring applications is discussed.

  8. Recombination monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Blaskiewicz, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-03

    This is a brief report on LEReC recombination monitor design considerations. The recombination produced Au78+ ion rate is reviewed. Based on this two designs are discussed. One is to use the large dispersion lattice. It is shown that even with the large separation of the Au78+ beam from the Au79+ beam, the continued monitoring of the recombination is not possible. Accumulation of Au78+ ions is needed, plus collimation of the Au79+ beam. In another design, it is shown that the recombination monitor can be built based on the proposed scheme with the nominal lattice. From machine operation point of view, this design is preferable. Finally, possible studies and the alternative strategies with the basic goal of the monitor are discussed.

  9. Monitoring Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Gurmukh

    2015-01-01

    This book is useful for Hadoop administrators who need to learn how to monitor and diagnose their clusters. Also, the book will prove useful for new users of the technology, as the language used is simple and easy to grasp.

  10. Technology competition and regulatory advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Boscheck, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The importance of competition law as a policy lever to help the EU compete at the forefront of science and technology seems to have been overlooked by the Commission. As a consequence, the EU appears to be at a disadvantage to the USA in terms of the regulatory environment for intellectual property and licensing practices. This article examines these differences and explores the pros and cons of the European and American approaches to competition law, ultimately arguing in favour of regulator...

  11. Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosborough, Brian R.; Raïch-Regué, Dàlia; Turnquist, Heth R.; Thomson, Angus W.

    2013-01-01

    Regulatory myeloid cells (RMC) are emerging as novel targets for immunosuppressive (IS) agents and hold considerable promise as cellular therapeutic agents. Herein, we discuss the ability of regulatory macrophages (Mreg), regulatory dendritic cells (DCreg) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) to regulate alloimmunity, their potential as cellular therapeutic agents and the IS agents that target their function. We consider protocols for the generation of RMC and the selection of donor- or recipient-derived cells for adoptive cell therapy. Additionally, the issues of cell trafficking and antigen (Ag) specificity following RMC transfer are discussed. Improved understanding of the immunobiology of these cells has increased the possibility of moving RMC into the clinic to reduce the burden of current IS agents and promote Ag-specific tolerance. In the second half of this review, we discuss the influence of established and experimental IS agents on myeloid cell populations. IS agents believed historically to act primarily on T cell activation and proliferation are emerging as important regulators of RMC function. Better insights into the influence of IS agents on RMC will enhance our ability to develop cell therapy protocols to promote the function of these cells. Moreover, novel IS agents may be designed to target RMC in situ to promote Ag-specific immune regulation in transplantation and usher in a new era of immune modulation exploiting cells of myeloid origin. PMID:24092382

  12. Updated Regulatory Considerations for Nanomedicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subin, Sankarankutty; Vijayan, Venugopal; Kumar, Jaya Raja

    2017-06-14

    Nanomedicine is a branch which deals with medicinal products, devices, non-biological complex drugs and antibody-nanoparticle conjugates and general health products that are manufactured using nanotechnology. Nanomedicine provide the same efficacies as traditional medicines owing to their improved solubility and bioavailability with reduced dosages. However, there are currently safety concerns due to the difficulties related to nanomaterial characterization; this might be the reason for unawareness of such medicines among the patients. The absence of clear regulatory guidelines further complicates matters, as it makes the path to registering them with regulatory bodies difficult. However, some products have overcome these obstacles and have been registered. While there are many international initiatives to harmonize the regulatory requirements and helps the industry to determining the most important characteristics that influence in vivo product performance. This review focuses on the various types of nanopharmaceuticals, and developments process with strategies tailored to upcoming regulations may satisfy the patients' needs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  14. The regulatory pyramid meets the food pyramid: can regulatory theory improve controls on television food advertising to Australian children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    This article examines whether responsive regulation has potential to improve the regulatory framework which controls free-to-air television advertising to children, so that the regulatory scheme can be used more effectively as a tool for obesity prevention. It presents two apparently conflicting arguments, the first being that responsive regulation, particularly monitoring and enforcement measures, can be used to refine the regulation of children's food advertising. The second argument is that there are limits to the improvements that responsive regulation can achieve, since it is trying to achieve the wrong goal, namely placing controls on misleading or deceptive advertising techniques rather than diminishing the sheer volume of advertisements to which children are exposed. These two positions reflect a conflict between public health experts and governments regarding the role of industry in chronic disease prevention, as well as a broader debate about how best to regulate industry.

  15. 75 FR 28073 - Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of Issuance and Availability of Draft Regulatory Guide, DG-3039, ``Standard Format and Content for...

  16. Science, policy, and the transparency of values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Kevin C; Resnik, David B

    2014-07-01

    Opposing groups of scientists have recently engaged in a heated dispute over a preliminary European Commission (EC) report on its regulatory policy for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition to the scientific issues at stake, a central question has been how scientists can maintain their objectivity when informing policy makers. Drawing from current ethical, conceptual, and empirical studies of objectivity and conflicts of interest in scientific research, we propose guiding principles for communicating scientific findings in a manner that promotes objectivity, public trust, and policy relevance. Both conceptual and empirical studies of scientific reasoning have shown that it is unrealistic to prevent policy-relevant scientific research from being influenced by value judgments. Conceptually, the current dispute over the EC report illustrates how scientists are forced to make value judgments about appropriate standards of evidence when informing public policy. Empirical studies provide further evidence that scientists are unavoidably influenced by a variety of potentially subconscious financial, social, political, and personal interests and values. When scientific evidence is inconclusive and major regulatory decisions are at stake, it is unrealistic to think that values can be excluded from scientific reasoning. Thus, efforts to suppress or hide interests or values may actually damage scientific objectivity and public trust, whereas a willingness to bring implicit interests and values into the open may be the best path to promoting good science and policy.

  17. The core regulatory network in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Man-Sun; Kim, Dongsan; Kang, Nam Sook; Kim, Jeong-Rae

    2017-03-04

    In order to discover the common characteristics of various cell types in the human body, many researches have been conducted to find the set of genes commonly expressed in various cell types and tissues. However, the functional characteristics of a cell is determined by the complex regulatory relationships among the genes rather than by expressed genes themselves. Therefore, it is more important to identify and analyze a core regulatory network where all regulatory relationship between genes are active across all cell types to uncover the common features of various cell types. Here, based on hundreds of tissue-specific gene regulatory networks constructed by recent genome-wide experimental data, we constructed the core regulatory network. Interestingly, we found that the core regulatory network is organized by simple cascade and has few complex regulations such as feedback or feed-forward loops. Moreover, we discovered that the regulatory links from genes in the core regulatory network to genes in the peripheral regulatory network are much more abundant than the reverse direction links. These results suggest that the core regulatory network locates at the top of regulatory network and plays a role as a 'hub' in terms of information flow, and the information that is common to all cells can be modified to achieve the tissue-specific characteristics through various types of feedback and feed-forward loops in the peripheral regulatory networks. We also found that the genes in the core regulatory network are evolutionary conserved, essential and non-disease, non-druggable genes compared to the peripheral genes. Overall, our study provides an insight into how all human cells share a common function and generate tissue-specific functional traits by transmitting and processing information through regulatory network. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  19. 1985 environmental monitoring report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, L.E.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Naidu, J.R. (eds.)

    1986-04-01

    The environmental monitoring program is designed to determine that BNL facilities operate such that the applicable environmental standards and effluent control requirements have been met. The data were evaluated using the appropriate environmental regulatory criteria. The environmental levels of radioactivity and other pollutants found in the vicinity of BNL during 1985 are summarized in this report. Detailed data are not included in the main body of the report, but are tabulated and presented in Appendix D. The environmental data include external radiation levels; radioactive air particulates; tritium concentrations; the amounts and concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of the stream into which liquid effluents are released; the water quality of the potable supply wells; the concentrations of radioactivity in biota from the stream; the concentrations of radioactivity in and the water quality of ground waters underlying the Laboratoy; concentrations of radioactivity in milk samples obtained in the vicinity of the Laboratory; and the 1984 strontium-90 data which was not available for inclusion in the 1984 Environmental Monitoring Report. In 1985, the results of the surveillance program demonstraed that the Laboratory has operated within the applicable environmental standards.

  20. Evaluation of NORM in facility Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory criteria; Evaluacion de NORM en una instalacion de la industria petrolera venezolana para establecer los criterios reguladores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acevedo Lozada, D. J.; Rivas, I.; Davila, L.; Flores, Y.

    2013-07-01

    The present work shows the need to identify, in the Venezuelan oil industry, the existence of exposure to natural sources of radiation should be considered as occupational. As Regulatory Authority in the area of ionizing radiation the need for regulatory processes and ensure radiation protection of personnel involved in these practices arises, as well as personal and environmental monitoring. NORM identifying an installation of the Venezuelan oil industry to establish regulatory processes and take steps to ensure occupational radiation protection. (Author)

  1. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  2. A saturation screen for cis-acting regulatory DNA in the Hox genes of Ciona intestinalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keys, David N.; Lee, Byung-in; Di Gregorio, Anna; Harafuji, Naoe; Detter, Chris; Wang, Mei; Kahsai, Orsalem; Ahn, Sylvia; Arellano, Andre; Zhang, Quin; Trong, Stephan; Doyle, Sharon A.; Satoh, Noriyuki; Satou, Yutaka; Saiga, Hidetoshi; Christian, Allen; Rokhsar, Dan; Hawkins, Trevor L.; Levine, Mike; Richardson, Paul

    2005-01-05

    A screen for the systematic identification of cis-regulatory elements within large (>100 kb) genomic domains containing Hox genes was performed by using the basal chordate Ciona intestinalis. Randomly generated DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes containing two clusters of Hox genes were inserted into a vector upstream of a minimal promoter and lacZ reporter gene. A total of 222 resultant fusion genes were separately electroporated into fertilized eggs, and their regulatory activities were monitored in larvae. In sum, 21 separable cis-regulatory elements were found. These include eight Hox linked domains that drive expression in nested anterior-posterior domains of ectodermally derived tissues. In addition to vertebrate-like CNS regulation, the discovery of cis-regulatory domains that drive epidermal transcription suggests that C. intestinalis has arthropod-like Hox patterning in the epidermis.

  3. 2002 WIPP Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2002-09-30

    DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE | facility to prepare an environmental management plan (EMP). This document is | prepared for WIPP in accordance with the guidance contained in DOE Order 5400.1; DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment; applicable sections of Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE/EH-0173T; DOE, 1991); and the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 834, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and Environment'' (draft). Many sections of DOE Order 5400.1 have been replaced by DOE Order 231.1, which is the driver for the annual Site Environmental Report (SER) and the guidance source for preparing many environmental program documents. The WIPP Project is operated by Westinghouse TRU Solutions (WTS) for the DOE. This plan defines the extent and scope of WIPP's effluent and environmental | monitoring programs during the facility's operational life and also discusses WIPP's quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) program as it relates to environmental monitoring. In addition, this plan provides a comprehensive description of environmental activities at WIPP including: A summary of environmental programs, including the status of environmental monitoring activities A description of the WIPP Project and its mission A description of the local environment, including demographics An overview of the methodology used to assess radiological consequences to the public, including brief discussions of potential exposure pathways, routine and accidental releases, and their consequences Responses to the requirements described in the Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  4. Monitoring Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geanakoplos, John; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    We argue that leverage is a central element of economic cycles and discuss how leverage can be properly monitored. While traditionally the interest rate has been regarded as the single key feature of a loan, we contend that the size of the loan, i.e., the leverage, is in fact a more important...... measure of systemic risk. Indeed, systemic crises tend to erupt when highly leveraged economic agents are forced to deleverage, sending the economy into recession. We emphasize the importance of measuring both the average leverage on old loans (which captures the economy's vulnerability) and the leverage...... and monitored....

