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Sample records for values elevated conductivity

  1. Falsely elevated triiodothyronine values in radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovsted, L.; Moelholm Hansen, J.E.; Nygaard, B.

    1995-01-01

    Five patients with falsely elevated serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) concentrations (>9 nmol/l) in a radioimmunoassay are reported. The high T 3 -values disagreed with the other thyroid variables investigated as well as with the clinical observations. In sera from all patients a normal non-specific binding of T 3 was found, thus excluding abnormal serum-protein-binding of the hormone. An ethanol extraction of T 3 from serum before RIA reduced the T 3 content in serum from all patients to normal levels (2.0-2.4 nmol/l). These findings indicate the presence in the sera of substances, probably of protein nature, that were interfering with the assay by binding the reagent-antibody and not the antigen. Addition of non-immune rabbit serum prevented this interference and normalized the T 3 -values (1.8-2.4 nmol/l). Thus the interfering substance in T 3 -RIA could be an anti-rabbit antibody, the interaction of which can be eliminated by a minor modification of the assay making it possible to differentiate true from false T 3 -values. (au) 16 refs

  2. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...

  3. Reprotonated polyanilines: the stability of conductivity at elevated temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Prokeš, J.; Trchová, Miroslava

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 102, April (2014), s. 67-73 ISSN 0141-3910 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * conductivity * hydrogen bonding Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.163, year: 2014

  4. Thermal conductivity of food materials at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiess, W.E.L.; Walz, E.; Nesvadba, P.; Morley, M.; Haneghem, van I.A.; Salmon, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In order to expand the available information on thermal conductivity of foods, within the framework of COST Action 93, a collaborative study was organised. In the first step, typical food components (apple pulp, meat, olive oil, sodium caseinate, starch, tomato paste) were used as standards for

  5. Analysis of the austenitic stainless steel's r-value behavior at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Arsić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the anisotropy properties of austenitic steel AISI 304 (X5CrNi18-10 at elevated temperatures is presented in this paper. Considerations of the anisotropy problems are presented in the theoretical part of the paper, as well as the procedure for determination of the normal anisotropy coefficient. The experimental part of the paper describes the plan, methodology and equipment for testing of material's normal anisotropy and mechanical characteristics. The objective of conducting the experiments was to investigate influence of temperature on normal anisotropy, as well as on the mechanical properties of the considered material. The normal anisotropy was monitored by the coefficient – the so-called "r-value". Besides that, the tensile strength, yield stress and elongation at break were monitored, also. The tests were done on the 0.7 mm thick sheet metal within the temperature range 20 to 700°C.

  6. Does low stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity enhance growth at elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Carlisle, Eli; McKay, John K; Bloom, Arnold J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if low stomatal conductance (g) increases growth, nitrate (NO3 (-)) assimilation, and nitrogen (N) utilization at elevated CO2 concentration. Four Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) near isogenic lines (NILs) differing in g were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration under low and high NO3 (-) supply as the sole source of N. Although g varied by 32% among NILs at elevated CO2, leaf intercellular CO2 concentration varied by only 4% and genotype had no effect on shoot NO3 (-) concentration in any treatment. Low-g NILs showed the greatest CO2 growth increase under N limitation but had the lowest CO2 growth enhancement under N-sufficient conditions. NILs with the highest and lowest g had similar rates of shoot NO3 (-) assimilation following N deprivation at elevated CO2 concentration. After 5 d of N deprivation, the lowest g NIL had 27% lower maximum carboxylation rate and 23% lower photosynthetic electron transport compared with the highest g NIL. These results suggest that increased growth of low-g NILs under N limitation most likely resulted from more conservative N investment in photosynthetic biochemistry rather than from low g. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Predictive value of elevated cystatin C in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ozgur; Uyarel, Huseyin; Ergelen, Mehmet; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Gul, Mehmet; Turen, Selahattin; Bulut, Umit; Baycan, Omer Faruk; Ozal, Ender; Cetin, Mustafa; Yıldırım, Aydın; Uslu, Nevzat

    2013-10-01

    The prognostic value of cystatin C (CysC) has been documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, its value in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of CysC in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively enrolled 475 consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 55.6±12.4 years, 380 male, 95 female) undergoing primary PCI. The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission CysC values. The high CysC group (n=159) was defined as a value in the third tertile (>1.12 mg/L), and the low CysC group (n=316) included those patients with a value in the lower two tertiles (≤1.12 mg/L). Clinical characteristics and in-hospital and one-month outcomes of primary PCI were analyzed. The patients of the high CysC group were older (mean age 62.8±13.1 vs. 52.3±10.5, P1.12 mg/L) was found to be a powerful independent predictor of one-month cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio, 5.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-22.38; P=.02). These results suggest that a high admission CysC level was associated with increased in-hospital and one-month cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predictive value of elevated D-dimer in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ozgur; Uyarel, Huseyin; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Gul, Mehmet; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Turen, Selahattin; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Cetin, Mustafa; Bulut, Umit; Baycan, Omer F; Uslu, Nevzat

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of D-dimer in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic value of D-dimer has been documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation. However, its value in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. We prospectively enrolled 453 consecutive STEMI patients (mean age 55.6 ± 12.4 years, 364 male, 89 female) undergoing primary PCI. The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission D-dimer values. The high D-dimer group (n = 151) was defined as a value in the third tertile [>0.72 ug/ml fibrinogen equivalent units (FEU)], and the low D-dimer group (n = 302) included those patients with a value in the lower two tertiles (≤0.72 ug/ml FEU). Clinical characteristics, in-hospital and 6-month outcomes of primary PCI were analyzed. The patients of the high D-dimer group were older (mean age 60.1 ± 13.5 versus 52.4 ± 10.6, P 0.72 ug/ml FEU) was found to be a powerful independent predictor of 6-month all-cause mortality (odds ratio: 10.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.24-42.73, P = 0.03). These results suggest that a high admission D-dimer, level was associated with increased in-hospital cardiovascular mortality and 6-month all-cause mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  9. Predictive value of elevated soluble CD40 ligand in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Akgul, Ozgur; Erturk, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin; Bulut, Umit; Akkaya, Emre; Buturak, Ali; Surgit, Ozgur; Fuat, Ali; Cetin, Mustafa; Yldrm, Aydn

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The prognostic value of sCD40L has been documented in patients with acute coronary syndrome; however, its value in acute STEMI remains unclear. We prospectively enrolled 499 consecutive STEMI patients (397 men, 102 women) undergoing primary PCI. The study population was divided into tertiles on the basis of admission sCD40L values. The high sCD40L group (n=168) included patients with a value in the third tertile (≥0.947 mg/l) and the low sCD40L group (n=331) included patients with a value in the lower two tertiles (0.947 mg/l) is a powerful independent predictor of 1-year all-cause mortality (odds ratio: 3.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-8.77; P=0.003). The results of this study suggest that a high sCD40L level at admission is associated with increased in-hospital and 1-year all-cause mortality rates in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  10. Predictive Value of Elevated Uric Acid in Turkish Patients Undergoing Primary Angioplasty for ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ozgur; Uyarel, Huseyin; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Gul, Mehmet; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Turen, Selahattin; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Cetin, Mustafa; Bulut, Umit; Baycan, Omer Faruk; Uslu, Nevzat

    2014-03-01

    Uric acid (UA) is an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Serum UA levels have been correlated with all major forms of death from cardiovascular disease, including acute, subacute, and chronic forms of coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure, and stroke. However, its value in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of UA in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively enrolled 434 consecutive Turkish STEMI patients (mean age 55.4 ± 12.4 years, 341 male, 93 female) undergoing primary PCI. The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission UA values. The high UA group (n = 143) was defined as a value in the third tertile (> 5.7 mg/dl), and the low UA group (n = 291) included those patients with a value in the lower two tertiles (≤ 5.7 mg/dl). Clinical characteristics, in-hospital and six-month outcomes of primary PCI were analyzed. Compared to the low UA group, only Killip class > 1 at admission was more prevalent in the high UA group (3.4% vs. 17.5%, p 5.7 mg/dl) was found to be a powerful independent predictor of six-month all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 5.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.903-16.3, p = 0.002). These results suggest that a high level of UA on admission was associated with increased in-hospital cardiovascular mortality, and six-month all-cause mortality in Turkish patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI. Primary angioplasty; ST elevation myocardial infarction; Uric acid.

  11. Integrating structure, conduct and performance into value chain analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana De Figueiredo Junior, H.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Value chain analysis has been adopted by several research and funding institutions for analysing local development opportunities. Development practitioners, however, are still looking for more solid grounds for value chain strategy development, especially since the expected outcomes of

  12. Predictive value of elevated neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergelen, Mehmet; Uyarel, Huseyin; Altay, Servet; Kul, Şeref; Ayhan, Erkan; Isık, Turgay; Kemaloğlu, Tuba; Gül, Mehmet; Sönmez, Osman; Erdoğan, Ercan; Turfan, Murat

    2014-05-01

    The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been investigated as a new predictor for cardiovascular risk. Admission NLR would be predictive of adverse outcomes after primary angioplasty for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 2410 patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty were retrospectively enrolled. The study population was divided into tertiles based on the NLR values. A high NLR (n = 803) was defined as a value in the third tertile (>6.97), and a low NLR (n = 1607) was defined as a value in the lower 2 tertiles (≤6.97). High NLR group had higher incidence of inhospital and long-term cardiovascular mortality (5% vs 1.4%, P 6.97) was found as an independent predictor of inhospital cardiovascular mortality (odds ratio: 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-5.74, P = .005). High NLR level is associated with increased inhospital and long-term cardiovascular mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary angioplasty.

  13. Saturated hydraulic conductivity values of some forest soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple falling-head method is presented for the laboratory determination of saturated hydraulic conductivity of some forest soils of Ghana. Using the procedure, it was found that saturated hydraulic conductivity was positively and negatively correlated with sand content and clay content, respectively, both at P = 0.05 level.

  14. Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of Permian Basin bedded salt at elevated pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, W.B.; Boro, C.O.; Beiriger, J.M.; Montan, D.N.

    1983-10-01

    Measurements of thermal conductivity and diffusivity were made on five core samples of bedded rock salt from the Permian Basin in Texas to determine its suitability as an underground nuclear waste repository. The sample size was 100 mm in diameter by 250 mm in length. Measurements were conducted under confining pressures ranging from 3.8 to 31.0 MPa and temperatures from room temperature to 473 K. Conductivity showed no dependence on confining pressure but evidenced a monotonic, negative temperature dependence. Four of the five samples showed conductivities clustered in a range of 5.6 +- 0.5 W/m.K at room temperature, falling to 3.6 +- 0.3 W/m.K at 473 K. These values are approximately 20% below those for pure halite, reflecting perhaps the 5 to 20%-nonhalite component of the samples. Diffusivity also showed a monotonic, negative temperature dependence, with four of the five samples clustered in a range of 2.7 +- 0.4 x 10 -6 m 2 /s at room temperature, and 1.5 +- 0.3 x 10 -6 m 2 /s at 473 K, all roughly 33% below the values for pure halite. One sample showed an unusually high conductivity (it also had the highest diffusivity), about 20% higher than the others; and one sample showed an unusually low diffusivity (it also had the lowest conductivity), roughly a factor of 2 lower than the others. 27 references, 8 figures, 4 tables

  15. Lower responsiveness of canopy evapotranspiration rate than of leaf stomatal conductance to open-air CO2 elevation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Okada, Masumi

    2013-08-01

    An elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2 ]) can reduce stomatal conductance of leaves for most plant species, including rice (Oryza sativa L.). However, few studies have quantified seasonal changes in the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on canopy evapotranspiration, which integrates the response of stomatal conductance of individual leaves with other responses, such as leaf area expansion, changes in leaf surface temperature, and changes in developmental stages, in field conditions. We conducted a field experiment to measure seasonal changes in stomatal conductance of the uppermost leaves and in the evapotranspiration, transpiration, and evaporation rates using a lysimeter method. The study was conducted for flooded rice under open-air CO2 elevation. Stomatal conductance decreased by 27% under elevated [CO2 ], averaged throughout the growing season, and evapotranspiration decreased by an average of 5% during the same period. The decrease in daily evapotranspiration caused by elevated [CO2 ] was more significantly correlated with air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) rather than with other parameters of solar radiation, days after transplanting, vapor-pressure deficit and FAO reference evapotranspiration. This indicates that higher air temperatures, within the range from 16 to 27 °C, and a larger LAI, within the range from 0 to 4 m(2)  m(-2) , can increase the magnitude of the decrease in evapotranspiration rate caused by elevated [CO2 ]. The crop coefficient (i.e. the evapotranspiration rate divided by the FAO reference evapotranspiration rate) was 1.24 at ambient [CO2 ] and 1.17 at elevated [CO2 ]. This study provides the first direct measurement of the effects of elevated [CO2 ] on rice canopy evapotranspiration under open-air conditions using the lysimeter method, and the results will improve future predictions of water use in rice fields. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Analysis of the austenitic stainless steel's r-value behavior at elevated temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Dušan Arsić; Milan Djordjević; Srbislav Aleksandrović; Vukić Lazić; Ruzica R. Nikolic; Branislav Hadzima

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the anisotropy properties of austenitic steel AISI 304 (X5CrNi18-10) at elevated temperatures is presented in this paper. Considerations of the anisotropy problems are presented in the theoretical part of the paper, as well as the procedure for determination of the normal anisotropy coefficient. The experimental part of the paper describes the plan, methodology and equipment for testing of material's normal anisotropy and mechanical characteristics. The objective of conducting ...

  17. Selective effects of potassium elevations on glutamate signaling and action potential conduction in hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeks, Julian P; Mennerick, Steven

    2004-01-07

    High-frequency synaptic transmission is depressed by moderate rises in the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o). Previous reports have indicated that depression of action potential signaling may underlie the synaptic depression. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of K+-induced action potential changes to synaptic depression. We found that glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampal area CA1 was significantly depressed by 8-10 mM [K+]o, but that GABAergic transmission remained intact. Riluzole, a drug that slows recovery from inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs), interacts with subthreshold [K+]o to depress afferent volleys and EPSCs strongly. Thus, elevated [K+]o likely depresses synapses by slowing NaCh recovery from inactivation. It is unclear from previous studies whether [K+]o-induced action potential depression is caused by changes in initiation, reliability, or waveform. We investigated these possibilities explicitly. [K+]o-induced afferent volley depression was independent of stimulus strength, suggesting that changes in action potential initiation do not explain [K+]o-induced depression. Measurements of action potentials from single axons revealed that 8 mM [K+]o increased conduction failures in a subpopulation of fibers and depressed action potential amplitude in all fibers. Together, these changes quantitatively account for the afferent volley depression. We estimate that conduction failure explains more than half of the synaptic depression observed at 8 mM [K+]o, with the remaining depression likely explained by waveform changes. These mechanisms of selective sensitivity of glutamate release to [K+]o accumulation represent a unique neuromodulatory mechanism and a brake on runaway excitation.

  18. Clinical relevance and discriminatory value of elevated liver aminotransferase levels for dengue severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Gan, Victor C; Lee, Vernon J; Tan, Adriana S; Leo, Yee Sin; Lye, David C

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is prominent in acute dengue illness. The World Health Organization (WHO) 2009 dengue guidelines defined AST or ALT ≥ 1000 units/liter (U/L) as a criterion for severe dengue. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance and discriminatory value of AST or ALT for dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and severe dengue. We retrospectively studied and classified polymerase chain reaction positive dengue patients from 2006 to 2008 treated at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore according to WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria for dengue severity. Of 690 dengue patients, 31% had DHF and 24% severe dengue. Elevated AST and ALT occurred in 86% and 46%, respectively. Seven had AST or ALT ≥ 1000 U/L. None had acute liver failure but one patient died. Median AST and ALT values were significantly higher with increasing dengue severity by both WHO 1997 and 2009 criteria. However, they were poorly discriminatory between non-severe and severe dengue (e.g., AST area under the receiver operating characteristic [ROC] curve=0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.67) and between dengue fever (DF) and DHF (AST area under the ROC curve=0.56; 95% CI: 0.52-0.61). There was significant overlap in AST and ALT values among patients with dengue with or without warning signs and severe dengue, and between those with DF and DHF. Although aminotransferase levels increased in conjunction with dengue severity, AST or ALT values did not discriminate between DF and DHF or non-severe and severe dengue.

  19. Prognostic value of elevated mean platelet volume in patients undergoing primary angioplasty for ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgul, Ozgur; Uyarel, Huseyin; Pusuroglu, Hamdi; Gul, Mehmet; Isiksacan, Nilgun; Turen, Selahattin; Erturk, Mehmet; Surgit, Ozgur; Cetin, Mustafa; Bulut, Umit; Baycan, Omer Faruk; Uslu, Nevzat

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of mean platelet volume (MPV) in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We prospectively enrolled 495 consecutive STEMI patients.The study population was divided into tertiles based on admission MPV values. The high MPV group (n= 148) was defined as a value in the third tertile (> 8.9), and the low MPV group (n = 347) included those patients with a value in the lower two tertiles ( 8.9) was found to be a powerful independent predictor of six-month all-cause mortality. These results suggest that a high admission MPV level was associated with increased six-month all-cause mortality in patients with STEMI undergoing primary PCI.

  20. Effect of Surrogate Aggregates on the Thermal Conductivity of Concrete at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sup Yun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The accurate assessment of the thermal conductivity of concretes is an important part of building design in terms of thermal efficiency and thermal performance of materials at various temperatures. We present an experimental assessment of the thermal conductivity of five thermally insulated concrete specimens made using lightweight aggregates and glass bubbles in place of normal aggregates. Four different measurement methods are used to assess the reliability of the thermal data and to evaluate the effects of the various sensor types. The concrete specimens are also assessed at every 100°C during heating to ~800°C. Normal concrete is shown to have a thermal conductivity of ~2.25 W m−1 K−1. The surrogate aggregates effectively reduce the conductivity to ~1.25 W m−1 K−1 at room temperature. The aggregate size is shown not to affect thermal conduction: fine and coarse aggregates each lead to similar results. Surface contact methods of assessment tend to underestimate thermal conductivity, presumably owing to high thermal resistance between the transducers and the specimens. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that the stages of mass loss of the cement paste correspond to the evolution of thermal conductivity upon heating.

  1. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thyparambil Aravindakshan Pramodkumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT. Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143-<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI, waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143-<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05 compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT.

  2. Fundamentals of ionic conductivity relaxation gained from study of procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride at ambient and elevated pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojnarowska, Z; Swiety-Pospiech, A; Grzybowska, K; Hawelek, L; Paluch, M; Ngai, K L

    2012-04-28

    The pharmaceuticals, procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride, are glass-forming as well as ionically conducting materials. We have made dielectric measurements at ambient and elevated pressures to characterize the dynamics of the ion conductivity relaxation in these pharmaceuticals, and calorimetric measurements for the structural relaxation. Perhaps due to their special chemical and physical structures, novel features are found in the ionic conductivity relaxation of these pharmaceuticals. Data of conductivity relaxation in most ionic conductors when represented by the electric loss modulus usually show a single resolved peak in the electric modulus loss M(")(f) spectra. However, in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride we find in addition another resolved loss peak at higher frequencies over a temperature range spanning across T(g). The situation is analogous to many non-ionic glass-formers showing the presence of the structural α-relaxation together with the Johari-Goldstein (JG) β-relaxation. Naturally the analogy leads us to name the slower and faster processes resolved in procaine hydrochloride and procainamide hydrochloride as the primary α-conductivity relaxation and the secondary β-conductivity relaxation, respectively. The analogy of the β-conductivity relaxation in procaine HCl and procainamide HCl with JG β-relaxation in non-ionic glass-formers goes further by the finding that the β-conductivity is strongly related to the α-conductivity relaxation at temperatures above and below T(g). At elevated pressure but compensated by raising temperature to maintain α-conductivity relaxation time constant, the data show invariance of the ratio between the β- and the α-conductivity relaxation times to changes of thermodynamic condition. This property indicates that the β-conductivity relaxation has fundamental importance and is indispensable as the precursor of the α-conductivity relaxation, analogous to the relation found

  3. Calculation of thermal conductivity of gypsum plasterboards at ambient and elevated temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2010-01-01

    Plasterboard often protects steel structures of buildings because it conducts heat slowly and absorbs the heat of the fire by its volumetric enthalpy. The most important property governing the heat transfer is the thermal diffusion. This property depends on the density, specific heat and thermal

  4. Prognostic value of dynamic electrocardiographic T wave changes in non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarak, Bradley; Goodman, Shaun G; Yan, Raymond T; Tan, Mary K; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Tan, Nigel S; Fox, Keith A A; Udell, Jacob A; Brieger, David; Welsh, Robert C; Gale, Chris P; Yan, Andrew T

    2016-09-01

    To assess the relationship between the evolution of T wave inversion (TWI) on the 24-48 h postadmission ECG and the patient characteristics, management and clinical outcomes among those with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS). We evaluated admission and 24-48 h follow-up ECGs of 7201 patients with NSTE-ACS from the prospective, multicentre Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Canadian ACS Registry I. We performed multivariable analyses to determine the association between new TWI (on follow-up ECG only), resolved TWI (on admission ECG only) and persistent TWI (on both admission and follow-up ECG) and inhospital and cumulative 6-month all-cause mortality. Patients with TWI were older, more likely to have cardiovascular risk factors, higher Killip class and GRACE risk scores. After adjustment for known prognostic factors, compared with patients presenting without TWI, new TWI was associated with significantly lower inhospital mortality (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.95, p=0.029), whereas resolved (OR=1.06, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.75, p=0.81) and persistent (OR=0.73, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.11, p=0.14) TWI did not predict inhospital mortality. No TWI pattern independently predicted inhospital adverse cardiovascular events or cumulative 6-month mortality. In contrast, ST depression on the admission and follow-up ECG were independent predictors of inhospital and 6-month mortality. Across the spectrum of NSTE-ACS, TWI within 48 h of presentation was associated with high-risk clinical features, but its presence or dynamic change did not provide additional prognostic value beyond other established clinical predictors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Six Conductivity Values to Use in the Bidomain Model of Cardiac Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Barbara M

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this work is to produce a consistent set of six conductivity values for use in the bidomain model of cardiac tissue. Studies in 2007 by Hooks et al. and in 2009 by Caldwell et al. have found that, in the directions longitudinal:transverse:normal (l:t:n) to the cardiac fibers, ratios of bulk conductivities and conduction velocities are each approximately in the ratio 4:2:1. These results are used here as the basis for a method that can find sets of six normalized bidomain conductivity values. It is found that the ratios involving transverse and normal conductivities are quite consistent, allowing new light to be shed on conductivity in the normal direction. For example, it is found that the ratio of transverse to normal conductivity is much greater in the intracellular (i) than the extracellular (e) domain. Using parameter values from experimental studies leads to the proposal of a new nominal six conductivity dataset: gil=2.4, gel=2.4, git=0.35, get=2.0, gin=0.08, and gen=1.1 (all in mS/cm). When it is used to model partial thickness ischaemia, this dataset produces epicardial potential distributions in accord with experimental studies in an animal model. It is, therefore, suggested that the dataset is suitable for use in numerical simulations. Since the bidomain approach is the most commonly used method for modeling cardiac electrophysiological phenomena, new information about conductivity in the normal direction, as well as a consistent set of six conductivity values, is valuable for researchers who perform simulation studies.

  6. Effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN at elevated temperatures – theory and experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Paskov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Si doping on the thermal conductivity of bulk GaN was studied both theoretically and experimentally. The thermal conductivity of samples grown by Hydride Phase Vapor Epitaxy (HVPE with Si concentration ranging from 1.6×1016 to 7×1018 cm-3 was measured at room temperature and above using the 3ω method. The room temperature thermal conductivity was found to decrease with increasing Si concentration. The highest value of 245±5 W/m.K measured for the undoped sample was consistent with the previously reported data for free-standing HVPE grown GaN. In all samples, the thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature. In our previous study, we found that the slope of the temperature dependence of the thermal conductivity gradually decreased with increasing Si doping. Additionally, at temperatures above 350 K the thermal conductivity in the highest doped sample (7×1018 cm-3 was higher than that of lower doped samples. In this work, a modified Callaway model adopted for n-type GaN at high temperatures was developed in order to explain such unusual behavior. The experimental data was analyzed with examination of the contributions of all relevant phonon scattering processes. A reasonable match between the measured and theoretically predicted thermal conductivity was obtained. It was found that in n-type GaN with low dislocation densities the phonon-free-electron scattering becomes an important resistive process at higher temperatures. At the highest free electron concentrations, the electronic thermal conductivity was suggested to play a role in addition to the lattice thermal conductivity and compete with the effect of the phonon-point-defect and phonon-free-electron scattering.

  7. Feasibility and normal values of an integrated conductivity (Nanoduct™) sweat test system in healthy newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehni, Claudia E; Schindler, Matthias; Mazur, Agnieszka; Malzacher, Andreas; Hornung, René; Barben, Juerg

    2017-07-01

    Nanoduct™ is a simple and practical sweat analysis system measuring conductivity in situ. It requires only three microlitres of sweat, making it especially applicable to newborns. We measured conductivity in 260 healthy term infants at the age of four days, and again at four weeks to determine the proportion of successful tests, test duration, and normal values for sweat conductivity in newborns. Sufficient sweat was collected in 159/260 of four-day olds (61%), and in 225/239 of four-week olds (94%). Mean (sd) test duration was 27 (5) and 25 (5) min. Mean (sd, range) conductivity was 53mmol/l (16, 8-114) at age four days, and 36 (9, 12-64) at four weeks. Determination of sweat conductivity using Nanoduct™ cannot be recommended for four-day old newborns. However, at the age of four weeks the success rate is high (94%), and conductivity values at that age are comparable to older healthy children. Copyright © 2017 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odabasi, Zeki; Oh, Shin J

    2018-03-01

    In this study we report the diagnostic value of the near-nerve needle sensory nerve conduction study (NNN-SNCS) in sensory inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (IDP) in which the routine nerve conduction study was normal or non-diagnostic. The NNN-SNCS was performed to identify demyelination in the plantar nerves in 14 patients and in the median or ulnar nerve in 2 patients with sensory IDP. In 16 patients with sensory IDP, routine NCSs were either normal or non-diagnostic for demyelination. Demyelination was identified by NNN-SNCS by dispersion and/or slow nerve conduction velocity (NCV) below the demyelination marker. Immunotherapy was initiated in 11 patients, 10 of whom improved or remained stable. NNN-SNCS played an essential role in identifying demyelinaton in 16 patients with sensory IDP, leading to proper treatment. Muscle Nerve 57: 414-418, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Proton conductance at elevated temperature:Formulation and investigation of poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid / 4-aminobenzylamine / phosphoric acid membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal eJalili

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available 4-aminobenzylamine and phosphoric acid were blended in various proportions with poly (4-styrenesulfonic acid to form a new group of membranes exhibiting proton conductance under water-free conditions. The 4-aminobenzylamine molecule, possessing an aniline-like and benzylamine-like functional group, can interact both with the phosphoric acid and the poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid via nucleophilic interaction, thereby allowing proton jumping in the structure. Physico-chemical and thermal characteristics of the prepared solid membranes were investigated by IR spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis, respectively. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was employed to investigate their proton-conductance properties. Transparent composite membranes were prepared. However, the membranes are opaque for relatively high content of phosphoric acid. These membranes are thermally stable up to 300°C. The proton conductivity increases with temperature and also with content of phosphoric acid. Values as high as 1.8×10–3 S cm–1 were measured at 190°C in fully anhydrous condition.

  10. [Hypoglycaemic coma due to falsely elevated glucose values in a patient with diabetes mellitus and peritoneal dialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, W A; Bruijns, R H J; Vastenburg, G; Wouters, R S M E

    2006-07-15

    A 45-year-old female diabetes-mellitus patient on peritoneal dialysis was admitted because of vertigo. During her stay in hospital she developed a comatose condition with abnormal head posture and deviation ofthe eyes to the left. Capillary blood from the fingertip showed a glucose value of 15.4 mmol/l. However, the automatically obtained glucose value delivered with a blood-gas analysis was found to be 1.2 mmol/l. The neurological state of the patient normalised fully after intravenous glucose administration. The glucose values were falsely elevated because the patient used a peritoneal dialysis fluid at night which contained icodextrin as an osmotic agent. Metabolites of icodextrin can influence blood-glucose measurements taken using analyzers that depend on the enzyme glucose dehydrogenase. To prevent potentially life-threatening situations, the use of an adequate glucose meter is of paramount importance.

  11. Effects Of Elevated Ozone On Leaf {delta} {sup 13} C And Leaf Conductance Of Plant Species Grown In Semi-Natural Grassland With Or Without Irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M.; Saurer, M.; Volk, M. [Agroscope-FAL (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope-FAL (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    At the Swiss prealpine site Le Mouret (754 m a.s.l. 46deg 45min N / 7deg 10min E), semi-natural grassland species were kept under ambient or elevated ozone, paired with or without additional irrigation. Two of the four investigated grassland species showed an additive increase in {sup 13}C-values under drought and elevated ozone conditions. (author)

  12. Digital Elevation Model Correction for the thalweg values of Obion River system, TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullo, T. T.; Bhuyian, M. N. M.; Hawkins, S. A.; Kalyanapu, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Obion River system is located in North-West Tennessee and discharges into the Mississippi River. To facilitate US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to estimate water availability for agricultural consumption a one-dimensional HEC-RAS model has been proposed. The model incorporates the major tributaries (north and south), main stem of Obion River along with a segment of the Mississippi River. A one-meter spatial resolution Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was used as the primary source of topographic data. LiDAR provides fine-resolution terrain data over given extent. However, it lacks in accurate representation of river bathymetry due to limited penetration beyond a certain water depth. This reduces the conveyance along river channel as represented by the DEM and affects the hydrodynamic modeling performance. This research focused on proposing a method to overcome this issue and test the qualitative improvement by the proposed method over an existing technique. Therefore, objective of this research is to compare effectiveness of a HEC-RAS based bathymetry optimization method with an existing hydraulic based DEM correction technique (Bhuyian et al., 2014) for Obion River system in Tennessee. Accuracy of hydrodynamic simulations (upon employing bathymetry from respective sources) would be regarded as the indicator of performance. The aforementioned river system includes nine major reaches with a total river length of 310 km. The bathymetry of the river was represented via 315 cross sections equally spaced at about one km. This study targeted to selecting best practice for treating LiDAR based terrain data over complex river system at a sub-watershed scale.

