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Sample records for values previous studies

  1. Preoperative screening: value of previous tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, D S; Snow, R; Lofgren, R P

    1990-12-15

    To determine the frequency of tests done in the year before elective surgery that might substitute for preoperative screening tests and to determine the frequency of test results that change from a normal value to a value likely to alter perioperative management. Retrospective cohort analysis of computerized laboratory data (complete blood count, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels, prothrombin time, and partial thromboplastin time). Urban tertiary care Veterans Affairs Hospital. Consecutive sample of 1109 patients who had elective surgery in 1988. At admission, 7549 preoperative tests were done, 47% of which duplicated tests performed in the previous year. Of 3096 previous results that were normal as defined by hospital reference range and done closest to the time of but before admission (median interval, 2 months), 13 (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.2% to 0.7%), repeat values were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery. Most of the abnormalities were predictable from the patient's history, and most were not noted in the medical record. Of 461 previous tests that were abnormal, 78 (17%; CI, 13% to 20%) repeat values at admission were outside a range considered acceptable for surgery (P less than 0.001, frequency of clinically important abnormalities of patients with normal previous results with those with abnormal previous results). Physicians evaluating patients preoperatively could safely substitute the previous test results analyzed in this study for preoperative screening tests if the previous tests are normal and no obvious indication for retesting is present.

  2. Value and reliability of findings from previous epidemiologic studies in the assessment of radiation-related cancer risks. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frasch, G.; Martignoni, K.

    1990-01-01

    The theories put forward here are predominantly based on pooled data from previous studies in a number of cohorts made up by mostly non-average individuals. These studies were carried out by various researchers and differed in procedures and aims. Factors of major importance to the validity and reliability of the conclusions drawn from this study are pointed out. In one chapter some light is thrown on factors known to bear a relation to the incidence of radiation-induced cancer of the breast, even though at present this can only very vaguely be described on a quantitative basis. These factors include fractionated dose regimens, pregnancies and parturitions, menarche, menopause, synergisms as well as secondary cancer of the breast. The available body of evidence suggests that exposure of each of 1 million women to a dose of 10 mGy (rad) can be linked with approx. 3 additional cases of mammary cancer reported on an average per year after the latency period. The fact that there is some statistical scatter around this value is chiefly attributable to age-related causes at the beginning of exposure. Differences in ethnic and cultural characteristics between the populations investigated appeared to be less important here. (orig./MG) [de

  3. On the Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nysangaliev, A.N.; Kuspangaliev, T.K.

    1997-01-01

    Tengiz petroleum deposit previous study is described. Some consideration about structure of productive formation, specific characteristic properties of petroleum-bearing collectors are presented. Recommendation on their detail study and using of experience on exploration and development of petroleum deposit which have analogy on most important geological and industrial parameters are given. (author)

  4. Personality disorders in previously detained adolescent females: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, A.; Colins, O.F.; Doreleijers, T.A.H.; van der Molen, E.; Beekman, A.T.F.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictive value of trauma and mental health problems for the development of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in previously detained women. The participants were 229 detained adolescent females who were assessed

  5. Value of computed tomography pelvimetry in patients with a previous cesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamani, Tarik Y.; Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.

    1998-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia to determine the value of computed tomography pelivimetry in patients with a previous cesarean section. Between January 1993 and December 1995, 219 pregnant women with one previous cesarean had antenatal CT pelvimetry for assessment of the pelvis. One hundred and nineteen women did not have CT pelvimetry and served as control. Fifty-one women (51%) in the CT pelvimetry group were delivered by cesarean section. Twenty-three women (23%) underwent elective cesarean section for contracted pelvis based upon the findings of CT pelvimetry and 28 women (28%) underwent emergency cesarean section after trial of labor. In the group who did not have CT pelvimetry, 26 women (21.8%) underwent emergency cesarean section. This was a statistically significant difference (P=0.02). There were no statistically significant differences in birthweight and Apgar scores either group. There was no prenatal or maternal mortality in this study. Computed tomography pelvimetry increased the rate of cesarean delivery without any benefit in the immediate delivery outcomes. Therefore, the practice of documenting the adequacy of the pelvis by CT pelvimetry before vaginal birth after cesarean should be abandoned. (author)

  6. Reference Values for Spirometry Derived Using Lambda, Mu, Sigma (LMS) Method in Korean Adults: in Comparison with Previous References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Bum Seak; Myong, Jun Pyo; Rhee, Chin Kook; Yoon, Hyoung Kyu; Koo, Jung Wan; Kim, Hyoung Ryoul

    2018-01-15

    The present study aimed to update the prediction equations for spirometry and their lower limits of normal (LLN) by using the lambda, mu, sigma (LMS) method and to compare the outcomes with the values of previous spirometric reference equations. Spirometric data of 10,249 healthy non-smokers (8,776 females) were extracted from the fourth and fifth versions of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV, 2007-2009; V, 2010-2012). Reference equations were derived using the LMS method which allows modeling skewness (lambda [L]), mean (mu [M]), and coefficient of variation (sigma [S]). The outcome equations were compared with previous reference values. Prediction equations were presented in the following form: predicted value = e{a + b × ln(height) + c × ln(age) + M - spline}. The new predicted values for spirometry and their LLN derived using the LMS method were shown to more accurately reflect transitions in pulmonary function in young adults than previous prediction equations derived using conventional regression analysis in 2013. There were partial discrepancies between the new reference values and the reference values from the Global Lung Function Initiative in 2012. The results should be interpreted with caution for young adults and elderly males, particularly in terms of the LLN for forced expiratory volume in one second/forced vital capacity in elderly males. Serial spirometry follow-up, together with correlations with other clinical findings, should be emphasized in evaluating the pulmonary function of individuals. Future studies are needed to improve the accuracy of reference data and to develop continuous reference values for spirometry across all ages. © 2018 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  7. Radon anomalies prior to earthquakes (1). Review of previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Yasuoka, Yumi; Shinogi, Masaki; Nagahama, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yasutaka; Kawada, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between radon anomalies and earthquakes has been studied for more than 30 years. However, most of the studies dealt with radon in soil gas or in groundwater. Before the 1995 Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake, an anomalous increase of atmospheric radon was observed at Kobe Pharmaceutical University. The increase was well fitted with a mathematical model related to earthquake fault dynamics. This paper reports the significance of this observation, reviewing previous studies on radon anomaly before earthquakes. Groundwater/soil radon measurements for earthquake prediction began in 1970's in Japan as well as foreign countries. One of the most famous studies in Japan is groundwater radon anomaly before the 1978 Izu-Oshima-kinkai earthquake. We have recognized the significance of radon in earthquake prediction research, but recently its limitation was also pointed out. Some researchers are looking for a better indicator for precursors; simultaneous measurements of radon and other gases are new trials in recent studies. Contrary to soil/groundwater radon, we have not paid much attention to atmospheric radon before earthquakes. However, it might be possible to detect precursors in atmospheric radon before a large earthquake. In the next issues, we will discuss the details of the anomalous atmospheric radon data observed before the Hyogoken-Nanbu earthquake. (author)

  8. The chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test improves the predictive value of previous exacerbations for poor outcomes in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; García-Sidro, Patricia; Fernández-Nistal, Alonso; Buendía, María Jesús; Espinosa de Los Monteros, María José; Esquinas, Cristina; Molina, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations have a negative impact on the quality of life of patients and the evolution of the disease. We have investigated the prognostic value of several health-related quality of life questionnaires to predict the appearance of a composite event (new ambulatory or emergency exacerbation, hospitalization, or death) over a 1-year follow-up. This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Patients completed four questionnaires after recovering from an exacerbation (COPD Assessment Test [CAT], a Clinical COPD Questionnaire [CCQ], COPD Severity Score [COPDSS], and Airways Questionnaire [AQ20]). Patients were followed-up until the appearance of the composite event or for 1 year, whichever came first. A total of 497 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were men (89.7%), with a mean age of 68.7 (SD 9.2) years, and a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.1% (SD 17.5%). A total of 303 (61%) patients experienced a composite event. Patients with an event had worse mean scores of all questionnaires at baseline compared to patients without event: CAT=12.5 vs 11.3 (P=0.028); CCQ=2.2 vs 1.9 (P=0.013); COPDSS=12.3 vs 10.9 (P=0.001); AQ20=8.3 vs 7.5 (P=0.048). In the multivariate analysis, only previous history of exacerbations and CAT score ≥13.5 were significant risk factors for the composite event. A CAT score ≥13.5 increased the predictive value of previous exacerbations with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.864 (95% CI: 0.829-0.899; P=0.001). The predictive value of previous exacerbations significantly increased only in one of the four trialled questionnaires, namely in the CAT questionnaire. However, previous history of exacerbations was the strongest predictor of the composite event.

  9. [Population policy and women: the relevance of previous studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Barbieri, M T

    1983-01-01

    Although Mexico has had high rates of population growth since the 1930s caused by continuing high fertility but declining infant and general mortality, and has undergone deep structural change including declining agricultural production, rapid industrialization, urbanization, and increasing urban umemployment, it was not until the 1970s that the government began to adopt measures aimed at controlling population growth. Opponents of family planning argued that economic and social development would lead to fertility decline, but its proponents believed that reducing population growth would free resources for productive investment that otherwise would have to be used to finance services for the ever-growing population. At the same time that the constitution and laws were changed to allow or promote family planning, Mexican civil and labor laws were changed to provide for equality of men and women. Some background is necessary to understand the effect of such changes in the role and status of the Mexican woman. A relationship has been noted between demographic models--the form in which a society reproduces over a given time--and the social condition of women. Women have generally been subordinated to men during known history, but recent research indicates that their history has not been as uniform as once supposed. The particular form in which each society defines the natural-biological basis of sex roles varies; social definitions of sex and gender vary depending on the extension of "natural-biological" character to specific areas and tasks. The cases of French women in the 16th-18th centuries and German women under Hitler illustrate different ways in which demographic models and the condition of women have varied within a general framework of subordination of women. But when attempts are made to change a given demographic model, the condition of women is redefined at the level of practice as well as of value orientations concerning motherhood, female labor force

  10. Effect of fasting on 24-h blood pressure values of individuals with no previous history of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seker, Ayse; Demirci, Hakan; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Aydin, Ufuk; Ucar, Hakan; Yildiz, Gursel; Yaman, Ozen

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to analyze the difference in 24-h blood pressure values during Ramadan of fasting and nonfasting individuals with no previous history of hypertension. This study was planned as a multicenter research study in the cities of Izmit, Zonguldak, Sivas, and Adana. The percentage changes in the blood pressure of the patients were calculated from their blood pressure measurements at 0 h while they were resting. A Food Frequency Questionnaire was filled out by all participants. Forty patients were included in the fasting group and 55 patients were included in the nonfasting group in the study. There was a difference between the two groups in percent changes of systolic measurements performed at the 4th (5% difference and P=0.020), 13th (6% difference and P=0.015), 14th (10% difference and P=0.017), 18th (9% difference and P=0.027), 19th (9% difference and P=0.020), and 20th (6% difference and P=0.014) hours with respect to the baseline measurement at the 0 h. There was a difference between the fasting and nonfasting groups in the Fasting Food Questionnaire results. Meat consumption was significantly higher in the fasting group. A systolic blood pressure increase in fasting patients was observed in measurements at 18:00, 19:00, and 20:00 h. We believe that an increase of more than 10% in blood pressure at the time of iftar is an important result of our study in terms of the meal preferences of the individuals under risk.

  11. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Victor

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive, rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive, rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant, and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive. In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1

  12. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abulí, Anna; Morillas, Juan D; Rigau, Joaquim; Latorre, Mercedes; Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; Peña, Elena; Riestra, Sabino; Payá, Artemio; Jover, Rodrigo; Xicola, Rosa M; Llor, Xavier; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Villanueva, Cristina M; Moreno, Victor; Piqué, Josep M; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Andreu, Montserrat; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Gonzalo, Victoria; Bessa, Xavier; González, Dolors; Clofent, Joan; Cubiella, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs3803185 (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1

  13. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency. The... the original data submitter, the applicant may cite the study only in accordance with paragraphs (b...

  14. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  15. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  16. Matched cohort study of external cephalic version in women with previous cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keepanasseril, Anish; Anand, Keerthana; Soundara Raghavan, Subrahmanian

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of external cephalic version (ECV) among women with previous cesarean delivery. A retrospective study was conducted using data for women with previous cesarean delivery and breech presentation who underwent ECV at or after 36 weeks of pregnancy during 2011-2016. For every case, two multiparous women without previous cesarean delivery who underwent ECV and were matched for age and pregnancy duration were included. Characteristics and outcomes were compared between groups. ECV was successful for 32 (84.2%) of 38 women with previous cesarean delivery and 62 (81.6%) in the control group (P=0.728). Multivariate regression analysis confirmed that previous cesarean was not associated with ECV success (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 0.19-18.47; P=0.244). Successful vaginal delivery after successful ECV was reported for 19 (59.4%) women in the previous cesarean delivery group and 52 (83.9%) in the control group (P<0.001). No ECV-associated complications occurred in women with previous cesarean delivery. To avoid a repeat cesarean delivery, ECV can be offered to women with breech presentation and previous cesarean delivery who are otherwise eligible for a trial of labor. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  17. Espousing Democratic Leadership Practices: A Study of Values in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereaux, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    This article examines principals' espoused values and their values in action. It provides a reanalysis of previously collected data through a values lens. The original research study was an international quantitative and qualitative investigation of principals' leadership approaches that was based in 15 schools. This particular excerpt of the…

  18. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.; Francisco, J. L. de

    1961-01-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs

  19. Study of functional-performance deficits in athletes with previous ankle sprains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamid Babaee

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Despite the importance of functional-performance deficits in athletes with history of ankle sprain few, studies have been carried out in this area. The aim of this research was to study relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in athletes. Materials and methods: The subjects were 40 professional athletes selected through random sampling among volunteer participants in soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball teams of Lorestan province. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: Injured group (athletes with previous ankle sprains and healthy group (athletes without previous ankle sprains. In this descriptive study we used Functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test to determine ankle deficits and limitations. They participated in figure 8 hop test including hopping in 8 shape course with the length of 5 meters and side hop test including 10 side hop repetitions in course with the length of 30 centimeters. Time were recorded via stopwatch. Results: After data gathering and assessing information distributions, Pearson correlation was used to assess relationships, and independent T test to assess differences between variables. Finally the results showed that there is a significant relationship between previous ankle sprains and functional-performance deficits in the athletes. Conclusion: The athletes who had previous ankle sprains indicated functional-performance deficits more than healthy athletes in completion of mentioned functional-performance tests. The functional-performance tests (figure 8 hop test and side hop test are sensitive and suitable to assess and detect functional-performance deficits in athletes. Therefore we can use the figure 8 hop and side hop tests for goals such as prevention, assessment and rehabilitation of ankle sprains without spending too much money and time.

  20. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  1. Data from studies of previous radioactive waste disposal in Massachusetts Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, W.R.; Mardis, H.M.

    1984-12-01

    This report presents the results of studies conducted in Massachusetts Bay during 1981 and 1982. Included are data from: (1) a side scan sonar survey of disposal areas in the Bay that was carried out by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) for EPA; (2) Collections of sediment and biota by NOAA for radiochemical analysis by EPA; (3) collections of marketplace seafood samples by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for radioanalysis by both FDA and EPA; and (4) a radiological monitoring survey of LLW disposal areas by EPA to determine whether there should be any concern for public health resulting from previous LLW disposals in the Bay

  2. New Thoughts of Customer Value Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hong; Su, Zhuqing

    Customer value theory's discovery has established to take customer and even customer value as the center position for research of marketing, which is good progress of marketing theory. However, in the past researches for customer value emphasized customer perceived value, there was no good answer on which customers perceived with what scale. This paper states that customer perceived value is established in value transmission mechanism of its rear, which is based on the role of consumption values. With a market environment's change, and the strength of consumer's sovereignty consciousness, especially when personal consumption is identified and developed to become a mainstream consume culture in nowadays society, the role of the transmission is increasingly in evidence. Studies of consumeption values are to deepen customer value theory.

  3. A longitudinal study of plasma insulin and glucagon in women with previous gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, P; Kühl, C; Hornnes, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether plasma insulin or glucagon predicts later development of diabetes in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The subjects studied were 91 women with diet-treated GDM and 33 healthy women. Plasma insulin and glucagon during a 50...... at follow-up (2 had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, 13 had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and 12 had impaired glucose tolerance). Compared with the control subjects, women with previous GDM had relatively impaired insulin secretion (decreased insulinogenic index and delayed peak insulin...... for subsequent development of overt diabetes (logistic regression analysis). CONCLUSIONS: Women who develop GDM have a relative insulin secretion deficiency, the severity of which is predictive for later development of diabetes. Furthermore, our data indicate that their relatively reduced beta-cell function may...

  4. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, Ali, E-mail: almakhsme@gmail.com; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  5. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, Ali; Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10 3 MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO 2 eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10 −6 t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10 −6 t SO 2 eq respectively

  6. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  7. A New Zealand based cohort study of anaesthetic trainees' career outcomes compared with previously expressed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, E M L; French, R A; Kennedy, R R

    2011-09-01

    Predicting workforce requirements is a difficult but necessary part of health resource planning. A 'snapshot' workforce survey undertaken in 2002 examined issues that New Zealand anaesthesia trainees expected would influence their choice of future workplace. We have restudied the same cohort to see if that workforce survey was a good predictor of outcome. Seventy (51%) of 138 surveys were completed in 2009 compared with 100 (80%) of 138 in the 2002 survey. Eighty percent of the 2002 respondents planned consultant positions in New Zealand. We found 64% of respondents were working in New Zealand (P New Zealand based respondents but only 40% of those living outside New Zealand agreed or strongly agreed with this statement (P New Zealand but was important for only 2% of those resident in New Zealand (P New Zealand were predominantly between NZ$150,000 and $200,000 while those overseas received between NZ$300,000 and $400,000. Of those that are resident in New Zealand, 84% had studied in a New Zealand medical school compared with 52% of those currently working overseas (P < 0.01). Our study shows that stated career intentions in a group do not predict the actual group outcomes. We suggest that 'snapshot' studies examining workforce intentions are of little value for workforce planning. However we believe an ongoing program matching career aspirations against career outcomes would be a useful tool in workforce planning.

  8. Fire Risk Scoping Study: Investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk, including previously unaddressed issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Nowlen, S.P.; Nicolette, V.F.; Bohn, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation of nuclear power plant fire risk issues raised as a result of the USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories has been performed. The specific objectives of this study were (1) to review and requantify fire risk scenarios from four fire probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) in light of updated data bases made available as a result of USNRC sponsored Fire Protection Research Program and updated computer fire modeling capabilities, (2) to identify potentially significant fire risk issues that have not been previously addressed in a fire risk context and to quantify the potential impact of those identified fire risk issues where possible, and (3) to review current fire regulations and plant implementation practices for relevance to the identified unaddressed fire risk issues. In performance of the fire risk scenario requantifications several important insights were gained. It was found that utilization of a more extensive operational experience base resulted in both fire occurrence frequencies and fire duration times (i.e., time required for fire suppression) increasing significantly over those assumed in the original works. Additionally, some thermal damage threshold limits assumed in the original works were identified as being nonconservative based on more recent experimental data. Finally, application of the COMPBRN III fire growth model resulted in calculation of considerably longer fire damage times than those calculated in the original works using COMPBRN I. 14 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs

  9. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Rancidity inhibition study in frozen whole mackerel (scomber scombrus by a previous plant extract treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubourg, Santiago P.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum on rancidity development in frozen whole mackerel (Scomber scombrus was studied. For it, fresh mackerel were dipped in flaxseeds aqueous extract during 60 min, frozen at –80 ºC during 24 hours and kept frozen (–20 ºC up to 12 months. Sampling was carried out on the initial material and at months 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 12 of frozen storage at –20 ºC. A parallel experiment with non treated fish was carried out in the same conditions. Rancidity development was measured by several biochemical indices (free fatty acids, peroxides, conjugated dienes and trienes, secondary oxidation products and lipoxygenase activity and complemented by the sensory analysis (skin, flesh odour, consistency and flesh appearance. As a result of the previous antioxidant treatment, peroxides showed to breakdown faster (pSe ha estudiado el efecto del lino (Linum usitatissimum en el desarrollo de rancidez en caballa entera congelada (Scomber scombrus. Para ello, caballas frescas fueron sumergidas en extractos acuosos de semillas de lino durante 60 min, congeladas a -80 ºC durante 24 h y mantenidas congeladas ( -20 ºC durante 12 meses. Se tomaron muestras del material inicial y tras 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 y 12 meses de congelación a -20 ºC . Un experimento paralelo con pescado no tratado fue llevado acabo en las mismas condiciones. El desarrollo de la rancidez fue medido por varios índices bioquímicos (ácidos grasos libres, peróxidos, dienos y trienos conjugados, productos secundarios de oxidación y actividad lipoxigenasa y completado con análisis sensorial (piel, olor de la carne, consistencia y apariencia de la carne. Como resultado del tratamiento antioxidante, los peróxidos se degradaron más rápidos (p < 0.05 después del mes 7, y por tanto, contenidos mayores (p < 0.05 de dienos y trienos conjugados pudieron ser detectados en el pescado tratado. El tratamiento antioxidante también condujo a un

  11. Late preterm birth and previous cesarean section: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen Iii, Abdool S; Bassil, Kate; Sprague, Ann; Urquia, Marcelo; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2018-02-21

    Late preterm birth (LPB) is increasingly common and associated with higher morbidity and mortality than term birth. Yet, little is known about the influence of previous cesarean section (PCS) and the occurrence of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. We aim to evaluate this association along with the potential mediation by cesarean sections in the current pregnancy. We use population-based birth registry data (2005-2012) to establish a cohort of live born singleton infants born between 34 and 41 gestational weeks to multiparous mothers. PCS was the primary exposure, LPB (34-36 weeks) was the primary outcome, and an unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was the potential mediator. Associations were quantified using propensity weighted multivariable Poisson regression, and mediating associations were explored using the Baron-Kenny approach. The cohort included 481,531 births, 21,893 (4.5%) were LPB, and 119,983 (24.9%) were predated by at least one PCS. Among mothers with at least one PCS, 6307 (5.26%) were LPB. There was increased risk of LPB among women with at least one PCS (adjusted Relative Risk (aRR): 1.20 (95%CI [1.16, 1.23]). Unplanned or emergency cesarean section in the current pregnancy was identified as a strong mediator to this relationship (mediation ratio = 97%). PCS was associated with higher risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies. This may be due to an increased risk of subsequent unplanned or emergency preterm cesarean sections. Efforts to minimize index cesarean sections may reduce the risk of LPB in subsequent pregnancies.

  12. Phase III Study of Cabozantinib in Previously Treated Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: COMET-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; De Bono, Johann; Sternberg, Cora; Le Moulec, Sylvestre; Oudard, Stéphane; De Giorgi, Ugo; Krainer, Michael; Bergman, Andries; Hoelzer, Wolfgang; De Wit, Ronald; Bögemann, Martin; Saad, Fred; Cruciani, Giorgio; Thiery-Vuillemin, Antoine; Feyerabend, Susan; Miller, Kurt; Houédé, Nadine; Hussain, Syed; Lam, Elaine; Polikoff, Jonathan; Stenzl, Arnulf; Mainwaring, Paul; Ramies, David; Hessel, Colin; Weitzman, Aaron; Fizazi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Cabozantinib is an inhibitor of kinases, including MET and vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, and has shown activity in men with previously treated metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). This blinded phase III trial compared cabozantinib with prednisone in patients with mCRPC. Men with progressive mCRPC after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to cabozantinib 60 mg once per day or prednisone 5 mg twice per day. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Bone scan response (BSR) at week 12 as assessed by independent review committee was the secondary end point; radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS) and effects on circulating tumor cells (CTCs), bone biomarkers, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and symptomatic skeletal events (SSEs) were exploratory assessments. A total of 1,028 patients were randomly assigned to cabozantinib (n = 682) or prednisone (n = 346). Median OS was 11.0 months with cabozantinib and 9.8 months with prednisone (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.06; stratified log-rank P = .213). BSR at week 12 favored cabozantinib (42% v 3%; stratified Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel P < .001). rPFS was improved in the cabozantinib group (median, 5.6 v 2.8 months; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.57; stratified log-rank P < .001). Cabozantinib was associated with improvements in CTC conversion, bone biomarkers, and post-random assignment incidence of SSEs but not PSA outcomes. Grade 3 to 4 adverse events and discontinuations because of adverse events were higher with cabozantinib than with prednisone (71% v 56% and 33% v 12%, respectively). Cabozantinib did not significantly improve OS compared with prednisone in heavily treated patients with mCRPC and progressive disease after docetaxel and abiraterone and/or enzalutamide. Cabozantinib had some activity in improving BSR, rPFS, SSEs, CTC conversions, and bone biomarkers but not PSA outcomes. © 2016 by

  13. Radon diffusion coefficients for soils. Previous studies and their application to uranium-bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Tomozo; Gunji, Yasuyoshi; Iida, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Radon diffusion in soils has been studied over the years by many researchers. The application of such studies to the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon from uranium-bearing wastes disposed in a shallow land site is very important. The present paper surveyed closely relevant studies and elucidated the inherent nature of radon diffusion in terms of the definition of radon diffusion coefficients. Then, basic features of measurement methods for determining radon diffusion coefficients in soils were explained. Furthermore, theoretical aspects of radon diffusion in soils were discussed in terms of microscopic radon diffusion in soils and large-scale radon diffusion through cover soil defects for uranium mill tailings. Finally, in order to apply the radon diffusion studies to uranium-bearing waste disposal in shallow land sites, new challenges were presented: elucidation of radon diffusion in uranium-bearing wastes and cover-soil cracks, and demonstration of the validity of applying only radon diffusion in the evaluation of radiation exposure caused by radon, which would come through Japanese cover soils for uranium-bearing waste disposal. (author)

  14. Interbirth interval and history of previous preeclampsia: a case–control study among multiparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Harutyunyan, Arusyak; Armenian, Haroutune; Petrosyan, Varduhi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Preeclampsia is a disorder with a reported incidence of 2%-8% among all pregnancies, accounting for more than 50,000 deaths worldwide each year. In low- and middle- income countries maternal/perinatal morbidity and mortality associated with preeclampsia are high due to the lack of proper prenatal and hospital care and limited access to neonatal intensive care. The objectives of our study were to determine the association of long in...

  15. A Review of Previous Studies on Information Processing in Career Decision Making among University Students

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 智子; Satoko, Ikeda

    2018-01-01

    This review of the researches of career choice of Japanese university students focused the studies on decision-making theory conducted in Japan. The present review suggested the necessity of examination of the effect of self-efficacy about career information search on the process of career choice. It is also needed to examine the relationship between specific self-efficacy about career information search and career decision-making self-efficacy, moreover, general self-efficacy.

  16. A Comment Upon Previous Studies on 3-D Boundary Layer Transition

    OpenAIRE

    ÇARPINLIOĞLU, Melda Özdinç

    2014-01-01

    The common feature of the experimental studies upon 3-D boundary layer development on swept flat plates cited in the available literature is the application of streamwise and/or spanwise pressure gradients. In fact; presence of the pressure gradients was suggested to be vital for having crossflow effective in 3-D boundary layer transition. In the presented paper here, this idea is questioned evaluating the results of an experimental investigation conducted on swept flat plates under the ab...

  17. Neuropsychiatric and cardiometabolic comorbidities in patients with previously diagnosed Cushing's disease: a longitudinal observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Dimopoulou, C; Geraedts, V; Stalla, G K; Sievers, C

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Only few studies have systematically investigated neuropsychiatric aspects in patients with Cushing's disease (CD). Pain syndromes have been described in patients with pituitary adenomas, but so far no systematical investigation has been conducted in patients with CD. Additionally, CD has an association with cardiometabolic comorbidities which ultimately leads to increased morbidity and mortality. Long-term treatment of the hypercortisolic state cannot prevent the persistence of...

  18. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  19. PCNL - a comparative study in nonoperated and in previously operated (open nephrolithotomy/pyelolithotomy patients - a single-surgeon experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gupta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Re-procedure in patients with history of open stone surgery is usually challenging due to the alteration in the retroperitoneal anatomy. The aim of this study was to determine the possible impact of open renal surgery on the efficacy and morbidity of subsequent percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From March 2009 until September 2010, 120 patients underwent PCNL. Of these, 20 patients were excluded (tubeless or bilateral simultaneous PCNL. Of the remaining 100, 55 primary patients were categorized as Group 1 and the remaining (previous open nephrolithotomy as Group 2. Standard preoperative evaluation was carried out prior to intervention, Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v. 11 with the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test. A p-value < 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. RESULTS: Both groups were similar in demographic profile and stone burden. Attempts to access the PCS was less in Group 1 compared to Group 2 (1.2 + 1 2 vs 3 + 1.3 respectively and this was statistically significant (p < 0.04. However, the mean operative time between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.44. Blood transfusion rate was comparable in the two groups (p = 0.24. One patient in Group 2 developed hemothorax following a supra-11th puncture. Remaining complications were comparable in both groups. CONCLUSION: Patients with past history of renal stone surgery may need more attempts to access the pelvicaliceal system and have difficulty in tract dilation secondary to retroperitoneal scarring. But overall morbidity and efficacy is same in both groups.

  20. Teachers’ Opinions about the Values in Primary Education Social Studies Curriculum and Values Education

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğba YANPAR YELKEN; F. Ayşe BALCI

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the opinions of teachers concerning the values in social studies curriculum and values education. The research was conducted with the participation of 152 social studies and classroom teachers from 24 schools in 2006-2007 instruction year in Mersin. Teachers were asked to state their views about the significance of the values included in social studies curriculum, effectiveness of the methods followed during value teaching, relevant courses for values...

  1. Estimating the effect of current, previous and never use of drugs in studies based on prescription registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Hougaard; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    of this misclassification for analysing the risk of breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prescription data were obtained from Danish Registry of Medicinal Products Statistics and we applied various methods to approximate treatment episodes. We analysed the duration of HT episodes to study the ability to identify......PURPOSE: Many studies which investigate the effect of drugs categorize the exposure variable into never, current, and previous use of the study drug. When prescription registries are used to make this categorization, the exposure variable possibly gets misclassified since the registries do...... not carry any information on the time of discontinuation of treatment.In this study, we investigated the amount of misclassification of exposure (never, current, previous use) to hormone therapy (HT) when the exposure variable was based on prescription data. Furthermore, we evaluated the significance...

  2. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  3. GLOBALIZATION AND NEIGHBOURHOOD VALUES: A STUDY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examine the effect of globalization on neighbourhood values of the people of. Akwete Ndoki ... promote group solidarity and mutual welfare. ... urbanization, industrialization, formal education, modern technology and changing nature of work ...

  4. Dexamethasone intravitreal implant in previously treated patients with diabetic macular edema : Subgroup analysis of the MEAD study

    OpenAIRE

    Augustin, A.J.; Kuppermann, B.D.; Lanzetta, P.; Loewenstein, A.; Li, X.; Cui, H.; Hashad, Y.; Whitcup, S.M.; Abujamra, S.; Acton, J.; Ali, F.; Antoszyk, A.; Awh, C.C.; Barak, A.; Bartz-Schmidt, K.U.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7?mg (DEX 0.7) was approved for treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME) after demonstration of its efficacy and safety in the MEAD registration trials. We performed subgroup analysis of MEAD study results to evaluate the efficacy and safety of DEX 0.7 treatment in patients with previously treated DME. Methods Three-year, randomized, sham-controlled phase 3 study in patients with DME, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 34?68 Early Treatment...

  5. Meaning That Social Studies Teacher Candidates Give to Value Concept and Their Value Rankings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysegül, Tural

    2018-01-01

    This work determines the role that value education plays in shaping people's personal and social life. This research aims to put forward meaning that social studies teacher candidates give to value concept and its value ranking. To achieve this aim, the opinions of 12 social studies teacher candidates were obtained. During the data collection…

  6. Evaluation of a rapid dipstick (Crystal VC for the diagnosis of cholera in Zanzibar and a comparison with previous studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Ley

    Full Text Available The gold standard for the diagnosis of cholera is stool culture, but this requires laboratory facilities and takes at least 24 hours. A rapid diagnostic test (RDT that can be used by minimally trained staff at treatment centers could potentially improve the reporting and management of cholera outbreaks.We evaluated the Crystal VC™ RDT under field conditions in Zanzibar in 2009. Patients presenting to treatment centers with watery diarrhea provided a stool sample for rapid diagnostic testing. Results were compared to stool culture performed in a reference laboratory. We assessed the overall performance of the RDT and evaluated whether previous intake of antibiotics, intravenous fluids, location of testing, and skill level of the technician affected the RDT results.We included stool samples from 624 patients. Compared to culture, the overall sensitivity of the RDT was 93.1% (95%CI: 88.7 to 96.2%, specificity was 49.2% (95%CI: 44.3 to 54.1%, the positive predictive value was 47.0% (95%CI: 42.1 to 52.0% and the negative predictive value was 93.6% (95%CI: 89.6 to 96.5%. The overall false positivity rate was 50.8% (213/419; fieldworkers frequently misread very faint test lines as positive.The observed sensitivity of the Crystal VC RDT evaluated was similar compared to earlier versions, while specificity was poorer. The current version of the RDT could potentially be used as a screening tool in the field. Because of the high proportion of false positive results when field workers test stool specimens, positive results will need to be confirmed with stool culture.

  7. Youth suicide: an insight into previous hospitalisation for injury and sociodemographic conditions from a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambon, Francesco; Laflamme, Lucie; Spolaore, Paolo; Visentin, Cristiana; Hasselberg, Marie

    2011-06-01

    This study investigates the degree to which a previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent is a risk of subsequent youth suicide and whether this association is influenced by family socioeconomic status or economic stress. A nationwide register-based cohort study was conducted covering all Swedish subjects born between January 1977 and December 1991 (N=1,616,342, male/female ratio=1.05). The cohort subjects were followed-up from January 1998 to December 2003, when aged 7-26 years. Poisson regression and the likelihood ratio test (95% CI) were used to assess the age-adjusted effect of hospitalisation for injuries of various intent on youth suicide and its effect once adjusted for family sociodemographic and social circumstances. Each set of exposures was associated independently and significantly with suicide mortality. Being hospitalised for self-inflicted injuries or injuries of undetermined intent was associated with a risk of suicide 36 to 47 times, respectively, that of subjects never hospitalised in the period under study (95% CI 28.36 to 45.58 and 26.67 to 83.87 for self-inflicted injuries and for events of undetermined intent, respectively; overall psuicide (RR 3.08; 95% CI 2.26 to 4.19). These effects were solid and not substantially altered after adjustment for family demographic and socioeconomic circumstances. A strong association exists between previous hospitalisation for injury of any intent and youth suicide. The association is robust and unaltered by family socioeconomic circumstances.

  8. Acceleration and Orientation Jumping Performance Differences Among Elite Professional Male Handball Players With or Without Previous ACL Reconstruction: An Inertial Sensor Unit-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setuain, Igor; González-Izal, Miriam; Alfaro, Jesús; Gorostiaga, Esteban; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-12-01

    Handball is one of the most challenging sports for the knee joint. Persistent biomechanical and jumping capacity alterations can be observed in athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Commonly identified jumping biomechanical alterations have been described by the use of laboratory technologies. However, portable and easy-to-handle technologies that enable an evaluation of jumping biomechanics at the training field are lacking. To analyze unilateral/bilateral acceleration and orientation jumping performance differences among elite male handball athletes with or without previous ACL reconstruction via a single inertial sensor unit device. Case control descriptive study. At the athletes' usual training court. Twenty-two elite male (6 ACL-reconstructed and 16 uninjured control players) handball players were evaluated. The participants performed a vertical jump test battery that included a 50-cm vertical bilateral drop jump, a 20-cm vertical unilateral drop jump, and vertical unilateral countermovement jump maneuvers. Peak 3-dimensional (X, Y, Z) acceleration (m·s(-2)), jump phase duration and 3-dimensional orientation values (°) were obtained from the inertial sensor unit device. Two-tailed t-tests and a one-way analysis of variance were performed to compare means. The P value cut-off for significance was set at P handball athletes with previous ACL reconstruction demonstrated a jumping biomechanical profile similar to control players, including similar jumping performance values in both bilateral and unilateral jumping maneuvers, several years after ACL reconstruction. These findings are in agreement with previous research showing full functional restoration of abilities in top-level male athletes after ACL reconstruction, rehabilitation and subsequent return to sports at the previous level. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Previous Fractures at Multiple Sites Increase the Risk for Subsequent Fractures: The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlbach, Stephen; Saag, Kenneth G.; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Hooven, Fred H.; Flahive, Julie; Boonen, Steven; Chapurlat, Roland D.; Compston, Juliet E.; Cooper, Cyrus; Díez-Perez, Adolfo; Greenspan, Susan L.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Netelenbos, J. Coen; Pfeilschifter, Johannes; Rossini, Maurizio; Roux, Christian; Sambrook, Philip N.; Silverman, Stuart; Siris, Ethel S.; Watts, Nelson B.; Lindsay, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Previous fractures of the hip, spine, or wrist are well-recognized predictors of future fracture, but the role of other fracture sites is less clear. We sought to assess the relationship between prior fracture at 10 skeletal locations and incident fracture. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) is an observational cohort study being conducted in 17 physician practices in 10 countries. Women ≥ 55 years answered questionnaires at baseline and at 1 and/or 2 years (fractures in previous year). Of 60,393 women enrolled, follow-up data were available for 51,762. Of these, 17.6%, 4.0%, and 1.6% had suffered 1, 2, or ≥3 fractures since age 45. During the first 2 years of follow-up, 3149 women suffered 3683 incident fractures. Compared with women with no prior fractures, women with 1, 2, or ≥ 3 prior fractures were 1.8-, 3.0-, and 4.8-fold more likely to have any incident fracture; those with ≥3 prior fractures were 9.1-fold more likely to sustain a new vertebral fracture. Nine of 10 prior fracture locations were associated with an incident fracture. The strongest predictors of incident spine and hip fractures were prior spine fracture (hazard ratio 7.3) and hip (hazard ratio 3.5). Prior rib fractures were associated with a 2.3-fold risk of subsequent vertebral fracture, previous upper leg fracture predicted a 2.2-fold increased risk of hip fracture; women with a history of ankle fracture were at 1.8-fold risk of future fracture of a weight-bearing bone. Our findings suggest that a broad range of prior fracture sites are associated with an increased risk of incident fractures, with important implications for clinical assessments and risk model development. PMID:22113888

  10. Previous experiences and emotional baggage as barriers to lifestyle change - a qualitative study of Norwegian Healthy Life Centre participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Følling, Ingrid S; Solbjør, Marit; Helvik, Anne-S

    2015-06-23

    Changing lifestyle is challenging and difficult. The Norwegian Directorate of Health recommends that all municipalities establish Healthy Life Centres targeted to people with lifestyle issues. Little is known about the background, experiences and reflections of participants. More information is needed about participants to shape effective lifestyle interventions with lasting effect. This study explores how participants in a lifestyle intervention programme describe previous life experiences in relation to changing lifestyle. Semi-structured qualitative in-depth interviews were performed with 23 participants (16 women and 7 men) aged 18 - 70 years. The data were analysed using systematic text condensation searching for issues describing participants' responses, and looking for the essence, aiming to share the basis of life-world experiences as valid knowledge. Participants identified two main themes: being stuck in old habits, and being burdened with emotional baggage from their previous negative experiences. Participants expressed a wish to change their lifestyles, but were unable to act in accordance with the health knowledge they possessed. Previous experiences with lifestyle change kept them from initiating attempts without professional assistance. Participants also described being burdened by an emotional baggage with problems from childhood and/or with family, work and social life issues. Respondents said that they felt that emotional baggage was an important explanation for why they were stuck in old habits and that conversely, being stuck in old habits added load to their already emotional baggage and made it heavier. Behavioural change can be hard to perform as psychological distress from life baggage can influence the ability to change. The study participants' experience of being stuck in old habits and having substantial emotional baggage raises questions as to whether or not Healthy Life Centres are able to help participants who need to make a lifestyle

  11. Everolimus for Previously Treated Advanced Gastric Cancer: Results of the Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III GRANITE-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C.; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients and Methods Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Results Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Conclusion Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers. PMID:24043745

  12. What Does "Value" Evoke for Children? A Detection Study as to Transferring Values to Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun Keskin, Sevgi

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have been carried out because of the importance of values education in recent years. The studies have shown their effects on the curriculum of 2005. In many classes it is aimed to provide individuals with the gains kneaded with appropriate values. Social Studies are one of them. However, no satisfactory studies as to whether the…

  13. Doxorubicin and ifosfamide combination chemotherapy in previously treated acute leukemia in adults: a Southwest Oncology Group pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D H; Bickers, J N; Vial, R H; Hussein, K; Bottomley, R; Hewlett, J S; Wilson, H E; Stuckey, W J

    1980-01-01

    The Southwest Oncology Group did a limited institutional pilot study of the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide in the treatment of previously treated adult patients with acute leukemia. Thirty-four patients received one or two courses of the combination. All patients had received prior chemotherapy and 32 had received prior anthracycline chemotherapy. Three patients died before their responses could be fully evaluated. Fourteen patients achieved complete remission (41%) and one patient achieved partial remission. The complete remission rate was 27% for patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (myelomonoblastic leukemia, monoblastic leukemia, and erythroleukemia) and 89% for patients with acute lymphocytic and undifferentiated leukemia (ALL). Toxic effects included severe hematologic reactions in 33 of 34 patients, hematuria in six patients, altered sensorium in one patient, and congestive heart failure in one patient. The safety of the combination was established and toxic side effects of this therapy were tolerable. The 89% complete remission rate for previously treated patients with ALL suggests that the combination of doxorubicin and ifosfamide may be particularly effective in ALL.

  14. The Views of Prospective Social Studies and Classroom Teachers about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Bayram

    2013-01-01

    When education programs are examined in Turkey, values education is observed to be included in the context of many lessons, especially in the social studies. Individuals acquire knowledge, skills, values and habits, which are necessary for the integration of individuals into the society they live in, through social studies. This study was…

  15. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Espen, P. van; Torres, P.P. Godo

    2006-01-01

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a 241 Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery

  16. The suitability of XRF analysis for compositional classification of archaeological ceramic fabric: A comparison with a previous NAA study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, R. [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), Laboratorio de Analisis Quimico, Calle 30 no. 502, Playa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba)]. E-mail: roman.padilla@infomed.sld.cu; Espen, P. van [University of Antwerp (Belgium); Torres, P.P. Godo [Centro de Antropologia, Havana (Cuba)

    2006-02-03

    The main drawbacks of EDXRF techniques, restricting its more frequent use for the specific purpose of compositional analysis of archaeological ceramic fabric, have been the insufficient sensitivity to determine some important elements (like Cr, REE, among others), a somewhat worse precision and the inability to perform standard-less quantitative procedures in the absence of suitable certified reference materials (CRM) for ceramic fabric. This paper presents the advantages of combining two energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence methods for fast and non-destructive analysis of ceramic fabric with increased sensitivity. Selective polarized excitation using secondary targets (EDPXRF) and radioisotope excitation (R-XRF) using a {sup 241}Am source. The analytical performance of the methods was evaluated by analyzing several CRM of sediment type, and the fitness for the purpose of compositional classification was compared with that obtained by using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in a previous study of Cuban aborigine pottery.

  17. Treatment satisfaction with paliperidone extended-release tablets: open-label study in schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang FD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fu De Yang,1 Juan Li,1 Yun Long Tan,1 Wei Ye Liang,1 Rongzhen Zhang,1 Ning Wang,1 Wei Feng,1 Shangli Cai,2 Jian Min Zhuo,2 Li Li Zhang2 1Beijing Hui-Long-Guan Hospital, 2Department of Medical Affairs, Xian Janssen Pharmaceutical Ltd, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in treatment satisfaction after switching to paliperidone extended-release (ER in Chinese schizophrenia patients dissatisfied with their previous antipsychotic treatment.Methods: In this 8-week, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, prospective study, 1,693 patients dissatisfied with previous antipsychotic medication were enrolled and switched to paliperidone ER tablets (3–12 mg/d based on clinical judgment. The primary efficacy end point was change in Medication Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ score from baseline to week 8. The secondary end points included percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4, as well as changes in Clinical Global Improvement-Severity (CGI-S and Personal and Social Performance (PSP scores.Results: MSQ scores increased significantly from baseline (mean [standard deviation {SD}]: 2.48 [0.55] to week 8 (5.47 [0.89], P<0.0001; primary end point, full analysis set. The percentage of patients with MSQ score ≥4 was 95.9% at week 8, indicating that most of the patients were satisfied with their treatment. Significant (P<0.0001 improvements from baseline to week 8 were noted in CGI-S score (2.37 [1.20] and PSP score (25.5 [15.0]. A total of 174 (10.28% patients experienced adverse events (AEs. The most common (>10 patients events were extrapyramidal disorder (n=84, 4.96%, poor quality sleep (n=18, 1.06% and akathisia (n=13, 0.77%. The majority of AEs were mild to moderate in severity. No deaths occurred.Conclusion: Treatment satisfaction improved after switching to paliperidone ER from the previous antipsychotic in Chinese patients with schizophrenia. Keywords: atypical antipsychotics, open label

  18. Barriers to postpartum screening for type 2 diabetes: a qualitative study of women with previous gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Forough; Rahimparvar, Seyedeh Fatemeh Vasegh; Mehrdad, Neda; Keramat, Afsaneh

    2017-01-01

    Risk of developing type 2 diabetes is increased in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Postpartum glycemic screening is recommended in women with recent GDM. But this screening rate is low and the reasons are unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of Iranian women with recent GDM on barriers of postpartum screening for diabetes. This qualitative study was conducted in Tehran, Iran in 2016. Semi-structured interview was used for data collection. 22 women with recent GDM were interviewed. These women gave birth in Tehran hospitals at a minimum of 6 months before interview. The missed screening defined as not attending to laboratory for Fasting Blood Sugar and/or Oral Glucose Tolerance Test, 6 week to 6 month after their child birthing. The data was analyzed by content analysis method. Themes and sub-themes that illustrated the barriers to postpartum diabetes screening were: inadequate education (about developing diabetes in the future, implementation of the screening, and glucometer validity in diagnosis of diabetes), perceiving the screening as difficult (feeling comfortable with the glucometer, poor laboratory conditions, issues related to the baby/babies, and financial problems), improper attitudes toward the screening (unwilling to get diagnosed, not giving priority to oneself, having false beliefs) and procrastination (gap to intention and action, self-deception and self-regulation failure). Women with recent GDM reported several barriers for postpartum diabetes screening. This study help to develop the evidence-based interventions for improving this screening rate.

  19. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Moshe; Dilbaz, Nesrin; Rosa, Fernanda; Paterakis, Periklis; Milanova, Vihra; Smulevich, Anatoly B; Lahaye, Marjolein; Schreiner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥ 20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤ 5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0 ± 12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥ 20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8 ± 5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥ 7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine.

  20. Reference values for methacholine reactivity (SAPALDIA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perruchoud André

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distribution of airway responsiveness in a general population of non-smokers without respiratory symptoms has not been established, limiting its use in clinical and epidemiological practice. We derived reference equations depending on individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, baseline lung function for relevant percentiles of the methacholine two-point dose-response slope. Methods In a reference sample of 1567 adults of the SAPALDIA cross-sectional survey (1991, defined by excluding subjects with respiratory conditions, responsiveness during methacholine challenge was quantified by calculating the two-point dose-response slope (O'Connor. Weighted L1-regression was used to estimate reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope. Results Reference equations for the 95th , 90th , 75th and 50th percentiles of the two-point slope were estimated using a model of the form a + b* Age + c* FEV1 + d* (FEV12 , where FEV1 corresponds to the pre-test (or baseline level of FEV1. For the central half of the FEV1 distribution, we used a quadratic model to describe the dependence of methacholine slope on baseline FEV1. For the first and last quartiles of FEV1, a linear relation with FEV1 was assumed (i.e., d was set to 0. Sex was not a predictor term in this model. A negative linear association with slope was found for age. We provide an Excel file allowing calculation of the percentile of methacholine slope of a subject after introducing age – pre-test FEV1 – and results of methacholine challenge of the subject. Conclusion The present study provides equations for four relevant percentiles of methacholine two-point slope depending on age and baseline FEV1 as basic predictors in an adult reference population of non-obstructive and non-atopic persons. These equations may help clinicians and epidemiologists to better characterize individual or population airway responsiveness.

  1. Pilot Study of an Individualised Early Postpartum Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Women with Previous Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold David McIntyre

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optimal strategies to prevent progression towards overt diabetes in women with recent gestational diabetes remain ill defined. We report a pilot study of a convenient, home based exercise program with telephone support, suited to the early post-partum period. Twenty eight women with recent gestational diabetes were enrolled at six weeks post-partum into a 12 week randomised controlled trial of Usual Care (n=13 versus Supported Care (individualised exercise program with regular telephone support; n=15. Baseline characteristics (Mean ± SD were: Age  33±4  years; Weight 80 ± 20 kg and Body Mass Index (BMI 30.0±9.7 kg/m2. The primary outcome, planned physical activity {Median (Range}, increased by 60 (0–540 mins/week in the SC group versus 0 (0–580 mins/week in the UC group (P=0.234. Walking was the predominant physical activity. Body weight, BMI, waist circumference, % body fat, fasting glucose and insulin did not change significantly over time in either group. This intervention designed to increase physical activity in post-partum women with previous gestational diabetes proved feasible. However, no measurable improvement in metabolic or biometric parameters was observed over a three month period.

  2. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthoenis Marthoenis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community.

  3. A Questionnaire Study on the Attitudes and Previous Experience of Croatian Family Physicians toward their Preparedness for Disaster Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekez-Pavliško, Tanja; Račić, Maja; Jurišić, Dinka

    2018-04-01

    To explore family physicians' attitudes, previous experience and self-assessed preparedness to respond or to assist in mass casualty incidents in Croatia. The cross-sectional survey was carried out during January 2017. Study participants were recruited through a Facebook group that brings together family physicians from Croatia. They were asked to complete the questionnaire, which was distributed via google.docs. Knowledge and attitudes toward disaster preparedness were evaluated by 18 questions. Analysis of variance, Student t test and Kruskal-Wallis test t were used for statistical analysis. Risk awareness of disasters was high among respondents (M = 4.89, SD=0.450). Only 16.4 of respondents have participated in the management of disaster at the scene. The majority (73.8%) of physicians have not been participating in any educational activity dealing with disaster over the past two years. Family physicians believed they are not well prepared to participate in national (M = 3.02, SD=0.856) and local community emergency response system for disaster (M = 3.16, SD=1.119). Male physicians scored higher preparedness to participate in national emergency response system for disaster ( p =0.012), to carry out accepted triage principles used in the disaster situation ( p =0.003) and recognize differences in health assessments indicating potential exposure to specific agents ( p =0,001) compared to their female colleagues. Croatian primary healthcare system attracts many young physicians, who can be an important part of disaster and emergency management. However, the lack of experience despite a high motivation indicates a need for inclusion of disaster medicine training during undergraduate studies and annual educational activities.