  5. Self-Regulatory Processes Mediate the Intention-Behavior Relation for Adherence and Exercise Behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Sheeran, P.; Kok, G.; Hiemstra, A.; Prins, J.M.; Hospers, H.J.; Breukelen, G.J.P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior

  6. 77 FR 60489 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Chicago Board Options Exchange, Incorporated; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... procedures utilize daily monitoring of market movements via automated surveillance techniques ] to identify... program via regulatory circular. Conditional on the findings in the Pilot Report, CBOE will file with the... SPY is a multiply listed options class and currently there is not a uniform and consistent position...

  7. 77 FR 62300 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... conducted. These procedures utilize daily monitoring of market movements via automated surveillance... dates of the pilot program via regulatory circular. Conditional on the findings in the Pilot Report, ISE... class and currently there is not a uniform and consistent position and exercise limits regime across all...

  8. 75 FR 80091 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; International Securities Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Requirements. The communication links and firm delivery computer hardware must comply with standards defined by...) sitting for Regulatory Element continuing education through a window or by video monitor. The individual... received will be posted without change; the Commission does not edit personal identifying information from...

  9. Occupational noise exposure and regulatory adherence in music venues in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Barlow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in most working environments is an unwanted by-product of the process. In most countries, noise exposure for workers has been controlled by legislation for many years. In the music industry the "noise" is actually the "desired" product, and for a long time the UK entertainment industry was exempt from these regulations. From April 2008, however, it became regulated under the Noise at Work Regulations 2005, meaning that employers from orchestras to nightclubs are legally required to adhere to the same requirements (based on ISO 9612:2009 for controlling noise exposure for their staff that have been applied to other industries for many years. A key question is to what degree, 2 years after implementation, these employers are complying with their legal responsibilities to protect the staff from noise? This study assessed four public music venues where live and/or recorded music is regularly played. Thirty staff members in different roles in the venues were monitored using noise dosimetry to determine noise exposure. Questionnaires were used to determine work patterns, attitudes to noise and hearing loss, and levels of training about noise risk. Results showed that the majority of staff (70% in all venues exceeded the daily noise exposure limit value in their working shift. Use of hearing protection was rare (<30% and not enforced by most venues. The understanding of the hazard posed by noise was low, and implementation of the noise regulations was haphazard, with staff regularly exceeding regulatory limits. The implication is that the industry is failing to meet regulatory requirements.

  10. 1999 Environmental Monitoring Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. V. Street

    2000-09-01

    This report describes the calendar year 1999 compliance monitoring and environmental surveillance activities of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory management and operating contractor Environmental Monitoring Program. This report includes results of sampling performed by the Drinking Water, Effluent, Storm Water, Groundwater Monitoring, and Environmental Surveillance Programs. This report compares the 1999 results to program-specific regulatory guidelines and past data to evaluate trends. The primary purposes of the monitoring and surveillance activities are to evaluate environmental conditions, to provide and interpret data, to verify compliance with applicable regulations or standards, and to ensure protection of public health and the environment. Surveillance of environmental media did not identify any previously unknown environmental problems or trends, which would indicate a loss of control or unplanned releases from facility operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory complied with permits and applicable regulations, with the expectation of nitrogen in two disposal pond effluent streams iron and total coliform bacteria in groundwater downgradient from one disposal well, and coliform bacteria in drinking water systems at two facilities. Maintenance activities were performed on the two drinking water systems and tested prior to putting back into service. The monitoring and surveillance results demonstrate that the public health and environment were protected.

  11. Passive electronic identification with temperature monitoring. [Temperature monitor for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, D.M.; Bobbett, R.E.; Koelle, A.R.; Landt, J.A.; Sanders, W.M.; Depp, S.W.; Seawright, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) have been supporting an electronic identification and temperature monitoring project at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) since early 1973. The development, so far, indicates that a subdermally-implanted, electronic transponder (having no batteries) can be remotely activated and transmit temperature and identification information back to a receiver in a few tenths of a second. If this electronic identification and temperature monitoring system is developed into a commercially available product line, and is widely accepted by the cattle industry, it will enable them to carry out more extensive management practices. Better management can result in greater efficiency and productivity. The system will also enable regulatory agencies to trace the movements of diseased animals through commerce, and thus assist in disease control measures. Work so far has been concentrated primarily on determining the technical feasibility of the electronic concepts. (auth)

  12. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  13. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  14. 76 FR 65753 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' in the Federal Register for a 60 day... (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power...

  15. Self-Monitoring of Self-Regulation during Math Homework Behaviour Using Standardized Diaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Bernhard; Perels, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This study aims at enhancing math learning and general self-regulation by supporting daily self-regulated learning during math homework. The authors use standardized diaries as a self-monitoring tool to support self-regulatory behaviour. Following the theory of self-monitoring, frequent self-monitoring of self-regulation will lead to an…

  16. Regulatory Issues Surrounding Merchant Interconnection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuijlaars, Kees-Jan; Zwart, Gijsbert [Office for Energy Regulation (DTe), The Hague (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    We discussed various issues concerning the regulatory perspective on private investment in interconnectors. One might claim that leaving investment in transmission infrastructure to competing market parties is more efficient than relying on regulated investment only (especially in the case of long (DC) lines connecting previously unconnected parts of the grids, so that externalities from e.g. loop flows do not play a significant role). We considered that some aspects of interconnection might reduce these market benefits. In particular, the large fixed costs of interconnection construction may lead to significant under investment (due to both first mover monopoly power and the fact that part of generation cost efficiencies realised by interconnection are not captured by the investor itself, and remain external to the investment decision). Second, merchant ownership restricts future opportunities for adaptation of regulation, as would be required e.g. for introduction of potentially more sophisticated methods of congestion management or market splitting. Some of the disadvantages of merchant investment may be mitigated however by a suitable regulatory framework, and we discussed some views in this direction. The issues we discussed are not intended to give a complete framework, and detailed regulation will certainly involve many more specific requirements. Areas we did not touch upon include e.g. the treatment of deep connection costs, rules for operation and maintenance of the line, and impact on availability of capacity on other interconnections.

  17. Global Summit on Regulatory Science 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Paul C; Tong, Weida; Weichold, Frank; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2014-12-01

    Regulatory science has been defined as the science that is used to develop regulatory decisions by government bodies. Regulatory science encompasses many scientific disciplines that oversee many studies producing a wide array of data. These may include fundamental research into the cellular interaction or response to a particular chemical or substance, hazard-assessment and dose-response studies in animal species, neurophysiological or neurobehavioral studies, best practices for the generation and analysis of genomics data, bioinformatics approaches, and mathematical modeling of risk. The Global Summit on Regulatory Science is an international conference with a mission to explore emerging and innovative technologies, and provide a platform to enhance translation of basic science into regulatory applications. The Third Global Summit on Regulatory Science which focused on nanotechnology is discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Maslow and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  19. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  20. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, November 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-12-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  1. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlbert, L.M.; Langston, M.E. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (USA)); Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  2. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, October 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-11-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  3. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, August 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M., Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-09-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (August 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  4. Environmental regulatory update table, March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.; Langston, M.E.; Nikbakht, A.; Salk, M.S.

    1989-04-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  5. Environmental Regulatory Update Table, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-10-01

    The Environmental Regulatory Update Table provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  6. Gradient descent optimization in gene regulatory pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mouli; Mukhopadhyay, Subhasis; De, Rajat K

    2010-09-03

    Gene Regulatory Networks (GRNs) have become a major focus of interest in recent years. Elucidating the architecture and dynamics of large scale gene regulatory networks is an important goal in systems biology. The knowledge of the gene regulatory networks further gives insights about gene regulatory pathways. This information leads to many potential applications in medicine and molecular biology, examples of which are identification of metabolic pathways, complex genetic diseases, drug discovery and toxicology analysis. High-throughput technologies allow studying various aspects of gene regulatory networks on a genome-wide scale and we will discuss recent advances as well as limitations and future challenges for gene network modeling. Novel approaches are needed to both infer the causal genes and generate hypothesis on the underlying regulatory mechanisms. In the present article, we introduce a new method for identifying a set of optimal gene regulatory pathways by using structural equations as a tool for modeling gene regulatory networks. The method, first of all, generates data on reaction flows in a pathway. A set of constraints is formulated incorporating weighting coefficients. Finally the gene regulatory pathways are obtained through optimization of an objective function with respect to these weighting coefficients. The effectiveness of the present method is successfully tested on ten gene regulatory networks existing in the literature. A comparative study with the existing extreme pathway analysis also forms a part of this investigation. The results compare favorably with earlier experimental results. The validated pathways point to a combination of previously documented and novel findings. We show that our method can correctly identify the causal genes and effectively output experimentally verified pathways. The present method has been successful in deriving the optimal regulatory pathways for all the regulatory networks considered. The biological

  7. Environmental regulatory update table, July 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Hawkins, G.T.; Salk, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    This Environmental Regulatory Update Table (July 1991) provides information on regulatory initiatives of interest to DOE operations and contractor staff with environmental management responsibilities. The table is updated each month with information from the Federal Register and other sources, including direct contact with regulatory agencies. Each table entry provides a chronological record of the rulemaking process for that initiative with an abstract and a projection of further action.

  8. Economic Analysis of the Radio Spectrum for Regulatory Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten; Tadayoni, Reza

    not a purely technical matter. Economic considerations must be taken into account as well. A free market approach may be suitable for assigning frequency bands between operators within the same application, but is less suitable for allocation between various applications. Here regulatory intervention...... will be necessary to ensure efficient and harmonised patterns of usage across countries. In this respect an assessment of the economic value of various applications is an important input. This paper measures the economic value in terms of contribution to GDP. We use this approach, as it is very difficult to assess...... the user value as long as there is no market for trade in frequency licenses. The economic value of the radio spectrum has been calculated for six different service applications (fixed links, Maritime and aeronautic applications, broadcasting services, mobile services, private mobile radio network services...

  9. Values and value education in Danish preschools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders Skriver; Broström, Stig; Hansen, Ole Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Based on video observations, interviews and joint pedagogue/researcher analyses carried out in three Danish child cares, this chapter presents three common values: democracy, care and discipline, which were communicated, expressed and negotiated through interactions between pedagogues (In this pa...... pedagogical implications for values education...

  10. Regulatory Information by Topic: Emergency Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory information about emergencies, including chemical accident prevention, risk management plans (RMPs), chemical reporting, community right to know, and oil spills and hazardous substances releases.

  11. BRNI: Modular analysis of transcriptional regulatory programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachman Iftach

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional responses often consist of regulatory modules – sets of genes with a shared expression pattern that are controlled by the same regulatory mechanisms. Previous methods allow dissecting regulatory modules from genomics data, such as expression profiles, protein-DNA binding, and promoter sequences. In cases where physical protein-DNA data are lacking, such methods are essential for the analysis of the underlying regulatory program. Results Here, we present a novel approach for the analysis of modular regulatory programs. Our method – Biochemical Regulatory Network Inference (BRNI – is based on an algorithm that learns from expression data a biochemically-motivated regulatory program. It describes the expression profiles of gene modules consisting of hundreds of genes using a small number of regulators and affinity parameters. We developed an ensemble learning algorithm that ensures the robustness of the learned model. We then use the topology of the learned regulatory program to guide the discovery of a library of cis-regulatory motifs, and determined the motif compositions associated with each module. We test our method on the cell cycle regulatory program of the fission yeast. We discovered 16 coherent modules, covering diverse processes from cell division to metabolism and associated them with 18 learned regulatory elements, including both known cell-cycle regulatory elements (MCB, Ace2, PCB, ACCCT box and novel ones, some of which are associated with G2 modules. We integrate the regulatory relations from the expression- and motif-based models into a single network, highlighting specific topologies that result in distinct dynamics of gene expression in the fission yeast cell cycle. Conclusion Our approach provides a biologically-driven, principled way for deconstructing a set of genes into meaningful transcriptional modules and identifying their associated cis-regulatory programs. Our analysis sheds

  12. 21 CFR 26.18 - Regulatory collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... Specific Sector Provisions for Pharmaceutical Good Manufacturing Practices § 26.18 Regulatory collaboration...