  13. Soybean leaf hydraulic conductance does not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2] or temperature in growth chambers or in the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Anna M; Sack, Lawren; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2013-09-01

    Leaf hydraulic properties are strongly linked with transpiration and photosynthesis in many species. However, it is not known if gas exchange and hydraulics will have co-ordinated responses to climate change. The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) in Glycine max (soybean) to growth at elevated [CO2] and increased temperature compared with the responses of leaf gas exchange and leaf water status. Two controlled-environment growth chamber experiments were conducted with soybean to measure Kleaf, stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthesis (A) during growth at elevated [CO2] and temperature relative to ambient levels. These results were validated with field experiments on soybean grown under free-air elevated [CO2] (FACE) and canopy warming. In chamber studies, Kleaf did not acclimate to growth at elevated [CO2], even though stomatal conductance decreased and photosynthesis increased. Growth at elevated temperature also did not affect Kleaf, although gs and A showed significant but inconsistent decreases. The lack of response of Kleaf to growth at increased [CO2] and temperature in chamber-grown plants was confirmed with field-grown soybean at a FACE facility. Leaf hydraulic and leaf gas exchange responses to these two climate change factors were not strongly linked in soybean, although gs responded to [CO2] and increased temperature as previously reported. This differential behaviour could lead to an imbalance between hydraulic supply and transpiration demand under extreme environmental conditions likely to become more common as global climate continues to change.

  14. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  15. Evaluation of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for inferring hydraulic conductivity values at Aespoe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Pointe, P.R.

    1994-11-01

    This report describes the comparison of stationary and non-stationary geostatistical models for the purpose of inferring block-scale hydraulic conductivity values from packer tests at Aespoe. The comparison between models is made through the evaluation of cross-validation statistics for three experimental designs. The first experiment consisted of a 'Delete-1' test previously used at Finnsjoen. The second test consisted of 'Delete-10%' and the third test was a 'Delete-50%' test. Preliminary data analysis showed that the 3 m and 30 m packer test data can be treated as a sample from a single population for the purposes of geostatistical analyses. Analysis of the 3 m data does not indicate that there are any systematic statistical changes with depth, rock type, fracture zone vs non-fracture zone or other mappable factor. Directional variograms are ambiguous to interpret due to the clustered nature of the data, but do not show any obvious anisotropy that should be accounted for in geostatistical analysis. Stationary analysis suggested that there exists a sizeable spatially uncorrelated component ('Nugget Effect') in the 3 m data, on the order of 60% of the observed variance for the various models fitted. Four different nested models were automatically fit to the data. Results for all models in terms of cross-validation statistics were very similar for the first set of validation tests. Non-stationary analysis established that both the order of drift and the order of the intrinsic random functions is low. This study also suggests that conventional cross-validation studies and automatic variogram fitting are not necessarily evaluating how well a model will infer block scale hydraulic conductivity values. 20 refs, 20 figs, 14 tabs

  16. Acclimation of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated CO2 (free-air CO2 enrichment) and N-fertilizationpce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Christophe Domec; Sari Palmroth; Eric Ward; Chris Maier; M. Therezien; Ram Oren

    2009-01-01

    We investigated how leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) of loblolly pine trees is influenced by soil nitrogen amendment (N) in stands subjected to ambient or elevated CO2 concentrations CO2 a and CO2 e, respectively). We also examined how Kleaf varies with changes in reference leaf water potential (...

  17. Prognostic value of sustained elevated C-reactive protein levels in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitai, Takeshi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Kim, Kitae; Ehara, Natsuhiko; Tani, Tomoko; Kinoshita, Makoto; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The appropriate management of aortic intramural hematoma is still controversial, because a variety of aortic events can arise during follow-up in some patients. However, simplified identification of these patients remains challenging. The present study aimed to determine the prognostic significance of serial C-reactive protein measurements for the prediction of adverse events in patients with acute aortic intramural hematoma. A total of 180 patients with aortic intramural hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. The C-reactive protein data were obtained at admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, and the maximum value was obtained during the acute phase. Adverse aorta-related events were defined by a composite of aortic rupture, aortic aneurysm, and surgical or endovascular aortic repair. The C-reactive protein value was 3.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 5.9, 9.0 ± 5.5, and 5.7 ± 4.5 mg/dL on admission and 2 days, 1 week, and 2 weeks from the onset, respectively. The maximal value of C-reactive protein was 12.4 ± 6.3 mg/dL at a mean of 4 days from the onset. Patients with elevated C-reactive protein levels (≥7.2 mg/dL) at 2 weeks had significantly greater rates of aorta-related events (P analysis, an elevated C-reactive protein level at 2 weeks (hazard ratio, 3.16; P value compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection (chi-square, 16.94 for ulcer-like projection only vs 34.32 with the addition of C-reactive protein at 2 weeks, P < .001). C-reactive protein was a simple and useful marker providing incremental prognostic information compared with the development of an ulcer-like projection in patients with aortic intramural hematoma. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The predictive value of P-wave duration by signal-averaged electrocardiogram in acute ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shturman, Alexander; Bickel, Amitai; Atar, Shaul

    2012-08-01

    The prognostic value of P-wave duration has been previously evaluated by signal-averaged ECG (SAECG) in patients with various arrhythmias not associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To investigate the clinical correlates and prognostic value of P-wave duration in patients with ST elevation AMI (STEMI). The patients (n = 89) were evaluated on the first, second and third day after admission, as well as one week and one month post-AMI. Survival was determined 2 years after the index STEMI. In comparison with the upper normal range of P-wave duration ( 40% (128.79 +/- 28 msec) (P = 0.001). P-wave duration above 120 msec was significantly correlated with increased complication rate; namely, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia (36%), congestive heart failure (41%), atrial fibrillation (11%), recurrent angina (14%), and re-infarction (8%) (P = 0.012, odds ratio 4.267, 95% confidence interval 1.37-13.32). P-wave duration of 126 msec on the day of admission was found to have the highest predictive value for in-hospital complications including LVEF 40% (area under the curve 0.741, P < 0.001). However, we did not find a significant correlation between P-wave duration and mortality after multivariate analysis. P-wave duration as evaluated by SAECG correlates negatively with LVEF post-STEMI, and P-wave duration above 126 msec can be utilized as a non-invasive predictor of in-hospital complications and low LVEF following STEMI.

  19. The Effects of Elevated Specific Conductivity on the Chronic Toxicity of Mining Influenced Streams Using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstead, Mindy Yeager; Bitzer-Creathers, Leah; Wilson, Mandee

    2016-01-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities has markedly increased in recent years. Much attention is currently directed at evaluating the effects of increased salinity on freshwater biota. In the Central Appalachian region of the eastern United States, specific conductance from alkaline discharges associated with mountain top mining practices has been implicated in macroinvertebrate community declines in streams receiving coal mining discharges. Whole effluent toxicity testing of receiving stream water was used to test the hypothesis that mine discharges are toxic to laboratory test organisms and further, that toxicity is related to ionic concentrations as indicated by conductivity. Chronic toxicity testing using Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted by contract laboratories at 72 sites with a total of 129 tests over a 3.5 year period. The database was evaluated to determine the ionic composition of mine effluent dominated streams and whether discharge constituents were related to toxicity in C. dubia. As expected, sulfate was found to be the dominant anion in streams receiving mining discharges with bicarbonate variable and sometimes a substantial component of the dissolved solids. Overall, the temporal variability in conductance was low at each site which would indicate fairly stable water quality conditions. Results of the toxicity tests show no relationship between conductance and survival of C. dubia in the mining influenced streams with the traditional toxicity test endpoints. However, consideration of the entire dataset revealed a significant inverse relationship between conductivity and neonate production. While conductivity explained very little of the high variability in the offspring production (r2 = 0.1304), the average numbers of offspring were consistently less than 20 neonates at the highest conductivities.

  20. The Effects of Elevated Specific Conductivity on the Chronic Toxicity of Mining Influenced Streams Using Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindy Yeager Armstead

    Full Text Available Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities has markedly increased in recent years. Much attention is currently directed at evaluating the effects of increased salinity on freshwater biota. In the Central Appalachian region of the eastern United States, specific conductance from alkaline discharges associated with mountain top mining practices has been implicated in macroinvertebrate community declines in streams receiving coal mining discharges. Whole effluent toxicity testing of receiving stream water was used to test the hypothesis that mine discharges are toxic to laboratory test organisms and further, that toxicity is related to ionic concentrations as indicated by conductivity. Chronic toxicity testing using Ceriodaphnia dubia was conducted by contract laboratories at 72 sites with a total of 129 tests over a 3.5 year period. The database was evaluated to determine the ionic composition of mine effluent dominated streams and whether discharge constituents were related to toxicity in C. dubia. As expected, sulfate was found to be the dominant anion in streams receiving mining discharges with bicarbonate variable and sometimes a substantial component of the dissolved solids. Overall, the temporal variability in conductance was low at each site which would indicate fairly stable water quality conditions. Results of the toxicity tests show no relationship between conductance and survival of C. dubia in the mining influenced streams with the traditional toxicity test endpoints. However, consideration of the entire dataset revealed a significant inverse relationship between conductivity and neonate production. While conductivity explained very little of the high variability in the offspring production (r2 = 0.1304, the average numbers of offspring were consistently less than 20 neonates at the highest conductivities.

  1. Plasma bilirubin values on admission and ventricular remodeling after a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Berta; Barrabés, José A; Figueras, Jaume; Pineda, Victor; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Lidón, Rosa-Maria; Sambola, Antonia; Bañeras, Jordi; Otaegui, Imanol; García-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin may elicit cardiovascular protection and heme oxygenase-1 overexpression attenuated post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and post-infarction remodeling is unknown. In 145 patients with a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), we assessed whether plasma bilirubin on admission predicted adverse remodeling (left ventricular end-diastolic volume [LVEDV] increase ≥20% between discharge and 6 months, estimated by magnetic resonance imaging). Patients' baseline characteristics and management were comparable among bilirubin tertiles. LVEDV increased at 6 months (P bilirubin tertiles (10.8 [30.2], 10.1 [22.9], and 12.7 [24.3]%, P = 0.500). Median (25-75 percentile) bilirubin values in patients with and without adverse remodeling were 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.73 (0.60-0.92) mg/dL (P = 0.693). Absence of final TIMI flow grade 3 (odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.12-13.66) and a history of hypertension (2.04, 0.93-4.50), but not admission bilirubin, were independently associated with adverse remodeling. Bilirubin also did not predict the increase in ejection fraction at 6 months. Admission bilirubin values are not related to LVEDV or ejection fraction progression after a first anterior STEMI and do not predict adverse ventricular remodeling. Key messages Bilirubin levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease, and overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (the enzyme that determines bilirubin production) has prevented post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and the progression of ventricular volumes and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction remained unexplored. In this cohort of patients with a first acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving contemporary management, bilirubin levels on admission were not predictive of the changes in left

  2. Inorganic-based proton conductive composite membranes for elevated temperature and reduced relative humidity PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunmei

    Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells are regarded as highly promising energy conversion systems for future transportation and stationary power generation and have been under intensive investigations for the last decade. Unfortunately, cutting edge PEM fuel cell design and components still do not allow economically commercial implementation of this technology. The main obstacles are high cost of proton conductive membranes, low-proton conductivity at low relative humidity (RH), and dehydration and degradation of polymer membranes at high temperatures. The objective of this study was to develop a systematic approach to design a high proton conductive composite membrane that can provide a conductivity of approximately 100 mS cm-1 under hot and dry conditions (120°C and 50% RH). The approach was based on fundamental and experimental studies of the proton conductivity of inorganic additives and composite membranes. We synthesized and investigated a variety of organic-inorganic Nafion-based composite membranes. In particular, we analyzed their fundamental properties, which included thermal stability, morphology, the interaction between inorganic network and Nafion clusters, and the effect of inorganic phase on the membrane conductivity. A wide range of inorganic materials was studied in advance in order to select the proton conductive inorganic additives for composite membranes. We developed a conductivity measurement method, with which the proton conductivity characteristics of solid acid materials, zirconium phosphates, sulfated zirconia (S-ZrO2), phosphosilicate gels, and Santa Barbara Amorphous silica (SBA-15) were discussed in detail. Composite membranes containing Nafion and different amounts of functionalized inorganic additives (sulfated inorganics such as S-ZrO2, SBA-15, Mobil Composition of Matter MCM-41, and S-SiO2, and phosphonated inorganic P-SiO2) were synthesized with different methods. We incorporated inorganic particles within Nafion clusters

  3. The Model of Transformational Change for Moral Action: A Conceptual Framework to Elevate Student Conduct Practice in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeister, James R.

    2017-01-01

    Higher education faces heightened scrutiny regarding student misconduct, but collegiate disciplinary processes often have minimal impact on students. Their ineffectiveness is partially attributable to the absence of a conceptual framework that guides conduct administration by linking theory, practice, and outcomes. This article presents a…

  4. Defect structure of yttria-stabilized zirconia and its influence on the ionic conductivity at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goff, J.P.; Hayes, W.; Hull, S.

    1999-01-01

    The defect structure of cubic fluorite structured yttria-stabilized zirconia (ZrO2)(1-x)(Y2O3)(x) has been investigated over the composition range 0.100(3)less than or equal to x less than or equal to 0.241 (10) and temperatures T(K) up to 2780(10) K, using single-crystal specimens. Analysis of n......, we propose that the anomalous decrease in the ionic conductivity with increasing x is a consequence of the decreasing mobility of the isolated defects, possibly due to blockage by the increasing number of static aggregates....

  5. Predictive values of D-dimer assay, GRACE scores and TIMI scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satilmisoglu MH

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Muhammet Hulusi Satilmisoglu,1 Sinem Ozbay Ozyilmaz,1 Mehmet Gul,1 Hayriye Ak Yildirim,2 Osman Kayapinar,3 Kadir Gokturk,4 Huseyin Aksu,1 Korhan Erkanli,5 Abdurrahman Eksik1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Biochemistry, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 3Department of Cardiology, Duzce University Faculty of Medicine, Duzce, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, 5Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To determine the predictive values of D-dimer assay, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI risk scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI.Patients and methods: A total of 234 patients (mean age: 57.2±11.7 years, 75.2% were males hospitalized with NSTEMI were included. Data on D-dimer assay, GRACE and TIMI risk scores were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors predicting increased mortality.Results: Median D-dimer levels were 349.5 (48.0–7,210.0 ng/mL, the average TIMI score was 3.2±1.2 and the GRACE score was 90.4±27.6 with high GRACE scores (>118 in 17.5% of patients. The GRACE score was correlated positively with both the D-dimer assay (r=0.215, P=0.01 and TIMI scores (r=0.504, P=0.000. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher creatinine levels (odds ratio =18.465, 95% confidence interval: 1.059–322.084, P=0.046 constituted the only significant predictor of increased mortality risk with no predictive values for age, D-dimer assay, ejection fraction, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, sodium, albumin or total cholesterol levels for mortality.Conclusion: Serum creatinine levels constituted the sole independent determinant of mortality risk, with no significant values for D

  6. The Added Value of Conducting Learning Design Meeting to the Online Course Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Do you find it challenging to have discussions with instructors about designing online courses and best practices in teaching? This article will highlight key components to conducting effective Learning Design meetings. It outlines techniques used by this institution that inspires faculty to design coherent courses that lead to meaningful learning…

  7. Predictive values of D-dimer assay, GRACE scores and TIMI scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satilmisoglu, Muhammet Hulusi; Ozyilmaz, Sinem Ozbay; Gul, Mehmet; Ak Yildirim, Hayriye; Kayapinar, Osman; Gokturk, Kadir; Aksu, Huseyin; Erkanli, Korhan; Eksik, Abdurrahman

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive values of D-dimer assay, Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores for adverse outcome in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). Patients and methods A total of 234 patients (mean age: 57.2±11.7 years, 75.2% were males) hospitalized with NSTEMI were included. Data on D-dimer assay, GRACE and TIMI risk scores were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors predicting increased mortality. Results Median D-dimer levels were 349.5 (48.0–7,210.0) ng/mL, the average TIMI score was 3.2±1.2 and the GRACE score was 90.4±27.6 with high GRACE scores (>118) in 17.5% of patients. The GRACE score was correlated positively with both the D-dimer assay (r=0.215, P=0.01) and TIMI scores (r=0.504, P=0.000). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that higher creatinine levels (odds ratio =18.465, 95% confidence interval: 1.059–322.084, P=0.046) constituted the only significant predictor of increased mortality risk with no predictive values for age, D-dimer assay, ejection fraction, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, sodium, albumin or total cholesterol levels for mortality. Conclusion Serum creatinine levels constituted the sole independent determinant of mortality risk, with no significant values for D-dimer assay, GRACE or TIMI scores for predicting the risk of mortality in NSTEMI patients. PMID:28408834

  8. A parametric model for the changes in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordebo, Sven; Dalarsson, Mariana; Khodadad, Davood; Müller, Beat; Waldman, Andreas D.; Becher, Tobias; Frerichs, Inez; Sophocleous, Louiza; Sjöberg, Daniel; Seifnaraghi, Nima; Bayford, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Classical homogenization theory based on the Hashin–Shtrikman coated ellipsoids is used to model the changes in the complex valued conductivity (or admittivity) of a lung during tidal breathing. Here, the lung is modeled as a two-phase composite material where the alveolar air-filling corresponds to the inclusion phase. The theory predicts a linear relationship between the real and the imaginary parts of the change in the complex valued conductivity of a lung during tidal breathing, and where the loss cotangent of the change is approximately the same as of the effective background conductivity and hence easy to estimate. The theory is illustrated with numerical examples based on realistic parameter values and frequency ranges used with electrical impedance tomography (EIT). The theory may be potentially useful for imaging and clinical evaluations in connection with lung EIT for respiratory management and control.

  9. Predictive Value of Plasma Glucose Level on Admission for Short and Long Term Mortality in Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebers, Loes P.; Damman, Peter; Claessen, Bimmer E.; Vis, Marije M.; Baan, Jan; van Straalen, Jan P.; Fischer, Johan; Koch, Karel T.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Piek, Jan J.; Henriques, Jose P. S.

    2012-01-01

    Published reports describe a strong association between plasma glucose levels on admission and mortality in patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of admission glucose

  10. Homocysteine enhances the predictive value of the GRACE risk score in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Wang, Jianjun; Zhang, Sumei; Wan, Zhaofei; Zhou, Dong; Ding, Yanhong; He, Qinli; Xie, Ping

    2017-09-01

    The present study aims to investigate whether the addition of homocysteine level to the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) risk score enhances its predictive value for clinical outcomes in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). A total of 1143 consecutive patients with STEMI were included in this prospective cohort study. Homocysteine was detected, and the GRACE score was calculated. The predictive power of the GRACE score alone or combined with homocysteine was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, methods of net reclassification improvement (NRI) and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During a median follow-up period of 36.7 months, 271 (23.7%) patients reached the clinical endpoints. It showed that the GRACE score and homocysteine could independently predict all-cause death [GRACE: HR=1.031 (1.024-1.039), p<0.001; homocysteine: HR=1.023 (1.018-1.028), p<0.001] and MACE [GRACE: HR=1.008 (1.005-1.011), p<0.001; homocysteine: HR=1.022 (1.018-1.025), p<0.001]. When they were used in combination to assess the clinical outcomes, the area under the ROC curve significantly increased from 0.786 to 0.884 (95% CI=0.067-0.128, Z=6.307, p<0.001) for all-cause death and from 0.678 to 0.759 (95% CI=0.055-0.108, Z=5.943, p<0.001) for MACE. The addition of homocysteine to the GRACE model improved NRI (all-cause death: 0.575, p<0.001; MACE: 0.621, p=0.008) and IDI (all-cause death: 0.083, p<0.001; MACE: 0.130, p=0.016), indicating effective discrimination and reclassification. Both the GRACE score and homocysteine are significant and independent predictors for clinical outcomes in patients with STEMI. A combination of them can develop a more predominant prediction for clinical outcomes in these patients.

  11. Integral methods of solving boundary-value problems of nonstationary heat conduction and their comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, V. A.

    2017-11-01

    The modern state of approximate integral methods used in applications, where the processes of heat conduction and heat and mass transfer are of first importance, is considered. Integral methods have found a wide utility in different fields of knowledge: problems of heat conduction with different heat-exchange conditions, simulation of thermal protection, Stefantype problems, microwave heating of a substance, problems on a boundary layer, simulation of a fluid flow in a channel, thermal explosion, laser and plasma treatment of materials, simulation of the formation and melting of ice, inverse heat problems, temperature and thermal definition of nanoparticles and nanoliquids, and others. Moreover, polynomial solutions are of interest because the determination of a temperature (concentration) field is an intermediate stage in the mathematical description of any other process. The following main methods were investigated on the basis of the error norms: the Tsoi and Postol’nik methods, the method of integral relations, the Gudman integral method of heat balance, the improved Volkov integral method, the matched integral method, the modified Hristov method, the Mayer integral method, the Kudinov method of additional boundary conditions, the Fedorov boundary method, the method of weighted temperature function, the integral method of boundary characteristics. It was established that the two last-mentioned methods are characterized by high convergence and frequently give solutions whose accuracy is not worse that the accuracy of numerical solutions.

  12. The value added of conducting regional versus local stakeholder involvement in evaluating technology acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, G.H.

    1995-06-01

    Battelle has conducted a three-year effort, funded by the U. S Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Technology Development, to involve stakeholders in evaluating innovative technologies to clean up volatile organic compound (VOC) contamination at arid sites. Stakeholders have been encouraged to participate in the demonstration of these innovative technologies in order to improve decisions made by DOE and its contractors about technology development, demonstration, and deployment. The basic approach is to identify people and organizations with a stake in the remediation process, and hence in the demonstration of innovative technologies. Stakeholders have included public interest group and environmental group representatives, regulators, technology users, Native Americans, Hispanic community members, and local elected officials. These people are invited to be involved and they are presented with substantive information about the technologies. Their input in terms of identifying issues and concerns, defining the kinds of information needed from the demonstrations, and assessing the acceptability of the technologies for deployment, will help ensure that only broadly promising technologies are carried forward. This approach is designed to increase the likelihood of successful deployment of the new technologies needed to accomplish environmental restoration throughout the DOE complex and at private facilities. The hypothesis in conducting this regional stakeholder involvement program is that there will be different data requirements for different sites due to geographical, institutional, programmatic, and cultural differences at the sites. Identifying the broadest set of data requirements, collecting this information during the technology demonstration, and providing the results of the demonstration to stakeholders will enhance the acceptance of the technology at these sites and, thereby, enhance the technology's deployability

  13. Negotiating Ethical Paradoxes in Conducting a Randomized Controlled Trial: Aligning Intervention Science with Participatory Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdani, Shabnam; Singh, Sukhmani; Sichel, Corianna E

    2017-12-01

    In this article, we describe ethical tensions we have faced in the context of our work as intervention scientists, where we aim to promote social justice and change systems that impact girls involved in the juvenile legal system. These ethical tensions are, at their core, about resisting collusion with systems of control while simultaneously collaborating with them. Over the course of designing and implementing a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of an ecological advocacy intervention for girls, called ROSES, ethical paradoxes crystalized and prompted us to engage in critical reflection and action toward the aim of moving away from conducting research on legal-system-involved girls and moving toward a more democratic, participatory process of inquiry with girls. Our experience revealed two intertwined paradoxes that ultimately served generative purposes. First, in collaborating with legal system stakeholders, we observed a single story of girls' pathology narrated for girls, without girls, and ultimately internalized by girls. Second, in reflecting critically on the ethical implications of our study design, it became clear that the design was grounded in a medical model of inquiry although the intervention we sought to evaluate was based, in part, on resistance to the medical model. We describe emergent ethical tensions and the solutions we sought, which center on creating counternarratives and counterspaces that leverage, extend, and disrupt our existing RCT. We detail these solutions, focusing on how we restructured our research team to enhance structural competence, shifted the subject of inquiry to include the systems in which youth are embedded, and created new opportunities for former research participants to become co-researchers through formal roles on an advisory board. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  14. Skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity are elevated at higher muscle temperatures during maximal power output development in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Stuart R; De Vito, Giuseppe; Nimmo, Myra A; Farina, Dario; Ferguson, Richard A

    2006-02-01

    The effect of temperature on skeletal muscle ATP turnover and muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) was studied during maximal power output development in humans. Eight male subjects performed a 6-s maximal sprint on a mechanically braked cycle ergometer under conditions of normal (N) and elevated muscle temperature (ET). Muscle temperature was passively elevated through the combination of hot water immersion and electric blankets. Anaerobic ATP turnover was calculated from analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and immediately after exercise. MFCV was measured during exercise using surface electromyography. Preexercise muscle temperature was 34.2 degrees C (SD 0.6) in N and 37.5 degrees C (SD 0.6) in ET. During ET, the rate of ATP turnover for phosphocreatine utilization [temperature coefficient (Q10) = 3.8], glycolysis (Q10 = 1.7), and total anaerobic ATP turnover [Q10 = 2.7; 10.8 (SD 1.9) vs. 14.6 mmol x kg(-1) (dry mass) x s(-1) (SD 2.3)] were greater than during N (P < 0.05). MFCV was also greater in ET than in N [3.79 (SD 0.47) to 5.55 m/s (SD 0.72)]. Maximal power output (Q10 = 2.2) and pedal rate (Q10 = 1.6) were greater in ET compared with N (P < 0.05). The Q10 of maximal and mean power were correlated (P < 0.05; R = 0.82 and 0.85, respectively) with the percentage of myosin heavy chain type IIA. The greater power output obtained with passive heating was achieved through an elevated rate of anaerobic ATP turnover and MFCV, possibly due to a greater effect of temperature on power production of fibers, with a predominance of myosin heavy chain IIA at the contraction frequencies reached.

  15. An assessment of racial differences in the upper limits of normal ALT levels in children and the effect of obesity on elevated values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliethermes, S; Ma, M; Purtell, C; Balasubramanian, N; Gonzalez, B; Layden, T J; Cotler, S J

    2017-10-01

    Childhood obesity is a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and poses important public health issues for children. Racial differences in alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels among children have not been described. This study aimed to identify racial differences in upper limit normal (ULN) ALT levels and evaluate the effect of obesity on elevated levels in children without other metabolic risk factors. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys and clinical data from the Loyola University Health System were used to determine ULN ALT by race and gender. Quantile regression was used to evaluate the impact of obesity on elevated ALT and to identify potential risk factors for ALT above the ULN. Upper limit normal (ULN) ALT was approximately 28.0 and 21.0-24.0 U/L for boys and girls, respectively. No significant difference in ULN ALT across race was observed. Obesity was significantly associated with elevated ALT; obese children with elevated ALT had values 10 U/L higher than normal-weight children. Racial differences in ALT levels among adults are not evident in children. Obesity, in the absence of metabolic risk factors and other causes of liver disease, is associated with elevated ALT, providing evidence against the concept of healthy obesity in children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  16. Elevating your elevator talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    An important and often overlooked item that every early career researcher needs to do is compose an elevator talk. The elevator talk, named because the talk should not last longer than an average elevator ride (30 to 60 seconds), is an effective method to present your research and yourself in a clea...

  17. Warm season precipitation signal in δ2 H values of wood lignin methoxyl groups from high elevation larch trees in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechelmann, Dana F C; Greule, Markus; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Anhäuser, Tobias; Esper, Jan; Keppler, Frank

    2017-10-15

    In this study, we tested stable hydrogen isotope ratios of wood lignin methoxyl groups (δ 2 H methoxyl values) as a palaeoclimate proxy in dendrochronology. This is a quite new method in the field of dendrochronology and the sample preparation is much simpler than the methods used before to measure δ 2 H values from wood. We measured δ 2 H methoxyl values in high elevation larch trees (Larix decidua Mill.) from Simplon Valley (southern Switzerland). Thirty-seven larch trees were sampled and five individuals analysed for their δ 2 H methoxyl values at annual (1971-2009) and pentadal resolution (1746-2009). The δ 2 H methoxyl values were measured as CH 3 I released upon treatment of the dried wood samples with hydroiodic acid. 10-90 μL from the head-space were injected into the gas chromatography/high-temperature conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/HTC-IRMS) system. Testing the climate response of the δ 2 H methoxyl values, the annually resolved series show a positive correlation of r = 0.60 with June/July precipitation. The pentadally resolved δ 2 H methoxyl series do not show any significant correlation to climate parameters. Increased precipitation during June and July, which are on average warm and relatively dry months, results in higher δ 2 H values of the xylem water and, therefore, higher δ 2 H values in the lignin methoxyl groups. Therefore, we suggest that δ 2 H methoxyl values of high elevation larch trees might serve as a summer precipitation proxy. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Predictive value of Q waves on the 12-lead electrocardiogram after reperfusion therapy for ST elevation myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vleuten, Pieter A.; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Svilaas, Tone; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix

    2009-01-01

    Design: The data used for the present study were obtained as part of a clinical trial evaluating the effect of thrombus aspiration after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Setting: The study was conducted at a tertiary referral facility for primary PCI at a University Medical Center

  19. Optical and electronic properties of sub-surface conducting layers in diamond created by MeV B-implantation at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willems van Beveren, L. H., E-mail: laurensw@unimelb.edu.au; Bowers, H.; Ganesan, K.; Johnson, B. C.; McCallum, J. C.; Prawer, S. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Liu, R. [SIMS Facility, Office of the Deputy-Vice Chancellor (Research and Development) Western Sydney University, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, New South Wales 2751 (Australia)

    2016-06-14

    Boron implantation with in-situ dynamic annealing is used to produce highly conductive sub-surface layers in type IIa (100) diamond plates for the search of a superconducting phase transition. Here, we demonstrate that high-fluence MeV ion-implantation, at elevated temperatures avoids graphitization and can be used to achieve doping densities of 6 at. %. In order to quantify the diamond crystal damage associated with implantation Raman spectroscopy was performed, demonstrating high temperature annealing recovers the lattice. Additionally, low-temperature electronic transport measurements show evidence of charge carrier densities close to the metal-insulator-transition. After electronic characterization, secondary ion mass spectrometry was performed to map out the ion profile of the implanted plates. The analysis shows close agreement with the simulated ion-profile assuming scaling factors that take into account an average change in diamond density due to device fabrication. Finally, the data show that boron diffusion is negligible during the high temperature annealing process.