  4. Previous injuries and some training characteristics predict running-related injuries in recreational runners: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pena Costa, Leonardo Oliveira; Lopes, Alexandre Dias

    2013-12-01

    What is the incidence of running-related injuries (RRIs) in recreational runners? Which personal and training characteristics predict RRIs in recreational runners? Prospective cohort study. A total of 200 recreational runners answered a fortnightly online survey containing questions about their running routine, races, and presence of RRI. These runners were followed-up for a period of 12 weeks. The primary outcome of this study was running-related injury. The incidence of injuries was calculated taking into account the exposure to running and was expressed by RRI/1000 hours. The association between potential predictive factors and RRIs was estimated using generalised estimating equation models. A total of 84 RRIs were registered in 60 (31%) of the 191 recreational runners who completed all follow-up surveys. Of the injured runners 30% (n=18/60) developed two or more RRIs, with 5/18 (28%) being recurrences. The incidence of RRI was 10 RRI/1000 hours of running exposure. The main type of RRI observed was muscle injuries (30%, n=25/84). The knee was the most commonly affected anatomical region (19%, n=16/84). The variables associated with RRI were: previous RRI (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.51), duration of training although the effect was very small (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02), speed training (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.10), and interval training (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.88). Physiotherapists should be aware and advise runners that past RRI and speed training are associated with increased risk of further RRI, while interval training is associated with lower risk, although these associations may not be causative. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  6. Blood donations from previously transfused or pregnant donors: a multicenter study to determine the frequency of alloexposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Jorge A; Schlumpf, Karen S; Kakaiya, Ram M; Triulzi, Darrell J; Roback, John D; Kleinman, Steve H; Murphy, Edward L; Gottschall, Jerome L; Carey, Patricia M

    2011-06-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) mitigation strategies include the deferral of female donors from apheresis platelet (PLT) donations and the distribution of plasma for transfusion from male donors only. We studied the implications of these policies in terms of component loss at six blood centers in the United States. We collected data from allogeneic blood donors making whole blood and blood component donations during calendar years 2006 through 2008. We analyzed the distribution of donations in terms of the sex, transfusion and pregnancy histories, and blood type. A TRALI mitigation policy that would not allow plasma from female whole blood donors to be prepared into transfusable plasma components would result in nearly a 50% reduction in the units of whole blood available for plasma manufacturing and would decrease the number of type AB plasma units that could be made from whole blood donations by the same amount. Deferral of all female apheresis PLT donors, all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies, or all female apheresis PLT donors with histories of prior pregnancies and positive screening test results for antibodies to human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) will result in a loss of 37.1, 22.5, and 5.4% of all apheresis PLT donations, respectively. A TRALI mitigation policy that only defers female apheresis PLT donors with previous pregnancies and HLAs would result in an approximately 5% decrease in the inventory of apheresis PLTs, but would eliminate a large proportion of components that are associated with TRALI. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  7. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H.; Wang, Timothy S.; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit UV exposure. Objective To determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. Methods We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Results Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% versus 27.0%; aPOR=1.41; 1.16–1.71), long sleeves (20.5% versus 7.7%; aPOR=1.55; 1.21–1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% versus 10.5%; aPOR=1.52; 1.24–1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% versus 33.1%; aPOR=2.11; 95% CI=1.73–2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% versus 40.7%; aPOR=0.95; 0.77–1.17). Among subjects with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Limitations Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure. Conclusion Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. PMID:27198078

  8. Laparoscopy After Previous Laparotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfo Godinjak

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Following the abdominal surgery, extensive adhesions often occur and they can cause difficulties during laparoscopic operations. However, previous laparotomy is not considered to be a contraindication for laparoscopy. The aim of this study is to present that an insertion of Veres needle in the region of umbilicus is a safe method for creating a pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic operations after previous laparotomy. In the last three years, we have performed 144 laparoscopic operations in patients that previously underwent one or two laparotomies. Pathology of digestive system, genital organs, Cesarean Section or abdominal war injuries were the most common causes of previouslaparotomy. During those operations or during entering into abdominal cavity we have not experienced any complications, while in 7 patients we performed conversion to laparotomy following the diagnostic laparoscopy. In all patients an insertion of Veres needle and trocar insertion in the umbilical region was performed, namely a technique of closed laparoscopy. Not even in one patient adhesions in the region of umbilicus were found, and no abdominal organs were injured.

  9. Radioimmunotherapy with Y-90-epratuzumab in patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma. A fractionated dose-escalation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linden, O.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Tennvall, J.; Hindorf, C.; Olsson, T.; Strand, S.E.; Stenberg, L.; Wingardh, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Fractionated RIT may improve outcome by decreasing heterogeneity in absorbed dose and by increasing therapeutic window. The humanised anti-CD22 antibody, Epratuzumab, (Immunomedics, Inc., Morris Plains, NJ) can be given repeatedly with minimal risk of neutralising Ab (HAHA), making fractionated treatment with 90 Y-labelled epratuzumab possible. Materials and Methods: Patients with previously treated B-cell lymphoma received increasing number (2-4) of weekly infusions of 90 Y-epratuzumab. Patients received either 185 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group A), or, if they had a history of high-dose chemotherapy with stem-cell rescue, 92.5 MBq/m 2 per infusion (group B). The first infusion included 150 MBq of 111 Indium for scintigraphic verification of tumour targeting and dosimetry. 1.5 mg/kg epratuzumab was administered with each infusion. The treatment could be repeated once after 3 m. Results: Of 23 patients, 16 in group A and 6 in group B were evaluable for response. The RR in group A was 62% objective response (OR) and 25% CR/CRu. One patient in group B showed OR. OR was seen in aggressive and indolent lymphoma. Response was also long-lasting and event-free survival of patients showing CR/CRu was 14 to 25+ months. In group A all seven patient, receiving three infusions, showed less than grade 3 platelet and neutrophil toxicity, except for two patients suffering grade 3 neutropenia. Of five patients with 4 weekly infusions there were two patients with dose-limiting haematological toxicity (DLT), both recently treated with high dose cytosar before RIT. With criteria used the maximal tolerated dose was three infusions 185 MBq/m 2 . In group B no patient suffered DLT and one patient exhibited OR. Seven patients were retreated after 3 months with minor toxicity, but improvement in OR in two cases. No patient has developed HAHA. CD22 expression on tumour cells, as assessed by flow cytometry, is available in 18 of 22 patients. In group A, seven of eight patients with

  10. Evaluation of the Widal tube agglutination test for the diagnosis of typhoid fever among children admitted to a rural hdospital in Tanzania and a comparison with previous studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malahiyo Rajabu

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of typhoid fever is confirmed by culture of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. typhi. However, a more rapid, simpler, and cheaper diagnostic method would be very useful especially in developing countries. The Widal test is widely used in Africa but little information exists about its reliability. Methods We assessed the performance of the Widal tube agglutination test among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children. We calculated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of various anti-TH and -TO titers using culture-confirmed typhoid fever cases as the "true positives" and all other febrile children with blood culture negative for S. typhi as the "true negatives." Results We found that 16 (1% of 1,680 children had culture-proven typhoid fever. A single anti-TH titer of 1:80 and higher was the optimal indicator of typhoid fever. This had a sensitivity of 75%, specificity of 98%, NPV of 100%, but PPV was only 26%. We compared our main findings with those from previous studies. Conclusion Among febrile hospitalized Tanzanian children with a low prevalence of typhoid fever, a Widal titer of ≥ 1:80 performed well in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and NPV. However a test with improved PPV that is similarly easy to apply and cost-efficient is desirable.

  11. Values in nursing students and professionals: An exploratory comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-López, F Rosa; Roales-Nieto, Jesus Gil; Seco, Guillermo Vallejo; Preciado, Juan

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have explored personal values in nursing, but none has assessed whether the predictions made by the theory of intergenerational value change are true for the different generations of nursing professionals and students. This theory predicts a shift in those personal values held by younger generations towards ones focussed on self-expression. The purpose of the study was to identify intergenerational differences in personal values among nursing professionals and nursing students and to determine whether generational value profiles fit the predictions made by the theory. An exploratory comparative design with a cross-sectional survey method was used. Participants were recruited from four public hospitals and 10 Primary Care Centres in medium-size cities in Spain. A sample of 589 nurses and 2295 nursing students participated in the study. An open survey method was used to collect data that were classified grouping reported values into categories following a method of value lexicon construction and analysed by contingency tables with Pearson's χ (2) and standardized residuals. Approval to conduct the study was obtained from the Deans of the nursing schools and the Directors of Nursing of the institutions. Anonymity was guaranteed, participation was voluntary and participants were informed of the purpose of the study. The results can be synthesized in two age-related trends in the reporting of values among three groups of participants. First, among younger nurses and students, some nursing core values (e.g. ethical and professional) decreased in importance, while other values centred on social relationships and personal well-being increased. This study shows intergenerational change in personal values among both nursing students and young nursing professionals. Findings suggest the need to pay more attention to value training and professional socialization during the schooling period. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Cao, F; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Leong, C; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Schroeder, J; 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" data-affiliation=" (Department of Medical Physics and 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Fraser Valley Centre, BC Cancer Agency, Surrey, British Columbia (Canada))" >Lee, B

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  13. The Value of Mixed Methods Research: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Courtney A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this explanatory mixed methods study was to examine the perceived value of mixed methods research for graduate students. The quantitative phase was an experiment examining the effect of a passage's methodology on students' perceived value. Results indicated students scored the mixed methods passage as more valuable than those who…

  14. Globalization and neighbourhood values: a study of akwete ndoki in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globalization and neighbourhood values: a study of akwete ndoki in abia state of ... global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, ... This paper tries to examine the effect of globalization on neighbourhood ...

  15. Transit value capture coordination : case studies, best practices, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    This study is based on the hypothesis that coordination between transit capital planners, municipal taxation authorities, and private developers and stakeholders can be a benefit to transit capital projects that choose to use value capture as a fundi...

  16. Studies in iodine metabolism: 33 year summary, 1948-1979 (as previously submitted) with appendix, 1979-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middlesworth, L.V.

    1982-01-01

    The results of research into iodine metabolism from 1948 to 1982 are summarized. Study areas included the monitoring of iodine 131 from fallout in the thyroid glands of cattle and humans, the biological functions and metabolism of thyroid hormones, and methods to reduce the retention of radioiodine in the thyroid

  17. Professional values of Turkish nurses: A descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetinkaya-Uslusoy, Esin; Paslı-Gürdogan, Eylem; Aydınlı, Ayse

    2017-06-01

    Professional values improve the quality of nurses' professional lives, reduce emotional exhaustion and depersonalization, increase personal success, and help to make collaborations with the members of the healthcare team more frequent. The purpose of this study was to describe the professional values of Turkish nurses and to explore the relationships between nurses' characteristics. This was a descriptive study of a convenience sample consisting of 269 clinical nurses. A questionnaire was used to identify socio-demographic characteristics, and the Nurses' Professional Values Scale was applied. Ethical considerations: Permission to conduct the study was received from the hospital and the Institutional Review Boards of the Süleyman Demirel University ethic committee. The mean scale score of the participant nurses was 165.41 ± 20.79. The results of this study revealed that human dignity was the most important professional value for nurses, and the importance attached to these values showed statistically significant differences by age, length of service, educational level, marital status, position at work, and receiving relevant in-service training. Nurses' Professional Values Scale scores showed that nurses give above average and attached importance to professional values.

  18. Determination of the acid value of instant noodles: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Akiko; Sakaida, Kenichi; Suzuki, Tadanao; Yasui, Akemi

    2006-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed to evaluate the method for determining the acid value of instant noodles, based on the Japanese Agricultural Standard (JAS), with extraction of lipid using petroleum ether at a volume of 100 mL to the test portion of 25 g. Thirteen laboratories participated and analyzed 5 test samples as blind duplicates. Statistical treatment revealed that the repeatability (RSDr) of acid value was noodles per unit weight, using the equation [acid value = percent free fatty acids (as oleic) x 1.99] and the extracted lipid contents. This method was shown to have acceptable precision by the present study.

  19. On sensitivity value of pair-matched observational studies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Qingyuan

    2017-01-01

    An observational study may be biased for estimating causal effects by failing to control for unmeasured confounders. This paper proposes a new quantity called the "sensitivity value", which is defined as the minimum strength of unmeasured confounders needed to change the qualitative conclusions of a naive analysis assuming no unmeasured confounder. We establish the asymptotic normality of the sensitivity value in pair-matched observational studies. The theoretical results are then used to app...

  20. The Value of Time in Intercity Transportation - A Study of Thresholds and Discontinuities

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Previous research studies have provided evidence of the non-uniformity of the value of time, which usually shows a decreasing trend as travel time increases. This work takes an in-depth look at thresholds and discontinuities in the value of time function. A theoretical framework is provided based on microeconomic theory. It is postulated that because of the multiple activities involved in an individual's activity pattern, and the minimum time requirements associated with these activities, the...

  1. The Amenity Value of Trees: a Meta-analysis of Hedonic, Property-value Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Heier, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Tree species migration as a result of climate change may alter the composition of trees in local communities. Shifts in tree diversity, stand age, species predominance and the overall number of trees are potential changes. Community tree programs may also change the characteristics of local trees through planting or preservation efforts, but these programs may also mitigate the effects of climate induced tree migration. Numerous hedonic property value studies have estimated the implicit pr...

  2. CHRONOVAC VOYAGEUR: A study of the immune response to yellow fever vaccine among infants previously immunized against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goujon, Catherine; Gougeon, Marie-Lise; Tondeur, Laura; Poirier, Béatrice; Seffer, Valérie; Desprès, Philippe; Consigny, Paul-Henri; Vray, Muriel

    2017-10-27

    For administration of multiple live attenuated vaccines, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices recommends either simultaneous immunization or period of at least 28days between vaccines, due to a possible reduction in the immune response to either vaccine. The main objective of this study was to compare the immune response to measles (alone or combined with mumps and rubella) and yellow fever vaccines among infants aged 6-24months living in a yellow fever non-endemic country who had receivedmeasles and yellow fever vaccines before travelling to a yellow fever endemic area. A retrospective, multicenter case-control study was carried out in 7 travel clinics in the Paris area from February 1st 2011 to march 31, 2015. Cases were defined as infants immunized with the yellow fever vaccine and with the measles vaccine, either alone or in combination with mumps and rubella vaccine, with a period of 1-27days between each immunization. For each case, two controls were matched based on sex and age: a first control group (control 1) was defined as infants having received the measles vaccine and the yellow fever vaccine simultaneously; a second control group (control 2) was defined as infants who had a period of more than 27days between receiving the measles vaccine and yellow fever vaccine. The primary endpoint of the study was the percentage of infants with protective immunity against yellow fever, measured by the titer of neutralizing antibodies in a venous blood sample. One hundred and thirty-one infants were included in the study (62 cases, 50 infants in control 1 and 19 infants in control 2). Of these, 127 (96%) were shown to have a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies. All 4 infants without a protective titer of yellow fever antibodies were part of control group 1. The measles vaccine, alone or combined with mumps and rubella vaccines, appears to have no influence on humoral immune response to the yellow fever vaccine when administered between 1 and 27

  3. Structural Study and Evaluation of Previous Restoration Work of Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Yaser Yehya Amin Abdel-Aty

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad 'Ali Pasha Mosque at the Citadel in Cairo is considered one of the main landmarks in Egypt. It majestically stands at a northwestern bend of the Citadel and it is visible from numerous locations in Cairo. It has become the symbol of the Citadel, to the point that its name is given to the whole complex in the colloquial Egyptian parlance. This paper studies analytically the static and dynamic structural behavior of this great mosque using computer numerical modeling techniques, to reach the main reasons for past cracking and failures in its domed-roof and other structural elements, which occurred by the end of 19th Century. A number of 3D-models are analyzed to study the mosque, in both original and after restoration conditions, under static (i.e. dead and live loads and dynamic (i.e. Eigenvector modal analysis, response-spectrum and time-history cases of loading. Besides, structural evaluation of major restoration project, in 1930s, is conducted to determine the current structural safety status of the mosque

  4. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Mike E; McBride, Simon E; Gomez, Maria P

    2017-12-01

    The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ) for certain HPV assays is unknown. We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV) for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months' stability at 18-25°C, 2-8°C, -20°C and -80°C; and at least 3 months' stability at 40°C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months' stability at 18-25°C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Catholic/Jesuit Values in an Introductory Religious Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Patrick; S. J.; Mizak, Pat

    2012-01-01

    A growing interest in the communication to students of the mission and identity of a higher education institution prompted this study about the presence of Catholic, Jesuit values in the introductory religious studies course at a faith-based university. To conduct this study a survey instrument was developed, piloted, further refined, and then…

  6. Comparative study of a novel application of automated HR HPV assay and stability in a previously untested Preservative media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike E. Morel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The suitability and stability of cervical cells in Novaprep media (NHQ for certain HPV assays is unknown. Methods: We evaluated the accuracy of an automated HPV assay (Abbott RealTime HR HPV for cervical cells prepared in NHQ and NHQ with a pre-treatment to mimic a worst case clinical use, compared to the assay manufacturers media; repeatability and reproducibility of HPV results and the stability of detectable HPV in NHQ over time compared to CE marked liquid based cytology preservatives. Cell lines were used to simulate patient samples. Results: Cells stored in NHQ produced accurate, repeatable and reproducible results. Stability in NHQ was comparable to the best performing LBC, with at least 7 months’ stability at 18–25 °C, 2–8 °C, −20 °C and −80 °C; and at least 3 months’ stability at 40 °C. Similar results were obtained for pre-treated NHQ except only 3.5 months’ stability at 18–25 °C. Cell line samples in all media and concentrations tested were detected appropriately by the assay. Conclusions: Based on this first stage validation analytical study, cervical cells stored in NHQ are suitable for the Realtime HPV assay. There should be no reservations for inclusion of NHQ in any further validation and clinical performance evaluation of this assay. Keywords: HPV, Preservative, Sample stability, Automated HR HPV assay

  7. Packaging Solutions : Delivering customer value through Logistical Packaging: A Case Study at Stora Enso Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shan, Kun; Julius, Joezer

    2015-01-01

    AbstractBackground;Despite of the significant role of packaging within logistics and supply chain management, packaging is infrequently studied as focal point in supply chain. Most of the previous logistics research studies tend to explain the integration between packaging and logistics through logistical packaging. In very rare cases, the studies mentioned about customer value. Therefore the major disadvantage of these studies is that, they didn’t consider logistical packaging and customer v...

  8. The Value(s) of Civil Leaders : A Study into the Influence of Governance Context on Public Value Orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The main research question of the dissertation is: What values motivate and direct civil leaders and to what extent are the values shaped by the institutional context in which these leaders operate? This central question was divided into three research questions. 1. Do civil leaders have a common

  9. Ethical and Social Values in Business Administration and Management Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, Mercedes; de los Rios-Bergillos, Araceli; Tirado-Valencia, Pilar; Millan-Lara, Salud

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the impact of the learning process in business administration and management of students' values, through the application of factor analysis to the information obtained in a survey consisting of students in the first and fifth year of studies. The study derived the following conclusions: First,…

  10. Study of apparent diffusion coefficient value in the normal breastq

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Shifeng

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the differences of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value in normal breasts and to evaluate the correlation between ADC value and corresponding histology. Methods: Sixty-two normal breasts including 42 normal breasts of 42 patients with unilateral lesions and 20 normal breasts of 10 volunteers were studied. The ADC value of all 62 normal breasts were calculated when b value was given from 1000 to 0 s/mm 2 , 1000 to 500 s/mm 2 and 500 to 0 s/mm 2 . The MRI features of 60 normal breasts were classified into 3 types (dense, lobular-speckled, degenerative types) according to Wolf's classification and histology. Results: DWI and ADC images were different in 3 types of normal breasts because of different histologic structures. The mean ADC value of the dense type breasts was (1.70 ± 0.37) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, the lobular-speckled type was (1.93 ± 0.46) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s and the degenerative type was (1.18 ± 0.65) x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (F=12.998, P=0.000). There were no significant differences between the dense type and the lobular-speckled type (F=2.167, P=0.147), but significant differences between the dense type and the degenerative type, the lobular-speckled type and the degenerate type (F=5.593 and 19.128; P=0.029 and 0.000). When b value decreased, the ADC value of the dense type and the lobular-speckled type increased correspondingly, but the degenerative type didn't increase apparently. Conclusion: ADC value was influenced by histologic structures in normal breasts and also was influenced by b value in the dense type and lobular-speckled type breasts. (authors)

  11. Paper Money Value Change: Comparative Banking Fiqhiyyah Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdu Karim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considered one of the significant issues in Islamicfinancial fiqh because it bears a close relation to financial commitment. Many fiqh treatments from a Sharia perspective were found in Islamic ancient fiqh. This issue was apparent in Islamic banks investment especially in murâbahah. The study concludes that it is a must who owes amount of money and its value changes to high or low to pay the value of money then,and not the actual amount. Furthermore, it shows that the  treatment of fluctuations in money value comes by linking its value with some indicators, including stable currency and the linkage to gold or silverDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2561

  12. Paper Money Value Change: Comparative Banking Fiqhiyyah Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzah Abdul Karim Hamid

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considered one of the significant issues in Islamic financial fiqh because it bears a close relation to financial commitment. Many fiqh treatments from a Sharia perspective were found in Islamic ancient fiqh. This issue was apparent in Islamic banks investment especially in murabahah. The study concludes that it is a must who owes amount of money and its value changes to high or low to pay the value of money then, and not the actual amount. Furthermore, it shows that the treatment of fluctuations in money value comes by linking its value with some indicators, including stable currency and the linkage to gold or silver.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v5i1.2115

  13. Factors influencing the robustness of P-value measurements in CT texture prognosis studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Sarah; Scuffham, James; Alobaidli, Sheaka; Prakash, Vineet; Ezhil, Veni; Nisbet, Andrew; South, Christopher; Evans, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have recently reported on the value of CT texture analysis in predicting survival, although the topic remains controversial, with further validation needed in order to consolidate the evidence base. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of varying the input parameters in the Kaplan-Meier analysis, to determine whether the resulting P-value can be considered to be a robust indicator of the parameter’s prognostic potential. A retrospective analysis of the CT-based normalised entropy of 51 patients with lung cancer was performed and overall survival data for these patients were collected. A normalised entropy cut-off was chosen to split the patient cohort into two groups and log-rank testing was performed to assess the survival difference of the two groups. This was repeated for varying normalised entropy cut-offs and varying follow-up periods. Our findings were also compared with previously published results to assess robustness of this parameter in a multi-centre patient cohort. The P-value was found to be highly sensitive to the choice of cut-off value, with small changes in cut-off producing substantial changes in P. The P-value was also sensitive to follow-up period, with particularly noisy results at short follow-up periods. Using matched conditions to previously published results, a P-value of 0.162 was obtained. Survival analysis results can be highly sensitive to the choice in texture cut-off value in dichotomising patients, which should be taken into account when performing such studies to avoid reporting false positive results. Short follow-up periods also produce unstable results and should therefore be avoided to ensure the results produced are reproducible. Previously published findings that indicated the prognostic value of normalised entropy were not replicated here, but further studies with larger patient numbers would be required to determine the cause of the different outcomes.

  14. Value Education on Pela Tradition (An Ethnographic Study of Ambonese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pendidikan Nilai dalam Tradisi Pela (Kajian Etnografis Masyarakat Ambon Abstract: The value that has meaning in pela tradition in Ambon society is something that has been handled as personally and can be internalized in human behaviour. The reality of pela tradition value order has been processing in institutionalized as the education direction of social values. The purpose of this qualitative research is to describe the values in the tradition of pela for educational value in Ambon community. The Exposure to the data, data explanation and understanding of discourse data tradition of pela is done in depth. The Study of pela discourse tradition with hermeneutics gives holistic-emic views of how the tradition of pela is able to package and legitimize the Ambonese community life philosophy. The results of the study describes the values in the tradition of pela include (1 the value of religion that regulates the dimensions of God in human life, (2 the value of the philosophy that is universal and will be impacted by the ending value and subjectivity, and (3 the value of ethical consequences of individual responsibility in achieving a moral obligation. Key Words: value education, culture, pela tradition Abstrak: Nilai yang memiliki arti dalam tradisi pela masyarakat Ambon adalah sesuatu yang telah diberikan sejak turun temurun secara pribadi dan dapat diinternalisasi dalam perilaku manusia. Pada kenyataannya, nilai pada tradisi pela telah dilembagakan menjadi arahan dalam pendidikan nilai-nilai sosial. Tujuan penelitian kualitatif ini adalah menggambarkan nilai-nilai yang terkandung dalam tradisi pela sebagai pendidikan nilai masyarakat Ambon. Paparan data, cara penjelasan data, dan pemahaman data wacana tradisi pela dilakukan secara mendalam. Kajian wacana tradisi pela dengan ancangan hermeneutika memberikan gambaran holistik-emik tentang bagaimana tradisi pela mampu mengemas dan melegitimasi falsafah hidup komunitas masyarakat Ambon. Hasil

  15. Value Assessment of Distribution Network Reconfiguration: A Danish Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi

    2016-01-01

    . This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show......Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...

  16. Measuring the value of older people's production: a diary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahlen Klas-Göran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The productive capacity of retired people is usually not valued. However, some retirees produce much more than we might expect. This diary-based study identifies the activities of older people, and suggests some value mechanisms. One question raised is whether it is possible to scale up this diary study into a larger representative study. Methods Diaries kept for one week were collected among 23 older people in the north of Sweden. The texts were analysed with a grounded theory approach; an interplay between ideas and empirical data. Results Some productive activities of older people must be valued as the opportunity cost of time or according to the market value, and others must be valued with the replacement cost. In order to make the choice between these methods, it is important to consider the societal entitlement. When there is no societal entitlement, the first or second method must be used; and when it exists, the third must be used. Conclusions An explicit investigation of the content of the entitlement is needed to justify the choice of valuation method for each activity. In a questionnaire addressing older people's production, each question must be adjusted to the type of production. In order to fully understand this production, it is important to consider the degree of free choice to conduct an activity, as well as health-related quality of life.

  17. Personal values and political activism: a cross-national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Michele; Schwartz, Shalom H; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Schoen, Harald; Cieciuch, Jan; Silvester, Jo; Bain, Paul; Bianchi, Gabriel; Kirmanoglu, Hasan; Baslevent, Cem; Mamali, Catalin; Manzi, Jorge; Pavlopoulos, Vassilis; Posnova, Tetyana; Torres, Claudio; Verkasalo, Markku; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Vondráková, Eva; Welzel, Christian; Alessandri, Guido

    2015-02-01

    Using data from 28 countries in four continents, the present research addresses the question of how basic values may account for political activism. Study 1 (N = 35,116) analyses data from representative samples in 20 countries that responded to the 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ-21) in the European Social Survey. Study 2 (N = 7,773) analyses data from adult samples in six of the same countries (Finland, Germany, Greece, Israel, Poland, and United Kingdom) and eight other countries (Australia, Brazil, Chile, Italy, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States) that completed the full 40-item PVQ. Across both studies, political activism relates positively to self-transcendence and openness to change values, especially to universalism and autonomy of thought, a subtype of self-direction. Political activism relates negatively to conservation values, especially to conformity and personal security. National differences in the strength of the associations between individual values and political activism are linked to level of democratization. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC: an empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnaz Paknezhad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that conventional accounting does not provide actual value of a firm since they only take into account the tangible assets. Intellectual capital provides a new concept for considering actual value of the assets, which helps calculate intangible values of the firm. In this paper, we use value added intellectual coefficient (VAIC to measure the performance of a firm. The study investigates the relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets and value added for three consecutive years between 2008 and 2010. The results indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and return on assets for fiscal years of 2008 and 2009 but there is a meaningful relationship between these two items for the fiscal year of 2010 when . Our findings also indicate that there is no meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and value added for the years of 2008 and 2010 but there is a meaningful relationship between the items for the fiscal year of 2009. The results somewhat confirm the recently published results in the literature, which argues the use of VAIC for assessing the direct impact of IC on other financial factors.

  19. Food and Drug Administration criteria for the diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease in patients previously exposed to benfluorex: a prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchaux, Sylvestre; Rusinaru, Dan; Jobic, Yannick; Ederhy, Stéphane; Donal, Erwan; Réant, Patricia; Arnalsteen, Elise; Boulanger, Jacques; Garban, Thierry; Ennezat, Pierre-Vladimir; Jeu, Antoine; Szymanski, Catherine; Tribouilloy, Christophe

    2015-02-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria for diagnosis of drug-induced valvular heart disease (DIVHD) are only based on the observation of aortic regurgitation ≥ mild and/or mitral regurgitation ≥ moderate. We sought to evaluate the diagnostic value of FDA criteria in a cohort of control patients and in a cohort of patients exposed to a drug (benfluorex) known to induce VHD. This prospective, multicentre study included 376 diabetic control patients not exposed to valvulopathic drugs and 1000 subjects previously exposed to benfluorex. Diagnosis of mitral or aortic DIVHD was based on a combined functional and morphological echocardiographic analysis of cardiac valves. Patients were classified according to the FDA criteria [mitral or aortic-FDA(+) and mitral or aortic-FDA(-)]. Among the 376 control patients, 2 were wrongly classified as mitral-FDA(+) and 17 as aortic-FDA(+) (0.53 and 4.5% of false positives, respectively). Of those exposed to benfluorex, 48 of 58 with a diagnosis of mitral DIVHD (83%) were classified as mitral-FDA(-), and 901 of the 910 patients (99%) without a diagnosis of the mitral DIVHD group were classified as mitral-FDA(-). All 40 patients with a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD were classified as aortic-FDA(+), and 105 of the 910 patients without a diagnosis of aortic DIVHD (12%) were classified aortic-FDA(+). Older age and lower BMI were independent predictors of disagreement between FDA criteria and the diagnosis of DIVHD in patients exposed to benfluorex (both P ≤ 0.001). FDA criteria solely based on the Doppler detection of cardiac valve regurgitation underestimate for the mitral valve and overestimate for the aortic valve the frequency of DIVHD. Therefore, the diagnosis of DIVHD must be based on a combined echocardiographic and Doppler morphological and functional analysis of cardiac valves. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The Strategic Approach to Studying, and the Value of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I seek to reflexively theorise the following pedagogical problem: why do so many students adopt a strategic approach to studying and value assessment for the grade awarded rather than as a learning opportunity? Firstly, I differentiate my sociological perspective from the phenomenographic perspective, and argue that the strategic…

  1. Framing Social Values: An Experimental Study of Culture and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolte, John F.; Fender, Shanon

    2007-01-01

    How and why does a given social value come to shape the way an individual thinks, feels, and acts in a specific social situation? This study links ideas from Goffman's frame analysis to other lines of research, proposing that dramatic narratives of variable content, vividness, and language-in-use produce variation in the accessibility of…

  2. The Value of Chat Reference Services: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, JoAnn; Ward, David; Avery, Susan; Marcyk, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    This article explores student, instructor, and librarian perceptions of chat reference in the context of an introductory composition course. Participants in a mixed-method study responded to an anonymized chat transcript. While student respondents valued speed and efficiency, they were willing to receive instruction and open to questions that…

  3. Transforming Values into Behaviors: A Study on the Application of Values Education to Families in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    No matter what century we live in, even though the tools we use change from age to age, man is not a creature who can be considered or understood without the concept of values. Although we have different religions, languages, races and cultures, the personality of man is always constructed through values. Values are factors that directly…

  4. The value of computerized tomography and sonography in different types of pancreatitis, judged on the basis of a diagnosis previously confirmed by retrograde endoscopic cholangiopancreaticography and the pancreomycin-secretin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sewing, G.

    1985-01-01

    The blind study described here pointed to a diagnostic superiority of computered tomography, the results of which in chronic pancreatitis were judged to be better than those of sonography, chiefly because of its high sensitivity in the detection of calcified deposits in the pancreas. The values determined, in particular those relating to the specifity of the methods used, were lower than the data given by other authors. From the findings revealed here there was, however, sufficient evidence to confirm that both computered tomography and sonography certainly have their merits as non-invasive methods of morphological examination in the diagnosis of pancreatitis. They should therefore be used, preferably in combined form, prior to any other diagnostic measures that may be more hazardous to the patient. (MBC) [de

  5. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Victoria; Piorkowski, Julie; Turyk, Mary; Freels, Sally; Chatterton, Robert; Dimos, John; Bradlow, H Leon; Chary, Lin Kaatz; Burse, Virlyn; Unterman, Terry; Sepkovic, Daniel W; McCann, Kenneth

    2012-08-29

    Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones.

  6. Ethical values in emergency medical services: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, Anders; Herrera, María Jiménez; Axelsson, Christer; Martí, Dolors Burjalés; Sandman, Lars; Casali, Gian Luca

    2015-12-01

    Ambulance professionals often address conflicts between ethical values. As individuals' values represent basic convictions of what is right or good and motivate behaviour, research is needed to understand their value profiles. To translate and adapt the Managerial Values Profile to Spanish and Swedish, and measure the presence of utilitarianism, moral rights and/or social justice in ambulance professionals' value profiles in Spain and Sweden. The instrument was translated and culturally adapted. A content validity index was calculated. Pilot tests were carried out with 46 participants. This study conforms to the ethical principles for research involving human subjects and adheres to national laws and regulations concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Spanish professionals favoured justice and Swedish professionals' rights in their ambulance organizations. Both countries favoured utilitarianism least. Gender differences across countries showed that males favoured rights. Spanish female professionals favoured justice most strongly of all. Swedes favour rights while Spaniards favour justice. Both contexts scored low on utilitarianism focusing on total population effect, preferring the opposite, individualized approach of the rights and justice perspectives. Organizational investment in a utilitarian perspective might jeopardize ambulance professionals' moral right to make individual assessments based on the needs of the patient at hand. Utilitarianism and a caring ethos appear as stark opposites. However, a caring ethos in its turn might well involve unreasonable demands on the individual carer's professional role. Since both the justice and rights perspectives portrayed in the survey mainly concern relationship to the organization and peers within the organization, this relationship might at worst be given priority over the equal treatment and moral rights of the patient. A balanced view on ethical perspectives is needed to make professionals observant and

  7. Quantifying the influence of previously burned areas on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure: A case study of the Las Conchas Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew P. Thompson; Patrick Freeborn; Jon D. Rieck; Dave Calkin; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day; Mark A. Cochrane; Michael S. Hand

    2016-01-01

    We present a case study of the Las Conchas Fire (2011) to explore the role of previously burned areas (wildfires and prescribed fires) on suppression effectiveness and avoided exposure. Methodological innovations include characterisation of the joint dynamics of fire growth and suppression activities, development of a fire line effectiveness framework, and...

  8. Study of some physical aspects previous to design of an exponential experiment; Estudio de algunos aspectos fisicos previos al diseno de una experiencia exponencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R; Francisco, J L. de

    1961-07-01

    This report presents the theoretical study of some physical aspects previous to the design of an exponential facility. The are: Fast and slow flux distribution in the multiplicative medium and in the thermal column, slowing down in the thermal column, geometrical distribution and minimum needed intensity of sources access channels and perturbations produced by possible variations in its position and intensity. (Author) 4 refs.

  9. Individualization and the fragmentation of work values : Evidence from the European values study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halman, L.C.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    This article focuses on two main topics of modernization theory: individualization and value fragmentation. According to this theory it is to be expected that 1. individualized orientations will be dominant in modern society, and 2. that values in modern society are fragmented. These ideas were

  10. Values and Teaching: A Study of Teacher Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longstreth, Larry Eldon

    Questionnaires and interviews on values and the teaching of values were completed with the entire faculty (76) of Longmont (Colorado) Senior High School. Over 60% believed that to value means to appraise; a similar proportion believed that to value means to cherish. 82% felt that values are relative rather than absolute. Almost all believed that…

  11. A cross-sectional study of tuberculosis drug resistance among previously treated patients in a tertiary hospital in Accra, Ghana: public health implications of standardized regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forson, Audrey; Kwara, Awewura; Kudzawu, Samuel; Omari, Michael; Otu, Jacob; Gehre, Florian; de Jong, Bouke; Antonio, Martin

    2018-04-02

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance is a major challenge to the use of standardized regimens for tuberculosis (TB) therapy, especially among previously treated patients. We aimed to investigate the frequency and pattern of drug resistance among previously treated patients with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital Chest Clinic, Accra. This was a cross-sectional survey of mycobacterial isolates from previously treated patients referred to the Chest Clinic Laboratory between October 2010 and October 2013. The Bactec MGIT 960 system for mycobactrerial culture and drug sensitivity testing (DST) was used for sputum culture of AFB smear-positive patients with relapse, treatment failure, failure of smear conversion, or default. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize patient characteristics, and frequency and patterns of drug resistance. A total of 112 isolates were studied out of 155 from previously treated patients. Twenty contaminated (12.9%) and 23 non-viable isolates (14.8%) were excluded. Of the 112 studied isolates, 53 (47.3%) were pan-sensitive to all first-line drugs tested Any resistance (mono and poly resistance) to isoniazid was found in 44 isolates (39.3%) and any resistance to streptomycin in 43 (38.4%). Thirty-one (27.7%) were MDR-TB. Eleven (35.5%) out of 31 MDR-TB isolates were pre-XDR. MDR-TB isolates were more likely than non-MDR isolates to have streptomycin and ethambutol resistance. The main findings of this study were the high prevalence of MDR-TB and streptomycin resistance among previously treated TB patients, as well as a high prevalence of pre-XDR-TB among the MDR-TB patients, which suggest that first-line and second-line DST is essential to aid the design of effective regimens for these groups of patients in Ghana.

  12. An Empirical Study on Listed Company’s Value of Cash Holdings: An Information Asymmetry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of a company’s cash holdings is currently a hot issue in corporate finance research. Current studies have not reached a unified conclusion. Moreover, no one has ever studied that from the perspective of information asymmetry. However, there still exist disputes about the measurement of the degree of information asymmetry. Previous studies mostly adopt single index to analysis this issue, and the economic meaning it represents only reflects some information of asymmetric information, so it was one-sided and the conclusion also differ. Drawing on the market microstructure and the index of information asymmetry of managers and investors, this paper constructs a new proxy for information asymmetry based on the principal component analysis. We find that a company’s value of cash holdings decreases increasingly with its level of information asymmetry, and the relationship between information asymmetry and the value of cash holdings is nonlinear.

  13. How Can Big Data Complement Expert Analysis? A Value Chain Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungtae Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the world of big data, there is a need to investigate how data-driven approaches can support expert-based analyses during a technology planning process. To meet this goal, we examined opportunities and challenges for big data analytics in the social sciences, particularly with respect to value chain analysis. To accomplish this, we designed a value chain mapping experiment that aimed to compare the results of expert-based and data-based mappings. In the expert-based approach, we asked an industry expert to visually depict an industry value chain based on insights and collected data. We also reviewed a previously published value chain developed by a panel of industry experts during a national technology planning process. In the data-driven analysis, we used a massive number of business transaction records between companies under the assumption that the data would be useful in identifying relationships between items in a value chain. The case study results demonstrated that data-driven analysis can help researchers understand the current status of industry structures, enabling them to develop more realistic, although less flexible value chain maps. This approach is expected to provide more value when used in combination with other databases. It is important to note that significant effort is required to develop an elaborate analysis algorithm, and data preprocessing is essential for obtaining meaningful results, both of which make this approach challenging. Experts’ insights are still helpful for validating the analytic results in value chain mapping.

  14. Is email a reliable means of contacting authors of previously published papers? A study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, F

    2003-07-01

    To determine whether it is possible to contact authors of previously published papers via email. A cross sectional study of the Emergency Medicine Journal for 2001. 118 articles were included in the study. The response rate from those with valid email addresses was 73%. There was no statistical difference between the type of email address used and the address being invalid (p=0.392) or between the type of article and the likelihood of a reply (p=0.197). More responses were obtained from work addresses when compared with Hotmail addresses (86% v 57%, p=0.02). Email is a valid means of contacting authors of previously published articles, particularly within the emergency medicine specialty. A work based email address may be a more valid means of contact than a Hotmail address.

  15. Adoption of value engineering: an attribute study for construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, P.

    2015-01-01

    For economic reasons, engineers are compelled to explore low cost methods in construction industry to reduce the overall cost of a project. Research studies have been conducted in this regard throughout the world and value engineering is one of such approaches. Its effective use and applications reduces the project cost without compromising the project quality. Project cost, and efficient design alternatives can be identified using this technique, which will ultimately reduce the overall project cost. Client satisfaction, project reliability and quality can also be improved by the application of value engineering. It is also used for improving managerial performance, project schedule and reduced risks in a project. It is a powerful tool used to identify problems and recommend solutions. This paper highlights the importance of value engineering in general and with specific perspective of Construction Industry in Pakistan. Questionnaire based survey has been conducted by construction managers (i.e. project engineers, construction engineers, project managers, architects, etc.) through online web based system, as a result, random data sampling is achieved. The attributes are mapped to obtain goals for the project. The data has been analyzed through reliability and linear regression using SPSS while Z-Score and Average Index are conducted using MS Excel. The results showed that there is ample need to apply such techniques in initial phases of any project to get project benefits. (author)

  16. Previous dropout from diabetic care as a predictor of patients' willingness to use mobile applications for self-management: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoko; Waki, Kayo; Tomizawa, Nobuko; Waki, Hironori; Nannya, Yasuhito; Nangaku, Masaomi; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Preventing dropout is crucial in managing diabetes. Accordingly, we investigated whether patients who had dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for the use of mobile technologies - such as smartphone applications - to support self-management (mHealth), which might help prevent dropout. We carried out a cross-sectional study in Tokyo, Japan. Patients aged 20 years or older who were clinically diagnosed as diabetic and who regularly visited the outpatient unit at the University of Tokyo Hospital were recruited between August 2014 and March 2015. Data were collected through face-to-face structured interviews, physical measurements and medical records. Participants were asked whether they were willing to use mHealth after being shown DialBetics - an mHealth application for diabetics - as an example, and about their history of dropout and previous mHealth experience. Data were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression models. Of 307 patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, 34 (11.1%) had previously dropped out from diabetic care. Multivariate analysis identified previous mHealth experience as a negative predictor of dropout (odds ratio 0.211, P = 0.023). Of those 34 patients, 27 (79.4%) expressed willingness to use mHealth, a significantly higher percentage than for those who had never dropped out (51.5%, P = 0.002). After adjusting for confounders, history of dropout remained a strong predictor of willingness (odds ratio 3.870, P = 0.004). Patients who previously dropped out of diabetic care are suitable candidates for mHealth. Future studies must evaluate whether mHealth is effective for preventing repeated dropout and improving glycemic control among this population. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Diabetes Investigation published by Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes (AASD) and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Accounting for between-study variation in incremental net benefit in value of information methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Previous applications of value of information methods for determining optimal sample size in randomized clinical trials have assumed no between-study variation in mean incremental net benefit. By adopting a hierarchical model, we provide a solution for determining optimal sample size with this assumption relaxed. The solution is illustrated with two examples from the literature. Expected net gain increases with increasing between-study variation, reflecting the increased uncertainty in incremental net benefit and reduced extent to which data are borrowed from previous evidence. Hence, a trial can become optimal where current evidence is sufficient assuming no between-study variation. However, despite the expected net gain increasing, the optimal sample size in the illustrated examples is relatively insensitive to the amount of between-study variation. Further percentage losses in expected net gain were small even when choosing sample sizes that reflected widely different between-study variation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  19. Value Creation through Acquisition Strategy: A Study of Volvo’s Acquisition by Geely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yane Chandera

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value creation on the acquisition of Volvo Car Corp by Zhejiang Geely Holding Group. The acquisition of Volvo by Geely became an interesting topic to discuss since it was the first time in automotive industry that a Chinese company acquired an international company with a considerably high transaction amount. The paper examines the short term value creation using event study to calculate abnormal returns of each company’s stock during the announcement period and measuring the significance of the cumulative abnormal return. The findings are consistent with previous studies over the years which have shown that most acquisitions fail to add value for shareholders in the acquiring company. The paper discusses the broad managerial implications of the findings this paper discussion on marketing aspect after the acquisition by integrating two different brand perceptions.

  20. Mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with different insulin secretagogues compared with metformin in type 2 diabetes, with or without a previous myocardial infarction: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Tina Ken; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vaag, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Aims The impact of insulin secretagogues (ISs) on long-term major clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We examined mortality and cardiovascular risk associated with all available ISs compared with metformin in a nationwide study. Methods and results All Danish residents >20 years......, initiating single-agent ISs or metformin between 1997 and 2006 were followed for up to 9 years (median 3.3 years) by individual-level linkage of nationwide registers. All-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and the composite of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cardiovascular mortality...... associated with individual ISs were investigated in patients with or without previous MI by multivariable Cox proportional-hazard analyses including propensity analyses. A total of 107 806 subjects were included, of whom 9607 had previous MI. Compared with metformin, glimepiride (hazard ratios and 95...

  1. Anybody can do Value at Risk: A Nonparametric Teaching Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Powell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR has become a benchmark methodology among investors and banks for measuring market risk. Commercially available modelling packages can be both expensive and inflexible, thereby restricting their use by academic researchers and teachers. Usingnonparametric methodology, this paper provides a step-by-step teaching study on how to use Excel to construct a VaR spreadsheet for an individual asset as well as for a portfolio. This can benefit financial modelling teachers by providing them with a readily useable teaching study on how to model VaR, as well as benefit researchers by showing them how to construct an inexpensive and flexible VaR model.

  2. Exploring inductive risk case studies of values in science

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Science is the most reliable means available for understanding the world around us and our place in it. But, since science draws conclusions based on limited empirical evidence, there is always a chance that a scientific inference will be incorrect. That chance, known as inductive risk, is endemic to science. Though inductive risk has always been present in scientific practice, the role of values in responding to it has only recently gained extensive attention from philosophers, scientists, and policy-makers. Exploring Inductive Risk brings together a set of eleven concrete case studies with the goals of illustrating the pervasiveness of inductive risk, assisting scientists and policymakers in responding to it, and moving theoretical discussions of this phenomenon forward. The case studies range over a wide variety of scientific contexts, including the drug approval process, high energy particle physics, dual-use research, climate science, research on gender disparities in employment, clinical trials, and to...

  3. The implicit value of tree cover in the U.S.: A meta-analysis of hedonic property value studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamani Siriwardena; Kevin Boyle; Tom Holmes; P. Eric Wiseman

    2016-01-01

    Trees in residential neighborhoods and communities provide benefits for homeowners that are capitalized into residential property values. In this paper, we collected data from hedonic property value studies and merged these data with ancillary spatial data describing forest and socio-economic characteristics surrounding each study area to conduct a meta-analysis of the...

  4. Self-Objectification and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Rollero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-objectification occurs when individuals treat themselves as objects to be viewed and evaluated based upon appearance. Literature has largely elucidated links between self-objectification and damaging outcomes in both men and women. The purpose of the present study was to extend past research on the antecedents of self-objectification. We were interested in the role played by specific ideological components, i.e., higher order personal values (self-enhancement, conservation, self-transcendence, and openness to change, in influencing the degree to which individuals internalize the objectifying perspective of the Western cultural milieu, i.e., self-objectify. Undergraduate participants (N = 371, 76.8% women completed measures of self-objectification (i.e., body surveillance and body shame, and endorsement of higher order values. Regression analyses demonstrated that self-enhancement is linked to higher self-objectification in both men and women, whereas conservation is related only to women’s body surveillance. Self-transcendence seemed to act as a buffer against men’s body surveillance, whereas openness to change resulted as a buffer against women’s body surveillance. Implications are discusses.

  5. Self-Objectification and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollero, Chiara; De Piccoli, Norma

    2017-01-01

    Self-objectification occurs when individuals treat themselves as objects to be viewed and evaluated based upon appearance. Literature has largely elucidated links between self-objectification and damaging outcomes in both men and women. The purpose of the present study was to extend past research on the antecedents of self-objectification. We were interested in the role played by specific ideological components, i.e., higher order personal values (self-enhancement, conservation, self-transcendence, and openness to change), in influencing the degree to which individuals internalize the objectifying perspective of the Western cultural milieu, i.e., self-objectify. Undergraduate participants ( N = 371, 76.8% women) completed measures of self-objectification (i.e., body surveillance and body shame), and endorsement of higher order values. Regression analyses demonstrated that self-enhancement is linked to higher self-objectification in both men and women, whereas conservation is related only to women's body surveillance. Self-transcendence seemed to act as a buffer against men's body surveillance, whereas openness to change resulted as a buffer against women's body surveillance. Implications are discusses.

  6. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-01-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system

  7. Value Engineering Study for Closing Waste Packages Containing TAD Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colleen Shelton-Davis

    2005-11-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management announced their intention to have the commercial utilities package spent nuclear fuel in shielded, transportable, ageable, and disposable containers prior to shipment to the Yucca Mountain repository. This will change the conditions used as a basis for the design of the waste package closure system. The environment is now expected to be a low radiation, low contamination area. A value engineering study was completed to evaluate possible modifications to the existing closure system using the revised requirements. Four alternatives were identified and evaluated against a set of weighted criteria. The alternatives are (1) a radiation-hardened, remote automated system (the current baseline design); (2) a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system (with personnel intervention if necessary); (3) a nonradiation-hardened, semi-automated system with personnel access for routine manual operations; and (4) a nonradiation-hardened, fully manual system with full-time personnel access. Based on the study, the recommended design is Alternative 2, a nonradiation-hardened, remote automated system. It is less expensive and less complex than the current baseline system, because nonradiation-hardened equipment can be used and some contamination control equipment is no longer needed. In addition, the inclusion of remote automation ensures throughput requirements are met, provides a more reliable process, and provides greater protection for employees from industrial accidents and radiation exposure than the semi-automated or manual systems. Other items addressed during the value engineering study as requested by OCRWM include a comparison to industry canister closure systems and corresponding lessons learned; consideration of closing a transportable, ageable, and disposable canister; and an estimate of the time required to perform a demonstration of the recommended closure system.

  8. Perceived Value of Educational Hypermedia: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of perceived value of educational hypermedia by extending prior research in advertising and information systems. It proposes that the value of a course support site comes from both its information content and users' experience when they visit the site. The cognitive antecedents of a site's perceived value include…

  9. The Study and Measurement of Values and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerlinger, Fred N.

    The author defines values, attitudes, and beliefs according to their relation to referents. A referent is a construct standing for a set or category of social objects, ideas, or behaviors that is the focus of an attitude. Attitudes and values are belief systems. Beliefs are enduring cognitions about referents; beliefs reflect the value and…

  10. Coastal Zone Ecosystem Services: from science to values and decision making; a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luisetti, T; Turner, R K; Jickells, T; Andrews, J; Elliott, M; Schaafsma, M; Beaumont, N; Malcolm, S; Burdon, D; Adams, C; Watts, W

    2014-09-15

    This research is concerned with the following environmental research questions: socio-ecological system complexity, especially when valuing ecosystem services; ecosystems stock and services flow sustainability and valuation; the incorporation of scale issues when valuing ecosystem services; and the integration of knowledge from diverse disciplines for governance and decision making. In this case study, we focused on ecosystem services that can be jointly supplied but independently valued in economic terms: healthy climate (via carbon sequestration and storage), food (via fisheries production in nursery grounds), and nature recreation (nature watching and enjoyment). We also explored the issue of ecosystem stock and services flow, and we provide recommendations on how to value stock and flows of ecosystem services via accounting and economic values respectively. We considered broadly comparable estuarine systems located on the English North Sea coast: the Blackwater estuary and the Humber estuary. In the past, these two estuaries have undergone major land-claim. Managed realignment is a policy through which previously claimed intertidal habitats are recreated allowing the enhancement of the ecosystem services provided by saltmarshes. In this context, we investigated ecosystem service values, through biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates. Using an optimistic (extended conservation of coastal ecosystems) and a pessimistic (loss of coastal ecosystems because of, for example, European policy reversal) scenario, we find that context dependency, and hence value transfer possibilities, vary among ecosystem services and benefits. As a result, careful consideration in the use and application of value transfer, both in biophysical estimates and welfare value estimates, is advocated to supply reliable information for policy making. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Air pollution by ozone in Europe in summer 2003 - Overview of exceedances of EC ozone threshold values during the summer season April-August 2003 and comparisons with previous years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiala, J.; Cernikovsky, L.; Leeuw, F. de; Kurfuerst, P.; Aalst, R. van (eds.)