  13. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) Regions. FERC is an independent agency that regulates the interstate transmission of electricity, natural gas, and oil....

  14. A coordination challenge among multiple regulatory objectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Do multiple regulatory objectives put network companies in a position to prioritize? New empirical insights show that intentional balancing of conflicts is far from assured in infrastructure operations.

  15. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  16. Energy Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus T.; Madsen, Dines; Christiensen, Thomas

    Energy measurement has become an important aspect of our daily lives since we have learned that energy consumption, is one of the main source of global warming. Measuring instruments varies from a simple watt-meter to more sophisticated microprocessor control devices. The negative effects...... that fossil fuels induce on our environment has forced us to research renewable energy such as sunlight, wind etc. This new environmental awareness has also helped us to realize the importance of monitoring and controlling our energy use. The main purpose in this research is to introduce a more sophisticated...... but affordable way to monitor energy consumption of individuals or groups of home appliances. By knowing their consumption the utilization can be regulated for more efficient use. A prototype system has been constructed to demonstrate our idea....

  17. Regulatory Approaches for Adding Capacity to Existing Hydropower Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Aaron L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Curtis, Taylor L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kazerooni, Borna [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-24

    In 2015, hydroelectric generation accounted for more than 6 percent of total net electricity generation in the United States and 46 percent of electricity generation from all renewables. The United States has considerable hydroelectric potential beyond what is already being developed. Nearly 7 GW of this potential is found by adding capacity to existing hydropower facilities. To optimize the value of hydroelectric generation, the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydropower Vision Study highlights the importance of adding capacity to existing facilities. This report provides strategic approaches and considerations for Federal Energy Regulatory Commission licensed and exempt hydropower facilities seeking to increase generation capacity, which may include increases from efficiency upgrades. The regulatory approaches reviewed for this report include capacity and non-capacity amendments, adding capacity during relicensing, and adding capacity when converting a license to a 10-MW exemption.

  18. The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce

    2014-05-01

    Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers.

  19. The future of yogurt: scientific and regulatory needs1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce

    2014-01-01

    Lactation biology, microbial selection, and human diversity are central themes that could guide investment in scientific research, industrial innovation, and regulatory policy oversight to propel yogurt into the central role for health-promoting food products. The ability of yogurt to provide the nourishing properties of milk together with the live microorganisms from fermentation provides a unique combination of food assets. Academic research must now define the various targets on which these biological assets act to improve health and develop the metrics that can quantitatively document their benefits. The food industry must reconcile that yogurt and its microorganisms cannot be expected to provide measurable benefits for all consumers, at all doses, and at all times. A supportive regulatory oversight must demand safety and yet encourage innovations that support a value proposition for yogurt in health. Health valuation in the marketplace will be driven by parallel innovations, including accurate assessment technologies, validated microbial ingredients, and health-aware consumers. PMID:24695899

  20. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  1. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    Recent studies reveal that consumers respond favourably to “organic plus” products with additional ethical attributes. The aim of the current study is to explore whether consumers would notice and value further improvements in the animal welfare standards than those imposed by the organic...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  2. 75 FR 2897 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    ... the Purpose of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change 1. Purpose As part of the process of...-regulatory organization consents, the Commission will: (A) by order approve such proposed rule change, or (B... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

  3. 78 FR 49313 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of..., 2013, Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities and Exchange.... The inclusion of a rule in FINRA's MRVP does not minimize the importance of compliance with such rule...

  4. 78 FR 3925 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of... Revise the Public Arbitrator Definition January 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities.... Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule Change FINRA is...

  5. 77 FR 65434 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Definition of ``Money Market Instrument'' in.... \\3\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4(f)(6). ] I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance...

  6. 77 FR 76129 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add the Term Chief Legal Officer to the Definition of... administration of the self-regulatory organization under Section 19(b)(3)(A)(iii) of the Act\\3\\ and Rule 19b-4(f...

  7. 76 FR 26333 - National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION National Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing Region III Regulatory Fairness Board... III) Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The SBA, Office of the National Ombudsman is... Fairness Hearing. This hearing is open to the public. DATES: The hearing will be held on Tuesday, May 24...

  8. 76 FR 62128 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change to Amend Certain Trade Reporting and Compliance Rules September 30, 2011. Pursuant to... is hereby given that on September 22, 2011, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc...

  9. 77 FR 70515 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... statements in the fee chart to use a single term, ``display application,'' to describe uniformly a software... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and... November 7, 2012, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (``FINRA'') filed with the Securities...

  10. 77 FR 47470 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Withdrawal of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt FINRA Rule 2231 (Customer Account Statements) in the Consolidated FINRA Rulebook August 2, 2012. On April 22, 2009, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc...

  11. 75 FR 53998 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Security Futures Risk Disclosure Statement... Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 16, 2010, Financial Industry Regulatory...

  12. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international ...

  13. Idaho National Laboratory Site Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstrom, Jenifer [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This plan provides a high-level summary of environmental monitoring performed by various organizations within and around the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site as required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and DOE Order 458.1, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment, Guide DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance, and in accordance with 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants. The purpose of these orders is to 1) implement sound stewardship practices that protect the air, water, land, and other natural and cultural resources that may be impacted by DOE operations, and 2) to establish standards and requirements for the operations of DOE and DOE contractors with respect to protection of the environment and members of the public against undue risk from radiation. This plan describes the organizations responsible for conducting environmental monitoring across the INL Site, the rationale for monitoring, the types of media being monitored, where the monitoring is conducted, and where monitoring results can be obtained. Detailed monitoring procedures, program plans, or other governing documents used by contractors or agencies to implement requirements are referenced in this plan. This plan covers all planned monitoring and environmental surveillance. Non-routine activities such as special research studies and characterization of individual sites for environmental restoration are outside the scope of this plan.

  14. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, X. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagoner, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ramirez, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  15. GROUNDWATER MONITORING REPORT GENERATION TOOLS - 12005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, N.

    2011-11-21

    Compliance with National and State environmental regulations (e.g. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) aka SuperFund) requires Savannah River Site (SRS) to extensively collect and report groundwater monitoring data, with potential fines for missed reporting deadlines. Several utilities have been developed at SRS to facilitate production of the regulatory reports which include maps, data tables, charts and statistics. Components of each report are generated in accordance with complex sets of regulatory requirements specific to each site monitored. SRS developed a relational database to incorporate the detailed reporting rules with the groundwater data, and created a set of automation tools to interface with the information and generate the report components. These process improvements enhanced quality and consistency by centralizing the information, and have reduced manpower and production time through automated efficiencies.

  16. The diagnostic and monitoring value of serum anti-mutated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criteria may be insufficient for the diagnosis of early RA as they are based upon measurements of disease classification predominately featuring manifestations typical of later-stage disease. Measurement of serum anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin antibodies (MCV) has been shown to be a better marker for early adult ...

  17. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  18. Values: A Symposium Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  19. Technology monitoring; Technologie-Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicher, H.; Rigassi, R. [Eicher und Pauli AG, Liestal (Switzerland); Ott, W. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This study made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines ways of systematically monitoring energy technology development and the cost of such technologies in order to pave the way to a basis for judging the economic development of new energy technologies. Initial results of a survey of the past development of these technologies are presented and estimates are made of future developments in the areas of motor-based combined heat and power systems, fuel-cell heating units for single-family homes and apartment buildings, air/water heat pumps for new housing projects and high-performance thermal insulation. The methodology used for the monitoring and analysis of the various technologies is described. Tables and diagrams illustrate the present situation and development potential of various fields of technology.

  20. Sociotechnical systems as a framework for regulatory system design and evaluation: Using Work Domain Analysis to examine a new regulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Tony; Goode, Natassia; Read, Gemma J M; Salmon, Paul M

    2017-03-15

    Like most work systems, the domain of adventure activities has seen a series of serious incidents and subsequent calls to improve regulation. Safety regulation systems aim to promote safety and reduce accidents. However, there is scant evidence they have led to improved safety outcomes. In fact there is some evidence that the poor integration of regulatory system components has led to adverse safety outcomes in some contexts. Despite this, there is an absence of methods for evaluating regulatory and compliance systems. This article argues that sociotechnical systems theory and methods provide a suitable framework for evaluating regulatory systems. This is demonstrated through an analysis of a recently introduced set of adventure activity regulations. Work Domain Analysis (WDA) was used to describe the regulatory system in terms of its functional purposes, values and priority measures, purpose-related functions, object-related processes and cognitive objects. This allowed judgement to be made on the nature of the new regulatory system and on the constraints that may impact its efficacy following implementation. Importantly, the analysis suggests that the new system's functional purpose of ensuring safe activities is not fully supported in terms of the functions and objects available to fulfil them. Potential improvements to the design of the system are discussed along with the implications for regulatory system design and evaluation across the safety critical domains generally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Equivalence, commensurability, value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albertsen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Deriving value in Capital Marx uses three commensurability arguments (CA1-3). CA1 establishes equivalence in exchange as exchangeability with the same third commodity. CA2 establishes value as common denominator in commodities: embodied abstract labour. CA3 establishes value substance...... as commonality of labour: physiological labour. Tensions between these logics have permeated Marxist interpretations of value. Some have supported value as embodied labour (CA2, 3), others a monetary theory of value and value as ‘pure’ societal abstraction (ultimately CA1). They all are grounded in Marx....

  2. Transcriptional regulatory proteins as biosensing tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kendrick; Joel, Smita; Feliciano, Jessika; Feltus, Agatha; Pasini, Patrizia; Wynn, Daniel; Dau, Peter; Dikici, Emre; Deo, Sapna K; Daunert, Sylvia

    2017-06-22

    We have developed sensing systems employing different classes of transcriptional regulatory proteins genetically and chemically modified to incorporate a fluorescent reporter molecule for detection of arsenic, hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs), and cyclic AMP (cAMP). These are the first examples of optical sensing systems based on transcriptional regulatory proteins.

  3. Street-level Bureaucrats and Regulatory Deterrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren C.; J. May, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter considers the role of street-level bureaucrats in regulatory deterrence. The empirical foci are the degrees and ways with which regulatory inspectors shape regulated entities’ perceptions that noncompliance will be detected. These are examined using data about the enforcement of and ...

  4. 12 CFR 233.7 - Regulatory enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory enforcement. 233.7 Section 233.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM PROHIBITION ON FUNDING OF UNLAWFUL INTERNET GAMBLING (REGULATION GG) § 233.7 Regulatory enforcement. The...

  5. Department of Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... Part IX Department of the Interior Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (DOI) DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Office of the Secretary 25 CFR Ch. I 30 CFR Chs. II and VII 36 CFR Ch. I 43 CFR... the Secretary, Interior. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: This notice provides the...

  6. Regulatory Reform: Low Risk, High Promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Morris

    The press of telecommunication technologies and their progeny have undermined the natural monopoly basis for long distance telecommunications and customer premise products, forced open regulatory doors, toppled barriers to market entry, and led to the reshaping of regulatory philosophy as regulators have seen new, wider horizons for the industry.…

  7. 49 CFR 355.21 - Regulatory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory review. 355.21 Section 355.21... AND REGULATIONS AFFECTING INTERSTATE MOTOR CARRIER OPERATIONS Requirements § 355.21 Regulatory review... review are provided in the appendix to this part. (b) Responsibility. The State agency designated as lead...