  20. Diagnostic Difficulties in Woman with Crohn’s Disease, Ascites, and Elevated Value of Serum CA125 Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kłopocka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety of symptoms and atypical clinical course of Crohn’s disease (CD often create the need for additional diagnostic procedures. In the described case of woman with CD, there was a suspicion of coexistence of ovarian cancer. This issue is particularly important in patients treated with immunosuppressants and biological agents. The discussion focused on the usefulness of CA125 (cancer antigen 125, mucin 16 serum level estimation in clinical practice and draws attention to the possible reasons for the increase of its value which is not associated to ovarian cancer.

  1. Normative Values for Electrochemical Skin Conductance Measurements for Quantitative Assessment of Sudomotor Function in Healthy Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaprasad, C; Goel, Amit; Vilier, Alice; Calvet, Jean-Henri

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) test is a widely accepted objective technique for quantitatively assessing sudomotor dysfunction, which is one of the earliest-detected neurophysiologic abnormalities in diabetic patients with distal symmetric polyneuropathy. This study aimed to provide normative data for ESC values among healthy Indian participants and assess the potential influence of age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) on ESC measurements. A sample of 217 healthy participants aged 18-75 years were recruited and assessed for parameters including age, gender, BMI, and ESC measurements of the hands and feet. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess the normality of the data. Pearson's correlation was used to evaluate the association between age, gender, and BMI, and ESC measurements. The mean age of the participants was 43.3 ± 13.2 years, and mean BMI was 26.0 ± 4.3 kg/m 2 . Mean ESC for the hands and feet was 68.9 ± 13.1 and 71 ± 12.9 micro-Siemens, respectively, and there was a significant correlation between values from the right and left hands and feet ( r = 0.9, P < 0.0001). A significant correlation was also observed between ESC measurements of the hands and feet ( r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). ESC values of both hands and feet declined with age. A weak but significant inverse correlation between ESC and age was observed for the hands ( r = 0.02, P = 0.01) and for the feet ( r = 0.12, P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in hand or feet ESC measurement between male and female participants. No significant correlation was observed between BMI and ESC of hands or feet. Only age was identified as a significant determinant of ESC on multivariate logistic regression analysis. Normative values for Indians are lower than that reported for Caucasians.

  2. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Syed Salman; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Computational methods are increasingly used to optimize transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) dose strategies and yet complexities of existing approaches limit their clinical access. Since predictive modelling indicates the relevance of subject/pathology based data and hence the need for subject specific modelling, the incremental clinical value of increasingly complex modelling methods must be balanced against the computational and clinical time and costs. For example, the incorporation of multiple tissue layers and measured diffusion tensor (DTI) based conductivity estimates increase model precision but at the cost of clinical and computational resources. Costs related to such complexities aggregate when considering individual optimization and the myriad of potential montages. Here, rather than considering if additional details change current-flow prediction, we consider when added complexities influence clinical decisions. Towards developing quantitative and qualitative metrics of value/cost associated with computational model complexity, we considered field distributions generated by two 4 × 1 high-definition montages (m1 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C3 and m2 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C1) and a single conventional (m3 = C3-Fp2) tDCS electrode montage. We evaluated statistical methods, including residual error (RE) and relative difference measure (RDM), to consider the clinical impact and utility of increased complexities, namely the influence of skull, muscle and brain anisotropic conductivities in a volume conductor model. Anisotropy modulated current-flow in a montage and region dependent manner. However, significant statistical changes, produced within montage by anisotropy, did not change qualitative peak and topographic comparisons across montages. Thus for the examples analysed, clinical decision on which dose to select would not be altered by the omission of anisotropic brain conductivity. Results illustrate the need to rationally

  3. The value and cost of complexity in predictive modelling: role of tissue anisotropic conductivity and fibre tracts in neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman Shahid, Syed; Bikson, Marom; Salman, Humaira; Wen, Peng; Ahfock, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Objectives. Computational methods are increasingly used to optimize transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) dose strategies and yet complexities of existing approaches limit their clinical access. Since predictive modelling indicates the relevance of subject/pathology based data and hence the need for subject specific modelling, the incremental clinical value of increasingly complex modelling methods must be balanced against the computational and clinical time and costs. For example, the incorporation of multiple tissue layers and measured diffusion tensor (DTI) based conductivity estimates increase model precision but at the cost of clinical and computational resources. Costs related to such complexities aggregate when considering individual optimization and the myriad of potential montages. Here, rather than considering if additional details change current-flow prediction, we consider when added complexities influence clinical decisions. Approach. Towards developing quantitative and qualitative metrics of value/cost associated with computational model complexity, we considered field distributions generated by two 4 × 1 high-definition montages (m1 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C3 and m2 = 4 × 1 HD montage with anode at C1) and a single conventional (m3 = C3-Fp2) tDCS electrode montage. We evaluated statistical methods, including residual error (RE) and relative difference measure (RDM), to consider the clinical impact and utility of increased complexities, namely the influence of skull, muscle and brain anisotropic conductivities in a volume conductor model. Main results. Anisotropy modulated current-flow in a montage and region dependent manner. However, significant statistical changes, produced within montage by anisotropy, did not change qualitative peak and topographic comparisons across montages. Thus for the examples analysed, clinical decision on which dose to select would not be altered by the omission of anisotropic brain conductivity

  4. Worsening atrioventricular conduction after hospital discharge in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention: the HORIZONS-AMI trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidou, Ioanna; Redfors, Björn; McAndrew, Thomas; Embacher, Monica; Mehran, Roxana; Dizon, José M; Ben-Yehuda, Ori; Mintz, Gary S; Stone, Gregg W

    2017-11-01

    The chronic effects of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) on the atrioventricular conduction (AVC) system have not been elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of worsened AVC post-STEMI in patients treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The current analysis included patients from the HORIZONS-AMI trial who underwent primary PCI and had available ECGs. Patients with high-grade atrioventricular block or pacemaker implant at baseline were excluded. Analysis of ECGs excluding the acute hospitalization period indicated worsened AVC in 131 patients (worsened AVC group) and stable AVC in 2833 patients (stable AVC group). Patients with worsened AVC were older, had a higher frequency of hypertension, diabetes, renal insufficiency, previous coronary artery bypass grafting, and predominant left anterior descending culprit lesions. Predictors of worsened AVC included age, hypertension, and previous history of coronary artery disease. Worsened AVC was associated with an increased rate of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events (death, myocardial infarction, ischemic target vessel revascularization, and stroke) as well as death or reinfarction at 3 years. On multivariable analysis, worsened AVC remained an independent predictor of all-cause death (hazard ratio: 2.005, confidence interval: 1.051-3.827, P=0.0348) and major adverse cardiac events (hazard ratio 1.542, confidence interval: 1.059-2.244, P=0.0238). Progression of AVC system disease in patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI is uncommon, occurs primarily in the setting of anterior myocardial infarction, and portends a high risk for death and major adverse cardiac events.

  5. The value of bladder filling in addition to manual elevation of presenting fetal part in cases of cord prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bord, Ilia; Gemer, Ofer; Anteby, Eyal Y; Shenhav, Simon

    2011-05-01

    To compare perinatal outcome of deliveries complicated by cord prolapse between cases in which bladder filling was performed in addition to supporting presenting part and cases where only support was employed. A retrospective review of 44 deliveries complicated by prolapse occurring after admission was made. The first group included 29 patients who were rushed to a cesarean section with doctor's hand inside the vagina pushing the presenting part. The second group of 15 patients, included women whose bladder was filled with 500 cc of normal saline in addition to manual support. Time to delivery was similar in the first and second group (19.7 ± 9.46 and 21.6 ± 11.9, P = 0.57; respectively) as well as the mean neonatal pH values (7.28 ± 0.09 and 7.26 ± 0.07, P = 0.55; respectively). There was no significant difference in proportion of neonates with an Apgar score of less than 7 between the two arms. The addition of bladder filling to further displace the presenting part did not improve the neonatal outcome which was not compromised regardless of the measures employed.

  6. An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level in hepatic metastases of grade 1 and 2 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is unusual and of prognostic value.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeva Andriantsoa

    Full Text Available In our clinical practice we have observed that despite a high hepatic metastatic tumor burden, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP levels are frequently normal in cases of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET.We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with grade 1 and 2 NETs with liver metastases but without bone metastases seen at our institution in 2013. In total, 49 patients were included (22 female, with a median age of 60 years (range: 28 to 84 years. The primary tumors were located in the duodenum/pancreas (n = 29, small bowel (n = 17 or colon/rectum (n = 3; 10 cases were grade 1 and 39 grade 2. Hepatic involvement was bulky, with more than 10 lesions in 23 patients and a tumor burden above 10% of the liver volume in 26 patients.Serum AP levels were elevated (≥ upper limit of normal (ULN in 16 patients. In multiparametric analysis, elevated serum AP levels were not associated with the primary site, grade, or number or volume of metastases. In multiparametric analysis, progression-free survival was only correlated with grade (p = 0.010 and AP level (p = 0.017.Serum AP levels are frequently normal in liver metastases from NET, even in the event of a major tumor burden, and the serum AP level can be of prognostic value.

  7. An elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level in hepatic metastases of grade 1 and 2 gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors is unusual and of prognostic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriantsoa, Maeva; Hoibian, Solene; Autret, Aurelie; Gilabert, Marine; Sarran, Anthony; Niccoli, Patricia; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    In our clinical practice we have observed that despite a high hepatic metastatic tumor burden, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP) levels are frequently normal in cases of metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET). We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients with grade 1 and 2 NETs with liver metastases but without bone metastases seen at our institution in 2013. In total, 49 patients were included (22 female), with a median age of 60 years (range: 28 to 84 years). The primary tumors were located in the duodenum/pancreas (n = 29), small bowel (n = 17) or colon/rectum (n = 3); 10 cases were grade 1 and 39 grade 2. Hepatic involvement was bulky, with more than 10 lesions in 23 patients and a tumor burden above 10% of the liver volume in 26 patients. Serum AP levels were elevated (≥ upper limit of normal (ULN)) in 16 patients. In multiparametric analysis, elevated serum AP levels were not associated with the primary site, grade, or number or volume of metastases. In multiparametric analysis, progression-free survival was only correlated with grade (p = 0.010) and AP level (p = 0.017). Serum AP levels are frequently normal in liver metastases from NET, even in the event of a major tumor burden, and the serum AP level can be of prognostic value.

  8. The effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on stomatal conductance estimated from 11 years of scaled sap flux measurements at Duke FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eric J; Oren, Ram; Bell, David M; Clark, James S; McCarthy, Heather R; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Domec, Jean-Christophe

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we employ a network of thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) monitoring sap flux density to estimate leaf-specific transpiration (E(L)) and stomatal conductance (G(S)) in Pinus taeda (L.) and Liquidambar styraciflua L. exposed to +200 ppm atmospheric CO(2) levels (eCO(2)) and nitrogen fertilization. Scaling half-hourly measurements from hundreds of sensors over 11 years, we found that P. taeda in eCO(2) intermittently (49% of monthly values) decreased stomatal conductance (G(S)) relative to the control, with a mean reduction of 13% in both total E(L) and mean daytime G(S). This intermittent response was related to changes in a hydraulic allometry index (A(H)), defined as sapwood area per unit leaf area per unit canopy height, which decreased a mean of 15% with eCO(2) over the course of the study, due mostly to a mean 19% increase in leaf area (A(L)). In contrast, L. styraciflua showed a consistent (76% of monthly values) reduction in G(S) with eCO(2) with a total reduction of 32% E(L), 31% G(S) and 23% A(H) (due to increased A(L) per sapwood area). For L. styraciflua, like P. taeda, the relationship between A(H) and G(S) at reference conditions suggested a decrease in G(S) across the range of A(H). Our findings suggest an indirect structural effect of eCO(2) on G(S) in P. taeda and a direct leaf level effect in L. styraciflua. In the initial year of fertilization, P. taeda in both CO(2) treatments, as well as L. styraciflua in eCO(2), exhibited higher G(S) with N(F) than expected from shifts in A(H), suggesting a transient direct effect on G(S). Whether treatment effects on mean leaf-specific G(S) are direct or indirect, this paper highlights that long-term treatment effects on G(S) are generally reflected in A(H) as well.

  9. Value of a new multiparametric score for prediction of microvascular obstruction lesions in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction revascularized by percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Nicolas; Jacquier, Alexis; Gaudart, Jean; Sarran, Anthony; Shuaib, Anes; Panuel, Michel; Moulin, Guy; Bartoli, Jean-Michel; Paganelli, Franck

    2010-10-01

    Despite improvement in revascularization strategies, microvascular obstruction (MO) lesions remain associated with poor outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). To establish a bedside-available score for predicting MO lesions in STEMI, with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) as the reference standard, and to test its prognostic value for clinical outcome. Patients with STEMI of4 accurately identified microcirculatory injuries (sensitivity 84%; specificity 82%) and independently predicted the presence of MO lesions on CMR. MO score>4 predicted adverse cardiovascular events during the first year after STEMI (relative risk 2.60 [1.10-6.60], p=0.03). MO lesions are frequent in PCI-treated STEMI and are associated with larger MIs. MO score accurately predicted MO lesions and identified patients with poor outcome post-STEMI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. The value of 18F-choline PET/CT in patients with elevated PSA-level and negative prostate needle biopsy for localisation of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igerc, I.; Kohlfuerst, S.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Matschnig, S.; Kresnik, E.; Gomez-Segovia, I.; Lind, P.

    2008-01-01

    Patients with persistent elevated PSA and repeated negative prostate biopsy, that means having the prostate biopsied at multiple times, were investigated with 18F-choline PET/CT to delineate prostate cancer and guide renewed prostate biopsy. Twenty patients with elevated PSA and negative prostate biopsies underwent 18F-choline PET/CT. We performed an early examination of the pelvic region 3-5 min after application. After 30 minutes a whole body PET/CT examination was performed. Image analysis was performed visually and by semi-quantitative analysis calculating the maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax). 18F-choline uptake was defined as focal, multifocal or inhomogeneous. After the 18F-choline PET/CT, all patients underwent a repeated prostate biopsy, and in the cases where a focal or multifocal uptake was found, the biopsy was guided by the result of the examination. Qualitative image analysis revealed focal 18F-choline uptake in 13 out of 20 patients. In five patients, prostate cancer was revealed by repeated aspiration biopsy. None of the patients with a multifocal or inhomogeneous 18F-choline uptake had a malignant neoplasm in the prostate. Semiquantitative analysis performed with SUVmax was not helpful in the discrimination of malignancy but showed high values also in benign prostate diseases, as well as in normal prostate tissue. The dual-phase protocol delivered no clear benefit in discriminating malignancy from benign alterations. The use of 18F-choline cannot be generally recommended for localising prostate cancer; however, in highly selected patients, we found useful additional information. In 25% of patients, 18F-choline PET/CT allowed the identification of neoplastic prostatic zones. (orig.)

  11. Opportunities and challenges in conducting systematic reviews to support development of nutrient reference values: vitamin A as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrient reference values have significant public health and policy implications. Given the importance of defining reliable nutrient reference values, there is a need for an explicit, objective, and transparent process to set these values. The Tufts Medical Center Evidence-based Practice Center asse...

  12. Prognostic Value of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction Risk Score in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients With Left Ventricular Dysfunction (from the EPHESUS Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, Batric; Girerd, Nicolas; Rossignol, Patrick; Agrinier, Nelly; Camenzind, Edoardo; Fay, Renaud; Pitt, Bertram; Zannad, Faiez

    2016-11-15

    The Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score remains a robust prediction tool for short-term and midterm outcome in the patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, the validity of this risk score in patients with STEMI with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) remains unclear. A total of 2,854 patients with STEMI with early coronary revascularization participating in the randomized EPHESUS (Epleronone Post-Acute Myocardial Infarction Heart Failure Efficacy and Survival Study) trial were analyzed. TIMI risk score was calculated at baseline, and its predictive value was evaluated using C-indexes from Cox models. The increase in reclassification of other variables in addition to TIMI score was assessed using the net reclassification index. TIMI risk score had a poor predictive accuracy for all-cause mortality (C-index values at 30 days and 1 year ≤0.67) and recurrent myocardial infarction (MI; C-index values ≤0.60). Among TIMI score items, diabetes/hypertension/angina, heart rate >100 beats/min, and systolic blood pressure model, lower LVEF, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and previous MI were significantly associated with all-cause mortality. The predictive accuracy of this model, which included LVEF and eGFR, was fair for both 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality (C-index values ranging from 0.71 to 0.75). In conclusion, TIMI risk score demonstrates poor discrimination in predicting mortality or recurrent MI in patients with STEMI with reduced LVEF. LVEF and eGFR are major factors that should not be ignored by predictive risk scores in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prostate MR imaging for patients with elevated serum PSA levels. The clinical value of diffusion-weighted and dynamic MR imaging in cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanimoto, Akihiro; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kuribayasi, Sachio; Nakashima, Jun; Kohno, Hidaka; Murai, Masaru

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with T 2 -weighted imaging (T 2 W) for the detection of prostate cancer. Eighty-three patients with elevated serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (>4.0 ng/mL) were evaluated by T 2 W, DWI, and dynamic MRI at 1.5T prior to needle biopsy. The data from the results of the T 2 W alone (protocol A), combination of T 2 W and DWI (protocol B), and combination of T 2 W+DWI and dynamic MRI (protocol C) were entered into a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Prostate cancer was detected by pathology in 44 of 83 patients. The sensitivity, respective specificity, accuracy, and Az (the area under the ROC curve) for the detection of prostate cancer were 73%, 54%, 64%, and 0.71 in protocol A; 84%, 85%, 84%, and 0.90 in protocol B; and 95%, 74%, 86%, and 0.97 in protocol C. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were significantly different among the 3 protocols (p 2 W, DWI, and dynamic MRI may be valuable for detecting prostate cancer and avoiding unnecessary biopsy. (author)

  14. Diurnal depression in leaf hydraulic conductance at ambient and elevated [CO2] reveals anisohydric water management in field-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and water use in field-grown soybean (Glycine max) are tied to light intensity and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). At high mid-day VPD, transpiration rates can lead to a decline in leaf water potential if leaf hydraulic conductance is insufficient to supply water to in...

  15. Diurnal depression in leaf hydraulic conductance at ambient and elevated [CO2] and reveals anisohydric water management in field-grown soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and water use in field-grown soybean (Glycine max) are tied to light intensity and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). At high mid-day VPD, transpiration rates can lead to a decline in leaf water potential ('leaf) if leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is insufficient to su...

  16. Effect of Elevated Intracranial Pressure on Amplitudes and Frequency Tuning of Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Elicited by Bone-Conducted Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkov, Robert; Speierer, Guillaume; Wittwer, Luis; Kalla, Roger

    Recently, it could be demonstrated that an increased intracranial pressure causes a modulation of the air conducted sound evoked ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP). The mechanism for this modulation is not resolved and may depend on a change of either receptor excitability or sound energy transmission. oVEMPs were elicited in 18 healthy subjects with a minishaker delivering 500 and 1000 Hz tone bursts, in supine and tilted positions. The study could confirm the frequency tuning of oVEMP. However, at neither stimulus frequency could a modulating effect of increased intracranial pressure be observed. These data suggest that the observed modulation of the oVEMP response by an increased intracranial pressure is primarily due to the effect of an increased intralabyrinthine pressure onto the stiffness of the inner ear contents and the middle ear-inner ear junction. Future studies on the effect of intracranial pressure on oVEMP should use air-conducted sound and not bone-conducted vibration.

  17. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu1.97Ag0.03Se

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Zeier, Wolfgang G.; Melot, Brent C.

    2014-01-01

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu 1.97 Ag 0.03 Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  18. Modeling and optimization of proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cell: Conversion of CO2 into value-added products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namwong, Lawit; Authayanun, Suthida; Saebea, Dang; Patcharavorachot, Yaneeporn; Arpornwichanop, Amornchai

    2016-11-01

    Proton-conducting solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOEC-H+) are a promising technology that can utilize carbon dioxide to produce syngas. In this work, a detailed electrochemical model was developed to predict the behavior of SOEC-H+ and to prove the assumption that the syngas is produced through a reversible water gas-shift (RWGS) reaction. The simulation results obtained from the model, which took into account all of the cell voltage losses (i.e., ohmic, activation, and concentration losses), were validated using experimental data to evaluate the unknown parameters. The developed model was employed to examine the structural and operational parameters. It is found that the cathode-supported SOEC-H+ is the best configuration because it requires the lowest cell potential. SOEC-H+ operated favorably at high temperatures and low pressures. Furthermore, the simulation results revealed that the optimal S/C molar ratio for syngas production, which can be used for methanol synthesis, is approximately 3.9 (at a constant temperature and pressure). The SOEC-H+ was optimized using a response surface methodology, which was used to determine the optimal operating conditions to minimize the cell potential and maximize the carbon dioxide flow rate.

  19. Effects of elevated ozone on leaf {delta}{sup 13}C and leaf conductance of plant species grown in semi-natural grassland with or without irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeggi, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: maya.jaeggi@psi.ch; Saurer, M. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Volk, M. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland); Fuhrer, J. [Agroscope FAL Reckenholz, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, CH-8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-03-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios ({delta}{sup 13}C) and leaf conductance (g{sub s}) were measured (2002, 2003) in Holcus lanatus L., Plantago lanceolata L. Ranunculus friesianus (Jord.), and Trifolium pratense L. at two levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) with or without irrigation. In non-irrigated control plots, R. friesianus showed the least negative {delta}{sup 13}C, and the smallest response to the treatments. Irrigation caused more negative {delta}{sup 13}C, especially in H. lanatus. Irrespective of irrigation, O{sub 3} increased {delta}{sup 13}C in relationship to a decrease in g{sub s} in P. lanceolata and T. pratense. The strongest effect of O{sub 3} on {delta}{sup 13}C occurred in the absence of irrigation, suggesting that under field conditions lack of moisture in the top soil does not always lead to protection from O{sub 3} uptake. It is concluded that in species such as T. pratense plants can maintain stomatal O{sub 3} uptake during dry periods when roots can reach deeper soil layers where water is not limiting. - Under natural field conditions, lack of precipitation may not protect semi-natural vegetation from O{sub 3} effects on leaf gas exchange.

  20. Effects of elevated ozone on leaf δ13C and leaf conductance of plant species grown in semi-natural grassland with or without irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeggi, M.; Saurer, M.; Volk, M.; Fuhrer, J.

    2005-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) and leaf conductance (g s ) were measured (2002, 2003) in Holcus lanatus L., Plantago lanceolata L. Ranunculus friesianus (Jord.), and Trifolium pratense L. at two levels of ozone (O 3 ) with or without irrigation. In non-irrigated control plots, R. friesianus showed the least negative δ 13 C, and the smallest response to the treatments. Irrigation caused more negative δ 13 C, especially in H. lanatus. Irrespective of irrigation, O 3 increased δ 13 C in relationship to a decrease in g s in P. lanceolata and T. pratense. The strongest effect of O 3 on δ 13 C occurred in the absence of irrigation, suggesting that under field conditions lack of moisture in the top soil does not always lead to protection from O 3 uptake. It is concluded that in species such as T. pratense plants can maintain stomatal O 3 uptake during dry periods when roots can reach deeper soil layers where water is not limiting. - Under natural field conditions, lack of precipitation may not protect semi-natural vegetation from O 3 effects on leaf gas exchange

  1. Prognostic Value of Cardiac Time Intervals by Tissue Doppler Imaging M-Mode in Patients With Acute ST-Segment-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated With Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Søgaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background- Color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet is an easy and precise method to estimate all cardiac time intervals from 1 cardiac cycle and thereby obtain the myocardial performance index (MPI). However, the prognostic value of the cardiac time intervals and the MPI...... assessed by color tissue Doppler imaging M-mode through the mitral leaflet in patients with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) is unknown. Methods and Results- In total, 391 patients were admitted with an ST-segment-elevation MI, treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention...

  2. The influence of value of intensity of constant electric field on structure, thermal physic and conductivity nanocomposites epoxy resin-oxide metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilensky, V.O.; Demchenko, V.I.

    2009-01-01

    Influence of constant electric field on structure, specific thermal capacity, thermomechanical properties and electrical conduction nanocomposites on a basis epoxy resin and fillers Fe 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 is investigated. The received results show, that application of constant electric field gives the chance to influence level of perfection of crystal structure filler (Fe 2 O 3 ) in structure to a composite, thus the size of crystals decreases from 18.0 nm (for initial samples of composites) to 7.7 nm (for the composites generated under the influence of CEF). Nanocomposites generated in CEF characterization the higher values of a electrical conduction

  3. Changes in concentration and (delta) 13C value of dissolved CH4, CO2 and organic carbon in rice paddies under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiguo Cheng; Yagi, Kazuyuki; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Hua Xu; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2005-01-01

    Changes in concentration and (delta) 13 C value of dissolved CH 4 , CO 2 and organic carbon (DOC) in floodwater and soil solution from a Japanese rice paddy were studied under ambient and elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 in controlled environment chambers. The concentrations of dissolved CH 4 in floodwater increased with rice growth (with some fluctuation), while the concentrations of CO 2 remained between 2.9 to 4.4 and 4.2 to 5.8 μg C mL -1 under conditions of ambient and elevated CO 2 concentration, respectively. The amount of CH 4 dissolved in soil solution under elevated CO 2 levels was significantly lower than under ambient CO 2 in the tillering stage, implying that the elevated CO 2 treatment accelerated CH 4 oxidation during the early stage of growth. However, during later stages of growth, production of CH 4 increased and the amount of CH 4 dissolved in soil solution under elevated CO 2 levels was, on average, greater than that under ambient CO 2 conditions. Significant correlation existed among the (delta) 13 C values of dissolved CH 4 , CO 2 , and DOC in floodwater (except for the samples taken immediately after pulse feeding with 13 C enriched CO 2 ), indicating that the origins and cycling of CH 4 , CO 2 and DOC were related. There were also significant correlations among the (delta) 13 C values of CH 4 , CO 2 and DOC in the soil solution. The turnover rate of CO 2 in soil solution was most rapid in the panicle formation stage of rice growth and that of CH 4 fastest in the grain filling stage. (Author)

  4. Data Elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-29

    Data Elevator: Efficient Asynchronous Data Movement in Hierarchical Storage Systems Multi-layer storage subsystems, including SSD-based burst buffers and disk-based parallel file systems (PFS), are becoming part of HPC systems. However, software for this storage hierarchy is still in its infancy. Applications may have to explicitly move data among the storage layers. We propose Data Elevator for transparently and efficiently moving data between a burst buffer and a PFS. Users specify the final destination for their data, typically on PFS, Data Elevator intercepts the I/O calls, stages data on burst buffer, and then asynchronously transfers the data to their final destination in the background. This system allows extensive optimizations, such as overlapping read and write operations, choosing I/O modes, and aligning buffer boundaries. In tests with large-scale scientific applications, Data Elevator is as much as 4.2X faster than Cray DataWarp, the start-of-art software for burst buffer, and 4X faster than directly writing to PFS. The Data Elevator library uses HDF5's Virtual Object Layer (VOL) for intercepting parallel I/O calls that write data to PFS. The intercepted calls are redirected to the Data Elevator, which provides a handle to write the file in a faster and intermediate burst buffer system. Once the application finishes writing the data to the burst buffer, the Data Elevator job uses HDF5 to move the data to final destination in an asynchronous manner. Hence, using the Data Elevator library is currently useful for applications that call HDF5 for writing data files. Also, the Data Elevator depends on the HDF5 VOL functionality.

  5. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loginovskiy, V.I.; Medinger, N.V.; Rasskazov, V.A.; Solonitsyn, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, spring loaded cams and a shut-off ring. To increase the reliability of the elevator by eliminating the possibility of spontaneous shifting of the shut-off ring, the latter is equipped with handles hinged to it and is made with evolvent grooves. The cams are equipped with rollers installed in the evolvent grooves of the shut off ring, where the body is made with grooves for the handles.

  6. The prognostic value of the Tpeak-Tend interval in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarmark, Christian; Hansen, Peter R; Vedel-Larsen, Esben

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Tpeak-Tend interval (TpTe) has been linked to increased arrhythmic risk. TpTe was investigated before and after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHOD: Patients with first-time STEMI treated...... with pPCI were included (n = 101; mean age 62 years; range 39-89 years; 74% men). Digital electrocardiograms were taken pre- and post-PCI, respectively. Tpeak-Tend interval was measured in leads with limited ST-segment deviation. The primary end point was all-cause mortality during 22 +/- 7 months (mean...

  7. Monocular Elevation Deficiency - Double Elevator Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Monocular Elevation Deficiency/ Double Elevator Palsy En Español Read in Chinese What is monocular elevation deficiency (Double Elevator Palsy)? Monocular Elevation Deficiency, also known by the ...

  8. Identification and predictive value of interleukin-6+ interleukin-10+ and interleukin-6-interleukin-10+ cytokine patterns in st-elevation acute myocardial infarction

    KAUST Repository

    Ammirati, Enrico

    2012-08-29

    RATIONALE: At the onset of ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), patients can present with very high circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels or very low-IL-6 levels. OBJECTIVE: We compared these 2 groups of patients to understand whether it is possible to define specific STEMI phenotypes associated with outcome based on the cytokine response. METHODS AND RESULTS: We compared 109 patients with STEMI in the top IL-6 level (median, 15.6 pg/mL; IL-6 STEMI) with 96 in the bottom IL-6 level (median, 1.7 pg/mL; IL-6 STEMI) and 103 matched controls extracted from the multiethnic First Acute Myocardial Infarction study. We found minimal clinical differences between IL-6 STEMI and IL-6 STEMI. We assessed the inflammatory profiles of the 2 STEMI groups and the controls by measuring 18 cytokines in blood samples. We exploited clustering analysis algorithms to infer the functional modules of interacting cytokines. IL-6 STEMI patients were characterized by the activation of 2 modules of interacting signals comprising IL-10, IL-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, and C-reactive protein, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β, and monokine induced by interferon-γ. IL-10 was increased both in IL-6 STEMI and IL-6 STEMI patients compared with controls. IL-6IL-10 STEMI patients had an increased risk of systolic dysfunction at discharge and an increased risk of death at 6 months in comparison with IL-6IL-10 STEMI patients. We combined IL-10 and monokine induced by interferon-γ (derived from the 2 identified cytokine modules) with IL-6 in a formula yielding a risk index that outperformed any single cytokine in the prediction of systolic dysfunction and death. CONCLUSIONS: We have identified a characteristic circulating inflammatory cytokine pattern in STEMI patients, which is not related to the extent of myocardial damage. The simultaneous elevation of IL-6 and IL-10 levels distinguishes STEMI patients with worse clinical outcomes

  9. Elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    An elevator wheel is suggested for unloading a sunken product from a bath of a heavy-average separator including discs of a bucket with inner walls, and covering sheets hinged to the buckets. In order to improve the degree of dehydration of the removed product, the inner wall of each bucket is made of sheets installed in steps with gaps of one in relation to the other.