    2003-07-01

    In the period 1995-2003 of reporting tinder the old ozone directive, there has been little or no change in the reported exceedances of ozone threshold values. This is not unexpected as reductions in the EU emissions of nitrogen oxides and nonmethane volatile organic compounds, the main ozone precursors, have so far been limited - about 30 % between 1990 and 2000. 2010 under the national emission teilings directive. While peak ozone concentrations seem to go down, ozone concentration statistics relevant to the target values set in the new ozone directive show little or no reduction in the period 1996-2000. Very few stations actually show a significant downward trend for these stabstics. The threshold for warning the population continues to be exceeded on a few occasions Bach year, while the threshold for informing the population is exceeded at riost stations in most countries (outside northern Europe and Ireland) each year, generally more so in warm summers. These exceedances are likely to retur in years with temperatures above the long-term average until there is a substantially larger decrease in precursor emissions. A further reduction of about 30 % is foreseen towards Under current legislation and with the rate of turnover of the vehicle fleet, furtber reductions will gradually occur towards 2010, and further reductions may be necessary to achieve the target values of the new ozone directive. Note that, due to the uncertainties caused by year-to-year meteorological variations and the changes in the monitoring station configuration, these conclusions are tentative. (au)

  12. A study of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jincang; Cheng Zhengxing; Chen Qingjiang

    2009-01-01

    The notion of vector-valued multiresolution analysis is introduced and the concept of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets which are wavelets for vector fields, is introduced. It is proved that, like in the scalar and multiwavelet case, the existence of a pair of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued scaling functions guarantees the existence of a pair of biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelet functions. An algorithm for constructing a class of compactly supported biorthogonal multiple vector-valued wavelets is presented. Their properties are investigated by means of operator theory and algebra theory and time-frequency analysis method. Several biorthogonality formulas regarding these wavelet packets are obtained.

  13. De novo adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma presenting anew in an elderly patient with previous normal CT and MRI studies: A case report and implications on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Walker, B.S.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign epithelial tumors which arise from embryonic remnants of the craniopharyngeal duct and Rathke’s pouch. They are thought to have a congenital origin and are histologically unique from papillary craniopharyngioma. We describe the case of an elderly male who presented with symptoms related to a large craniopharyngioma with previously normal brain magnetic resonance and computed tomography imaging studies. These findings dispute the embryogenic theory that craniopharyngiomas observed in adults develop from the persistent slow growth of embryonic remnants.

  14. Value engineering awareness study for sustainable construction in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathoni U; Zakaria C M; Rohayu C O

    2013-01-01

    Construction process has often been described as a highly complex process because of the number of disciplines involved during the conceptual, design and construction stage. With the emergence of latest technology and concern for environment, increasing attention in construction industry is given on sustainability. Balance in quality and sustainability has become a major challenge to the construction industry. This paper presents a study that has conducted to determine the acceptance and application of Value Engineering (VE) and Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) in Malaysia construction industry. A set of questionnaire have distributed to different practitioners in construction industry and the result has reflect the fact that the application of VE and LCCA are still very low.

  15. Impact of Availability and Use of ART/PMTCT Services on Fertility Desires of Previously Pregnant Women in Rakai, Uganda: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Lindsay E; Makumbi, Frederick E; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-07-01

    To assess fertility desires by availability and use of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai, Uganda. Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai was defined in three periods: (1) pre-ART/PMTCT (ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-2006), and (3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by χ. "Modified" Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRRs were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. A total of 4227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout [adjusted (adj.) PRR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13] and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.08 to 1.14) compared with pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and nonusers in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.62 to 1.14) and 1 year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.94). Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women.

  16. Trends in High Nature Value farmland studies: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetti Yanina

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the High Nature Value (HNV concept was defined in the early 1990s, several studies on HNV farmland has been increasing over the past 30 years in Europe, highlighting the interest by scientific community of HNV farming systems supporting biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trends and main gaps on HNV farmland peer-reviewed publications in order to contribute to the effectiveness of future research in this field. Methods. Searches were conducted using the databases Web of SciencesTM and Scopus in order to identify only peer-reviewed articles on HNV farmland, published prior to July 2017. The inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed a priori. Data as year, country, type of document, subject area, taxa studied and biodiversity metrics assessed were extracted and explored in order to analyse the spatial and temporal distribution of the concept, including the main topics addressed in HNV farmland literature. Results. After screening 308 original articles, 90 were selected for this review. HNV farmland studies involved several disciplines, mainly biodiversity and conservation and environmental sciences and ecology. Most peer-reviewed articles focused on HNV farming were conducted in Spain, Italy, Ireland and Portugal. The main studied taxa were plants and birds. Taxonomic diversity was the biodiversity metric more often used to assess the biodiversity status on HNV farmland areas. A positive correlation was found between HNV farmland area and HNV farmland studies conducted in respective countries. Discussion. The HNV farmland research subject is a relative novel approach, and this systematic review provides a comprehensive overview about the main topics in the HNV farmland peer-reviewed literature contributing to highlight the main gaps and provide some considerations in order to assist the performance of HNV farming systems and conservation policies, addressed to sustain high levels of

  17. Outcome of secondary high-grade glioma in children previously treated for a malignant condition: A study of the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carret, Anne-Sophie; Tabori, Uri; Crooks, Bruce; Hukin, Juliette; Odame, Isaac; Johnston, Donna L.; Keene, Daniel L.; Freeman, Carolyn; Bouffet, Eric

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reports of secondary high-grade glioma (HGG) in survivors of childhood cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to review the pattern of diagnosis, the treatment, and outcome of secondary pediatric HGG. Patients and methods: We performed a multi-center retrospective study among the 17 paediatric institutions participating in the Canadian Pediatric Brain Tumour Consortium (CPBTC). Results: We report on 18 patients (14 males, 4 females) treated in childhood for a primary cancer, who subsequently developed a HGG as a second malignancy. All patients had previously received radiation therapy +/- chemotherapy for either acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (n = 9) or solid tumour (n = 9). All HGG occurred within the previous radiation fields. At the last follow-up, 17 patients have died and the median survival time is 9.75 months. Conclusion: Although aggressive treatment seems to provide sustained remissions in some patients, the optimal management is still to be defined. Further documentation of such cases is necessary in order to better understand the pathogenesis, the natural history and the prevention of these tumours

  18. A study of ADC value in PROPELLER DWI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naka, Takanori; Takahashi, Mitsuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is rapidly becoming widespread in MRI, with many reports of the differential diagnosis using the Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) being seen. We examined the influence of scan parameter on ADC in periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER)-DWI. Neither the repetition time (TR) nor T1 value had a major influence on the ADC value. Number of motion probing gradient (MPG) pulse, effective echo time (TE), and T2 value were the factors in which the ADC value was changed. In addition, the ADC value has been changed by the scan sequence. The factor that influenced the ADC value was able to be confirmed by this experiment. It is necessary to understand the influence that an individual factor has on ADC. (author)

  19. Interactive value-based curriculum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman Peterson, Jill M; Duffy, Briar; Duran, Alisa; Gladding, Sophia P

    2018-03-06

    Current health care costs are unsustainable, with a large percentage of waste attributed to doctor practices. Medical educators are developing curricula to address value-based care (VBC) in education. There is, however, a paucity of curricula and assessments addressing levels higher than 'knows' at the base of Miller's pyramid of assessment. Our objective was to: (1) teach residents the principles of VBC using active learning strategies; and (2) develop and pilot a tool to assess residents' ability to apply principles of VBC at the higher level of 'knows how' on Miller's pyramid. Residents in medicine, medicine-paediatrics and medicine-dermatology participated in a 5-week VBC morning report curriculum using active learning techniques. Early sessions targeted knowledge and later sessions emphasised the application of VBC principles. Medical educators are developing curricula to address value-based care in education RESULTS: Thirty residents attended at least one session and completed both pre- and post-intervention tests, using a newly developed case-based assessment tool featuring a 'waste score' balanced with 'standard of care'. Residents, on average, reduced their waste score from pre-intervention to post-intervention [mean 8.8 (SD 6.3) versus mean 4.7 (SD 4.6), p = 0.001]. For those who reduced their waste score, most maintained or improved their standard of care. Our results suggest that residents may be able to decrease health care waste, with the majority maintaining or improving their management of care in a case-based assessment after participation in the curriculum. We are working to further incorporate VBC principles into more morning reports, and to develop further interventions and assessments to evaluate our residents at higher levels on Miller's pyramid of assessment. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  20. Value Chain Model for Steel Manufacturing Sector: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    S G Acharyulu; K Venkata Subbaiah; K Narayana Rao

    2018-01-01

    Michael E Porter developed a value chain model for manufacturing sector with five primary activities and four supporting activities. The value chain model developed by Porter is extended to a steel manufacturing sector due to expansions of steel plants has become a continual process for their growth and survival. In this paper a value chain model for steel manufacturing sector is developed considering five primary activities and six support activities.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in medical patients at a central hospital in Malawi: a comparison with TB patients from a previous study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamikani Mastala

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD in adult medical, non-tuberculous (non-TB patients. To investigate associations with VDD. To compare the results with a similar study in TB patients at the same hospital. DESIGN: Cross-sectional sample. SETTING: Central hospital in Malawi. PARTICIPANTS: Adult non-TB patients (n = 157, inpatients and outpatients. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the prevalence of VDD. Potentially causal associations sought included nutritional status, in/outpatient status, HIV status, anti-retroviral therapy (ART and, by comparison with a previous study, a diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. RESULTS: Hypovitaminosis D (≤75 nmol/L occurred in 47.8% (75/157 of patients, 16.6% (26/157 of whom had VDD (≤50 nmol/L. None had severe VDD (≤25 nmol/L. VDD was found in 22.8% (23/101 of in-patients and 5.4% (3/56 of out-patients. In univariable analysis in-patient status, ART use and low dietary vitamin D were significant predictors of VDD. VDD was less prevalent than in previously studied TB patients in the same hospital (68/161 = 42%. In multivariate analysis of the combined data set from both studies, having TB (OR 3.61, 95%CI 2.02-6.43 and being an in-patient (OR 2.70, 95%CI 1.46-5.01 were significant independent predictors of VDD. CONCLUSIONS: About half of adult medical patients without TB have suboptimal vitamin D status, which is more common in in-patients. VDD is much more common in TB patients than non-TB patients, even when other variables are controlled for, suggesting that vitamin D deficiency is associated with TB.

  2. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  3. A Business Anthropological Approach to the Study of Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    2012-01-01

    values that goes beyond economists’ simplified theory of value that is dependent solely on price. Based on participant observation, the article describes the strategic planning of, and preparations for, the fieldworker's own pottery exhibition in a department store located in northern Kyushu...

  4. Teacher Stress and Personal Values. An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachkirova, Tatiana

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the first stage of a small-scale research project into the relationship between teacher stress and personal values. It starts by outlining the problem of teacher stress and an overview of the literature investigating the sources of it. A particular combination of factors related to personal values that may increase…

  5. Value Chain Analysis in Interfirm Relationships: A Field Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Interfirm relationships introduce new challenges for management accounting. One such challenge is the provision of information for the coordination and optimization of activities across firms in a value chain. According to the literature, a value chain analysis (VCA) is a useful tool to meet this

  6. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  7. Plantar pressure in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with active foot ulceration, previous ulceration and no history of ulceration: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Malindu Eranga; Crowther, Robert George; Pappas, Elise; Lazzarini, Peter Anthony; Cunningham, Margaret; Sangla, Kunwarjit Singh; Buttner, Petra; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Elevated dynamic plantar pressures are a consistent finding in diabetes patients with peripheral neuropathy with implications for plantar foot ulceration. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the plantar pressures of diabetes patients that had peripheral neuropathy and those with neuropathy with active or previous foot ulcers. Published articles were identified from Medline via OVID, CINAHL, SCOPUS, INFORMIT, Cochrane Central EMBASE via OVID and Web of Science via ISI Web of Knowledge bibliographic databases. Observational studies reporting barefoot dynamic plantar pressure in adults with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, where at least one group had a history of plantar foot ulcers were included. Interventional studies, shod plantar pressure studies and studies not published in English were excluded. Overall mean peak plantar pressure (MPP) and pressure time integral (PTI) were primary outcomes. The six secondary outcomes were MPP and PTI at the rear foot, mid foot and fore foot. The protocol of the meta-analysis was published with PROPSERO, (registration number CRD42013004310). Eight observational studies were included. Overall MPP and PTI were greater in diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients with foot ulceration compared to those without ulceration (standardised mean difference 0.551, 95% CI 0.290-0.811, pdiabetic peripheral neuropathy with a history of foot ulceration compared to those with diabetic neuropathy without a history of ulceration. More homogenous data is needed to confirm these findings.

  8. Phase II study of a 3-day schedule with topotecan and cisplatin in patients with previously untreated small cell lung cancer and extensive disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, M.; Lassen, Ulrik Niels; Jensen, Peter Buhl

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with a topoisomerase I inhibitor in combination with a platinum results in superior or equal survival compared with etoposide-based treatment in extensive disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Five-day topotecan is inconvenient and therefore shorter schedules of topotecan...... and cisplatin are needed. The aim of this phase II study was to establish the response rate and response duration in chemo-naive patients with SCLC receiving a 3-day topotecan and cisplatin schedule. METHODS: Simons optimal two-stage design was used. Patients with previously untreated extensive disease SCLC...... age was 59 (range 44-74), 79% had performance status 0 or 1. Thirty-one patients completed all six cycles. Grade 3/4 anemia, neutrocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia were recorded in 9.5%, 66.7%, and 21.4% of patients, respectively. Fourteen percent of patients experienced neutropenic fever. No episodes...

  9. Value of preoperative esophageal function studies before laparoscopic antireflux surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walter W; Haroian, Laura R; Gyawali, C Prakash

    2011-09-01

    The value of esophageal manometry and ambulatory pH monitoring before laparoscopic antireflux surgery (LARS) has been questioned because tailoring the operation to the degree of hypomotility often is not required. This study evaluated a consecutive cohort of patients referred for esophageal function studies in preparation for LARS to determine the rates of findings that would alter surgical decisions. High-resolution manometry (HRM) was performed for each subject using a 21-lumen water-perfused system, and motor function was characterized. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was evident from ambulatory pH monitoring if thresholds for acid exposure time and/or positive symptom association probability were passed. Of 1,081 subjects (age, 48.4 ± 0.4 years; 56.7% female) undergoing preoperative HRM, 723 (66.9%) also had ambulatory pH testing performed. Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) hypotension (38.9%) and nonspecific spastic disorder (NSSD) of the esophageal body (36.1%) were common. Obstructive LES pathophysiology was noted in 2.5% (achalasia in 1%; incomplete LES relaxation in 1.5%), and significant esophageal body hypomotility in 4.5% (aperistalsis in 3.2%; severe hypomotility in 1.3%) of the subjects. Evidence of GERD was absent in 23.9% of the subjects. Spastic disorders were more frequent in the absence of GERD (43.9% vs. 23.1% with GERD; p esophageal function testing that could be used in preoperative counseling and candidate selection. Physiologic testing remains important in the preoperative evaluation of patients being considered for LARS.

  10. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  11. Trial of labour and vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A population based study of Eastern African immigrants in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belihu, Fetene B; Small, Rhonda; Davey, Mary-Ann

    2017-03-01

    Variations in caesarean section (CS) between some immigrant groups and receiving country populations have been widely reported. Often, African immigrant women are at higher risk of CS than the receiving population in developed countries. However, evidence about subsequent mode of birth following CS for African women post-migration is lacking. The objective of this study was to examine differences in attempted and successful vaginal birth after previous caesarean (VBAC) for Eastern African immigrants (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan) compared with Australian-born women. A population-based observational study was conducted using the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection. Pearson's chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed to generate adjusted odds ratios for attempted and successful VBAC. Victoria, Australia. 554 Eastern African immigrants and 24,587 Australian-born eligible women with previous CS having singleton births in public care. 41.5% of Eastern African immigrant women and 26.1% Australian-born women attempted a VBAC with 50.9% of Eastern African immigrants and 60.5% of Australian-born women being successful. After adjusting for maternal demographic characteristics and available clinical confounding factors, Eastern African immigrants were more likely to attempt (OR adj 1.94, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) but less likely to succeed (OR adj 0.54 95% CI 0.41-0.71) in having a VBAC. There are disparities in attempted and successful VBAC between Eastern African origin and Australian-born women. Unsuccessful VBAC attempt is more common among Eastern African immigrants, suggesting the need for improved strategies to select and support potential candidates for vaginal birth among these immigrants to enhance success and reduce potential complications associated with failed VBAC attempt. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-01-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] “top scoring pairs” polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3′ untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible

  13. Approaching Chinese Freedom: A Study in Absolute and Relative Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kelly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rise of stability preservation to dominance in the political order coincided with a highly charged debate over “universal values” and a closely related discussion of a “China Model”. This paper analyses the critique of universal values as a “wedge issue” that is used to pre-empt criticism of the party-state by appealing to nationalism and cultural essentialism. Taking freedom as a case in point of a universal value, it shows that, while more developed in the West, freedom has an authentic Chinese history with key watersheds in the late Qing reception of popular sovereignty and the ending of the Maoist era. The work of Wang Ruoshui, Qin Hui and Xu Jilin display some of the resources liberals now bring to “de-wedging” universal values, not least freedom. They share a refusal to regard “Western” values as essentially hostile to Chinese.

  14. Women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous caesarean section in Taiwan: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Wen; Hutchinson, Alison M; Nagle, Cate; Bucknall, Tracey K

    2018-01-17

    Vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) is an alternative option for women who have had a previous caesarean section (CS); however, uptake is limited because of concern about the risks of uterine rupture. The aim of this study was to explore women's decision-making processes and the influences on their mode of birth following a previous CS. A qualitative approach was used. The research comprised three stages. Stage I consisted of naturalistic observation at 33-34 weeks' gestation. Stage II involved interviews with pregnant women at 35-37 weeks' gestation. Stage III consisted of interviews with the same women who were interviewed postnatally, 1 month after birth. The research was conducted in a private medical centre in northern Taiwan. Using a purposive sampling, 21 women and 9 obstetricians were recruited. Data collection involved in-depth interviews, observation and field notes. Constant comparative analysis was employed for data analysis. Ensuring the safety of mother and baby was the focus of women's decisions. Women's decisions-making influences included previous birth experience, concern about the risks of vaginal birth, evaluation of mode of birth, current pregnancy situation, information resources and health insurance. In communicating with obstetricians, some women complied with obstetricians' recommendations for repeat caesarean section (RCS) without being informed of alternatives. Others used four step decision-making processes that included searching for information, listening to obstetricians' professional judgement, evaluating alternatives, and making a decision regarding mode of birth. After birth, women reflected on their decisions in three aspects: reflection on birth choices; reflection on factors influencing decisions; and reflection on outcomes of decisions. The health and wellbeing of mother and baby were the major concerns for women. In response to the decision-making influences, women's interactions with obstetricians regarding birth choices

  15. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi, E-mail: junsaito@sannet.ne.jp [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro [Division of Radiation Oncology, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi [Division of Respiratory Disease, Saitama Cancer Center, Saitama (Japan); Kato, Shingo [Research Center Hospital for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Shibuya, Kei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Gunma (Japan)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m{sup 2}, and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade {>=}3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  16. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Followed by Consolidation Chemotherapy With Bi-Weekly Docetaxel and Carboplatin for Stage III Unresectable, Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Clinical Application of a Protocol Used in a Previous Phase II Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Jun-Ichi; Saito, Yoshihiro; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kudo, Shigehiro; Yoshida, Daisaku; Ichikawa, Akihiro; Sakai, Hiroshi; Kurimoto, Futoshi; Kato, Shingo; Shibuya, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the clinical applicability of a protocol evaluated in a previously reported phase II study of concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by consolidation chemotherapy with bi-weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in patients with stage III, unresectable, non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Between January 2000 and March 2006, 116 previously untreated patients with histologically proven, stage III NSCLC were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiation therapy was administered in 2-Gy daily fractions to a total dose of 60 Gy in combination with docetaxel, 30 mg/m 2 , and carboplatin at an area under the curve value of 3 every 2 weeks during and after radiation therapy. Results: The median survival time for the entire group was 25.5 months. The actuarial 2-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 53% and 31%, respectively. The 3-year cause-specific survival rate was 60% in patients with stage IIIA disease, whereas it was 35% in patients with stage IIIB disease (p = 0.007). The actuarial 2-year and 5-year local control rates were 62% and 55%, respectively. Acute hematologic toxicities of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 20.7% of patients, while radiation pneumonitis and esophagitis of Grade ≥3 severity were observed in 2.6% and 1.7% of patients, respectively. Conclusions: The feasibility of the protocol used in the previous phase II study was reconfirmed in this series, and excellent treatment results were achieved.

  17. Q-values of mirror transitions for fundamental interaction studies

    CERN Multimedia

    The $Ft$ values for the $0^{+} \\rightarrow 0^{+}$ superallowed $\\beta$-transitions currently provide the best test of the CVC hypothesis, and the most precise determination of the V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM matrix. Recent experimental advances, including direct mass measurements with Penning traps, have led to the precision in the corrected $Ft$ values being dominated by the theoretical corrections rather than experiment. An alternative route are the isospin $T$=1/2 mirror transitions where experimental uncertainties dominate over the theoretical inputs and which can provide an independent test of CVC, and ultimately an independent evaluation of V$_{ud}$. We propose mass measurements of 4 different mirror transitions aiming for a precision of better than 100eV on the ${Q}$-values.

  18. Value of radionuclide oesophageal transit in studies of functional dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas-Elvira, J.M.; Martinez-Parades, M.; Velasco-Lajo, T.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide oesophageal transit time was evaluated in 70 individuals, divided into three groups: normal individuals, patients with non-organic dysphagia and patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders treated with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilatation. In all of them the oesophageal transit time of a bolus of water with 18.5 MBq (500 μCi) of 99 Tcsup(m) sulphur colloid was assessed, as was the percentage of residual activity of the bolus in the oesophagus. There was a significant difference in these parameters between the control group and the group with non-organic dysphagia, the diagnostic capacity of this test being 93% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value, which suggests its inclusion in diagnostic protocols of dysphagias. In patients with primary oesophageal motility disorders, a significant decrease in values of residual activity has been observed after treatment with per-endoscopic forced pneumatic dilation. (author)

  19. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is tolerant to higher levels of salinity than previous guidelines indicated: Implications of field and greenhouse studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Daniel H.; Benes, Sharon; Galdi, Giuliano; Hutmacher, Bob; Grattan, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is the most widely grown leguminous forage crop in North America and is valued for high productivity, quality, economic value, and for dairy productivity. Alfalfa has historically been classified as moderately sensitive to saline conditions, with yield declines predicted at >2 dS/m in the saturated soil paste extract. However, greenhouse, sand tank, and field studies over the past five years have confirmed that alfalfa can be grown with limited negative effects at much higher salinity levels. A broad collection of alfalfa varieties has exhibited a range of resistance at irrigation water salinities >5 dS/m ECw in greenhouse trials, with significant variation due to variety. USDA-ARS sand tank studies indicated similar or greater tolerances closer to 8 dS/m in the soil water, in addition to confirmation of significant varietal differences. A three-year field study on clay loam soil with applications of 5-7 dS/m ECw irrigation water indicated normal yields and excellent stand survivability. A second field study in the same soil type with levels from 8-10 dS/m ECw showed yield reductions of 10-15% but economic yields were still achieved at those levels. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted with mixed salt saline sodic waters typical of the San Joaquin Valley of California. Field evaluation of variety performance was subject to greater variation due to secondary salinity-soil interactions including water infiltration and crusting problems, not only salinity per-se. Thus, adequate irrigation water availability to the crop may be as important as salinity in impacting yields under field conditions. Once established, the deep-rooted characteristics of alfalfa enable utilization of deeper subsurface moisture, even at moderate to high salinity levels, as documented by USDA lysimeter studies. Significant advantages to salinity-tolerant varieties have been observed. It will be important to consider specific management factors which may enable

  20. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Late tamoxifen in patients previously operated for breast cancer without postoperative tamoxifen: 5-year results of a single institution randomised study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, Andrea; Miolo, GianMaria; Magri, Maria D; Crivellari, Diana; Scalone, Simona; Bidoli, Ettore; Lombardi, Davide

    2010-01-01

    A population of breast cancer patients exists who, for various reasons, never received adjuvant post-operative tamoxifen (TAM). This study was aimed to evaluate the role of late TAM in these patients. From 1997 to 2003, patients aged 35 to 75 years, operated more than 2 years previously for monolateral breast cancer without adjuvant TAM, with no signs of metastases and no contraindication to TAM were randomized to TAM 20 mg/day orally for 2 years or follow-up alone. Events were categorized as locoregional relapse, distant metastases, metachronous breast cancer, tumours other than breast cancer and death from any causes, whichever occurred first. The sample size (197 patients per arm, plus 10% allowance) was based on the assumption of a 30% decrease in the number of events occurring at a rate of 5% annually in the 10 years following randomization. Four hundred and thirty-three patients were randomized in the study (TAM 217, follow-up 216). Patients characteristics (TAM/follow-up) included: median age 55/55 years, median time from surgery 25/25 months (range, 25-288/25-294), in situ carcinoma 18/24, oestrogen receptor (ER) positive in 75/68, negative in 70/57, unknown in 72/91 patients. Previous adjuvant treatment included chemotherapy in 131/120 and an LHRH analogue in 11/13 patients. Thirty-six patients prematurely discontinued TAM after a median of 1 month, mostly because of subjective intolerance. Eighty-three events (TAM 39, follow-up 44) occurred: locoregional relapse in 10/8, distant metastases in 14/16, metachronous breast cancer in 4/10, other tumours in 11/10 patients. Less ER-positive secondary breast cancers occurred in the TAM treated patients than in follow-up patients (1 vs 10, p = 0.005). Event-free survival was similar in both groups of patients. This 5-year analysis revealed significantly less metachronous ER-positive breast cancers in the TAM treated patients. No other statistically significant differences have emerged thus far

  2. Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor Sitagliptin Prevented Weight Regain in Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Previously Treated with Liraglutide: A Pilot Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan, Simona; Janez, Andrej; Jensterle, Mojca

    2017-12-01

    Weight loss is often nonsustainable after liraglutide cessation. The present study is the first insight into the potential prevention of weight regain in obese subjects who have been withdrawn from liraglutide. We evaluated whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin in adjunct to metformin prevents body weight regain more effectively than metformin alone in obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) previously treated with liraglutide. A 12-week prospective randomized open-label study was conducted with 24 obese women with PCOS who had been pretreated with liraglutide 3.0 mg due to antiobesity management (aged 34.3 ± 6.8 years, body mass index [BMI] 36.3 ± 5.2 kg/m 2 , mean ± standard deviation). They were randomized to combined treatment (COMBO) with sitagliptin 100 mg per day (QD) and metformin (MET) 1000 mg twice daily (BID) (n = 12) or MET 1000 mg BID (n = 12). Lifestyle intervention was promoted in both groups. The primary outcome was change in anthropometric measures of obesity. Women treated with MET regain 4.7 ± 2.7 kg (P = 0.002) compared with a 0.9 ± 2.5 kg in COMBO (P = 0.147). BMI increased for 1.7 ± 0.9 kg/m 2 in MET (P = 0.002) compared with 0.3 ± 0.8 kg/m 2 increase in COMBO (P = 0.136). MET group regain 4.5% ± 2.5% of body weight as opposed to 0.8% ± 2.6% in COMBO. The between-treatment differences were significant for weight change (P weight change (P weight regain in obese women with PCOS previously treated with liraglutide.

  3. Language Study: Language and Socio-Cultural Values: An Analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Language is an important tool in the human society. Apart from the fact that it makes communication and integration possible, it is an important aspect of the socio-cultural life of a people. To this extent, language is closely knit with culture as it embodies the society's value system and patterned way of life. This paper ...

  4. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    OpenAIRE

    Tarafdar Enayet; Yuan George Xian-Zhi; Tan Kok-Keong

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  5. Accurate Q value measurements for fundamental physics studies at JYFLTRAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eronen, T., E-mail: tommi.o.eronen@jyu.fi; Kolhinen, V. S. [University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Collaboration: JYFLTRAP collaboration

    2011-07-15

    We have measured several Q values at JYFLTRAP for superallowed {beta} decays that contribute to testing the Standard Model and candidate nuclei that one could use for the search of neutrinoless double-{beta} decay. These results play important roles in the research of fundamental physics that have scopes beyond Standard Model.

  6. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-01-01

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  7. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case–control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: octavio.perez@ulpgc.es; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A.; Machín, Rubén P.; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D.; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F.

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case–control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action. - Highlights: • E-screen and A-screen of two mixtures of organochlorine pesticides (OCP) • Assay concentrations based on a previous breast cancer case–control study • Only non-cytotoxic concentrations assayed • Both OCP mixtures induce proliferation mediated by oestrogen receptor. • OCP mixture of breast cancer patients exhibits additional androgenic activity.

  8. Caring for women wanting a vaginal birth after previous caesarean section: A qualitative study of the experiences of midwives and obstetricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foureur, Maralyn; Turkmani, Sabera; Clack, Danielle C; Davis, Deborah L; Mollart, Lyndall; Leiser, Bernadette; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-02-01

    One of the greatest contributors to the overall caesarean section rate is elective repeat caesarean section. Decisions around mode of birth are often complex for women and influenced by the views of the doctors and midwives who care for and counsel women. Women may be more likely to choose a repeat elective caesarean section (CS) if their health care providers lack skills and confidence in supporting vaginal birth after caesarean section (VBAC). To explore the views and experiences of providers in caring for women considering VBAC, in particular the decision-making processes and the communication of risk and safety to women. A descriptive interpretive method was utilised. Four focus groups with doctors and midwives were conducted. The central themes were: 'developing trust', 'navigating the system' and 'optimising support'. The impact of past professional experiences; the critical importance of continuity of carer and positive relationships; the ability to weigh up risks versus benefits; and the language used were all important elements. The role of policy and guidelines on providing standardised care for women who had a previous CS was also highlighted. Midwives and doctors in this study were positively oriented towards assisting and supporting women to attempt a VBAC. Care providers considered that women who have experienced a prior CS need access to midwifery continuity of care with a focus on support, information-sharing and effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gefitinib plus cisplatin and radiotherapy in previously untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: A phase II, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Hamoir, Marc; Chen Changhu; Kane, Madeleine; Kawecki, Andrzej; Julka, Pramod K.; Wang, Hung-Ming; Prasad, Srihari; D'Cruz, Anil K.; Radosevic-Jelic, Ljiljana; Kumar, Rejnish R.; Korzeniowski, Stanislaw; Fijuth, Jacek; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Sellers, Mark V.; Tchakov, Ilian; Raben, David

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: To assess the efficacy and safety of gefitinib given concomitantly and/or as maintenance therapy to standard cisplatin/radiotherapy for previously untreated, unresected, stage III/IV non-metastatic SCCHN. Materials and methods: In this phase II, double-blind, study, 226 patients were randomized to gefitinib 250 mg/day, 500 mg/day or placebo in two phases: a concomitant phase (gefitinib or placebo with chemoradiotherapy), followed by a maintenance phase (gefitinib or placebo alone). Primary endpoint was local disease control rate (LDCR) at 2 years; secondary endpoints were LDCR at 1 year, objective response rate, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety and tolerability. Results: Gefitinib (250 and 500 mg/day) did not improve 2-year LDCR compared with placebo either when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy (32.7% vs. 33.6%, respectively; OR 0.921, 95% CI 0.508, 1.670 [1-sided p = 0.607]) or as maintenance therapy (28.8% vs. 37.4%, respectively; OR 0.684, 95% CI 0.377, 1.241 [1-sided p = 0.894]). Secondary efficacy outcomes were broadly consistent with the 2-year LDCR results. In both doses, gefitinib was well-tolerated and did not adversely affect the safety and tolerability of concomitant chemoradiotherapy. Conclusion: Gefitinib was well-tolerated, but did not improve efficacy compared with placebo when given concomitantly with chemoradiotherapy, or as maintenance therapy alone.

  10. BRAND VALUE OF INNOVATIVE COMPANIES – A THEORETICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Paganotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a trajectory of performance of high-tech companies, considered innovative. The paper presents the reasons for success, stagnation, decline and fall of a group of companies chosen due to growth or decline. This is a descriptive and bibliographical research. To this purpose, we selected fifteen of the largest companies in Information Technology and Telecommunications, according to ranking prepared by Interbrand and BrandZ agencies. It is observed that companies have implemented strategies geared to innovation, resulting in high investment in R & D, spent in the past two decades. The surveys allowed us to associate trajectory and changes in brand value to business strategies and to market choices in the last twenty years, such as the acquisition of Compaq by HP and EDS, the recovery trend of Apple, competition between Apple and Nokia in market value, and the stability of the IBM.

  11. A study of variational inequalities for set-valued mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarafdar Enayet

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Ky Fan's KKM mapping principle is used to establish the existence of solutions for simultaneous variational inequalities. By applying our earlier results together with Fan–Glicksberg fixed point theorem, we prove some existence results for implicit variational inequalities and implicit quasi-variational inequalities for set-valued mappings which are either monotone or upper semi-continuous.

  12. Prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet in refugees previously exposed to torture: a ten-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Dorthe Reff; Montgomery, Edith; Bøjholm, Søren

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To estimate change over 10 years concerning the prevalence of pain in the head, back and feet, among previously tortured refugees settled in Denmark, and to compare associations between methods of torture and prevalent pain at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. METHODS: 139 refugees previous...... associated with the type and bodily focus of the torture. This presents a considerable challenge to future evidence-based development of effective treatment programs....

  13. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A phase II study of VP-16-ifosfamide-cisplatin combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Park, Young Suk; Kwon, Sung Hee

    2000-01-01

    At present the addition of thoracic irradiation to combination chemotherapy is a standard treatment for limited staged small cell ling cancer. However, there is still controversy about the optimum timing of chest irradiation. We conducted a phase II study of etoposide (VP-16)-ifosfamide-cisplatin (VIP) combination chemotherapy plus early concurrent thoracic irradiation for the patients with previously untreated limited small cell lung cancer in order to assess if the treatment modality could improve the response rate and the toxicity. Forty-four patients with limited small cell lung cancer were treated with etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin and concurrent thoracic irradiation. Combination chemotherapy consisted of etoposide 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1-3), ifosfamide 1000 mg/m 2 (on days 1 and 2) and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 (on day 1). Concurrent thoracic irradiation consisted of a total of 4000 cGy over 4 weeks starting on the first day of the first chemotherapy. All patients who showed a complete response were given prophylactic cranial irradiation for 2.5 weeks. Forty-four of the 49 patients who entered the study from May 1994 to August 1998 were evaluable. The median age was 59 years and 40 patients had a performance status of 0 or 1. The median survival time was 22.5 months. Twenty-eight patients (62%) showed a complete response and 16 (38%) a partial response. Twenty-four patients (54%) developed grade 3 or 4 neutropenia; there was a 9% RTOG score 3 or 4 esophagitis. VIP combination chemotherapy and early concurrent thoracic irradiation for patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer revealed excellent antitumor response with tolerable toxicity. (author)

  15. The value of animations in biology teaching: a study of long-term memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Day, Danton H

    2007-01-01

    Previous work has established that a narrated animation is more effective at communicating a complex biological process (signal transduction) than the equivalent graphic with figure legend. To my knowledge, no study has been done in any subject area on the effectiveness of animations versus graphics in the long-term retention of information, a primary and critical issue in studies of teaching and learning. In this study, involving 393 student responses, three different animations and two graphics-one with and one lacking a legend-were used to determine the long-term retention of information. The results show that students retain more information 21 d after viewing an animation without narration compared with an equivalent graphic whether or not that graphic had a legend. Students' comments provide additional insight into the value of animations in the pedagogical process, and suggestions for future work are proposed.

  16. Teachers' Views on Values Education: A Qualitative Study in Sweden and Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberg, Robert; Og uz, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine Swedish and Turkish teachers' perspectives on values education. Qualitative interviews with 52 teachers were conducted and analyzed. Values education was mostly about compliance with societal values and norms. The learning goals or values in values education were mainly on how to treat others and on…

  17. SAFETY AND ACTIVITY OF TEMSIROLIMUS AND BEVACIZUMAB IN PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED RENAL CELL CARCINOMA PREVIOUSLY TREATED WITH TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS: A PHASE 2 CONSORTIUM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchan, Jaime R.; Qin, Rui; Pitot, Henry; Picus, Joel; Liu, Glenn; Fitch, Tom; Maples, William J.; Flynn, Patrick J.; Fruth, Briant F.; Erlichman, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bevacizumab or Temsirolimus regimens have clinical activity in the first line treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This phase I/II trial was conducted to determine the safety of combining both agents and its efficacy in RCC patients who progressed on at least one prior anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (RTKI) agent. Methods In the phase I portion, eligible patients were treated with Temsirolimus (25 mg IV weekly) and escalating doses of IV Bevacizumab (level 1=5mg/kg; level 2=10 mg/kg) every other week. The primary endpoint for the phase II portion (RTKI resistant patients) was the 6-month progression free rate. Secondary endpoints were response rate, toxicity evaluation, PFS and OS. Results MTD was not reached at the maximum dose administered in 12 phase I patients. Forty evaluable patients were treated with the phase II recommended dose (Temsirolimus 25 mg IV weekly and Bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV every two weeks). The 6-month progression free rate was 40% (16/40 pts). Median PFS was 5.9 (4-7.8) months, and median OS was 20.6 (11.5-23.7) months. Partial response/stable/progressive disease were seen in 23%/63%/14% of patients. Most common grade 3-4 AEs included fatigue (17.8%), hypertriglyceridemia (11.1%), stomatitis (8.9%), proteinuria (8.9%), abdominal pain (6.7%), and anemia (6.7%). Baseline levels of serum sFLT-1 and VEGF-A were inversely correlated with PFS and OS, respectively. Conclusions Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab is a feasible combination in patients with advanced RCC previously exposed to oral anti-VEGF agents. The safety and efficacy results warrant further confirmatory studies in this patient population. PMID:25556030

  18. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  19. Phase I/II study of gefitinib (Iressa(®)) and vorinostat (IVORI) in previously treated patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Youn; Lee, Soo Hyun; Lee, Geon Kook; Yun, Tak; Lee, Young Joo; Hwang, Kum Hui; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Heung Tae

    2015-03-01

    Vorinostat has been shown to overcome resistance to gefitinib. We performed a phase I/II study combining gefitinib with vorinostat in previously treated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A 3 + 3 dose-escalation design was used to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Three dose levels were tested: 250 mg/day gefitinib on days 1-28 and 200, 300 or 400 mg/day vorinostat on days 1-7, and 15-21 out of every 28 days. The primary endpoint was median progression-free survival (PFS). Fifty-two patients were enrolled and treated (43 in phase II). The median age was 59 years, 28 patients were male, 44 had adenocarcinoma, 29 had never smoked, and 36 had undergone one prior treatment. Twenty-two patients exhibited sensitive EGFR mutations. Planned dose escalation was completed without reaching the MTD. The RP2D was 250 mg gefitinib and 400 mg vorinostat. In 43 assessable patients in phase II, the median PFS was 3.2 months; the overall survival (OS) was 19.0 months. There were 16 partial responses and six cases of stable disease. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC, response rate was 77 %, median PFS was 9.1 months, and median OS was 24.1 months. The most common adverse events were anorexia and diarrhea. Treatment with 250 mg gefitinib daily with biweekly 400 mg/day vorinostat was feasible and well tolerated. In an unselected patient population, this combination dose did not improve PFS. However, this combination showed a potential for improving efficacy of gefitinib in EGFR-mutant NSCLC (NCT01027676).

  20. Effect of donepezil in patients with Alzheimer's disease previously untreated or treated with memantine or nootropic agents in Germany: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Tatjana; Ibach, Bernd; Schoenknecht, Peter; Kamleiter, Martin; Silver, Gabrielle; Schroeder, Johannes; Mielke, Ruediger

    2005-05-01

    This open-label, prospective, observational, Post-Marketing Surveillance (PMS) study assessed the efficacy and safety of donepezil in patients who had been switched from therapies currently used in Germany to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD), such as memantine and nootropics, due to insufficient efficacy or poor tolerability. A treatment-naive population was included as a comparator. Patients with AD were treated with donepezil and observed for a period of approximately 3 months. A cognitive assessment was made using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Quality of life (QoL) was assessed by the investigators who answered the question 'How did therapy with donepezil influence the QoL of the patient and/or his family over the observation period?' and was graded using three ratings: improved/unchanged/worsened. Adverse events (AEs) were also monitored. A total of 913 patients entered the study (mean +/- SD MMSE score 18.03 +/- 5.34). Efficacy assessments were analyzed for three groups: an overall group of patients who had received any form of prior AD drug therapy (N+ group; n = 709); a subgroup of patients from the N+ group who had received prior memantine therapy only (M+ group; n = 111) and patients who were drug treatment naive (N- group; n = 204). In the evaluable population donepezil improved MMSE scores by 2.21 +/- 3.47 points on average, with similar improvements observed in all three groups. QoL was judged to be improved in at least 70% of patients, again with similar results obtained for all three groups. Donepezil was well tolerated, with 85 of 913 (9.3%) patients reporting AEs. The most common AEs were those typically seen with cholinergic therapies (i.e., diarrhoea, vomiting and nausea). In this observational PMS study, donepezil was shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients who were being insufficiently treated with memantine or nootropic therapy. The magnitude of response was similar to that observed in patients who were previously

  1. Value solidity in government and business: Results of an empirical study on public and private sector organizational values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; Huberts, L.W.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a survey study of 382 managers from a variety of public and private sector organizations, on the values that guide sectoral decision making. Just as some important classical differences emerge, a number of similarities between the public and private sector appear to result in

  2. Generational differences in employee work values : an explorative study in a Norwegian work context

    OpenAIRE

    Sillerud, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly knowledge intensive economy, it is essential to determine what drives knowledge workers into action and motivate them to excel. According to the value- based view on motivation, work values underlie these mechanisms and work value differences are therefore important to consider where they appear. In the present research, the potential effect of generation was examined. While previous research suggests that generational differences exists, there have been conflicting finding...

  3. Sunburn and sun-protective behaviors among adults with and without previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC): A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-08-01

    Individuals with previous nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) are at increased risk for subsequent skin cancer, and should therefore limit ultraviolet exposure. We sought to determine whether individuals with previous NMSC engage in better sun protection than those with no skin cancer history. We pooled self-reported data (2005 and 2010 National Health Interview Surveys) from US non-Hispanic white adults (758 with and 34,161 without previous NMSC). We calculated adjusted prevalence odds ratios (aPOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), taking into account the complex survey design. Individuals with previous NMSC versus no history of NMSC had higher rates of frequent use of shade (44.3% vs 27.0%; aPOR 1.41; 95% CI 1.16-1.71), long sleeves (20.5% vs 7.7%; aPOR 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-1.98), a wide-brimmed hat (26.1% vs 10.5%; aPOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.24-1.87), and sunscreen (53.7% vs 33.1%; aPOR 2.11; 95% CI 1.73-2.59), but did not have significantly lower odds of recent sunburn (29.7% vs 40.7%; aPOR 0.95; 95% CI 0.77-1.17). Among those with previous NMSC, recent sunburn was inversely associated with age, sun avoidance, and shade but not sunscreen. Self-reported cross-sectional data and unavailable information quantifying regular sun exposure are limitations. Physicians should emphasize sunburn prevention when counseling patients with previous NMSC, especially younger adults, focusing on shade and sun avoidance over sunscreen. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Feasibility study to establish a new value chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingrid Herman, Marie; Thai, Thi Minh

    Since the 90s value chain (VC) approaches have received considerable attention by governments and development agencies for poverty reduction and strengthening the private sector. VC analysis has been used for developing intervention strategies to upgrade existing or to establish new VCs. Despite...... and starting to valorize New Caledonian horticulture on international markets. Once goals were understood, four interrelated analyses were conducted continuously: enabling environment, productivity, structuration, and feasibility analysis. In the enabling environment, analysis of market, institution......, and infrastructure highlighted high demands for the species Sticherus flabellatus, well-maintained roads, and legal voids concerning wild harvesting. The productivity analysis on resource availability and harvesting potential pointed out randomness of the resource and its quality, and the rarity of Sticherus...

  5. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  6. Nursing students' perceptions of a video-based serious game's educational value: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Hege M; Fossum, Mariann; Vivekananda-Schmidt, Pirashanthie; Fruhling, Ann; Slettebø, Åshild

    2018-03-01

    Despite an increasing number of serious games (SGs) in nursing education, few evaluation studies specifically address their educational value in terms of face, content, and construct validity. To assess nursing students' perceptions of a video-based SG in terms of face, content, and construct validity. In addition, the study assessed perceptions of usability, individual factors, and preferences regarding future use. A pilot study was conducted. An SG prototype was implemented as part of two simulation courses in nursing education: one for home health care and one for hospital medical-surgical wards. The SG aimed to teach clinical reasoning and decision-making skills to nursing students caring for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A total of 249second-year nursing students participated in pilot testing of the SG. A paper-based survey was used to assess students' perceptions of the SG's educational value. Overall, students from both simulation courses perceived the SG as educationally valuable and easy to use. No significant differences were found in perceptions of educational value between nursing students with previous healthcare experience versus those with none. However, significantly more students in the home healthcare simulation course indicated that the SG tested their clinical reasoning and decision-making skills. Students from both the medical-surgical and home healthcare simulation courses suggested that more video-based SGs should be developed and used in nursing education. Overall, the survey results indicate that the participants perceived the SG as educationally valuable, and that the SG has potential as an educational tool in nursing education, especially in caring for patients with chronic diseases and in home healthcare simulation. Showing a SG's educational value and user acceptance among nursing students may justify the development and application of more SGs in nursing education. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. The study of vagrants’ moral values in Astana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issakhanova A. A.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available vagrancy in the modern world has become greater than ever. More and more people become vagrants. They move away from the social reality, can’t cope with the onslaught of globalization and economic instability. Vagrancy problem is considered by many authors, but it does not become less relevant. This article discusses the psychological sense of self well-being of vagrants through moral self-esteem indicators. It also describes the relationship of psychological well-being and personal morality. Personal morality and psychological well-being reflect moral orientation of both separate group or the whole country. Positive values and psychological well-being as a subjective attitude for multinational Kazakhstan are the base in prosperity and stability. Vagrants’ morality manifestations reflect the social development of society at the level of vulnerable social situation, and its development can cause degradation of public consciousness. For this reason, it is important to monitor the level of morality of a multinational society not only in society's views, but also in certain categories of citizens.

  8. Value of subtyping in studies of irradiation and human leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S C

    1985-01-01

    The two largest studies of the effects of irradiation on humans in postnatal life are described. These are 1) the Ankylosing Spondylitis Study(ASS) carried out on patients given X-ray therapy as treatment for spondylitis in the UK and 2) the Life Span Study(LSS) carried out on the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From these studies, a limited degree of subtyping of leukemias is indicated. Chronic lymphatic leukemia is much less readily induced by radiation than the other major subtypes. The inducibility of acute myeloid leukemia increases with age at exposure.

  9. The Possible Value of a Gap Year: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, M.; Bester, S.

    2009-01-01

    The taking of a "gap year", immediately after completing their secondary school education, to explore life before embarking on formal studies or starting their career, is a growing phenomenon among young people in South Africa. This research study explores the experiences of three young people who engaged in a gap year and focuses on the…

  10. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Ghinai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  11. RapidArc, intensity modulated photon and proton techniques for recurrent prostate cancer in previously irradiated patients: a treatment planning comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Damien C; Miralbell, Raymond; Wang, Hui; Cozzi, Luca; Dipasquale, Giovanna; Khan, Haleem G; Ratib, Osman; Rouzaud, Michel; Vees, Hansjoerg; Zaidi, Habib

    2009-01-01

    A study was performed comparing volumetric modulated arcs (RA) and intensity modulation (with photons, IMRT, or protons, IMPT) radiation therapy (RT) for patients with recurrent prostate cancer after RT. Plans for RA, IMRT and IMPT were optimized for 7 patients. Prescribed dose was 56 Gy in 14 fractions. The recurrent gross tumor volume (GTV) was defined on 18 F-fluorocholine PET/CT scans. Plans aimed to cover at least 95% of the planning target volume with a dose > 50.4 Gy. A maximum dose (D Max ) of 61.6 Gy was allowed to 5% of the GTV. For the urethra, D Max was constrained to 37 Gy. Rectal D Median was < 17 Gy. Results were analyzed using Dose-Volume Histogram and conformity index (CI 90 ) parameters. Tumor coverage (GTV and PTV) was improved with RA (V 95% 92.6 ± 7.9 and 83.7 ± 3.3%), when compared to IMRT (V 95% 88.6 ± 10.8 and 77.2 ± 2.2%). The corresponding values for IMPT were intermediate for the GTV (V 95% 88.9 ± 10.5%) and better for the PTV (V 95% 85.6 ± 5.0%). The percentages of rectal and urethral volumes receiving intermediate doses (35 Gy) were significantly decreased with RA (5.1 ± 3.0 and 38.0 ± 25.3%) and IMPT (3.9 ± 2.7 and 25.1 ± 21.1%), when compared to IMRT (9.8 ± 5.3 and 60.7 ± 41.7%). CI 90 was 1.3 ± 0.1 for photons and 1.6 ± 0.2 for protons. Integral Dose was 1.1 ± 0.5 Gy*cm 3 *10 5 for IMPT and about a factor three higher for all photon's techniques. RA and IMPT showed improvements in conformal avoidance relative to fixed beam IMRT for 7 patients with recurrent prostate cancer. IMPT showed further sparing of organs at risk

  12. Phase 2 study of tabalumab, a human anti-B-cell activating factor antibody, with bortezomib and dexamethasone in patients with previously treated multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raje, Noopur S; Moreau, Philippe; Terpos, Evangelos; Benboubker, Lotfi; Grząśko, Norbert; Holstein, Sarah A; Oriol, Albert; Huang, Shang-Yi; Beksac, Meral; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Tai, Datchen F; Wooldridge, James E; Conti, Ilaria; Kaiser, Christopher J; Nguyen, Tuan S; Cronier, Damien M; Palumbo, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    In this double-blind, Phase 2 study, 220 patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive placebo (N = 72), tabalumab 100 mg (N = 74), or tabalumab 300 mg (N = 74), each in combination with dexamethasone 20 mg and subcutaneous bortezomib 1·3 mg/m 2 on a 21-day cycle. No significant intergroup differences were observed among primary (median progression-free survival [mPFS]) or secondary efficacy outcomes. The mPFS was 6·6, 7·5 and 7·6 months for the tabalumab 100, 300 mg and placebo groups, respectively (tabalumab 100 mg vs. placebo Hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1·13 [0·80-1·59], P = 0·480; tabalumab 300 mg vs. placebo HR [95% CI] = 1·03 [0·72-1·45], P = 0·884). The most commonly-reported treatment-emergent adverse events were thrombocytopenia (37%), fatigue (37%), diarrhoea (35%) and constipation (32%). Across treatments, patients with low baseline BAFF (also termed TNFSF13B) expression (n = 162) had significantly longer mPFS than those with high BAFF expression (n = 55), using the 75th percentile cut-off point (mPFS [95% CI] = 8·3 [7·0-9·3] months vs. 5·8 [3·7-6·6] months; HR [95% CI] = 1·59 [1·11-2·29], P = 0·015). Although generally well tolerated, PFS was not improved during treatment with tabalumab compared to placebo. A higher dose of 300 mg tabalumab did not improve efficacy compared to the 100 mg dose. Nonetheless, BAFF appears to have some prognostic value in patients with multiple myeloma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Values Education as Perceived by Social Studies Teachers in Objective and Practice Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katilmis, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the objectives of values education in Turkey, values education-related activities performed in schools, and preferred approaches to values education according to the opinions of social studies teachers. This qualitative study used a phenomenological pattern. The participants of the study were selected from…

  14. Provosts' Perceptions of Academic Library Value and Preferences for Communication: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Adam; Ireland, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    While many studies have been conducted under the auspices of calculating academic library value, there are no large-scale studies into the perceptions that college or university provosts have of library value, nor are there studies into how provosts prefer library value data to be communicated. This study addresses that gap through a national…

  15. Can values drive value for sustainable business? : An analyzing and interpreting case study of Konsum Värmland Value-creation

    OpenAIRE

    Zetterberg, Madeleine

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Historically, value was believed to be created and embedded in the manufacturing process, implying that companies were the creators of value. Conversely, the notion of value-creation changed during the last decades and has implemented the customer orientation and service centred view. Instead, researchers currently believe that companies only can offer value-propositions, which means that value is to be created by the customers. Services and goods are much about values and identity t...