  8. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders...

  9. 77 FR 8072 - Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    .... II Semiannual Regulatory Flexibility Agenda AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... Flexibility Act and the Board's Statement of Policy Regarding Expanded Rulemaking Procedures. The Board... Regulatory Flexibility Act, and public comment is invited on those entries. The complete Unified Agenda will...

  10. 49 CFR 211.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 211.5 Section 211.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE General § 211.5 Regulatory docket. (a)(1) Records of the...

  11. 49 CFR 5.7 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 5.7 Section 5.7 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 5.7 Regulatory docket. (a) Records of the Office of the Secretary of Transportation concerning rulemaking actions, including notices...

  12. 49 CFR 389.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 389.5 Section 389.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...-FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS General § 389.5 Regulatory docket. (a) Information and data...

  13. 49 CFR 553.5 - Regulatory docket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory docket. 553.5 Section 553.5 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULEMAKING PROCEDURES General § 553.5 Regulatory docket. (a...

  14. 5 CFR 847.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 847.102 Section 847.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... INSTRUMENTALITIES General Provisions § 847.102 Regulatory structure. (a)(1) Subpart A of this part contains...

  15. 5 CFR 880.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 880.102 Section 880.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... Regulatory structure. (a) This part contains the following subparts: (1) Subpart A contains general...

  16. 5 CFR 838.102 - Regulatory structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulatory structure. 838.102 Section 838... (CONTINUED) COURT ORDERS AFFECTING RETIREMENT BENEFITS Court Orders Generally Organization and Structure of Regulations on Court Orders § 838.102 Regulatory structure. (a) This part is organized as follows: (1) Subpart...

  17. Meditation and its regulatory role on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra P. Nagendra

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intense meditation practices help to achieve a harmony between body and mind. Meditation practices influence brain functions, induce various intrinsic neural plasticity events, modulate autonomic, metabolic, endocrine and immune functions and thus mediate global regulatory changes in various behavioural states including sleep. This brief review focuses on the effect of meditation as a self regulatory phenomenon on sleep.

  18. Collective action : a regulatory focus perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten Pieter

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation I investigate how individuals respond to collective disadvantage from the perspective of regulatory focus theory. Regulatory focus theory distinguishes between two motivational systems: promotion focus, the system in charge of the approach of positive end-states, and prevention

  19. Genomics in the land of regulatory science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Blais, Burton; Silva, Primal; Dubuc, Martine; Healy, Marion; Slikker, William

    2015-06-01

    Genomics science has played a major role in the generation of new knowledge in the basic research arena, and currently question arises as to its potential to support regulatory processes. However, the integration of genomics in the regulatory decision-making process requires rigorous assessment and would benefit from consensus amongst international partners and research communities. To that end, the Global Coalition for Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) hosted the fourth Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2014) to discuss the role of genomics in regulatory decision making, with a specific emphasis on applications in food safety and medical product development. Challenges and issues were discussed in the context of developing an international consensus for objective criteria in the analysis, interpretation and reporting of genomics data with an emphasis on transparency, traceability and "fitness for purpose" for the intended application. It was recognized that there is a need for a global path in the establishment of a regulatory bioinformatics framework for the development of transparent, reliable, reproducible and auditable processes in the management of food and medical product safety risks. It was also recognized that training is an important mechanism in achieving internationally consistent outcomes. GSRS2014 provided an effective venue for regulators andresearchers to meet, discuss common issues, and develop collaborations to address the challenges posed by the application of genomics to regulatory science, with the ultimate goal of wisely integrating novel technical innovations into regulatory decision-making. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Clinical value of natriuretic peptides in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Araújo, Carla; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Pestana, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    According to several lines of evidence, natriuretic peptides (NP) are the main components of a cardiac-renal axis that operate in clinical conditions of decreased cardiac hemodynamic tolerance to regulate sodium homeostasis, blood pressure and vascular function. Even though it is reasonable to assume that NP may exert a relevant role in the adaptive response to renal mass ablation, evidence gathered so far suggest that this contribution is probably complex and dependent on the type and degree of the functional mass loss. In the last years NP have been increasingly used to diagnose, monitor treatment and define the prognosis of several cardiovascular (CV) diseases. However, in many clinical settings, like chronic kidney disease (CKD), the predictive value of these biomarkers has been questioned. In fact, it is now well established that renal function significantly affects the plasmatic levels of NP and that renal failure is the clinical condition associated with the highest plasmatic levels of these peptides. The complexity of the relation between NP plasmatic levels and CV and renal functions has obvious consequences, as it may limit the predictive value of NP in CV assessment of CKD patients and be a demanding exercise for clinicians involved in the daily management of these patients. This review describes the role of NP in the regulatory response to renal function loss and addresses the main factors involved in the clinical valorization of the peptides in the context of significant renal failure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal value...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  2. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal order...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed.......Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders...

  3. Adaptive Dynamics of Regulatory Networks: Size Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinetz Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To accomplish adaptability, all living organisms are constructed of regulatory networks on different levels which are capable to differentially respond to a variety of environmental inputs. Structure of regulatory networks determines their phenotypical plasticity, that is, the degree of detail and appropriateness of regulatory replies to environmental or developmental challenges. This regulatory network structure is encoded within the genotype. Our conceptual simulation study investigates how network structure constrains the evolution of networks and their adaptive abilities. The focus is on the structural parameter network size. We show that small regulatory networks adapt fast, but not as good as larger networks in the longer perspective. Selection leads to an optimal network size dependent on heterogeneity of the environment and time pressure of adaptation. Optimal mutation rates are higher for smaller networks. We put special emphasis on discussing our simulation results on the background of functional observations from experimental and evolutionary biology.

  4. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...... or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory...

  5. Regulatory Competition in Global Financial Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Georg

    2015-01-01

    or operations of financial institutions to other jurisdictions. Where this happens, such arbitrage can trigger regulatory competition between jurisdictions that may respond to the relocation of financial services (or threats to relocate) by moderating regulatory standards. Both arbitrage and regulatory......The decades-long discussion on the merits of regulatory competition appears in a new light on the global financial market. There are a number of strategies that market participants use to avoid the reach of regulation, in particular by virtue of shifting trading abroad or else relocating activities...... competition are a reality in today’s global financial market, and the financial sector is different from their traditional fields of application: the ease of arbitrage, the fragility of banking and the risks involved are exceptional. Most importantly, regulatory arbitrage does not or only rarely occurs...

  6. STATE INSPECTION METHODOLOGY OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATORY ACTIVITY FOCUSED ON THE LIFE CYCLE PROCESSESES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniey Quiala Armenteros

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Cuban Environmental Regulatory Activity has on the Environmental State Inspection an instrument for control and monitoring of compliance of current legal standards regarding environmental protection and rational use of natural resources. In this research, a design methodology for effective implementation of environmental regulatory activity in Cuba directed to processes is proposed; based on the life cycle assessment and the applicable environmental management standards, including new performance indicators, which form a new tool based on scientific criterions for the Center of Environmental Inspection and Control.

  7. WEB Server monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin POPA

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces web-server monitoring, explaining its importance and describing various monitoring concepts and types. A set of reasons of web-server monitoring are enumerated. Then, in a monitoring strategy, various types of monitor are presented along with a comparison between deep and shallow monitors. Monitoring process meaning and elements are described, revealing that the monitoring process is largely dictated by the monitoring software package in use. A comparison between interna...

  8. Essays on remote monitoring as an emerging tool for centralized management of decentralized wastewater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Clement

    According to the United States Environmental Protections Agency (USEPA), nearly one in four households in the United States depends on an individual septic system (commonly referred as an onsite system or a decentralized wastewater system) to treat and disperse wastewater. More than half of these systems are over 30 years old, and surveys indicate at least 10 to 20% might not be functioning properly. The USEPA concluded in its 1997 report to Congress that adequately managed decentralized wastewater systems (DWS) are a cost-effective and long-term option for meeting public health and water quality goals, particularly in less densely populated areas. The major challenge however is the absence of a guiding national regulatory framework based on consistent performance-based standards and lack of proper management of DWS. These inconsistencies pose a significant threat to our water resources, local economies, and public health. This dissertation addresses key policy and regulatory strategies needed in response to the new realities confronting decentralized wastewater management. The two core objectives of this research are to demonstrate the centralized management of DWS paradigm and to present a scientific methodology to develop performance-based standards (a regulatory shift from prescriptive methods) using remote monitoring. The underlying remote monitoring architecture for centralized DWS management and the value of science-based policy making are presented. Traditionally, prescriptive standards using conventional grab sampling data are the norm by which most standards are set. Three case studies that support the potential of remote monitoring as a tool for standards development and system management are presented. The results revealed a vital role for remote monitoring in the development of standardized protocols, policies and procedures that are greatly lacking in this field. This centralized management and remote monitoring paradigm fits well and complements

  9. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor

  10. 77 FR 34379 - Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear Regulatory...

  11. On Value and Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Wallström, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Value and waste are concepts that are used in improvement projects. In lean the concepts are fairly simple. Reduce the waste and the value has increased. However, value is both multidimensional and differs over time. If the concepts value and waste are to be used, the concepts must be clearly defined and measured. Otherwise, value can be reduced for the customer/user and the cost increased for the producer/seller. The purpose in this thesis is to investigate how value and waste are perceived ...

  12. Tracing Public Values Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    Long term changes in public values are not easily detected. One important reason is the limited availability of reliable empirical data. Job advertisements allow us to go back in history for some decades and job ads may present us with the values that are supposed to guide civil servant behaviour...... in several directions; b) job ads develop into platforms for organizational branding with an emphasis on HR-related values although national logos enter the scene (the Danish royal crown, the Dutch national emblem); c) New Public Management values do not crowd out other values, rather value intensity...

  13. Regulatory Science in Professional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    In the field of pharmaceutical sciences, the subject of regulatory science (RS) includes pharmaceuticals, food, and living environments. For pharmaceuticals, considering the balance between efficacy and safety is a point required for public acceptance, and in that balance, more importance is given to efficacy in curing disease. For food, however, safety is the most important consideration for public acceptance because food should be essentially free of risk. To ensure food safety, first, any hazard that is an agent in food or condition of food with the potential to cause adverse health effects should be identified and characterized. Then the risk that it will affect public health is scientifically analyzed. This process is called risk assessment. Second, risk management should be conducted to reduce a risk that has the potential to affect public health found in a risk assessment. Furthermore, risk communication, which is the interactive exchange of information and opinions concerning risk and risk management among risk assessors, risk managers, consumers, and other interested parties, should be conducted. Food safety is ensured based on risk analysis consisting of the three components of risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. RS in the field of food safety supports risk analysis, such as scientific research and development of test methods to evaluate food quality, efficacy, and safety. RS is also applied in the field of living environments because the safety of environmental chemical substances is ensured based on risk analysis, similar to that conducted for food.