  10. Geared-elevator flutter study. [wind tunnel tests of transonic flutter effects on control surfaces of supersonic transport tail assemblies, conducted in a NASA-Langley transonic wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhlin, C. L.; Doggett, R. V., Jr.; Gregory, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental and analytical study was made of the transonic flutter characteristics of a supersonic transport tail assembly model having an all-movable, horizontal tail with a geared elevator. Two model configurations, namely, one with a gear-elevator (2.8 to 1.0 gear ratio) and one with locked-elevator (1.0 to 1.0 gear ratio), were flutter tested in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel with an empennage cantilever-mounted on a sting. The geared-elevator configuration fluttered experimentally at about 20% higher dynamic pressures than the locked-elevator configuration. The experimental flutter dynamic pressure boundaries for both configurations were nearly flat over a Mach number range from 0.9 to 1.1. Flutter calculations (mathematical models) were made for the geared-elevator configuration using three subsonic lifting-surface methods. In one method, the elevator was treated as a discrete surface, and in the other two methods, the stabilizer and elevator were treated as a single warped-surface with the primary difference between these two methods being in the mathematical implementation used. A comparison of the experimental and analytical results shows that the discrete-elevator method predicted best the experimental flutter dynamic pressure level. However, the single warped-surface methods predicts more closely the experimental flutter frequencies and Mach number trends.

  11. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusev, A.S.; Peshkov, L.P.; Rozin, M.M.; Shestov, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body, a flap, a lock with a catch and a spring-loaded shut-off clamp in the form of upper and lower horizontal levers which are connected by a handle and an axle and one end of which is made in the form of an eccentric cam. The size of the eccentricity of the cam of the levers is increased toward the handle of the clamp in order to increase the operational reliability and to extend the service life.

  12. An elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rastorguyev, M.A.; Maloyarovslavtesv, D.A.; Prokopov, O.I.; Tukayev, Sh.V.; Zanilov, I.F.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed which includes a body with a turning collar locking device and a rod with longitudinal grooves, which are flexibly linked with jaws positioned in grooves in the body. To increase safety through ensuring automatic locking of the jaws in the closed position, the locking device is made in the form of head on wedges, spring loaded relative to the collar and made with cams and positioned with the capability of interacting with the grooves of the rod and through the cams with the collar.

  13. Bucket elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Chromek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je návrh svislého korečkového elevátoru, který má sloužit k dopravě obilovin s dopravní výškou 19 m a dopravovaným množstvím 100 t/hod. Práce se skládá z popisu korečkového elevátoru a jeho hlavních částí, zmiňující se v úvodní rešerši. Tato práce je zaměřena na funkční a kapacitní výpočet, určení pohonu a napínacího zařízení. Další výpočet je kontrolní, skládající se z pevnostní kontroly hnacího hřídele, výpočtu pera, životnosti ložisek a výpočtu napínacího zaříze...

  14. The influence of different electrical conductivity values in a simplified recirculating soilless system on inner and outer fruit quality characteristics of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Sandra; Schnitzler, Wilfried H; Grassmann, Johanna; Woitke, Markus

    2006-01-25

    Irrigation with saline water affects tomato fruit quality. While total fruit yield decreases with salinity, inner quality characterized by taste and health-promoting compounds can be improved. For a detailed description of this relationship, the influence of three different salt levels [electrical conductivity (EC) 3, 6.5, and 10] in hydroponically grown tomatoes was investigated. Rising salinity levels in the nutrient solution significantly increased vitamin C, lycopene, and beta-carotene in fresh fruits up to 35%. The phenol concentration was tendentiously enhanced, and the antioxidative capacity of phenols and carotenoids increased on a fresh weight basis. Additionally, the higher EC values caused an increase of total soluble solids and organic acids, parameters determining the taste of tomatoes. Total fruit yield, single fruit weight, and firmness significantly decreased with rising EC levels. Regression analyses revealed significant correlations between the EC level and the dependent variables single fruit weight, total soluble solids, titrable acids, lycopene, and antioxidative capacities of carotenoids and phenols, whereas vitamin C and phenols correlated best with truss number, and beta-carotene correlated best with temperature. Only pressure firmness showed no correlation with any of the measured parameters. As all desirable characteristics in the freshly produced tomato increased when exposed to salinity, salinity itself constitutes an alternative method of quality improvement. Moreover, it can compensate for the loss of yield by the higher inner quality due to changing demands by the market and the consumer. This investigation is to our knowledge the first comprehensive overview regarding parameters of outer quality (yield and firmness), taste (total soluble solids and acids), nutritional value (vitamin C, carotenoids, and phenolics), as well as antioxidative capacity in tomatoes grown under saline conditions.

  15. Heat conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigull, U.; Sandner, H.

    1984-01-01

    Included are discussions of rates of heat transfer by conduction, the effects of varying and changing properties, thermal explosions, distributed heat sources, moving heat sources, and non-steady three-dimensional conduction processes. Throughout, the importance of thinking both numerically and symbolically is stressed, as this is essential to the development of the intuitive understanding of numerical values needed for successful designing. Extensive tables of thermophysical properties, including thermal conductivity and diffusivity, are presented. Also included are exact and approximate solutions to many of the problems that arise in practical situations

  16. Red cell distribution width is associated with hemoglobin A1C elevation, but not glucose elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue; Wan, Min; Gu, Yeqing; Song, Yanqi; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Meng, Ge; Wu, Hongmei; Xia, Yang; Shi, HongBin; Su, Qian; Fang, Liyun; Yang, Huijun; Yu, Fei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Song, Kun; Wang, Guolin; Yu, Ming; Niu, Kaijun

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the association between red cell distribution width (RDW) and elevation of glucose/glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). An analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of adults. People without prediabetes or diabetes (n=7,795) were followed for a mean of 2.90years (range: 1-7years, 95% confidence interval: 2.86-2.94years). Glucose elevation is defined as fasting glucose levels exceeding 5.6mmol/l, or 2-hour glucose values in the oral glucose tolerance test exceeding 7.8mmol/l. HbA1c elevation is defined as a HbA1c value exceeding a normal limit of 39mmol/mol (5.7%). Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess the association between RDW quartiles and elevation of HbA1c/glucose. The multiple-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of HbA1c elevation for increased quartiles of RDW were 1.00 (reference), 1.08 (0.89, 1.30), 1.28 (1.07, 1.54), and 1.54 (1.29, 1.85) (P for trend<0.0001). However, no significant association was observed between RDW and blood glucose (fasting and postprandial). Elevated RDW is independently related to future HbA1c elevation, but not to glucose elevation. This suggests that RDW may associate with HbA1c through a non-glycemic way, which should be taken into consideration when using HbA1c as a diagnostic criterion of prediabetes or diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. National Elevation Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2002-01-01

    The National Elevation Dataset (NED) is a new raster product assembled by the U.S. Geological Survey. NED is designed to provide National elevation data in a seamless form with a consistent datum, elevation unit, and projection. Data corrections were made in the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts, perform edge matching, and fill sliver areas of missing data. NED has a resolution of one arc-second (approximately 30 meters) for the conterminous United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico and the island territories and a resolution of two arc-seconds for Alaska. NED data sources have a variety of elevation units, horizontal datums, and map projections. In the NED assembly process the elevation values are converted to decimal meters as a consistent unit of measure, NAD83 is consistently used as horizontal datum, and all the data are recast in a geographic projection. Older DEM's produced by methods that are now obsolete have been filtered during the NED assembly process to minimize artifacts that are commonly found in data produced by these methods. Artifact removal greatly improves the quality of the slope, shaded-relief, and synthetic drainage information that can be derived from the elevation data. Figure 2 illustrates the results of this artifact removal filtering. NED processing also includes steps to adjust values where adjacent DEM's do not match well, and to fill sliver areas of missing data between DEM's. These processing steps ensure that NED has no void areas and artificial discontinuities have been minimized. The artifact removal filtering process does not eliminate all of the artifacts. In areas where the only available DEM is produced by older methods, then "striping" may still occur.

  18. Predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: a comparison with the GRACE and TIMI risk scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellings, Dirk Aam; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Dambrink, Jan-Henk E; Gosselink, At Marcel; Kedhi, Elvin; Roolvink, Vincent; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Van't Hof, Arnoud Wj

    2016-01-01

    The biomarker N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predicts outcome in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS). Whether NT-proBNP has incremental prognostic value beyond established risk strategies is still questionable. To evaluate the predictive value of NT-proBNP for 30-day mortality over and beyond the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) and Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk scores in patients with NSTE-ACS. Patients included in our ACS registry were candidates. NT-proBNP levels on admission were measured and the GRACE and TIMI risk scores were assessed. We compared the predictive value of NT-proBNP to both risk scores and evaluated whether NT-proBNP improves prognostication by using receiver operator curves and measures of discrimination improvement. A total of 1324 patients were included and 50 patients died during follow-up. On logistic regression analysis NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both independently predicted mortality at 30 days. The predictive value of NT-proBNP did not differ significantly compared to the GRACE risk score (area under the curve [AUC]) 0.85 vs 0.87 p =0.67) but was considerably higher in comparison to the TIMI risk score (AUC 0.60 p risk score by adding NT-proBNP did not improve prognostication: AUC 0.86 ( p =0.57), integrated discrimination improvement 0.04 ( p =0.003), net reclassification improvement 0.12 ( p =0.21). In patients with NSTE-ACS, NT-proBNP and the GRACE risk score (but not the TIMI risk score) both have good and comparable predictive value for 30-day mortality. However, incremental prognostic value of NT-proBNP beyond the GRACE risk score could not be demonstrated.

  19. Prognostic value of mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin levels taken on admission and discharge in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the LAMP (Leicester Acute Myocardial Infarction Peptide) II study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Onkar S; Khan, Sohail Q; Narayan, Hafid K; Ng, Kelvin H; Struck, Joachim; Quinn, Paulene A; Morgenthaler, Nils G; Squire, Iain B; Davies, Joan E; Bergmann, Andreas; Ng, Leong L

    2010-07-06

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prognostic value of admission and discharge mid-regional pro-adrenomedullin (sAM) levels in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI) and identify values to aid clinical decision making. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) score were used as comparators. sAM is a stable precursor of adrenomedullin. We measured plasma sAM on admission and discharge in 745 non-ST-elevation MI patients (514 men, median age 70.0 +/- 12.7 years). The primary end point was a composite of death, heart failure, hospitalization, and recurrent acute MI over mean follow-up of 760 days (range 150 to 2,837 days), with each event assessed individually as secondary end points. During follow-up, 120 (16.1%) patients died, and there were 65 (8.7%) hospitalizations for heart failure and 77 (10.3%) recurrent acute MIs. Both admission and discharge levels were increased (median 0.81 nmol/l [range 0.06 to 5.75 nmol/l] and 0.76 nmol/l [range 0.25 to 6.95 nmol/l], respectively) compared with established normal ranges. Multivariate adjusted Cox regression models revealed that both were associated with the primary end point (hazard ratio: 9.75 on admission and 7.54 on discharge; both p 1.11 nmol/l identified those at highest risk of death (p 1.11 nmol/l, complements the GRACE score to improve risk stratification. Copyright 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developing a Game Interface to Assess Risk Perception with Respect to Two Key Dimensions of Risk (Frequency and Severity) in Contexts Where Risks Are Elevated from Their Accepted, "Typical" Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, William M; Ma, Zhenfeng; Andrade, Angie

    2015-06-01

    This four-stage study culminated in a game interface designed to calibrate people's perceptions of net risk (combining frequency and severity), in contexts where risks are elevated from their accepted, "typical" values, as when avalanche threats elevate the risks of "skiing" above levels skiers normally accept. Risk prompts are displayed dynamically, in naturalistic language, and not, for example, as static displays of dollar amounts or probabilities. Individual differences are measured. In Stage 1 (pilot), focus groups (n=9) piloted procedures, visual prompts, and examples of contexts where risks elevated from the "usual," for use in upcoming stages. In Stage 2 (exploratory), participants (primarily students; n=119; mean age, 20.1 years; 64 percent male) were assigned to risk contexts, answered demographic and risk-history questions, and then matched risk-description prompts to perceived "appropriate" levels along an ordinal risk scale. Descriptive measures and graphs showed response distributions; chi-squared analyses compared responses for different demographics. In Stage 3 (manipulating "cards"), participants (n=80; mean age, 37 years; 60 percent male) matched naturalistic risk prompts with ordinal risk positions. Regressions compared cards' placements with their "expected" (per exploratory Stage 2) placements. In Stage 4, the interface was coded in the Unity(®) (implemented at Business and IT Capstone, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON, Canada) development environment. In Stage 1, ambiguities in draft wordings/displays for Stage 2 were identified and corrected. Three risk contexts emerged: traffic/hidden intersection; skiing/avalanche; and swimming/drowning. In Stage 2, for traffic and skiing contexts, responses relating ordinal risk categories to realistic examples were observed to cluster around values potentially usable as markers. No associations appeared with demographic variables. In Stage 3, actual and "expected" ordinal

  1. Method of integral values for measuring the heat conductivity and other parameter of materials up to temperatures of 2000 Kelvin; Integralwertverfahren zur Messung der Waermeleiffaehigkeit und anderer Stoffwerte bis zu Temperaturen von 2000 Kelvin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, Manfred

    1974-06-15

    For the development of new reactor materials and nuclear fuels, it is important to measure the heat conductivity of the materials up to high temperatures. Performing the measurements several difficulties arise. A method which avoids most of the measuring problems has been developed and used to measure the heat conductivity of graphite and uranium carbonidrides. The method is based on measuring a set of integral values of the heat conductivity over relatively large temperature intervals and on evaluating the temperature curve of the heat conductivity by a computer program. Further parameters of the materials as electrical conductivity and thermal expansion can be measured simultaneously.

  2. Delineation of areas having elevated electrical conductivity, orientation and characterization of bedrock fractures, and occurrence of groundwater discharge to surface water at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Melinda J.; Huffman, Brad A.; McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2015-07-16

    During October 2012 through March 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 4, Superfund Section, conducted borehole geophysical logging, surface geophysical surveys, and water-quality profiling in selected wells and areas to characterize or delineate the extent of elevated subsurface electrical conductivity at the EPA Barite Hill/Nevada Goldfields Superfund site near McCormick, South Carolina. Elevated electrical conductivity measured at the site may be related to native rock materials, waste rock disposal areas used in past operations, and (or) groundwater having elevated dissolved solids (primarily metals and major ions) related to waste migration. Five shallow screened wells and four open-borehole bedrock wells were logged by using a suite of borehole tools, and downhole water-quality profiles were recorded in two additional wells. Well depths ranged from about 26 to 300 feet below land surface. Surface geophysical surveys based on frequency-domain electromagnetic and distributed temperature sensing (DTS) techniques were used to identify areas of elevated electrical conductivity (Earth materials and groundwater) and potential high dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water on land and in areas along the northern unnamed tributary at the site.

  3. The Value of CHA2DS2VASC Score in Predicting All-Cause Mortality in Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Who Have Undergone Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yıldız, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Aksan, Gökhan; Kilci, Hakan; Çetin, Şükrü; Sığırcı, Serhat; Kılıçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-01

    Acute coronary syndrome is the most common cause of cardiac morbidity and death. Various scoring systems have been developed in order to identify patients who are at risk for adverse outcome and may benefit from more aggressive and effective therapies. This study was designed to evaluate the CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score as a predictor of mortality inpatients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI). We evaluated 300 patients diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction who underwent p-PCI and calculated their CHA 2 DS 2 VASC scores. According to their CHA 2 DS 2 VASC scores, patients were divided into three groups. Group 1: 0-1 points (n = 101), Group 2: 2-3 points (n = 129), and Group 3: 4-9 points (n = 70). The mean, median and minimum duration of follow-up were 21.7 ± 9.4, 21, and 12 months, respectively. All-cause mortality was defined as the primary endpoint of the study. All-cause mortality was 4% in Group 1, 8.5% in Group 2 and 27.1% in Group 3 respectively. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that Group 3 (CHA 2 DS 2 VASC ≥ 4) had a significantly higher incidence of death [p (log-rank) < 0.001]. In ROC analysis, AUC values for in hospital, 12-month and long-term mortality were 0.88 (0.77-0.99 95% CI), 0.82 (0.73-0.92 95% CI) and 0.79 (0.69-0.88 95% CI), respectively. CHA 2 DS 2 VASC score can be used for predicting both in-hospital, 12-month and long-term mortality in patients with STEMI who have undergone p-PCI.

  4. Additive prognostic value of left ventricular ejection fraction to the TIMI risk score for in-hospital and long-term mortality in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue-Biao; Liu, Yuan-Hui; He, Peng-Cheng; Jiang, Lei; Zhou, Ying-Ling; Chen, Ji-Yan; Tan, Ning; Yu, Dan-Qing

    2017-01-01

    To investigate whether the addition of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) to the TIMI risk score enhances the prediction of in-hospital and long-term death in ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. 673 patients with STEMI were divided into three groups based on TIMI risk score for STEMI: low-risk group (TIMI ≤3, n = 213), moderate-risk group (TIMI 4-6, n = 285), and high-risk group (TIMI ≥7, n = 175). The predictive value was evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk predictors. The rates of in-hospital death (0.5 vs 3.2 vs 10.3 %, p risk group. Multivariate analysis showed that TIMI risk score (OR 1.24, 95 % CI 1.04-1.48, P = 0.015) and LVEF (OR 3.85, 95 % CI 1.58-10.43, P = 0.004) were independent predictors of in-hospital death. LVEF had good predictive value for in-hospital death (AUC: 0.838 vs 0.803, p = 0.571) or 1-year death (AUC: 0.743 vs 0.728, p = 0.775), which was similar to TIMI risk score. When compared with the TIMI risk score alone, the addition of LVEF was associated with significant improvements in predicting in-hospital (AUC: 0.854 vs 0.803, p = 0.033) or 1-year death (AUC: 0.763 vs 0.728, p = 0.016). The addition of LVEF to TIMI risk score enhanced net reclassification improvement (0.864 for in-hospital death, p value to TIMI risk score.

  5. Do Teachers Coming from Diverse Ethno-Cultural Backgrounds Represent an Added Value for the Profession? Findings of a Study Conducted in French-Speaking Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkari, Abdeljalil; Bauer, Stéphanie; Radhouane, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Research has drawn attention to a certain gap between the increasing ethno-cultural diversity of school enrolment and the relative ethno-cultural homogeneity of the teaching body. In French-speaking Switzerland very little attention has been paid to this matter. The purpose of this article is to analyse the potential added value associated with…

  6. National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The U.S. Geological Survey has developed a National Elevation Database (NED). The NED is a seamless mosaic of best-available elevation data. The 7.5-minute elevation...

  7. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  8. Prognostic value of predischarge 12 lead electrocardiogram after myocardial infarction compared with other routine clinical variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioretti, P.; Tijssen, J. G.; Azar, A. J.; Lazzeroni, E.; Brower, R. W.; ten Katen, H. J.; Lubsen, J.; Hugenholtz, P. G.

    1987-01-01

    The prognostic value of QRS score (Selvester), ST depression, ST elevation, extrasystoles, P terminal force in V1, and QTc derived from the predischarge 12 lead electrocardiogram was assessed after myocardial infarction in 474 patients without intraventricular conduction defects, ventricular

  9. Predictive value of CHA2DS2-VASc and CHA2DS2-VASc-HS scores for failed reperfusion after thrombolytic therapy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial ınfarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Salih; Kocabas, Umut; Can, Levent Hurkan; Yavuzgil, Oğuz; Çetin, Mustafa; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2018-03-07

    Thrombolytic therapy is recommended for patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who cannot undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention within the first 120 min. The aim of this study wasz to demonstrate the value of CHA₂DS₂-VASc and CHA₂DS₂-VASc-HS scores in predicting failed reperfusion in STEMI patients treated with thrombolytic therapy. A total of 537 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study; 139 had failed thrombolysis while the remaining 398 fulfilled the criteria for successful thrombolysis. Thrombolysis failure was defined with the lack of symptom relief, < 50% ST resolution-related electrocardiography within 90 min from initiation of the thrombolytic therapy, presence of hemodynamic or electrical instability or in-hospital mortality. CHA₂DS₂-VASc and CHA₂DS₂-VASc-HS scores, which incorporate hyperlipidemia, smoking, switches between female and male gender, were previously shown to be markers of the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, heart failure, smoking, and CAD were significantly common in failed reperfusion patients (for all; p < 0.05). For prediction of failed reperfusion, the cut-off value of CHA₂DS₂-VASc score was ≥ 2 with a sensitivity of 80.90% and a specificity of 41.01% (area under curve [AUC] 0.660; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.618-0.700; p < 0.001) and the cut-off value of CHA₂DS₂-VASc-HS score was ≥ 3 with a sensitivity of 76.13% and a specificity of 67.63% (AUC 0.764; 95% CI 0.725-0.799; p < 0.001). The CHA₂DS₂-VASc-HS score was found to be statistically and significantly better than CHA₂DS₂-VASc score to predict failed reperfusion (p < 0.001). The findings suggest that the CHA₂DS₂-VASc and especially CHA₂DS₂-VASc-HS scores could be considered as predictors of risk of failed reperfusion in STEMI patients.

  10. Determining conductivity and mobility values of individual components in multiphase composite Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, Tristan W.; Brown, David R.; Snyder, G. Jeffrey, E-mail: jsnyder@caltech.edu [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Zeier, Wolfgang G. [Department of Materials Science, California Institute of Technology, MC 309-81, Pasadena, California 91106 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States); Melot, Brent C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Seeley G. Mudd Bldg., 3620 McClintock Ave., Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    The intense interest in phase segregation in thermoelectrics as a means to reduce the lattice thermal conductivity and to modify the electronic properties from nanoscale size effects has not been met with a method for separately measuring the properties of each phase assuming a classical mixture. Here, we apply effective medium theory for measurements of the in-line and Hall resistivity of a multiphase composite, in this case Cu{sub 1.97}Ag{sub 0.03}Se. The behavior of these properties with magnetic field as analyzed by effective medium theory allows us to separate the conductivity and charge carrier mobility of each phase. This powerful technique can be used to determine the matrix properties in the presence of an unwanted impurity phase, to control each phase in an engineered composite, and to determine the maximum carrier concentration change by a given dopant, making it the first step toward a full optimization of a multiphase thermoelectric material and distinguishing nanoscale effects from those of a classical mixture.

  11. Are children rational decision makers when they are asked to value their own health? A contingent valuation study conducted with children and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Carla; Cairns, John; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Cori, Liliana

    2018-02-01

    Despite the importance of including children's preferences in the valuation of their own health benefits, no study has investigated the ability of children to understand willingness-to-pay (WTP) questions. Using a contingent valuation method, we elicit children's and parents' WTP to reduce children's risk of an asthma attack. Our results suggest that children are able to understand and value their own health risk reductions, and their ability to do so improves with age. Child age was found to be inversely related to parents' and children's WTP. The results also suggest that non-paternalistic altruism is predictive of children's WTP. For parents, care for their own health was found to be inversely related with their WTP for children's risk reductions. Comparison of parents' and children's WTP suggests that parents are willing to sacrifice for their child's health risk reduction an amount that is approximately twice that of their children. The analysis of matched pairs of parents and children suggest that there are within-household similarities as the child's WTP is positively related to parents' WTP. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Pressure dependence of conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracewell, B.L.; Hochheimer, H.D.

    1993-01-01

    The overall objectives of this work were to attempt the following: (1) Measure the pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity of several quasi-one-dimensional, charge-density-wave solids, including measurements along various crystal directions. (2) Measure photocurrents in selected MX solids at ambient and elevated pressures. (3) Measure the resonance Raman spectra for selected MX solids as a function of pressure

  13. The prognostic value of bleeding academic research consortium (BARC)-defined bleeding complications in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a comparison with the TIMI (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction), GUSTO (Global Utilization of Streptokinase and Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Occluded Coronary Arteries), and ISTH (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis) bleeding classifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kikkert, Wouter J.; van Geloven, Nan; van der Laan, Mariet H.; Vis, Marije M.; Baan, Jan; Koch, Karel T.; Peters, Ron J.; de Winter, Robbert J.; Piek, Jan J.; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Henriques, José P. S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present analysis was to compare 1-year mortality prediction of Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC)-defined bleeding complications with existing bleeding definitions in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and to investigate the prognostic value of

  14. Energy efficient elevators and escalators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrao, Carlos; Fong, Joao; Almeida, Anibal de (Dep. Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal)); Rivet, Luc

    2009-07-01

    Elevators and escalators are the crucial element that makes it practical to live and work several floors above ground - more than 4,3 million units are installed in Europe. Due to ageing of the European population the installation of elevators in single family houses is experiencing a significant growth, as well as equipping existing buildings. Elevators use about 4% of the electricity in tertiary sector buildings. High untapped saving potentials exist with respect to energy-efficient technologies, investment decisions and behavioural approaches, in these sectors. This paper presents preliminary results from the IEE project E4, whose overall objective is the improvement of the energy performance of elevators and escalators, in tertiary sector buildings and in multi family residential buildings. The project is characterizing people conveyors electricity consumption in the tertiary sector and in residential buildings in the EU. The installed park is characterised by a survey among elevators national associations in each country. An assessment of the barriers has been made in the first phase of the project and will be presented. Monitoring campaigns in elevators and escalators are being conducted in each country according to a common developed methodology. More than fifty elevators and escalators will be audited. This will allow the collection of load curves (start up, travel up and down, travel full and empty), including the characterization of standby consumption. Standby consumption of an elevator can represent up to 80% of the total energy consumed per year, and can be drastically reduced. This paper presents the preliminary results of the first ten audits performed in Portugal by Isr-UC.

  15. Iowa Bedrock Surface Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the bedrock surface elevation in Iowa was compiled using all available data, principally information from GEOSAM, supplemented...

  16. Establishment of reference intervals of clinical chemistry analytes for the adult population in Saudi Arabia: a study conducted as a part of the IFCC global study on reference values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borai, Anwar; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Al Masaud, Abdulaziz; Tamimi, Waleed; Bahijri, Suhad; Armbuster, David; Bawazeer, Ali; Nawajha, Mustafa; Otaibi, Nawaf; Khalil, Haitham; Kawano, Reo; Kaddam, Ibrahim; Abdelaal, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    This study is a part of the IFCC-global study to derive reference intervals (RIs) for 28 chemistry analytes in Saudis. Healthy individuals (n=826) aged ≥18 years were recruited using the global study protocol. All specimens were measured using an Architect analyzer. RIs were derived by both parametric and non-parametric methods for comparative purpose. The need for secondary exclusion of reference values based on latent abnormal values exclusion (LAVE) method was examined. The magnitude of variation attributable to gender, ages and regions was calculated by the standard deviation ratio (SDR). Sources of variations: age, BMI, physical exercise and smoking levels were investigated by using the multiple regression analysis. SDRs for gender, age and regional differences were significant for 14, 8 and 2 analytes, respectively. BMI-related changes in test results were noted conspicuously for CRP. For some metabolic related parameters the ranges of RIs by non-parametric method were wider than by the parametric method and RIs derived using the LAVE method were significantly different than those without it. RIs were derived with and without gender partition (BMI, drugs and supplements were considered). RIs applicable to Saudis were established for the majority of chemistry analytes, whereas gender, regional and age RI partitioning was required for some analytes. The elevated upper limits of metabolic analytes reflects the existence of high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi population.

  17. Conducting Polymers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    would exhibit electronic conductivity, their conductivities (of compressed pellets) were indeed measured by others, and were found to be .... Polyaniline. Polyphenylene. Polypheny lene- vinylene. Table 1. G!NeRAl I ARTICl! structure. Maximum conductivity Stem Stability. Processability. ~. 1.5 x 105. Reacts with Film not n air.

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide: impacts on soil and plant water relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirkham, M. B

    2011-01-01

    .... Focusing on this critical issue, Elevated Carbon Dioxide: Impacts on Soil and Plant Water Relations presents research conducted on field-grown sorghum, winter wheat, and rangeland plants under elevated CO2...

  19. Effect of annealing temperatures on the electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 spinel ferrite prepared by chemical reaction at different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneesh Kumar, K. S.; Bhowmik, R. N.

    2017-12-01

    The electrical conductivity and dielectric properties of Ni1.5Fe1.5O4 ferrite has been controlled by varying the annealing temperature of the chemical routed samples. The frequency activated conductivity obeyed Jonscher’s power law and universal scaling suggested semiconductor nature. An unusual metal like state has been revealed in the measurement temperature scale in between two semiconductor states with different activation energy. The metal like state has been affected by thermal annealing of the material. The analysis of electrical impedance and modulus spectra has confirmed non-Debye dielectric relaxation with contributions from grains and grain boundaries. The dielectric relaxation process is thermally activated in terms of measurement temperature and annealing temperature of the samples. The hole hopping process, due to presence of Ni3+ ions in the present Ni rich ferrite, played a significant role in determining the thermal activated conduction mechanism. This work has successfully applied the technique of a combined variation of annealing temperature and pH value during chemical reaction for tuning electrical parameters in a wide range; for example dc limit of conductivity ~10-4-10-12 S cm-1, and unusually high activation energy ~0.17-1.36 eV.

  20. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) for the main 8 Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation model (DEM) data are arrays of regularly spaced elevation values referenced horizontally either to a Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection...

  1. De stille elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Lindqvist, Ditte Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Det er blevet en afgørende samværskompetence i uddannelsessystemet at stå aktivt frem og deltage verbalt i skoleklassens liv både fagligt og socialt. Men ikke alle elever deltager lige villigt verbalt i plenum. Artiklen handler om de stille elever og konsekvenserne af stillehed i skolen. Det...... foreslås at skolesystemet sanktionerer ældre elever hårdere for stillehed end yngre elever og det forklares med at skolelivet også er en kultivering henimod elevhed som social identitet og denne er der forventning om at eleverne mestrer i udskolingen....