  16. Food value chain analysis: A review of selected studies for Pakistan and guidelines for further research

    OpenAIRE

    ul Haq, Zahoor

    2012-01-01

    The study of value chains comprises of two key concepts: value and chain. The term value is synonym to “value added†in the Value Chain Analysis (VCA) as it characterizes the incremental value of a resultant product produced from processing of a product. For agricultural products, value addition can also take place through differentiation of a product based on food safety and food functionality. Price of the resultant product shows its incremental value. The term chain refers to a supply c...

  17. The Value of Play for Conflict Management: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, Lyn; Blunt, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This is a case study of a conflict management intervention in two secondary schools in post-apartheid South Africa. The feature of the intervention that we examine is the use of play as an educational strategy. The literature attests that play can facilitate change by allowing learners freedom to change their behaviour and opportunities to explore…

  18. Classified study and clinical value of the phase imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yaping; Ma Aiqun; Zheng Xiaopu; Yang Aimin; Xiao Jiang; Gao Xinyao

    2000-01-01

    445 patients with various heart diseases were examined by the gated cardiac blood pool imaging, and the phase was classified. The relationship between the seven types with left ventricular function index, clinical heart function, different heart diseases as well as electrocardiograph was studied. The results showed that the phase image classification could match with the clinical heart function. It can visually, directly and accurately indicate clinical heart function and can be used to identify diagnosis of heart disease

  19. Re-writing and its pedagogical value: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montse Irun Chavarria

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The research presented in this paper was designed to investigate the fact that, considering the large amount of time and energy teachers devote to the correction of compositions and written work, the effect of this effort on other student learning activities appears to be minimal. The results of this study seem to suggest that correction of this type does not facilitate language learning. The way in which this feedback activity is presented to the students and the status given to it within an approach to the process of writing are key aspects to making corrections helpful in the acquisition of writing skills. (English text.

  20. Introduction to genetics in ophthalmology, value of family studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba

    2000-05-01

    This paper reviews the author's personal experience with genetic eye diseases and discusses the significance of family studies in providing key information for the advancement of molecular research. Choroideremia: This disease has long been known as an X-linked progressive tapetoretinal degeneration, but it was first described in Japan in 1974 after finding asymptomatic fundus changes in heterozygous female carriers that are compatible with X chromosomal inactivation. Mutations in the disease-causing gene (REP-1) provide a clue to the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease.Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy: The clinical expression is so variable among affected individuals and families that mild optic nerve disease of insidious onset should be differentiated from autosomal dominant optic atrophy. Molecular assessment of mitochondrial DNA leads to a definite diagnosis of the disease, but mitochondrial DNA mutations do not fully account for the clinical manifestation and phenotypic variability of the disease.Norrie Disease: This rare X-linked vitreoretinal dysplasia, characterized by congenital bilateral blindness, was documented in Japan some twenty years ago and the disease has been identified in four unrelated Japanese families. The disease, once diagnosed on the basis of elaborate clinical and familial studies, can now be defined by molecular assessment of the Norrie disease gene.Congenital Nystagmus: A four-generation family was described which presented with autosomal dominantly inherited congenital nystagmus, peripheral corneal opacity, and foveal hypoplasia without any iris tissue malformation. The diagnosis of this family was established by detection of a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX 6 gene, hence conforming to a forme fruste of congenital aniridia.Sorsby's Fundus Dystrophy: Two Japanese families with Sorsby's fundus dystrophy showed late-onset retinal dystrophy characterized by submacular hemorrhage and atrophy. Our patients

  1. [Introduction to genetics in ophthalmology. Value of family studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, N

    1999-12-01

    This paper reviews the author's personal experience with genetic eye diseases and discusses the significance of family studies in providing key information for the advancement of molecular research. CHOROIDEREMIA: This disease has long been known as an X-linked progressive tapetoretinal degeneration, but it was first described in Japan in 1974 after finding asymptomatic fundus changes in heterozygous female carriers that are compatible with X chromosomal inactivation. Mutations in the disease-causing gene (REP-1) provide a clue to the diagnosis and pathophysiology of the disease. LEBER'S HEREDITARY OPTIC NEUROPATHY: The clinical expression is so variable among affected individuals and families that mild optic nerve disease of insidious onset should be differentiated from autosomal dominant optic atrophy. Molecular assessment of mitochondrial DNA leads to a definite diagnosis of the disease, but mitochondrial DNA mutations do not fully account for the clinical manifestation and phenotypic variability of the disease. NORRIE DISEASE: This rare X-linked vitreoretinal dysplasia, characterized by congenital bilateral blindness, was documented in Japan some twenty years ago and the disease has been identified in four unrelated Japanese families. The disease, once diagnosed on the basis of elaborate clinical and familial studies, can now be defined by molecular assessment of the Norrie disease gene. CONGENITAL NYSTAGMUS: A four-generation family was described which presented with autosomal dominantly inherited congenital nystagmus, peripheral corneal opacity, and foveal hypoplasia without any iris tissue malformation. The diagnosis of this family was established by detection of a missense mutation in the paired domain of the PAX 6 gene, hence conforming to a forme fruste of congenital aniridia. SORSBY'S FUNDUS DYSTROPHY: Two Japanese families with Sorsby's fundus dystrophy showed late-onset retinal dystrophy characterized by submacular hemorrhage and atrophy. Our patients

  2. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Toxicology and Biodistribution: The Clinical Value of Animal Biodistribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Silva Lima

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the human genome decoding, understanding and identification of genetic disturbances behind many diseases, including cancer, are intensively increasing. Scientific and technological advances in this area trigger the search for therapeutic (curative approaches targeting the correction of gene disturbances. Gene therapy medicinal products (GTMPs emerge in this context, bringing new challenges for their characterization. Compared to small molecules, biodistribution is fundamental to identifying target organs and anticipating safety and efficacy, may be integrated into safety and pharmacology studies, and may eventually be anticipated based on specificities of vectors and constructs. This review describes and discusses the requirements for nonclinical development and evaluation of GTMPs versus conventional ones and the needs and challenges of constructing nonclinical packages that assure GTMPs’ human safety from early development, taking into consideration usefulness and/or limitations of many conventional, preclinical models. The experience gained in the European context is referenced.

  4. Prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: a restrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayrak, Mehmet; Erdoğan, Halil Ibrahim; Solak, Yalcin; Akilli, Hakan; Gül, Enes Elvin; Yildirim, Oğuzhan; Erer, Murat; Akilli, Nezire Belgin; Bekci, Taha Tahir; Aribaş, Alpay; Yazici, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious clinical condition characterised by a high mortality rate. Previous studies showed that leukocytosis was associated with recurrences of venous thromboemboli, major bleeding and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prognostic value of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with acute PE during short term follow-up. A total of 640 patients were screened by I26 code of ICD-9 and 359 patients were included as cases of confirmed acute PE. Admission blood counts and clinical data were obtained from medical charts. The predictors of 30-day mortality were examined. Fifty-one out of 359 patients (14.2%) included in the study died during 30 days follow-up. In multivariate Cox regression analysis systolic blood pressure (HR:0.97 (0.94-0.99 CI95%), p=0.019), diabetes mellitus (HR:3.3 (1.30-8.39 CI95%), p=0.012), CK-MB(HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.024) and NLR (HR:1.03 (1.01-1.06 CI95%), p=0.008) were predictors of 30-day mortality. An optimal cut-off value of NLR was determined as 9.2 by using ROC curve. Hazards ratio of NLR>9.2 was found to be 3.60 (1.44-9.18 CI95%, p=0.006). NLR>9.2 had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 68.6%, 80.5%, 93.9% and 36.5%, respectively. NLR on hospital admission may be a predictor of 30-day mortality in acute PE. Since complete blood count is a part of the routine laboratory investigation in the most hospitalised patients use and preliminary promising results of this study, NLR should be investigated in future prospective randomised trials regarding prognostic value in acute PE. Copyright © 2013 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The value of radionuclide cystography in the study of reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechi, G.; Vichi, G.F.; Franchini, F.; La Cava, G.; Moretti, A.; Taddei, I.; Bartolozzi, G.

    1980-01-01

    Reduction of the risk connected with widespread and repeated radiological examinations in children is a purpose to be pursued. Children with urinary tract infection or suspected uropathy have been submitted also to radionuclide cystography (which has the advantage of a minimal radiation dose) to obtain a comparison with micturition cysto-urethrography. The authors' experience is based on 80 examinations performed in 65 children. Results obtained by the combined use of both techniques have revealed a substantial agreement in the evaluation of reflux, but also some important limitations of radionuclide cystography: the technique does not reveal the aspects of pelvis and ureter, of the uretero-vesical junction, of the bladder wall and, lastly, does not allow the study of morphology of function of cervico-uretral structures. On the basis of these limitations, radionuclide cystography can replace the micturition cysto-urethrography only in certain phases of the diagnosis and mostly of the follow-up of reflux in children; for this purpose a diagnostic protocol is proposed [fr

  6. The value of play for conflict management: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Snodgrass

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study of a conflict management intervention in two secondary schools in post-apartheid South Africa. The feature of the intervention that we examine is the use of play as an educational strategy. The literature attests that play can facilitate change by allowing learners freedom to change their behaviour and opportunities to explore their new identities. The context of the case revealed that conflicts had become deeply entrenched over time. The literature on conflict management suggests that such situations can change if approached in the right way. In the article we describe the intervention and evaluate it with the help of feedback received from participants and facilitators. In the evaluation we found that the participants were able to overcome prejudices and develop democratic approaches to conflict. The evaluation was repeated several months later, when it was found that the benefits of the workshop had been maintained, with the result that the participants were engaging in healthier relationships.

  7. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-Saura Pedro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC. Methods Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Results Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination, 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction, and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. Conclusion The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052.

  8. Treatment of advanced, recurrent, resistant to previous treatments basal and squamous cell skin carcinomas with a synergistic formulation of interferons. Open, prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anasagasti-Angulo, Lorenzo; Garcia-Vega, Yanelda; Barcelona-Perez, Silvia; Lopez-Saura, Pedro; Bello-Rivero, Iraldo

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive non-melanoma skin cancer (deeply infiltrating, recurrent, and morphea form lesions) are therapeutically challenging because they require considerable tissue loss and may demand radical disfiguring surgery. Interferons (IFN) may provide a non-surgical approach to the management of these tumors. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of a formulation containing IFNs-α and -γ in synergistic proportions on patients with recurrent, advanced basal cell (BCC) or squamous cell skin carcinomas (SCSC). Patients with extensive, recurrent, resistant to other procedures BCC or SCSC received the IFN formulation peri- and intralesionally, three times per week for 3 weeks. They had been previously treated with surgery and/or radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Thirteen weeks after the end of treatment, the original lesion sites were examined for histological evidence of remaining tumor. Sixteen elder (median 70 years-old) patients were included. They beared 12 BCC and 4 SCSC ranging from 1.5 to 12.5 cm in the longest dimension. At the end of treatment 47% CR (complete tumor elimination), 40% PR (>30% tumor reduction), and 13% stable disease were obtained. None of the patients relapsed during the treatment period. The median duration of the response was 38 months. Only one patient with complete response had relapsed until today. Principal adverse reactions were influenza-like symptoms well known to occur with interferon therapy, which were well tolerated. The peri- and intralesional combination of IFNs-α and -γ was safe and showed effect for the treatment of advanced, recurrent and resistant to previous treatments of BCC and SCSC in elder patients. This is the first report of such treatment in patients with advance non-melanoma skin cancer. The encouraging result justifies further confirmatory trials. Current Controlled Trials RPCEC00000052

  9. Shareholder/Stakeholder Value Management, Company Growth and Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Bo-Göran; Wallin, Jan

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable discussion in the literature about the relative merits of shareholder value management and stakeholder value management, but relatively little empirical research has been reported concerning the relationship between these types of management and financial performance. The present study puts forward a hypothesis that true shareholder value management also encompasses stakeholder value management. This combination of shareholder/stakeholder value management is hypoth...

  10. A study on the effect of size and ratio of book value to market value on excessive return

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohsen Tabatabaei Mozdabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Stock market plays an important role on demonstrating economy direction and it provides good opportunities for people who wish to purchase a small portion of different firms' shares. In this paper, we propose an empirical study to measure the impact of the market size and the ratio of book value on market value on excessive return. The study gathers the necessary information from some of active stock shares traded on Tehran Stock Exchange over the period of 2010-2011. The proposed model of this paper uses linear regression analysis to investigate the relationship between the excessive return and other factors. The study divides the information into seven equal groups and fits the regression model using ordinary least square technique. The results indicate that there is a negative relationship between size and excessive return and a positive relationship between the ratio of BV/MV and excessive return. Although the results of both tests are positive, we have to be more cautious about what have reported on the second hypothesis.

  11. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  12. Implementation of an electronic medical record system in previously computer-naïve primary care centres: a pilot study from Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoutis, George; Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Kounalakis, Dimitris K; Zachariadou, Theodora; Philalithis, Anastasios; Lionis, Christos

    2007-01-01

    The computer-based electronic medical record (EMR) is an essential new technology in health care, contributing to high-quality patient care and efficient patient management. The majority of southern European countries, however, have not yet implemented universal EMR systems and many efforts are still ongoing. We describe the development of an EMR system and its pilot implementation and evaluation in two previously computer-naïve public primary care centres in Cyprus. One urban and one rural primary care centre along with their personnel (physicians and nurses) were selected to participate. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools were used during the implementation phase. Qualitative data analysis was based on the framework approach, whereas quantitative assessment was based on a nine-item questionnaire and EMR usage parameters. Two public primary care centres participated, and a total often health professionals served as EMR system evaluators. Physicians and nurses rated EMR relatively highly, while patients were the most enthusiastic supporters for the new information system. Major implementation impediments were the physicians' perceptions that EMR usage negatively affected their workflow, physicians' legal concerns, lack of incentives, system breakdowns, software design problems, transition difficulties and lack of familiarity with electronic equipment. The importance of combining qualitative and quantitative evaluation tools is highlighted. More efforts are needed for the universal adoption and routine use of EMR in the primary care system of Cyprus as several barriers to adoption exist; however, none is insurmountable. Computerised systems could improve efficiency and quality of care in Cyprus, benefiting the entire population.

  13. The Interplay between Values and Aggression in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benish-Weisman, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Values, or the guiding standards of adolescents' lives, influence which behaviors are considered more justified than others. The relationship between values and social behavior has been established across many studies including the relationship of values and aggression. But only a few studies have examined these relationships among youth.…

  14. Basic human values in a young group: advances in exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Daset Carreto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a wide area of Study, developed since 1998 and focused on Childhood and Adolescence. At first, the aim was to research the psychopathological profile of adolescents, with sociodemographic variables. Further on Competence, Coping and Values were added for an approach from the Positive Psychology (Dahlsgaard, Peterson & Seligman, 2005. This article presents the preliminar results of a youth sample of secondary level students (n=152, aged 12 to 18, male and female, belonging to a medium socioeconomical status. The instrument used for the study is the Basic Values Questionnaire, developed by Valdiney V. Gouveia (1998, based on the studies of S. Schwartz and W. Bilsky (1987, 1990, 2004. Once the performance of this instrument was tested with our Spanish speaking population, some linguistic adaptations were implemented. To obtain the profile of the interviewed adolescents, descriptive statistic is used. The results show to statistically significant difference between girls and boys in Experimenting and Realization Values (Personnel Values Group; as well in Existence (Central Category Value and in Normative (Social Value, with bigger M quantity in Suprapersonnel Value (Central Value and Interaction (Social Category Value. In response to open questions about the most and the least important values, subjects have chosen Interaction (Social Value and Existence Values (Central Value as the most important ones, and Realization Values (Personal Value and the Normative Values (Central Value Category, as the least important ones. The study shows the importance of some groups of Values, what would require an analysis in relation to the behaviours with those that are expressed and their cultural relevance. The conclusions open the debate, from the own expression of the value and their relationship with the psychopathology and on the other hand with the well-being. 

  15. The diagnostic value of preoperative inflammatory markers in craniopharyngioma: a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Zheng, Shi-Hao; Yang, Min; Chen, Zhi-Hua; Li, Shi-Ting

    2018-05-01

    To compare the different levels of preoperative inflammatory markers in peripheral blood samples between craniopharyngioma (CP) and other sellar region tumors so as to explore their differential diagnostic value. The level of white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, platelet, albumin, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR), derived NLR (dNLR), platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR), monocyte lymphocyte ratio (MLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) were compared between the CP and other sellar region tumors. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the peripheral blood inflammatory markers and their paired combinations for CP including its pathological types. Patients with CP had higher levels of pre-operative WBC, lymphocyte and PNI. The papillary craniopharyngioma (PCP) group had higher neutrophil count and NLR than the adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma (ACP) and healthy control groups whereas the ACP group had higher platelet count and PNI than the PCP and healthy control groups. There were not any significant differences in preoperative inflammatory markers between the primary and recurrent CP groups. The AUC values of WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR in PCP were all higher than 0.7. Inflammation seems to be closely correlated with CP's development. The preoperative inflammatory markers including WBC, neutrophil, NLR + PLR and dNLR + PLR may differentially diagnose PCP, pituitary tumor (PT) and Rathke cleft cyst (RCC). In addition, some statistical results in this study indirectly proved previous experimental conclusions and strictly matched CP's biological features.

  16. A values-based Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention for pediatric obesity: study design and methods for MI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2011-09-01

    To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Apple mango value chain in northern Ethiopia: case study of Mereb ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apple mango value chain in northern Ethiopia: case study of Mereb-Leke District. ... From the analysis of costs and margins the value added by farmers, ... of market information, shortage of transportation facility and road infrastructure, farmers' ...

  18. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Patrícia A; Dias, João M D; Silva, Silvia L A; Dias, Rosângela C

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa = 0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa = 0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35 ± 1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning.

  19. The importance of continued exercise participation in quality of life and psychological well-being in previously inactive postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbury, Elizabeth A; Chandrruangphen, Pornpat; Collins, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Exercise and physical activity provide a wide range of health benefits for postmenopausal women, although the impact of maintained exercise participation on psychological well-being is unclear. An exploration of continued exercise participation in psychological well-being after a moderate-intensity exercise program in previously inactive postmenopausal women was therefore undertaken. : Twenty-three healthy sedentary postmenopausal women (age 56 +/- 4 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. All participants completed the Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Health Anxiety Questionnaire (HAQ) and then began a 6-week walking program at 50% heart rate reserve defined by (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing. Post-intervention, all participants underwent (.-)V(O(2)) treadmill testing and questionnaires. Group 1 was then instructed to continue exercising, whereas group 2 was instructed to desist for an additional 6-week period. On completion of the 6-week follow-up, participants completed a final set of questionnaires. Participants performed 97% of the prescribed 15-hour (900 minute) exercise program (875.1 +/- 177.4 minutes) in an average of 26 +/- 5 sessions. Total HAQ (P = 0.001), health worry (P = 0.001), fear of illness (P = 0.037), reassurance seeking behavior (P = 0.037), SF-36 well-being (P = 0.037), total HADS (P = 0.019), and HADS depression (P = 0.015) improved significantly following the exercise program. At follow-up, group 1 had lower HADS anxiety (P = 0.013), total HADS (P = 0.02), total HAQ (P = 0.03), and HAQ interference with life (P = 0.03) and significantly higher SF-36 energy (P = 0.01) than group 2. Healthy postmenopausal women gain significant psychological benefit from moderate-intensity exercise. However, exercise participation must continue to maintain improvements in psychological well-being and quality of life.

  20. Timber value—a matter of choice: a study of how end use assumptions affect timber values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter

    1971-01-01

    The relationship between estimated timber values and actual timber prices is discussed. Timber values are related to how, where, and when the timber is used. An analysis demonstrates the relative values of a typical Douglas-fir stand under assumptions about timber use.

  1. What you see? Value or ...? : A study of life values and lifestyles, and attractiveness of consumers towards advertising posters with value appeals in Umea

    OpenAIRE

    Bayar, Regzedmaa; Chandmani, Dolgorsuren

    2010-01-01

    This research is investigated a relationship between life values and attitude towards advertising, which included life value appeals. A survey is used a self administrated questionnaire of a quantitative research method, which is asked about people’s life values based on Kahle scale of eight items and their attitudes about advertising posters are created ourselves. Sample was chosen from students and workers in Umea. University, offices and shopping mall techniques used to collect the data.  ...

  2. The possibility of previous epidemiological data to serve as baseline for future national oral health surveys--a study in Vietnam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palenstein Helderman, W.H. van; Truin, G.J.; Can, N.; Khanh, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent epidemiological data (1985-2000) on dental caries and periodontal diseases in Vietnam in an attempt to obtain a 'baseline' for future national oral health surveys. METHODS: Studies on periodontal diseases and caries were included when CPITN

  3. Positioning in the Global Value Chain as a Sustainable Strategy: A Case Study in a Mature Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Albors-Garrigos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the development of new industrialized countries, such as Brazil, China and other Southern Asian economies, as well as a globalized economy, traditional competitive paradigms based on advantages associated with costs and quality efficiencies or even innovation are no longer sufficient. These previous classical paradigms related competitiveness either to costs or technology innovation and the resources of industry incumbents. However, the combination of adequate knowledge and relationship management with marketing efforts brings forth a reconsideration of the present competitive models that go beyond those analyses from the point of view of global value chains. The objective of this investigation will analyze the governance structure of the territorial value chain in the Spanish and Italian ceramic tile industry, through the understanding of the previous and current roles of several industries involved in the value creation system. By way of both a case study and quantitative methodology approach, we will explore the paradigm change where traditional chain actors are losing their grip on their contribution to the territorial value creation system as new actors appear with a more stable status. The article concludes that proper positioning in the global value chain is a key strategy for the sustainability of the involved firms, especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SME.

  4. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  5. The Value of Children: A Cross-National Study, Volume Two. Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulatao, Rodolfo A.

    This volume, second in a series of seven reports of the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in the Philippines. The study identifies major values and disvalues that Filipino parents attach to children. It also examines characteristics of parents that are related to values and disvalues. The document is presented in seven…

  6. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  7. Effect of benzalkonium chloride?free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Joao F.; Hubatsch, Douglas A.; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). Methods This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005?% were transitioned to recei...

  8. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V. E-mail: jcook@epsom-sthelier.nhs.uk; Warren, M

    2003-12-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  9. Antenatal hydronephrosis: Negative predictive value of normal postnatal ultrasound - a 5-year study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorthy, I.; Joshi, N.; Cook, J.V.; Warren, M.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether normal postnatal ultrasound, as part of a strict screening protocol for the detection and follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis, effectively excludes the majority of babies with congenital urinary tract abnormalities that would otherwise present with a urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all babies who had postnatal follow-up of antenatally detected hydronephrosis over a 5-year period at our institution, a district general Trust with a specialist paediatric unit. We then studied all babies presenting with urinary tract infection before their first birthday to our institution over the same period. By cross-referencing these two study groups we were able to determine which babies developed a urinary tract infection having been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. RESULTS: Four hundred and twenty-five babies had postnatal follow-up of antenatal hydronephrosis. Of these, 284 were investigated with ultrasound alone. In the same 5-year period, 230 babies presented with urinary tract infection before their first birthday. Only three of these babies had been previously discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound. The negative predictive value of a normal postnatal ultrasound was therefore 98.9% (281/284) for babies who subsequently presented with a urinary tract infection before their first birthday. CONCLUSION: Careful antenatal and postnatal ultrasound with strict protocols is effective in detecting congenital renal tract abnormalities. Infants discharged after normal postnatal ultrasound are highly unlikely to still have an undetected urinary tract abnormality. We suggest that all babies with antenatal hydronephrosis are started on prophylactic antibiotics at birth, pending further investigation. All babies without features of severe obstruction antenatally should have their postnatal ultrasound delayed for a month. We recommend selective use of micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG

  10. Relapse in pathological gamblers: A pilot study on the predictive value of different impulsivity measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, Bieke; Goudriaan, Anneke; Sabbe, Bernard; Hulstijn, Wouter; Dom, Geert

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims: Pathological gambling, a common psychiatric disorder, has many similarities with substance use disorders. Relapse, an important element in addictive disorders, however, has seldom been studied in pathological gambling. Hence, in analogy with previous research studies examining

  11. Study on Behavior Value Analysis and Decision Methodology of Grid Corporations in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Yuanbin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on grid corporations, business environment and value characteristics in China, the article analyzes its behavior value factors, and then divides its behavior into three categories: the behavior only affecting the current Economic Value Added(EVA, the behavior affecting both the current and future EVA, and the behavior only affecting future EVA. Finally, the article studies such corporations, behavior value decision making based upon analyses and classifications above.

  12. Effect of benzalkonium chloride-free travoprost on intraocular pressure and ocular surface symptoms in patients with glaucoma previously on latanoprost: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Joao F; Hubatsch, Douglas A; Amaris, Patricia

    2015-11-12

    Prostaglandin analogs reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension; however, these medications may affect the ocular surface and elicit ocular discomfort when preserved with benzalkonium chloride (BAK). This was an open-label, single-arm study conducted in Latin America from February 2012 to May 2013. Patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost 0.005 % were transitioned to receive once-daily BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % containing polyquaternium-1 (Travatan® preserved with POLYQUAD® [PQ], Alcon Laboratories, Inc; Fort Worth, TX) for 12 weeks. Mean change in IOP from baseline (primary efficacy endpoint) and the percentage of patients who achieved a target IOP of ≤18 mmHg were evaluated at all on-therapy visits. Ocular hyperemia, patient preference, and self-projected adherence were assessed at week 12. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the study. All enrolled patients were included in the analysis (n = 191); the majority of patients (90.6 %, n = 173/191) completed the study. Mean (SD) patient age was 67.5 (11.3) years, and mean baseline IOP was 14.8 mmHg. Mean IOP was reduced by 0.94 mmHg at week 6 and by 1.09 mmHg at week 12 (P glaucoma or ocular hypertension who were intolerant of latanoprost. BAK-free travoprost 0.004 % is a viable alternative for patients who require switching their IOP-lowering medications because of tolerability issues. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT01510145.

  13. Does hyperbaric oxygen treatment have the potential to increase salivary flow rate and reduce xerostomia in previously irradiated head and neck cancer patients? A pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forner, Lone; Hansen, Ole Hyldegaard; von Brockdorff, Annet Schack

    2011-01-01

    in irradiated head and neck cancer patients. Eighty patients eligible for HBO treatment on the indication of prevention/treatment of osteoradionecrosis or soft tissue radiation injury were consecutively sampled, of whom 45 had hyposalivation (i.e. unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate......Irradiated head and neck cancer survivors treated in the Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, spontaneously reported improvement of radiation-induced dry mouth feeling. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate salivary flow rate and xerostomia before and after HBO...

  14. Previous study for the setting up and optimization of detection of ZnS(Ag) scintillation applied to the measure of alpha radioactivity index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Suarez-Navarro, J.A.; Montero, M.

    1998-01-01

    The determination of radiological water quality is useful for a wide range of environmental studies. In these cases, the gross alpha activity is one of the parameters to determine. This parameter permits to decide if further radiological analyses are necessary in order to identify and quantify the presence of alpha emitters in water. The usual method for monitoring the gross alpha activity includes sample evaporation to dryness on a disk and counting using ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. Detector electronics is provided with two components which are adjustable by the user the high-voltage applied to the photomultiplier tubes and the low level discriminator that is used to eliminate the electronic noise. The high-voltage and low level discriminator optimization are convenient in order to reach the best counting conditions. This paper is a preliminary study of the procedure followed for the setting up and optimization of the detector electronics in the laboratories of CEDEX for the measurement of gross alpha activity. (Author)

  15. [Mutations of resistance of HIV-1 in previously untreated patients at penitentiary centers of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. REPRICOVA study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Guerrero, Julio; Herrero, Agustín; Vera, Enrique; Almenara, José M; Araújo, Rosa; Saurí, Vicente V; Castellano, Juan C; Fernández-Clemente, Luis; Bedia, Miguel; Llorente, María I; González-Morán, Francisco

    2002-03-02

    Our purpose was to determine the prevalence of mutations of resistance to nucleoside inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (NIRT) and protease inhibitors (PI) in the HIV-1 genotype of naïve infected subjects in the prisons of the Autonomous Community of Valencia, Spain. Multicentric, descriptive, cross-sectional study of prevalence including a systematic stratified and randomised sampling by centres. Demographic, clinical, virological and immunological data were collected. The HIV gene of protease and transcriptase was studied in peripheral blood plasma samples by means of double PCR amplification and subsequent automatic sequence. Reference: wild strain HXB2. Plasma was obtained from 133 individuals (119 men and 14 women). 117 samples were selected and the rest did not have enough copies for transcription. With regard to NIRT, 7 samples (5.2% of total) showed some mutation of resistance: M41L, D67N, L210W and K219Q, all them secondary to and associated with resistance to zidovudine, abacavir as well as group B multinucleoside-resistance. With regard to PI, only one sample showed a primary mutation, M46I, which was associated with resistance to indinavir. Moreover, a further 41 samples were found to express some secondary mutation. In our series, there was a low number of primary mutations of resistance. These results allow us to exclude the systematic use of resistance tests before an initiation antiretroviral therapy.

  16. How well does Anorexia Nervosa fit with personal values? An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulkerrin, Úna; Bamford, Bryony; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Despite an increasing clinical interest in the use of personal values as a motivational tool in psychological therapies for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), research is limited. This study explored personal values among individuals with AN, with a particular focus on the 'fit' between participants' values and their AN. A qualitative research design was employed in this study. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were carried out among eight female outpatients and inpatients with a diagnosis of AN or Eating Disorder Not Otherwise Specified - AN type (EDNOS-AN type). Data was analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA; Smith, Jarman & Osborne, 1999). Three super-ordinate themes emerged from analysis: 'Balancing Values' (difficulty finding balance in relating to and acting on values), 'Congruence and Clashes between AN and Values' (experiences of AN representing a mixed-fit with values) and 'From Ambivalence to Motivation' (ambivalence toward both AN and recovery - in the context of its mixed-fit with values - and experiences of values as a motivational tool in recovery). Study findings support a role for psychological therapies in working with personal values as a means of promoting recovery in AN, through supporting individuals to explore AN's workability in the context of their values. Further research investigating the optimal stage of treatment to work with values as a motivational tool is warranted.

  17. In Vitro Fertilization Outcomes After Placement of Essure Microinserts in Patients With Hydrosalpinges Who Previously Failed In Vitro Fertilization Treatment: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo B; Bouaziz, Jerome; Schiff, Eyal; Simon, Alexander; Nadjary, Michel; Goldenberg, Mordechai; Orvieto, Raoul; Revel, Ariel

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether hysteroscopic proximal tubal occlusion with Essure microinserts (Conceptus Inc.; Bayer, AG, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany) can improve pregnancy rates in patients with hydrosalpinges who had failed in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. A prospective cohort study. University-affiliated tertiary centers. Twenty-four consecutive women with hydrosalpinges who had failed IVF treatment were included. Hysteroscopic placement of Essure microinserts for hydrosalpinx blockage followed by IVF treatment. Ongoing pregnancy and live birth rates were recorded. Of the 24 patients undergoing a total of 42 IVF cycles after Essure insertion, 18 (75% of patients and 42.8% of IVF cycle attempts) conceived and 16 delivered live births (66.6% of patients and 38.1% of IVF cycle attempts). Hysteroscopic proximal occlusion of hydrosalpinges with Essure microinserts is a valuable alternative to laparoscopic salpingectomy, resulting in reasonable pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Score Is Associated With Incident Heart Failure Hospitalization in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease Without Previously Diagnosed Heart Failure: Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rakesh K; Yang, Wei; Roy, Jason; Anderson, Amanda H; Bansal, Nisha; Chen, Jing; DeFilippi, Christopher; Delafontaine, Patrice; Feldman, Harold I; Kallem, Radhakrishna; Kusek, John W; Lora, Claudia M; Rosas, Sylvia E; Go, Alan S; Shlipak, Michael G

    2015-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease is a risk factor for heart failure (HF). Patients with chronic kidney disease without diagnosed HF have an increased burden of symptoms characteristic of HF. It is not known whether these symptoms are associated with occurrence of new onset HF. We studied the association of a modified Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire with newly identified cases of hospitalized HF among 3093 participants enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study who did not report HF at baseline. The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was categorized into quartiles (Q1-4) with the lower scores representing the worse symptoms. Multivariable-adjusted repeated measure logistic regression models were adjusted for demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors for HF, N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide level and left ventricular hypertrophy, left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. Over a mean (±SD) follow-up period of 4.3±1.6 years, there were 211 new cases of HF hospitalizations. The risk of HF hospitalization increased with increasing symptom quartiles; 2.62, 1.85, 1.14, and 0.74 events per 100 person-years, respectively. The median number of annual Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire assessments per participant was 5 (interquartile range, 3-6). The annually updated Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire score was independently associated with higher risk of incident HF hospitalization in multivariable-adjusted models (odds ratio, 3.30 [1.66-6.52]; P=0.001 for Q1 compared with Q4). Symptoms characteristic of HF are common in patients with chronic kidney disease and are associated with higher short-term risk for new hospitalization for HF, independent of level of kidney function, and other known HF risk factors. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The added value of water footprint assessment for national water policy: a case study for Morocco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F Schyns

    Full Text Available A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5 × 5 arc minute global study for the period 1996-2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii Morocco's water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3; (iv blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco's national water strategy.

  20. The Added Value of Water Footprint Assessment for National Water Policy: A Case Study for Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep F.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2014-01-01

    A Water Footprint Assessment is carried out for Morocco, mapping the water footprint of different activities at river basin and monthly scale, distinguishing between surface- and groundwater. The paper aims to demonstrate the added value of detailed analysis of the human water footprint within a country and thorough assessment of the virtual water flows leaving and entering a country for formulating national water policy. Green, blue and grey water footprint estimates and virtual water flows are mainly derived from a previous grid-based (5×5 arc minute) global study for the period 1996–2005. These estimates are placed in the context of monthly natural runoff and waste assimilation capacity per river basin derived from Moroccan data sources. The study finds that: (i) evaporation from storage reservoirs is the second largest form of blue water consumption in Morocco, after irrigated crop production; (ii) Morocco’s water and land resources are mainly used to produce relatively low-value (in US$/m3 and US$/ha) crops such as cereals, olives and almonds; (iii) most of the virtual water export from Morocco relates to the export of products with a relatively low economic water productivity (in US$/m3); (iv) blue water scarcity on a monthly scale is severe in all river basins and pressure on groundwater resources by abstractions and nitrate pollution is considerable in most basins; (v) the estimated potential water savings by partial relocation of crops to basins where they consume less water and by reducing water footprints of crops down to benchmark levels are significant compared to demand reducing and supply increasing measures considered in Morocco’s national water strategy. PMID:24919194

  1. Re-Engineering Values into the Youth Education System: A Needs Analysis Study in Brunei Darussalam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Tajudeen, Ahmad Labeeb; Nawi, Aliff; Mahalle, Salwa

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to present a practical framework for designing a values teaching program in the youth education system. The choice of content, the nature of the students with respect to learning and their perception about the selected content for teaching values were studied. The study follows a Needs analysis design which drew upon document…

  2. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and

  3. Values drive value when creating sustainable service business : A study of a medium-sized values-driven company: Löfbergs Lila

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Bo-Jacob

    2007-01-01

    This Master thesis investigates how values can drive value when creating sustainable business.Concepts like Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Sustainable Development (SD) has in the last years become more and more accepted and therefore practiced in the business world. Due to alarms of the climate change, decreased biological diversity and alarming reports of child labour in the export industry, today’s society claims for more sustainable actions among global enterprises. Evidently, s...

  4. A Business intelligence tool for studying value co-creation and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Ruskov, Petko; Georgiev, Lachezar

    2011-01-01

    Value co-creation is an emerging marketing and innovation paradigm describing a broader opening of the firm to its customers by providing them with the opportunity to become active participants in the design and development of personalized products, services and experiences. However......, there is not yet a fully satisfactory theoretical vision about its distinctive characteristics as compared to more traditional value creation approaches. One of the challenges in studying value co-creation is the lack of business intelligence (BI) tools that can be used in the conceptualization of value co...... is the relationship between the degree of firms’ involvement in value co-creation activities and their innovativeness....

  5. Review of previous geophysical and geological studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Levchenko, O.V.; Neprochnov, Y.P; Rao, D.G; Subrahmanyam, C.; Murthy, K.S

    stream_size 5 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt stream_source_info Mem_Geol_Soc_India_39_5.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  6. Variability of indicator values for ozone production sensitivity: a model study in Switzerland and San Joaquin Valley (California)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J.; Prevot, A.S.H.; Chenghsuan Lu; Chang, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    The threshold values of indicator species and ratios delineating the transition between NO x and VOC sensitivity of ozone formation are assumed to be universal by various investigators. However, our previous studies suggested that threshold values might vary according to the locations and conditions. In this study, threshold values derived from various model simulations at two different locations (the area of Switzerland by UAM Model and San Joaquin Valley of Central California by SAQM Model) are examined using a new approach for defining NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Possible definitions for the distinction of NO x and VOC sensitive ozone production regimes are given. The dependence of the threshold values for indicators and indicator ratios such as NO y , O 3 /NO z , HCHO/NO y , and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 on the definition of NO x and VOC sensitivity is discussed. Then the variations of threshold values under low emission conditions and in two different days are examined in both areas to check whether the models respond consistently to changes in environmental conditions. In both cases, threshold values are shifted similarly when emissions are reduced. Changes in the wind fields and aging of the photochemical oxidants seem to cause the day-to-day variation of the threshold values. O 3 /NO z and HCHO/NO y indicators are predicted to be unsatisfactory to separate the NO x and VOC sensitive regimes. Although NO y and H 2 O 2 /HNO 3 provide a good separation of the two regimes, threshold values are affected by changes in the environmental conditions studied in this work. (author)

  7. Public values for integration in natural disaster management and planning: A case study from Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawluk, Andrea; Ford, Rebecca M; Neolaka, Fendi L; Williams, Kathryn J

    2017-01-01

    Values can be useful for identifying what is important to individuals and communities, yet there is currently not a coherent way to conceptualize, identify, and organize the breadth of values that can be affected by a natural disaster. This research proposes a conceptual framework for how to conceptualize, identify, and organize values, and proposes a concrete, tangible value called the valued entity. The framework is applied in two studies of bushfire in Victoria, Australia: 112 submissions from individuals to the 2009 Victorian Bushfires Royal Commission and interviews with 30 members of the public in bushfire risk landscapes. Our findings suggest that: what people value ranges from abstract to concrete; prevalent abstract values include benevolence and universalism; prevalent mid-level valued attributes include natural attributes of landscapes and human life and welfare; prevalent valued entities are people and properties close to the person. Comparison between the two studies suggests people with more recent experience with bushfire refer less to the importance of natural places and natural attributes. The conceptual framework can act as a boundary object to facilitate researchers and policy-makers understanding the breadth of values affected by natural disaster events and management actions and how governance can better consider values at different scales. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Conditional conservatism and value relevance of financial reporting: A study in view of converging accounting standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, Maximiliaan Willem Pierre; Iatridis, George Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between conditional conservatism and value relevance in the EU and US. Specifically, it investigates whether this relationship differs under US GAAP and IFRS compliance. In addition, this study examines the trend in value relevance, conditional conservatism and

  9. Sustainable Development and Values Education in the Jordanian Social Studies Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alelaimat, Abeer Rashed; Taha, Kelle

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the values function, its relationship with sustainable development, and the extent of taking in to consideration the national education book for Jordanian tenth graders in the years 2004-2010. This study will attempt to answer the following questions: what is the values function that should be followed in the social…

  10. Study of values and interpersonal perception in cosmonauts on board of international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokhodova, A. G.; Gushin, V. I.

    2014-01-01

    The increased heterogeneity of International Space Station (ISS) crews' composition (in terms of nationality, profession and gender) together with stressful situations, due to space flight, can have a significant impact on group interaction and cohesion, as well as on communications with Mission Control Center (MCC) and the success of the mission as a whole. Culturally related differences in values, goals, and behavioral norms could influence mutual perception and, thus, cohesive group formation. The purpose of onboard "Interaction-Attitudes" experiment is to study the patterns of small group (space crew) behavior in extended space flight. Onboard studies were performed in the course of ISS Missions 19-30 with participation of twelve Russian crewmembers. Experimental schedule included 3 phases: preflight training and Baseline Data Collection; inflight activities once in two weeks; post-flight measurement. We used Personal Self-Perception and Attitudes (PSPA) software for analyzing subjects' attitudes toward social environment (crewmembers and MCC). It is based on the semantic differential and the repertory grid technique. To study the content of interpersonal perception we used content-analysis with participation of the experts, independently attributing each construct to the 17 semantic categories, which were described in our previous study. The data obtained demonstrated that the system of values and personal attitudes in the majority of participated cosmonauts remained mostly stable under stress-factors of extended space flight. Content-analysis of the important criteria elaborated by the subjects for evaluation of their social environment, showed that the most valuable personal traits for cosmonauts were those that provided the successful fulfillment of professional activity (motivation, intellectual level, knowledge, and self-discipline) and good social relationships (sociability, friendship, and tolerance), as well. Post-flight study of changes in perceptions

  11. SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF NATURE AND SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF CULTURE: INTE-GRATION TREND, PRACTICAL VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokina Zoya Titovna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with a topic of interest : studying the expanding and deepening trend of integration of natural, technical, social and humanities fields of scientific knowledge. The point of absolute opposition between the sciences dealing with nature and those dealing with culture is subjected to criticism, the forms of integration of scientific knowledge are identified: mathematization, formalization, computerization of knowledge; philosophization/dialectization and environmentalization of the scientific knowledge. It is noted that such areas of scientific knowledge as synergetics, cybernetics, system theory, information technology, sociosynergetics, historical informatics, cliometrics, informatics for economics, evolutionary economics, human ecology, etc. Many scientific fields appear on the border between the science, technology and mathematics, and social and humanities studies, while the sharp borders between the natural sciences and cultural sciences tend to disappear, although specifics of studying the social reality still exists. Within the context of integration of sciences, comprehensive approach, synergetics, cybernetics, and mathematical model approach are analyzed. The philosophy of technology, and environmental problems, which are caused by the development of technological civilization, are studied. Practical value of integration processes in science is identified. The studied data is addressed to the specialists who are interested in the modern processes of integration of sciences, and modern issues of scientific and technical development of humanity, survival of humanity under the conditions of increasing technological understanding of the nature.

  12. An Early Model for Value and Sustainability in Health Information Exchanges: Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The primary value relative to health information exchange has been seen in terms of cost savings relative to laboratory and radiology testing, emergency department expenditures, and admissions. However, models are needed to statistically quantify value and sustainability and better understand the dependent and mediating factors that contribute to value and sustainability. Objective The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 21 interviews of eHealth Exchange participants across 10 organizations. Using a grounded theory approach and 3.0 as a relative frequency threshold, 5 main categories and 16 subcategories emerged. Results This study identifies 3 core current perceived value factors and 5 potential perceived value factors—how interviewees predict health information exchanges may evolve as there are more participants. These value factors were used as the foundation for early model development for sustainability of health information exchange. Conclusions Using the value factors from the interviews, the study provides the basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. This basis includes factors from the research: fostering consumer engagement; establishing a provider directory; quantifying use, cost, and clinical outcomes; ensuring data integrity through patient matching; and increasing awareness, usefulness, interoperability, and sustainability of eHealth Exchange. PMID:29712623

  13. An Early Model for Value and Sustainability in Health Information Exchanges: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S

    2018-04-30

    The primary value relative to health information exchange has been seen in terms of cost savings relative to laboratory and radiology testing, emergency department expenditures, and admissions. However, models are needed to statistically quantify value and sustainability and better understand the dependent and mediating factors that contribute to value and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. A qualitative study was conducted with 21 interviews of eHealth Exchange participants across 10 organizations. Using a grounded theory approach and 3.0 as a relative frequency threshold, 5 main categories and 16 subcategories emerged. This study identifies 3 core current perceived value factors and 5 potential perceived value factors-how interviewees predict health information exchanges may evolve as there are more participants. These value factors were used as the foundation for early model development for sustainability of health information exchange. Using the value factors from the interviews, the study provides the basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. This basis includes factors from the research: fostering consumer engagement; establishing a provider directory; quantifying use, cost, and clinical outcomes; ensuring data integrity through patient matching; and increasing awareness, usefulness, interoperability, and sustainability of eHealth Exchange. ©Sue S Feldman. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 30.04.2018.

  14. Values, food and bags: A study of consumption decisions in a laboratory supermarket

    OpenAIRE

    Astrid Matthey; Tim Kasser

    2013-01-01

    We study the relation between people's personal values and environmentally friendly consumption behavior. We first assessed subjects' personal values using the Aspiration Index. Then subjects participated in a laboratory supermarket offering organic and conventional food products and different kinds of bags. The results suggest that subjects' personal values are poor predictors of their ecologically-relevant consumption behavior. However, we find that subjects who spontaneously reflected upon...

  15. Neural correlates of economic value and valuation context: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson-Carr, John; Kokmotou, Katerina; Soto, Vicente; Cook, Stephanie; Fallon, Nicholas; Giesbrecht, Timo; Stancak, Andrej

    2018-05-01

    The value of environmental cues and internal states is continuously evaluated by the human brain, and it is this subjective value that largely guides decision making. The present study aimed to investigate the initial value attribution process, specifically the spatiotemporal activation patterns associated with values and valuation context, using electroencephalographic event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants completed a stimulus rating task in which everyday household items marketed up to a price of £4 were evaluated with respect to their desirability or material properties. The subjective values of items were evaluated as willingness to pay (WTP) in a Becker-DeGroot-Marschak auction. On the basis of the individual's subjective WTP values, the stimuli were divided into high- and low-value items. Source dipole modeling was applied to estimate the cortical sources underlying ERP components modulated by subjective values (high vs. low WTP) and the evaluation condition (value-relevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments). Low-WTP items and value-relevant judgments both led to a more pronounced N2 visual evoked potential at right frontal scalp electrodes. Source activity in right anterior insula and left orbitofrontal cortex was larger for low vs. high WTP at ∼200 ms. At a similar latency, source activity in right anterior insula and right parahippocampal gyrus was larger for value-relevant vs. value-irrelevant judgments. A stronger response for low- than high-value items in anterior insula and orbitofrontal cortex appears to reflect aversion to low-valued item acquisition, which in an auction experiment would be perceived as a relative loss. This initial low-value bias occurs automatically irrespective of the valuation context. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrate the spatiotemporal characteristics of the brain valuation process using event-related potentials and willingness to pay as a measure of subjective value. The N2 component resolves values of objects with a

  16. Anchors as Semantic Primes in Value Construction: An EEG Study of the Anchoring Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguo Ma

    Full Text Available Previous research regarding anchoring effects has demonstrated that human judgments are often assimilated to irrelevant information. Studies have demonstrated that anchors influence the economic valuation of various products and experiences; however, the cognitive explanations of this effect remain controversial, and its neural mechanisms have rarely been explored. In the current study, we conducted an electroencephalography (EEG experiment to investigate the anchoring effect on willingness to accept (WTA for an aversive hedonic experience and the role of anchors in this judgment heuristic. The behavioral results demonstrated that random numbers affect participants' WTA for listening to pieces of noise. The participants asked for higher pay after comparing their WTA with higher numbers. The EEG results indicated that anchors also influenced the neural underpinnings of the valuation process. Specifically, when a higher anchor number was drawn, larger P2 and late positive potential amplitudes were elicited, reflecting the anticipation of more intensive pain from the subsequent noise. Moreover, higher anchors induced a stronger theta band power increase compared with lower anchors when subjects listened to the noises, indicating that the participants felt more unpleasant during the actual experience of the noise. The levels of unpleasantness during both anticipation and experience were consistent with the semantic information implied by the anchors. Therefore, these data suggest that a semantic priming process underlies the anchoring effect in WTA. This study provides proof for the robustness of the anchoring effect and neural evidence of the semantic priming model. Our findings indicate that activated contextual information, even seemingly irrelevant, can be embedded in the construction of economic value in the brain.

  17. Lower Bispectral index values in psychiatric patients: A prospective, observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatapura J Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Bispectral index score (BIS is a processed electroencephalographic parameter used to measure level of sedation in anaesthetised patients. In few studies of psychiatric patients undergoing electroconvulsive therapy (ECT, it was observed that the BIS values were lower at baseline. It is not clear from those studies whether the BIS values are really low. Also, it is not clear whether the lower values are related to the primary psychiatric illness or the due to the effect of ECT. Therefore, we studied the BIS values in psychiatric illnesses and compared them with the normal controls. Materials and Methods : BIS index was recorded in 237 patients with various psychiatric illness (Group P and 40 control patients without any psychiatric illness undergoing spinal surgery (Group C. BIS values were recorded in supine position before breakfast and before the morning doses of antipsychotic/benzodiazepine medications. It was recorded during resting state in all the subjects. Results : BIS values were lower in group P compared to control group (a mean of 89.8 ± 7.8 vs 95.7 ± 2.4, P < 0.0001. In the group P, the patients with psychosis and bipolar disorder had significantly lower BIS values than the patients with depression (P = 0.04. Conclusions : BIS values in psychiatric patients are lower than those in the control group. Psychotic and bipolar disorders are associated with significantly lower BIS values than the depression.

  18. Teachers' Perceptions of Infusion of Values in Science Lessons: a Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumarassamy, Jayanthy; Koh, Caroline

    2017-06-01

    Much has been written and debated on the importance of including moral, character or values education in school curricula. In line with this, teachers' views with regard to values education have often been sought. However, a search into the literature on values in science education has revealed little on this domain. In an attempt to close this gap, this study explored the views of teachers with regard to values infusion in the teaching of science. The aim was to investigate teachers' perceptions on two broad areas: (i) how values were infused or addressed in lower secondary science and (ii) how values-infused science lessons influenced their students' dispositions and actions. The participants who took part in the interviews were lower secondary science teachers teaching Grade 8 in selected Singapore and New Delhi schools. The findings showed that values inherent in the discipline of science, such as validity, fairness, honesty, rigour, predominated in the lessons conducted by the teachers in both contexts. Furthermore, in Singapore, equal numbers of teachers made references to values upheld and practised by scientists and values arising from the interplay between people and scientific processes and products. In New Delhi however, the emphasis was higher on the latter category of values than on the former. Generally, in both contexts, values infusion in science lessons was not planned but occurred spontaneously as values issues surfaced in class. Teachers in both Singapore and New Delhi used strategies such as questioning, discussion, activities and direct instructions to carry out values infusion, although they experienced challenges that included content and time constraints, lack of student readiness and of teacher competency. Nevertheless, the teachers interviewed perceived that values in science lessons brought about changes in students' personal attributes, affect and behaviour, such as greater interest and prosocial engagement.

  19. Personal values and involvement in problem behaviors among Bahamian early adolescents: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongjie; Yu, Shuli; Cottrell, Lesley; Lunn, Sonja; Deveaux, Lynette; Brathwaite, Nanika V; Marshall, Sharon; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2007-07-02

    Few studies, particularly in developing countries, have explored the relationship between adolescents and parental values with adolescent problem behaviors. The objectives of the study are to (1) describe adolescents' personal values, their problem behaviors, and the relationships thereof according to gender and (2) examine the relationship between parental values, adolescent values, and adolescents' problem behaviors among sixth-grade students and one of their parents. The data used in these analyses were from the baseline assessment of a school-based HIV risk reduction intervention being conducted and evaluated among sixth grade students and one of their parents across 9 elementary schools in The Bahamas. Personal values were measured by the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ). Seven reported problem behaviors were queried from the students, which included physical fight with a friend, drank alcohol, beer, or wine, smoked a cigarette, pushed or carried any drugs, carried a gun, knife, screwdriver or cutlass to use as a weapon, had sex and used marijuana or other illicit drugs over the past 6 months. Multilevel modeling for binary data was performed to estimate the associations between adolescent and parental values and adolescent problem behaviors. Among 785 students, 47% of the students reported at least one problem behavior. More boys (54%) reported having one or more problem behaviors than girls (41%, p values (self-transcendence and conservation) were low or modestly correlated with youth' values (openness to change and self-enhancement). Parental-reported values documented limited association on adolescents' reported values and behaviors. In designing interventions for reducing adolescents' problem behaviors, it may be important to understand the values associated with specific problem behaviors. Further exploration regarding lack of association between adolescent and parental values and problem behaviors is needed.