  14. Regulatory Oversight of Cell and Gene Therapy Products in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgway, Anthony; Agbanyo, Francisca; Wang, Jian; Rosu-Myles, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Health Canada regulates gene therapy products and many cell therapy products as biological drugs under the Canadian Food and Drugs Act and its attendant regulations. Cellular products that meet certain criteria, including minimal manipulation and homologous use, may be subjected to a standards-based approach under the Safety of Human Cells, Tissues and Organs for Transplantation Regulations. The manufacture and clinical testing of cell and gene therapy products (CGTPs) presents many challenges beyond those for protein biologics. Cells cannot be subjected to pathogen removal or inactivation procedures and must frequently be administered shortly after final formulation. Viral vector design and manufacturing control are critically important to overall product quality and linked to safety and efficacy in patients through concerns such as replication competence, vector integration, and vector shedding. In addition, for many CGTPs, the value of nonclinical studies is largely limited to providing proof of concept, and the first meaningful data relating to appropriate dosing, safety parameters, and validity of surrogate or true determinants of efficacy must come from carefully designed clinical trials in patients. Addressing these numerous challenges requires application of various risk mitigation strategies and meeting regulatory expectations specifically adapted to the product types. Regulatory cooperation and harmonisation at an international level are essential for progress in the development and commercialisation of these products. However, particularly in the area of cell therapy, new regulatory paradigms may be needed to harness the benefits of clinical progress in situations where the resources and motivation to pursue a typical drug product approval pathway may be lacking.

  15. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2008-03-12

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problems; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) explains the rationale and design criteria for the environmental monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of EMPs is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance.

  16. DMPD: Regulatory pathways in inflammation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17967718 Regulatory pathways in inflammation. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Locati M, Ro....html) (.csml) Show Regulatory pathways in inflammation. PubmedID 17967718 Title Regulatory pathways in inflamma

  17. Communication Regulatory Science: Mapping a New Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Cappella, Joseph N; Price, Simani

    2017-12-13

    Communication regulatory science is an emerging field that uses validated techniques, tools, and models to inform regulatory actions that promote optimal communication outcomes and benefit the public. In the opening article to this special issue on communication and tobacco regulatory science, we 1) describe Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation of tobacco products in the US; 2) introduce communication regulatory science and provide examples in the tobacco regulatory science realm; and 3) describe the special issue process and final set of articles. Communication research on tobacco regulatory science is a burgeoning area of inquiry, and this work advances communication science, informs and potentially guides the FDA, and may help to withstand legal challenges brought by the tobacco industry. This research has the potential to have a major impact on the tobacco epidemic and population health by helping implement the most effective communications to prevent tobacco initiation and increase cessation. This special issue provides an example of 10 studies that exemplify tobacco regulatory science and demonstrate how the health communication field can affect regulation and benefit public health.

  18. Regulatory analysis technical evaluation handbook. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Handbook is to provide guidance to the regulatory analyst to promote preparation of quality regulatory analysis documents and to implement the policies of the Regulatory Analysis Guidelines of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NUREG/BR-0058 Rev. 2). This Handbook expands upon policy concepts included in the NRC Guidelines and translates the six steps in preparing regulatory analyses into implementable methodologies for the analyst. It provides standardized methods of preparation and presentation of regulatory analyses, with the inclusion of input that will satisfy all backfit requirements and requirements of NRC`s Committee to Review Generic Requirements. Information on the objectives of the safety goal evaluation process and potential data sources for preparing a safety goal evaluation is also included. Consistent application of the methods provided here will result in more directly comparable analyses, thus aiding decision-makers in evaluating and comparing various regulatory actions. The handbook is being issued in loose-leaf format to facilitate revisions. NRC intends to periodically revise the handbook as new and improved guidance, data, and methods become available.

  19. Valuing values: A history of wilderness economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. M. Bowker; H. K. Cordell; N. C. Poudyal

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the U.S. Wilderness Act of 1964, economics as a science was hardly considered applicable to the types of human values set forth in this pathbreaking legislation. Economics was largely confined to the purchasing and labor decisions of households and firms as well the functioning of markets and economies. However, around this time, John Krutilla (1967) in his...

  20. 40 CFR 63.2163 - If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and maintenance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what... § 63.2163 If I monitor fermenter exhaust, what are my monitoring installation, operation, and...) If your CEMS monitor generates a single combined response value for VOC (examples of such detection...

  1. Values and Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Maribeth L.

    1973-01-01

    Summary of Lasswell's eight categories of human values with suggestions and examples of how this framework of values can be effectively utilized by education to produce responsible and productive citizens. (JC)

  2. Share Your Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  3. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  4. Regulatory compliance associated with contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Catherine M

    2005-01-01

    A basic understanding of the role of regulatory agencies in governing the healthcare environment and their influence over contrast media use is required of radiographers and imaging administrators to meet the many standards of compliance. In addition, radiology management teams must consider cost effectiveness, departmental efficiency, workplace safety, and compliance in choosing to implement new products. Regulatory agencies may be classified into 2 groups, voluntary and involuntary. Involuntary agencies are governmental agencies mandating regulatory compliance by local, state, or federal laws. Voluntary agencies are precisely that, those agencies an institution voluntarily chooses to participate with, to demonstrate the quality of care they provide. Failure to follow involuntary regulatory guidelines or to participate in voluntary best practice standards jeopardizes patient safety and the quality of care provided, and exposes the institution and the individual to liability risks. Severe penalties may result from a failure to maintain regulatory compliance, including the possibility of large fines, criminal indictments, and loss of third-party reimbursement. Achieving regulatory compliance is never an easy venture with the number of regulatory agencies and standards needing to be addressed. Combining regulatory compliance with the effects of doing business provides quite a challenge for today's imaging departments. A solid knowledge base in regulatory standards along with continuous investigation of new standards will allow departments to evaluate their own processes involved in providing patient care. Recognition of areas of high risk/high volume, including contrast media use, will assist in directing the departments' focus appropriately. A thorough evaluation of the products used and their respective handing and administration, in regard to patient and workplace safety, and appropriate documentation of workplace injuries due to contrast media packaging, will

  5. Regulatory bioinformatics for food and drug safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Marion J; Tong, Weida; Ostroff, Stephen; Eichler, Hans-Georg; Patak, Alex; Neuspiel, Margaret; Deluyker, Hubert; Slikker, William

    2016-10-01

    "Regulatory Bioinformatics" strives to develop and implement a standardized and transparent bioinformatic framework to support the implementation of existing and emerging technologies in regulatory decision-making. It has great potential to improve public health through the development and use of clinically important medical products and tools to manage the safety of the food supply. However, the application of regulatory bioinformatics also poses new challenges and requires new knowledge and skill sets. In the latest Global Coalition on Regulatory Science Research (GCRSR) governed conference, Global Summit on Regulatory Science (GSRS2015), regulatory bioinformatics principles were presented with respect to global trends, initiatives and case studies. The discussion revealed that datasets, analytical tools, skills and expertise are rapidly developing, in many cases via large international collaborative consortia. It also revealed that significant research is still required to realize the potential applications of regulatory bioinformatics. While there is significant excitement in the possibilities offered by precision medicine to enhance treatments of serious and/or complex diseases, there is a clear need for further development of mechanisms to securely store, curate and share data, integrate databases, and standardized quality control and data analysis procedures. A greater understanding of the biological significance of the data is also required to fully exploit vast datasets that are becoming available. The application of bioinformatics in the microbiological risk analysis paradigm is delivering clear benefits both for the investigation of food borne pathogens and for decision making on clinically important treatments. It is recognized that regulatory bioinformatics will have many beneficial applications by ensuring high quality data, validated tools and standardized processes, which will help inform the regulatory science community of the requirements

  6. Automatic mapping of monitoring data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophaven, Søren; Nielsen, Hans Bruun; Søndergaard, Jacob

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an approach, based on universal kriging, for automatic mapping of monitoring data. The performance of the mapping approach is tested on two data-sets containing daily mean gamma dose rates in Germany reported by means of the national automatic monitoring network (IMIS). In the......This paper presents an approach, based on universal kriging, for automatic mapping of monitoring data. The performance of the mapping approach is tested on two data-sets containing daily mean gamma dose rates in Germany reported by means of the national automatic monitoring network (IMIS......). In the second dataset an accidental release of radioactivity in the environment was simulated in the South-Western corner of the monitored area. The approach has a tendency to smooth the actual data values, and therefore it underestimates extreme values, as seen in the second dataset. However, it is capable...... of identifying a release of radioactivity provided that the number of sampling locations is sufficiently high. Consequently, we believe that a combination of applying the presented mapping approach and the physical knowledge of the transport processes of radioactivity should be used to predict the extreme values....

  7. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill

  8. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  9. Five values of giftedness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besjes, K.M.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and

  10. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  11. The value compass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erik Jan Kostelijk

    2015-01-01

    In the psychological field, a lot of progress has been made in values theory. In marketing theory, however, the use of values has been undervalued. Despite the widespread managerial use of brand values, attention has remained focused on the brand personality concept. This book intends to provide a

  12. Modeling regulatory networks with weight matrices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weaver, D.C.; Workman, Christopher; Stormo, Gary D.

    1999-01-01

    Systematic gene expression analyses provide comprehensive information about the transcriptional responseto different environmental and developmental conditions. With enough gene expression data points,computational biologists may eventually generate predictive computer models of transcription...... regulation.Such models will require computational methodologies consistent with the behavior of known biologicalsystems that remain tractable. We represent regulatory relationships between genes as linear coefficients orweights, with the "net" regulation influence on a gene's expression being...... the mathematical summation of theindependent regulatory inputs. Test regulatory networks generated with this approach display stable andcyclically stable gene expression levels, consistent with known biological systems. We include variables tomodel the effect of environmental conditions on transcription regulation...

  13. 78 FR 27169 - Regulatory Flexibility Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...PHMSA seeks comments on the economic impacts of its Hazardous Materials Regulations on small entities. In accordance with section 610 of the Regulatory Flexibility Act and as published in the Unified Agenda and Regulatory Plan, PHMSA is reviewing and analyzing the regulations applicable to the Hazardous Materials Program Procedures to identify requirements which may have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The Unified Agenda and Regulatory plan for the Department of Transportation can be found at the following URL: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-01-15/pdf/2013-00597.pdf.

  14. Selection of terrestrial transfer factors for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Y.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1983-01-01

    A parameter value for a radioecological assessment model is not a single value but a distribution of values about a central value. The sources that contribute to the variability of transfer factors to predict foodchain transport of radionuclides are enumerated. Knowledge of these sources, judgement in interpreting the available data, consideration of collateral information, and established criteria that specify the desired level of conservatism in the resulting predictions are essential elements when selecting appropriate parameter values for radioecological assessment models and regulatory guides. 39 references, 4 figures, 5 tables.

  15. Value of Information Analysis in Structural Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or techniques of structural health monitoring. The Value of Information concept provides a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected benefit and for identifying the optimal among different...

  16. Delegation to Independent Regulatory Authorities in the Media Sector: A Paradigm Shift through the Lens of Regulatory Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irion, K.; Radu, R.; Schultz, W.; Valcke, P.; Irion, K.

    2014-01-01

    Today, it seems that independent regulatory authorities have almost become a natural institutional form for regulatory governance. This trend has economic and political roots, and numerous normative arguments for creating independent regulatory authorities have been put forward in the international

  17. 75 FR 79049 - Final Regulatory Guide: Issuance, Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... shipping and receiving personnel to containers that were opened in transit. This guide also incorporates... Chief, Regulatory Guide Development Branch, Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory...