  2. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. The space station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Loren A.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The elevator is an unmanned mobile structure which operates on a ten kilometer tether spanning the distance between the Space Station and a tethered platform. Elevator capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design are discussed. Engineering development of the tethered elevator is the result of work conducted in the following areas: structural configurations; robotics, drive mechanisms; and power generation and transmission systems. The structural configuration of the elevator is presented. The structure supports, houses, and protects all systems on board the elevator. The implementation of robotics on board the elevator is discussed. Elevator robotics allow for the deployment, retrieval, and manipulation of tethered objects. Robotic manipulators also aid in hooking the elevator on a tether. Critical to the operation of the tethered elevator is the design of its drive mechanisms, which are discussed. Two drivers, located internal to the elevator, propel the vehicle along a tether. These modular components consist of endless toothed belts, shunt-wound motors, regenerative power braking, and computer controlled linear actuators. The designs of self-sufficient power generation and transmission systems are reviewed. Thorough research indicates all components of the elevator will operate under power provided by fuel cells. The fuel cell systems will power the vehicle at seven kilowatts continuously and twelve kilowatts maximally. A set of secondary fuel cells provides redundancy in the unlikely event of a primary system failure. Power storage exists in the form of Nickel-Hydrogen batteries capable of powering the elevator under maximum loads.

  4. Undervisning af tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horst, Christian

    2003-01-01

    Artiklen fremdrager hovedresultaterne fra Virginia P. Collier's og Wayne P. Thomas's længdeundersøgelser af tosprogede elever i USA, som formentlig er de mest omfattende undersøgelser af undervisningen af tosprogede elever overhovedet. Resultaterne diskuteres i relation til udviklingen af en...

  5. Effects of elevated CO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Sha; Yang, Xiaomei; Liu, Guobin; Gai, Lingtong; Zhang, Changsheng; Ritsema, Coen J.; Geissen, Violette

    2017-01-01

    Elevated CO2 and drought are key consequences of climate change and affect soil processes and plant growth. This study investigated the effects of elevated CO2 and drought on the microbial biomass and enzymatic activities in the rhizospheres of Bothriochloa ischaemum and

  6. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  8. Conduct Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... objections runs away from home often truant from school Children who exhibit these behaviors should receive a comprehensive evaluation by an experience mental health professional. Many children with a conduct disorder may ...

  9. Elevators or stairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sachin; O’Byrne, Michael; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background: Staff in hospitals frequently travel between floors and choose between taking the stairs or elevator. We compared the time savings with these two options. Methods: Four people aged 26–67 years completed 14 trips ranging from one to six floors, both ascending and descending. We compared the amount of time per floor travelled by stairs and by two banks of elevators. Participants reported their fatigue levels using a modified Borg scale. We performed two-way analysis of variance to compare the log-transformed data, with participant and time of day as independent variables. Results: The mean time taken to travel between each floor was 13.1 (standard deviation [SD] 1.7) seconds by stairs and 37.5 (SD 19.0) and 35.6 (SD 23.1) seconds by the two elevators (F = 8.61, p elevator equaled about 15 minutes a day. Self-reported fatigue was less than 13 (out of 20) on the Borg scale for all participants, and they all stated that they were able to continue their duties without resting. The extra time associated with elevator use was because of waiting for its arrival. There was a difference in the amount of time taken to travel by elevator depending on the time of day and day of the week. Interpretation: Taking the stairs rather than the elevator saved about 15 minutes each workday. This 3% savings per workday could translate into improved productivity as well as increased fitness. PMID:22159365

  10. Exploring Mean Annual Precipitation Values (2003–2012 in a Specific Area (36°N–43°N, 113°E–120°E Using Meteorological, Elevational, and the Nearest Distance to Coastline Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fushen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gathering very accurate spatially explicit data related to the distribution of mean annual precipitation is required when laying the groundwork for the prevention and mitigation of water-related disasters. In this study, four Bayesian maximum entropy (BME models were compared to estimate the spatial distribution of mean annual precipitation of the selected areas. Meteorological data from 48 meteorological stations were used, and spatial correlations between three meteorological factors and two topological factors were analyzed to improve the mapping results including annual precipitation, average temperature, average water vapor pressure, elevation, and distance to coastline. Some missing annual precipitation data were estimated based on their historical probability distribution and were assimilated as soft data in the BME method. Based on this, the univariate BME, multivariate BME, univariate BME with soft data, and multivariate BME with soft data analysis methods were compared. The estimation accuracy was assessed by cross-validation with the mean error (ME, mean absolute error (MAE, and root mean square error (RMSE. The results showed that multivariate BME with soft data outperformed the other methods, indicating that adding the spatial correlations between multivariate factors and soft data can help improve the estimation performance.

  11. Conduct disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Smeets, K.C.; Herpers, P.; Scheepers, F.; Glennon, J.; Rommelse, N.N.J.

    2013-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic

  12. Elevated temperature fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1979-01-01

    The application of fracture mechanics concepts to cracks at elevated temperatures is examined. Particular consideration is given to the characterisation of crack tip stress-strain fields and parameters controlling crack extension under static and cyclic loads. (author)

  13. Indsatser for tosprogede elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dines; Jakobsen, Vibeke; Jensen, Vibeke Myrup

    Fagligt set klarer tosprogede elever sig dårligere i skolen og det videre uddannelsessystem end ’danske’ elever. Kommuner og folkeskoler har derfor sat en række tiltag i værk, som sigter mod at forbedre de tosprogede elevers skole- og uddannelsessituation. Rapporten kortlægger og analyserer...... af klasseundervisningen. Analysen viser, at de elever, der bliver taget ud af klassen for at få ekstra undervisning i dansk som andetsprog, klarer sig dårligere end elever, der modtager ekstraundervisningen i klassen eller uden for skoletid. Undersøgelsen er baseret på spørgeskemaundersøgelser blandt...... kommunale forvaltningschefer, skoleledere, lærere og forældre til børn i 2. klasse samt lærere til og elever i 9. klasse, SFI’s forløbsundersøgelse af årgang 1995 og registerdata. Undersøgelsen er via Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning betalt med midler fra satspuljeaftalen 2009 om integration....

  14. National requirements for improved elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.; Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Jason, Allyson L.; Maune, David F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of surveys, structured interviews, and workshops conducted to identify key national requirements for improved elevation data for the United States and its territories, including coastlines. Organizations also identified and reported the expected economic benefits that would be realized if their requirements for improved elevation were met (appendixes 1–3). This report describes the data collection methodology and summarizes the findings. Participating organizations included 34 Federal agencies, 50 States and two territories, and a sampling of local governments, tribes, and nongovernmental orgnizations. The nongovernmental organizations included The Nature Conservancy and a sampling of private sector businesses. These data were collected in 2010-2011 as part of the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA), a study to identify program alternatives for better meeting the Nation’s elevation data needs. NEEA tasks included the collection of national elevation requirements; analysis of the benefits and costs of meeting these requirements; assessment of emerging elevation technologies, lifecycle data management needs, and costs for managing and distributing a national-scale dataset and derived products; and candidate national elevation program alternatives that balance costs and benefits in meeting the Nation’s elevation requirements. The NEEA was sponsored by the National Digital Elevation Program (NDEP), a government coordination body with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as managing partner that includes the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), among the more than a dozen agencies and organizations. The term enhanced elevation data as used in this report refers broadly to three-dimensional measurements of land or

  15. Processes affectin the chemistry of waters passing through a high elevator Sierra Nevada watershed. [U. S. A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodvin, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The Eastern Brook Lakes watershed is located in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California and spans and elevational range from 3060 to 3780 m. Changes in stream and lake chemistries along spatial and temporal flowpaths demonstrate that both terrestrial and aquatic processes were important in regulating surface water chemistries within the 250 ha watershed. Streams generally showed increasing pH, alkalinity, and conductance values with decreasing elevation. Large changes in stream chemistries occurred over short distances at locations such as alpine meadows. During the spring, stream alkalinities and conductance values decreased while stream pH values increased with time. pH values reached their maximim in June when alkalinity and conductance values were at their minimum values. Internal lake processes strongly influenced the chemistry of Upper Eastern Brook Lake. During spring and summer, lake waters exhibited near-neutral pH, low conductance (10-12 ..mu..S/cm), low alkalinity (100-120 ..mu..Eq/L), and undetectable ammonium. Under the ice, major changes in lake chemistry occurred associated with oxygen depletion in the hypolimnion. pH values decreased with time towards a minimum of 6.3 at 6 m depth. Other parameters increased w time and depth under the ice, reaching maximum values as follows: conductance > 80 ..mu..S/cm/sup -1/ Gran's alkalinity > 370 ..mu..Eq/L/sup -1/, and ammonium > 50 /sup m/u/sup E/q/L/sup -1/. 5 figures, 10 references.

  16. Conductivity Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Thermal and Electrical Conductivity Probe (TECP) for NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander took measurements in Martian soil and in the air. The needles on the end of the instrument were inserted into the Martian soil, allowing TECP to measure the propagation of both thermal and electrical energy. TECP also measured the humidity in the surrounding air. The needles on the probe are 15 millimeters (0.6 inch) long. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  18. Oxygen Isotope Compositions of Meteoric Water Across an Elevation Gradient in Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D. R.; White, E.; Cassel, E. J.; Lynch, B.; Yanites, B.; Breecker, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes is a prime example of elevated topography generated by oceanic plate subduction. Whereas previous stable isotope studies have investigated the paleoelevation of the Andean Eastern Cordillera, little is known about the paleoelevation of the Western Cordillera, where arc volcanism now occurs. As a first step towards studying the paleoelevation of this region, we investigated the change in δ18O values of modern soil waters across an elevation gradient from sea level to about 4725 meters in southern Peru. We sampled soil profiles from 5 to 80 cm in 15-20cm increments, and we sampled water from flowing natural streams at various elevations. We used cryogenic vacuum extraction to quantitatively remove non-structural water from soil samples. The δ18O values of water extracted from soil samples varies with the depth in the soil due to the diminishing effect of seasonality and evaporation. Every high elevation (>3500m) soil profile we measured had nearly constant δ18O values below 5cm and a total range of δ18O values between -12.8‰ and -17.1‰, apart from the Cusco profile. In the Cusco profile, the δ18O values ranged from -7.2 ‰ at 5 cm to -21.8 ‰ at 60 cm, defining a strong monotonic decrease not seen in other soil profiles. The δ18O trend in the Cusco profile may be different due to the impact of evaporation, soil hydrology, and/or seasonality in the δ18O values of precipitation. Further spatial analysis must be conducted to pinpoint a specific cause. Considering only the samples collected below 40cm, which are likely the best estimate of mean annual precipitation, the δ18O values decrease with increasing elevation at a rate higher than the global mean, suggesting that oxygen isotope paleoaltimetry can work in this study region.

  19. RESEARCH OF INFLUENCING OF PROJECT DISCRIPTIONS OF ELEVATOR ON PARAMETERS OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. One of basic elements of band bucket elevators is their drive. For determination of power drive it is necessary to conduct calculations on standard by methods, in what it is needed to expend enough time. One of project parameters is productivity of elevator. It is necessary to build parametric dependence of power drive of elevator on its design capacity that takes into account a type and descriptions of load, lifting height, standard sizes and parameters of buckets and tapes. Methodology. Using the method of hauling calculation of band buckets elevators, the parametric dependences of power drive of high-speed elevators are built with deep and shallow buckets from their productivity at fixed type of load and height of getting up. Findings. It is set on the basis of the built parametric dependences that the change function of a size of elevator power from design capacity (at fixed to the lifting height, load type, rate of tape movement is piecewise and droningly increasing. The intervals of project values of productivity, which provide the permanent size of elevator power drive are certain in a general view. As the example of application of the recived results the construction process of power drive dependence from design capacity of elevator of shotblasting room, which is intended for transporting of the metallic shot using for consolidating of carriage springs, is considered. For concrete type of load and lifting height of such elevator graphic dependence of power drive on productivity was built. Originality. Parametric dependences of elevator power drive on its design capacity were first built, which take into account a type and physical and mechanical descriptions of load, lifting height, standard sizes and parameters of buckets and tapes. Practical value. The use of the built dependences enables in relation to rapid determination of approximate value of power drive of vertical high-speed elevators with deep and shallow buckets on the

  20. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte F.; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler – interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  1. Udeskole og elevers handlekompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breiting, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Elever elsker at komme væk fra undervisningen i skolen. Er det positivt eller negativt? Og hvad har betydning for, at eleverne får mest muligt ud af oplevelserne uden for skolen? Forskellige former for udeskole giver nogle oplagte muligheder, så eleverne udvikler sig som engagerede borgere i et...

  2. Interaktive tavler - interaktive elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusch, Charlotte; Otzen, Elsebeth

    Abstract, Poster-præsentation 13.-14. juni 2012, Pilotprojekt: Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever Lektor, cand. pæd., Elsebeth Otzen og Lektor, cand. mag., Charlotte Reusch, Institut for Skole og Læring, Læreruddannelsen, Professionshøjskolen Metropol, København Hvordan motiverer en interaktiv...... tavle lærere og elever? Hvad sker der mellem elev, stof og lærer, når læreren bliver i stand til at billedliggøre og dynamisere sine oplæg på tavlen? Bliver læreroplæg prioriteret? Bliver eleverne aktive, eller ender den interaktive tavle med blot at understøtte lærerens envejskommunikation til klassen......? Og hvad sker der mellem eleverne? Disse spørgsmål var igangsættende for arbejdet med pilotprojektet Interaktive tavler ? interaktive elever, som blev afviklet i skoleåret 2010-2011. Projektet blev udført af en tværfaglig gruppe, bestående af lektorer i matematik, biologi og dansk i læreruddannelsen...

  3. Conduct disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitelaar, Jan K; Smeets, Kirsten C; Herpers, Pierre; Scheepers, Floor; Glennon, Jeffrey; Rommelse, Nanda N J

    2013-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is a frequently occurring psychiatric disorder characterized by a persistent pattern of aggressive and non-aggressive rule breaking antisocial behaviours that lead to considerable burden for the patients themselves, their family and society. This review paper updates diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to CD in the light of the forthcoming DSM-5 definition. The diagnostic criteria for CD will remain unchanged in DSM-5, but the introduction of a specifier of CD with a callous-unemotional (CU) presentation is new. Linked to this, we discuss the pros and cons of various other ways to subtype aggression/CD symptoms. Existing guidelines for CD are, with few exceptions, already of a relatively older date and emphasize that clinical assessment should be systematic and comprehensive and based on a multi-informant approach. Non-medical psychosocial interventions are recommended as the first option for the treatment of CD. There is a role for medication in the treatment of comorbid syndromes and/or in case of insufficient response to psychosocial interventions and severe and dangerous aggressive and violent behaviours.

  4. Quantifying risk of penile prosthesis infection with elevated glycosylated hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S K; Carson, C C; Cleves, M A; Delk, J R

    1998-05-01

    Elevation of glycosylated hemoglobin above levels of 11.5 mg.% has been considered a contraindication to penile prosthesis implantation in diabetic patients. We determine the predictive value of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in penile prosthesis infections in diabetic and nondiabetic patients to confirm or deny this prevalent opinion. We conducted a 2-year prospective study of 389 patients, including 114 diabetics, who underwent 3-piece penile prosthesis implantation. All patients had similar preoperative preparation without regard to diabetic status, control or glycosylated hemoglobin A1C level. Risk of infection was statistically analyzed for diabetics versus nondiabetics, glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values above and below 11.5 mg.%, insulin dependent versus oral medication diabetics, and fasting blood sugars above and below 180 mg.%. Prosthesis infections developed in 10 diabetics (8.7%) and 11 nondiabetics (4.0%). No increased infection rate was observed in diabetics with high fasting sugars or diabetics on insulin. There was no statistically significant increased infection risk with increased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C among all patients or among only the diabetics. In fact, there was no meaningful difference in the median or mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C in the infected and noninfected patients regardless of diabetes. Use of glycosylated hemoglobin A1C values to identify and exclude surgical candidates with increased risk of infections is not proved by this study. Elevation of fasting sugar or insulin dependence also does not increase risk of infection in diabetics undergoing prosthesis implantation.

  5. CERN Code of Conduct

    CERN Document Server

    Department, HR

    2010-01-01

    The Code is intended as a guide in helping us, as CERN contributors, to understand how to conduct ourselves, treat others and expect to be treated. It is based around the five core values of the Organization. We should all become familiar with it and try to incorporate it into our daily life at CERN.

  6. Low thermal conductivity skutterudites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleurial, J P; Caillat, T; Borshchevsky, A

    1997-07-01

    Recent experimental results on semiconductors with the skutterudite crystal structure show that these materials possess attractive transport properties and have a good potential for achieving ZT values substantially larger than for state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials. Both n-type and p-type conductivity samples have been obtained, using several preparation techniques. Associated with a low hole effective mass, very high carrier mobilities, low electrical resistivities and moderate Seebeck coefficients are obtained in p-type skutterudites. For a comparable doping level, the carrier mobilities of n-type samples are about an order of magnitude lower than the values achieved on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients on p-type samples. However, the much larger electron effective masses and Seebeck coefficients make n-type skutterudite promising candidates as well. Unfortunately, the thermal conductivities of the binary skutterudites compounds are too large, particularly at low temperatures, to be useful for thermoelectric applications. Several approaches to the reduction of the lattice thermal conductivity in skutterudites are being pursued: heavy doping, formation of solid solutions and alloys, study of novel ternary and filled skutterudite compounds. All those approaches have already resulted in skutterudite compositions with substantially lower thermal conductivity values in these materials. Recently, superior thermoelectric properties in the moderate to high temperature range were achieved for compositions combining alloying and filling of the skutterudite structure. Experimental results and mechanisms responsible for low thermal conductivity in skutterudites are discussed.

  7. Skuldertesten "Kombineret Elevation"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Mikkel Bek; Overkær, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Formål: At udarbejde en testprotokol for testen Kombineret Elevation (KE) og undersøge test-retest variationen ved test af elite svømmere, samt diskutere testens relevans og validitet. Materiale og Metode: 9 elite og 10 sub-elite svømmere, heraf var 11 mænd og 8 kvinder, gennemførte testen KE 2...

  8. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE ELECTRICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of elevated temperatures on the electrical properties of Bi metal probe to Si thin films had been investigated for electric field values 10-100V/m. Measurements of current (I) – voltage (V) characteristics were obtained at temperatures 300,320,340,360,380 and 400K respectively. The results indicated linear I–V ...

  9. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What......As a social scientist of ethics and morality, Luhmann has noticed the ethical wave that has recently swept across the western world, and states that this particular kind of wave seems to have a wavelength of about one hundred years (cf. Luhmann 1989: 9 ff.). Even though the frequency...... and the regularity of such a phenomenon is both hard to verify and, if true, difficult to explain, it seems fair to say that since the Enlightenment, an approaching fin-de-siecle has brought an increased interest in matters concerning morality and ethics.1 The present peak has in public-political discourse and some...

  10. INFLUENCE ANALYSES OF DESIGNED CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ELEVATOR TO THE PARAMETERS OF ITS DRIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bohomaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A drive behaves to the basic elements of scoop band elevators. To determine the drive power calculations are carried out according to standard methods, which take plenty of time. It is necessary to conduct the analysis of influence of project characteristics on the parameters of high-speed drive in a scoop bent elevator and to build the improved algorithm of speed-up determination of its drive power on project descriptions, that will take into account the type of load, rise height, necessary productivity, standard parameters of scoops and tape. Methodology. Using parametric dependences of elevators drive power on its project characteristics, received by the author earlier, the improved algorithm of speed-up determination of elevators high-speed drive power with deep and shallow scoops at set type of load, productivity, rise height was offered. Findings. The algorithm of drive power speed-up determination of high-speed vertical elevators with deep and shallow scoops depending on project parameters was offered. The example of such algorithm application is considered for an elevator that is intended for transporting of cement. Analytical dependences of drive power of such elevator are determined on the productivity and rise height. Corresponding graphic dependences were built and character of drive power changes during the size changing of any project characteristics was determined. Originality. The improved algorithm of drive power elevator determination at the given project characteristics (type of load, rise height, productivity that takes into account standard sizes, parameters of scoops and ribbons, was built at first time. Practical value. The use of an offered algorithm of calculation gives the possibility of relatively fast determination of reference value of high-speed elevators drive power with deep and shallow scoops, to build graphic dependences of drive power on the values of the productivity and rise height at the certain

  11. The impact of lidar elevation uncertainty on mapping intertidal habitats on barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Wang, Lei; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    While airborne lidar data have revolutionized the spatial resolution that elevations can be realized, data limitations are often magnified in coastal settings. Researchers have found that airborne lidar can have a vertical error as high as 60 cm in densely vegetated intertidal areas. The uncertainty of digital elevation models is often left unaddressed; however, in low-relief environments, such as barrier islands, centimeter differences in elevation can affect exposure to physically demanding abiotic conditions, which greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. In this study, we used airborne lidar elevation data, in situ elevation observations, lidar metadata, and tide gauge information to delineate low-lying lands and the intertidal wetlands on Dauphin Island, a barrier island along the coast of Alabama, USA. We compared three different elevation error treatments, which included leaving error untreated and treatments that used Monte Carlo simulations to incorporate elevation vertical uncertainty using general information from lidar metadata and site-specific Real-Time Kinematic Global Position System data, respectively. To aid researchers in instances where limited information is available for error propagation, we conducted a sensitivity test to assess the effect of minor changes to error and bias. Treatment of error with site-specific observations produced the fewest omission errors, although the treatment using the lidar metadata had the most well-balanced results. The percent coverage of intertidal wetlands was increased by up to 80% when treating the vertical error of the digital elevation models. Based on the results from the sensitivity analysis, it could be reasonable to use error and positive bias values from literature for similar environments, conditions, and lidar acquisition characteristics in the event that collection of site-specific data is not feasible and information in the lidar metadata is insufficient. The methodology presented in

  12. A spider elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butylkin, A.V.; Butylkin, V.A.; Izosimov, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    A spider elevator is proposed which contains a body, a wedge clamp with wedges hinged to each other, a subassembly for holding the wedge clamp in the open and closed positions and a mechanism for changing the wedge clamp, which is made in the form of levers with ears for cleats and installed in the body with the capability of turning. To increase reliability in the operational mode through using the external force for clamping the pipe, the free ends of the levers are hinged with the body by a power cylinder.

  13. Elevator Control Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ceder, Frederick; Nordin, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to investigate if it is eective to switch strategies for elevators during one day in an oce building. This essay describes some of the strategies in use today, followed by a comparison and analysis of two of the strategies described. We have also implemented optimizations to one of these strategies. From our test results we can conclude that our optimized strategy worked and produced better results on average waiting time and total traveling time than the two stra...

  14. Does Elevated CO2 Alter Silica Uptake in Trees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson W. Fulweiler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human activities have greatly altered global carbon (C and N (N cycling. In fact, atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2 have increased 40% over the last century and the amount of N cycling in the biosphere has more than doubled. In an effort to understand how plants will respond to continued global carbon dioxide fertilization, long-term free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE experiments have been conducted at sites around the globe. Here we examine how atmospheric CO2 enrichment and N fertilization affects the uptake of silicon (Si in the Duke Forest, North Carolina, a stand dominated by Pinus taeda (loblolly pine, and five hardwood species. Specifically, we measured foliar biogenic silica (BSi concentrations in five deciduous and one coniferous species across three treatments: CO2 enrichment, N enrichment, and N and CO2 enrichment. We found no consistent trends in foliar Si concentration under elevated CO2, N fertilization, or combined elevated CO2 and N fertilization. However, two-thirds of the tree species studied here have Si foliar concentrations greater than well-known Si accumulators, such as grasses. Based on net primary production values and aboveground Si concentrations in these trees, we calculated forest Si uptake rates under control and elevated CO2 concentrations. Due largely to increased primary production, elevated CO2 enhanced the magnitude of Si uptake between 20% and 26%, likely intensifying the terrestrial silica pump. This uptake of Si by forests has important implications for Si export from terrestrial systems, with the potential to impact C sequestration and higher trophic levels in downstream ecosystems.

  15. Cokriging model for estimation of water table elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeksema, R.J.; Clapp, R.B.; Thomas, A.L.; Hunley, A.E.; Farrow, N.D.; Dearstone, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    In geological settings where the water table is a subdued replica of the ground surface, cokriging can be used to estimate the water table elevation at unsampled locations on the basis of values of water table elevation and ground surface elevation measured at wells and at points along flowing streams. The ground surface elevation at the estimation point must also be determined. In the proposed method, separate models are generated for the spatial variability of the water table and ground surface elevation and for the dependence between these variables. After the models have been validated, cokriging or minimum variance unbiased estimation is used to obtain the estimated water table elevations and their estimation variances. For the Pits and Trenches area (formerly a liquid radioactive waste disposal facility) near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, water table estimation along a linear section, both with and without the inclusion of ground surface elevation as a statistical predictor, illustrate the advantages of the cokriging model

  16. Automatic pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haney, K.M.; Willis, C.A.

    1987-03-17

    This patent describes an elevator adapted for use with a power swivel for supporting a drilling or production tubular, the elevator comprising: at least two jaws, each jaw having a clamping surface; a connector member for supporting the jaws, the connector member comprising an upper end, a lower end, means for coupling the upper end to the power swivel, means for coupling the lower end to a tubular. The member also comprises means for defining a passageway extending from the upper end to the lower end through the connector member to allow drilling mud to be passed from the power swivel through the bore, into the tubular; and linkage means mounted between the connector member and the jaws for coupling the jaws to the connector member and for maintaining the clamping surfaces of the jaws in clamping engagement with the tubular when the connector member and the tubular are urged apart relative to one another. The linkage means is configured such that the force by which the clamping surfaces clamp the tubular increases as the force urging the connector member and the tubular apart increases.

  17. Elevation data for floodplain mapping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies; National Research Council; Division on Earth and Life Studies; National Research Council

    2007-01-01

    .... Elevation Data for Floodplain Mapping shows that there is sufficient two-dimensional base map imagery to meet FEMA's flood map modernization goals, but that the three-dimensional base elevation data...

  18. Advanced composite elevator for Boeing 727 aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Detail design activities are reported for a program to develop an advanced composites elevator for the Boeing 727 commercial transport. Design activities include discussion of the full scale ground test and flight test activities, the ancillary test programs, sustaining efforts, weight status, and the production status. Prior to flight testing of the advanced composites elevator, ground, flight flutter, and stability and control test plans were reviewed and approved by the FAA. Both the ground test and the flight test were conducted according to the approved plan, and were witnessed by the FAA. Three and one half shipsets have now been fabricated without any significant difficulty being encountered. Two elevator system shipsets were weighed, and results validated the 26% predicted weight reduction. The program is on schedule.

  19. Leaf physiological responses of mature Norway Spruce trees exposed to elevated carbon dioxide and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shubhangi; Uddling, Johan; Räntfors, Mats; Hall, Marianne; Wallin, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Leaf photosynthesis, respiration and stomatal conductance exert strong control over the exchange of carbon, water and energy between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere. As such, leaf physiological responses to rising atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) and temperature have important implications for the global carbon cycle and rate of ongoing global warming, as well as for local and regional hydrology and evaporative cooling. It is therefore critical to improve the understanding of plant physiological responses to elevated [CO2] and temperature, in particular for boreal and tropical ecosystems. In order to do so, we examined physiological responses of mature boreal Norway spruce trees (ca 40-years old) exposed to elevated [CO2] and temperature inside whole-tree chambers at Flakaliden research site, Northern Sweden. The trees were exposed to a factorial combination of two levels of [CO2] (ambient and doubled) and temperature (ambient and +2.8 degree C in summer and +5.6 degree C in winter). Three replicates in each of the four treatments were used. It was found that photosynthesis was increased considerably in elevated [CO2], but was not affected by the warming treatment. The maximum rate of photosynthetic carboxylation was reduced in the combined elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature treatment, but not in single factor treatments. Elevated [CO2] also strongly increased the base rate of respiration and to a lesser extent reduced the temperature sensitivity (Q10 value) of respiration; responses which may be important for the carbon balance of these trees which have a large proportion of shaded foliage. Stomatal conductance at a given VPD was reduced by elevated temperature treatment, to a degree that mostly offset the higher vapour pressure deficit in warmed air with respect to transpiration. Elevated [CO2] did not affect stomatal conductance, and thus increased the ratio of leaf internal to external [CO2]. These results indicate that the large elevated

  20. Elevational trends in hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus cembra roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losso, Adriano; Nardini, Andrea; Nolf, Markus; Mayr, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In alpine regions, elevational gradients in environmental parameters are reflected by structural and functional changes in plant traits. Elevational changes in plant water relations have also been demonstrated, but comparable information on root hydraulics is generally lacking. We analyzed the hydraulic efficiency (specific hydraulic conductivity k s, entire root system conductance K R) and vulnerability to drought-induced embolism (water potential at 50 % loss of conductivity Ψ 50) of the roots of Pinus cembra trees growing along an elevational transect of 600 m. Hydraulic parameters of the roots were compared with those of the stem and related to anatomical traits {mean conduit diameter (d), wall reinforcement [(t/b)(2)]}. We hypothesized that temperature-related restrictions in root function would cause a progressive limitation of hydraulic efficiency and safety with increasing elevation. We found that both root k s and K R decreased from low (1600 m a.s.l.: k s 5.6 ± 0.7 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.049 ± 0.005 kg m(-2) s (-1) MPa(-1)) to high elevation (2100 m a.s.l.: k s 4.2 ± 0.6 kg m(-1) s(-1) MPa(-1), K R 0.035 ± 0.006 kg m(-2) s(-1) MPa(-1)), with small trees showing higher K R than large trees. k s was higher in roots than in stems (0.5 ± 0.05 kg m(-1)s(-1)MPa(-1)). Ψ 50 values were similar across elevations and overall less negative in roots (Ψ 50 -3.6 ± 0.1 MPa) than in stems (Ψ 50 -3.9 ± 0.1 MPa). In roots, large-diameter tracheids were lacking at high elevation and (t/b)(2) increased, while d did not change. The elevational decrease in root hydraulic efficiency reflects a limitation in timberline tree hydraulics. In contrast, hydraulic safety was similar across elevations, indicating that avoidance of hydraulic failure is important for timberline trees. As hydraulic patterns can only partly be explained by the anatomical parameters studied, limitations and/or adaptations at the pit level are likely.

  1. An elevator wheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhornik, V.I.; Cherkov, Ye.M.; Simonov, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    This invention deals with mineral enrichment and is primarily for unloading submerged products of enrichment during separation in heavy mediums. An elevator wheel is proposed for unloading the submerged product from the bath of a heavy to medium separator which includes ladle disks with internal walls and overlapping sheets hinged to the ends. In order to increase the degree of dehydration of the unloaded product, the internal wall of each ladle is made of sheets installed in stages with clearances relative to each other. The advantages of the proposed device include an improvement in the degree of dehydration of the submerged product in the ladles and a reduction in the carry away of the heavy medium with the enrichment products.