  20. Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who have previous experience with tumour necrosis factor inhibitors: results of a long-term extension of the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled GO-AFTER study through week 160

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smolen, Josef S.; Kay, Jonathan; Landewé, Robert B. M.; Matteson, Eric L.; Gaylis, Norman; Wollenhaupt, Jurgen; Murphy, Frederick T.; Zhou, Yiying; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess long-term golimumab therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who discontinued previous tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) inhibitor(s) for any reason. Results through week 24 of this multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of

  1. The Relationship Between Intellectual Capital and Firm Value: A Study in Istanbul Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim CENGİZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value. The study is significant in that it makes intellectual capital, which is of vital importance in ensuring firms’ sustainability, more apparent and it provides a chance to make comparisons with other studies. The companies operating in energy sector in Borsa Istanbul (abbreviated as BIST, former Istanbul Stock Exchange during the period of 2009-2011, are taken into the scope of analysis. Within this scope, the findings obtained by using “Calculated Intangible Value Management” are compared with firms’ market value/book value practices in order to determine the relationship between intellectual capital and firm value. The findings reveal that energy companies operating in Turkey do not consider their intellectual capital assets important and tangible assets are the main factors affecting business performance.

  2. Water, Air, Fire, and Earth--A Developmental Study in Portugal of Environmental Conceptions and Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Peter H., Jr.; Lourenco, Orlando

    This study contributes to an emerging body of research on the development of the human relationship with nature. One hundred and twenty participants from four grade levels (fifth, eighth, eleventh, and college) were interviewed about their environmental conceptions and values. Results showed that participants valued many aspects of nature and…

  3. Uncertainty in estimated values of forestry project: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The information obtained were analyzed using Net Present Value, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Economic Rate of Return and Sensitivity Analysis. The results of this study indicate that the NPV and B/C ratio were sensitive to increase in discount factor. The values of estimates for a direct and taungya plantatiomn at Ago-Owu forest ...

  4. Business Value Is not only Dollars : Results from Case Study Research on Agile Software Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Racheva, Z.; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Buglione, Luigi; Ali Babar, M.; Vierimaa, Matias; Oivo, Markku

    Business value is a key concept in agile software development. This paper presents results of a case study on how business value and its creation is perceived in the context of agile projects. Our overall conclusion is that the project participants almost never use an explicit and structured

  5. Examination of Social Studies Textbooks in Terms of Approaches of Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Feride; Sahin, Taner

    2012-01-01

    In the program of primary education in Turkey, comprehensive modifications were made by the Ministry of Education and The Chairman of the Board of Education (TTKB) in 2004. In this new Social Study and Instruction program some values like assiduity, scientificity, responsibility and respect to variety are defined as "the value given…

  6. A Study of the Philippine Values Education Programme (1986-1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quisumbing, Lourdes R.

    This study explores the Philippine experience in values development. The primary goal of providing values education at all three levels of the school system in the Philippines is the development of a person committed to building a free, democratic, peaceful, and progressive nation. The program hopes to develop Filipinos who possess the following…

  7. A Categorization Model for Educational Values of the History of Mathematics: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-qin; Qi, Chun-yan; Wang, Ke

    2017-01-01

    There is not a clear consensus on the categorization framework of the educational values of the history of mathematics. By analyzing 20 Chinese teaching cases on integrating the history of mathematics into mathematics teaching based on the relevant literature, this study examined a new categorization framework of the educational values of the…

  8. Values, Ethics, and Attitudes Toward National Forest Management: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Manning; William Valliere; Ben Minteer

    1999-01-01

    This study measures environmental values and ethics and explores their relationships to attitudes toward national forest management. The principal research methods were literature review and a survey of Vermont residents concerning management of the Green Mountain National Forest. Descriptive findings suggest respondents (1) favor nonmaterial values of national forests...

  9. Model of Values-Based Management Process in Schools: A Mixed Design Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Soner

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the school administrators' values-based management behaviours according to the teachers' perceptions and opinions and, accordingly, to build a model of values-based management process in schools. The study was conducted using explanatory design which is inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methods.…

  10. Stability and Change in Work Values: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Rounds, James

    2012-01-01

    A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was conducted to investigate stability and change in work values across the life span. Both rank-order stability and mean-level change were investigated using an integrative classification for intrinsic, extrinsic, social and status work values (Ross, Schwartz, & Surkis, 1999). Results of rank-order…

  11. Perceptions of Value: A Study of Worker Characteristics and Performance Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Corey M.

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the need of human performance technology (HPT) practitioners to make the most cost-effective performance intervention decisions, introducing a new instrument, the Intervention Value Survey, as a possible tool to provide a clearer profile of an audience's perceptions of what provides them value. Using a mixed methods…

  12. Achievement, Motivation, and Educational Choices: A Longitudinal Study of Expectancy and Value Using a Multiplicative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiesi; Parker, Philip D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Morin, Alexandre J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on the expectancy-value model, the present study explored individual and gender differences in university entry and selection of educational pathway (e.g., science, technology, engineering, and mathematics [STEM] course selection). In particular, we examined the multiplicative effects of expectancy and task values on educational outcomes…

  13. Analisis Penerapan Value Creation Selling dalam Strategi Pemasaran Perusahaan Jasa Logistik: Studi Kasus di PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A company is a market-oriented when the culture of value creation superior customer systematically and comprehensively implemented on company concerned. Value can be defined as the ratio of benefit to cost, where customers expect a rate of return equal or exceed the costs they incurred to obtain the products they bought. From the case studies conducted on PT XYZ, then, in getting the project tender delivery of goods geophysical equipment for the Brunei Loon project, it has been implemented value selling creation, which includes three main components, ie customer portraits, the proposed value, and benefits to customers or total value of ownership. Overall, the efficiency given value is about 20% compared to its closest competitor, the safety shipping and on time, as well as the positive benefits of the profit margin, cash flow, return on investment, brand equity, market share and customers.

  14. Comparison of Elementary Social Studies Curricula of Turkey and the United States on Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merey, Zihni; Kus, Zafer; Karatekin, Kadir

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the social studies teaching curricula of Turkey and the United States in terms of values education. The study is a model case study that relies upon one of the qualitative research methods. The data come from the elementary social studies curricula of both countries through the documents analysis method. The…

  15. The Study on the Preferences of Customer Personal Values with Chinese Culture Background in Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Zhao, Hong; Yang, Yue

    Customer personal values are the important factors which affect customer behaviors, and they guide and decide the customer's attitudes and behaviors on the products or the services. The paper thinks there are only several important customer personal values to guide customer's decisions, and these values will have -strong cultural differences. This study focuses on discussing the preferences of customer personal values with Chinese culture background when customers consume service and analyzes on the customer preferences of customer personal values with the deep interview method. After interviewing 16 responders with the semi-structured questionnaires, the study finds out some interesting results: (1) Some customers have recognized the existent of customer personal values, even though customer perceived values still have the strong influences on customer behaviors. (2) As they pursue to high quality lives, customers enjoy the lives in easy and pleasure way and care about the safe of the family. Quick response, simple and professional services contribute to enhance the experiences of easy and pleasure lives. (3) Non-rational consumers need the respect from the staff and the companies seriously. In comparison, the rational customers care less about the respect. (4) The sociable requirements have become a common consuming psychology of the customers. More and more customers try to gain the friends by consuming some services. (5) The preferences of customer personal values have a close relationship with the Chinese culture, such as collective values, family conception and "face" culture. The results benefit for service companies improving service brands and service quality.

  16. A study on a systematic method for evaluating values of raised concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, T.; Morimoto, T.; Iida, N.; Nishimura, T.; Soda, Y.; Itoh, K.; Tanaka, H.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that can externalise potential concerns and evaluate the values of the concerns raised in corporations. By implementing this methodology into corporate governance, it is expected to improve the work environment and enhance the capability for the corporate governance through supporting the internal autonomic purification. This study comprises of: case studies of past wrongdoings in corporations such as JCO and Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO); identifying the viewpoints for evaluating values of raised concerns; developing a model to evaluate the values. (author)

  17. Values in breast cancer screening: an empirical study with Australian experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore what Australian experts value in breast screening, how these values are conceptualised and prioritised, and how they inform experts’ reasoning and judgement about the Australian breast-screening programme. Design Qualitative study based on interviews with experts. Participants 33 experts, including clinicians, programme managers, policymakers, advocates and researchers selected for their recognisable influence in the Australian breast-screening setting. Setting Australian breast-screening policy, practice and research settings. Results Experts expressed 2 types of values: ethical values (about what was good, important or right) and epistemological values (about how evidence should be created and used). Ethical values included delivering benefit, avoiding harm, promoting autonomy, fairness, cost effectiveness, accountability, professionalism and transparency. Epistemological values informed experts’ arguments about prioritising and evaluating evidence methodology, source population and professional interests. Some values were conceptualised differently by experts: for example, delivering benefit could mean reducing breast cancer mortality, reducing all-cause mortality, reducing mortality in younger women, reducing need for aggressive treatment, and/or reassuring women they were cancer free. When values came into conflict, experts prioritised them differently: for example, when experts perceived a conflict between delivering benefits and promoting autonomy, there were differences in which value was prioritised. We explain the complexity of the relationship between held values and experts’ overall views on breast cancer screening. Conclusions Experts’ positions in breast screening are influenced by evidence and a wide range of ethical and epistemological values. We conclude that discussions about values should be a regular part of breast-screening review in order to build understanding between those who hold different positions, and

  18. Effects of craving and DRD4 VNTR genotype on the relative value of alcohol: an initial human laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McGeary John E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Craving for alcohol is a highly controversial subjective construct and may be clarified by Loewenstein's visceral theory, which emphasizes craving's behavioral effects on the relative value of alcohol. Based on the visceral theory, this study examined the effects of a craving induction on the relative value of alcohol as measured by a behavioral choice task. In addition, based on previous evidence of its role in the expression of craving, the influence of DRD4 VNTR genotype (DRD4-L vs. DRD4-S was also examined. Methods Thirty-five heavy drinkers (54% male; 31% DRD4-L were randomly assigned to receive either a craving induction (exposure to personally relevant alcohol cues or a control induction (exposure to neutral cues, which was followed by an alcohol-money choice task. Participants were assessed for craving and positive/negative affect throughout the procedure, and relative value of alcohol was derived from participant choices for alcohol versus money. DRD4 VNTR status was assessed retrospectively via buccal samples using previously established protocols. Results Factorial analysis of the craving induction revealed that it was associated with significant increase in craving (p p p Conclusion These results are interpreted as generally supporting Loewenstein's visceral theory of craving and evidence of a functional role of DRD4 VNTR genotype in the expression of craving for alcohol. Methodological limitations, mechanisms underlying these findings, and future directions are discussed.

  19. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A.; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher–pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02–1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00–1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher–pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations

  20. Does school ethos explain the relationship between value-added education and teenage substance use? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Wolfgang A; Young, Robert; Sweeting, Helen; West, Patrick; Aveyard, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies found lower substance use in schools achieving better examination and truancy results than expected, given their pupil populations (high value-added schools). This study examines whether these findings are replicated in West Scotland and whether school ethos indicators focussing on pupils' perceptions of schooling (environment, involvement, engagement and teacher-pupil relations) mediate the associations. Teenagers from forty-one schools (S2, aged 13, n = 2268; S4, aged 15, n = 2096) previously surveyed in primary school (aged 11, n = 2482) were surveyed in the late 1990s. School value-added scores were derived from standardised residuals of two regression equations separately predicting from pupils' socio-demographic characteristics (1) proportions of pupils passing five Scottish Standard Grade Examinations, and (2) half-day truancy loss. Outcomes were current smoking, monthly drinking, ever illicit drug use. Random effects logistic regression models adjusted for potential pupil-level confounders were used to assess (1) associations between substance use and school-level value-added scores and (2) whether these associations were mediated by pupils' perceptions of schooling or other school-level factors (school roll, religious denomination and mean aggregated school-level ethos scores). Against expectations, value-added education was positively associated with smoking (Odds Ratios [95% confidence intervals] for one standard deviation increase in value-added scores were 1.28 [1.02-1.61] in S2 and 1.13 [1.00-1.27] in S4) and positively but weakly and non-significantly associated with drinking and drug use. Engagement and positive teacher-pupil relations were strongly and negatively associated with all substance use outcomes at both ages. Other school-level factors appeared weakly and largely non-significantly related to substance use. Value-added scores were unrelated to school ethos measures and no ethos measure mediated associations between value

  1. Customer value of smart metering: Explorative evidence from a choice-based conjoint study in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, Simon; Künzel, Karoline; Loock, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    Implementing smart metering is an important field for energy policy to successfully meet energy efficiency targets. From an integrated social acceptance and customer-perceived value theory perspective we model the importance of customer value of smart metering in this regard. We further shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment with Swiss private electricity customers. The study finds that overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering and are willing to pay for it. Further, based on a cluster analysis of customers’ value perceptions, we identify four customer segments, each with a distinct value perception profile for smart metering. We find that energy policy and management should integrate a solid understanding of customer value for smart metering in their initiatives and consider different smart metering market segments within their measures. - Highlights: ► We model the importance of customer value of smart metering. ► We shape the model on a choice-based conjoint experiment. ► Overall customers perceive a positive value from smart metering. ► Customers are willing to pay for smart metering. ► There are four distinct customer segments with different value perceptions.

  2. Variability of LD50 Values from Rat Oral Acute Toxicity Studies: Implications for Alternative Model Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative models developed for estimating acute systemic toxicity are generally evaluated using in vivo LD50 values. However, in vivo acute systemic toxicity studies can produce variable results, even when conducted according to accepted test guidelines. This variability can ma...

  3. Predictive value of noninvasive measures of atherosclerosis for incident myocardial infarction - The Rotterdam study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, IM; Bots, ML; Hofman, A; del Sol, AI; van der Kuip, DAM; Witteman, JCM

    2004-01-01

    Background - Several noninvasive methods are available to investigate the severity of extracoronary atherosclerotic disease. No population- based study has yet examined whether differences exist between these measures with regard to their predictive value for myocardial infarction (MI) or whether a

  4. The value of play for conflict management: a case study | Snodgrass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The value of play for conflict management: a case study. ... The feature of the intervention that we examine is the use of play as an educational strategy. ... training; games; multicultural; play; problem-solving; role play; secondary schools

  5. Reflections on the added value of using mixed methods in the SCAPE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathy; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan; Meskell, Pauline; Higgins, Agnes; Elliot, Naomi; Lalor, Joan; Begley, Cecily

    2014-03-01

    To reflect on the added value that a mixed method design gave in a large national evaluation study of specialist and advanced practice (SCAPE), and to propose a reporting guide that could help make explicit the added value of mixed methods in other studies. Recently, researchers have focused on how to carry out mixed methods research (MMR) rigorously. The value-added claims for MMR include the capacity to exploit the strengths and compensate for weakness inherent in single designs, generate comprehensive description of phenomena, produce more convincing results for funders or policy-makers and build methodological expertise. Data illustrating value added claims were drawn from the SCAPE study. Studies about the purpose of mixed methods were identified from a search of literature. The authors explain why and how they undertook components of the study, and propose a guideline to facilitate such studies. If MMR is to become the third methodological paradigm, then articulation of what extra benefit MMR adds to a study is essential. The authors conclude that MMR has added value and found the guideline useful as a way of making value claims explicit. The clear articulation of the procedural aspects of mixed-methods research, and identification of a guideline to facilitate such research, will enable researchers to learn more effectively from each other.

  6. The Case Study as Research Heuristic: Lessons from the R&D Value Mapping Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Klein, Hans K.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the role of prototype case studies as the foundation for later evaluation through two studies from the "R&D Value Mapping Project," a study that will involve more than 30 cases. Explores the usefulness of case studies in defining and assessing subsequent research efforts. (SLD)

  7. Resistance to consumption and Veganism: A Study about Motivations, Values, and Feelings

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Isabela Perez Campos; Acevedo, Claudia Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study resistance to consumption as a recent phenomenon designed to bring about changes in societal values and consumptio habits. Specifically the objective of this paper is to comprehend the way in which anti-consumption behavior relates to Veganism, analyze factors that motivate its practice, and record values and feelings associated with the acceptance of the movement.This study utilized the ethnographic method of collection and analysis of data through pa...

  8. Value engineering study final report on -- Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1999-01-01

    The SNS Project has had numerous DOE/SC reviews to validate the technical baseline, management approach, cost, schedule, and Conceptual Design Report. As a result, in FY 1999 the SNS received $130 million and approval FR-om Congress to initiate Title 1 design and construction activities. Since this funding was less than requested for FY 1999 ($157 million) and validated in previous reviews, and because of improved costing information, the SNS Project team will reassess the cost and schedule baselines in an upcoming DOE review in January 1999. In preparation for this reassessment, the SNS has initiated a value engineering process to improve the design and to recover cost and contingency. Value engineering will continue throughout the life of the project, but the results described in this report are our initial efforts

  9. Subsequent pregnancy outcome after previous foetal death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, J. W.; Korteweg, F. J.; Holm, J. P.; Timmer, A.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; van Pampus, M. G.

    Objective: A history of foetal death is a risk factor for complications and foetal death in subsequent pregnancies as most previous risk factors remain present and an underlying cause of death may recur. The purpose of this study was to evaluate subsequent pregnancy outcome after foetal death and to

  10. Work values and job satisfaction: a qualitative study of Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Ali; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Ebadi, Abbas; Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oshvandi, Khodayar

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to describe the effect of nursing profession work-related values on job satisfaction among a sample of Iranian nurses. We used in-depth interviews with 30 nurses who worked in university-affiliated and public hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The results of thematic analysis of interviews are reported in four themes to present the participants' articulations in linking their work-related values to job satisfaction. The themes consist of values that "encourage tolerance," "enhance inner harmony," "reflect traditional commitment," "enhance unity," and are "centered around altruism and spiritual values." The most satisfied participants considered nursing a divine profession and a tool by which they could gain spiritual pleasure and satisfaction. Our findings highlight the potential role of nursing work-related values in reducing dissatisfaction with one's job. For the nursing profession, this may have implications in reducing job instability and turnover.

  11. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B

    2015-01-01

    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  12. Study of Ethical Values and Practices in Academic Programmes at a Higher Learning Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanasamy, Kogilah; Shetty, M. V.

    The study on ethical values in academic programmes has attracted the attention of many researchers throughout the world especially in view of its important role today. Many academic programmes today focus on how to make profit both for the individual and the organization and on how to increase the firm`s market share and shareholders value and in the process may compromise on their ethical values and have unethical practices. Thus, this study is undertaken to evaluate the extent of integration of ethical values in the academic programmes of the higher learning operating institution involved with post graduate and higher level programs. The impact of demographics and race of the lecturer and students have been separately ascertained. The sample has been taken from one college, rated to be high in ethical values and practices, a sample of 120 students and 31 lecturers from a leading college (reputed for ethical values) have been collated and analyzed for validation of the objectives. The explanation on ethics has been done to a large extent in the study. The study also indicates the number of higher learning institutions to indicate the extent of impact if these issues are appropriately addressed. Government policy in this regard also needs to be reviewed and improved to avoid deterioration of ethical values and practices in the dynamic market place of today. This study review that, the level at which lecturers at the institutions have high ethical values and do incorporate it in their lectures and discussions in the classroom. The impact of demographic factors on the ethical values and practice of the lecturers have useful insights for academic staff recruitment and staff training. On the other hand, students` ethical values and behavior is a cause for concern to everyone as these future pillars of the nation have been found to have their ethical values and practices at low levels. The implications for the college management as to consider further emphasis on the

  13. Relationships Between Service Personal Values, Service Value, Satisfaction, and Loyalty: A Study Regarding Services of Private and State Hospitals in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Argan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Service and value are the two inseparable concepts in experiential service environment. Service personal value is a concept that is subjectively assessed from a consumer perspective, and is associated with service value, consumer satisfaction and loyalty. In this context, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between services personal values, service value, satisfaction, and loyalty. Data were collected from persons (996 receiving services from private hospitals and state hospitals using convenience sampling method. The scales of service personal values, service value, satisfaction and loyalty were adapted from literature. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA was used to investigate validity and reliability of the scales. Then, a structural equation model (SEM was developed and tested using data with Lisrel 8.80 software. The results of the study indicate significant relationships between services personal values, service value, satisfaction, and loyalty. The results of the study have significant implications as to how well private hospital managers design strategies of health service, satisfaction, and loyalty.

  14. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  15. The Attitude Determination Scale for Value Acquisition: A Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Saban

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to develop a measurement tool having measurement reliability with the aim of determining attitudes for values acquisition of secondary school students. The study was conducted on totally 325 high school senior students as 200 female and 125 male students in spring semester of 2014-2015 educational year. In the study, expert opinion…

  16. Assessing the Expected Value of Research Studies in Reducing Uncertainty and Improving Implementation Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Sabine E; Dixon, Simon; Stevens, John W

    2017-07-01

    With low implementation of cost-effective health technologies being a problem in many health systems, it is worth considering the potential effects of research on implementation at the time of health technology assessment. Meaningful and realistic implementation estimates must be of dynamic nature. To extend existing methods for assessing the value of research studies in terms of both reduction of uncertainty and improvement in implementation by considering diffusion based on expert beliefs with and without further research conditional on the strength of evidence. We use expected value of sample information and expected value of specific implementation measure concepts accounting for the effects of specific research studies on implementation and the reduction of uncertainty. Diffusion theory and elicitation of expert beliefs about the shape of diffusion curves inform implementation dynamics. We illustrate use of the resulting dynamic expected value of research in a preterm birth screening technology and results are compared with those from a static analysis. Allowing for diffusion based on expert beliefs had a significant impact on the expected value of research in the case study, suggesting that mistakes are made where static implementation levels are assumed. Incorporating the effects of research on implementation resulted in an increase in the expected value of research compared to the expected value of sample information alone. Assessing the expected value of research in reducing uncertainty and improving implementation dynamics has the potential to complement currently used analyses in health technology assessments, especially in recommendations for further research. The combination of expected value of research, diffusion theory, and elicitation described in this article is an important addition to the existing methods of health technology assessment.

  17. [A preliminary study of the work values of male nurses in Taiwan and related factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yu-Ying; Tang, Woung-Ru; Chang, Yue-Cune; Maa, Suh-Hwa

    2013-04-01

    Male nurses account for 1.08% of Taiwan's total professional nursing workforce. While work values are known to impact the practice of female nurses, the work values of male nurses have never been fully evaluated. The aim of this study was to explore the work values of male nurses in Taiwan and related factors. We applied a cross-sectional design that targeted all male nurses nationwide and used a structured questionnaire distributed by mail to collect data. Data were collected from 1,087 Taiwan-based male nurses with 745 valid responses. Mean score for overall work value was 2.78 (on a maximum scale of 4). Socio-demographic differences contributed to work value variance among respondents. Major factors of influence on work value included education, work unit, work position, work rank, salary, hospital classification, and reason for choosing a nursing career. This study found personal characteristics, occupational roles, job performance, and reason for choosing a career in nursing to all correlate strongly with work value.

  18. Normal Values for Heart Electrophysiology Parameters of Healthy Swine Determined on Electrophysiology Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noszczyk-Nowak, Agnieszka; Cepiel, Alicja; Janiszewski, Adrian; Pasławski, Robert; Gajek, Jacek; Pasławska, Urszula; Nicpoń, Józef

    2016-01-01

    Swine are a well-recognized animal model for human cardiovascular diseases. Despite the widespread use of porcine model in experimental electrophysiology, still no reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive electrophysiology study (EPS) have been developed in this species thus far. The aim of the study was to develop a set of normal values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters determined during an invasive EPS of swine. The study included 36 healthy domestic swine (24-40 kg body weight). EPS was performed under a general anesthesia with midazolam, propofol and isoflurane. The reference values for intracardiac electrical activity and conduction parameters were calculated as arithmetic means ± 2 standard deviations. The reference values were determined for AH, HV and PA intervals, interatrial conduction time at its own and imposed rhythm, sinus node recovery time (SNRT), corrected sinus node recovery time (CSNRT), anterograde and retrograde Wenckebach points, atrial, atrioventricular node and ventricular refractory periods. No significant correlations were found between body weight and heart rate of the examined pigs and their electrophysiological parameters. The hereby presented reference values can be helpful in comparing the results of various studies, as well as in more accurately estimating the values of electrophysiological parameters that can be expected in a given experiment.

  19. Scientists' attitudes on science and values: Case studies and survey methods in philosophy of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Daniel; Gonnerman, Chad; O'Rourke, Michael

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the relevance of survey data of scientists' attitudes about science and values to case studies in philosophy of science. We describe two methodological challenges confronting such case studies: 1) small samples, and 2) potential for bias in selection, emphasis, and interpretation. Examples are given to illustrate that these challenges can arise for case studies in the science and values literature. We propose that these challenges can be mitigated through an approach in which case studies and survey methods are viewed as complementary, and use data from the Toolbox Dialogue Initiative to illustrate this claim. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing the value of collaboration in tourism networks: A case study of Elkhart County, Indiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zach, Florian; Racherla, Pradeep

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the determinants of perceived value derived from interorganizational collaborations in a tourism destination. The authors propose a theoretical model of perceived value drawing upon the rich stream of literature related to strategic collaborations and interorganizational...... networks. The model was tested using a cross section of tourism organizations operating within Elkhart County, Indiana. The results indicate that a significant positive value of collaboration is achieved from dyadic relationships. Importantly, the results suggest that the positive effect achieved from one......-to-one partnerships decreases once an organization collaborates with several other organizations. The article discusses various implications for managing strategic tourism partnerships....

  1. Card Sort Technique in Vocational Guidance/Career Counseling: Pilot Study about Career Values

    OpenAIRE

    Tülin ACAR; Yalçın DEMİR; Fidan KORKUT; Özlem HASKAN; Tuğba KABALCI; Dilşad KUTSAL; İlker Mustafa PEKİN; Esra TURHAN

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and to pilot a not-test technique for assessing career and work values. This instrument was developed during a Career Counseling course taught by one of the authors of this paper. The first stage of development was the generation of a master list of career and work values, as reflected in the current literature related to theories and vocational research. From this master list 38 career values were selected resulting in the final deck that was used i...

  2. Do Librarians Have a Shared Set of Values? A Comparative Study of 36 Codes of Ethics Based on Gorman's "Enduring Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Catherine; McMenemy, David

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six ethical codes from national professional associations were studied, the aim to test whether librarians have global shared values or if political and cultural contexts have significantly influenced the codes' content. Gorman's eight core values of stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, rationalism, literacy and learning, equity of…

  3. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death : a Dutch observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijn, Rick R.; Beek, Erik J.; van de Putte, Elise M.; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Nikkels, Peter G.J.; Duijst, Wilma L.J.M.; Nievelstein, Rutger Jan A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. Objective We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. Materials and methods We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the N...

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilij Mate; Dejan Jelovac; Anita Kralj

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Sloveni...

  5. REVISITING SCHEIN (1965 STUDY ON THE MANAGERIAL VALUES AND ATTITUDES OF MBA STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gonul Demirel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As schools are organized networks of socializing experiences which prepare individuals to act in society, MBA programs are the socializing media to prepare the future managers. Our study is “a partial replication” of the study done by Schein (1965. The same constructs are used in the questionnaire of the present study. Assuming that what is valued by managers influences how those individuals make business decisions, we aim to find out the managerial values and attitudes of MBA students. We also aim to draw the attention of the faculty members to think about what attitudes, beliefs, and values MBA students are learning and what might the faculty contributions be to the transfer of managerial values. Therefore, the main question of our study is “What are the major managerial values and attitudes of our MBA students?” A second intended contribution of this study is the validation of the scales. The goal of science is empirical generalization, or knowledge development. Systematically conducted replications with extensions facilitate this goal. Keeping this in mind our reconsidering the original constructs of the Schein (1965 study contributes to the validation of at least some of these original constructs.

  6. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    on the theory of expectancy-value and on the operationalisation used when the model was first developed. Data for the analysis were collected from a sample of seven informants working as consultants in Danish municipalities. Each participant filled out a questionnaire, kept a log book for a week...... for interpersonal and internal sources increased when the task had high-value motivation or low-expectancy motivation or both. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a relatively small sample and considers only one motivation theory. This should be addressed in future research along...... with a broadening of the studied group to involve other professions than municipality consultants. Originality/value: Motivational theories from the field of psychology have been used sparsely in studies of information seeking. This study operationalises and verifies such a theory based on a theoretical adaptation...

  7. Educational Values in Different Social-Economic Status--A Study Case of Six Families in Maros Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaruddin; Alimuddin; Manda, Darman

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at determining educational values in families by describing the priority of the values selected in the educational value, the role of parents, and the socialization of values that were used by parents in educational values. This research is a case study with a qualitative approach. The subjects of the research were selected…

  8. As good as it gets? On the meaning of public value in the study of policy and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Public values are being promoted as a core concept in the study of public administration, in particular, in discourses surrounding Moore’s public value management and Bozeman’s public value failure. This article outlines the approaches to the concept of values and public values. Particular attention

  9. An Exploratory Study of Value-Added and Academic Optimism of Urban Reading Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff-Franklin, Clairie L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between state-recorded value- added (VA) scores and academic optimism (AO) scores, which measure teacher self-efficacy, trust, and academic emphasis. The sample for this study is 87 third through eighth grade Reading teachers, from fifty-five schools, in an urban school district in Ohio who…

  10. Digital Libraries with Embedded Values: Combining Insights from LIS and Science and Technology Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Kenneth R.

    2007-01-01

    In the digital age, libraries are increasingly being augmented or even replaced by information technology (IT), which is often accompanied by implicit assumptions of objectivity and neutrality, yet the field of science and technology studies (STS) has a long history of studying what values are embedded in IT and how they are embedded. This article…

  11. Studying Abroad: Understanding the Relationships among Beliefs, Perceived Value, and Behavioral Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Weiling; King, Kristen; Carnes, Lana

    2015-01-01

    Increased globalization highlights the importance of encouraging university students to participate in an international experience. In this study, the authors investigate how behavioral belief, subjective belief, and control belief influence students' perceived value and intention to study abroad. The authors further examine the moderation effects…

  12. The Educational Value of Esperanto Study: An American View. Esperanto Documents, Number 31A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce Arne

    The linguistic, communicative, and cultural value of teaching Esperanto is discussed. A major linguistic advantage is that Esperanto study provides an ideal introduction to the study of language. The European root stock provides an important resource for building vocabulary in English and in other European languages. Esperanto has a valuable and…

  13. The Value of Children: A Cross-National Study, Volume Three. Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Fred; Fawcett, James T.

    The document, one in a series of seven reports from the Value of Children Project, discusses results of the survey in Hawaii. Specifically, the study investigated the social, psychological, and economic costs and benefits associated with having children. The volume is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I describes the background of the study and…

  14. iPads in K-12 Schools: A Grounded Theory Study of Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Mary Beth

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study investigated the value of iPads in K-12 schools when used in one-to-one ratios. The purpose of the study was to understand the perspectives of teachers using iPads in one-to-one ratios for teaching and learning in the classroom and administrators responsible for the implementation of these devices. The…

  15. Linguistically-Relevant Diachronic Study of Cultural Values in Early British Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetova, Larisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on linguistic data retrieved from early advertisements published in British newspapers between 1788 and 1900, the study seeks to map out a set of values and account for linguistic means used to codify them in the diachronic perspective. For the purposes of the study, the corpus of advertisements from random issues of British newspapers…

  16. The study of stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, AS; Muis, Z. A.; Iskandar, T. D.

    2018-02-01

    One of the parameters of the asphalt mixture in order for the strength and durability to be achieved as required is the stress-and-strain showing the stiffness of a material. Stiffness modulus is a very necessary factor that will affect the performance of asphalt pavements. If the stiffness modulus value decreases there will be a cause of aging asphalt pavement crack easily when receiving a heavy load. The high stiffness modulus asphalt concrete causes more stiff and resistant to bending. The stiffness modulus value of an asphalt mixture material can be obtained from the theoretical (indirect methods) and laboratory test results (direct methods). For the indirect methods used Brown & Brunton method, and Shell Bitumen method; while for the direct methods used the UMATTA tool. This study aims to determine stiffness modulus values for AC-WC pavement. The tests were conducted in laboratory that used 3 methods, i.e. Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test as a substitute tool for the UMATTA tool. Hotmix asphalt made from type AC-WC with pen 60/70 using a mixture of optimum bitumen content was 5.84% with a standard temperature variation was 60°C and several variations of temperature that were 30, 40, 50, 70 and 80°C. The stiffness modulus value results obtained from Brown & Brunton Method, Shell Bitumen Method and Marshall Test which were 1374,93 Mpa, 235,45 Mpa dan 254,96 Mpa. The stiffness modulus value decreases with increasing temperature of the concrete asphalt. The stiffness modulus value from the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test has a relatively similar value.The stiffness modulus value from the Brown & Brunton method is greater than the Bitumen Shell method and the Marshall Test, but can not measure the stiffness modulus value at temperature above 80°C.

  17. Collective Value Creation and Empowerment in an Online Brand Community: A Netnographic Study on LEGO Builders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuominen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Online communities are becoming “places” of belonging, information, and emotional support that people cannot do without. These social groups have a real existence for their participants, and thus have consequential effects on many aspects of behaviour. This article examines collective value creation and empowerment in an online brand community. It presents the main features of an online brand community, the process of value co-creation, and motivators for participating in online brand communities. These key factors jointly characterize collective value creation and empowerment. This netnographic study focuses on an online brand community called BrickBuilders, which is a meeting place for LEGO builders in Finland. BrickBuilders’ members feel a sense of belonging, they share similar motivations, and they create value together.

  18. Correlation Between Coupling Metrics Values and Number of Classes in Multimedia Java Projects: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Bivde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Coupling is an interdependence relationship between the modules of object-oriented software. It is a property with the most influence on quality attributes of the object-oriented software. Coupling with high values results in complex software design hence software professionals try to keep the coupling as low as possible. The values of coupling metrics are dependent on the type of input source code. Reusability is the main feature of object-oriented languages, so coupling occurs due to reuse of code modules. This paper investigates a correlation between the values of coupling metrics and the number of classes in the multimedia Java code. Here, a case study of a banking multimedia Java project with its forty different versions is conducted to comments on this correlation. The analysis of the results shows that, if the input source code is with a large number of classes then it results in high coupling values.

  19. Economic Value Creation in Metro Complexes: Case Study on Sadr Station Complex in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Jafari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is economic value creation methods in metro station centers with the case study of Sadr Station complex in Tehran. The research implements a descriptive approach by benefiting from the data of a cross-sectional survey which was collected by the authors. The target population included all scholars of urban development and transport academics, capitalists and directors of the station complex with the total number of 1,100 people. By using a random sampling, 285 people were surveyed with a 25-item questionnaire developed by the researchers. The results suggest priority of value creation respectively in areas of collaborative, competitive, private, governmental, and personal. The test results also showed that among the components of economic value creation (corporate, individual, competitive, governmental and private, the observed correlation was significant. According to the obtained results, development of economic value creation in station centers seems necessary.

  20. Effective Ways to Realize the Character Education Value of Work-study Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv Xuemei PhD Student

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper indicates work-study program can foster the character development of college students as an important content of social practice activities in university. It suggests strategies for realizing the character education value of work-study program. First, establish a specific character education object for every work-study program. Second, use the controllability of the classroom to make up the uncontrollability of work-study program. Third, set up an effective supervision and evaluation mechanism.

  1. The effects of nursing education on professional values: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantek, Filiz; Kaya, Ayla; Gezer, Nurdan

    2017-11-01

    It is considered to be extremely important to ensure that nurses adopt professional values during their education in order to improve nursing practices and develop a professional identity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nursing education on development of professional values. This study was designed as a longitudinal study. The study was conducted in a nursing department at a nursing school in the western Turkey. The population of the study consisted of nursing students who were enrolled in the nursing department in academic year of 2011-2012. The data of the study were collected from 59 first-year students in 2011 and 83 fourth-year students in 2015. The data of the study were collected using Personal Information Form and Nursing Professional Values Scale-NPVS. The participants responded to the same questionnaire in their first and fourth years in the department. The scale mean score of the students in their first year was 3.44±0.635. The highest scores were obtained from the subscales of responsibility, security, and autonomy. Their scale mean score in their fourth year was 3.93±0.727. The highest scores were obtained from the subscales of dignity and autonomy. The difference between the mean scores was statistically significant (p=0.001). It was concluded that nursing education had a significant effect on development of professional values. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The PROgnostic Value of unrequested Information in Diagnostic Imaging (PROVIDI) Study: rationale and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondrie, M. J. A.; Mali, W. P. Th. M.; Buckens, C. F. M.; Jacobs, P. C. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Graaf, Y van der

    2010-01-01

    We describe the rationale for a new study examining the prognostic value of unrequested findings in diagnostic imaging. The deployment of more advanced imaging modalities in routine care means that such findings are being detected with increasing frequency. However, as the prognostic significance of many types of unrequested findings is unknown, the optimal response to such findings remains uncertain and in many cases an overly defensive approach is adopted, to the detriment of patient-care. Additionally, novel and promising image findings that are newly available on many routine scans cannot be used to improve patient care until their prognostic value is properly determined. The PROVIDI study seeks to address these issues using an innovative multi-center case-cohort study design. PROVIDI is to consist of a series of studies investigating specific, selected disease entities and clusters. Computed Tomography images from the participating hospitals are reviewed for unrequested findings. Subsequently, this data is pooled with outcome data from a central population registry. Study populations consist of patients with endpoints relevant to the (group of) disease(s) under study along with a random control sample from the cohort. This innovative design allows PROVIDI to evaluate selected unrequested image findings for their true prognostic value in a series of manageable studies. By incorporating unrequested image findings and outcomes data relevant to patients, truly meaningful conclusions about the prognostic value of unrequested and emerging image findings can be reached and used to improve patient-care.

  3. Value of cyclin A immunohistochemistry for cancer risk stratification in Barrett esophagus surveillance: A multicenter case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Olphen, Sophie H; Ten Kate, Fiebo J C; Doukas, Michail; Kastelein, Florine; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Stoop, Hans A; Spaander, Manon C; Looijenga, Leendert H J; Bruno, Marco J; Biermann, Katharina

    2016-11-01

    The value of endoscopic Barrett esophagus (BE) surveillance based on histological diagnosis of low-grade dysplasia (LGD) remains debated given the lack of adequate risk stratification. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of cyclin A expression and to combine these results with our previously reported immunohistochemical p53, AMACR, and SOX2 data, to identify a panel of biomarkers predicting neoplastic progression in BE.We conducted a case-control study within a prospective cohort of 720 BE patients. BE patients who progressed to high-grade dysplasia (HGD, n = 37) or esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC, n = 13), defined as neoplastic progression, were classified as cases and patients without neoplastic progression were classified as controls (n = 575). Cyclin A expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in all 625 patients; these results were combined with the histological diagnosis and our previous p53, AMACR, and SOX2 data in loglinear regression models. Differences in discriminatory ability were quantified as changes in area under the ROC curve (AUC) for predicting neoplastic progression.Cyclin A surface positivity significantly increased throughout the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequences and was seen in 10% (107/1050) of biopsy series without dysplasia, 33% (109/335) in LGD, and 69% (34/50) in HGD/EAC. Positive cyclin A expression was associated with an increased risk of neoplastic progression (adjusted relative risk (RR) 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4). Increases in AUC were substantial for P53 (+0.05), smaller for SOX2 (+0.014), minor for cyclin A (+0.003), and none for AMARC (0.00).Cyclin A immunopositivity was associated with an increased progression risk in BE patients. However, compared to p53 and SOX2, the incremental value of cyclin A was limited. The use of biomarkers has the potential to significantly improve risk stratification in BE.

  4. A Study of the Influence of Field of the Study and Gender on Ethical Values: Iranian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Moradi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The value is a social event that has an important role in the human life, since forming of firstly societies till now. In reality, the human life has been formed from set of selections that people set forth from that a system of values. The nature of value is selection and freely confirmation on one hand value is guidance and determiner of social trends and on the other hand determiner of social action and manner that are manifesting on rules and manners, regulations, holy principles and routine life methods (Schwartz and Anat 2004. Indeed values are mental judgment of people. In reality these are values that form special frameworks for social people-because they know which manner is suitable in each situation. The values are important determiner of the performance method, actions’ route and how to prefer targets in cultural,educational, family, political and religious systems for each society.In scope of considering for manner science, the values are one of the pivotal conceptions that has created the background of convergence amid different scopes of humanities and acted as a key conception for systematic studying in humanities (Schwartz, 1999. Understanding of thevalues of commercial students is useful for their guidance can be used for rising of education, reinforcement and their successive training. The commercial students will be coming professionals and nowadays people pay attention to the ethical in jobs and the members of profession are encouraged to follow the whole ethics, furthermore the understanding of values for commercial students is useful for their guidance. Determining of value differences between men and women with the remarkable presence of women in commercial jobs can be important for anticipating and controlling of coming manners that are related to job and managing ofhuman recourses. Furthermore considering of ethical insight of commercial students and men and women seem essential. The aim of this article is comparison

  5. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part IV: A compilation of previous observations for valuation of simulation results from a columnar modelling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    according to the parameterisation of the collision-controlled binary nucleation rate proposed by Weber et al. (1996, H2O vapour does not explicitly affect the particle formation. Since the H2SO4 concentration is overpredicted in the simulations presented in Paper III, the nucleation rates are too high compared to previous estimations. Therefore, the results are not directly comparable to measurements. Especially NPF events, where organics are suspected to play a key role, such as those observed at the boreal forest station in Hyytiälä (Southern Finland or at Hohenpeissenberg (mountain site in Southern Germany, can not be explained by employing simple sulphur/ammonia chemistry. However, some valuable hints regarding the role of CBL turbulence in NPF can be obtained. In the literature a number of observations on the link between turbulence and NPF can be found, whose burst patterns support a strong contribution of CBL turbulence to the NPF burst evolution simulated here. Observations, that do not correspond to the scenarios are discussed with respect to possible reasons for the differences between model and observation. The model simulations support some state-of-the-art hypotheses on the contribution of CBL turbulence to NPF. Considering the application of box models, the present study shows, that CBL turbulence, not explicitly considered in such models, can strongly affect the spatio-temporal NPF burst evolution. The columnar high-order model presented here is a helpful tool to elucidate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions, especially the genesis of NPF bursts in the CBL. An advanced description of the cluster formation and condensation growth is required as well as a comprehensive verification/validation study using observed high-order moments. Further scenario simulations remain to be performed.

  6. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due

  7. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  8. Floodwater utilisation values of wetland services - a case study in Northeastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, S. B.; Xu, S. G.; Feng, F.

    2012-02-01

    Water plays a significant role in wetlands. Floodwater utilisation in wetlands brings a wide range of wetland services, from goods production and water regulation to animal protection and aesthetics related to water supply in wetlands. In this study, the floodwater utilisation values of wetland services were estimated within the Momoge wetland and Xianghai wetland in western Jilin province of northeastern China. From 2003 to 2008, the floodwater diverted from the Nenjiang and Tao'er River is 381 million m3, which translates into a monetary value of approximately 1.35 billion RMB in 2008 (RMB: Chinese Currency, RMB 6.80 = US 1), and the ratio of economic value, eco-environmental value, and social value is 1:12:2. Besides the monetary value of the water itself, excessive floodwater utilisation may bring losses to wetlands; the threshold floodwater utilisation volumes in wetlands are discussed. Floodwater utilisation can alleviate water shortages in wetlands, and the evaluation of floodwater utilisation in wetland services in monetary terms is a guide for the effective use of the floodwater resources and for the conservation of wetlands.

  9. Statistical considerations for harmonization of the global multicenter study on reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Kiyoshi

    2014-05-15

    The global multicenter study on reference values coordinated by the Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) of the IFCC was launched in December 2011, targeting 45 commonly tested analytes with the following objectives: 1) to derive reference intervals (RIs) country by country using a common protocol, and 2) to explore regionality/ethnicity of reference values by aligning test results among the countries. To achieve these objectives, it is crucial to harmonize 1) the protocol for recruitment and sampling, 2) statistical procedures for deriving the RI, and 3) test results through measurement of a panel of sera in common. For harmonized recruitment, very lenient inclusion/exclusion criteria were adopted in view of differences in interpretation of what constitutes healthiness by different cultures and investigators. This policy may require secondary exclusion of individuals according to the standard of each country at the time of deriving RIs. An iterative optimization procedure, called the latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method, can be applied to automate the process of refining the choice of reference individuals. For global comparison of reference values, test results must be harmonized, based on the among-country, pair-wise linear relationships of test values for the panel. Traceability of reference values can be ensured based on values assigned indirectly to the panel through collaborative measurement of certified reference materials. The validity of the adopted strategies is discussed in this article, based on interim results obtained to date from five countries. Special considerations are made for dissociation of RIs by parametric and nonparametric methods and between-country difference in the effect of body mass index on reference values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Study on environmental background values of uranium in water of Dongting Lake system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Pengji; Kang Tiesheng

    1987-01-01

    Study on environmental background values in water is the base of evaluating water quality and also is the foundational work of studying the law of distribution, accumulation and transfer of the elements. Research on background values of U in water not only can understand radioactive level but also has actual significance for the general survey of U by water. In the work uranium contents were determined by fission track analytical technique in the filtered and unfiltered specimens of river water, reservoir water and spring water taken from more than one hundred sections located in Dongting Lake system and the statistical process of data were carried out by computer. The environmental background values in water of various river system were obtained and compared with the situation of home and abroad. The seasonal variety of uranium content and the level of U in reservoir, spring water and natural reserve were discussed

  11. Reducing the gender achievement gap in college science: a classroom study of values affirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Akira; Kost-Smith, Lauren E; Finkelstein, Noah D; Pollock, Steven J; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Ito, Tiffany A

    2010-11-26

    In many science, technology, engineering, and mathematics disciplines, women are outperformed by men in test scores, jeopardizing their success in science-oriented courses and careers. The current study tested the effectiveness of a psychological intervention, called values affirmation, in reducing the gender achievement gap in a college-level introductory physics class. In this randomized double-blind study, 399 students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the 15-week course. Values affirmation reduced the male-female performance and learning difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. A brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance and learning.

  12. Empirical Study on the Relationships of Internet Banking Quality, Customer Value, and Customer Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Umbas KRISNANTO

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this conducted study was to test the direct and indirect effects of internet banking quality and customer value to customer satisfaction. This study uses descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to examine these relationships. The study is based on a survey conducted with respondents who use internet banking in their day-to-day activities, and all questionnaire items are deemed valid and reliable. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis for the indicators, dime...

  13. A study of students’ travellers values and needs in order to establish futures patterns and insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cavagnaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – If the only viable future for tourism is sustainable tourism then ways should be sought to increase the demand for sustainable offers. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether sustainability values influence the travel needs of students. The aim is to discover cues in the present behaviour of young tourists that can enhance sustainable travel choices and therefore secure the future of the tourism industry. Moreover, the study provides a solid basis for predicting the future travel behaviour of young tourists. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected in The Netherlands in 2013 through a survey. A non‐probabilistic sample of 365 students (a sub‐group of young tourists was reached. Multivariate analyses were used to test whether position in the social structure and value orientation influence the travel need. The logistic models allowed youth tourism behaviour to be predicted. Findings – Respondents with a biospheric value orientation associate travel with being in contact with nature and chose rest as a motivation. This is highly interesting from a future perspective because biospheric values are considered the most stable antecedent of sustainable behaviour. Findings also highlight women's role as the sustainable tourists of the future: women harbour strong sustainability values and see travel as a growth opportunity. Research limitations/implications – This research focuses on travel needs because this is the most future‐oriented phase of the tourism experience, and on students because they tend to travel independently. Future research might include travel consumption and evaluation as well as non‐students in the sample to give a more balanced view on young tourists. Future research might also include values not related to sustainability to assess their relative strengths in influencing youth tourism. Practical implications – Both policy makers and industry could capitalise on the sustainability values

  14. [A study of work values, professional commitment, turnover intention and related factors among clinical nurses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuei-Ying; Chou, Chuan-Chiang; Huang, Jui-Lan

    2010-02-01

    The high rate of turnover in nursing positions is a global problem. There have been few studies done addressing the relationship between work values and nurse turnover intention. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between work values, professional commitment and turnover intention among clinical nurses. A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 1st to March 10th, 2008 on a convenience sample of nurses, all of whom had at least a half year of work experience at one of four teaching hospitals in Taiwan. A total of 289 valid responses were received, with a response rate of 96.3%. Major findings included: (1) Nurses who were older, had more years of school, had worked more years, held specific job duties, earned a higher salary, held Buddhist beliefs, or were married with two or more children presented higher work values and professional commitment and lower turnover intention; (2) As a group, total work values and professional commitment scores corresponded negatively with turnover intention scores; (3) Significant factors affecting turnover intent in clinical nurses included professional commitment, institution characteristics, Buddhist beliefs and salary. These four variables accounted for 52.2% of the variation in turnover intention. This study indicated that nurses with higher work values and professional commitment tend to exhibit less turnover intention. It is highly recommended to develop strategies to bolster the teaching of altruistic values and professional commitment in nursing education in order to reduce turnover intent. Also, further studies on the influence of religious beliefs and organizational attributes on nurse turnover intentions are also suggested.

  15. Subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Cheryl Tatano; Watson, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Nine percent of new mothers in the United States who participated in the Listening to Mothers II Postpartum Survey screened positive for meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder after childbirth. Women who have had a traumatic birth experience report fewer subsequent children and a longer length of time before their second baby. Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder impacts couples' physical relationship, communication, conflict, emotions, and bonding with their children. The purpose of this study was to describe the meaning of women's experiences of a subsequent childbirth after a previous traumatic birth. Phenomenology was the research design used. An international sample of 35 women participated in this Internet study. Women were asked, "Please describe in as much detail as you can remember your subsequent pregnancy, labor, and delivery following your previous traumatic birth." Colaizzi's phenomenological data analysis approach was used to analyze the stories of the 35 women. Data analysis yielded four themes: (a) riding the turbulent wave of panic during pregnancy; (b) strategizing: attempts to reclaim their body and complete the journey to motherhood; (c) bringing reverence to the birthing process and empowering women; and (d) still elusive: the longed-for healing birth experience. Subsequent childbirth after a previous birth trauma has the potential to either heal or retraumatize women. During pregnancy, women need permission and encouragement to grieve their prior traumatic births to help remove the burden of their invisible pain.

  16. Contradictory values in the process of organizational change: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojsa Janicijevic

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Values have always been perceived as a guide for action at both individual and organizational levels. By showcasing an example of one Serbian company, the paper aims to present how employees and managers collective values can be inconsistent and contradictory, as well as the causes and effects of such a state of company system of values. The research was conducted by applying a case study method in a Serbian company comprising both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The company was in the process of intensive organizational changes at the time of the research. The research has shown that it is possible for values of the employees and managers to be contradictory and that this contradiction is caused by radical changes both in the environment and in the organization itself. The research has also shown that this contradiction characterizes the Moving Phase in the process of organizational change, and that it is likely to disappear when company moves into the Refreezing Phase in the change process. The conclusions of this paper imply that the structure of collective values in organizations must be taken into account both in research and in practice of change management. Generalization of conclusions and implications is limited by the nature of the applied case study research method.