  18. An analysis of the regulatory program of quality audits in radiotherapy in Brazil from 1995 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Eduardo; da Rosa, Luiz A R; Brito, Ricardo R A; de Sá, Lidia V; Dovales, Ana C M; Batista, Delano V S; Giannoni, Ricardo A; Velasco, Alexandre F

    2011-01-30

    The Brazilian Institute of Radiation Protection and Dosimetry (IRD/CNEN) carried out quality assurance regulatory audits in Brazilian radiotherapy facilities from 1995 to 2007. In this work, the set of data collected from 195 radiotherapy facilities that use high-energy photon beams are analyzed. They include results from audits in linear electron accelerators and/or Co-60 units. The inspectors of IRD/CNEN performed the dosimetry of high-energy radiotherapy photon beams according to the IAEA dosimetry protocols TRS 277 and TRS 398, and the values of measurements were compared to stated values. Other aspects of radiological protection were checked during on-site audits such as calibration certification of clinical dosimeters and portable monitors, existence and use of check source, use of barometer and thermometer, individual dose registry and training of staff. It was verified that no check source was available in 38% of the visited facilities; the training of personnel was not adequate in 9% of the facilities and the registry of accumulated individual doses was not being done in 6% of the facilities. Measurements of absorbed dose have indicated deviations in the range ± 3% for 67.6% of the cobalt-60 units and 79.6% of medical linear accelerators; 18.5% of Co-60 irradiators and 9.6% of linear accelerators presented deviations in the range 3% quality control performed by IRD/CNEN audits has yielded positive changes that make radiation treatment facilities more reliable.

  19. Managing Customer Value

    OpenAIRE

    William B. Dodds

    1999-01-01

    This paper builds the framework for linking the established work of competitive advantage with the emerging discipline of value marketing. The outcome of this linkage is the concept of strategic value management. Strategic value management focuses on the right combinations of product quality, customer service and fair prices as the key to selling to todayÕs value conscious consumers. The core of the strategy stresses the firmÕs ability to combine and manage these dimensions of value in a way ...

  20. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  1. Critical values in hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, A; Aslan, B; Raby, A; Bourner, G; Padmore, R

    2015-02-01

    Critical values are life-threatening results that require immediate notification to the patient's healthcare provider. Accreditation bodies require laboratories to establish critical values. A survey of Ontario laboratories was conducted to determine current practice for critical values in hematology. The survey was sent to 182 participants questioning sources for establishing critical values, levels, review frequency, delta checks, and reporting. The survey was completed by laboratory managers, supervisors, technical specialists, senior technologists, and bench technologists working in hematology. The majority of participating laboratories have established critical values limits for hemoglobin, leukocyte counts, and platelet counts. Most laboratories also include the presence of malaria parasites and blast cells. Some laboratories reported the presence of plasma cells, sickle cells, schistocytes, and spherocytes as critical values. Multiple sources are used for establishing a critical value policy. There was variability for the frequency of critical values review. Rules may differ for a first-time patient sample vs. a repeat patient sample. Delta checks are seldom used to determine whether a result should be called a critical value. Most participants require the individual taking the critical result(s) to read back and confirm that they are directly involved with the patient's care. There is a lack of consensus for critical values reporting in hematology. As critical value reporting is crucial for patient safety, standardization of this practice would be beneficial. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Regulatory aspects of fire toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, G L

    1987-12-01

    Fire creates a complex toxic environment involving flame, heat, oxygen depletion, smoke, and toxic gases. The nature of that environment is dependent upon not only the materials present but on the fire event, that is, the fire scenario. Materials have different toxic gas profiles under different conditions; therefore, toxic fire gas generation is not intrinsic to any one material. Large fires in buildings constitute a severe toxic threat regardless of the materials being burned. In the past, building codes in the United States included the phrase, "no more toxic than wood," in reference to fire gases from building materials. Such phrases have recently been deleted, because of the lack of either an accepted definition or test methodology to assess toxicity. While several states have attempted regulatory activity, the most recent approach (taken by the state of New York) has been the establishment of a data bank on toxic potency of building and furnishing materials. The utility of such a data bank without available hazard analysis methodology is open to discussion, since toxic potency data are not directly applicable to toxic hazard assessment. A number of small-scale animal exposure tests have been developed to assess the potency of the toxic combustion products from combustible materials. Criticism of these tests relates to the relevance of the combustion module (a smoke generation apparatus) and the appropriateness of the animal model, particularly for irritant gases. Recent data from more than 2000 fire fatality cases and carbon monoxide exposure cases are discussed in this paper to help put small-scale laboratory test results into perspective. Toxicity is only one of the several fire properties related to materials. All fire parameters are interrelated, that is, they are not independent variables. Thus, predicting the toxicity of burning materials is a problem without a comprehensive solution. Measures have been taken, however, to reduce the number of fires and

  3. The Value of the P Value

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of th...

  4. Evolutionary bioscience as regulatory systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric H

    2011-09-01

    At present several entirely different explanatory approaches compete to illuminate the mechanisms by which animal body plans have evolved. Their respective relevance is briefly considered here in the light of modern knowledge of genomes and the regulatory processes by which development is controlled. Just as development is a system property of the regulatory genome, causal explanation of evolutionary change in developmental process must be considered at a system level. Here I enumerate some mechanistic consequences that follow from the conclusion that evolution of the body plan has occurred by alteration of the structure of developmental gene regulatory networks. The hierarchy and multiple additional design features of these networks act to produce Boolean regulatory state specification functions at upstream phases of development of the body plan. These are created by the logic outputs of network subcircuits, and in modern animals these outputs are impervious to continuous adaptive variation unlike genes operating more peripherally in the network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    . This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...

  6. Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...

  7. 76 FR 40144 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... Certifications Application (ORCA) now collects this data centrally from interested A&E vendors at the time they... learning (i.e., HBCUs/MIs). This is a significant regulatory action and, therefore, was subject to review...

  8. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  9. A study of bacterial gene regulatory mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sabine

    the different regulatory mechanisms affect system dynamics. We have designed a synthetic gene regulatory network (GRN) in bacterial cells that enables us to study the dynamics of GRNs. The results presented in this PhD thesis show that model equations based on the established mechanisms of action of each...... of a particular type of regulatory mechanism. The synthetic system presented in this thesis is, to our knowledge, the first of its kind to allow a direct comparison of the dynamic behaviors of gene regulatory networks that employ different mechanisms of regulation. In addition to studying the dynamic behavior...... of GRNs this thesis also provided the first evidence of the sensor histidine kinase VC1831 being an additional player in the Vibrio cholerae quorum sensing (QS) GRN. Bacteria use a process of cell-cell communication called QS which enable the bacterial cells to collectively control their gene expression...

  10. 77 FR 10351 - Regulatory Review Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... the Code of Federal Regulations and are also posted on the FHFA Internet Web site at http://www.fhfa... discernible regulatory burden or inefficiency; (3) Marketplace developments, technological evolution and...

  11. 75 FR 81112 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... shall begin after the last year of augmented seeding, fertilizing, irrigation, or other work, excluding... regulatory authority may approve selective husbandry practices, excluding augmented seeding, fertilization... is defined as a secondary seeding into established revegetation to improve composition, diversity or...

  12. 78 FR 1646 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    .../13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Deborah Erwin, Attorney-Advisor in..., Phone: 202 501-2164, Email: deborah.erwin@gsa.gov . RIN: 9000-AL82 416. FAR Case 2010-013, Privacy...

  13. 78 FR 44341 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    .../13 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact: Deborah Erwin, Attorney-Advisor in..., Phone: 202 501-2164, Email: deborah.erwin@gsa.gov . RIN: 9000-AL82 279. Federal Acquisition Regulation...

  14. Regulatory Hybridization in the Transnational Sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybridization has become a defining feature of regulatory frameworks. The combined forces of globalization and privatization together with increased reliance on self-regulation have resulted in the emergence of a multitude of regulatory arrangements which combine elements from several legal orders....... This book offers a conceptual framework as well as numerous empirical explorations capable of increasing our understanding of regulatory hybridization. A number of central dichotomies are deconstructed: national vs. transnational law; international vs. transnational law; convergence vs. divergence; … read...... moresoft law vs. hard law; territorial vs. non-territorial, ‘top-down’ vs. ‘bottom-up’ globalization and national vs. global just as the implications of regulatory hybridization for the question of choice of court and conflict of laws are analyzed....

  15. Measuring Regulatory Restrictions in Logistics Services

    OpenAIRE

    Claire HOLLWEG; Marn-Heong WONG

    2009-01-01

    This study measures the extent of restrictions on trade in logistics services in the ASEAN+6 economies by constructing a logistics regulatory restrictiveness index for each economy that quantifies the extent of government regulations faced by logistics service providers. This is the first study of its kind to construct a regulatory index of the entire logistics sector, which includes the main modes of international transport and customs restrictions. The indices show that large differences ex...

  16. Mission Risk Reduction Regulatory Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scroggins, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    NASA Headquarters Environmental Management Division supports NASA's mission to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research by integrating environmental considerations into programs and projects early-on, thereby proactively reducing NASA's exposure to institutional, programmatic and operational risk. As part of this effort, NASA established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) as a resource for detecting, analyzing, and communicating environmental regulatory risks to the NASA stakeholder community. The RRAC PC focuses on detecting emerging environmental regulations and other operational change drivers that may pose risks to NASA programs and facilities, and effectively communicating the potential risks. For example, regulatory change may restrict how and where certain activities or operations may be conducted. Regulatory change can also directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage applications of certain materials. Regulatory change can result in significant adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities due to NASA's stringent performance requirements for materials and components related to human-rated space vehicles. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented a system for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the process utilized by the RRACPC to communicate regulatory change and the associated

  17. Regulatory frameworks for mobile medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Censi, Federica; Mattei, Eugenio; Triventi, Michele; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-05-01

    A mobile application (app) is a software program that runs on mobile communication devices such as a smartphone. The concept of a mobile medical app has gained popularity and diffusion but its reference regulatory context has raised discussion and concerns. Theoretically, a mobile app can be developed and uploaded easily by any person or entity. Thus, if an app can have some effects on the health of the users, it is mandatory to identify its reference regulatory context and the applicable prescriptions.

  18. A Regulatory RNA Inducing Transgenerationally Inherited Phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lea Møller

    . The variation in Arabidopsis enables different regulatory networks and mechanisms to shape the phenotypic characteristics. The thesis describes the identification of regulatory RNA encoded by an enzyme encoding gene. The RNA regulates by inducing transgenerationally inherited phenotypes. The function of the RNA...... is dependent on the genetic background illustrating that polymorphisms are found in either interactors or target genes of the RNA. Furthermore, the RNA provides a mechanistic link between accumulation of glucosinolate and onset of flowering....

  19. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  20. Apprehending multicellularity: regulatory networks, genomics, and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M

    2009-06-01

    The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the "network view" of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and nonprotein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch subnetwork, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct.

  1. Apprehending multicellularity: regulatory networks, genomics and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, L.; Anantharaman, Vivek; Venancio, Thiago M.