  2. Clutch size declines with elevation in tropical birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, A.J.; Freeman, Benjamin G.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Martin, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Clutch size commonly decreases with increasing elevation among temperate-zone and subtropical songbird species. Tropical songbirds typically lay small clutches, thus the ability to evolve even smaller clutch sizes at higher elevations is unclear and untested. We conducted a comparative phylogenetic analysis using data gathered from the literature to test whether clutch size varied with elevation among forest passerines from three tropical biogeographic regions—the Venezuelan Andes and adjacent lowlands, Malaysian Borneo, and New Guinea. We found a significant negative effect of elevation on variation in clutch size among species. We found the same pattern using field data sampled across elevational gradients in Venezuela and Malaysian Borneo. Field data were not available for New Guinea. Both sets of results demonstrate that tropical montane species across disparate biogeographic realms lay smaller clutches than closely related low-elevation species. The environmental sources of selection underlying this pattern remain uncertain and merit further investigation.

  3. Group control of elevators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Yasukazu; Hikita, Shiro; Tuji, Sintaro (Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1988-09-05

    Items to be evaluated in the group control of elevators, and a typical control system are described. A new system in which the fuzzy rule base is employed is introduced together with the configuration. The items to be evaluated are waiting time, riding time, accuracy of forecasting, energy saving, and ease of usage. The everage waiting time of less than 20 seconds with less than 3% waiting rate of more than 60 seconds is accepted as a satisfactory service condition. There are many conflicting matters in group-controlling, and the study for the controlling must deal with the optimization of multi-purpose problems. The standards for group-control evaluation differ according to building structures and the tastes of users, and an important problem is where to give emphasis of the evaluation. The TRAFFIC PATTERN LEARNING METHOD has been applied in the system for careful control to accommodate the traffic. No specific function is provided for the evaluation, but the call allocation is made by fuzzy rule-base. The configuration of a new group-control system is introduced. 7 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  4. Biomarkers Prognostic for Elevated Intracranial Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Orthopedic injury (n=20) iii) Exclusion of patients with polytrauma . It has been reported that serum ceruloplasmin (as well as copper) levels...inclusion of polytrauma patients in our results. We therefore identified the TBI patients with isolated head trauma, and compared the recorded...ceruloplasmin values between those with elevated ICP and those without. Figure 13 shows that when the patients with polytrauma were excluded from the

  5. Behavior of reinforced concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.

    1984-09-01

    A study is presented concerning the behavior of reinforced concrete sections at elevated temperatures. Material properties of concrete and reinforcing steel are discussed. Behavior studies are made by means of moment-curvature-axial force relationships. Particular attention is given to the load carrying capacity, thermal forces and moments, and deformation capacity. The effects on these properties of variations in the strength properties, the temperature level and distribution, the amount of reinforcing steel, and limiting values of strains are considered

  6. The elevated temperature and thermal shock fracture toughnesses of nuclear pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kazumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Nakazawa, Hajime; Nara, Atsushi.

    1979-01-01

    Thermal shock experiments were conducted on nuclear pressure vessel steel A533 Grade B Class 1. Elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests were carried out within the same high temperature range of the thermal shock experiment and the relation between stretched zone width, SZW and J-integral was clarified. An elastic-plastic thermal shock fracture toughness value. J sub(tsc) was evaluated from a critical value of stretched zone width, SZW sub(tsc) at the initiation of thermal shock fracture by using the relation between SZW and J. The J sub(tsc) value was compared with elastic-plastic fracture toughness values, J sub( ic), and the difference between the J sub(tsc) and J sub( ic) values was discussed. The results obtained are summarized as follows; (1) The relation between SZW and J before the initiation of stable crack growth in fracture toughness test at a high temperature can be expressed by the following equation regardless of test temperature, SZW = 95(J/E), where E is Young's modulus. (2) Elevated temperature fracture toughness values ranging from room temperature to 400 0 C are nearly constant regardless of test temperature. It is confirmed that upper shelf fracture toughness exists. (3) Thermal shock fracture toughness is smaller than elevated temperature fracture toughness within the same high temperature range of thermal shock experiment. (author)

  7. Lærer-elev-relationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Per Fibæk; Nielsen, Anne Maj

    2015-01-01

    I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence.......I kapitlet belyser vi relationskompetence i forholdet mellem lærer og elever og hvordan læreren kan arbejde med forhold til elever og med sin opmærksomhed på relationsarbejdet. Afslutningsvis ser vi på hvordan lærere fortsat kan udvikle deres relationskompetence....

  8. Tanzania Elevation and Surface Characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The dataset displays Elevation, Slope, Aspect, Topographic Position Index, Terrain Ruggedness, and Roughness based on Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) (3...

  9. Intenção de comportamento socialmente responsável do consumidor: sua relação com os valores humanos básicos Intention of social responsible conduct consumer: relationship with human basic values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Queiroga

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo explorar a relação entre a intenção de comportamento do consumidor e os valores humanos, abordando temas como proteção ao meio ambiente e a outras pessoas. Participaram do estudo universitários com idade média de 21 anos (DP = 4,6 e a maioria foi do sexo feminino (72,4%. Os estudantes responderam coletivamente em sala de aula a um questionário com questões objetivas sobre comportamento social. Os resultados apontaram para a importância dos valores humanos na compreensão dos processos subjacentes à intenção de compra dos consumidores tendo em vista os aspectos sociais mensurados. A categoria de valores centrais explicou 3% da variância para preocupação ambiental; 4% para preocupação com a reciclagem; e para preocupação social a variância explicada foi de 5%. Tais resultados indicaram que a tipologia dos valores humanos apresentou coerência na explicação do construto estudado e que existe relação compreensível entre ambos.This study had the objective of exploring the relationship between the intention of consumer behavior and human values approaching subjects as environmental protection and the protection of other people. They had participated of the study university with average age of 21 years (s.d. = 4.6 and a majority was females (72.4%. The students had collectively answered in classroom a questionnaire with objective questions on social behavior. The results had pointed with respect to importance of the human values in the understanding of the underlying processes to the intention of purchase of the consumers considering the social aspects measured. The category of central values explained 3% of the variance for environmental concern; 4% for concern with recycling; and for social concern the explained variance was of 5%. Such results had indicated that the typology of human values presented coherence in the explanation of the studied construct and that an understandable relationship

  10. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  11. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases microbial growth rates and enzymes activity in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Blagodatsky, Sergey; Dorodnikov, Maxim; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the belowground translocation of assimilated carbon by plants grown under elevated CO2 can cause a shift in the structure and activity of the microbial community responsible for the turnover of organic matter in soil. We investigated the long-term effect of elevated CO2 in the atmosphere on microbial biomass and specific growth rates in root-free and rhizosphere soil. The experiments were conducted under two free air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems: in Hohenheim and Braunschweig, as well as in the intensively managed forest mesocosm of the Biosphere 2 Laboratory (B2L) in Oracle, AZ. Specific microbial growth rates (μ) were determined using the substrate-induced respiration response after glucose and/or yeast extract addition to the soil. We evaluated the effect of elevated CO2 on b-glucosidase, chitinase, phosphatase, and sulfatase to estimate the potential enzyme activity after soil amendment with glucose and nutrients. For B2L and both FACE systems, up to 58% higher μ were observed under elevated vs. ambient CO2, depending on site, plant species and N fertilization. The μ-values increased linearly with atmospheric CO2 concentration at all three sites. The effect of elevated CO2 on rhizosphere microorganisms was plant dependent and increased for: Brassica napus=Triticum aestivumyeast extract then for those growing on glucose, i.e. the effect of elevated CO2 was smoothed on rich vs. simple substrate. So, the r/K strategies ratio can be better revealed by studying growth on simple (glucose) than on rich substrate mixtures (yeast extract). After adding glucose, enzyme activities under elevated CO2 were 1.2-1.9-fold higher than under ambient CO2. This indicates the increased activity of microorganisms, which leads to accelerated C turnover in soil under elevated CO2. Our results clearly showed that the functional characteristics of the soil microbial community (i.e. specific growth rates and enzymes activity) rather than total microbial biomass

  12. Quantized Majorana conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun-Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D. S.; de Moor, Michiel W. A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L. M.; van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P. A. M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-04-01

    Majorana zero-modes—a type of localized quasiparticle—hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The height of the Majorana zero-bias peak is predicted to be quantized at the universal conductance value of 2e2/h at zero temperature (where e is the charge of an electron and h is the Planck constant), as a direct consequence of the famous Majorana symmetry in which a particle is its own antiparticle. The Majorana symmetry protects the quantization against disorder, interactions and variations in the tunnel coupling. Previous experiments, however, have mostly shown zero-bias peaks much smaller than 2e2/h, with a recent observation of a peak height close to 2e2/h. Here we report a quantized conductance plateau at 2e2/h in the zero-bias conductance measured in indium antimonide semiconductor nanowires covered with an aluminium superconducting shell. The height of our zero-bias peak remains constant despite changing parameters such as the magnetic field and tunnel coupling, indicating that it is a quantized conductance plateau. We distinguish this quantized Majorana peak from possible non-Majorana origins by investigating its robustness to electric and magnetic fields as well as its temperature dependence. The observation of a quantized conductance plateau strongly supports the existence of Majorana zero-modes in the system, consequently paving the way for future braiding experiments that could lead to topological quantum computing.

  13. Plastic responses to elevated temperature in low and high elevation populations of three grassland species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Esther R; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Pluess, Andrea R

    2014-01-01

    Local persistence of plant species in the face of climate change is largely mediated by genetic adaptation and phenotypic plasticity. In species with a wide altitudinal range, population responses to global warming are likely to differ at contrasting elevations. In controlled climate chambers, we investigated the responses of low and high elevation populations (1200 and 1800 m a.s.l.) of three nutrient-poor grassland species, Trifolium montanum, Ranunculus bulbosus, and Briza media, to ambient and elevated temperature. We measured growth-related, reproductive and phenological traits, evaluated differences in trait plasticity and examined whether trait values or plasticities were positively related to approximate fitness and thus under selection. Elevated temperature induced plastic responses in several growth-related traits of all three species. Although flowering phenology was advanced in T. montanum and R. bulbosus, number of flowers and reproductive allocation were not increased under elevated temperature. Plasticity differed between low and high elevation populations only in leaf traits of T. montanum and B. media. Some growth-related and phenological traits were under selection. Moreover, plasticities were not correlated with approximate fitness indicating selectively neutral plastic responses to elevated temperature. The observed plasticity in growth-related and phenological traits, albeit variable among species, suggests that plasticity is an important mechanism in mediating plant responses to elevated temperature. However, the capacity of species to respond to climate change through phenotypic plasticity is limited suggesting that the species additionally need evolutionary adaptation to adjust to climate change. The observed selection on several growth-related and phenological traits indicates that the study species have the potential for future evolution in the context of a warming climate.

  14. Estimating Coastal Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amante, C.; Mesick, S.

    2017-12-01

    Integrated bathymetric-topographic digital elevation models (DEMs) are representations of the Earth's solid surface and are fundamental to the modeling of coastal processes, including tsunami, storm surge, and sea-level rise inundation. Deviations in elevation values from the actual seabed or land surface constitute errors in DEMs, which originate from numerous sources, including: (i) the source elevation measurements (e.g., multibeam sonar, lidar), (ii) the interpolative gridding technique (e.g., spline, kriging) used to estimate elevations in areas unconstrained by source measurements, and (iii) the datum transformation used to convert bathymetric and topographic data to common vertical reference systems. The magnitude and spatial distribution of the errors from these sources are typically unknown, and the lack of knowledge regarding these errors represents the vertical uncertainty in the DEM. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) has developed DEMs for more than 200 coastal communities. This study presents a methodology developed at NOAA NCEI to derive accompanying uncertainty surfaces that estimate DEM errors at the individual cell-level. The development of high-resolution (1/9th arc-second), integrated bathymetric-topographic DEMs along the southwest coast of Florida serves as the case study for deriving uncertainty surfaces. The estimated uncertainty can then be propagated into the modeling of coastal processes that utilize DEMs. Incorporating the uncertainty produces more reliable modeling results, and in turn, better-informed coastal management decisions.

  15. Elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.M.; Talesnik, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    Altogether 45 patients with elevation of the diaphragmatic cupola were examined. A high frequency of erroneous initial interpretation of examination results was noted in inflammatory and tumorous lesions and congenital conditions. Routine and contrast methods (pneumoperitoneum, bronchography, pleurography and fistulography) were used. Disease-related methods of X-ray investigation were proposed. A variety of causes of diaphragm elevation was indicated

  16. Patient, Provider, and System Factors Associated With Failure to Follow-Up Elevated Glucose Results in Patients Without Diagnosed Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Bowen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although elevated glucose values are strongly associated with undiagnosed diabetes, they are frequently overlooked. Patient, provider, and system factors associated with failure to follow-up elevated glucose values in electronic medical records (EMRs are not well described. Methods: We conducted a chart review in a comprehensive EMR with a patient portal and results management features. Established primary care patients with no known diagnosis of diabetes and ≥ 1 glucose value >125 mg/dL were included. Follow-up failure was defined as (1 no documented comment on the glucose value or result communication to the patient within 30 days or (2 no hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ordered within 30 days or resulted within 12 months. Associations were examined using Wilcoxon and χ 2 tests. Results: Of 150 charts reviewed, 97 met inclusion criteria. The median glucose was 133 mg/dL, and 20% of patients had multiple values >125 mg/dL. Only 36% of elevated glucose values were followed up. No associations were observed between patient characteristics, diabetes risk factors, or provider characteristics and follow-up failures. Automated flagging of glucose values ≥140 mg/dL by highlighting them red in the EMR was not associated with improved follow-up (46% vs 32%; P = .19. Even when follow-up occurred (n = 35, only 31% completed gold standard diabetes testing (HbA 1c within 12 months. Of the resulted HbA 1c tests (n = 11, 55% were in the prediabetes range (5.7%-6.4%. Conclusions: Two-thirds of elevated glucose values were not followed up, despite EMR features facilitating results management. Greater understanding of the results management process and improved EMR functionalities to support results management are needed.

  17. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  18. Digital elevation models for site investigation programme in Oskarshamn. Site description version 1.2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brydsten, Lars; Stroemgren, Maarten [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Biology and Environmental Science

    2005-06-01

    In the Oskarshamn area, a digital elevation model has been produced using elevation data from many elevation sources on both land and sea. Many elevation model users are only interested in elevation models over land, so the model has been designed in three versions: Version 1 describes land surface, lake water surface, and sea bottom. Version 2 describes land surface, sediment levels at lake bottoms, and sea bottoms. Version 3 describes land surface, sediment levels at lake bottoms, and sea surface. In cases where the different sources of data were not in point form 'such as existing elevation models of land or depth lines from nautical charts' they have been converted to point values using GIS software. Because data from some sources often overlaps with data from other sources, several tests were conducted to determine if both sources of data or only one source would be included in the dataset used for the interpolation procedure. The tests resulted in the decision to use only the source judged to be of highest quality for most areas with overlapping data sources. All data were combined into a database of approximately 3.3 million points unevenly spread over an area of about 800 km{sup 2}. The large number of data points made it difficult to construct the model with a single interpolation procedure, the area was divided into 28 sub-models that were processed one by one and finally merged together into one single model. The software ArcGis 8.3 and its extension Geostatistical Analysis were used for the interpolation. The Ordinary Kriging method was used for interpolation. This method allows both a cross validation and a validation before the interpolation is conducted. Cross validation with different Kriging parameters were performed and the model with the most reasonable statistics was chosen. Finally, a validation with the most appropriate Kriging parameters was performed in order to verify that the model fit unmeasured localities. Since both the

  19. Digital elevation models for site investigation programme in Oskarshamn. Site description version 1.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brydsten, Lars; Stroemgren, Maarten

    2005-06-01

    In the Oskarshamn area, a digital elevation model has been produced using elevation data from many elevation sources on both land and sea. Many elevation model users are only interested in elevation models over land, so the model has been designed in three versions: Version 1 describes land surface, lake water surface, and sea bottom. Version 2 describes land surface, sediment levels at lake bottoms, and sea bottoms. Version 3 describes land surface, sediment levels at lake bottoms, and sea surface. In cases where the different sources of data were not in point form 'such as existing elevation models of land or depth lines from nautical charts' they have been converted to point values using GIS software. Because data from some sources often overlaps with data from other sources, several tests were conducted to determine if both sources of data or only one source would be included in the dataset used for the interpolation procedure. The tests resulted in the decision to use only the source judged to be of highest quality for most areas with overlapping data sources. All data were combined into a database of approximately 3.3 million points unevenly spread over an area of about 800 km 2 . The large number of data points made it difficult to construct the model with a single interpolation procedure, the area was divided into 28 sub-models that were processed one by one and finally merged together into one single model. The software ArcGis 8.3 and its extension Geostatistical Analysis were used for the interpolation. The Ordinary Kriging method was used for interpolation. This method allows both a cross validation and a validation before the interpolation is conducted. Cross validation with different Kriging parameters were performed and the model with the most reasonable statistics was chosen. Finally, a validation with the most appropriate Kriging parameters was performed in order to verify that the model fit unmeasured localities. Since both the quality and the

  20. Patterns of care and persistence after incident elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Matthew F; Sinaiko, Alan R; Reifler, Liza M; Tavel, Heather M; Glanz, Jason M; Margolis, Karen L; Parker, Emily; Trower, Nicole K; Chandra, Malini; Sherwood, Nancy E; Adams, Kenneth; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Greenspan, Louise C; Lo, Joan C; O'Connor, Patrick J; Magid, David J

    2013-08-01

    Screening for hypertension in children occurs during routine care. When blood pressure (BP) is elevated in the hypertensive range, a repeat measurement within 1 to 2 weeks is recommended. The objective was to assess patterns of care after an incident elevated BP, including timing of repeat BP measurement and likelihood of persistently elevated BP. This retrospective study was conducted in 3 health care organizations. All children aged 3 through 17 years with an incident elevated BP at an outpatient visit during 2007 through 2010 were identified. Within this group, we assessed the proportion who had a repeat BP measured within 1 month of their incident elevated BP and the proportion who subsequently met the definition of hypertension. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with follow-up BP within 1 month of initial elevated BP. Among 72,625 children and adolescents in the population, 6108 (8.4%) had an incident elevated BP during the study period. Among 6108 with an incident elevated BP, 20.9% had a repeat BP measured within 1 month. In multivariate analyses, having a follow-up BP within 1 month was not significantly more likely among individuals with obesity or stage 2 systolic elevation. Among 6108 individuals with an incident elevated BP, 84 (1.4%) had a second and third consecutive elevated BP within 12 months. Whereas >8% of children and adolescents had an incident elevated BP, the great majority of BPs were not repeated within 1 month. However, relatively few individuals subsequently met the definition of hypertension.

  1. Outcomes Following Traumatic Grain Elevator Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolefree, Sydnei; Truong, Anthony; Ward, Jeanette; Dong, Fanglong; Ablah, Elizabeth; Haan, James

    2017-01-01

    The absence of a comprehensive database of grain elevator-associated injuries hinders accurate evaluation of injury prevalence and may lead to discordant information about injury frequencies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the most common mechanisms of injury related to grain elevator events. Comparisons of hospital outcomes between patients who sustained traumatic injuries associated with grain elevators at Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)-regulated industrial sites versus those on OSHA-exempt farming operations were also made. A retrospective review was conducted of all patients' presenting with grain elevator-related injuries at a level-1 trauma center between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2013. Data collected included demographics, mechanism of injury, injury severity, hospitalization details, and discharge disposition. Data were summarized, and comparisons were made between the groups. All patients (N = 18) in the study were male, with a mean age of 37 years. Falls and being caught in equipment each accounted for 27.8% of injuries. Among the 18 patients, there were a total of 37 injuries. The majority of injuries were either lower extremity (29.7%) or chest injuries (21.6%). The average hospital length of stay was 4 ± 4.5 days, and one patient required mechanical ventilation. There were no reported deaths. The literature reports entrapments as the leading cause of grain elevator-related injuries; however, this study found that falls and being caught in equipment were the most common mechanisms of injury. This suggests that a greater emphasis should be placed on fall prevention and equipment safety.

  2. The value of 18 F FDG-PET/CT for detecting prostate disease in patients with elevated serum PSA level%18F-FDG PET/CT 诊断血清 PSA 升高患者前列腺病变的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕翀; 张军

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨用18 F-FDG PET/CT检测血清PSA升高患者前列腺癌发生的可能性。方法纳入PSA升高的疑似前列腺癌患者。在病理活检前行18 F-FDG PET/CT检查,18 F-FDG PET/CT 检查包括全身18 F-FDG PET 扫描、全身增强CT扫描和盆腔18 F-FDG PET延迟成像,并将影像结果与病理结果相比较。结果该研究纳入38名血清PSA升高的患者。18 F-FDG PET延迟成像与增强CT的平行试验(方法一)的敏感度,特异度,阳性预测值,阴性预测值,准确度分别是94.74%(18/19)、52.63%(0/19)、66.67%(18/27)、90.91%(10/11)、73.68%(28/38);18 F-FDG PET 延迟成像与增强C T的系列实验(方法二)的敏感度,特异度,阳性预测值,阴性预测值,准确度分别是52.63%(10/19)、84.21%(16/19)、76.92%(10/13)、64.00%(16/25)、68.42%(26/38)。方法一与方法二的的敏感度和特异度存在统计学差异。结论18 F-FDG PET/CT可用于血清PSA升高患者前列腺癌的检出。%Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of 18 F-FDG PET/CT for detecting prostate cancer in subjects with an elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level .Methods Subjects with an increasing PSA level suggestive of prostate cancer were enrolled in this study .18 F-FDG PET/CT was performed prior to prostate biopsy and the findings were compared with the pathological results .18 F-FDG PET/CT was composed of a whole body 18 F-FDG PET scan ,a whole body contrast-enhanced CT scan and a delay pelvis 18 F-FDG PET scan .Results Thirty-eight subjects with an elevated serum PSA level were taken part in this study .We defined parallel test of contrast-enhanced CT scan and delay 18 F-FDG PET scan as TextⅠ ,as well as we defined serial test of contrast-enhanced CT scan and delay 18 F-FDG PET scan as Text Ⅱ .The sensitivity ,specificity ,positive predictive value ,negative predictive

  3. CONDUCTIVITY OF DONKEY MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrical conductivity (EC of milk is considered as one of the most important parameters which supports the diagnosis of mastitis in cows.Milk ions have a considerable influence on EC and their concentrations vary depending on animal species, season, lactation stage, etc. Some components of milk can change the EC, e.g. lactose. A negative correlation between EC values and the concentration of lactose is noticed, as a consequence of the inverse relation between this disaccharide and the chlorine content in milk. Fat and casein contents exert some influence on the EC, too. This study provides preliminary results on the physiological EC values in donkey milk and aims to highlight any correlation with some of its chemical-physical parameters and Somatic Cell Count (SCC. Mean EC value in donkey milk was found to be 3.57 mS. Statistically significant correlations were found between EC and SCC (r = 0.57 , p < 0.01 and between EC and (r = 0.30 , p < 0.05. The EC and lactose were not correlated although a reduction of EC was often observed when the lactose content increased, as reported in the literature for bovine milk. According to the EC can be considered as a reliable parameter to identify any breast disorder, taking into account the physiological factors that influence EC.

  4. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    that individualistic employees in individualistic organizations and collectivistic employees in collectivistic organizations show greater job...with Parsons’ causal assumption, in the nineties values were recognized on top of the cultural control –values control norms which in turn control...determines intention which may end in behavior. 7 Defining Human Values Cross- cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main

  6. Association Between Geographic Elevation, Bone Status, and Exercise Habits: The Shimane CoHRE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Miwako; Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Kohno, Kunie; Yano, Shozo; Shiwaku, Kuninori; Nabika, Toru

    2015-06-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between the residential environment and health. The association between residential environment (i.e., geographic elevation) and bone status is unknown. Furthermore, these associations could differ by exercise habits due to the chronically greater daily activity caused by steep slopes in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between bone status of elderly people measured using quantitative ultrasound (QUS) and elevation varied according to the exercise habits in a mountainous area population. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted during 2012-2013. QUS value was expressed as a proportion of the young adult mean (%YAM), with higher scores donating better bone status. After excluding subjects with missing data, we analyzed the data for 321 men and 500 women. Our results indicate that %YAM was not associated with elevation among men, or among women with exercise habits. However, elevation was associated with %YAM among women without exercise habits. Our results highlight the importance of considering residential environment and exercise habits when establishing promotion strategies to maintain bone status of the elderly people who live in rural mountainous areas.

  7. Association Between Geographic Elevation, Bone Status, and Exercise Habits: The Shimane CoHRE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miwako Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between the residential environment and health. The association between residential environment (i.e., geographic elevation and bone status is unknown. Furthermore, these associations could differ by exercise habits due to the chronically greater daily activity caused by steep slopes in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between bone status of elderly people measured using quantitative ultrasound (QUS and elevation varied according to the exercise habits in a mountainous area population. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted during 2012–2013. QUS value was expressed as a proportion of the young adult mean (%YAM, with higher scores donating better bone status. After excluding subjects with missing data, we analyzed the data for 321 men and 500 women. Our results indicate that %YAM was not associated with elevation among men, or among women with exercise habits. However, elevation was associated with %YAM among women without exercise habits. Our results highlight the importance of considering residential environment and exercise habits when establishing promotion strategies to maintain bone status of the elderly people who live in rural mountainous areas.

  8. Context-Aware Elevator Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Thomas; Bauer, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Research on context-aware systems is usually user-centric and thus focussed on the context of a specific user to serve his or her needs in an optimized way. In this paper, we want to apply core concepts developed in research on context-awareness in a system-centric way, namely to elevator systems. We show with three different examples that the performance of an elevator system can be significantly improved if the elevator control has access to contextual knowledge. The first example demons...

  9. Management Values Survey Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  10. FEMA DFIRM Base Flood Elevations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally,...

  11. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  12. Space Elevators Preliminary Architectural View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullum, L.; Swan, P. A.

    Space Systems Architecture has been expanded into a process by the US Department of Defense for their large scale systems of systems development programs. This paper uses the steps in the process to establishes a framework for Space Elevator systems to be developed and provides a methodology to manage complexity. This new approach to developing a family of systems is based upon three architectural views: Operational View OV), Systems View (SV), and Technical Standards View (TV). The top level view of the process establishes the stages for the development of the first Space Elevator and is called Architectural View - 1, Overview and Summary. This paper will show the guidelines and steps of the process while focusing upon components of the Space Elevator Preliminary Architecture View. This Preliminary Architecture View is presented as a draft starting point for the Space Elevator Project.

  13. Coastal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digital elevation models (DEMs) of U.S. and other coasts that typically integrate ocean bathymetry and land topography. The DEMs support NOAA's mission to understand...

  14. Base Flood Elevation (BFE) Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Base Flood Elevation (BFE) table is required for any digital data where BFE lines will be shown on the corresponding Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM). Normally if...

  15. Elevated Fixed Platform Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Elevated Fixed Platform (EFP) is a helicopter recovery test facility located at Lakehurst, NJ. It consists of a 60 by 85 foot steel and concrete deck built atop...

  16. Factors Associated With Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Sakshi; Firdaus, Uzma; Ali, Syed Manazir; Mahdi, Abbas Ali

    2018-01-15

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of elevated blood lead level in children (6-144 months) of Aligarh. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Venous blood was obtained for lead estimation and a structured questionnaire was filled. A total of 260 children were enrolled. The prevalence of elevated blood lead level was 44.2%, seen mostly in children below 5 years of age. Old and deteriorating wall paints at home was found to be significantly associated with elevated levels. Lead-based house paints are potential source of lead exposure. Meticulous renovation and painting of the walls with safe paints is desirable.

  17. Default values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-08-01

    In making calculations for the purposes of radiation protection, numerical values for parameters used in the calculations are selected. In some cases, data directly applicable to the set of conditions for which the calculations are to be made are unavailable. Therefore, the selection of the values for these parameters may be based on more general data available from the literature or other sources. These values may be referred to as 'default values', that is, values used in default of those based on directly applicable data. The following policy will be applied by Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) staff in reviewing the radiation protection aspects of submissions associated with licensing, in participating with other organizations in the development of codes and standards, and in any other work which relies to some extent on using default values

  18. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin by radiomimetic drugs and friend leukemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walden, T.L.; Al-Ansari, H.M.; Farkas, W.R.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville

    1987-01-01

    Sublethal doses of whole-body irradiation induced the elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). Experiments were conducted to determine if recovery from radiomimetic drugs also resulted in elevation of ZPP. Daily injections with hydroxyurea and other cytotoxic drugs for 10 days caused ZPP elevation and a dose of radiation too low to cause ZPP elevation by itself caused ZPP elevation when hydroxyurea was administered prior to irradiation. Friend leukemia virus also brought about an elevation of ZPP. However, not all factors that increased erythropoiesis brought about ZPP elevation. The elevated erythropoiesis in response to hypoxia and the enhanced erythropoiesis that followed administration of folic acid to folic acid-deficient mice was not accompanied by ZPP elevation. (orig.)

  19. Elevation of blood levels of zinc protoporphyrin by radiomimetic drugs and friend leukemia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walden, T.L.; Al-Ansari, H.M.; Farkas, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    Sublethal doses of whole-body irradiation induced the elevation of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP). Experiments were conducted to determine if recovery from radiomimetic drugs also resulted in elevation of ZPP. Daily injections with hydroxyurea and other cytotoxic drugs for 10 days caused ZPP elevation and a dose of radiation too low to cause ZPP elevation by itself caused ZPP elevation when hydroxyurea was administered prior to irradiation. Friend leukemia virus also brought about an elevation of ZPP. However, not all factors that increased erythropoiesis brought about ZPP elevation. The elevated erythropoiesis in response to hypoxia and the enhanced erythropoiesis that followed administration of folic acid to folic acid-deficient mice was not accompanied by ZPP elevation.