  17. A multinational study to measure the value that patients with cancer place on improved emesis control following cisplatin chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranitsaris, G; Leung, P; Ciotti, R; Ortega, A; Spinthouri, M; Liaropoulos, L; Labianca, R; Quadri, A

    2001-01-01

    The neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonists are a new class of agents designed to reduce the risk of emesis following chemotherapy, particularly with cisplatin. Early data from double-blind randomised trials suggest that an orally administered NK1 antagonist can reduce the absolute risk of acute and delayed emesis following cisplatin by 20 and 30%, respectively. To measure the value that patients with cancer place on improved emesis control and quality of life. Willingness-to-pay analysis. Five study sites in Canada, Italy, Spain and Greece. 245 patients with cancer either receiving chemotherapy with cisplatin or who had received cisplatin-based chemotherapy within the previous 6 months. After background information had been presented, patients were asked to define the maximum that they would pay per day for a drug that reduced their risk of acute and delayed (days 2 to 5) emesis by 20 and 30%, respectively. Costs were converted to US dollars ($US) using year 2000 exchange rates. For a 20% improvement in acute emesis, Canadian, Italian and Spanish patients with cancer were willing to pay $US46, $US34 and $US63 per day, respectively, compared with $US8 for patients from Greece (p < 0.001). For a 30% improvement in delayed emesis, Canadian, Italian and Spanish patients with cancer were also willing to pay more than their Greek counterparts (SUS41, $US31, $US50 and $US9 daily for 4 days, respectively; p < 0.001). These significant differences in patient value between countries remained, even after adjusting for socioeconomic variables and previous history of emesis. There are substantial cultural differences in how patients with cancer value benefit and improved quality of life. Since the majority of the world's population resides outside North America and Western Europe, there may be a need to re-evaluate perceived levels of patient benefit and measures of quality of life.

  18. Does ERP add company value? : A study for The Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, Lineke

    2010-01-01

    This study is dedicated to one of the main IT developments in the past thirty years, namely Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP). Thousands of companies have invested billions in ERP. The empirical support for the financial value of ERP implementations, however, is scarce. This led to the central

  19. The Intersection of Dominican Values and Women's and Gender Studies Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Tara M.

    2016-01-01

    The missions of Women's and Gender Studies programs coincide directly with Dominican values in their commitments to fostering compassion and justice. Just as Dominican clergy during the civil rights movement challenged false notions of biological, cultural, and social difference that contributed to racist practices, Dominican educators today…

  20. The Fashion Retail and the value creation with sustainable products: a multiple case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Alves Baptista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand how the development of sustainable products in Brazilian fashion retail businesses creates value for the companies themselves, society and the environment. A qualitative approach to multiple case study method investigates practices and processes at four companies from Rio de Janeiro State. The study collected primary information from direct observation and interviews with the firms’ directors, and secondary data from industry reports and other documents. Three overall dimensions of the study - environmental management, value creation and product development in fast fashion companies - encoded into seven categories, when considered in data crosssynthesis, elucidate the following conclusions: (1 the firms do not have economic, ethical and legal fields integrated view; (2 the companies do not believe that the fashion consumer market values environmental practices and thus not motivated to invest in practices and products; (3 a fragmented supply chain makes it difficult to control activities and appears as a major constraint to the development of sustainable products; (4 access to information on best environmental practices and tax incentives are important inductors’ mechanisms to leverage the development of sustainable products in the Brazilian fashion retail; (5 the development of strategic capabilities in pollution prevention area, management products and clean technology create value for the production chain.

  1. Measuring the Value of Succession Planning and Management: A Qualitative Study of Multinational Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeonsoo

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a model for planning and operating an effective succession planning and management (SP&M) program and measuring its value. The nature of the research is exploratory, following a qualitative approach using in-depth interviews. Representatives of multinational companies interviewed for this study revealed that succession…

  2. Value creation by knowledge-based ecosystems : evidence from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgh, van der W.; Cloodt, M.M.A.H.; Romme, A.G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Agrowing number of research and development-driven companies are located in knowledgebased ecosystems. Value creation by these ecosystems draws on the dynamics of single firms (interacting and partnering) as well as the ecosystem at large. Drawing on a field study of a Dutch high-tech campus, two

  3. Mind the Gap: A Case Study of Values-Based Decision Making in a Nonprofit Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jana L.

    2013-01-01

    Using an exploratory case study approach, this research examined the consistency between espoused and enacted values within a large nonprofit organization known as an ethical leader in the human services industry. This research explored ethical business culture, ethical decision making, deontological and utilitarian moral paradigms and learning…

  4. Corporate social responsibility and firm value: an empirical study of an emerging economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Hafez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A lot of researches have been done recently on Corporate Social Responsibliity ("CSR". A lot of studies have been conducted to test how CSR affects firm value and financial perfromance. Results varies from one study to another. Some proved that the realtionship is to be positve, or negative and others proved it to be neutral. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of CSR on firm value and financial performance in Egypt through the application on 33 companies that were listed in the EGX30 in the year 2001, with a timeline of 8 years from 2007 till 2014. Data used in this study is secondary data obtained from the financial statements and annual reports of the egyptian companies and offical online websites. We proved that CSR has a insignifcant negative effect on firm value and a signifcant positive effect on firm’ financial perfromance in Egypt measured by Return on Assets (ROA and Return on equity (ROE. This research paper is divided into five sections. Section one is the introduction followed by section two the literature review of CSR and its impact on firm value and financial performance. Section three covers the research methodology; section four presents data analysis and finally section five report findings and conclusions of the study.

  5. The strategic value of e-HRM: results from an exploratory study in a governmental organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from an exploratory study in a governmental organization on the strategic value of electronic human resource management (e-HRM). By applying the organizational capabilities approach, and by means of mixed research methods, data were collected on two generally acclaimed

  6. Empirical Study on the Relationships of Internet Banking Quality, Customer Value, and Customer Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umbas KRISNANTO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this conducted study was to test the direct and indirect effects of internet banking quality and customer value to customer satisfaction. This study uses descriptive analysis and multiple regression analysis to examine these relationships. The study is based on a survey conducted with respondents who use internet banking in their day-to-day activities, and all questionnaire items are deemed valid and reliable. For data analysis, the descriptive analysis for the indicators, dimensions, and variables proved to be in a good category. Research findings and implications of the regression analysis show that internet banking quality and customer value had a greater direct impact on customer satisfaction, rather the partial relationships of these variables to satisfaction. In the partial relationships, customer value has a higher influence on customer satisfaction, than internet banking quality. As a research recommendation, banks should provide a more humanistic internet banking service for better consumer satisfaction. A major research limitation of the study is that it does not measure service quality of internet banking, and only focuses on customers of internet banking use of one single bank. The originality of this research relies on the insights of internet banking quality leading to customer satisfaction and increasing the value of a bank to its main target markets.

  7. Perceptions toward the Value of Higher Education for Hotel Professionals in Las Vegas: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deel, Gary Lee

    2015-01-01

    This study concerns a qualitative investigation of the views toward higher education and its importance to hospitality career success among hotel professionals in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. Existing literature supported the premise that education may be important to professional career success in several different ways, and that values concerning…

  8. Human values and the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern: A panel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Ølander, Carl Folke

    2002-01-01

    In this study, data from a random sample of Danish consumers are used to test the hypothesis that the emergence of a sustainable consumption pattern is influenced by individual value priorities. By the use of a cross-lagged panel design and structural equation modelling it is possible to draw...

  9. Assessing feasibility of IT-enabled networked value consellations: A case study in the electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derzsi, Z.; Gordijn, J.; Kok, J.K.; Akkermans, J.M.; Tan, Y.H.; Krogstie, J.; Opdahl, A.L.; Sindre, G.

    2007-01-01

    Innovative networked value constellations, such as Cisco or Dell, are often enabled by Information Technology (IT). The same holds for the Distributed Electricity Balancing Service (DBS), which we present in this case study. To explore feasibility of such constellations while designing them, we need

  10. Attitudes and values expected of public health nursing students at graduation: A delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Mika; Takizawa, Hiroko

    2018-06-01

    The skills and knowledge of the competencies expected of public health nursing (PHN) students at graduation have been clarified; however, the attitudes and values have not yet been studied in Japan. The objective of this study was to identify and reach a consensus among experts on the attitudes and values expected of PHN students at graduation. This survey was conducted as a two-stage Delphi study. We selected the following experts: 248 teachers in the faculty of public health nursing at a university as academic experts, and 250 public health nurses who were also experienced clinical instructors as clinical experts. The round 1 mailed survey was conducted using a questionnaire about the necessity and importance of attitudes and values, and 211 experts responded (42.4%, clinical; n = 124, academic; n = 87). In the Round 2 survey, the experts consisted of 60.2% of the round 1 participants (clinical; n = 73, academic; n = 54). Descriptive statistics were used for multiple imputation. We identified a total of 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, and reached ≥90% consensus for most items (except for one). Regarding the expected achievement level at graduation, there was no difference between clinical and academic experts except for one item. Consensus was clearly achieved for 13 attitudes and values expected of PHN students, as well as importance and expected achievement level at graduation. In the future, it is important to examine strategies that can effectively develop these attitudes and values through basic and continuous education. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Study of biological value of beef produced by interspecies hybrids of domestic cattle and wild yaks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagirov, V A; Chernukha, I M; Lisitsin, A V; Zinovieva, N A

    2014-01-01

    The comparative study of the chemical composition and biological values of beef produced by hybrids of Angus cattle with wild yaks (hybrid beef) and pure-bred Angus cattle (traditional beef) has been carried out. Longissimus muscle samples were used for analysis. It was observed, that the hybrid beef samples had the practically equal protein content comparing to traditional beef (21.1 vs. 21.6 per cent) but were characterized by the lower fat content (1.2 vs. 2.5 per cent). The higher biological value of hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef has been shown. The value of protein-quality index, calculated as the ratio of tryptophan amino acid to oxyprolin and characterizing the ratio of high biological value proteins to low biological value proteins was 8.1 vs. 5.7. The values of amino acid indexes [ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) to non-essential amino acids (NAA) and ratio of EAA to the total amount of amino acids (TAA)] were EAA/NAA = 0.77 vs. 0.65 and EAA/TAA = 0.43 vs. 0.39. The protein of hybrid beef was characterized by the higher content of a number of the essential amino acids: by a factor of 1, 77 for threonin, 1.23--for valin, 1.09--for lysin, 1.17--for leucine and 1.19--for tryptophan. The amount of the essential amino acids in 1 gram of protein of the hybrid beef was 434.7 mg against 393.1 mg for traditional beef It has been shown, that the protein of the hybrid beef comparing to traditional beef is characterized by the higher values of the amino acid scores calculated for EAA.

  12. Patients’ perceived value of pharmacy quality measures: a mixed-methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mort, Jane R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe patients’ perceived value and use of quality measures in evaluating and choosing community pharmacies. Design Focus group methodology was combined with a survey tool. During the focus groups, participants assessed the value of the Pharmacy Quality Alliance's quality measures in evaluating and choosing a pharmacy. Also, participants completed questionnaires rating their perceived value of quality measures in evaluating a pharmacy (1 being low value and 5 being high) or choosing a pharmacy (yes/no). Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the focus groups and surveys, respectively. Setting Semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting space of an urban and a rural area of a Mid-western State in the USA. Participants Thirty-four adults who filled prescription medications in community pharmacies for a chronic illness were recruited in community pharmacies, senior centres and public libraries. Results While comments indicated that all measures were important, medication safety measures (eg, drug-drug interactions) were valued more highly than others. Rating of quality measure utility in evaluating a pharmacy ranged from a mean of 4.88 (‘drug-drug interactions’) to a mean of 4.0 (‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’). Patients were hesitant to use quality information in choosing a pharmacy (depending on the participant's location) but might consider if moving to a new area or having had a negative pharmacy experience. Use of select quality measures to choose a pharmacy ranged from 97.1% of participants using ‘drug-drug interactions’ (medication safety measure) to 55.9% using ‘absence of controller therapy for patients with asthma’. Conclusions The study participants valued quality measures in evaluating and selecting a community pharmacy, with medication safety measures valued highest. The participants reported that the quality measures would not typically cause a

  13. Physicians' personal values in determining medical decision-making capacity: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Helena; Trachsel, Manuel; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2015-09-01

    Decision-making capacity (DMC) evaluations are complex clinical judgements with important ethical implications for patients' self-determination. They are achieved not only on descriptive grounds but are inherently normative and, therefore, dependent on the values held by those involved in the DMC evaluation. To date, the issue of whether and how physicians' personal values relate to DMC evaluation has never been empirically investigated. The present survey study aimed to investigate this question by exploring the relationship between physicians' value profiles and the use of risk-relative standards in capacity evaluations. The findings indicate that physicians' personal values are of some significance in this regard. Those physicians with relatively high scores on the value types of achievement, power-resource, face and conformity to interpersonal standards were more likely to apply risk-relative criteria in a range of situations, using more stringent assessment standards when interventions were riskier. By contrast, those physicians who strongly emphasise hedonism, conformity to rules and universalism concern were more likely to apply equal standards regardless of the consequences of a decision. Furthermore, it has been shown that around a quarter of all respondents do not appreciate that their values impact on their DMC evaluations, highlighting a need to better sensitise physicians in this regard. The implications of these findings are discussed, especially in terms of the moral status of the potential and almost unavoidable influence of physicians' values. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Prognostic value of PET/CT in lung cancer. Study of survival and tumor metabolic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladron de Guevara, David; Fuentes Anibal; Farina, Ciro; Corral, Camilo; Pefaur, Raul

    2013-01-01

    PET/CT (Positron emission tomography/computed tomography) is a hybrid image modality widely used in oncology, for staging, therapy evaluation or follow up. Aim: To evaluate the prognostic value of PET/CT in lung cancer. Material and Methods: Retrospective review of PET/CT records, selecting 51 patients with a lung malignancy, mass or nodule referred for PET/CT between December 2008 and December 2010. All had pathological confirmation of malignancy and had not been treated previously. Age, gender, body mass index, radiological features of lung tumor and metastases, and lung tumor 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake using the SUV (Standardized uptake value) index were recorded. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox proportional regression analysis. Results: Pathology confirmed the presence of lung cancer in 47 patients aged 30 to 88 years. Four patients (7.8%) had other type of tumors such as carcinoid or lymphoma. Fifty percent of lung cancer patients died during a mean observation lapse of 18 months (range: 2-34 months). Patients with metastases, local lymph node involvement, a lung tumor size ≥ 3 cm and high tumor uptake (SUVmax > 6) had significantly lower survival. Occurrence of metastases was the only independent prognostic factor in the Cox regression. A lung lesion with a SUVmax ≥ 12 was always associated to hilar/mediastinal lymph node involvement. Conclusions: PET/CT imaging gives important prognostic information in lung cancer patients

  15. A Categorization Model for Educational Values of the History of Mathematics. An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-qin; Qi, Chun-yan; Wang, Ke

    2017-11-01

    There is not a clear consensus on the categorization framework of the educational values of the history of mathematics. By analyzing 20 Chinese teaching cases on integrating the history of mathematics into mathematics teaching based on the relevant literature, this study examined a new categorization framework of the educational values of the history of mathematics by combining the objectives of high school mathematics curriculum in China. This framework includes six dimensions: the harmony of knowledge, the beauty of ideas or methods, the pleasure of inquiries, the improvement of capabilities, the charm of cultures, and the availability of moral education. The results show that this framework better explained the all-educational values of the history of mathematics that all teaching cases showed. Therefore, the framework can guide teachers to better integrate the history of mathematics into teaching.

  16. A Value Measure for Public-Sector Enterprise Risk Management: A TSA Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Kenneth C; Abbas, Ali E

    2018-05-01

    This article presents a public value measure that can be used to aid executives in the public sector to better assess policy decisions and maximize value to the American people. Using Transportation Security Administration (TSA) programs as an example, we first identify the basic components of public value. We then propose a public value account to quantify the outcomes of various risk scenarios, and we determine the certain equivalent of several important TSA programs. We illustrate how this proposed measure can quantify the effects of two main challenges that government organizations face when conducting enterprise risk management: (1) short-term versus long-term incentives and (2) avoiding potential negative consequences even if they occur with low probability. Finally, we illustrate how this measure enables the use of various tools from decision analysis to be applied in government settings, such as stochastic dominance arguments and certain equivalent calculations. Regarding the TSA case study, our analysis demonstrates the value of continued expansion of the TSA trusted traveler initiative and increasing the background vetting for passengers who are afforded expedited security screening. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Card Sort Technique in Vocational Guidance/Career Counseling: Pilot Study about Career Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülin ACAR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and to pilot a not-test technique for assessing career and work values. This instrument was developed during a Career Counseling course taught by one of the authors of this paper. The first stage of development was the generation of a master list of career and work values, as reflected in the current literature related to theories and vocational research. From this master list 38 career values were selected resulting in the final deck that was used in testing. This deck of cards was given the name Career Values Cards (MEDEK and administered to a total of 75 high school students. Following administration each of the subjects was asked to complete a MEDEK evaluation form designed to assess reactions to the MEDEK experience. Results of the survey indicated that the MEDEK was an easy-to-use, understandable, and enjoyable technique to increase self-awareness and enhance insight, and a source of important information for students engaged in career counseling and career development by enhancing personal identification of personal career and work values.

  18. A “value for money” framework to study product competitiveness in the automotive market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. lo Storto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the value for money of a product is of paramount importance to get useful strategic information relative to market and technological trends and major determinants of technological innovation, and to conduct benchmarking studies and make comparison among competitive products. This paper note presents a methodological “value for money” framework to assess the market competitiveness of a passenger car. This framework uses both published data and industry expert judgements. In this framework, the value for money of a car is assumed to be dependent on the economic cost (i.e., price and fuel consumption that the consumer has to bear when using it, and on the car technical value (PTV which is built as a function of certain measurable features of the product. The framework is adopted to analyse a sample of 216 cars that were sold in the Italian domestic market between the 70s and the early 90s. The relationship between the car technical value, price, and fuel consumption is investigated using a translog regression equation.

  19. Diagramming Transactive Building Business Cases: Using Principles of e3 Value to Document Valuation Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Makhmalbaf, Atefe [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Marinovici, Maria C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Energy management in buildings is becoming more transactive. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Office recently defined innovative use cases wherein market-like mechanisms are used to manage energy within buildings, between buildings, and between buildings and third-party entities, such as power utilities. A next step toward defining a set of transactive use cases in the buildings domain is to carefully diagram the corresponding business cases to capture details of transactions among all stakeholders and their economic value propositions. The principles of e3-value diagramming are applied in this report toward creating business value diagrams. These principles are extended to be consistent with Universal Modeling Language use-case diagrams. Example diagrams are presented for a subset of buildings-domain use cases that were introduced in an earlier Pacific Northwest National Laboratory report. The diagrams are intended to clearly represent an understanding of the transactions through which individual entities accumulate value in their respective use cases, and the diagrams should therefore support economic valuation studies. The report reviews some of the foundational principles of e3 value and includes authors’ insights concerning the formulation of these diagrams using Universal Modeling Language as a more systematic modeling approach.

  20. Value dynamics and infrastructure reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    varying decision making contexts bear on the role of values and the handling of values. A number of theoretical explanations of value change are presented, from teleological explanations to pendulum dynamics and life cycle theories. The paper concludes with suggestions on how to deal with normative......This paper identifies the aspects of value dynamics in each of the previous papers: how the choice of institutional arrangements give primacy to some values and others not; the law and the market as separate dynamic forces; the different time horizons involved when studying value changes; and how...

  1. Press Start: the value of an online student-led, peer-reviewed game studies journal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Barr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, an online student journal is described, and the ways in which student participants value the journal are discussed. Press Start is a peer-reviewed international journal of game studies, which aims to publish the best student work related to the academic study of video games. Content analysis of qualitative survey data (n = 29 provides insights into what students value about the journal, revealing six broad themes: community and support, inclusiveness and accessibility, the published research, feedback from peer review, experience of conducting peer review and the opportunity to publish. The article concludes by suggesting that engagement with online student journals should not be limited in terms of geography or the level of study, unless there are robust pedagogical reasons for doing so.

  2. "I Want to Study Psychology": Vocational Interests and Values of University Preparatory Students with a Preference for Studying Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Franco, Vicente; Baena, Belén Charro; Prieto-Ursúa, María; Toro, Laura Bermejo

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the specific vocational identity of secondary school students whose first choice of degree program is Psychology. In particular, this study analyzes when their interest in Psychology began, the curriculum track taken in high school and their profile of vocational interests and values. Method: The…

  3. Measuring striving for understanding and learning value of geometry: a validity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubuz, Behiye; Aydınyer, Yurdagül

    2017-11-01

    The current study aimed to construct a questionnaire that measures students' personality traits related to striving for understanding and learning value of geometry and then examine its psychometric properties. Through the use of multiple methods on two independent samples of 402 and 521 middle school students, two studies were performed to address this issue to provide support for its validity. In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis indicated the two-factor model. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis indicated the better fit of two-factor model compared to one or three-factor model. Convergent and discriminant validity evidence provided insight into the distinctiveness of the two factors. Subgroup validity evidence revealed gender differences for striving for understanding geometry trait favouring girls and grade level differences for learning value of geometry trait favouring the sixth- and seventh-grade students. Predictive validity evidence demonstrated that the striving for understanding geometry trait but not learning value of geometry trait was significantly correlated with prior mathematics achievement. In both studies, each factor and the entire questionnaire showed satisfactory reliability. In conclusion, the questionnaire was psychometrically sound.

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL VALUES AND MORAL VIRTUES OF ENTREPRENEUR: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SLOVENIAN ENTREPRENEURS

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    Vasilij Mate

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the self-reflexion of Slovenian entrepreneurs to their own business activity, with a focus on their core values and virtues, which would consequently affect the performance, growth and development of entrepreneurship in Slovenia. The article starts with a theoretical understanding of organizational values and moral virtues of entrepreneurs and review of the recent empirical studies as the basis on which it is possible to achieve the explanation of the attitude of Slovenian entrepreneurs towards entrepreneurship. We have conducted our own empirical quantitative study on the representative sample of Slovenian entrepreneurs (n =114. Using the obtained results, we tried to verify the six hypotheses. We were particularly interested in those hypotheses that presuppose the entrepreneur who highly appreciates and respects the values and virtues of an ethical businesspearson in practice, will be more economically successful. Based on the results of our research we indicated that the Slovenian entrepreneurs are largely aware of the relevant organizational values and moral virtues, although this is not always obvious in their actions in everyday business practices. The article concludes with an interpretation of the results and discussion of the prospects and challenges for further exploration of the topics covered.

  5. Predictive values of thermal and electrical dental pulp tests: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Chávez, Carlos E; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Loyola-Rodríguez, Juan P; Zavala-Alonso, Norma V; Martínez-Castañón, Gabriel A; Medina-Solís, Carlo E

    2013-08-01

    For a diagnostic test to be useful, it is necessary to determine the probability that the test will provide the correct diagnosis. Therefore, it is necessary to calculate the predictive value of diagnostics. The aim of the present study was to identify the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy, and reproducibility of thermal and electrical tests of pulp sensitivity. The thermal tests studied were the 1, 1, 1, 2-tetrafluoroethane (cold) and hot gutta-percha (hot) tests. For the electrical test, the Analytic Technology Pulp Tester (Analytic Technology, Redmond, WA) was used. A total of 110 teeth were tested: 60 teeth with vital pulp and 50 teeth with necrotic pulps (disease prevalence of 45%). The ideal standard was established by direct pulp inspection. The sensitivities of the diagnostic tests were 0.88 for the cold test, 0.86 for the heat test, and 0.76 for the electrical test, and the specificity was 1.0 for all 3 tests. The negative predictive value was 0.90 for the cold test, 0.89 for the heat test, and 0.83 for the electrical test, and the positive predictive value was 1.0 for all 3 tests. The highest accuracy (0.94) and reproducibility (0.88) were observed for the cold test. The cold test was the most accurate method for diagnostic testing. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Empirical Study of China’s Provincial Carbon Responsibility Sharing: Provincial Value Chain Perspective

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    Rui Xie

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of global warming, China has vowed to meet a series of carbon emissions reduction targets and plans to launch a national carbon emissions rights trading market by 2017. Therefore, from the provincial value chain perspective, using input-output tables from China in 2002, 2007, and 2010, this study constructs models to calculate the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province under the production, consumption, and value capture principles, respectively. Empirical results indicate that Shandong, Hebei, Jiangsu, Guangdong, and Henan bear the most responsibility for CO2 emissions under the three principles in China, while Hainan and Qinghai have the least responsibility. However, there is a great difference in the proportion of carbon emissions responsibility for each province during the same period under different principles or different periods under the same principle. For consumption-oriented areas such as Beijing, Tianjin, Zhejiang, Shanghai, and Guangdong, the production principle is more favorable, and the consumption principle is more beneficial for production-oriented provinces such as Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, and Shaanxi. However, the value capture principle strikes a compromise of the CO2 emissions responsibility of each province between the production and consumption principles, and it shares the CO2 emissions responsibility based on the actual value captured by each province in the provincial value chain. The value capture principle is conducive to the fair and reasonable division of CO2 emissions rights of each province by sectors, as well as the construction of a standardized carbon emissions rights trading market.

  7. Does local endometrial injury in the nontransfer cycle improve the IVF-ET outcome in the subsequent cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF? A randomized controlled pilot study

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    Sachin A Narvekar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of repeated implantation failure despite transfer of good-quality embryos still remains a dilemma for ART specialists. Scrapping of endometrium in the nontransfer cycle has been shown to improve the pregnancy rate in the subsequent IVF/ET cycle in recent studies. Aim: The objective of this randomized controlled trial (RCT was to determine whether endometrial injury caused by Pipelle sampling in the nontransfer cycle could improve the probability of pregnancy in the subsequent IVF cycle in patients who had previous failed IVF outcome. Setting: Tertiary assisted conception center. Design: Randomized controlled study. Materials and Methods: 100 eligible patients with previous failed IVF despite transfer of good-quality embryos were randomly allocated to the intervention group and control groups. In the intervention group, Pipelle endometrial sampling was done twice: One in the follicular phase and again in the luteal phase in the cycle preceding the embryo transfer cycle. Outcome Measure: The primary outcome measure was live birth rate. The secondary outcome measures were implantation and clinical pregnancy rates. Results: The live birth rate was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to control group (22.4% and 9.8% P = 0.04. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group was 32.7%, while that in the control group was 13.7%, which was also statistically significant ( P = 0.01. The implantation rate was significantly higher in the intervention group as compared to controls (13.07% vs 7.1% P = 0.04. Conclusions: Endometrial injury in nontransfer cycle improves the live birth rate,clinical pregnancy and implantation rates in the subsequent IVF-ET cycle in patients with previous unsuccessful IVF cycles.

  8. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingsheng Hu

    Full Text Available Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy.Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety.From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m, respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127, diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127 and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127.In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  9. The Efficacy and Safety of Icotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Previously Treated with Chemotherapy: A Single-Arm, Multi-Center, Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xingsheng; Zhang, Li; Shi, Yuankai; Zhou, Caicun; Liu, Xiaoqing; Wang, Dong; Song, Yong; Li, Qiang; Feng, Jifeng; Qin, Shukui; Xv, Nong; Zhou, Jianying; Zhang, Li; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Shucai; Luo, Rongcheng; Wang, Jie; Tan, Fenlai; Wang, Yinxiang; Ding, Lieming; Sun, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Icotinib is a small molecule targeting epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase, which shows non-inferior efficacy and better safety comparing to gefitinib in previous phase III trial. The present study was designed to further evaluate the efficacy and safety of icotinib in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) previously treated with platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with NSCLC progressing after one or two lines of chemotherapy were enrolled to receive oral icotinib (125 mg tablet, three times per day). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The secondary endpoints included overall survival, objective response rate, time to progression, quality of life and safety. From March 16, 2010 to October 9, 2011, 128 patients from 15 centers nationwide were enrolled, in which 124 patients were available for efficacy evaluation and 127 patients were evaluable for safety. The median progression-free survival and time to progression were 5.0 months (95%CI 2.9-6.6 m) and 5.4 months (95%CI 3.1-7.9 m), respectively. The objective response rate and disease control rate were 25.8% and 67.7% respectively. Median overall survival exceeded 17.6 months (95%CI 14.2 m-NA) according to censored data. Further follow-up of overall survival is ongoing. The most frequent treatment-related adverse events were rash (26%, 33/127), diarrhea (12.6%, 16/127) and elevation of transaminase (15.7%, 20/127). In general, this study showed similar efficacy and numerically better safety when compared with that in ICOGEN trial, further confirming the efficacy and safety of icotinib in treating patients with advanced NSCLC previously treated with chemotherapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02486354.

  10. Where lean construction and value management meet

    OpenAIRE

    Musa, MM; Pasquire, C; Hurst, A

    2016-01-01

    The lean construction (LC) community’s key vision and goal is to provide value, yet they are increasingly challenged with understanding and dealing with the concept of value, with reports that value is one of the weakest points. Regardless of the previous studies and contributions already made on the concept of value in LC, the absence of a consistent understanding of value has resulted in misperceptions and indistinct boundaries with other construction value-related disciplines. Without a co...

  11. Frequency of low-value care in Alberta, Canada: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Finlay A; Lin, Meng; Bakal, Jeff; Dean, Stafford

    2018-05-01

    To determine how frequently 10 low-value services highlighted by Choosing Wisely are done and what factors influence their provision. This is a retrospective cohort study using routinely collected health data from five linked data sets from 2012 to 2015 in the Canadian province of Alberta to determine the frequency with which 10 low-value services were provided. Between 2012 and 2015, 162 143 people (4% of all 3 814 536 adult Albertans and 5% of the 3  423 135 who saw a physician at least once in that time frame) received at least one of the 10 low-value services, including 29.8% of Albertans older than 75 years (57 811 of 194 068). The proportion of adults receiving low-value services ranged from carotid artery imaging in 0.1% of asymptomatic adults without cerebrovascular disease, to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in 55.5% of men 75 years or older without a history of prostate cancer. Although age, Charlson scores and frequency of primary care visits were associated with low-value service provision, the directions of the association differed across services; however, higher socioeconomic status, increased frequency of specialist contact and higher ratio of specialists to primary care physicians in the patient's region were associated with an increased risk of receiving all of the low-value services we examined. The low-value services which resulted in the greatest costs to the healthcare system were cervical cancer screening in women older than 65 without history of cervical dysplasia or genital cancer, PSA testing in men older than 75 without history of prostate cancer and preoperative stress testing/cardiac imaging before non-cardiac surgery. Even within a universal coverage healthcare system, the proportion of patients receiving low-value services varied widely (from <0.1% to 56%). Increased use was associated with higher socioeconomic status, increased frequency of specialist contact and higher ratio of specialists to primary care

  12. Effect of a supplementation with myo-inositol plus melatonin on oocyte quality in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization cycles for poor oocyte quality: a prospective, longitudinal, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unfer, Vittorio; Raffone, Emanuela; Rizzo, Piero; Buffo, Silvia

    2011-11-01

    Several factors can affect oocyte quality and therefore pregnancy outcome in assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. Recently, a number of studies have shown that the presence of several compounds in the follicular fluid positively correlates with oocyte quality and maturation (i.e., myo-inositol and melatonin). In the present study, we aim to evaluate the pregnancy outcomes after the administration of myo-inositol combined with melatonin in women who failed to conceive in previous in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles due to poor oocyte quality. Forty-six women were treated with 4 g/day myo-inositol and 3 mg/day melatonin (inofolic® and inofolic® Plus, Lo.Lipharma, Rome) for 3 months and then underwent a new IVF cycle. After treatment, the number of mature oocytes, the fertilization rate, the number of both, total and top-quality embryos transferred were statistically higher compared to the previous IVF cycle, while there was no difference in the number of retrieved oocyte. After treatment, a total of 13 pregnancies occurred, 9 of them were confirmed echographically; four evolved in spontaneous abortion. The treatment with myo-inositol and melatonin improves ovarian stimulation protocols and pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with poor oocyte quality.

  13. Perhitungan Value at Risk Pada Portfolio Optimal: Studi Perbandingan Saham Syariah dan Saham Konvensional

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    Sri Astuti Heryanti

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain empirical evidence about the difference between the level of risk when investing stocks in the Islamic and conventional by using Value at Risk (VaR. The object of research including consistent stock in the Jakarta Islamic Index and LQ45. The analytical method used in this research is quantitative analysis consisting of the establishment of the optimal portfolio by Markowitz method, calculation of VaR and testing the differences with Independent sample t-test. This study indicated that the value every stock can be reduced by diversifying through the establishment of an optimal portfolio. Based on the calculation Independent sample t-test, it is known that there is no difference between VaR of Islamic stocks and conventional stocks.

  14. [A study on the diagnostic value of tear film objective scatter index in dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y D; Liang, Q F; Wang, N L; Antoine, Labbè

    2017-09-11

    Objective: To study the sensitivity and specificity of tear film objective scatter index to the diagnosis dry eye disease (DED). Methods: A prospective case-controlled study. Fifty-three patients with DED and 32 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included from July to October 2016. All subjects underwent the examinations sequentially as follows: evaluation of ocular surface disease symptoms using the Ocular Surface Disease Index, optical quality detection, lipid layer thickness, tear film breakup time and SchirmerⅠtest. With Optical Quality Analysis SystemⅡ, the values of modulation transfer function cut off, basic objective scatter index (OSI) and total OSI were measured. To eliminate the influence of other refractive media, the tear film OSI (TF-OSI) was calculated, and the difference in TF-OSI between two groups was analyzed with the independent-samples t test. Spearman's correlation analysis was used to detect the correlation of each parameter in the DED group. With the receiver operating characteristic curve and the area under the curve (AUC), the specificity and sensitivity of TF-OSI and other parameters were described to differentiate DED from normal eyes. Results: In the dry eye group, the value of modulation transfer function cut off (32.07±11.95) was significantly lower than the normal group (39.38±9.44, t=- 3.096, P= 0.003) , and the mean value and dispersion of TF-OSI (0.50±0.43, 0.52±0.81) were higher than the normal group (0.21±0.16, 0.12±0.01) ( t= 4.300, P= 0.000, t= 3.546, P= 0.001) . The mean value of TF-OSI had a positive correlation with lipid layer thickness ( r= 0.365, P= 0.007) and dispersion of TF-OSI ( r= 0.581, P= 0.000), and a negative correlation with MTF cut off ( r=- 0.368, P= 0.007). To the diagnostic value of DED, the mean value of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.736, a specificity of 0.762, and the AUC was 0.764. The dispersion of TF-OSI had a sensitivity of 0.811 and a specificity of 0.810, and the AUC was 0

  15. DEVELOPING VALUES FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS THROUGH THE STUDY OF ART OBJECTS

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    Maria Eliza Dulamă

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper begins with some issues related to aesthetics, aesthetic education, art and axiological education. The empirical research has the general assumption that secondary school students and youth have difficulties in selecting values. The objective of the research was three fold: to design, to organize and to carry learning activities from which students shall acquire educational values through the study of art objects. The exploratory research was conducted on a sample of 50 students (25 in experimental group and 25 in control group. The content sample included fairy-tales and short stories (Beauty and the Beast; The money earned by Alexandru Mitru and artistic topics on several well-known art objects (The Endless Column, Table of Silence, The Gate of Kiss, Peleş castle, Voroneţ monastery, and St. Michael’s Cathedral from Cluj-Napoca. The tested hypothesis stated that if secondary school students are involved in learning contexts where they perceive, analyze and explain artistic objects then they develop aesthetic and ethic values. The learning context students were exposed to represents the independent variable and the outputs – the educational values themselves – represent the dependent variable. In order to test for the hypothesis we planned a formative didactic experiment. In order to test the hypothesis the pre-test/post-test design was used.

  16. Reassurance as a key outcome valued by emergency ambulance service users: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togher, Fiona J; O'Cathain, Alicia; Phung, Viet-Hai; Turner, Janette; Siriwardena, Aloysius Niroshan

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing need to assess the performance of emergency ambulance services using measures other than the time taken for an ambulance to arrive on scene. In line with government policy, patients and carers can help to shape new measures of ambulance service performance. To investigate the aspects of emergency ambulance service care valued by users. Qualitative interview study. One of 11 ambulance services in England. Twenty-two users and eight of their spouses (n = 30). Users of the emergency ambulance service, experiencing different types of ambulance service response, valued similar aspects of their pre-hospital care. Users were often extremely anxious about their health, and the outcome they valued was reassurance provided by ambulance service staff that they were receiving appropriate advice, treatment and care. This sense of being reassured was enhanced by the professional behaviour of staff, which instilled confidence in their care; communication; a short wait for help; and continuity during transfers. A timely response was valued in terms of allaying anxiety quickly. The ability of the emergency ambulance service to allay the high levels of fear and anxiety felt by users is crucial to the delivery of a high quality service. Measures developed to assess and monitor the performance of emergency ambulance services should include the proportion of users reporting feeling reassured by the response they obtained. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Marolo (Annona crassiflora Mart.: a study of value chain and processing

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    Síntia Carla Corrêa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to discuss the needs and problems of marolo value chain, as well as to evaluate the rehydration process of this fruit as a possibility of using it as a by-product during the interharvest growth periods. The study of the value chain included interviews with producers, handlers, and fruit and by-product sellers. In order to evaluate the rehydration process of this fruit, marolo was dehydrated using a conventional procedure and freeze-drying. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design and a triple factorial scheme (2 × 2 × 6. ANOVA was performed, followed by the Tukey's test (p < 0.05. Regression models were generated and adjusted for the time factor. The precariousness of the value chain of marolo was observed. The best procedure for marolo dehydration should be determined according to the intended use of the dehydrated product since the water-absorption capacity of the flour is higher and convective hot-air-drying is more effective in retaining soluble solids and reducing damage to the fruit. These results aim at contributing to the marolo value chain and to the preservation of native trees in the Brazilian savanna biome and can be used to analyze other underutilized crops.

  18. Research of quality values and stability study of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate

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    Катерина Олександрівна Бур’ян

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of research. Stability is one of the main quality values of remedies. Biopharmaceutical properties of drugs and efficiency of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic processes of active compounds in human’s organism completely depend on physico-chemical values permanence and microbiological stability of every unit of drug. The aim of research resulting in the article was to determine the main quality values stability and microbiological purity of vaginal suppositories containing fluconazole and chlorhexidine digluconate after storage under certain conditions.Materials and methods. During both storage under room temperature and keeping in cool place vaginal suppositories prepared upon hydrophilic basis were periodically verified on indicators of description, identification, average weight and homogeneity of weight, dissolution, microbiological purity and active ingredients assay in unit dose. All research tests were carried out in accordance with both the SPhU requirements and elaborated draft of quality control procedures for «Flugedyn» remedy.Results. As a result of quality values study of suppositories test samples the efficiency and reliability of developed techniques and normative documentation draft of remedy were confirmed. Samples have been kept for as long as 5 years don’t comply with the requirements of normative documentation of remedy.Conclusion. Thus, summation of research data allow recommend following optimal storage period for vaginal suppositories «Flugedyn»: keep 3 years in dry place at a temperature 2 to 25 оС

  19. Values and beliefs of psychedelic drug users: a cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Michael; Lyvers, Michael

    2006-06-01

    Psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin are often claimed to be capable of inducing life-changing experiences described as mystical or transcendental, especially if high doses are taken. The present study examined possible enduring effects of such experiences by comparing users of psychedelic drugs (n = 88), users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs (e.g., marijuana, amphetamines) (n = 29) and non illicit drug-using social drinkers (n = 66) on questionnaire measures of values, beliefs and emotional empathy. Samples were obtained from Israel (n = 110) and Australia (n = 73) in a cross-cultural comparison to see if values associated with psychedelic drug use transcended culture of origin. Psychedelic users scored significantly higher on mystical beliefs (e.g., oneness with God and the universe) and life values of spirituality and concern for others than the other groups, and lower on the value of financial prosperity, irrespective of culture of origin. Users of nonpsychedelic illegal drugs scored significantly lower on a measure of coping ability than both psychedelic users and non illicit drug users. Both groups of illegal drug users scored significantly higher on empathy than non illicit drug users. Results are discussed in the context of earlier findings from Pahnke (1966) and Doblin (1991) of the transformative effect of psychedelic experiences, although the possibility remains that present findings reflect predrug characteristics of those who chose to take psychedelic drugs rather than effects of the drugs themselves.

  20. Perception of the economic value of primary care services: a Willingness to Pay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Gómez-Gascón, Tomás; Oliva-Moreno, Juan; del Cura-González, María Isabel; Domínguez-Bidagor, Julia; Beamud-Lagos, Milagros; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa

    2010-03-01

    Identify the economic value the user attributes to the visit to the family physician, in a setting of a National Health System, by the Willingness to Pay (WTP) expressed. Economic evaluation study, by the contingent valuation method. Questions were asked about WTP using a payment card format. Interviews were conducted with 451 subjects, in areas with different socioeconomic characteristics. An ordered probit was used to evaluate model's validity. Median WTP expressed was euro18 (interquartile range euro8-28), not including "zero-answers" of thirty-four subjects (7.5%). This value represents 2% of average adjusted family incomes. Patients with higher incomes or with chronic illnesses presented a probability of 5-14 percentage points of expressing a high WTP. For every point of increase of patient satisfaction, the probability of presenting a WTP in the lowest range decreases 7.0 percentage points. Subjects with a low education level and those older than 65 expressed a lower WTP. Accessibility, risk perception, nationality and having private insurance were not related to the WTP expressed. Users of primary care have a clear perception of the economic value of care received from the family physician, even in a framework of providing services financed by taxes and without cost at the moment of use. This value increases in subjects with higher incomes, with greater need for care, or more satisfied.

  1. Blood pressure reference values for European non-overweight school children: the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, G; Buck, C; Bammann, K; Hadjigeorgiou, C; Hebestreit, A; Mårild, S; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Vyncke, K; Ahrens, W; Moreno, L A

    2014-09-01

    To provide oscillometric blood pressure (BP) reference values in European non-overweight school children. Cross-sectional analysis from the IDEFICS study (www.ideficsstudy.eu) database. Standardised BP and anthropometric measures were obtained from children aged 2 to 10.9 years, participating in the 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 IDEFICS surveys. Age- and height-specific systolic and diastolic pressure percentiles were calculated by GAMLSS, separately for boys and girls, in both the entire population (n=16,937) and the non-overweight children only (n=13,547). The robustness of the models was tested by sensitivity analyses carried out in both population samples. Percentiles of BP distribution in non-overweight children were provided by age and height strata, separately for boys and girls. Diastolic BP norms were slightly higher in girls than in boys for similar age and height, while systolic BP values tended to be higher in boys starting from age 5 years. Sensitivity analysis, comparing BP distributions obtained in all children with those of non-overweight children, showed that the inclusion of overweight/obese individuals shifted the references values upward, in particular systolic BP in girls at the extreme percentiles. The present analysis provides updated and timely information about reference values for BP in children aged 2 to <11 years that may be useful for monitoring and planning population strategies for disease prevention.

  2. The study of business opportunities and value add of NFC applications in security

    OpenAIRE

    Niemelä, Harri

    2011-01-01

    Niemelä, Harri 2011. The study of business opportunities and value add of NFC applications in security access control solutions. Master´s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 59. Appendices 2. Since wireless technologies and electrical identification is already our everyday life, it is naturally to utilize latest technologies and in this case Near Field Communication technology to security access control purposes what we meet in our life at wo...

  3. A study of students’ travellers values and needs in order to establish futures patterns and insights

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Cavagnaro; Simona Staffieri

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – If the only viable future for tourism is sustainable tourism then ways should be sought to increase the demand for sustainable offers. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether sustainability values influence the travel needs of students. The aim is to discover cues in the present behaviour of young tourists that can enhance sustainable travel choices and therefore secure the future of the tourism industry. Moreover, the study provides a solid basis for predicting the future t...

  4. SHAREHOLDERS VALUE AND CATASTROPHE BONDS. AN EVENT STUDY ANALYSIS AT EUROPEAN LEVEL

    OpenAIRE

    Constantin, Laura-Gabriela; Cernat-Gruici, Bogdan; Lupu, Radu; Nadotti Loris, Lino Maria

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the E.U. based (re)insurance companies are increasingly active within the segment of alternative risk transfer market, the aim of the present paper is to emphasize the impact of issuing cat bonds on the shareholders’ value for highlighting the competitive advantages of the analysed (re)insurance companies while pursuing the consolidation of their resilience in a turbulent economic environment.Eminently an applicative research, the analysis employs an event study methodology w...

  5. Value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dysfunction in Chagas' disease

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    Perez Amanda Arantes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of the radiological study of the thorax for diagnosing left ventricular dilation and left ventricular systolic dysfunction in patients with Chagas' disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 166 consecutive patients with Chagas' disease and no other associated diseases. The patients underwent cardiac assessment with chest radiography and Doppler echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of chest radiography were calculated to detect left ventricular dysfunction and the accuracy of the cardiothoracic ratio in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction with the area below the ROC curve. The cardiothoracic ratio was correlated with the left ventricular ejection fraction and the left ventricular diastolic diameter. RESULTS: The abnormal chest radiogram had a sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 80.5%, and positive and negative predictive values of 51.2% and 79.8%, respectively, in the diagnosis of left ventricular dysfunction. The cardiothoracic ratio showed a weak correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.23 and left ventricular diastolic diameter (r=0.30. The area calculated under the ROC curve was 0.734. CONCLUSION: The radiological study of the thorax is not an accurate indicator of left ventricular dysfunction; its use as a screening method to initially approach the patient with Chagas' disease should be reevaluated.

  6. Studying the social construction of cancer-related fatigue experience: the heuristic value of Ethnoscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, Guendalina; Vegni, Elena; Barello, Serena; Olson, Karin; Bosio, Claudio A

    2011-03-01

    Patients' lived experience of illness and health is receiving increased attention in the medical field. Understanding patients' perspective and experiences is an undoubted asset for efficient health interventions and improved clinical concordance. Patients' experiences of care and cure, however, are influenced by the cultural setting in which these experiences take place. This implies that health interventions should be "ecological" and attuned to the specific sociocultural context of the patients. Our research group is conducting a cross-cultural qualitative study aimed ad exploring how fatigue (a symptom very common in cancer) is perceived and manifested by patients in different countries (Canada, Thailand, England and Italy). In order to achieve this, the study was design according to the method of Ethnoscience, that appeared to us the best suited to explore the meanings that patients attribute to their state and the linguistic patterns they use to describe it. In this paper we will describe in details the process of Ethnoscience and will discuss the heuristic value of this research approach. Ethnoscience was an effective research strategy for exploring how beliefs and values shape symptoms and the behavioural manifestations of cancer related fatigue. This paper discusses the heuristic value of Ethnoscience and its applicability to the study of health relate topics, particularly those where issues of social construction are important. Ethnoscience is a promising and innovative research approach, able to cast light on the way people experience and make sense of their illness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. How to Create Business Value through Information Technology (A Case Study on Automotive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Feizi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing information technology business value model in order to explain the value of information technology in business and evaluate information technology contribution in organization function. For the purpose of a comprehensive analysis of the subject using qualitative data, the research method was set to be mixed method focusing on qualitative sequential design. The first stage of the research strategy was an exploratory single case study and for the second phase, the researchers used focus groups design. Saipa Corporation, one of the most famous firms in Iranian automotive industry, was selected as the case. The varied qualitative date were gathered through interview, document review and observation methods and were analyzed afterwards. Ultimately, the findings of the study highlighted the items and dimensions of information technology business value. This model is composed of the relationship between different dimensions of the theoretical models regarding and the share of information technology in building a business. In order to ensure research generalizability, the results of the research were compared with those in the literature review and the theoretic adequacy of the proposed framework was confirmed.

  8. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemin Zhuang; Yonggen Luo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value....

  9. Investigating the Effect of Cultural Values on National Identity; (Case Study of Kerman’s Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Nassaj

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available National identity is the most comprehensive and important level of identity in all social systems, which is influential in all domains of culture, society and politics. Considering the significance of national identity as the most component of social order and integrity, the present study investigates the indices of national identity. Accordingly, the effect of cultural values on citizens’ attitudes towards national identity is to be studied. The present study is a survey research and the required data were collected via a researcher-made questionnaire. The population included the youth aged 16 to 40 years old in Kerman City, among whom 270 participants were selected as the sample size. The results of the research indicate that the degree of values of pluralism, patriarchy, power distance and avoidance of uncertainty are at relatively high levels. Furthermore, citizens’ national identity is at the moderate level. In addition, the findings indicate that the effect of variables of pluralism and power distance has significant effects on citizens’ national identity, and the coefficient and direction of the effect of this two variables on national identity is positive. In other words, participants who enjoy pluralist cultural values have more degree of national identity than those who have individualist characteristics and the first group are more likely to be located at higher classes of national identity than the second group. Also, the results indicate that participants who have cultural values with high power distance have more degree of national identity than those who have cultural characteristics with low degree of power distance. The findings indicate that variables of risk-taking and patriarchy have no significant effect on the degree of citizens’ national identity.

  10. Value of information analysis from a societal perspective: a case study in prevention of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H M; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    2013-06-01

    Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective. Until now, however, value of information analyses have usually applied a health care perspective for economic evaluations. Hence, the effect of productivity losses has rarely been investigated in such analyses. The aim of the current study therefore was to investigate the effects of including or excluding productivity costs in value of information analyses. Expected value of information analysis (EVPI) was performed in cost-effectiveness evaluation of prevention from both societal and health care perspectives, to give us the opportunity to compare different perspectives. Priorities for future research were determined by partial EVPI. The program to prevent major depression in patients with subthreshold depression was opportunistic screening followed by minimal contact psychotherapy. The EVPI indicated that regardless of perspective, further research is potentially worthwhile. Partial EVPI results underlined the importance of productivity losses when a societal perspective was considered. Furthermore, priority setting for future research differed according to perspective. The results illustrated that advise for future research will differ for a health care versus a societal perspective and hence the value of information analysis should be adjusted to the perspective that is relevant for the decision makers involved. The outcomes underlined the need for carefully choosing the suitable perspective for the decision problem at hand. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the value of ecosystem services: A case study from the Austrian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Paletto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services (ES are considered the conditions and processes through which natural ecosystems sustain and fulfil human life. In the decision making process related to the natural resources management, two key-aspects must be taken into account: the economic value of the benefits provided by ES (provisioning, regulating and cultural services and the spatial distribution of these benefits. The purpose of the paper is to develop a method aimed to capture the economic value of the benefits provided by ES, in order to support the decision makers in the natural resources management. ES are not homogeneous across landscapes nor in space. Consequently, gaining knowledge on the spatial distribution of the economic relevance of ES is a fundamental information to target management actions. This method was tested in a case study in the Austrian Alps (Leiblachtal area in Vorarlberg region, characterized by a high importance of forests and grasslands. The results show that the highest economic values could be achieved for the provisioning services with a range between 200 €/ha year and 1,400€/ha year. The regulating services have also important economic values, but strongly localized in specific areas (i.e. protective forests against natural hazards. The economic values of the cultural services are influenced by the preferences of tourists and varies between 5 €/ha year to 60 €/ha year. The method allowed us to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of provisioning, regulating and cultural ES, depending on the ecological characteristics of the site.