    2009-01-01

    The genomic revolution has provided the first glimpses of the architecture of regulatory networks. Combined with evolutionary information, the “network view” of life processes leads to remarkable insights into how biological systems have been shaped by various forces. This understanding is critical because biological systems, including regulatory networks, are not products of engineering but of historical contingencies. In this light, we attempt a synthetic overview of the natural history of regulatory networks operating in the development and differentiation of multicellular organisms. We first introduce regulatory networks and their organizational principles as can be deduced using ideas from the graph theory. We then discuss findings from comparative genomics to illustrate the effects of lineage-specific expansions, gene-loss, and non-protein-coding DNA on the architecture of networks. We consider the interaction between expansions of transcription factors, and cis regulatory and more general chromatin state stabilizing elements in the emergence of morphological complexity. Finally, we consider a case study of the Notch sub-network, which is present throughout Metazoa, to examine how such a regulatory system has been pieced together in evolution from new innovations and pre-existing components that were originally functionally distinct. PMID:19530132

  2. Putative regulatory factors associated with intramuscular fat content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline S M Cesar

    Full Text Available Intramuscular fat (IMF content is related to insulin resistance, which is an important prediction factor for disorders, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity and type 2 diabetes in human. At the same time, it is an economically important trait, which influences the sensorial and nutritional value of meat. The deposition of IMF is influenced by many factors such as sex, age, nutrition, and genetics. In this study Nellore steers (Bos taurus indicus subspecies were used to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in IMF content. This was accomplished by identifying differentially expressed genes (DEG, biological pathways and putative regulatory factors. Animals included in this study had extreme genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV for IMF. RNA-seq analysis, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA and co-expression network methods, such as partial correlation coefficient with information theory (PCIT, regulatory impact factor (RIF and phenotypic impact factor (PIF were utilized to better understand intramuscular adipogenesis. A total of 16,101 genes were analyzed in both groups (high (H and low (L GEBV and 77 DEG (FDR 10% were identified between the two groups. Pathway Studio software identified 13 significantly over-represented pathways, functional classes and small molecule signaling pathways within the DEG list. PCIT analyses identified genes with a difference in the number of gene-gene correlations between H and L group and detected putative regulatory factors involved in IMF content. Candidate genes identified by PCIT include: ANKRD26, HOXC5 and PPAPDC2. RIF and PIF analyses identified several candidate genes: GLI2 and IGF2 (RIF1, MPC1 and UBL5 (RIF2 and a host of small RNAs, including miR-1281 (PIF. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie fat content and energy balance in muscle and provide important information for the production of healthier beef for human consumption.

  3. Towards innovative roadside monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, G.; Appel, E.; Magiera, T.

    2012-04-01

    Soil contamination along roadsides is an important factor of anthropogenic point source pollution. Climatic and traffic-specific factors influence the amount and characteristics of pollution emitted and deposited in the roadside soil. In our present study we focus on monitoring typical traffic pollutants (heavy metals HM, platinum group elements, polycyclic hydrocarbons PAH), and investigate the use of magnetic parameters, especially magnetic susceptibility (MS) as proxy. Monitoring plots were installed along roadside in areas with different climatic conditions and different traffic-specific activities (traffic density and speed, vehicle types, abrasion of tires, brake linings, petrol/diesel compounds and road maintenance). For monitoring we removed 10-15 cm of top soil at 1 m distance from the roadside edge and placed 30 plastic boxes there filled with clean quartz sand, to be sampled after regular intervals within two years. Preliminary data from the first year of monitoring are presented. Magnetic results revealed that a coarse grained magnetite-like phase is responsible for the enhancement of magnetic concentration. The mass-specific MS and concentration of pollutants (HM, PAH) all show a significant increase with time, however, there are obviously also seasonal and site-dependent effects which lead to more stable values over several months or even some decrease in the upper few cm due to migration into depth. Source identification indicates that the accumulated PAHs are primarily emissions from traffic. In order to be able to discriminate in between different kinds of transport and deposition (surface run off from the road and neighbouring soil material, splash water, air transport), we additionally established pillars at the roadside with clean quartz sampling boxes at different heights (surface, 0.5 m, 2 m). As a first surprising result we observed that the increase in the boxes at surface is not necessarily higher than at 0.5 m height. The results from our

  4. Academic performance and self-regulatory skills in elite youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Toering, Tynke T; Lyons, James; Visscher, Chris

    2010-12-01

    Although elite athletes have been reported to be high academic achievers, many elite soccer players struggle with a stereotype of being low academic achievers. The purpose of this study was to compare the academic level (pre-university or pre-vocational) and self-regulatory skills (planning, self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, effort, and self-efficacy) of elite youth soccer players aged 12-16 years (n = 128) with those of 164 age-matched controls (typical students). The results demonstrate that the elite youth soccer players are more often enrolled in the pre-university academic system, which means that they are high academic achievers, compared with the typical student. The elite players also report an increased use of self-regulatory skills, in particular self-monitoring, evaluation, reflection, and effort. In addition, control students in the pre-university system had more highly developed self-regulatory skills than those in the pre-vocational system, whereas no difference was observed within the soccer population. This suggests that the relatively stronger self-regulatory skills reported by the elite youth soccer players may be essential for performance at the highest levels of sport competition and in academia.

  5. LAT Monitored Source List Light Curves

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The LAT team monitors flux values for a number of bright sources and transient sources that have shown flares during the mission. (See up-to-date weekly reports on...

  6. Competition and regulatory policy: 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Dassiou, X.; Bilotkach, V.; Mueller, J.; Stern, J; Mirrlees-Black, J.; Rangoni, B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a short introduction to the papers in the special section below on economic regulation in infrastructure industries. The papers are from the CCRP Research Workshop held at City University, London in January 2012. The topics covered include (i) supply-side competition for airports (Bilotkatch and Mueller); (ii) resource cost pricing in the water supply industry and how best to establish the value of water (Stern and Mirrlees-Black); and (iii) the role and regulation of hydr...

  7. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  8. Regionalization as an approach to regulatory systems strengthening: a case study in CARICOM member states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Charles; Chahal, Harinder S; Porrás, Analia; Cargill, Lucette; Hinds, Maryam; Olowokure, Babatunde; Cummings, Rudolph; Hospedales, James

    2016-05-01

    Improving basic capacities for regulation of medicines and health technologies through regulatory systems strengthening is particularly challenging in resource-constrained settings. "Regionalization"-an approach in which countries with common histories, cultural values, languages, and economic conditions work together to establish more efficient systems-may be one answer. This report describes the Caribbean Regulatory System (CRS), a regionalization initiative being implemented in the mostly small countries of the Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM). This initiative is an innovative effort to strengthen regulatory systems in the Caribbean, where capacity is limited compared to other subregions of the Americas. The initiative's concept and design includes a number of features and steps intended to enhance sustainability in resource-constrained contexts. The latter include 1) leveraging existing platforms for centralized cooperation, governance, and infrastructure; 2) strengthening regulatory capacities with the largest potential public health impact; 3) incorporating policies that promote reliance on reference authorities; 4) changing the system to encourage industry to market their products in CARICOM (e.g., using a centralized portal of entry to reduce regulatory burdens); and 5) building human resource capacity. If implemented properly, the CRS will be self-sustaining through user fees. The experience and lessons learned thus far in implementing this initiative, described in this report, can serve as a case study for the development of similar regulatory strengthening initiatives in resource-constrained environments.

  9. Expert views on regulatory preparedness for managing the risks of nanotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudrie, Christian E H; Satterfield, Terre; Kandlikar, Milind; Harthorn, Barbara H

    2013-01-01

    The potential and promise of nanotechnologies depends in large part on the ability for regulatory systems to assess and manage their benefits and risks. However, considerable uncertainty persists regarding the health and environmental implications of nanomaterials, hence the capacity for existing regulations to meet this challenge has been widely questioned. Here we draw from a survey (N=254) of US-based nano-scientists and engineers, environmental health and safety scientists, and regulatory scientists and decision-makers, to ask whether nano experts regard regulatory agencies as prepared for managing nanomaterial risks. We find that all three expert groups view regulatory agencies as unprepared. The effect is strongest for regulators themselves, and less so for scientists conducting basic, applied, or health and safety work on nanomaterials. Those who see nanotechnology risks as novel, uncertain, and difficult to assess are particularly likely to see agencies as unprepared. Trust in regulatory agencies, views of stakeholder responsibility regarding the management of risks, and socio-political values were also found to be small but significant drivers of perceived agency preparedness. These results underscore the need for new tools and methods to enable the assessment of nanomaterial risks, and to renew confidence in regulatory agencies' ability to oversee their growing use and application in society.

  10. KWOC (Key-Word-Out-of-Context) Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, S.D.

    1990-04-01

    To meet the objectives of the program funded by the Department of Energy (DOE)-Nuclear Energy (NE) Technology Support Programs, the Performance Assurance Project Office (PAPO) administers a Performance Assurance Information Program that collects, compiles, and distributes program-related information, reports, and publications for the benefit of the DOE-NE program participants. THE KWOC Index of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide Series'' is prepared as an aid in searching for specific topics in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Regulatory Guide Series.

  11. Institution-specific value

    OpenAIRE

    Ken Peasnell

    2006-01-01

    The introduction of a new accounting standard for financial instruments, has raised a number of issues related to the application of fair value principles. This paper discusses some of these issues which are generally related to the fact that "fair values" are not always easily defined or readily available. It concludes that the application of fair value for financial liabilities might present fewer complications if it is matched by similar valuation principles for financial assets. The issue...

  12. Nordic Noir Production Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors argue that Nordic noir constitutes a set of production values utilised and conceptualised to make Danish television series attractive in the international market. The idea of production values is embedded into a media industrial context where market principles of target...... by relating the specific Nordic noir production values present in the two series to changing conditions in Danish television drama production, in particular the internationalisation of DR’s Drama Division....

  13. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  14. Regulatory regimes and bank behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Weon Lee

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine how the risk-taking behavior differed between Korean regional banks and national banks for the two different regulatory regimes; a very loose regulation period (1994-1997 and a very tightened regulation period (1998-2005. From the panel analysis over the period 1994-2005, we found that regional banks took riskier strategies than national banks when banking regulations are loose. Moreover, their higher risk-taking contributed to higher profit under the period of loose regulation. However, after the banking regulations were tightened after financial crisis around the late 1990s, this phenomenon disappeared and the tendency of regional banks to take greater risk than national banks was not observed any more. Also, the positive relationship between risk-taking and profitability was not observed either after regulations were tightened. These empirical findings would have the following policy implications. When the economic conditions are good, and therefore, banking regulations are relatively loose, the greater risk-taking of regional banks could be profitable, because regional banks are in a better situation in terms of maintaining their market share based on the close ties with their regional clients, and can be protected from excessive competition with national banks. But, if the economic conditions get worse and financial crisis occurs, and therefore, banking regulations get tightened, regional banks are more adversely and sensitively affected by these shocks than national banks because their size is small and their assets are less diversified than national banks, especially being concentrated on loans to small and medium size business sector and real estate loans, which are very sensitive to the fluctuation of the economy. Furthermore, if these adverse economic and financial shocks continue long, the probability of regional banks to fail would be substantially higher and it can cause a serious damage to

  15. Population pharmacokinetics. A regulatory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H; Fadiran, E O; Jones, C D; Lesko, L; Huang, S M; Higgins, K; Hu, C; Machado, S; Maldonado, S; Williams, R; Hossain, M; Ette, E I

    1999-07-01

    data analysis, model development and model validation (i.e. predictive performance). Documentation for regulatory purposes should include a complete inventory of key runs in the analyses undertaken (with flow diagrams if possible), accompanied by articulation of objectives, assumptions and hypotheses. Use of diagnostic analyses of goodness of fit as evidence of reliability of results is advised. Finally, the use of stability testing or model validation may be warranted to support label claims. The opinions expressed in this article were revised by incorporating comments from various sources and published by the FDA as 'Guidance for Industry: Population Pharmacokinetics' (see the FDA home page http:/(/)www.fda.gov for further information).

  16. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  17. A Critique of the Notions of Law and Ethics as Regulatory Systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Law and ethics are in their very natures, regulatory instruments and/or control mechanisms, for the proper direction of society towards the common good. While ethics as a system of moral values recommends what ought to be done or avoided, law commands the observance of those acts to be done and prohibits their ...

  18. 76 FR 55449 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board; Notice of Filing of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... services. It would also apply to gifts and entertainment provided by a municipal advisor to employees of... thing or service of value to be given would have to be an actual gift and not payments and/or costs... (Preservation of Records), and To Clarify That Certain Interpretations by the Financial Industry Regulatory...