  20. Preparation of conducting solid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spokas, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    The application of conducting plastic mixtures to the fundamental problem of radiation dosimetry is briefly reviewed. A particular approach to achieving formulations with the necessary characteristics is described. A number of successful mixtures are defined for a number of different specific dosimetry situations. To obtain high quality stable materials requires intense blending and working of the materials at elevated temperatures. One machine that succeeds in this task is the Shonka plastics mixer-extruder. The Shonka mixer is described in complete detail. The procedures used in preparing representative formulations with this device are presented. A number of properties of successful conducting mixtures so prepared are summarized. The conditions required for molding such material are given. Several special welding methods for specific application with these formulations have been devised and are described

  1. The effects of prolonged exposure to elevated temperatures and elevated CO2 levels on the growth, yield and dry matter partitioning of field-sown meadow fescue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaija Hakala

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Field-sown meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis, cv. Kalevi stands were exposed to elevated temperatures (+3°C and elevated CO2, (700 ppm levels in two experiments conducted in 1992-1993 (experiment 1 and in 1994-1995 (experiment 2. Total aboveground yield was, on average, 38% higher at elevated than at ambient temperatures. At ambient temperatures elevated CO2 increased the number of tillers by 63% in 1992, 24% in 1993, 90% in 1994 and 14% in 1995. At elevated temperatures, the increase in tiller number in elevated CO2 was seen only in the first growing seasons after sowing. The total yield in a growing season was about 10% higher in elevated CO2 in experiment 1. In experiment 2 the yield was more than 20% higher in elevated CO2 at elevated temperatures, whereas at ambient temperatures the rise in CO2 level had no effect on the yield; the root biomass, however, increased by more than 30%. In elevated CO2 at ambient temperatures the root biomass also increased in experiment I, but at elevated temperatures there was no consistent change. The soluble carbohydrate content of above-ground biomass was 5-48% higher in elevated CO2 at most of the measuring times during the growing season, but the nitrogen content did not show a clear decrease. The reasons for the lack of a marked increase in biomass in elevated CO2 despite a 40-60% increase in photosynthesis are discussed.

  2. Elevated plasma corticosterone concentrations influence the onset of rigor mortis and meat color in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, G; Heath, J L; Wabeck, C J; Owens, S L; Mench, J A

    1998-02-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels on meat quality characteristics. Male broilers (Arbor Acres) were either 1) fed a diet containing corticosterone (CORT) prior to processing, 2) transported by truck for 3 h before processing, or 3) processed without either of the above treatments. Six crates of birds (10 birds per crate; two crates per treatment) were stunned or killed using CO2 gas. Six birds per crate were processed and blood samples were collected during exsanguination for plasma CORT analysis. Meat samples were collected from carcasses either at 20 min or at 4 h post-mortem. At each sampling time (ST), Pectoralis superficialis samples were collected and either individually quick frozen (IQF) in liquid nitrogen or aged on ice (AOI) for 24 h prior to pH, ratio of inosine to adenosine nucleotides (R-value), cooking loss, shear value, and color analyses. The IQF Biceps femoris samples were used for pH, R-value, color, and heme pigment analysis. Mean (+/- SEM) CORT concentrations were 12.9+/-2.57, 11.7+/-1.38 and 7.9+/-0.79 ng/mL, respectively, in the CORT, transported, and control groups. There were significant treatment by ST (P < 0.05) and ST (P < 0.001) effects on the R-value of IQF P. superficialis samples. The CORT group had the highest L* value (P < 0.01) and the lowest a* value (P < 0.06). There was also a significant main effect of ST on shear values (P < 0.05) of AOI P. superficialis samples, with the means higher at 4 h than at 20 min post-mortem. The R-value of IQF B. femoris samples was markedly influenced by treatment (P < 0.001) and ST (P < 0.001). The results indicate that artificially elevating circulating CORT concentrations results in lighter meat color in broilers.

  3. Impact of elevated CO2 and elevated O3 on Beta vulgaris L.: Pigments, metabolites, antioxidants, growth and yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumari, Sumita; Agrawal, Madhoolika; Tiwari, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess morphological, biochemical and yield responses of palak (Beta vulgaris L. cv Allgreen) to ambient and elevated levels of CO 2 and O 3 , alone and in combination. As compared to the plants grown in charcoal filtered air (ACO 2 ), growth and yield of the plants increased under elevated CO 2 (ECO 2 ) and decreased under combination of ECO 2 with elevated O 3 (ECO 2 + EO 3 ), ambient O 3 (ACO 2 + AO 3 ) and elevated O 3 (EO 3 ). Lipid peroxidation, ascorbic acid, catalase and glutathione reductase activities enhanced under all treatments and were highest in EO 3. Foliar starch and organic carbon contents increased under ECO 2 and ECO 2 + EO 3 and reduced under EO 3 and ACO 2 + AO 3. Foliar N content declined in all treatments compared to ACO 2 resulting in alteration of C/N ratio. This study concludes that ambient level of CO 2 is not enough to counteract O 3 impact, but elevated CO 2 has potential to counteract the negative effects of future O 3 level. -- Highlights: ► Elevated CO 2 enhanced the growth and yield of palak. ► Ambient and elevated ozone reduced the growth and yield of the test plant. ► Elevated CO 2 reduced negative effects of elevated O 3 by reducing oxidative stress. ► Higher amelioration was recorded at elevated CO 2 + O 3 compared to ambient CO 2 + O 3 . -- Predicted levels of CO 2 have greater ameliorative potential against negative effects of elevated ozone compared to present day CO 2 against ambient ozone

  4. Experimental prototype of an electric elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiceanu, M.; Epure, S.; Ciuta, S.

    2016-08-01

    The main objective is to achieve an elevator prototype powered by a three-phase voltage system via a bidirectional static power converter ac-ac with regenerating capability. In order to diminish the power size of the electric motor up to 1/3 of rated power, the elevator contains two carriages of the same weight, one serving as the payload, and the other as counterweight. Before proper operation of the static power converter, the capacitor must be charged at rated voltage via a precharge circuit. At the moment of stabilizing the DC voltage at nominal value, the AC-AC power converter can operates in the proper limits. The functions of the control structure are: the load control task, speed and torque controls. System includes transducers for current measuring, voltage sensors and encoder. As reserve power sources the hybrid battery-photovoltaic panels are used. The control voltage is modulated by implementing four types of pulse width modulations: sinusoidal, with reduced commutation, third order harmonic insertion, and the space vector modulation. Therefore, the prototype could operates with an increased efficiency, in spite of the existing ones. The experimental results confirm the well design of the chosen solution. The control solution assures bidirectional power flow control, precharge control, and load control and it is implemented on a digital signal processor. The elevator capacity is between 300-450 kg, and it is driven by using a 1.5 kW three-phase asynchronous machine.

  5. Deep Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Liew, John M.; Pedersen, Lasse Heje

    premium. Following these episodes, the value strategy has (1) high average returns; (2) low market betas, but high betas to a global value factor; (3) deteriorating fundamentals; (4) negative news sentiment; (5) selling pressure; (6) increased limits to arbitrage; and (7) increased arbitrage activity...

  6. Forestland values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John H. Beuter; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the journal of Forestry is devoted to articles about forestland values. Viewed broadly, natural resources and humans are our two basic resources. An expression of the importance of land as a foundation for forest ecosystems is forestland value. Our attitudes about land and the forest ecosystems that they support have changed considerably in recent years....

  7. Adding Production Value Through Application of Value Based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhard, Søren; Wandahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    Customer value is a key goal in the Lean philosophy, essentially only actions that adds value should be conducted. In a transformation view, the basic lean approach is to remove waste, which indirectly increases value (or withstand value lose). Lean Construction acknowledges two different types o...... be minimized and management should seek towards democratic leadership....

  8. Consideration of vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise assessments: Mobile Bay, Alabama case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy with which coastal topography has been mapped directly affects the reliability and usefulness of elevationbased sea-level rise vulnerability assessments. Recent research has shown that the qualities of the elevation data must be well understood to properly model potential impacts. The cumulative vertical uncertainty has contributions from elevation data error, water level data uncertainties, and vertical datum and transformation uncertainties. The concepts of minimum sealevel rise increment and minimum planning timeline, important parameters for an elevation-based sea-level rise assessment, are used in recognition of the inherent vertical uncertainty of the underlying data. These concepts were applied to conduct a sea-level rise vulnerability assessment of the Mobile Bay, Alabama, region based on high-quality lidar-derived elevation data. The results that detail the area and associated resources (land cover, population, and infrastructure) vulnerable to a 1.18-m sea-level rise by the year 2100 are reported as a range of values (at the 95% confidence level) to account for the vertical uncertainty in the base data. Examination of the tabulated statistics about land cover, population, and infrastructure in the minimum and maximum vulnerable areas shows that these resources are not uniformly distributed throughout the overall vulnerable zone. The methods demonstrated in the Mobile Bay analysis provide an example of how to consider and properly account for vertical uncertainty in elevation-based sea-level rise vulnerability assessments, and the advantages of doing so.

  9. Conducting Meta-Analyses Based on p Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aert, Robbie C. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of overwhelming evidence of publication bias in psychology, techniques to correct meta-analytic estimates for such bias are greatly needed. The methodology on which the p-uniform and p-curve methods are based has great promise for providing accurate meta-analytic estimates in the presence of publication bias. However, in this article, we show that in some situations, p-curve behaves erratically, whereas p-uniform may yield implausible estimates of negative effect size. Moreover, we show that (and explain why) p-curve and p-uniform result in overestimation of effect size under moderate-to-large heterogeneity and may yield unpredictable bias when researchers employ p-hacking. We offer hands-on recommendations on applying and interpreting results of meta-analyses in general and p-uniform and p-curve in particular. Both methods as well as traditional methods are applied to a meta-analysis on the effect of weight on judgments of importance. We offer guidance for applying p-uniform or p-curve using R and a user-friendly web application for applying p-uniform. PMID:27694466

  10. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts....

  11. Effect of elevated CO2 on degradation of azoxystrobin and soil microbial activity in rice soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Suman; Singh, Neera; Singh, V P

    2013-04-01

    An experiment was conducted in open-top chambers (OTC) to study the effect of elevated CO2 (580 ± 20 μmol mol(-1)) on azoxystrobin degradation and soil microbial activities. Results indicated that elevated CO2 did not have any significant effect on the persistence of azoxystrobin in rice-planted soil. The half-life values for the azoxystrobin in rice soils were 20.3 days in control (rice grown at ambient CO2 outdoors), 19.3 days in rice grown under ambient CO2 atmosphere in OTC, and 17.5 days in rice grown under elevated CO2 atmosphere in OTC. Azoxystrobin acid was recovered as the only metabolite of azoxystrobin, but it did not accumulate in the soil/water and was further metabolized. Elevated CO2 enhanced soil microbial biomass (MBC) and alkaline phosphatase activity of soil. Compared with rice grown at ambient CO2 (both outdoors and in OTC), the soil MBC at elevated CO2 increased by twofold. Elevated CO2 did not affect dehydrogenase, fluorescein diacetate, and acid phosphatase activity. Azoxystrobin application to soils, both ambient and elevated CO2, inhibited alkaline phosphates activity, while no effect was observed on other enzymes. Slight increase (1.8-2 °C) in temperature inside OTC did not affect microbial parameters, as similar activities were recorded in rice grown outdoors and in OTC at ambient CO2. Higher MBC in soil at elevated CO2 could be attributed to increased carbon availability in the rhizosphere via plant metabolism and root secretion; however, it did not significantly increase azoxystrobin degradation, suggesting that pesticide degradation was not the result of soil MBC alone. Study suggested that increased CO2 levels following global warming might not adversely affect azoxystrobin degradation. However, global warming is a continuous and cumulative process, therefore, long-term studies are necessary to get more realistic assessment of global warming on fate of pesticide.

  12. Complex behavior of elevators in peak traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical behavior of elevators in the morning peak traffic. We present a stochastic model of the elevators to take into account the interactions between elevators through passengers. The dynamics of the elevators is expressed in terms of a coupled nonlinear map with noises. The number of passengers carried by an elevator and the time-headway between elevators exhibit the complex behavior with varying elevator trips. It is found that the behavior of elevators exhibits a deterministic chaos even if there are no noises. The chaotic motion depends on the loading parameter, the maximum capacity of an elevator, and the number of elevators. When the loading parameter is superior to the threshold, each elevator carries a full load of passengers throughout its trip. The dependence of the threshold (transition point) on the elevator capacity is clarified.

  13. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  14. Magnesium sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Mohsen Othman

    2006-01-01

    Magnesium sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tasted in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified. This was partly due to low conductivity of this medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in this medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. The weight loss was high for magnesium in sodium chloride environment particularly beyond 60 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the weight loss was negligible for the anode. It also suffered localized shallow pitting corrosion. Magnesium anode cannot be utilized where high temperature is involved particularly in high conductivity mediums. Protection of structures containing high resistivity waters is not feasible using sacrificial anode system. (author)

  15. Vessels for elevated temperature service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Donnell, W.J.; Porowski, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (background; elevated temperature concerns; design tools); design of pressure vessels for elevated temperature per ASME code; basic elevated temperature failure modes; allowable stresses and strains per ASME code (basic allowable stress limits; ASME code limits for bending; time-fraction summations; strain limits; buckling and instability; negligible creep and stress-rupture effects); combined membrane and bending stresses in creep regime; thermal stress cycles; bounding methods based on elastic core concept (bounds on accumulated strains; more accurate bounds; strain ranges; maximum stresses; strains at discontinuities); elastic follow-up; creep strain concentrations; time-dependent fatigue (combined creep rupture and fatigue damage; limits for inelastic design analyses; limits for elastic design analyses); flaw evaluation techniques; type 316 stainless steel; type 304 stainless steel; steel 2 1/4Cr1Mo; Inconel 718; Incolloy 800; Hastelloy X; detailed inelastic design analyses. (U.K.)

  16. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  17. Multidimensional Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of multidimensional heat conduction. General heat conduction equation in three dimensions. Steay state, analytical solutions. The Laplace equation. Method of separation of variables. Principle of superposition. Shape factors. Transient, multidimensional heat conduction....

  18. Historie i spillefilm - for elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Lone Guldbrandt

    2016-01-01

    MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem.......MOOC om historiebrug i spillefilm, hvor elever kan lære om, hvordan spillefilm bruger fortiden, og om hvordan vores opfattelse af historien både sætter sig spor i filmene og bliver påvirket af dem....

  19. Tether Elevator Crawler Systems (TECS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Frank R.

    1987-01-01

    One of the needs of the experimenters on the space station is access to steady and controlled-variation microgravity environments. A method of providing these environments is to place the experiment on a tether attached to the space station. This provides a high degree of isolation from structural oscillations and vibrations. Crawlers can move these experiments along the tethers to preferred locations, much like an elevator. This report describes the motion control laws developed for these crawlers and the testing of laboratory models of these tether elevator crawlers.

  20. Unravelling Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Matthew

    Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania.......Paper presented in the symposium “What’s It All Worth? Material Possessions and Value in Past Societies” at 22nd Annual Meeting of the European Association of Archaeologists, Vilnius, Lithuania....

  1. Trend of elevator-related accidents in tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Ghodsi, Syyed Mohammad

    2014-06-01

    Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003) in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO) that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years there was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9% respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032) and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819) occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary.

  2. Trend of Elevator-Related Accidents in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Khaji

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Elevator-related accidents are uncommon, but can cause significant injury. However, little data exist on these types of accidents. To compile and analyze accident data involving elevators in an effort to eliminate or at least significantly reduce such accidents. Methods: In this retrospective study we investigated 1,819 cases of elevator-related accidents during a four-year period (1999-2003 in Tehran. The data were obtained from the Tehran Safety Services & Fire Fighting Organization (TSFO that is officially and solely responsible to conduct rescue missions of civilians in Tehran. Results: The number of elevator accidents has increased steadily during the four year study period. During these four years here was a positive upward trend for serious injuries and mortality resulting from elevator accidents. Technical problems were the main cause with 74.5%, followed by power loss and overcapacity riding with 11.5% and 7.9%respectively. Sixty-three individuals sustained serious injury and 15 people died as a result of elevator accidents. The number of accidents was significantly higher in summer (x2=18.32, P=0.032 and a considerable proportion of incidences (54%, 947 cases out of 1819 occurred between 5 and 12 pm. Conclusions: Establishment of an organization to inspect the settings, maintenance, and repair of elevators is necessary

  3. Value reprioritization in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Mardi J

    2009-12-01

    As psychoanalysts, we sometimes seem to regard values as radioactive materials that must be handled with heavy lead gloves. But the gloves should not be so thick that they interfere with the goal of sorting out values. Reasons for our hesitation to deal with issues related to values may include real disagreements with the morals of a patient, a fear of evoking unproductive and negative emotional states, and our own unresolved conflicts about value dilemmas. Psychoanalytic technique should at times include clear verbal statements of values. By being explicit about what is often implicit, we can help our patients in their work of ameliorating harsh, primitive, and critical attitudes and to self-own rules, principles, and codes of conduct. A patient with reprioritized personal values may then function with heightened interpersonal compassion, kindness, and cooperation, gaining in return love, intimacy, respect, and self-esteem.

  4. Dannelsen af den ansvarlige elev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    Denne artikel handler om den del af lærergerningen, der har at gøre med udarbejdelse af elevplaner. Der tages udgangspunkt i en foucaultsk forståelse, hvor beskrivelsen af den enkelte elev udtrykker et særligt normativt ideal om, hvilke former for elevhed der er de ønskværdige i den danske...

  5. Methylphenidatinduceret ST-elevations-myokardieinfarkt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose...

  6. Elevated lactate during psychogenic hyperventilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Avest, E.; Patist, F. M.; ter Maaten, J. C.; Nijsten, M. W. N.

    Study objective Elevated arterial lactate levels are closely related to morbidity and mortality in various patient categories. In the present retrospective study, the relation between arterial lactate, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)) and pH was systematically investigated in patients who

  7. Public Value: rethinking value creation

    OpenAIRE

    Meynhardt, Timo; Gomez, Peter; Strathoff, Pepe; Hermann, Carolin

    2014-01-01

    Managers might refute public criticism of their business as an attitude of taking everything for granted in a saturated society, but ignoring Public Value aspects can threaten the success of new products and even the survival of entire firms.

  8. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin in a marine mammal, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tift, Michael S; Ponganis, Paul J; Crocker, Daniel E

    2014-05-15

    Low concentrations of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), generated primarily through degradation of heme from heme-proteins, have been shown to maintain physiological function of organs and to exert cytoprotective effects. However, high concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb), formed by CO binding to hemoglobin, potentially prevent adequate O2 delivery to tissues by lowering arterial O2 content. Elevated heme-protein concentrations, as found in marine mammals, are likely associated with greater heme degradation, more endogenous CO production and, consequently, elevated COHb concentrations. Therefore, we measured COHb in elephant seals, a species with large blood volumes and elevated hemoglobin and myoglobin concentrations. The levels of COHb were positively related to the total hemoglobin concentration. The maximum COHb value was 10.4% of total hemoglobin concentration. The mean (± s.e.m.) value in adult seals was 8.7 ± 0.3% (N=6), while juveniles and pups (with lower heme-protein contents) had lower mean COHb values of 7.6 ± 0.2% and 7.1 ± 0.3%, respectively (N=9 and N=9, respectively). Serial samples over several hours revealed little to no fluctuation in COHb values. This consistent elevation in COHb suggests that the magnitude and/or rate of heme-protein turnover is much higher than in terrestrial mammals. The maximum COHb values from this study decrease total body O2 stores by 7%, thereby reducing the calculated aerobic dive limit for this species. However, the constant presence of elevated CO in blood may also protect against potential ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with the extreme breath-holds of elephant seals. We suggest the elephant seal represents an ideal model for understanding the potential cytoprotective effects, mechanisms of action and evolutionary adaptation associated with chronically elevated concentrations of endogenously produced CO. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Conducting compositions of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Tito (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The invention provides conductive compositions of matter, as well as methods for the preparation of the conductive compositions of matter, solutions comprising the conductive compositions of matter, and methods of preparing fibers or fabrics having improved anti-static properties employing the conductive compositions of matter.

  10. Elevated temperature drives kelp microbiome dysbiosis, while elevated carbon dioxide induces water microbiome disruption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah J Minich

    Full Text Available Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2, on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors. In the water microbiome, each condition caused an increase in a distinct microbial order, whereas the kelp microbiome exhibited a reduction in the dominant kelp-associated order, Alteromondales. The water column microbiomes were most disrupted by elevated pCO2, with a 7.3 fold increase in Rhizobiales. The kelp microbiome was most influenced by elevated temperature and elevated temperature in combination with elevated pCO2. Kelp growth was negatively associated with elevated temperature, and the kelp microbiome showed a 5.3 fold increase Flavobacteriales and a 2.2 fold increase alginate degrading enzymes and sulfated polysaccharides. In contrast, kelp growth was positively associated with the combination of high temperature and high pCO2 'future conditions', with a 12.5 fold increase in Planctomycetales and 4.8 fold increase in Rhodobacteriales. Therefore, the water and kelp microbiomes acted as distinct communities, where the kelp was stabilizing the microbiome under changing pCO2 conditions, but lost control at high temperature. Under future conditions, a new equilibrium between the kelp and the microbiome was potentially reached, where the kelp grew rapidly and the commensal microbes responded to an increase in mucus production.

  11. Value of the principles of ''isolation of basins and their boundaries'' and ''isolation of basins and elevations'' in prospecting for oil and gas in the oil and gas basin of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chzhan, V.; Li, Yu.; Se, M.

    1982-01-01

    A feature of the Chinese oil and gas basins is their fracturing into a large number (to several dozen in one oil and gas basin) isolated basins which are controlled by fault disorders. In these basins in which thick masses of Mesozoic and mainly Cenozoic sedimentary rocks are developed, the main volumes of source rocks are concentrated. Migration of hydrocarbons usually occurs to short distances not exceeding tens of kilometers. From the experience of prospecting and exploration back in the 1950's it was established that thick masses in the central zones of the basins are favorable for processes of hydrocarbon generation, while accumulation occurs in the elevated peripheral parts of the basins and in the regions of the central elevations. The zones of articulation of the central elevations and the edges of the basins are very promising for prospecting for local structures. Examples of large fields which are subordinate to these laws are the largest oil fields in China, Lyakhoe, Dagan and Shenli which are located along the edges of the Bokhayvan basin in the North Chinese oil and gas basin and the Datsin field which is confined to the central elevation of the Sunlyao basin.

  12. High-sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Elevation after Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Andreas; Pal, Swatilika; Johnston, Joshua; Helwani, Mohammad A.; Bhat, Adithya; Gill, Bali; Rosenkvist, Jessica; Cartmill, Christopher; Brown, Frank; Miller, J. Philip; Scott, Mitchell G; Sanchez-Conde, Francisco; Jarvis, Michael; Farber, Nuri B.; Zorumski, Charles F.; Conway, Charles; Nagele, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Background While electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is widely regarded as a life-saving and safe procedure, evidence regarding its effects on myocardial cell injury are sparse. The objective of this investigation was to determine incidence and magnitude of new cardiac troponin elevation after ECT using a novel high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hscTnI) assay. Methods This was a prospective cohort study in adult patients undergoing ECT in a single academic center (up to three ECT treatments per patient). The primary outcome was new hscTnI elevation after ECT, defined as an increase of hscTnI >100% after ECT compared to baseline with at least one value above the limit of quantification (10 ng/L). 12-lead ECG and hscTnI values were obtained prior to and 15–30 minutes after ECT; in a subset of patients an additional 2-hour hscTnI value was obtained. Results The final study population was 100 patients and a total of 245 ECT treatment sessions. Eight patients (8/100, 8%) experienced new hscTnI elevation after ECT with a cumulative incidence of 3.7% (9/245 treatments; one patient had two hscTnI elevations), two of whom had a non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (incidence 2/245, 0.8%). Median hscTnI concentrations did not increase significantly after ECT. Tachycardia and/or elevated systolic blood pressure developed after approximately two thirds of ECT treatments. Conclusions ECT appears safe from a cardiac standpoint in a large majority of patients. A small subset of patients with pre-existing cardiovascular risk factors, however, may develop new cardiac troponin elevation after ECT, the clinical relevance of which is unclear in the absence of signs of myocardial ischemia. PMID:28166110

  13. Land elevation and cancer mortality in u.s. Cities and counties using median elevations derived from geographic information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John

    2013-01-01

    There are a number of variables that are correlated with land elevation. Land elevation, and in particular, its surrogate variables such as natural background radiation, can be studied in relation to cancer rates. The present ecological study focuses on three such variables correlated with land elevation: natural background radiation (NBR), oxygen concentration (OC), and barometric pressure (BP). In addition, the study uses a novel approach for determining median land elevation values from which the surrogated variables are estimated. Inverse correlations were observed for NBR while direct correlations were found for OC and BP suggesting the presence of a protective effect with all three variables. Further study is indicated to either verify or refute these findings.

  14. Quantum conductance in silicon quantum wires

    CERN Document Server

    Bagraev, N T; Klyachkin, L E; Malyarenko, A M; Gehlhoff, W; Ivanov, V K; Shelykh, I A

    2002-01-01

    The results of investigations of electron and hole quantum conductance staircase in silicon quantum wires are presented. The characteristics of self-ordering quantum wells of n- and p-types, which from on the silicon (100) surface in the nonequilibrium boron diffusion process, are analyzed. The results of investigations of the quantum conductance as the function of temperature, carrier concentration and modulation degree of silicon quantum wires are given. It is found out, that the quantum conductance of the one-dimensional channels is observed, for the first time, at an elevated temperature (T >= 77 K)

  15. Localities With Elevated Radiation Background in the High Karst Zone of Montenegro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukotic, P.; Svrkota, R.; Andjelic, T.; Zekic, R.; Antovic, N.

    2011-01-01

    Research aimed to find localities in Montenegro with an elevated terrestrial gamma background was conducted during the period 2008-2009. For this purpose, 138 localities which have geological formations known to contain minerals with potentially high concentrations of U, Th and K, were selected throughout the country for a dosimetric survey. There are four distinctive geotectonic units in Montenegro: the Adriatic-Ionian Zone (JZ), the Budva-Cukali Zone (BZ), the High Karst Zone (VK), and the Durmitor Tectonic Unit (DTJ). The central and southern parts of Montenegro belong to the VK zone, whose geological structure is predominated by Mesozoic carbonate sediments, with occurrences of red and white bauxite formations, Triassic volcanic rocks, Paleogene flysch sediments and Quaternary sediments. In total, 38 localities belonging to the VK zone were selected for field investigations of terrestrial radiation. Knowing from earlier investigations that in Montenegro the average absorbed dose-rate in the air, 1 m above the ground, is 55 nGy/h, it was arbitrarily adopted that only localities with absorbed doses at least 50 % above this average value would be considered as having a relatively elevated radiation background. Field measurements have shown that 12 of the surveyed localities in the VK zone have such elevated dose values, five of them being with the highest dose rates in Montenegro. Among these five sites, the highest dose rate (192 nGy/h) was found at a locality which lies on andesite volcanic rock, while the other four localities (131 - 149 nGy/h) lie on bauxite deposits. Compared to the other areas in the world known to have a high natural radiation background, all of these localities in Montenegro have a moderately elevated radiation level. From the 12 localities with a relatively elevated radiation background, soil samples have been collected and analyzed by gamma spectrometry to determine activity concentrations of 40K, 232Th, 235U, 238U, 226Ra and 137Cs

  16. Reference values for electrooculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrientos Castanno, Alberto; Herrera Mora, Maritza; Garcia Baez, Obel

    2012-01-01

    Obtain electrooculographic reference values based on the patterns set by the Standardization Committee of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). the lowest amplitude values of the potential ranged between 388 and 882 μv in the dark phase. The light peak was obtained between 9 and 10 minutes, and during this phase the potential reached an amplitude ranging between 808 and 1 963 μv. This amplitude variability may be related to the fact that the test was conducted without pupillary mydriasis. The reference value obtained for Arden index was 1,55 to 2,87

  17. Carbon and oxygen isotope analysis of leaf biomass reveals contrasting photosynthetic responses to elevated CO2 near geologic vents in Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Williams

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we explore the use of natural CO2 emissions in Yellowstone National Park (YNP in Wyoming, USA to study responses of natural vegetation to elevated CO2 levels. Radiocarbon (14C analysis of leaf biomass from a conifer (Pinus contortus; lodgepole pine and an invasive, non-native herb (Linaria dalmatica; Dalmation toadflax was used to trace the inputs of vent CO2 and quantify assimilation-weighted CO2 concentrations experienced by individual plants near vents and in comparable locations with no geologic CO2 exposure. The carbon and oxygen isotopic composition and nitrogen percent of leaf biomass from the same plants was used to investigate photosynthetic responses of these plants to naturally elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The coupled shifts in carbon and oxygen isotope values suggest that dalmation toadflax responded to elevated CO2 exposure by increasing stomatal conductance with no change in photosynthetic capacity and lodgepole pine apparently responded by decreasing stomatal conductance and photosynthetic capacity. Lodgepole pine saplings exposed to elevated levels of CO2 likewise had reduced leaf nitrogen concentrations compared to plants with no enhanced CO2 exposure, further suggesting widespread and dominant conifer down-regulated photosynthetic capacity under elevated CO2 levels near geologic vents.

  18. Proton-conducting cerate ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pederson, L.R.; Coffey, G.W.; Bates, J.L.; Weber, W.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Single-cell solid oxide fuel cells were constructed using strontium cerate as the electrolyte and their performance tested. Like certain zirconates, hafnates, and tantalates, the cerate perovskites are among a class of solid electrolytes that conduct protons at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature and chemical environment, these ceramics also support electronic and oxygen ion currents. A maximum power output of {approx}100 mW per cm{sup 2} electrolyte surface area was obtained at 900{degrees}C using 4% hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant. A series of rare earth/ceria/zirconia were prepared and their electrical properties characterized. Rare earth dopants included ytterbia, yttria, terbia, and europia. Ionic conductivities were highest for rare earth/ceria and rare earth zirconia compositions; a minimum in ionic conductivity for all series were found for equimolar mixtures of ceria and zirconia. Cerium oxysulfide is of interest in fossil energy applications because of its high chemical stability and refractory nature. An alternative synthesis route to preparing cerium oxysulfide powders has been developed using combustion techniques.