  12. Ibrutinib combined with bendamustine and rituximab compared with placebo, bendamustine, and rituximab for previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (HELIOS): a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanan-Khan, Asher; Cramer, Paula; Demirkan, Fatih; Fraser, Graeme; Silva, Rodrigo Santucci; Grosicki, Sebastian; Pristupa, Aleksander; Janssens, Ann; Mayer, Jiri; Bartlett, Nancy L; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Pylypenko, Halyna; Loscertales, Javier; Avigdor, Abraham; Rule, Simon; Villa, Diego; Samoilova, Olga; Panagiotidis, Panagiots; Goy, Andre; Mato, Anthony; Pavlovsky, Miguel A; Karlsson, Claes; Mahler, Michelle; Salman, Mariya; Sun, Steven; Phelps, Charles; Balasubramanian, Sriram; Howes, Angela; Hallek, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Most patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma relapse after initial therapy. Bendamustine plus rituximab is often used in the relapsed or refractory setting. We assessed the efficacy and safety of adding ibrutinib, an oral covalent inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), to bendamustine plus rituximab in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma. The HELIOS trial was an international, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 study in adult patients (≥18 years of age) who had active chronic lymphocytic leukaemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma with measurable lymph node disease (>1·5 cm) by CT scan, and had relapsed or refractory disease following one or more previous lines of systemic therapy consisting of at least two cycles of a chemotherapy-containing regimen, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-1, and adequate bone marrow, liver, and kidney function. Patients with del(17p) were excluded because of known poor response to bendamustine plus rituximab. Patients who had received previous treatment with ibrutinib or other BTK inhibitors, refractory disease or relapse within 24 months with a previous bendamustine-containing regimen, or haemopoietic stem-cell transplant were also excluded. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by a web-based system to receive bendamustine plus rituximab given in cycles of 4 weeks' duration (bendamustine: 70 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 2-3 in cycle 1, and days 1-2 in cycles 2-6; rituximab: 375 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycle 1, and 500 mg/m(2) on day 1 of cycles 2-6 for a maximum of six cycles) with either ibrutinib (420 mg daily orally) or placebo until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Patients were stratified according to whether they were refractory to purine analogues and by number of previous lines of therapy. The primary endpoint was independent review committee (IRC)-assessed progression

  13. Dynamics of values held by future sports teachers: a longitudinal study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics of personal values and values pertaining to the meaning of life held by future sport teachers was investigated. The two surveys used were the Rokeach Value Survey for identification of the most important personal values and the Leontiev Life Meaning Orientations Test for the evaluation of values pertaining to ...

  14. Creating patient value in glaucoma care: applying quality costing and care delivery value chain approaches--a five-year case study in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korne, Dirk F.; Sol, Kees; Custers, Thomas; van Sprundel, Esther; van Ineveld, B. Martin; Lemij, Hans G.; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore in a specific hospital care process the applicability in practice of the theories of quality costing and value chains. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: In a retrospective case study an in-depth evaluation of the use of a quality cost model (QCM) and the

  15. Testing the Value of Citizen Science for Roadkill Studies: A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Périquet

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Roads impact wildlife through a range of mechanisms from habitat loss and decreased landscape connectivity to direct mortality through wildlife-vehicle collisions (roadkill. These collisions have been rated amongst the highest modern risks to wildlife. With the development of “citizen science” projects, in which members of the public participate in data collection, it is now possible to monitor the impacts of roads over scales far beyond the limit of traditional studies. However, the reliability of data provided by citizen scientists for roadkill studies remains largely untested. This study used a dataset of 2,666 roadkill reports on national and regional roads in South Africa (total length ~170,000 km over 3 years. We first compared roadkill data collected from trained road patrols operating on a major highway with data submitted by citizen scientists on the same road section (431 km. We found that despite minor differences, the broad spatial and taxonomic patterns were similar between trained reporters and untrained citizen scientists. We then compared data provided by two groups of citizen scientists across South Africa: (1 those working in the zoology/conservation sector (that we have termed “regular observers,” whose reports were considered to be more accurate due to their knowledge and experience, and (2 occasional observers, whose reports required verification by an expert. Again, there were few differences between the type of roadkill report provided by regular and occasional reporters; both types identified the same area (or cluster where roadkill was reported most frequently. However, occasional observers tended to report charismatic and easily identifiable species more often than road patrols or regular observers. We conclude that citizen scientists can provide reliable data for roadkill studies when it comes to identifying general patterns and high-risk areas. Thus, citizen science has the potential to be a valuable tool for

  16. Environmental evaluation of high-value agricultural produce with diverse water sources: case study from Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Eric M.; Stokes-Draut, Jennifer R.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-02-01

    Meeting agricultural demand in the face of a changing climate will be one of the major challenges of the 21st century. California is the single largest agricultural producer in the United States but is prone to extreme hydrologic events, including multi-year droughts. Ventura County is one of California’s most productive growing regions but faces water shortages and deteriorating water quality. The future of California’s agriculture is dependent on our ability to identify and implement alternative irrigation water sources and technologies. Two such alternative water sources are recycled and desalinated water. The proximity of high-value crops in Ventura County to both dense population centers and the Pacific Ocean makes it a prime candidate for alternative water sources. This study uses highly localized spatial and temporal data to assess life-cycle energy use, life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions, operational costs, applied water demand, and on-farm labor requirements for four high-value crops. A complete switch from conventional irrigation with groundwater and surface water to recycled water would increase the life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions associated with strawberry, lemon, celery, and avocado production by approximately 14%, 7%, 59%, and 9%, respectively. Switching from groundwater and surface water to desalinated water would increase life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions by 33%, 210%, 140%, and 270%, respectively. The use of recycled or desalinated water for irrigation is most financially tenable for strawberries due to their relatively high value and close proximity to water treatment facilities. However, changing strawberry packaging has a greater potential impact on life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions than switching the water source. While this analysis does not consider the impact of water quality on crop yields, previous studies suggest that switching to recycled water could result in significant yield increases due to its lower

  17. Value of CT scanning in radiation therapy treatment planning: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goitein, M.; Wittenberg, J.; Mendiondo, M.; Doucette, J.; Friedberg, C.; Ferrucci, J.; Gunderson, L.; Linggood, R.; Shipley, W.U.; Fineberg, H.V.

    1979-01-01

    We report the results of a prospective study in which we assessed the value of computed tomography (CT) scanning in planning radiation therapy for 77 patients. First, conventional studies were performed, treatment fields were designed and simulated and, where appropriate, computer generated treatment plans drawn up. Then a CT scan was performed to delineate the location of the tumor and adjacent uninvolved tissues. The treatment goals and plans were reevaluated and changed when necessary. Forty of the 77 patients (52%) had their treatment changed as a result of the CT scan. Of these, four (5%) had a change of treatment modality. Thirty-two patients (42%) had changes in the radiotherapy technique because of inadequate tumor coverage (in 24 patients (31%) part of the tumor was outside one or more of the fields and in the other 8 patients (10%) the tumor coverage was marginal). Field changes resulting only from considerations of normal tissue coverage were made for 4 of these patients (5%). In total, normal tissue coverage was affected in 36 patients (47%). When the significance of these changes was evaluated, CT scanning was judged to be of major value for 28 of the 77 patients (36%) and of minor value in a further 12 patients

  18. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death: a Dutch observational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijn, Rick R. van; Beek, Erik J.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A.; Putte, Elise M. van de; Teeuw, Arianne H.; Nikkels, Peter G.J.; Duijst, Wilma L.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the NODO procedure and were therefore referred to one of the centres for the procedure. Postmortem CT was performed in all cases and skeletal survey was performed in all children ages <5 years. The cause of death was defined in a consensus meeting. We included a total of 54 children (30 boys, median age 1.1 years, and 24 girls, median age 0.8 years). A definitive cause of death was established in 38 cases. In 7 cases the cause of death could be identified on postmortem CT. In 7 cases imaging findings were clinically relevant but did not lead to a cause of death. In the remaining 40 cases postmortem CT did not add to the diagnostic workup. Our study shows that in a group of children who unexpectedly died of an assumed natural cause of death and in whom a cause of death was found at autopsy, postmortem CT detected the cause of death in a minority of cases (12.9%). In the majority of cases (74.1%) postmortem CT did not add value in diagnosing the cause of death. (orig.)

  19. The value of postmortem computed tomography in paediatric natural cause of death: a Dutch observational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam Zuid-Oost (Netherlands); Beek, Erik J.; Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan A. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Putte, Elise M. van de [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Paediatrics, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Teeuw, Arianne H. [Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Department of Paediatrics, Emma Children' s Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nikkels, Peter G.J. [University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Pathology, Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, Utrecht (Netherlands); Duijst, Wilma L.J.M. [Dutch Forensic Medical Association, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Collaboration: on behalf of the Dutch NODO Group

    2017-10-15

    Postmortem CT is a relatively new field of interest within paediatric radiology. This paper focusses on its value in cases of unexpected natural death. We report on an observational Dutch study regarding the value of postmortem CT in children with an assumed natural unexpected death because postmortem CT is part of the Dutch NODO (additional investigations of cause of death) procedure. We included consecutive children who fulfilled criteria for the NODO procedure and were therefore referred to one of the centres for the procedure. Postmortem CT was performed in all cases and skeletal survey was performed in all children ages <5 years. The cause of death was defined in a consensus meeting. We included a total of 54 children (30 boys, median age 1.1 years, and 24 girls, median age 0.8 years). A definitive cause of death was established in 38 cases. In 7 cases the cause of death could be identified on postmortem CT. In 7 cases imaging findings were clinically relevant but did not lead to a cause of death. In the remaining 40 cases postmortem CT did not add to the diagnostic workup. Our study shows that in a group of children who unexpectedly died of an assumed natural cause of death and in whom a cause of death was found at autopsy, postmortem CT detected the cause of death in a minority of cases (12.9%). In the majority of cases (74.1%) postmortem CT did not add value in diagnosing the cause of death. (orig.)

  20. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  1. Thromboelastography Values in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots ( Amazona ventralis ): A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Krista A; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Acierno, Mark J; Beaufrère, Hugues; Sinclair, Kristin M; Owens, Sean D; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    Thromboelastography (TEG) provides a global assessment of coagulation, including the rate of clot initiation, clot kinetics, achievement of maximum clot strength, and fibrinolysis. Thromboelastography (TEG) is used with increasing frequency in the field of veterinary medicine, although its usefulness in avian species has not been adequately explored. The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess the applicability of TEG in psittacine birds. Kaolin-activated TEG was used to analyze citrated whole blood collected routinely from 8 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ). The minimum and maximum TEG values obtained included time to clot initiation (2.6-15 minutes), clot formation time (4.3-20.8 minutes), α angle (12.7°-47.9°), maximum amplitude of clot strength (26.3-46.2 mm), and percentage of lysis 30 minutes after achievement of maximum amplitude (0%-5.3%). The TEG values demonstrated comparative hypocoagulability relative to published values in canine and feline species. Differences may be explained by either the in vitro temperature at which TEG is standardly performed or the method of activation used in this study. Although TEG may have significant advantages over traditional coagulation tests, including lack of need for species-specific reagents, further evaluation is required in a variety of avian species and while exploring various TEG methodologies before this technology can be recommended for use in clinical cases.

  2. Developing Tools to Counteract and Prevent Suicide Bomber Incidents: A Case Study in Value Sensitive Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royakkers, Lambèr; Steen, Marc

    2017-08-01

    Developers and designers make all sorts of moral decisions throughout an innovation project. In this article, we describe how teams of developers and designers engaged with ethics in the early phases of innovation based on case studies in the SUBCOP project (SUBCOP stands for 'SUicide Bomber COunteraction and Prevention'). For that purpose, Value Sensitive Design (VSD) will be used as a reference. Specifically, we focus on the following two research questions: How can researchers/developers learn about users' perspectives and values during the innovation process? and How can researchers/developers take into account these values, and related design criteria, in their decision-making during the innovation process? Based on a case study of several innovation processes in this project, we conclude the researchers/developers involved are able to do something similar to VSD (without them knowing about VSD or calling it 'VSD'), supported by relatively simple exercises in the project, e.g., meetings with potential end-users and discussions with members of the Ethical Advisory Board of the project. Furthermore, we also found-possibly somewhat counterintuitively-that a commercial, with its focus on understanding and satisfying customers' needs, can promote VSD.

  3. Anybody can do Value at Risk: A Teaching Study using Parametric Computation and Monte Carlo Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hsing Cheung

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are historical, parametric and Monte Carlo Simulation.Cheung & Powell (2012, using a step-by-step teaching study, showed how a nonparametric historical VaRmodel could be constructed using Excel, thus benefitting teachers and researchers by providing them with areadily useable teaching study and an inexpensive and flexible VaR modelling option. This article extends thatwork by demonstrating how parametric and Monte Carlo Simulation VaR models can also be constructed inExcel, thus providing a total Excel modelling package encompassing all three VaR methods.

  4. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu

    1989-01-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author)

  5. Fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Midori; Sakai, Rinko; Satoh, Shigekiyo; Maruyama, Kiyoji; Kanai, Masamitsu (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-06-01

    We have tried fundamental studies, reference values and relationship to menstrual cycle on Prolactin RIA BEAD II kit which has a method of IRMA using monocronal antibody. On clinical studies, we investigated change of serum prolactin level during the menstrual cycle and relationship to other hormones (LH, FSH, estradiol, progesterone). It was the result that prolactin level of follicular phase was lower than that of preavulatory phase and luteal phase. We conclude that change of prolactin level during the menstrual cycle is related with change of estradiol level. (author).

  6. Using the genome aggregation database, computational pathogenicity prediction tools, and patch clamp heterologous expression studies to demote previously published long QT syndrome type 1 mutations from pathogenic to benign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Daniel J; Lentino, Anne R; Kapplinger, Jamie D; Ye, Dan; Zhou, Wei; Tester, David J; Ackerman, Michael J

    2018-04-01

    Mutations in the KCNQ1-encoded Kv7.1 potassium channel cause long QT syndrome (LQTS) type 1 (LQT1). It has been suggested that ∼10%-20% of rare LQTS case-derived variants in the literature may have been published erroneously as LQT1-causative mutations and may be "false positives." The purpose of this study was to determine which previously published KCNQ1 case variants are likely false positives. A list of all published, case-derived KCNQ1 missense variants (MVs) was compiled. The occurrence of each MV within the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) was assessed. Eight in silico tools were used to predict each variant's pathogenicity. Case-derived variants that were either (1) too frequently found in gnomAD or (2) absent in gnomAD but predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools were considered potential false positives. Three of these variants were characterized functionally using whole-cell patch clamp technique. Overall, there were 244 KCNQ1 case-derived MVs. Of these, 29 (12%) were seen in ≥10 individuals in gnomAD and are demotable. However, 157 of 244 MVs (64%) were absent in gnomAD. Of these, 7 (4%) were predicted to be pathogenic by ≤2 tools, 3 of which we characterized functionally. There was no significant difference in current density between heterozygous KCNQ1-F127L, -P477L, or -L619M variant-containing channels compared to KCNQ1-WT. This study offers preliminary evidence for the demotion of 32 (13%) previously published LQT1 MVs. Of these, 29 were demoted because of their frequent sighting in gnomAD. Additionally, in silico analysis and in vitro functional studies have facilitated the demotion of 3 ultra-rare MVs (F127L, P477L, L619M). Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Joseph P; Rogers, Juan D

    2011-09-12

    Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their findings to the absorptive capacity of nonscholars. Greater absorption

  8. Engaging national organizations for knowledge translation: Comparative case studies in knowledge value mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers Juan D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Government sponsors of research and development, along with their funded investigators, are increasingly tasked with demonstrating evidence of knowledge use by nontraditional audiences. This requires efforts to translate their findings for effective communication. For technology-related knowledge, these audiences include clinicians, consumers, manufacturers, public policy agencies, and knowledge brokers. One potentially efficient approach is to communicate research findings through relevant national organizations. However, this requires an understanding of how such organizations view and treat research knowledge, which can be determined through knowledge-value mapping. Do knowledge values differ between national organizations representing different audiences? Can a deeper understanding of knowledge values help sponsors, investigators, and organizations better communicate research findings to stakeholders? Methods A series of comparative case studies on knowledge-value mapping were derived through interviews with spokespersons for six national organizations. The semi-structured interviews followed a 10-item questionnaire to characterize different ways in which each organization engages with research-based knowledge. Each participating organization represents a particular stakeholder group, while all share a common interest in the research subject matter. Results Each national organization considers the value of the research knowledge in the context of their organization's mission and the interests of their members. All are interested in collaborating with researchers to share relevant findings, while they vary along the following dimensions of knowledge engagement: create, identify, translate, adapt, communicate, use, promote, absorptive capacity, and recommendations for facilitation. Conclusions The principles of knowledge translation suggest that investigators can increase use by tailoring the format and context of their

  9. Residue Management of Biodiesel Industry: A Study of Value Creation in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Lima Altoé

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues, whether solid or liquid, are inherent to many industrial processes, and require specialized treatments. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the process of creating value in the supply chain, from the sustainable management of residues in the biodiesel industry. The methodological approach was a multiple case study, with the use of bibliographic data, documents and discourse analysis. Data were collected through interviews with managers of the companies analyzed. The findings suggest that residue management enables the creation of value in the supply chain of biodiesel. It is also noted that from this management, environmental preservation occurs, the incidence of fines is reduced or even eliminated, and there are still economic cooperation between the companies that have different activities but are a part of the supply chain of biodiesel

  10. A Value Function Approach to Information Operations MOE's: A Preliminary Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A value focused thinking approach is applied to information operations. A preliminary value hierarchy for information operations is constructed by extracting the values of senior military leadership from existing doctrine...

  11. Service user engagement in healthcare education as a mechanism for value based recruitment: An evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaslip, Vanessa; Scammell, Janet; Mills, Anne; Spriggs, Ashley; Addis, Andrea; Bond, Mandy; Latchford, Carolyn; Warren, Angela; Borwell, Juliet; Tee, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Within the United Kingdom (UK) there is an increasing focus on Values Based Recruitment (VBR) of staff working in the National Health Service (NHS) in response to public inquiries criticising the lack of person-centred care. All NHS employees are recruited on the basis of a prescribed set of values. This is extended to the recruitment of student healthcare professionals, yet there is little research of how to implement this. Involving Service Users in healthcare educational practice is gaining momentum internationally, yet involvement of service users in VBR of 'would be' healthcare professionals remains at an embryonic phase. Adult nurses represent the largest healthcare workforce in the UK, yet involvement of service users in their recruitment has received scant attention. This paper is an evaluation of the inclusion of service users in a VBR of 640 adult student nurses. This study used a participatory mixed methods approach, with service users as co-researchers in the study. The study consisted of mixed methods design. Quantitative data via an online questionnaire to ascertain candidates' perspectives (n=269 response rate of 42%), and academic/clinical nurses (n=35 response rate 34.65%). Qualitative data were gathered using focus groups and one to one interviews with service users (n=9). Data analysis included descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. 4 overarching themes were identified; increasing sense of humanness, substantiating care values; impact of involvement; working together and making it work, a work in progress. The findings from the study highlight that involving service users in VBR of student healthcare professionals has benefits to candidates, service users and local health services. Appreciating the perceptions of healthcare professionals is fundamental in the UK and internationally to implementing service users' engagement in service enhancement and delivery. Findings from this study identify there may be a dissonance between the policy

  12. Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Value Proposition Study: Interim Report: Phase I Scenario Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, Karen R [ORNL; Markel, Lawrence C [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Hinds, Shaun [Sentech, Inc.; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) offer significant improvements in fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits, and decreased reliance on imported petroleum. However, the cost associated with new components (e.g., advanced batteries) to be introduced in these vehicles will likely result in a price premium to the consumer. This study aims to overcome this market barrier by identifying and evaluating value propositions that will increase the qualitative value and/or decrease the overall cost of ownership relative to the competing conventional vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) of 2030 During this initial phase of this study, business scenarios were developed based on economic advantages that either increase the consumer value or reduce the consumer cost of PHEVs to assure a sustainable market that can thrive without the aid of state and Federal incentives or subsidies. Once the characteristics of a thriving PHEV market have been defined for this timeframe, market introduction steps, such as supportive policies, regulations and temporary incentives, needed to reach this level of sustainability will be determined. PHEVs have gained interest over the past decade for several reasons, including their high fuel economy, convenient low-cost recharging capabilities, potential environmental benefits and reduced use of imported petroleum, potentially contributing to President Bush's goal of a 20% reduction in gasoline use in ten years, or 'Twenty in Ten'. PHEVs and energy storage from advanced batteries have also been suggested as enabling technologies to improve the reliability and efficiency of the electric power grid. However, PHEVs will likely cost significantly more to purchase than conventional or other hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), in large part because of the cost of batteries. Despite the potential long-term savings to consumers and value to stakeholders, the initial cost of PHEVs

  13. Assessing value in breast reconstruction: A systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheckter, Clifford C; Matros, Evan; Momeni, Arash

    2018-03-01

    Breast reconstruction is one of the most common procedures performed by plastic surgeons and is achieved through various choices in both technology and method. Cost-effectiveness analyses are increasingly important in assessing differences in value between treatment options, which is relevant in a world of confined resources. A thorough evaluation of the cost-effectiveness literature can assist surgeons and health systems evaluate high-value care models. A systematic review of PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry was conducted. Two reviewers independently evaluated all publications up until August 17, 2017. After removal of duplicates, 1996 records were screened, from which 53 studies underwent full text review. All the 13 studies included for final analysis mention an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Five studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of technologies including acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in staged prosthetic reconstruction, ADM in direct-to-implant (DTI) reconstruction, preoperative computed tomography angiography in autologous reconstruction, indocyanine green dye angiography in evaluating anastomotic patency, and abdominal mesh reinforcement in abdominal tissue transfer. The remaining eight studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different reconstruction methods. Cost-effective strategies included free vs. pedicled abdominal tissue transfer, DTI vs. staged prosthetic reconstruction, and fascia-sparing variants of free abdominal tissue transfer. Current evidence demonstrates multiple cost-effective technologies and methods in accomplishing successful breast reconstruction. Plastic surgeons should be well informed of such economic models when engaging payers and policymakers in discussions regarding high-value breast reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle value proposition study. Phase 1, task 2, select value proposition/business model for further study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The objective of Task 2 is to identify the combination of value propositions that is : believed to be achievable by 2030 and collectively hold promise for a sustainable : PHEV market by 2030. This deliverable outlines what the project team (with inpu...

  15. THE VALUE CHAIN OF EXPORTED WHITELEG SHRIMP: CASE STUDY IN KHANH HOA PROVINCE, VIETNAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Anh Thi Nguyen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on systematic mapping and verification of benefit distribution among stakeholders in the value chain of white-leg shrimp in Khanh Hoa Province, Vietnam. The question is, can reorganization of small farmer groups enhance participation and efficiency of the value chain? Convenient sampling and face-to-face interview method were employed in 2014 and 2015 to solicit information from 100 shrimp producers, 10 middlemen and 3 exporters. Males account for 98 percent of small independent producers. There is an involvement of middlemen (middlemen type #1 and middlemen type # 2 in the chain. The middlemen are the drivers in the chain and engage in risk shifting on producers. The distribution of shrimp materials by middlemen type #1 to the processing plant is based on shrimp size. An alternate design to assist collective bargaining by unified small farm *groups shows in order to attain a sustainable value chain for white-leg shrimp, one should improve vertical integration and coordination among the market participants; and seek government intervention to build the image of Vietnam seafood in international markets.

  16. Experiences from implementing value-based healthcare at a Swedish University Hospital - an longitudinal interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Bååthe, Fredrik; Andersson, Annette Erichsen; Wikström, Ewa; Sandoff, Mette

    2017-02-28

    Implementing the value-based healthcare concept (VBHC) is a growing management trend in Swedish healthcare organizations. The aim of this study is to explore how representatives of four pilot project teams experienced implementing VBHC in a large Swedish University Hospital over a period of 2 years. The project teams started their work in October 2013. An explorative and qualitative design was used, with interviews as the data collection method. All the participants in the four pilot project teams were individually interviewed three times, with interviews starting in March 2014 and ending in November 2015. All the interviews were transcribed and analyzed using qualitative analysis. Value for the patients was experienced as the fundamental drive for implementing VBHC. However, multiple understandings of what value for patients' means existed in parallel. The teams received guidance from consultants during the first 3 months. There were pros and cons to the consultant's guidance. This period included intensive work identifying outcome measurements based on patients' and professionals' perspectives, with less interest devoted to measuring costs. The implementation process, which both gave and took energy, developed over time and included interventions. In due course it provided insights to the teams about the complexity of healthcare. The necessity of coordination, cooperation and working together inter-departmentally was critical. Healthcare organizations implementing VBHC will benefit from emphasizing value for patients, in line with the intrinsic drive in healthcare, as well as managing the process of implementation on the basis of understanding the complexities of healthcare. Paying attention to the patients' voice is a most important concern and is also a key towards increased engagement from physicians and care providers for improvement work.

  17. Economic Value Approach to Industrial Water Demand Management, A Case Study of Chemical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    morteza tahami pour zarandi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Limitations in water supply to meet the increasing demand have encouraged both planners and researchers to focus attention on water demand management, in which such economic tools as the water pricing system play a major role. A fundamental component of the pricing system is the estimation of the economic value of water, which reflects a firm’s maximum affordable water price or the ultimate elasticity of industrial water. The present study was conducted to estimate the economic value of water for basic chemical plants, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds (code 2411, representing the four-digit ISIC industrial codes which account for about 14% of the total industrial water consumption. The econometric method of production function within the framework of panel data and the residual method were used. Data were collected from the Census of medium-sized businesses carried out by the Statistical Center of Iran over the period 1997–2013.  Results showed that one cubic meter of water allocated to the plants surveyed creates a value of 3,7071 Rials, which shows a large gap with the current purchase price of 5685 Rials. Moreover, it was found that the present water prices account for only about 1.3 percent of the total production cost of basic chemicals, excluding fertilizers and nitrogen compounds. It may, thus, be concluded that it is reasonable to increase the present water tariffs and discriminate among the various manufacturing codes by differences in tariffs in order to achieve water demand management goals. Finally, the information emerging from the study may be exploited to improve the revenues earned by water authorities or to carry out feasibility studies of industrial water development projects.

  18. Value Stream Mapping as a tool for the optimization of production – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolczyk Jolanta B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the possibility of introducing improvements in processes concerning production logistics basing on the use of value stream mapping. An analysis of the current situation in order to identify waste and problems in the stream flow has been carried out. Subsequently, a future shape map has been drafted with a proposal concerning the manner in which future state ought to be achieved. The thesis is concluded with a general summary as well as conclusions regarding the studied subject and the proposals for further work.

  19. Functions and values of hunting and its management in Spain: scientific studies on the hunting community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Delibes-Mateos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We summarize information provided by some recent scientific studies in relation to the opinions, views and attitudes of Spanish hunters regarding hunting and its management. In particular, we discuss the different functions (economic, ecological and social that hunters attribute to hunting, as well as their moral judgements associated with the different motives for hunting. In addition, we explore how hunters value different game management tools (including predator control, releases of farm-reared animals and the regulation of hunting pressure, and we discuss how such valuations affect their decision-making. Finally, we assess potential future trends of hunting, as expressed by the hunters themselves.

  20. Study on the Sr-90 content in the spontaneous vegetations with fodder value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiciu, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the results of a study concerning the Sr-90 activity in the spontaneous vegetation with fodder value (grass on the natural hay), during the spring - summer season of 1988, 1989 and 1990. It was possible to obtain information from 17 sampling points located in different zones of the country, at different altitudes concerning: Sr-90 accumulation in the grass (Bq/m 2 ), Sr-90 concentration of the grass in fresh state and in preserved state (Bq/kg), as well as the variation limits of the Sr-90 concentration factor in the preserved grass by drying. (author). 4 tabs., 3 refs

  1. The predictive value of microalbuminuria in IDDM. A five-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almdal, T; Nörgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the predictive value of microalbuminuria and the annual increase of albumin excretion as risk factors for diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A 5-year follow-up of patients with microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion [UAE] = 30-299 mg/24 h) and matched...... patients with normoalbuminuria (UAE classification was based on one single 24-h urine collection. The annual increase in UAE was calculated by linear regression analysis of log-transformed UAE on time. This study was conducted at the outpatient clinic of the Steno Diabetes Center...

  2. Study on CNPEC's nuclear AE organization, its characteristics and industrial value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianguang; Kuang Wei

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies and analyzes CNPEC's AE organizational operation model and its characteristics in details to explore its value and contribution to the reform of Chinese state-owned enterprises. By building the design and construction integration platform, CNPEC integrates the resources of the nuclear industry chain to effectively ensure the whole performance, the safety and high quality of nuclear power plants under construction; by establishing the total quality partnership which focuses on the cross-border quality management and control, CNPEC enhances the quality management level of enterprises in the nuclear industry chain; by promoting the technology development cooperation, CNPEC improves the technological advancement of the whole nuclear industry chain. (authors)

  3. Which surgery should be offered for carpal tunnel syndrome in a patient who was previously treated for recurrence on the contralateral side? Preliminary study of 13 patients with the Canaletto® implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, I; Seigle-Murandi, F; Gouzou, S; Fabacher, T; Facca, S; Hidalgo Diaz, J J; Liverneaux, P

    2017-12-01

    There are no published studies on the management of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients who have already been operated for recurrent CTS on the contralateral side. The aim of this study was to evaluate 13 patients with CTS who underwent primary release using a Canaletto ® implant. The 13 patients had all been operated for recurrent CTS previously. On the contralateral side, they all had subjective signs, and two of them already had complications. All were operated with the Canaletto ® implant according to Duché's technique, in a mean of 20minutes. After a mean 19.3-month follow-up, paresthesia, pain, and QuickDASH scores were significantly improved, even in one patient who underwent revision at another facility. This preliminary study suggests that use of a Canaletto ® implant as first-line treatment for CTS in patients who already underwent revision surgery on the other side is a simple and safe technique, without worsening of symptoms. These findings should be assessed with a prospective randomized controlled trial. Copyright © 2017 SFCM. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Value engineering study for seletion of verticle barrier technology at a Superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, E.E.; Guglielmetti, J.L.; Butler, P.B.; Brill, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    A value engineering (VE) study was conducted to identify and evaluate vertical barrier technologies and alignments for a Superfund project in New Castle County, Delaware. The objective was to select and recommend the most appropriate vertical barrier(s) for two separate landfills and a portion of the manufacturing plant on the site. A VE team was assembled to identify and evaluate site specific issues related to effectiveness, constructability and cost for numerous vertical barrier technologies. Several cost-effective alternatives were identified that met project objectives. The VE study concluded that a composite vertical barrier system consisting of a soil-bentonite slurry trench and steel sheet piles would provide effective containment of the North Landfill. Additionally, the geologic confining unit specified in the Record of Decision (ROD) was found to be unsuitable as a vertical barrier key and a more suitable, shallow confining unit was discovered. This paper describes the value engineering process and results of the VE study for one of the landfills

  5. Demographic and psychological predictors of panel attrition: evidence from the New Zealand attitudes and values study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Satherley

    Full Text Available This study examines attrition rates over the first four years of the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study, a longitudinal national panel sample of New Zealand adults. We report the base rate and covariates for the following four distinct classes of respondents: explicit withdrawals, lost respondents, intermittent respondents and constant respondents. A multinomial logistic regression examined an extensive range of demographic and socio-psychological covariates (among them the Big-Six personality traits associated with membership in these classes (N = 5,814. Results indicated that men, Māori and Asian peoples were less likely to be constant respondents. Conscientiousness and Honesty-Humility were also positively associated with membership in the constant respondent class. Notably, the effect sizes for the socio-psychological covariates of panel attrition tended to match or exceed those of standard demographic covariates. This investigation broadens the focus of research on panel attrition beyond demographics by including a comprehensive set of socio-psychological covariates. Our findings show that core psychological covariates convey important information about panel attrition, and are practically important to the management of longitudinal panel samples like the New Zealand Attitudes and Values Study.

  6. The value of some Corsican sub-populations for genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vona Giuseppe

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic isolates with a history of a small founder population, long-lasting isolation and population bottlenecks represent exceptional resources in the identification of disease genes. In these populations the disease allele reveals Linkage Disequilibrium (LD with markers over significant genetic intervals, therefore facilitating disease locus identification. In a previous study we examined the LD extension on the Xq13 region in three Corsican sub-populations from the inner mountainous region of the island. On the basis of those previous results we have proposed a multistep procedure to carry out studies aimed at the identification of genes involved in complex diseases in Corsica. A prerequisite to carry out the proposed multi-step procedure was the presence of different degrees of LD on the island and a common genetic derivation of the different Corsican sub-populations. In order to evaluate the existence of these conditions in the present paper we extended the analysis to the Corsican coastal populations. Methods Samples were analyzed using seven dinucleotide microsatellite markers on chromosome Xq13-21: DXS983, DXS986, DXS8092, DXS8082, DXS1225, DXS8037 and DXS995 spanning approximately 4.0 cM (13.3 Mb. We have also investigated the distribution of the DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype which has been recently proposed as a good marker of population genetic history due to its low recombination rate. Results the results obtained indicate a decrease of LD on the island from the central mountainous toward the coastal sub-populations. In addition the analysis of the DXS1225-DXS8082 haplotype revealed: 1 the presence of a particular haplotype with high frequency; 2 the derivation from a common genetic pool of the sub-populations examined in the present study. Conclusion These results indicate the Corsican sub-populations useful for the fine mapping of genes contributing to complex diseases.

  7. Using the longest significance run to estimate region-specific p-values in genetic association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association testing is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes underlying complex diseases. Technological advances have yielded a dramatic increase in the density of available genetic markers, necessitating an increase in the number of association tests required for the analysis of disease susceptibility genes. As such, multiple-tests corrections have become a critical issue. However the conventional statistical corrections on locus-specific multiple tests usually result in lower power as the number of markers increases. Alternatively, we propose here the application of the longest significant run (LSR method to estimate a region-specific p-value to provide an index for the most likely candidate region. Results An advantage of the LSR method relative to procedures based on genotypic data is that only p-value data are needed and hence can be applied extensively to different study designs. In this study the proposed LSR method was compared with commonly used methods such as Bonferroni's method and FDR controlling method. We found that while all methods provide good control over false positive rate, LSR has much better power and false discovery rate. In the authentic analysis on psoriasis and asthma disease data, the LSR method successfully identified important candidate regions and replicated the results of previous association studies. Conclusion The proposed LSR method provides an efficient exploratory tool for the analysis of sequences of dense genetic markers. Our results show that the LSR method has better power and lower false discovery rate comparing with the locus-specific multiple tests.

  8. Wisdom of Generations: A Pilot Study of the Values Transmitted in Ethical Wills of Nursing Home Residents and Student Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Regier, Natalie G.; Peyser, Hedy; Stanton, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This is a pilot study that provides a description of the values older persons report in ethical wills and their reasoning for the values they chose, and compares the values in ethical wills of seniors and students. Nursing home residents rarely get the opportunity or venue to discuss these topics and the ethical will enables them to have…

  9. Personal and Interpersonal Value System, Self-Perception and Identity of Spanish Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa Iglesias, Marta Elena; de Bengoa Vallejo, Ricardo Becerro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to identify the predominant values system among a sample of Spanish nurses, to identify how values are tied to professional nursing identity and determine differences in values and identity between socio-demographic variables as a gender, citizenship and/or nursing service. Cross-sectional study was performed with a…

  10. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  11. Increasing value in plagiocephaly care: a time-driven activity-based costing pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inverso, Gino; Lappi, Michael D; Flath-Sporn, Susan J; Heald, Ronald; Kim, David C; Meara, John G

    2015-06-01

    Process management within a health care setting is poorly understood and often leads to an incomplete understanding of the true costs of patient care. Using time-driven activity-based costing methods, we evaluated the high-volume, low-complexity diagnosis of plagiocephaly to increase value within our clinic. A total of 59 plagiocephaly patients were evaluated in phase 1 (n = 31) and phase 2 (n = 28) of this study. During phase 1, a process map was created, encompassing each of the 5 clinicians and administrative personnel delivering 23 unique activities. After analysis of the phase 1 process maps, average times as well as costs of these activities were evaluated for potential modifications in workflow. These modifications were implemented in phase 2 to determine overall impact on visit-time and costs of care. Improvements in patient education, workflow coordination, and examination room allocation were implemented during phase 2, resulting in a reduced patient visit-time of 13:25 (19.9% improvement) and an increased cost of $8.22 per patient (7.7% increase) due to changes in physician process times. However, this increased cost was directly offset by the availability of 2 additional appointments per day, potentially generating $7904 of additional annual revenue. Quantifying the impact of a 19.9% reduction in patient visit-time at an increased cost of 7.7% resulted in an increased value ratio of 1.113. This pilot study effectively demonstrates the novel use of time-driven activity-based costing in combination with the value equation as a metric for continuous process improvement programs within the health care setting.

  12. Fostering young children's interest in numeracy through demonstration of its value: the Footsteps Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Yeshe

    2017-07-01

    Children's early mathematical abilities are fundamental to their later academic achievement. An interest in mathematics in the early years is likely to establish a positive attitude to later mathematical learning, hopefully sustaining continued interest in mathematics and mathematical learning. Approaches to early mathematics teaching in the early years, however, are typically adult-initiated, which may fail to capture children's interest. Given the importance of children's motivation and sustained interest, the study described here strove to spark children's interests in mathematical problems in everyday life. The study sought to determine if children would incorporate more numeracy-related concepts into their free play if exposed to adult demonstrations of age-appropriate numeracy activities such as patterning. For at least 15 min three times weekly, participating children's parents and educators demonstrated numeracy problem-solving nearby, while children engaged in other activities. Demonstrations were thought to ascribe social value to the problem-solving activities. If children became interested in participating, adults told them to wait until the demonstrations finished, further indicating social value. Results show these children chose to play with numeracy-related activities in their free play time at preschool significantly more than children in a control group. These results suggest that seeking to foster children's interest in mathematics through child-initiated play, rather than prescribing adult-initiated mathematics activities, may be an important means of laying the foundation for lifelong mathematics learning. Ascribing social value to numeracy applications is proposed as a new approach to teaching mathematics in the early years.

  13. Creating patient value in glaucoma care: applying quality costing and care delivery value chain approaches--a five-year case study in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Korne, Dirk F; Sol, Kees; Custers, Thomas; van Sprundel, Esther; van Ineveld, B Martin; Lemij, Hans G; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore in a specific hospital care process the applicability in practice of the theories of quality costing and value chains. In a retrospective case study an in-depth evaluation of the use of a quality cost model (QCM) and the applicability of Porter's care delivery value chain (CDVC) was performed in a specific care process: glaucoma care over the period 2001 to 2006 in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital in The Netherlands. The case study shows a reduction of costs per product by increasing the number of outpatient visits and surgery combined with a higher patient satisfaction. Reduction of costs of non-compliance by using the QCM is small, due to the absence of (external) financial incentives for both the hospital and individual physicians. For CDVC to be supportive to an integrated quality and cost management the notion "patient value" needs far more specification as mutually agreed on by the stakeholders involved and related reimbursement needs to depend on realised outcomes. The case study just focused on one specific care process in one hospital. To determine effects in other areas of health care, it is important to study the use and applicability of the QCM and the CDVC in other care processes and settings. QCM and a CDVC can be useful tools for hospital management to manage the outcomes on both quality and costs, but impact is dependent on the incentives in the context of the existing organisational and reimbursement system and asks for an agreed on operationalisation among the various stakeholders of the notion of patient value.

  14. Studies on the preparation of value-added products for industrial minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report consists of 2 subjects. 1) Studies on the preparation of value-added products for limestone: This study has investigated to raise to high grade by economical processes with low grade of domestic limestone. We investigated the status of application utilize and related industries with the domestic limestone, and then being consideration with condition selected the adequate sample from Andong, Jungsun and Kumsan area. Magnetic materials were involved in impurities of sample, so magnetic separation method was applied in elimination of the ferro- and para-magnetic materials, such as chlorite, muscovite, quartz, dolomite, magnetite, feldspar and so on. Investigation of flotation was undertaken to eliminate impurities from limestone crude ore and the tests were performed to get a optimum condition adding oleic acid as a promoter, sodium silicate and sodium carbonate as a conditioning agents and MIBC as a frother, while to float the sulfide minerals added amyl xanthate as a promoter, and sulfuric acid as a pH regulator. Selective crushing and classification methods were performed to eliminate impurities depends on the mineral properties and should be the selective crushing methods are very useful at the manufacturing factory of heavy calcium carbonate with the dry milling system. 2) A study on development of value added technology of pyrophyllite and dickite: Pyrophyllite and dickite have being utilized as refractories, ceramics, cement, fiber glass, paper, rubber, paints etc. However, there are not any domestic companies to produce fillers of pyrophyllite and dickite for plastic and rubber. Moreover, several kinds of fillers are imported every year with expensive price for plastic and rubber filler. This study has purpose to develop manufacturing technologies to produce fillers for plastic and rubber of pyrophyllite and dickite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of samples, the optimum grinding condition and device for producing plastic fillers and

  15. Experimental approaches to study the nutritional value of food ingredients for dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Harmon

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This review covers methods that have been applied to study the nutrient value or quality of specific ingredients fed to dogs, cats and comparable species (i.e. foxes, minks, rats, etc.. Typically, the nutritional value or utilization of a specific ingredient is measured by total tract digestibility and has been expanded through the measurement of total nutrient balance (i.e. nitrogen or energy. However, to better understand digestion it is necessary to obtain a more accurate measurement of nutrients entering and leaving the small intestine. Accurate measurement of small intestinal digestion is crucial in dogs and cats because nutrient digestion and absorption occurs primarily in the small intestine. Measuring small intestinal digestibility requires access to digesta leaving the small intestine and can be obtained by placing a cannula at the terminal ileum. This approach also necessitates the use of markers (e.g. chromic oxide to monitor flow of digesta. Specifically, this approach has been used for the direct measurement of intestinal digestion of carbohydrates and amino acids. It also permits a separate measurement of large intestinal digestion which is particularly useful for the study of fiber fermentation. Passage of foods through the gastrointestinal tract is also an important component of utilization and these methods are reviewed.

  16. Dual Class Firms: A Study on the Impact Value of Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Grando

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available From the ‘Agency Theory' and the conflict of interest assumption the aim of this study is verify the impact of the use of two classes of shares (dual class on the value in brazilian companies. The sample consisted of non-financial traded companies, with concentrated ownership structure, data are available in Economática®, totaling 354 companies and 1,915 observations. The data refer to the period 2005 to 2012. It terms of methodology, to research the hypothesis of the study it was used a regression by ordinary least squares, with panel data. The results indicate that companies using two classes of shares, such as separation mechanism between the cash flow and the equity control, have lower value then the ones not using such a mechanism. Additionally, it can be inferred that the governance levels and the higher dividend payment policy in the preferred shares are not able to mitigate the higher level of conflicts of interest and agency costs in dual class companies.

  17. The perceived value of dairy product traceability in modern society: An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlebois, Sylvain; Haratifar, Sanaz

    2015-05-01

    The current study assessed the perceived value of food traceability in modern society by young consumers. After experiencing numerous recalls and food safety-related incidences, consumers are increasingly aware of the tools available to mitigate risks. Food traceability has been associated with food safety procedures for many years, but recent high-profile cases of food fraud around the world have given traceability a different strategic purpose. Focusing solely on dairy products, our survey results offer a glimpse of consumer perceptions of traceability as a means to preserve food integrity and authenticity. This study explored the various influences that market-oriented traceability has had on dairy consumers. For example, results show that if the dairy sector could guarantee that their product is in fact organic, 53.8% of respondents who often purchase organic milk would consider always purchasing traceable organic milk. This research produced a quantitative set of information related to the perceived value of food traceability, which could be useful for the creation and development of improved guidelines and better education for consumers. We discuss limitations and suggest areas for new research. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Underestimation of Severity of Previous Whiplash Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqui, SZH; Lovell, SJ; Lovell, ME

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION We noted a report that more significant symptoms may be expressed after second whiplash injuries by a suggested cumulative effect, including degeneration. We wondered if patients were underestimating the severity of their earlier injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS We studied recent medicolegal reports, to assess subjects with a second whiplash injury. They had been asked whether their earlier injury was worse, the same or lesser in severity. RESULTS From the study cohort, 101 patients (87%) felt that they had fully recovered from their first injury and 15 (13%) had not. Seventy-six subjects considered their first injury of lesser severity, 24 worse and 16 the same. Of the 24 that felt the violence of their first accident was worse, only 8 had worse symptoms, and 16 felt their symptoms were mainly the same or less than their symptoms from their second injury. Statistical analysis of the data revealed that the proportion of those claiming a difference who said the previous injury was lesser was 76% (95% CI 66–84%). The observed proportion with a lesser injury was considerably higher than the 50% anticipated. CONCLUSIONS We feel that subjects may underestimate the severity of an earlier injury and associated symptoms. Reasons for this may include secondary gain rather than any proposed cumulative effect. PMID:18201501

  19. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year is associated with a significant protective effect for travellers' diarrhoea: a prospective observational cohort study in travellers to South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuenzli, Esther; Juergensen, David; Kling, Kerstin; Jaeger, Veronika K; DeCrom, Susan; Steffen, Robert; Widmer, Andreas F; Battegay, Manuel; Hatz, Christoph; Neumayr, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Travellers' diarrhoea is the most common health problem in travellers. Depending on the region visited, up to 40% of travellers develop diarrhoea during a 2-week trip. The aim of this study was to assess risk factors for TD among travellers to the Indian subcontinent. An observational prospective multicentre cohort study investigated travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Participants completed questionnaires assessing the incidence of travellers' diarrhoea and identifying potential risk factors. Covariates were assessed univariately, followed by a multivariate regression. Two-hundred and twenty-six travellers were enrolled into the study, 178 filled in both pre- and post-travel questionnaires. Overall, the attack rate of travellers' diarrhoea was 38.2%. Travel destination is a key risk factor for the occurrence of TD. Travelling to India or Nepal vs Bhutan is associated with an increased risk for TD (OR 6.68 and 6.62, respectively). A length of stay of more than 3 weeks compared to less than 2 weeks is also associated with a significantly increased risk (OR 5.45). Having stayed in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year before the current trip is associated with a significantly decreased risk (OR 0.19). No association was found between consumption of high risk food (i.e. tap water, ice cream, raw meat and hamburgers) and travellers' diarrhoea. Travellers' diarrhoea is a frequent problem in travellers to the Indian subcontinent. Previous exposure in a high-risk area for travellers' diarrhoea within the past year appears to have a significant protective effect. Furthermore, an association between the occurrence of travellers' diarrhoea and travel destination and length of stay, respectively, was observed. Consumption of risk food did not confer a TD risk in our study. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Myocardial adaption to HI(R)T in previously untrained men with a randomized, longitudinal cardiac MR imaging study (Physical adaptions in Untrained on Strength and Heart trial, PUSH-trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Michael; Oezdemir, Derya; Schmid, Axel; Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; May, Matthias S; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael M

    2017-01-01

    Although musculoskeletal effects in resistance training are well described, little is known about structural and functional cardiac adaption in formerly untrained subjects. We prospectively evaluated whether short term high intensity (resistance) training (HI(R)T) induces detectable morphologic cardiac changes in previously untrained men in a randomized controlled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. 80 untrained middle-aged men were randomly assigned to a HI(R)T-group (n = 40; 43.5±5.9 years) or an inactive control group (n = 40; 42.0±6.3 years). HI(R)T comprised 22 weeks of training focusing on a single-set to failure protocol in 2-3 sessions/week, each with 10-13 exercises addressing main muscle groups. Repetitions were decreased from 8-10 to 3-5 during study period. Before and after HI(R)T all subjects underwent physiologic examination and cardiac MRI (cine imaging, tagging). Indexed left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volume (LV: 76.8±15.6 to 78.7±14.8 ml/m2; RV: 77.0±15.5 to 78.7±15.1 ml/m2) and mass (LV: 55.5±9.7 to 57.0±8.8 g/m2; RV: 14.6±3.0 to 15.0±2.9 g/m2) significantly increased with HI(R)T (all pHI(R)T-group did not alter with training (0.73g/mL and 0.19g/mL, respectively [p = 0.96 and p = 0.87]), indicating balanced cardiac adaption. Indexed LV (48.4±11.1 to 50.8±11.0 ml/m2) and RV (48.5±11.0 to 50.6±10.7 ml/m2) stroke volume significantly increased with HI(R)T (pHI(R)T (36.2±7.9 to 37.0±8.4 ml/m2, p = 0.411), the ratio to end-diastolic LV volume at baseline and post-training was unchanged (0.47 vs. 0.47, p = 0.79). 22 weeks of HI(R)T lead to measurable, physiological changes in cardiac atrial and ventricular morphologic characteristics and function in previously untrained men. The PUSH-trial is registered at the US National Institutes of Health (ClinicalTrials.gov), NCT01766791.

  1. A Credit Union Case Study of the Business Value of IS/IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Pervan

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the business value of IS/IT investments in the Financial Services Sectors (FSS in Australia using a case study methodology to develop and refine a conceptual model of the relationship between IS/IT investment and organisational performance. The conceptual model has four main components, IS/IT investment, organisational performance, considerations for strategic information systems planning and managerial effectiveness. A case study of a credit union indicates support for components of the conceptual model. Further, the analysis reveals the existence of intermediary factors, operations, product delivery, customer service and staff. It is concluded that directing IS/IT investments to these areas, particularly when it is done in concert, is most likely to have a positive impact on organisational performance. Lastly, debate on the issue of an IS/IT investment threshold and its applicability to organisations is presented.

  2. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  3. Public–private partnerships value in bioenergy projects: Economic feasibility analysis based on two case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantozzi, Francesco; Bartocci, Pietro; D'Alessandro, Bruno; Arampatzis, Stratos; Manos, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Greece and Italy are facing serious energy challenges concerning sustainability and greenhouse gas emissions as well as security of supply and the competitiveness of the internal energy market. These challenges require investments by the public sector, while the countries have seen in the last years their debts rising. A solution to promote bioenergy business, without rising public debt, could be the use of PPP (Public–Private Partnership). This paper presents a methodology to develop agro-energy business using PPP in two rural areas: the municipality of Evropos (in Greece) and the municipality of Montefalco (in Italy). At first biomass availability is studied, then the optimal technology is selected. Once technological issues have been analyzed PPP value for money has to be assessed. Conventional methods to evaluate economic viability of a project are not enough and a Public-Sector Comparator (PSC) has to be calculated. Typical risks of bioenergy projects are identified, estimating their probabilities and consequences. This will lead to associate a monetary value to each risk. Then the identified risks are allocated among private and public partners, establishing synergies. The allocation of risks will have consequences on the preparation of PPP contract and on partner selection procedure. - Highlights: • PPPs can control or reduce risks in bioenergy business. • Development of a methodology for risk allocation in bioenergy projects. • Development of a methodology for risk valuing in bioenergy projects. • A Public-Sector Comparator has been realized for an agro-energy PPP. • Risk allocation has to be clearly indicated in PPP contract

  4. Pulse radiolysis study of supercritical water-G-value measurement up to 450 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsumura, Y.

    2006-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the understanding of water radiolysis at elevated temperatures is inevitably important in the field of water chemistry in light water reactors because water radiolysis is closely related to many subjects such as hydrogen water chemistry (H 2 injection), SCC (stress corrosion cracking), dose accumulation and so on. This situation would also be applied to the future reactor using supercritical water (>374 C, 22.1MPa) as a coolant, so called supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR). Therefore, it is important to investigate water radiolysis of supercritical water. In 1989 Prof. Oka, University of Tokyo, proposed the SCWR as a future reactor and done much design study. This reactor has many advantages such as high energy efficiency, applicability of experience accumulated in light water reactors and supercritical fissile plant, and compact structure. In 2002 the Department of Energy in USA has selected the SCWR as one of the six Generation IV reactors and fundamental research has started in different countries as a national or an international project. In the present research G-values of water radiolysis have been measured by using a pulse radiolysis method up to 450 degree C to obtain the fundamental data relevant to the development of the SCWR. In supercritical water, the pressure controls the density of water easily and it was found that the G-values are strongly dependent not only on temperature but also on density in supercritical water. After presentation of experimental method and its difficulties, temperature and density dependent G-values of water decomposition products in supercritical water would be summarized. (authors)

  5. Study of activity based costing implementation for palm oil production using value-added and non-value-added activity consideration in PT XYZ palm oil mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, M. T.; Wahyuni, D.; Sinaga, T. S.; Silaban, A.