  19. Patients’ perspective on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients’ complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made

  20. Patients’ perspective on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, R.J.R.; Bomhoff, M.; Robben, P.; Friele, R.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients' complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made complaints expect to

  1. Patients' perspectives on the role of their complaints in the regulatory process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Bouwman (Renée); M.C. Bomhoff (Manja); P.B.M. Robben (Paul); R.D. Friele (Roland)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Governments in several countries are facing problems concerning the accountability of regulators in health care. Questions have been raised about how patients' complaints should be valued in the regulatory process. However, it is not known what patients who made complaints

  2. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    are negatively correlated with each other, both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three-factor model. Global funding liquidity risk is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value......We find consistent value and momentum return premia across eight diverse markets and asset classes, and a strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum returns correlate more strongly across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes, but value and momentum...

  3. Values and entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Urbanová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the importance of values ​​in business development. The authors remind M. Weber and his study about the impact of Protestantism on business development. After defining the concept of value, attention is focused on the theory of R.K. Merton, T. Parsons, R. Inglehart. Using the critical sociological approach the authors reflect on the research strategies in the area of values. In this context is mentioned for example the issue of ideal and real cultures – ideal cultures consist of norms and values to which people officially claim, e.g. values of Christian civilization, values of Central Europe; so-called universal values are very often (or should be a base for legal norms. Real cultures represent a pattern according to which people act and regard it socially acceptable. In this context is also discussed the question of individualism without responsibility that is typical for current western society as well as for the Czech society of last decades. Value orientations are patterns for expected roles, culturally defined types of human relations, expressing the basic attitudes in social interaction. The level of prevailing business values is visible also in many multinational corporations espousing the concept of corporate social responsibility within their promotion but violating it in reality.

  4. Emerging sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Sachdeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred values are different from secular values in that they are often associated with violations of the cost-benefit logic of rational choice models. Previous work on sacred values has been largely limited to religious or territorial conflicts deeply embedded in historical contexts. In this work we find that the Iranian nuclear program, a relatively recent development, is treated as sacred by some Iranians, leading to a greater disapproval of deals which involve monetary incentives to end the program. Our results suggest that depending on the prevalence of such values, incentive-focused negotiations may backfire.

  5. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly) postmod......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly......) postmodernism, with specific focus on his value theory, in order to understand his own reasons for abandoning his previous position. I then follow the marginal stream of scholars who are making use of the early Baudrillard. I find his value theory promising but still a mere sketch rather than an actual general...... theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least...

  6. Data monitoring committees: Promoting best practices to address emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Thomas R; DeMets, David L; Roe, Matthew T; Wittes, Janet; Calis, Karim A; Vora, Amit N; Meisel, Alan; Bain, Raymond P; Konstam, Marvin A; Pencina, Michael J; Gordon, David J; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Hennekens, Charles H; Neaton, James D; Pearson, Gail D; Andersson, Tomas Lg; Pfeffer, Marc A; Ellenberg, Susan S

    2017-04-01

    Data monitoring committees are responsible for safeguarding the interests of study participants and assuring the integrity and credibility of clinical trials. The independence of data monitoring committees from sponsors and investigators is essential in achieving this mission. Creative approaches are needed to address ongoing and emerging challenges that potentially threaten data monitoring committees' independence and effectiveness. An expert panel of representatives from academia, industry and government sponsors, and regulatory agencies discussed these challenges and proposed best practices and operating principles for effective functioning of contemporary data monitoring committees. Prospective data monitoring committee members need better training. Options could include didactic instruction as well as apprenticeships to provide real-world experience. Data monitoring committee members should be protected against legal liability arising from their service. While avoiding breaches in confidentiality of interim data remains a high priority, data monitoring committees should have access to unblinded efficacy and safety data throughout the trial to enable informed judgments about risks and benefits. Because overly rigid procedures can compromise their independence, data monitoring committees should have the flexibility necessary to best fulfill their responsibilities. Data monitoring committee charters should articulate principles that guide the data monitoring committee process rather than list a rigid set of requirements. Data monitoring committees should develop their recommendations by consensus rather than through voting processes. The format for the meetings of the data monitoring committee should maintain the committee's independence and clearly establish the leadership of the data monitoring committee chair. The independent statistical group at the Statistical Data Analysis Center should have sufficient depth of knowledge about the study at hand and

  7. Potential effects of environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeland, G.V.; Boies, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    The potential effects of several types of applicable environmental regulatory procedures on geothermal development were assessed, and particular problem areas were identified. The possible impact of procedures adopted pursuant to the following Federal statutes were analyzed: Clean Air Act; Clean Water Act; Safe Drinking Water Act; and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. State regulations applicable, or potentially applicable, to geothermal facilities were also reviewed to determine: permit information requirements; pre-permit air or water quality monitoring requirements; effect of mandated time frames for permit approval; and potential for exemption of small facilities. The regulations of the following states were covered in the review: Alaska; Arizona; California; Colorado; Hawaii; Idaho; Montana; Nevada; New Mexico; Oregon; Utah; Washington; and Wyoming. (MHR)

  8. Liquid Biopsies in Oncology and the Current Regulatory Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotman, Lindsay N; Millner, Lori M; Valdes, Roland; Linder, Mark W

    2016-10-01

    There is a profound need in oncology to detect cancer earlier, guide individualized therapies, and better monitor progress during treatment. Currently, some of this information can be achieved through solid tissue biopsy and imaging. However, these techniques are limited because of the invasiveness of the procedure and the size of the tumor. A liquid biopsy can overcome these barriers as its non-invasive nature allows samples to be collected over time. Liquid biopsies may also allow earlier detection than traditional imaging. Liquid biopsies include the analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs), cell-free nucleic acid (cfNA), or extracellular vesicles obtained from a variety of biofluids, such as peripheral blood. In this review, we discuss different liquid biopsy types and how they fit into the current regulatory landscape.

  9. NASA's Agency-wide Strategy for Environmental Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Kristen; Scroggins. Sharon

    2008-01-01

    NASA's mission is to pioneer the future in space exploration, scientific discovery, and aeronautics research. To help enable existing and future programs to pursue this mission, NASA has established the Principal Center for Regulatory Risk Analysis and Communication (RRAC PC) to proactively identify, analyze, and communicate environmental regulatory risks to the NASA community. The RRAC PC is chartered to evaluate the risks posed to NASA Programs and facilities by environmentally related drivers. The RRAC PC focuses on emerging environmental regulations, as well as risks related to operational changes that can trigger existing environmental requirements. Changing regulations have the potential to directly affect program activities. For example, regulatory changes can restrict certain activities or operations by mandating changes in how operations may be done or limiting where or how certain operations can take place. Regulatory changes also can directly affect the ability to use certain materials by mandating a production phase-out or restricting usage aPi'iications of certain materials. Such changes can result in NASA undertaking material replacement efforts. Even if a regulation does not directly affect NASA operations, U.S. and international regulations can pose program risks indirectly through requirements levied on manufacturers and vendors of components and materials. For example, manufacturers can change their formulations to comply with new regulatory requirements. Such changes can require time-consuming and costly requalification certification for use in human spaceflight programs. The RRAC PC has implemented several strategies for proactively managing regulatory change to minimize potential adverse impacts to NASA Programs and facilities. This presentation highlights the lessons learned through establishing the RRAC PC, the process by which the RRAC PC monitors and distributes information about emerging regulatory requirements, and the cross

  10. Problems of the Procedure for Regulatory Impact Analysis of Draft Normative Legal Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Olga Yu.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to investigate the procedure for regulatory impact analysis and identify problems caused by the adoption of ineffective normative legal acts. The essence of the concept “regulatory impact analysis” and its main tasks are considered. The legislation in the field of RIA is studied, and the contradictions in terms of determining the number of stages of analysis and the timing of the baseline performance monitoring revealed. There made conclusions regarding the unsatisfactory quality of the developed RIAs and presence of violations of legislation requirements by regulatory bodies, mandatory promulgation of the draft normative legal act along with the analysis. There identified the most problematic stages of RIA for the developers, which include identification of mandatory performance indicators, evaluation of compliance with the requirements of the regulatory act and definition of the problem. It is suggested to improve the methodology for regulatory impact analysis by completing the list of its main stages with evaluation of quality and adjustment of RIA. Recommendations for eliminating contradictions in the legislation in the field of RIA are developed.

  11. Standardization as Institutional Work: The Regulatory Power of a Responsible Investment Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, R.; Gond, J-P.; Moon, J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper conceptualizes standardization as institutional work to study the emergence of a standard and the deployment of its regulatory power. We rely on unique access to longitudinal archival data for exploring how the FTSE4Good index, a responsible investment index, emerged as a standard for socially responsible corporate behavior. Our results show how three types of standardization work - calculative framing, engaging and valorizing - support the design, legitimation and monitoring proce...

  12. Intercomparison run for uranium and tritium determination in urine samples, organised by Nuclear Regulatory Authority, Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Serdeiro, N H; Equillor, H E

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), Argentina, has carried out an intercomparison run for tritium and uranium determination in urine, in November 2002. The aim of this exercise was to assess the performance of the laboratories that usually inform these radionuclides and to provide technical support in order to have an appropriate occupational monitoring in vitro. In the present work, the results of the intercomparison and the assessment of each laboratory are published.

  13. Children's Self-Regulatory Behaviors during Teacher-Directed, Seat-Work, and Small-Group Instructional Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Supplee, Lauren H.

    2002-01-01

    Observed differences between third graders' self-regulatory behaviors in three instructional contexts (teacher directed, seatwork, and small group). Children were most self-regulated but most likely to be disorganized during small group work and seatwork; least likely to attend to instructions, monitor work, and seek help during teacher directed…

  14. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-02-19

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program, requires each DOE site to conduct environmental monitoring. Environmental monitoring at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is conducted in order to: (a) Verify and support compliance with applicable federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, permits, and orders; (b) Establish baselines and characterize trends in the physical, chemical, and biological condition of effluent and environmental media; (c) Identify potential environmental problems and evaluate the need for remedial actions or measures to mitigate the problem; (d) Detect, characterize, and report unplanned releases; (e) Evaluate the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control, and pollution abatement programs; and (f) Determine compliance with commitments made in environmental impact statements, environmental assessments, safety analysis reports, or other official DOE documents. This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) has been written to contain the rationale and design criteria for the monitoring program, extent and frequency of monitoring and measurements, procedures for laboratory analyses, quality assurance (QA) requirements, program implementation procedures, and direction for the preparation and disposition of reports. Changes to the environmental monitoring program may be necessary to allow the use of advanced technology and new data collection techniques. This EMP will document any proposed changes in the environmental monitoring program. Guidance for preparation of Environmental Monitoring Plans is contained in DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance. The plan will be effective when it is approved by the appropriate Head of Field Organization or their designee. The plan discusses major environmental monitoring and hydrology activities at the WIPP and describes the programs established to ensure that WIPP operations do not

  15. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to avoid teaching values. However, on the other hand, shaping students in some preset molding is apparently non-dialogic and uncritical (Matusov, 2009. In the former case, successful teaching is defined by how well and deeply the students accept and commit to the taught values. In the latter case, successful dialogic teaching may be defined by students’ critical examination of their own values against alternative values in a critical dialogue. Below, Eugene Matusov and Jay Lemke, active participants of this Facebook dialogue, provide their reflection on this important issue and encourage readers to join their reflective dialogue.[1] See in a public Facebook domain: https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/894734337204533, https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/896916850319615

  16. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management...

  17. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  18. Looking for Core Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  19. Valuing and pricing IPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates how underwriters set the IPO firm’s fair value, an ex-ante estimate of the market value, using a unique dataset of 228 reports from French underwriters. These reports are issued before the IPO shares start trading on the stock market and detail how underwriters

  20. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.