    2018-02-01

    Cost allocation at manufacturing industry particularly in Palm Oil Mill still widely practiced based on estimation. It leads to cost distortion. Besides, processing time determined by company is not in accordance with actual processing time in work station. Hence, the purpose of this study is to eliminates non-value-added activities therefore processing time could be shortened and production cost could be reduced. Activity Based Costing Method is used in this research to calculate production cost with Value Added and Non-Value-Added Activities consideration. The result of this study is processing time decreasing for 35.75% at Weighting Bridge Station, 29.77% at Sorting Station, 5.05% at Loading Ramp Station, and 0.79% at Sterilizer Station. Cost of Manufactured for Crude Palm Oil are IDR 5.236,81/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.583,37/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.581,71/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement Meanwhile Cost of Manufactured for Palm Kernel are IDR 2.159,50/kg calculated by Traditional Method, IDR 4.584,63/kg calculated by Activity Based Costing Method before implementation of Activity Improvement and IDR 4.582,97/kg after implementation of Activity Improvement.

  6. A study on value assessment of nuclear energy and quantification model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Eun Ju

    2009-02-01

    Studies quantifying the contributions of nuclear energy to the countries that operate them are scant. The aim of this study, therefore, is to investigate both qualitatively and quantitatively these benefits, which have proven to be significant. We present estimates of the value of nuclear energy in terms of economics, the environment, security, and social issues, specifically for nuclear energy used in Korea. This study also suggests an approach to quantitatively measure and compare the value of energy ultimately for the generation of electricity from different energy sources Input-Output analysis was used to find out the economic contribution of energy sources. Nuclear energy contributes a similar amount of electricity that coal power plants do but, surprisingly, its value added GDP contribution is almost twice that of coal. Coal, oil, liquefied natural gas (LNG), and nuclear contribute 0.47%, 0.05%, 0.23%, and 0.92% to the value added GDP, respectively. While this may seem small, the four major industries in Korea - primary iron and steel products, semiconductors and related devices, motor vehicles, and petroleum refinery products - contributed 1.3%, 2.1%, 2.2%, and 2.9% to GDP in that same year, respectively. To measure the environmental effect, a carbon-tax scenario was used. Considering both health effects and the carbon-tax scenario, nuclear had the lowest environmental cost at 0.29 won/kWh. Coal had the highest at 24.47 won/kWh, followed by oil at 19.52 won/kWh, and LNG at 12.98 won/kWh. Therefore, if the carbon-tax (or some constraint) is imposed for future and current environmental concerns, nuclear energy's competitiveness will only increase. In spite of the importance of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Korea, the public's attitude towards nuclear energy is not favorable. This negative social perception was defined as the social cost of nuclear energy. To estimate it, a Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) was utilized. This method estimates the

  7. Pengembangan Value Proposition Dalam Penetapan Strategi Pemasaran (Studi Kasus Terhadap Mobil Toyota Agya Di Kota Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Andaru, Rizka Kurnia

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to knowing value proposition that is offered on Toyota Agya, knowing consumer perceptions about value proposition of toyota agya in Malang City, and knowing the development of value proposition in determining the marketing strategy at Toyota Agya in Malang City. The data source of research were informant, documents, places and events. Analysis of the data used interactive data analysis. The results showed that 11 elements of Value proposition according to Alexander Osterwal...

  8. Understanding Customer Loyalty in the Age of Value: A Study on Malaysian Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, Maybelline Kiat Hui

    2007-01-01

    The competitive environment today has resulted in proliferation of choices offered to consumers, rendering the traditional marketing strategy questionable. Consequently, value-based management has become the hot topic by firms, integrating customer value into operations throughout the entire value chain. It has been widely researched that customer value is an important source of competitive edge for firms to be successful as they are able to generate customer loyalty to increase their share o...

  9. Prognostic Value of the Amount of Bleeding After Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Quantitative Volumetric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagares, Alfonso; Jiménez-Roldán, Luis; Gomez, Pedro A; Munarriz, Pablo M; Castaño-León, Ana M; Cepeda, Santiago; Alén, José F

    2015-12-01

    Quantitative estimation of the hemorrhage volume associated with aneurysm rupture is a new tool of assessing prognosis. To determine the prognostic value of the quantitative estimation of the amount of bleeding after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, as well the relative importance of this factor related to other prognostic indicators, and to establish a possible cut-off value of volume of bleeding related to poor outcome. A prospective cohort of 206 patients consecutively admitted with the diagnosis of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage to Hospital 12 de Octubre were included in the study. Subarachnoid, intraventricular, intracerebral, and total bleeding volumes were calculated using analytic software. For assessing factors related to prognosis, univariate and multivariate analysis (logistic regression) were performed. The relative importance of factors in determining prognosis was established by calculating their proportion of explained variation. Maximum Youden index was calculated to determine the optimal cut point for subarachnoid and total bleeding volume. Variables independently related to prognosis were clinical grade at admission, age, and the different bleeding volumes. The proportion of variance explained is higher for subarachnoid bleeding. The optimal cut point related to poor prognosis is a volume of 20 mL both for subarachnoid and total bleeding. Volumetric measurement of subarachnoid or total bleeding volume are both independent prognostic factors in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. A volume of more than 20 mL of blood in the initial noncontrast computed tomography is related to a clear increase in poor outcome risk. : aSAH, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  10. THE VALUE OF EDUCATIONAL DEGREES IN TURBULENT ECONOMIC TIMES: EVIDENCE FROM THE YOUTH DEVELOPMENT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31–37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor’s and Associate’s degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate’s and Bachelor’s recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. PMID:26973042

  11. Islamic value to the modification of BSC model (a case study in evaluating company performance)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwati; Permana, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Halal is the key word for the Muslim community in consuming goods or services. Providing halal products is the main focus for companies with the largest consumers from the Muslim community. Halal is not only from the ingredients but also from the process in its production. The purpose of this study is to design a model of performance measurement for a company in order to provide halal products. Balance Score Card (BSC) is used as a framework. BSC as a performance measurement system has advantages not only focus on financial aspect but also non finance. Islamic values are incorporated into four perspective of BSC. They are: Selection of sharia financial institutions in financial perspective, payment method by consumer in consumer perspective, number of product with halal certificate and menu clarify in internal business process perspective, then accuracy of payroll time in learning and growth perspective. The modified BSC model obtains 17 Key Performance Indicators (KPI). The model is applied in a culinary industry (restaurant). Structured questionnaires and scheduled interviews are used to collect the important data. The result show that these industry fail to meet 8 from total 17 KPI so performance achievement is only 70.81%, and only reach 22.58% in Islamic value aspect. This is recorded by the company as an input to improve their performance in order to compete in halal food business.

  12. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.

    2017-05-01

    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  13. The value of educational degrees in turbulent economic times: Evidence from the Youth Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Staff, Jeremy

    2016-05-01

    Rising costs of higher education have prompted debate about the value of college degrees. Using mixed effects panel models of data from the Youth Development Study (ages 31-37), we compare occupational outcomes (i.e., weekly hours worked, earnings, employment status, career attainment, and job security) between educational attainment categories within year, and within categories across years, from 2005 to 2011, capturing the period before, during, and in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Our findings demonstrate the long-term value of post-secondary degrees. Bachelor's and Associate's degree recipients, while experiencing setbacks at the height of recession, were significantly better off than those with some or no college attendance. Vocational-Technical degree holders followed a unique trajectory: pre-recession, they are mostly on par with Associate's and Bachelor's recipients, but they are hit particularly hard by the recession and then rebound somewhat afterwards. Our findings highlight the perils of starting but not finishing post-secondary educational programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sniffing out significant "Pee values": genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Turman, Constance; Sinnott, Jennifer; Rimm, Eric B; Ecsedy, Ethan; Unger, Robert H; Fall, Katja; Finn, Stephen; Jensen, Majken K; Rider, Jennifer R; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-12-13

     To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine.  Genome wide association study.  Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts.  6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies.  Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt "after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine," and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553.  A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. A study of several normal values of Korean healthy adults on chest roentgenograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Byung Chull [Choong Nam University College of Medicine, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1975-06-15

    Determination of several normal values were carried out healthy 1805 cases of Korean adults, 1436 cases of male and 369 cases of female, by the drawing and calculation on chest roentgenograms. In many instances, the change of normal values provides an important clinical values, and often is decisive to evaluate the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of pulmonary, cardiac and mediastinal disease.

  16. The influence of cross-cultural differences on consumer values: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostelijk, Erik Jan; Alsem, Karel Jan; Ali, Semra

    2017-01-01

    Values motivate consumer behaviour. The objective of this research is to show the impact of cultural differences on the consumer value system. The Netherlands and Chile were compared to identify to what extent differences between both cultures have an effect on what consumers value, and how this

  17. Can Vocational Programmes Change Use and Exchange Value Attributions of School Leavers: A Kenyan Case Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Murray; Sambili, Helen

    1995-01-01

    A survey of Kenyan school leavers (200 responses) and 34 interviews show that the exchange value of school-leaving exams is predominant and the use value of vocational programs has little impact. Apparently, 80% of school effort has actual exchange value for only 20% of school leavers, whereas 20% of effort directed at self-employment has…

  18. Key conditions for successful value chain partnerships : A multiple case study in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen); F. Mandefro (Fenta)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper explores the black box of value chain partnerships, by showing how these partnerships can facilitate institutional change that is needed to include smallholder producers and small-and medium sized enterprises into (global) food value chains. It draws on agricultural value

  19. Genetic and Environmental Parent-Child Transmission of Value Orientations: An Extended Twin Family Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandler, Christian; Gottschling, Juliana; Spinath, Frank M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite cross-cultural universality of core human values, individuals differ substantially in value priorities, whereas family members show similar priorities to some degree. The latter has often been attributed to intrafamilial socialization. The analysis of self-ratings on eight core values from 399 twin pairs (ages 7-11) and their biological…

  20. Probing for the Multiplicative Term in Modern Expectancy-Value Theory: A Latent Interaction Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Marsh, Herbert W.; Nagengast, Benjamin; Ludtke, Oliver; Nagy, Gabriel; Jonkmann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    In modern expectancy-value theory (EVT) in educational psychology, expectancy and value beliefs additively predict performance, persistence, and task choice. In contrast to earlier formulations of EVT, the multiplicative term Expectancy x Value in regression-type models typically plays no major role in educational psychology. The present study…

  1. Model of Religious Study and Moral Values in TK Putra Harapan Nalumsari Jepara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubasyaroh Mubasyaroh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Religious and moral education from an early age so needs to be invested for the child, so that in the future they will have a strong and deep understanding of the norms and teachings of Islam. Age children early childhood and kindergarten (TK is a time to play, so education is implemented particularly religious education should be designed properly by the teacher so that the education process into an active and fun activities. Kindergarten (TK Putra Harapan Nalumsari Jepara is one of the educational institutions that provide education for early childhood, with one lesson material is a moral and religious education. Moral education is one of the materials is very important because in load values, morals and religion, so this will be a guide for students in later life. The research method used is descriptive qualitative research to describe in detail the subjects and issues to be studied. The findings in this study is the cultivation of religious values and morals for children Kindergarten revolves around the activities of daily life. In particular cultivation of religious values with laying the foundations of the faith, personality or character that is commendable and devotional practices, in accordance with the child's ability is implemented. As one of the early childhood education institutions, in conducting the study, have several models of delivery Edutainment, habituation and uswah hasanah as a reference implementation of teaching and learning. Pendidikan agama dan moral sejak usia dini perlu ditanamkan bagi anak, sehingga di masa depan mereka akan memiliki pemahaman yang kuat dan mendalam dari norma-norma dan ajaran Islam. Usia anak-anak usia dini dan taman kanak-kanak (TK adalah waktu untuk bermain, sehingga pendidikan diimplementasikan khususnya pendidikan agama harus dirancang dengan baik oleh guru sehingga proses pendidikan menjadi kegiatan yang aktif dan menyenangkan. TK (TK Putra Harapan Nalumsari Jepara merupakan salah satu lembaga

  2. THE LIS STUDY (LYUBERTSY STUDY ON MORTALITY RATE IN PATIENTS AFTER ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. EVALUATION OF DRUG THERAPY. PART 2. INFLUENCE OF PREVIOUS DRUG TREATMENT ON LONG-TERM LIFE PROGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Martsevich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate drug therapy received by patients who had survived acute myocardial infarction (AMI in the framework of the AMI register (the “LIS” study and estimate this therapy influence on long-term outcomes of the disease. Material and methods. The total of 961 patients of 1133 enrolled in the “LIS” study , were discharged from hospital. 191 patients had died during follow-up. 632 patients (who had survived and consented to visit out-patient clinic underwent repeated examination (median of follow-up 1.6 [1.0; 2.4] years. Data about treatment before and during AMI were received from patient’s charts; data about treatment after AMI were obtained from out-patient medical records. Results. Before reference AMI only a small number of the patients received the main drug groups (antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, ACE inhibitors, statins, at that ACE inhibitors were prescribed more often than the others. Use of β-blockers and ACE inhibitors before reference AMI significantly improved long-term life prognosis [relative risk (RR 0.70 and 0.66, respectively]. Rate of the main drug groups prescribed in hospital was rather high with the exception of thrombolytics (less than 10%. Thrombolytics, β-blockers and antiplatelet agents prescribed in hospital significantly improved long-term life prognosis of patients (RR 0.42, 0.65 and 0.58 respectively. At the second visit (according to data of out-patient medical records rate of antiplatelet agents, ACE inhibitors, β-blockers and statins prescription exceeded 60%. Conclusion. Very low prevalence of adequate drug therapy preceding AMI determines high mortality rate among survived acute stage of myocardial infarction patients in long-term period.

  3. Automatic electromagnetic valve for previous vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, C. E.; Martin, F.

    1959-01-01

    A valve which permits the maintenance of an installation vacuum when electric current fails is described. It also lets the air in the previous vacuum bomb to prevent the oil ascending in the vacuum tubes. (Author)

  4. Maximising value from a United Kingdom Biomedical Research Centre: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Fahy, Nick; Shaw, Sara; Kerr, Polly; Rushforth, Alexander D; Channon, Keith M; Kiparoglou, Vasiliki

    2017-08-14

    Biomedical Research Centres (BRCs) are partnerships between healthcare organisations and universities in England. Their mission is to generate novel treatments, technologies, diagnostics and other interventions that increase the country's international competitiveness, to rapidly translate these innovations into benefits for patients, and to improve efficiency and reduce waste in healthcare. As NIHR Oxford BRC (Oxford BRC) enters its third 5-year funding period, we seek to (1) apply the evidence base on how best to support the various partnerships in this large, multi-stakeholder research system and (2) research how these partnerships play out in a new, ambitious programme of translational research. Organisational case study, informed by the principles of action research. A cross-cutting theme, 'Partnerships for Health, Wealth and Innovation' has been established with multiple sub-themes (drug development, device development, business support and commercialisation, research methodology and statistics, health economics, bioethics, patient and public involvement and engagement, knowledge translation, and education and training) to support individual BRC research themes and generate cross-theme learning. The 'Partnerships' theme will support the BRC's goals by facilitating six types of partnership (with patients and citizens, clinical services, industry, across the NIHR infrastructure, across academic disciplines, and with policymakers and payers) through a range of engagement platforms and activities. We will develop a longitudinal progress narrative centred around exemplar case studies, and apply theoretical models from innovation studies (Triple Helix), sociology of science (Mode 2 knowledge production) and business studies (Value Co-creation). Data sources will be the empirical research studies within individual BRC research themes (who will apply separately for NHS ethics approval), plus documentary analysis and interviews and ethnography with research

  5. Value of shared preclinical safety studies - The eTOX database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Katharine; Barber, Chris; Cases, Montserrat; Marc, Philippe; Steger-Hartmann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A first analysis of a database of shared preclinical safety data for 1214 small molecule drugs and drug candidates extracted from 3970 reports donated by thirteen pharmaceutical companies for the eTOX project (www.etoxproject.eu) is presented. Species, duration of exposure and administration route data were analysed to assess if large enough subsets of homogenous data are available for building in silico predictive models. Prevalence of treatment related effects for the different types of findings recorded were analysed. The eTOX ontology was used to determine the most common treatment-related clinical chemistry and histopathology findings reported in the database. The data were then mined to evaluate sensitivity of established in vivo biomarkers for liver toxicity risk assessment. The value of the database to inform other drug development projects during early drug development is illustrated by a case study.

  6. Impact of RFID on the Retail Value Chain: An Exploratory Study Using a Mixed Method Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithu Bhattacharya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While several large retailers have mandated RFID deployment across their value chains, the case for RFID adoption in retail still remains uncertain. This paper aims at providing a realistic perspective of the immense potential of RFID, taking adoption drivers, potential benefits, and implementation challenges into account. In this paper, a mixed methodological approach is used that caters to the exploratory nature of the work to quantitatively analyze RFID adoption drivers, benefits, and implementation challenges. First content analysis is applied to analyze academic and trade articles to come up with key issues and concepts. The results from the content analysis acted as input for a Delphi study which is the second methodology. The combined results from the two methods provide deep insights and enhance understanding of important implementation issues related to RFID adoption in the retail sector and also aid in drawing meaningful managerial conclusions.

  7. An exploratory study on the potential value add of social networking to the Entrepreneurial process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is widely established in scientific literature that entrepreneurship directly contributes to both employment generation and economic growth. Entrepreneurship is said to be subject to a very specific process which includes opportunity recognition, resource allocation, innovation and networking. Networking specifically, is an essential part of the entrepreneurial process as it is employed to assist entrepreneurs to capitalise on opportunities, allocate resources, find ways to innovate and contest ambiguity. With the advent of Web 2.0 and online social networking platforms the way in which people exchange information and network has changed significantly and has spawned a new social culture on a global level. The purpose of this study is to examine the value that online social networking adds to the entrepreneurial process, specifically focussing on the South African landscape. Keywords and phrases: Entrepreneurship; Networking; Social capital; Social networking; Social media

  8. Study of the long-term values and prices of plutonium; a simplified parametrized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Paillot, H.

    1965-01-01

    The authors define the notions of use values and price of plutonium. They give a 'simplified parametrized model' simulating the equilibrium of the offer and the demand in time, concerning the plutonium and the price deriving from the relative scarcity of this metal, taking into account the technical and economic operating parameters of the various reactors confronted. This model is simple enough to allow direct computations and establish clear relations between the various parameters. The use of the linear programmes method allows on the other hand a wide extension of the model. This report includes three main parts: I - General description of the study (without detailed calculations) II - Mathematical development of the simplified parametrized model and application (the basic data and the results of the calculations are given) III - Appendices (giving the detailed computations of part II). (authors) [fr

  9. The study of the value of applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ting; Zhao Zhenhua; Lv Weigong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization. Methods: 122 cases were performed uterine artery embolization, including 67 cases with traditional operation and 55 cases with applying the special functions of DSA: rotary DSA angiography, the best work position and road map technology. We recorded the correlative operative indices to compare and analyse the mean exposure time, the mean operative time, the mean dosage of contrast medium, the probability of vasospasm and injury of blood vessel during operation. Results: The mean exposure time, mean operative time and the mean dosage of contrast medium were reduced with the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization. There is significant difference between traditional operation and the operation applying the special functions of DSA (P<0.01). Conclusion: Applying the special functions of DSA during uterine artery embolization can reduce the operative time, operative risk and economic burden. (authors)

  10. Regulatory Forum Opinion Piece*: The Value of Publishing Negative Scientific Study Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Gary A; Foster, John R; Laast, Victoria A; Francke, Sabine

    2015-10-01

    Historically it has been easier to publish positive scientific results than negative data not supporting the research hypothesis. This appears to be increasing, with fewer negative studies appearing in the literature across many disciplines. Failure to recognize the value of negative results has important implications for the toxicology community. Implications include perpetuating scientific fields based upon selective or occasionally erroneous, positive results. One example is decreased vaccination rates and increased measles infections that can lead to childhood mortality following one erroneous positive study linking vaccination to adverse effects despite multiple negative studies. Publication of negative data that challenges existing paradigms enhances progress by stopping further investment in scientifically barren topics, decreases the use of animals, and focuses research in more fruitful areas. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) publishes both positive and negative rodent data. Retrospective analysis of the NTP database has provided insights on the carcinogenic process and in the gradual acceptance of using fewer animals in safety studies. This article proposes that careful publication of both positive and negative data can enhance product safety assessment, add robustness to safety determinations in the regulatory decision-making process, and should be actively encouraged by those determining journal editorial policy. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  11. Does Branding Need Web Usability? A Value-Oriented Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolchini, Davide; Garzotto, Franca; Sorce, Fabio

    Does usability of a web-based communication artifact affect brand, i.e., the set of beliefs, emotions, attitudes, or qualities that people mentally associate to the entity behind that artifact? Intuitively, the answer is “yes”: usability is a fundamental aspect of the quality of the experience with a website, and a “good” experience with a “product” or its reifications tends to translate into “good” brand perception. To date, however, the existence of a connection between web usability and brand perception is shown through anecdotic arguments, and is not supported by published systematic research. This paper discusses a study that empirically investigates this correlation in a more rigorous, analytical, and replicable way. Our main contribution is twofold: on the one hand, we provide empirical evidence to the heuristic principle that web usability influences branding, and we do that through four between subjects controlled experiments that involved 120 subjects. On the other hand, we inform the study with a systematic value-oriented approach to the user experience, and thus provide a conceptual framework that can be reused in other experimental settings, either for replicating our study, or for designing similar studies focusing on the correlation of web branding vs. design factors other than usability.

  12. Sustainable-value stream mapping to evaluate sustainability performance: case study in an Indonesian furniture company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartini Sri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing tools do not consider environmental and societal benefits. The conventional value stream mapping (VSM methodology examines the economics of a manufacturing line, most of which are in regards to time (cycle time, lead time, change-out time, etc.. Incorporating the capability to capture environmental and societal performance visually through VSMs will increase its usefulness as a tool that can be used to assess manufacturing operations from a sustainability perspective. A number of studies have addressed the extension of VSM to incorporate additional criteria. A vast majority of these efforts have focused on adding energy-related metrics to VSMs, while several other studies refer to ‘sustainable’ VSM by including environmental performance in conventional VSMs. This research has developed a method for VSM integrated with environment metric and social metric for ensuring sustainable manufacture. The proposed technique is capable of visualizing and evaluating manufacturing process performance from sustainability view point. The capability of proposed technique has been tested by an application study on furniture company. The study provides insights to practitioners to visualize process performance in economic, environment and social metric.

  13. Percentile reference values for anthropometric body composition indices in European children from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, P; Kovacs, E; Moreno, L A; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Kourides, Y; Siani, A; Lauria, F; Sioen, I; Claessens, M; Mårild, S; Lissner, L; Bammann, K; Intemann, T; Buck, C; Pigeot, I; Ahrens, W; Molnár, D

    2014-09-01

    To characterise the nutritional status in children with obesity or wasting conditions, European anthropometric reference values for body composition measures beyond the body mass index (BMI) are needed. Differentiated assessment of body composition in children has long been hampered by the lack of appropriate references. The aim of our study is to provide percentiles for body composition indices in normal weight European children, based on the IDEFICS cohort (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health Effects in Children and infantS). Overall 18,745 2.0-10.9-year-old children from eight countries participated in the study. Children classified as overweight/obese or underweight according to IOTF (N=5915) were excluded from the analysis. Anthropometric measurements (BMI (N=12 830); triceps, subscapular, fat mass and fat mass index (N=11,845-11,901); biceps, suprailiac skinfolds, sum of skinfolds calculated from skinfold thicknesses (N=8129-8205), neck circumference (N=12,241); waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (N=12,381)) were analysed stratified by sex and smoothed 1st, 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th and 99th percentile curves were calculated using GAMLSS. Percentile values of the most important anthropometric measures related to the degree of adiposity are depicted for European girls and boys. Age- and sex-specific differences were investigated for all measures. As an example, the 50th and 99th percentile values of waist circumference ranged from 50.7-59.2 cm and from 51.3-58.7 cm in 4.5- to <5.0-year-old girls and boys, respectively, to 60.6-74.5 cm in girls and to 59.9-76.7 cm in boys at the age of 10.5-10.9 years. The presented percentile curves may aid a differentiated assessment of total and abdominal adiposity in European children.

  14. Trust increases euthanasia acceptance: a multilevel analysis using the European Values Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köneke, Vanessa

    2014-12-20

    This study tests how various kinds of trust impact attitudes toward euthanasia among the general public. The indication that trust might have an impact on euthanasia attitudes is based on the slippery slope argument, which asserts that allowing euthanasia might lead to abuses and involuntary deaths. Adopting this argument usually leads to less positive attitudes towards euthanasia. Tying in with this, it is assumed here that greater trust diminishes such slippery slope fears, and thereby increases euthanasia acceptance. The effects of various trust indicators on euthanasia acceptance were tested using multilevel analysis, and data from the European Values Study 2008 (N = 49,114, 44 countries). More precisely, the influence of people's general levels of trust in other people, and their confidence in the health care system, were measured--both at the individual and at the country level. Confidence in the state and the press were accounted for as well, since both institutions might monitor and safeguard euthanasia practices. It was shown that the level of trust in a country was strongly positively linked to euthanasia attitudes, both for general trust and for confidence in health care. In addition, within countries, people who perceived their fellow citizens as trustworthy, and who had confidence in the press, were more supportive of euthanasia than their less trusting counterparts. The pattern was, however, not true for confidence in the state and for confidence in the health care system at the individual level. Notably, all confirmative effects held, even when other variables such as religiosity, education, and values regarding autonomy were controlled for. Trust seems to be a noteworthy construct to explain differences in attitudes towards euthanasia, especially when drawing cross-country comparisons. Therefore, it should be added to the existing literature on correlates of euthanasia attitudes.

  15. Prospective Cohort Study Evaluating the Prognostic Value of Simple EEG Parameters in Postanoxic Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabou, Eric; Fischer, Catherine; Mauguiere, François; Vaugier, Isabelle; Annane, Djillali; Sharshar, Tarek; Lofaso, Fréderic

    2016-01-01

    We prospectively studied early bedside standard EEG characteristics in 61 acute postanoxic coma patients. Five simple EEG features, namely, isoelectric, discontinuous, nonreactive to intense auditory and nociceptive stimuli, dominant delta frequency, and occurrence of paroxysms were classified yes or no. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of each of these variables for predicting an unfavorable outcome, defined as death, persistent vegetative state, minimally conscious state, or severe neurological disability, as assessed 1 year after coma onset were computed as well as Synek's score. The outcome was unfavorable in 56 (91.8%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and AUC of nonreactive EEG for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 84%, 80%, 98%, 31%, and 0.82, respectively; and were all very close to the ones of Synek score>3, which were 82%, 80%, 98%, 29%, and 0.81, respectively. Specificities for predicting an unfavorable outcome were 100% for isoelectric, discontinuous, or dominant delta activity EEG. These 3 last features were constantly associated to unfavorable outcome. Absent EEG reactivity strongly predicted an unfavorable outcome in postanoxic coma, and performed as accurate as a Synek score>3. Analyzing characteristics of some simple EEG features may easily help nonneurophysiologist physicians to investigate prognostic issue of postanoxic coma patient. In this study (a) discontinuous, isoelectric, or delta-dominant EEG were constantly associated with unfavorable outcome and (b) nonreactive EEG performed prognostic as accurate as a Synek score>3. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2015.

  16. THE SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURAL VALUES OF ECLECTIC STYLE SHOPHOUSES CASE STUDY: SUN YAT SEN MUSEUM PENANG, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Zwain

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sun Yat Sen shophouse in Penang is a small private Museum, which was converted from a shophouse or townhouse situated in the Armenian Street heritage area of George Town. The building is an example of embraces of the architectural heritage of George Town which is an extraordinarily beautiful example of Straits Settlements merchant's shophouse. Historically, it is associated with the global historical personality of Dr. Sun Yat Sen and his revolutionary. This city was added to the UNESCO's world heritage list in 2008 to acknowledge its rich cultural heritage that constitutes of unique architectural and cultural townscape along the Straits of Melaka. This paper investigates the architectural plan of a shophouse and the values of cultural heritage buildings which eventually was converted into a Museum in George Town, Penang. Classified as an eclectic style shophouse, it is rich in design and art components featured in its architecture that are still sustaining until today. This building has an interesting mixture of architectural and cultural inspirations adapted from the Chinese origin, with the local Malay ethnicity and the European influences that colonised the region. The introduction of new non related architectural components into the southern Chinese (eclectic style style in shophouses in George Town has resulted in the disappearance of this unique style of architecture. This investigation employs a qualitative research approach by documenting evidence and understanding the architectural as well as cultural influences of the southern Chinese eclectic style by studying the Sun Yat Sen Museum as a case study. The findings of the research point towards an understanding of the architectural and cultural influences that govern the design of the shophouse and its architectural character. Key words: sustainable architectural values, George Town, eclectic style, shophouses

  17. Studies of cadmium, mercury and lead in man. The value of X-ray fluorescence measurements in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, J

    1996-10-01

    Two XRF methods have been used for in vivo studies of mercury, cadmium and lead. Persons with a history of long-term occupational mercury exposure had elevated mercury concentrations in their kidneys (up to 65 {mu}g/g). The minimum detectable concentration varied between 12 and 45 {mu}g/g. Battery plant workers had elevated cadmium concentrations in their kidneys (up to 350 {mu}g/g) and liver (up to 80 {mu}g/g), with mean values about 3-5 times higher than the general population. The mean ratio between concentrations of cadmium in kidney and liver was 7. Levels in kidney and liver indicated that a simple integration of cadmium in work-place air is not sufficient to describe the body burden. Fingerbone lead in smelters was 6-8 times higher than in members of the general population. The half-time of bone lead in active workers was estimated to about 5 years during the accumulation phase. A model for description of a person`s lead exposure in terms of lead in fingerbone, lead in blood and time of exposure has been developed and can be used, e.g. for retrospective blood lead estimates if the period of exposure and the current fingerbone lead is known. This will be of value for the evaluation of toxic effects of long-term lead exposure when data on previous lead levels are lacking. In total, in vivo measurements of mercury, cadmium and lead give unique information, which has shown to be an important tool for understanding of metal kinetics and toxicity. If the precision and accuracy of the method can be further improved, the technique will also have a given place in the clinical practice. 168 refs, 9 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide in elderly patients with aortic valve stenosis: the COFRASA-GENERAC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadevilla, Claire; Cueff, Caroline; Hekimian, Guillaume; Dehoux, Monique; Lepage, Laurent; Iung, Bernard; Duval, Xavier; Huart, Virginie; Tubach, Florence; Vahanian, Alec; Messika-Zeitoun, David

    2013-04-01

    Previous studies suggested an independent prognostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) in aortic valve stenosis (AS) but were impeded by small sample sizes and inclusion of relatively selected young patients. We aimed to evaluate the relationship among N-terminal fragment of proBNP (Nt-proBNP), AS severity, symptoms and outcome in a large cohort of elderly patients with AS. Observational cohort study, COhorte Française de Retrecissement Aortique du Sujet Agé (clinicalTrial.gov number-NCT00338676) and GENEtique du Retrecissement Aortique (clinicalTrial.gov number-NCT00647088). Single-centre study. Patients older than 70 years with at least mild AS. None. A comprehensive clinical, biological and echocardiographic evaluation was performed at study entry. Asymptomatic patients were prospectively followed on a 6-months basis and AS-related events (sudden death, congestive heart failure or new onset of AS-related symptoms) collected. We prospectively enrolled 361 patients (79±6 years, 230 severe AS). Nt-proBNP increased with the grade of AS severity and the NYHA class (all pvalue of Nt-proBNP for the diagnosis of severe symptomatic AS was only modest (area under the curve of the receiver operator characteristic analysis=0.73). At 2 years, 28 AS-related events occurred among 142 asymptomatic patients prospectively followed. Nt-proBNP was associated with outcome in univariate analysis (p=0.04) but not after adjustment for age, gender and AS severity (p=0.40). The present study clearly highlights the limitations of Nt-proBNP for the evaluation and management of AS patients. Our results suggest that Nt-proBNP should be considered cautiously, at least as a single criterion, in the decision-making process of AS patients especially in the elderly population.

  19. Applying Value Stream Mapping Technique for Production Improvement in a Manufacturing Company: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyaraj, K. L.; Muralidharan, C.; Mahalingam, R.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain how value stream mapping (VSM) is helpful in lean implementation and to develop the road map to tackle improvement areas to bridge the gap between the existing state and the proposed state of a manufacturing firm. Through this case study, the existing stage of manufacturing is mapped with the help of VSM process symbols and the biggest improvement areas like excessive TAKT time, production, and lead time are identified. Some modifications in current state map are suggested and with these modifications future state map is prepared. Further TAKT time is calculated to set the pace of production processes. This paper compares the current state and future state of a manufacturing firm and witnessed 20 % reduction in TAKT time, 22.5 % reduction in processing time, 4.8 % reduction in lead time, 20 % improvement in production, 9 % improvement in machine utilization, 7 % improvement in man power utilization, objective improvement in workers skill level, and no change in the product and semi finished product inventory level. The findings are limited due to the focused nature of the case study. This case study shows that VSM is a powerful tool for lean implementation and allows the industry to understand and continuously improve towards lean manufacturing.

  20. A Study on the User Value of the ScienceNet Blog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    张琦

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Purpose/significance] The development of academic blogs is closely related to the use of users. The paper explores the user value which guides users to use academic blogs, and analyzes the relationship among user values. [Method/process] Based on Woodruff’s customer value hierarchical model, the paper conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 ScienceNet blog’ users through the laddering theory, and then encoded the interview content. [Result/conclusion] This paper creates the comprehensive correlation matrix of customer value of ScienceNet blog, and builds the user value hierarchy model. It also finds four value chains: blog writing--accomplishment, blog reading--academic communication, recommendation--communication effect, mutual friendship--academic communication.

  1. Increased risk of ischemic heart disease, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus, a target group in general practice for preventive interventions: A population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Daly

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is associated with developing type 2 diabetes, but very few studies have examined its effect on developing cardiovascular disease.We conducted a retrospective cohort study utilizing a large primary care database in the United Kingdom. From 1 February 1990 to 15 May 2016, 9,118 women diagnosed with GDM were identified and randomly matched with 37,281 control women by age and timing of pregnancy (up to 3 months. Adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated for cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease. Women with GDM were more likely to develop type 2 diabetes (IRR = 21.96; 95% CI 18.31-26.34 and hypertension (IRR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.59-2.16 after adjusting for age, Townsend (deprivation quintile, body mass index, and smoking. For ischemic heart disease (IHD, the IRR was 2.78 (95% CI 1.37-5.66, and for cerebrovascular disease 0.95 (95% CI 0.51-1.77; p-value = 0.87, after adjusting for the above covariates and lipid-lowering medication and hypertension at baseline. Follow-up screening for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors was poor. Limitations include potential selective documentation of severe GDM for women in primary care, higher surveillance for outcomes in women diagnosed with GDM than control women, and a short median follow-up postpartum period, with a small number of outcomes for IHD and cerebrovascular disease.Women diagnosed with GDM were at very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes and had a significantly increased incidence of hypertension and IHD. Identifying this group of women in general practice and targeting cardiovascular risk factors could improve long-term outcomes.

  2. Reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid: Italian Multicentric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, C; Sciarra, G; Bozzi, N; Pagliantini, M; Perico, A; Bavazzano, P; Leandri, A; Carrieri, M; Scapellato, M L; Bettinelli, M; Bartolucci, G B

    2008-08-01

    This article reports the results of a study, conducted in the framework of the scientific activities of the Italian Society for Reference Values, aimed at defining reference values of urinary trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in the general population not occupationally exposed to benzene. t,t-MA concentrations detected in 376 subjects of the resident population in three areas of Italy, two in central (Florence and southern Tuscany) and one in northern Italy (Padua), by three laboratories, compared by repeated interlaboratory controls, showed an interval of 14.4-225.0 microg/L (5th-95th percentile) and a geometric mean of 52.5 microg/L. The concentrations measured were influenced by tobacco smoking in a statistically significant way: Geometric mean concentrations were 44.8 microg/L and 76.1 microg/Ll in nonsmokers (264 subjects) and smokers (112 subjects), respectively. In the nonsmoking population, a significant influence of gender was found when concentrations were corrected for urinary creatinine, geometric mean concentrations being 36.7 microg/g creatinine in males (128 subjects) and 44.7 microg/g creatinine in females (136 subjects). The place of residence of subjects did not seem to influence urinary excretion of the metabolite, although personal inhalation exposure to benzene over a 24-h period showed slightly higher concentrations in Padua and Florence (geometric means of 6.5 microg/m(3) and 6.6 microg/m(3), respectively) than in southern Tuscany (geometric mean of 3.9 microg/m(3)). Concentration of t,t-MA in urine samples collected at the end of personal air sampling showed little relationship to personal inhalation exposure to benzene, confirming the importance of other factors in determining excretion of t,t-MA when concentrations in personal air samples are very low.

  3. How GPs value guidelines applied to patients with multimorbidity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijks, Hilde; Lucassen, Peter; van Weel, Chris; Loeffen, Maartje; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine; Schermer, Tjard

    2015-10-26

    To explore and describe the value general practitioner (GPs) attribute to medical guidelines when they are applied to patients with multimorbidity, and to describe which benefits GPs experience from guideline adherence in these patients. Also, we aimed to identify limitations from guideline adherence in patients with multimorbidity, as perceived by GPs, and to describe their empirical solutions to manage these obstacles. Focus group study with purposive sampling of participants. Focus groups were guided by an experienced moderator who used an interview guide. Interviews were transcribed verbatim. Data analysis was performed by two researchers using the constant comparison analysis technique and field notes were used in the analysis. Data collection proceeded until saturation was reached. Primary care, eastern part of The Netherlands. Dutch GPs, heterogeneous in age, sex and academic involvement. 25 GPs participated in five focus groups. GPs valued the guidance that guidelines provide, but experienced shortcomings when they were applied to patients with multimorbidity. Taking these patients' personal circumstances into account was regarded as important, but it was impeded by a consistent focus on guideline adherence. Preventative measures were considered less appropriate in (elderly) patients with multimorbidity. Moreover, the applicability of guidelines in patients with multimorbidity was questioned. GPs' extensive practical experience with managing multimorbidity resulted in several empirical solutions, for example, using their 'common sense' to respond to the perceived shortcomings. GPs applying guidelines for patients with multimorbidity integrate patient-specific factors in their medical decisions, aiming for patient-centred solutions. Such integration of clinical experience and best evidence is required to practise evidence-based medicine. More flexibility in pay-for-performance systems is needed to facilitate this integration. Several improvements in

  4. Diagnostic value of lumbar facet joint injection: a prospective triple cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Schütz

    Full Text Available The diagnosis "lumbar facet syndrome" is common and often indicates severe lumbar spine surgery procedures. It is doubtful whether a painful facet joint (FJ can be identified by a single FJ block. The aim of this study was to clarify the validity of a single and placebo controlled bilateral FJ blocks using local anesthetics. A prospective single blinded triple cross-over study was performed. 60 patients (31 f, 29 m, mean age 53.2 yrs (22-73 with chronic low back pain (mean pain persistance 31 months, 6 months of conservative treatment without success admitted to a local orthopaedic department for surgical or conservative therapy of chronic LBP, were included in the study. Effect on pain reduction (10 point rating scale was measured. The 60 subjects were divided into six groups with three defined sequences of fluoroscopically guided bilateral monosegmental lumbar FJ test injections in "oblique needle" technique: verum-(local anaesthetic-, placebo-(sodium chloride- and sham-injection. Carry-over and periodic effects were evaluated and a descriptive and statistical analysis regarding the effectiveness, difference and equality of the FJ injections and the different responses was performed. The results show a high rate of non-response, which documents the lack of reliable and valid predictors for a positive response towards FJ blocks. There was a high rate of placebo reactions noted, including subjects who previously or later reacted positively to verum injections. Equivalence was shown among verum vs. placebo and partly vs. sham also. With regard to test validity criteria, a single intraarticular FJ block with local anesthetics is not useful to detect the pain-responsible FJ and therefore is no valid and reliable diagostic tool to specify indication of lumbar spine surgery. Comparative FJ blocks with local anesthetics and placebo-controls have to be interpretated carefully also, because they solely give no proper diagnosis on FJ being main pain

  5. From basic to fashion in the apparel industry: a study about upgrading in value chains

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Marcelo Machado Barbosa

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation aims at explaining the elements involved with the upgrading processes in value chains. Empirical data about the upgrading processes of apparel production and consumption in Brazil is taken as a way to explore upgrading strategies in the context of a growing fashion industry. We assume that fashion has been a key element in the apparel production which responds to upgrading in apparel value chains, turning basic apparel into more valued products and services as they are embed...

  6. No evidential value in samples of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) studies of cognition and working memory in healthy populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jared; Cason, Samuel

    2017-09-01

    A substantial number of studies have been published over the last decade, claiming that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can influence performance on cognitive tasks. However, there is some skepticism regarding the efficacy of tDCS, and evidence from meta-analyses are mixed. One major weakness of these meta-analyses is that they only examine outcomes in published studies. Given biases towards publishing positive results in the scientific literature, there may be a substantial "file-drawer" of unpublished negative results in the tDCS literature. Furthermore, multiple researcher degrees of freedom can also inflate published p-values. Recently, Simonsohn, Nelson and Simmons (2014) created a novel meta-analytic tool that examines the distribution of significant p-values in a literature, and compares it to expected distributions with different effect sizes. Using this tool, one can assess whether the selected studies have evidential value. Therefore, we examined a random selection of studies that used tDCS to alter performance on cognitive tasks, and tDCS studies on working memory in a recently published meta-analysis (Mancuso et al., 2016). Using a p-curve analysis, we found no evidence that the tDCS studies had evidential value (33% power or greater), with the estimate of statistical power of these studies being approximately 14% for the cognitive studies, and 5% (what would be expected from randomly generated data) for the working memory studies. It is likely that previous tDCS studies are substantially underpowered, and we provide suggestions for future research to increase the evidential value of future tDCS studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Study on Value Added Tax for Business Enterprise Taxation - An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    安部,知格

    2002-01-01

    In recent years,the argument whetter we should switch over the base of taxation for business enterprise from the income standard to other standards or not is rising. In these circumstances,as one of the other standards,the value-added tax has been taken up. The value-added tax appeared in Japan as the one which can be replaced income standard taxation for business enterprise by Shoup Mission in 1949. This paper considers the meaning of the value-added tax. Consequently,I think,the value-added...

  8. Prognostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potentials in Bell Palsy: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang WenHao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potentials (FNAEPs in predicting recovery from Bell palsy. Study Design. Retrospective study using electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review. Methods. A series of 46 patients with unilateral Bell palsy treated were included. According to taste test, 26 cases were associated with taste disorder (Group 1 and 20 cases were not (Group 2. Facial function was established clinically by the Stennert system after monthly follow-up. The result was evaluated with clinical recovery rate (CRR and FNAEP. FNAEPs were recorded at the posterior wall of the external auditory meatus of both sides. Results. Mean CRR of Group 1 and Group 2 was 61.63% and 75.50%. We discovered a statistical difference between two groups and also in the amplitude difference (AD of FNAEP. Mean ± SD of AD was −6.96% ± 12.66% in patients with excellent result, −27.67% ± 27.70% with good result, and −66.05% ± 31.76% with poor result. Conclusions. FNAEP should be monitored in patients with intratemporal facial palsy at the early stage. FNAEP at posterior wall of external auditory meatus was sensitive to detect signs of taste disorder. There was close relativity between FNAEPs and facial nerve recovery.

  9. Prognostic Value of Facial Nerve Antidromic Evoked Potentials in Bell Palsy: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    WenHao, Zhang; Minjie, Chen; Chi, Yang; Weijie, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the value of facial nerve antidromic evoked potentials (FNAEPs) in predicting recovery from Bell palsy. Study Design. Retrospective study using electrodiagnostic data and medical chart review. Methods. A series of 46 patients with unilateral Bell palsy treated were included. According to taste test, 26 cases were associated with taste disorder (Group 1) and 20 cases were not (Group 2). Facial function was established clinically by the Stennert system after monthly follow-up. The result was evaluated with clinical recovery rate (CRR) and FNAEP. FNAEPs were recorded at the posterior wall of the external auditory meatus of both sides. Results. Mean CRR of Group 1 and Group 2 was 61.63% and 75.50%. We discovered a statistical difference between two groups and also in the amplitude difference (AD) of FNAEP. Mean ± SD of AD was −6.96% ± 12.66% in patients with excellent result, −27.67% ± 27.70% with good result, and −66.05% ± 31.76% with poor result. Conclusions. FNAEP should be monitored in patients with intratemporal facial palsy at the early stage. FNAEP at posterior wall of external auditory meatus was sensitive to detect signs of taste disorder. There was close relativity between FNAEPs and facial nerve recovery. PMID:22164176

  10. Study of I11-conditioning of Linac stereotactic irradiation subspaces using singular values decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platoni, K.; Lefkopoulos, D.; Grandjean, P.; Schlienger, M.

    1999-01-01

    A Linac sterotactic irradiation space is characterized by different angular separations of beams because of the geometry of the stereotactic irradiation. The regions of the stereotactic space characterized by low angular separations are one of the causes of ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation inverse problem. The singular value decomposition (SVD) is a powerful mathematical analysis that permits the measurement of the ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation problem. This study examines the ill-conditioning of the stereotactic irradiation space, provoked by the different angular separations of beams, using the SVD analysis. We subdivided the maximum irradiation space (MIS: (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 180 ) into irradiation subspaces (ISSs), each characterized by its own angular separation. We studied the influence of ISSs on the SVD analysis and the evolution of the reconstruction quality of well defined three-dimensional dose matrices in each configuration. The more the ISS is characterized by low angular separation the more the condition number and the reconstruction inaccuracy are increased. Based on the above results we created two reduced irradiation spaces (RIS: (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 140 and (AA) AP x (AA) RL =180 x 120 ) and compared the reconstruction quality of the RISs with respect to the MIS. The more an irradiation space is free of low angular separations the more the irradiation space contains useful singular components. (orig.)

  11. Multilatinas and Value Creation from Cross-Border Acquisitions: An Event Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Feldmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The central proposition of this paper is to assess the performance of cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas. Applying the event study method to a sample of 607 announcements of acquisitions during the period 1989-2011 by 182 Multilatinas from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela, we conclude that: (a on average, these announcements have a neutral impact on the short-term returns to acquiring companies’ shareholders; (b cross-sectional analysis reveals that relative size of the deals have anegative and significant effect on investors’ reactions and; (c unlike the institutional distance between home and host countries, cultural distance matters, since it has a negative and significant effect on the perceptions that investors have regarding the expected economic impact of acquirers’ cross-border merger and acquisition(M&A decisions. Inasmuch as the market rationality assumption that underlies the event study method has been questioned, future research lines are proposed in order to search for alternative long-term performance constructs concerning M&A processes in general that can: (a shed light on the reality of value creation (and destruction from cross-border acquisitions made by Multilatinas; and (b contribute to strategy, international business and M&A theories and practice.

  12. [Application study of qualitatively diagnosing prostate cancer using ultrahigh b-value DWI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L B; Lu, Z H; Yao, H H; Cao, Y; Lu, W W; Qian, W X; Wang, X M; Hu, C H

    2017-07-18

    Objective: To explore the value of ultrahigh b-value DWI in diagnosis of prostate cancer. Methods: From October 2015 to October 2016, a total of 84 cases from Affiliated Changshu Hospital of Soochow University(39 cases of prostate cancer with a total of 57 lesions, 45 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia) were examined with T(2)WI, high b-value DWI (b=1 000 s/mm(2)) and ultrahigh b-value DWI (b=2 000 s/mm(2)) .Three image sets were rated respectively based on PI-RADS V2 by two radiologists and the scores were compared with biopsy results.The differences of the area under the ROC curve (AUC) among the three groups of each observer were compared by Z test. Results: The difference of AUC between ultrahigh b-value DWI and T(2)WI in the diagnosis of peripheral and transitional zone cancer was statistically significant between the two observers ( P =0.009 9, 0.008 2, 0.010 8 and 0.004 5 respectively), and there was no significant difference of AUC between ultrahigh b-value DWI and high b-value DWI in the diagnosis of peripheral and transitional zone cancer.The inter-reader agreement was found to be perfect for all lesions, peripheral zone lesions and transition zone lesions at ultrahigh b-value DWI ( kappa values were 0.738, 0.709 and 0.768 respectively). Conclusion: The diagnostic performance of ultrahigh b-value DWI is superior to high b-value DWI and T(2)WI in both peripheral zone and transition zone cancers.

  13. Investigating the impact of consumer values and advocacy behavior on buying decision satisfac-tion: A study through gender lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ahmed Jamil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer’s values, Cultural values, Emotional Values and Word of mouth expressiveness, are good predictors for their buying decision satisfaction. In current study sample of 500 was taken to assess the consumer’s buying decision satisfaction in relation to the importance of their values associated with those decisions. This study also reveals how gender influences buying decision satisfaction. Consumer values have a positive and significant impact on buying decision satisfac-tion. While evaluation on the basis of gender and females have more emotional and word of mouth linkages than males, on the contrary to this, males are more concerned with cultural val-ues, and are less expressive and have a tendency to suppress their emotions while making buy-ing decisions.

  14. An investigation on effects of perceived value on brand popularity and brand loyalty: A B2B case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Karimi Rad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluates the effect of perceived value on brand popularity and brand loyalty for some organizations in business-to-business (B2B domain under the effect of risk and e-service quality. The practical relationships among six different kinds of risks including performance, social, financial, time, psychological and safety with consideration of quality in e-commerce business on customer’s perceived value are evaluated and the effects of this perception of value on consequences of perceived value are measured. In this study, using the partial least square method as well as gathering the information of some Iranian firms that use electronic services, the study finds that there was a significant relationship between various types of risks and perceived value. There is also considerable influence of perceived value on satisfaction, brand popularity, and brand loyalty.

  15. What Australian Primary School Students Value in Mathematics Learning: A WIFI Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Wee Tiong; Barkatsas, Tasos

    2014-01-01

    Grades 5/6 students in Melbourne reported the valuing of "achievement," "open-endedness," "relevance," "humanism," "ICT," and "openness" most in mathematics learning. Although prior research suggested that students in East Asia valued "achievement" most as well, there was an…

  16. Marginal value of natural water in agriculture: a study in the suburbs of Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gezahegn, T.W.; Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2015-01-01

    In areas where markets for natural water are lacking, information on its marginal value can be an important tool for proper pricing to achieve efficient allocation of the resource. This article investigates the marginal value of natural water (rainwater used as a proxy) in agricultural crop

  17. Case study: Promoting community resilience with local values – Greenland's Paamiut Asasara

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berliner, Peter; Larsen, Line Natascha; de Casas Soberón, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience.......The chapter describes the programme Paamiut Asasara. The programme mobilised the local community from locally defined values and promoted shared community resilience as well as individual and family resilience....

  18. Personal Values Mahasiswa Akuntansi (Studi Empiris Pada Universitas Swasta Di Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Se Tin

    2004-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis. membandingkan dan membedakan personal values yang dimiliki oleh mahasiswa akuntansi dan mahasiswa kedokteran pada universitas swasta di Bandung. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dengan cara survei, yaitu dengan membagikan kuesioner kepada mahasiswa akuntansi dan kedokteran yang duduk di semester empat ke atas. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada perbedaan personal values yang signifikan antara mahasiswa akuntansi dengan mahasiswa kedokteran. Ini ditu...

  19. Relationship Marketing: A Quantitative Study of Individual Cultural Values as Predictors of Satisfaction Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Tracy Simone

    2017-01-01

    The economic value of international students to higher education had become important and global competition to attract and retain these lucrative students was fierce. In British Columbia, educational goals were set to ensure that all students receive quality learning experiences and provide maximum economic benefit. Cultural values affect…

  20. Salespersons’ missing perspective on customer participation behavior in value co-creation : An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weretecki, Patrick; Greve, Goetz; Henseler, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how the personal interaction between customers and salespersons influences value creation is important for any business. From research it is known that customers’ participation is essential for successful value co-creation. Whereas research has already surveyed the perspective of the