  19. Evapotranspiration dynamics along elevational and disturbance gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detsch, Florian; Otte, Insa; Appelhans, Tim; Nauß, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Future climate characteristics of the Mt. Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, will be governed by two superior processes: (i) global climate change and (ii) local land cover transformation. Whilst precipitation amounts remained stable throughout the last climate normals, recent studies revealed distinctly increasing air temperatures in the study region between 1973 and 2013, resulting in a gradual reduction of available moisture. In addition, climate predictions show rising temperatures over East Africa throughout the 21st century. Modifications of the local hydrological cycle resulting from land cover transformation will either favor or counteract the thus induced, increasing dryness. Considering that the local-scale climate is a key parameter for ecosystem processes and biodiversity, quantifying the driving components on the credit (precipitation, through-fall, fog) and debit side of the local-scale water balance is of outstanding (biogeo-)scientific importance. In this context, a multidisciplinary German research unit investigates the interrelationship between climate, land use and biodiversity along the southern slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro. A total of 65 climate stations have been installed to record rainfall and estimate potential evaporation across different land cover types ranging from savanna (880 m a.s.l.) to the upper mountain Helichrysum sites (4,550 m a.s.l.). The associated data is used for both the area-wide interpolation of meteorological parameters and as input for satellite-based retrievals of rainfall and evapotranspiration (ET). We conducted an extensive field campaign employing a surface-layer scintillometer in order to gain insights into ET dynamics over different land cover types following elevational and disturbance gradients. Scintillometer measurements are available for study sites below (savanna, maize, grassland, coffee plantations) and above the forest belt (natural and disturbed ericaceous forest, Helichrysum), covering a period of 4-7 days

  20. Faunistic patterns of leaf beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) within elevational and temporal gradients in Sierra de San Carlos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Reyes, Uriel Jeshua; Niño-Maldonado, Santiago; Barrientos-Lozano, Ludivina; Clark, Shawn M.; Jones, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study of biodiversity of Chrysomelidae in Mexico and its variation within ecological gradients has increased recently, although important areas in the country remain to be explored. We conducted a faunistic inventory and analyzed the elevational and temporal variation of leaf beetle communities in the Sierra de San Carlos, in the state of Tamaulipas, in northeastern Mexico. This is an area with high to extreme priority for conservation, and due to its insular geographical position and to the vegetational communities present, it must be considered as a sky island. We selected seven sample sites distributed in different elevations within three localities, and comprising different vegetational communities. At each site, we randomly delimited 12 sample plots of 400 m2 where sampling was conducted by entomological sweep netting and collecting directly by hand. Sampling was conducted monthly at each plot, for a total of 1,008 samples between February 2013 and January 2014. By the end of the study, we had obtained a total of 3,081 specimens belonging to six subfamilies, 65 genera, and 113 species, with Trichaltica scabricula (Crotch, 1873) being recorded for first time in Mexico. Species richness was less than the values observed at other studies conducted in the same region, which is attributed to differences in the number of plant species and to the insular location of Sierra de San Carlos; however, the higher diversity values suggest a higher quality of natural resources and vegetational communities. No consistent pattern of leaf beetle communities was correlated with elevation, although higher values of species richness and diversity were obtained at the highest elevation site. The seasonal gradient showed that the rainy season is most favorable for leaf beetle communities. We found that species composition was different between sites and months, and also that there exists a significant association between the abundance obtained at each site and

  1. Elevator deflections on the icing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Randall K.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of elevator deflection of the horizontal stabilizer for certain icing parameters is investigated. Elevator deflection can severely change the lower and upper leading-edge impingement limits, and ice can accrete on the elevator itself. Also, elevator deflection had practically no effect on the maximum local collection efficiency. It is shown that for severe icing conditions (large water droplets), elevator deflections that increase the projected height of the airfoil can significantly increase the total collection efficiency of the airfoil.

  2. Elevated serum immunoglobulin G levels in patients with chronic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the ability to distinguish AIH patients from patients with other liver disease, especially patients with advanced liver cirrhosis, is important since most AIH patients will a have favorable treatment response if diagnosed properly. Objective: We conducted this study to evaluate the significance of elevated IgG levels in ...

  3. Når elever producerer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper; Hansen, Rune; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2017-01-01

    Dette kapitel præsenterer centrale resultater fra studiet Elevopgaver og elevproduktion i det 21. århundrede der blandt andet rummer den første større kvantitative undersøgelse af opgavedidaktik og elevers produktive arbejde i den danske grundskole. Studiet omfatter også en kvalitativ del, og i...... undersøgelsen præsenteres og diskuteres gennem en række konkrete eksempler fra de berørte fag. I forhold til elevers produktive arbejde peger undersøgelsens resultater både på potentialer og særlige barrierer i forbindelse med at udvikle en kompetenceorienteret undervisning. I kapitlet argumenteres desuden...

  4. Add Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobbelgaard, Cecilie Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    "Add Value – kend din kunde" er et brætspil, som giver både offentlige og private virksomheder unikke muligheder for at forbedre deres service overfor kunderne. Spillet giver, på en alternativ og handlingsorienteret måde, mulighed for at blive skarpere på kundeoplevelsen – hvor er der værdi...... at hente, og hvor kan der spares på tid og ressourcer? Dette samtidig med, at kunderne får den oplevelse og service, de forventer. Når I spiller "Add Value – kend din kunde" sættes der fokus på Jeres kundeservice ud fra kundens perspektiv, og det er i alle Jeres kontaktflader med kunden. Lige fra kunden...

  5. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  6. Læring mellem elever

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgsen, Marianne; Davidsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    I denne rapport præsenteres resultater fra følgeforskningen til projektet Læring gennem Bevægelse, som er gennemført på Søndervangskolen i Hammel i perioden august 2009 - maj 2010. Projektet er gennemført i samspil mellem lærere, it-vejleder, elever og skolens ledelse. Projektets overordnede formål...

  7. Science on a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.); Jorgensen, A. M. (Anders M.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low cost access can be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe in-situ science stations mounted on a science-dedicated space elevator tether. The concept presented here involves a carbon nanotube ribbon that is constructed by an existing space elevator and then science sensors are stationed along the ribbon at differing altitudes. The finished ribbon can be moved across the earth to the position at which its scientific measurements are to be taken. The ability to station scientific, in-situ instrumentation at different altitudes for round-the-clock observations is a unique capability of the SE. The environments that the science packages sense range from the troposphere out beyond the magnetopause of the magnetosphere on the solar side of the earth. Therefore, the very end of the SE can sense the solar wind. The measurements at various points along its length include temperature, pressure, density, sampling, chemical analyses, wind speed, turbulence, free oxygen, electromagnetic radiation, cosmic rays, energetic particles and plasmas in the earth's magnetosphere and the solar wind. There exist some altitudes that are difficult to access with aircraft or balloons or rockets and so remain relatively unexplored. The space elevator solves these problems and opens these regions up to in-situ measurements. Without the need for propulsion, the SE provides a more benign and pristine environment for atmospheric measurements than available with powered aircraft. Moreover, replacing and upgrading instrumentation is expected to be very cost effective with the SE. Moving and stationing the science SE affords the opportunity to sense multiple regions of the atmosphere. The SE's geosynchronous, orbital motion through the magnetosphere, albeit nominally with Earth's magnetic field, will trace a plane

  8. The value (driven) web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, N.H.G.; Wiegel, V.; Van Oortmerssen, G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a vision on the importance of values and ethical aspects in web science. We create(d) the Internet, but now the Internet (technology) is shaping our world increasingly: the way we experience, interact, transact, conduct business et cetera. The Internet is ubiquitous and vital to

  9. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  10. Nerve conduction velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...

  11. Conducting Polymeric Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren

    2016-01-01

    The overall objective of this collection is to provide the most recent developments within the various areas of conducting polymeric materials. The conductivity of polymeric materials is caused by electrically charged particles, ions, protons and electrons. Materials in which electrons...

  12. Modelling of aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Huetink, Han

    2004-01-01

    The formability of Al–Mg sheet can be improved considerably, by increasing the temperature. By heating the sheet in areas with large shear strains, but cooling it on places where the risk of necking is high, the limiting drawing ratio can be increased to values above 2.5. At elevated temperatures,

  13. How processing digital elevation models can affect simulated water budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, E.L.; Lowery, M.A.; Campbell, B.G.

    2009-01-01

    For regional models, the shallow water table surface is often used as a source/sink boundary condition, as model grid scale precludes simulation of the water table aquifer. This approach is appropriate when the water table surface is relatively stationary. Since water table surface maps are not readily available, the elevation of the water table used in model cells is estimated via a two-step process. First, a regression equation is developed using existing land and water table elevations from wells in the area. This equation is then used to predict the water table surface for each model cell using land surface elevation available from digital elevation models (DEM). Two methods of processing DEM for estimating the land surface for each cell are commonly used (value nearest the cell centroid or mean value in the cell). This article demonstrates how these two methods of DEM processing can affect the simulated water budget. For the example presented, approximately 20% more total flow through the aquifer system is simulated if the centroid value rather than the mean value is used. This is due to the one-third greater average ground water gradients associated with the centroid value than the mean value. The results will vary depending on the particular model area topography and cell size. The use of the mean DEM value in each model cell will result in a more conservative water budget and is more appropriate because the model cell water table value should be representative of the entire cell area, not the centroid of the model cell.

  14. Elevated environmental temperature and methamphetamine neurotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Amphetamines have been of considerable research interest for the last several decades. More recent work has renewed interest in the role of ambient temperature in both the toxicity and neurotoxicity of these drugs. We have determined that the striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity observed in the mouse is linked in some fashion to both body and environmental temperature. Most studies of d-methamphetamine (d-METH) neurotoxicity are conducted at standard laboratory ambient temperatures (e.g., ∼21-22 deg. C) and utilizing a repeated dosage regimen (e.g., three to four injections spaced 2 h apart). A lowering of the ambient temperature provides neuro protection, while an elevation increases neurotoxicity. d-METH causes long-term depletions of triatal dopamine (DA) that are accompanied by other changes that are indicative of nerve terminal degeneration. These include argyrophilia, as detected by silver degeneration stains, and an elevation in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of reactive gliosis in response to injury, as well as a long-term decrease in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels. here we show that increasing the ambient temperature during and for some time following dosing increases the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Mice (female 57BL6/J) given a single dosage of d-METH (20 mg/kg s.c.) and maintained at the usual laboratory ambient temperature show minimal striatal damage (an ∼15% depletion of DA and an ∼ 86% increase in GFAP). substantial striatal damage (e.g., an ∼70% depletion of DA and an ∼200% elevation in GFAP) was induced by this regimen if mice were maintained at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h following dosing. An increase in neurotoxicity was also apparent in mice kept at an elevated temperature for only 5 or 9 h, but keeping animals at 27 deg. C for 24 or 72 h was the most effective in increasing the neurotoxicity of d-METH. Our data show how a relatively minor change in ambient temperature can have a major impact on the degree of

  15. Electrically conductive composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Roger L.; Sylwester, Alan P.

    1989-01-01

    An electrically conductive composite material is disclosed which comprises a conductive open-celled, low density, microcellular carbon foam filled with a non-conductive polymer or resin. The composite material is prepared in a two-step process consisting of first preparing the microcellular carbon foam from a carbonizable polymer or copolymer using a phase separation process, then filling the carbon foam with the desired non-conductive polymer or resin. The electrically conductive composites of the present invention has a uniform and consistant pattern of filler distribution, and as a result is superior over prior art materials when used in battery components, electrodes, and the like.

  16. Evaluation of elevated temperature influence on mechanical properties of a commercial unrefined bagasse fiber-polypropylene composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foroogh Dastoorian

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effect of elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 80oC, on mechanical characteristics of a commercial bagasse fiber/polypropylene composite. The test results were used to determine the temperature dependencies of the mechanical properties of the studied composite material at temperatures up to 80°C in order to develop temperature adjustment factors for the use in structural applications. The results have shown that as temperature increases, the material become more ductile due to increased plastic deformation gets lower stiffness and fails at higher strains. The resulted adjustment factors were different for each loading mode and the results also have indicated that the influence of elevated temperatures on values of modulus was higher than that on strengths.

  17. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth and water usage of tomato seedlings under different ammonium/nitrate ratios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration is generally expected to enhance photosynthesis and growth of agricultural C3 vegetable crops,and therefore results in an increase in crop yield.However,little is known about the combined effect of elevated CO2 and N species on plant growth and development.Two growth-chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effects of NH4+/NO3- ratio and elevated CO2 concentration on the physiological development and water use of tomato seedlings.Tomato was grown for 45 d in containers with nutrient solutions varying in NH4+/NO3- ratios and CO2 concentrations in growth chambers.Results showed that plant height,stem thickness,total dry weight,dry weight of the leaves,stems and roots,G value (total plant dry weight/seedling days),chlorophyll content,photosynthetic rate,leaf-level and whole plant-level water use efficiency and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings were increased with increasing proportion of NO3- in nutrient solutions in the elevated CO2 treatment.Plant biomass,plant height,stem thickness and photosynthetic rate were 67%,22%,24% and 55% higher at elevated CO2 concentration than at ambient CO2 concentration,depending on the values of NH4+/NO3- ratio.These results indicated that elevating CO2 concentration did not mitigate the adverse effects of 100% NH4+-N (in nutrient solution) on the tomato seedlings.At both CO2 levels,NH4+/NO3- ratios of nutrient solutions strongly influenced almost every measure of plant performance,and nitrate-fed plants attained a greater biomass production,as compared to ammonium-fed plants.These phenomena seem to be related to the coordinated regulation of photosynthetic rate and cumulative water consumption of tomato seedlings.

  18. Elevation Changes of Ice Caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalati, W.; Krabill, W.; Frederick, E.; Manizade, S.; Martin, C.; Sonntag, J.; Swift, R.; Thomas, R.; Yungel, J.; Koerner, R.

    2004-01-01

    Precise repeat airborne laser surveys were conducted over the major ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the spring of 1995 and 2000 in order to measure elevation changes in the region. Our measurements reveal thinning at lower elevations (below 1600 m) on most of the ice caps and glaciers, but either very little change or thickening at higher elevations in the ice cap accumulation zones. Recent increases in precipitation in the area can account for the slight thickening where it was observed, but not for the thinning at lower elevations. For the northern ice caps on the Queen Elizabeth Islands, thinning was generally less than 0.5 m/yr , which is consistent with what would be expected from the warm temperature anomalies in the region for the 5-year period between surveys and appears to be a continuation of a trend that began in the mid 1980s. Further south, however, on the Barnes and Penny ice caps on Baffin Island, this thinning was much more pronounced at over 1 m/yr in the lower elevations. Here temperature anomalies were very small, and the thinning at low elevations far exceeds any associated enhanced ablation. The observations on Barnes, and perhaps Penny are consistent with the idea that the observed thinning is part of a much longer term deglaciation, as has been previously suggested for Barnes Ice Cap. Based on the regional relationships between elevation and elevation-change in our data, the 1995-2000 mass balance for the region is estimated to be 25 cu km/yr of ice, which corresponds to a sea level increase of 0.064 mm/ yr . This places it among the more significant sources of eustatic sea level rise, though not as substantial as Greenland ice sheet, Alaskan glaciers, or the Patagonian ice fields.

  19. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  20. EFFECTS OF ELEVATED CO2 AND TEMPERATURE ON SOIL CARBON DENSITY FRACTIONS IN A DOUGLAS FIR MESOCOSM STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted a 4-year full-factorial study of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature on Douglas fir seedlings growing in reconstructed native forest soils in mesocosms. The elevated CO2 treatment was ambient CO2 plus 200 ppm CO2. The elevated temperature treatm...

  1. Mechanism for elevated temperature leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenna, B.T.; Murphy, K.D.

    1979-01-01

    Long-term, elevated temperature leaching and subsequent electron microprobe analysis of simulated waste glass and ceramic materials have been completed. A cyclic leaching pattern was found in all systems over a 20-month period. It appears that the leaching of mobile ions by simple diffusional processes is modified by more complex chemical interactions. The release of immobile ions is primarily a function of their chemical interactions in the matrix which suggests that these ions may be complex species when released into solution. A mechanism is proposed which incorporates these ideas and the cyclic phenomenon observed

  2. PLC VVVF Elevator Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yujian; Gui, Tianyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce the PLC VVVF elevator and its control system. The thesis can be divided into three parts. The first part is about the overview of the lift: the kinds of the lift and the structure of the lift, it shows the knowledge about the components and the operating systems of the lift. The second part is about the PLC control system, it’s about the operations of the lift from the introduction about the hardware and software of the PLC control system. And the thi...

  3. Amorphisation during elevated temperature implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Elliman, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    Transition state theory is employed to predict the rates of amorphous zone recrystallization by direct thermal and radiation mediated thermal annealing processes. These rates are functions of zone radius and are employed to describe the competition between amorphous zone generation and annealing during elevated temperature heavy ion implantation of, particularly, Si and the accumulation of amorphousness with increasing ion fluence. This analysis predicts a change from monotonic to sigmoidal to biexponential accumulation functions with increasing annealing rate or substrate temperature in agreement with experiments. A logarithmic dependence of ion flux density upon substrate temperature for the achievement of defined fractional amorphisation is predicted and is also in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  4. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  5. Graphene Conductance Uniformity Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jonas Christian Due; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Bøggild, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a combination of micro four-point probe (M4PP) and non-contact terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) measurements for centimeter scale quantitative mapping of the sheet conductance of large area chemical vapor deposited graphene films. Dual configuration M4PP measurements......, demonstrated on graphene for the first time, provide valuable statistical insight into the influence of microscale defects on the conductance, while THz-TDS has potential as a fast, non-contact metrology method for mapping of the spatially averaged nanoscopic conductance on wafer-scale graphene with scan times......, dominating the microscale conductance of the investigated graphene film....

  6. Electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R.; O'Neill, Hugh M.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2010-05-04

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  7. Diffusion rates for elevated releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1983-11-01

    A search of the literature related to diffusion from elevated sources has determined that an adequate data base exists for use in developing parameterizations for estimating diffusion rates for material released from free standing stacks at nuclear power plants. A review of published data analyses indicates that a new parameterization of horizontal diffusion rates specifically for elevated releases is not likely to significantly change the magnitudes of horizontal diffusion coefficients on the average. However, the uncertainties associated with horizontal diffusion coefficient estimates under any given set of atmospheric conditions could be reduced by a new parameterization. Similarly, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates would be unlikely to significantly alter the magnitudes of diffusion coefficients for unstable atmospheric conditons. However, for neutral and stable atmospheric conditions, a new parameterization of vertical diffusion rates might increase vertical diffusion coefficients significantly. The increase would move ground-level time-integrated concentration maxima closer to the plant and would increase the maxima. 55 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Operation experience with elevated ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankova, Katerina; Kysela, Jan; Malac, Miroslav; Petrecky, Igor; Svarc, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The 10 VVER units in the Czech and Slovak Republics are all in very good water chemistry and radiation condition, yet questions have arisen regarding the optimization of cycle chemistry and improved operation in these units. To address these issues, a comprehensive experimental program for different water chemistries of the primary circuit was carried out at the Rez Nuclear Research Institute, Czech Republic, with the goal of judging the influence of various water chemistries on radiation build-up. Four types of water chemistries were compared: standard VVER water chemistry (in common use), direct hydrogen dosing without ammonia, standard VVER water chemistry with elevated ammonia levels, and zinc dosing to standard VVER water chemistry. The test results showed that the types of water chemistry other than the common one have benefits for the operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP) primary circuit. Operation experience with elevated ammonia at NPP Dukovany Units 3 and 4 is presented which validates the experimental results, demonstrating improved corrosion product volume activity. (orig.)

  9. Digitial Elevation Model (DEM) 100K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USG to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  10. Digtial Elevation Model (DEM) 250K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  11. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is the terminology adopted by the USGS to describe terrain elevation data sets in a digital raster form. The standard DEM consists of a...

  12. Bucket elevator type continuous unloader; Basket elevator gata renzokushiki anroda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-20

    This unloader was delivered to Wakayama branch of Sumikin Butsuryu in the site of Wakayama steel plant of Sumitomo Metal Industries Ltd. for landing sub-materials for ironworks. Main specifications: (1) Capacity: 400t/h for limestone, 280t/h for gypsum, (2) Kinds of ships: 5,000DWT maximum, (3) Boom swing radius: 20m. Features: (1) Simple light-weight unloader for not large ships for main materials but small coastal service ships which works with not swing motion but only traveling and normal-directional motion of the under structure of a bucket elevator unit, (2) Various useful functions such as ground conveyance, truck loading, back yard stacking and back yard shipment for handling of various sub-materials. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Values in Time Discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Conrad

    2017-10-01

    Controversies about time discounting loom large in decisions about climate change. Prominently, a particularly controversial debate about time discounting in climate change decision-making has been conducted within climate economics, between the authors of Stern et al. (Stern review on the economics of climate change, 2006) and their critics (most prominently Dasgupta in Comments on the Stern review's economics of climate change, 2006; Tol in Energy Environ 17(6):977-981, 2006; Weitzman in J Econ Lit XLV:703-724, 2007; Nordhaus in J Econ Lit XLV:686-702, 2007). The article examines the role of values in this debate. Firstly, it is shown that time discounting is a case in which values are key because it is at heart an ethical problem. Secondly, it is argued that time discounting in climate economics is a case of economists making frequent and routine references to ethical values and indeed conduct ethical debates with each other. Thirdly, it is argued that there is evidence for deep and pervasive entanglement between facts and values in the prevalent methodologies for time discounting. Finally, it is argued that this means that economists have given up the 'value-free ideal' concerning time discounting, and discussed how the current methodology of time discounting in economics can be improved.

  14. Valuing vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T; O'Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-08-26

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery.

  15. History of Elevators and Related Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Shigeru; Watanabe, Eiki

    The history of traction drive elevators in Japan is described. The electrical technologies such as the microprocessor car control and the VVVF motor control made remarkable progress leading to higher reliability and energy savings. Then, the various machine-room-less elevators have been developed and the space saving technology, such as the shuttle and the double-deck elevators become important, too. The elevators used for evacuation in case of emergencies are also discussed.

  16. Complex conductivity of soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.; Florsch, N.; Fabricus, I.L.; Deng, Y.; Delsman, J.R.; Pauw, P.S.; Karaoulis, M.; Louw, P.G.B. de; Baaren, E.S. van; Dabekaussen, W.; Menkovic, A.; Gunnink, J.L.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soils remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hydrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including four peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hz

  17. Conducting polymer hydrogels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 269-291 ISSN 0366-6352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aerogel * conducting polymers * conductivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.258, year: 2016

  18. Experiences of Uncertainty in Men With an Elevated PSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Caitlin; Brasel, Alicia; Underwood, Willie; Orom, Heather

    2015-05-15

    A significant proportion of men, ages 50 to 70 years, have, and continue to receive prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen for prostate cancer (PCa). Approximately 70% of men with an elevated PSA level will not subsequently be diagnosed with PCa. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 men with an elevated PSA level who had not been diagnosed with PCa. Uncertainty was prominent in men's reactions to the PSA results, stemming from unanswered questions about the PSA test, PCa risk, and confusion about their management plan. Uncertainty was exacerbated or reduced depending on whether health care providers communicated in lay and empathetic ways, and provided opportunities for question asking. To manage uncertainty, men engaged in information and health care seeking, self-monitoring, and defensive cognition. Results inform strategies for meeting informational needs of men with an elevated PSA and confirm the primary importance of physician communication behavior for open information exchange and uncertainty reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Conductivities from attractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmenger, Johanna [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Fernández, Daniel [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhaga 3, 107 Reykjavík (Iceland); Goulart, Prieslei [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany); Instituto de Física Teórica, UNESP-Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento T. Ferraz 271, Bl. II, São Paulo 01140-070, SP (Brazil); Witkowski, Piotr [Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-28

    In the context of applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence to condensed matter physics, we compute conductivities for field theory duals of dyonic planar black holes in 3+1-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories at zero temperature. We combine the near-horizon data obtained via Sen’s entropy function formalism with known expressions for conductivities. In this way we express the conductivities in terms of the extremal black hole charges. We apply our approach to three different examples for dilaton theories for which the background geometry is not known explicitly. For a constant scalar potential, the thermoelectric conductivity explicitly scales as α{sub xy}∼N{sup 3/2}, as expected. For the same model, our approach yields a finite result for the heat conductivity κ/T∝N{sup 3/2} even for T→0.

  20. Thermal conductivity of technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Serizawa, H.; Fukuda, K.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal diffusivity of technetium was measured on a disk sample of 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm in thickness by the laser flash method from room temperature to 1173 K, and the thermal conductivity was determined by the measured thermal diffusivity and density, and the reported specific heat capacity. The thermal diffusivity of technetium decreases with increasing temperature though it is almost constant above 600 K. The thermal conductivity of technetium shows a minimum around 400 K, above which the thermal conductivity increases with temperature. The electronic and phonon components of the thermal conductivity were evaluated approximately. The increase in the thermal conductivity of technetium with temperature is due to the increase in the electronic component. (orig.)

  1. 21 CFR 890.3930 - Wheelchair elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheelchair elevator. 890.3930 Section 890.3930 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... elevator. (a) Identification. A wheelchair elevator is a motorized lift device intended for medical...

  2. 46 CFR 183.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 183.540 Section 183.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 183.540 Elevators. Each elevator on a vessel must meet the requirements of ANSI A 17.1 ...

  3. Global variation in elevational diversity patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qinfeng Guo; Douglas A. Kelt; Zhongyu Sun; Hongxiao Liu; Liangjun Hu; Hai Ren; Jun We

    2013-01-01

    While horizontal gradients of biodiversity have been examined extensively in the past, vertical diversity gradients (elevation, water depth) are attracting increasing attention. We compiled data from 443 elevational gradients involving diverse organisms worldwide to investigate how elevational diversity patterns may vary between the Northern and Southern hemispheres...

  4. Development of Simulator for High-Speed Elevator System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Hyung Min; Kim, Sung Jun; Sul, Seung Ki; Seok, Ki Riong [Seoul National University, Seoul(Korea); Kwon, Tae Seok [Hanyang University, Seoul(Korea); Kim, Ki Su [Konkuk University, Seoul(Korea); Shim, Young Seok [Inha University, incheon(Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This paper describes the dynamic load simulator for high-speed elevator system, which can emulate 3-mass system as well as equivalent 1-mass system 1-mass system. In order to implement the equivalent inertia of entire elevator system, the conventional simulators have generally utilized the mechanical inertia(flywheel) with large radius, which makes the entire system large and heavy. In addition, the mechanical inertia should be replaced each time in order to test another elevator system. In this paper, the dynamic load simulation methods using electrical inertia are presented so that the volume and weight of simulator system are greatly reduced and the adjustment of inertia value can be achieved easily by software. Experimental results show the feasibility of this simulator system. (author). 5 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  6. Myocarditis with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes misdiagnosed as an ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Seth H; Crandall, Mark A; Jaffe, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    Acute myocarditis can mimic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Quickly determining the correct diagnosis is critical given the "time is muscle" implication with a STEMI and the potential adverse effects associated with use of fibrinolytic therapy. A 46-year-old man presented to a rural emergency department with chest pain, and an electrocardiogram (ECG) read as showing 0.1 mV of ST-segment elevation in leads III and aVF. His initial cardiac troponin T was 0.44 ng/mL. He received fibrinolytic therapy for presumed STEMI. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was later performed and showed epicardial delayed enhancement consistent with myocarditis. Upon further questioning, he acknowledged 3 days of stuttering chest discomfort and a recent upper respiratory infection, as well as similar chest pain in his wife. A systematic evaluation is essential for acute chest pain, including a focused history, identification of cardiac risk factors, and ECG interpretation. A history of recent viral illness, absence of cardiac risk factors, or ECG findings inconsistent with a single anatomic lesion would suggest a potential alternate diagnosis to STEMI. This case emphasizes the importance of a focused history in the initial evaluation of chest pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 34 CFR 74.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Procurement Standards § 74.42 Codes of conduct. The recipient shall maintain written standards of conduct... interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of conduct...

  8. Multivalent ion conducting solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imanaka, N. [Osaka Univ., Suita, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    Solid electrolytes possess important characteristics for industrial applications. Only a single ionic species can macroscopically migrate in these solids. This paper described a the new NASICON (M-Zr-Nb-P-O) type system, exhibiting an exceptionally high level of trivalent M3+ ion conductivity on polycrystalline solids. The partial substitution of the smaller higher valent Nb5+ ion for Zr4+ stabilized the NASICON phase and realized the M3+ ion conduction in the NASICON structure. It was concluded that the conductivities of the series are comparable to those of the practically applied solid electrolytes of oxide anion conductors of YSZ and CSZ. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Conducting everyday life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Pernille

    , they are involved in preventive interventions. I conducted participatory observations with the children in their everyday life. Overall, the study stresses that even small children must be perceived as active participants who act upon and struggle with different conditions and meaning making processes across......In the paper I discuss how small children (0-4 year) develop through ‘conducting everyday life’ across contexts (Holzkamp 2013). I discuss how this process of conducting everyday life is essential when discussing the ‘good life for children’ from a child perspective. These issues are addressed...... contexts (home, day care, part-time foster family) and in relation to other co-participants....

  10. Detection of irradiated potatoes by conductivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherz, H.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the author shows that the conductivity of irradiated potatoes measured by a sticking electrode depend on the irradiation dose and is independent on the potato variety. The measured values remain constant over a six month storage period

  11. Community and ecosystem responses to elevational gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundqvist, Maja K.; Sanders, Nate; Wardle, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Community structure and ecosystem processes often vary along elevational gradients. Their responses to elevation are commonly driven by changes in temperature, and many community- and ecosystem-level variables therefore frequently respond similarly to elevation across contrasting gradients...... elevational gradients for understanding community and ecosystem responses to global climate change at much larger spatial and temporal scales than is possible through conventional ecological experiments. However, future studies that integrate elevational gradient approaches with experimental manipulations...... will provide powerful information that can improve predictions of climate change impacts within and across ecosystems....

  12. Elevated [CO2] does not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Honglang; Duursma, Remko A; Huang, Guomin; Smith, Renee A; Choat, Brendan; O'Grady, Anthony P; Tissue, David T

    2014-07-01

    It has been reported that elevated temperature accelerates the time-to-mortality in plants exposed to prolonged drought, while elevated [CO(2)] acts as a mitigating factor because it can reduce stomatal conductance and thereby reduce water loss. We examined the interactive effects of elevated [CO(2)] and temperature on the inter-dependent carbon and hydraulic characteristics associated with drought-induced mortality in Eucalyptus radiata seedlings grown in two [CO(2)] (400 and 640 μL L(-1)) and two temperature (ambient and ambient +4 °C) treatments. Seedlings were exposed to two controlled drying and rewatering cycles, and then water was withheld until plants died. The extent of xylem cavitation was assessed as loss of stem hydraulic conductivity. Elevated temperature triggered more rapid mortality than ambient temperature through hydraulic failure, and was associated with larger water use, increased drought sensitivities of gas exchange traits and earlier occurrence of xylem cavitation. Elevated [CO(2)] had a negligible effect on seedling response to drought, and did not ameliorate the negative effects of elevated temperature on drought. Our findings suggest that elevated temperature and consequent higher vapour pressure deficit, but not elevated [CO(2)], may be the primary contributors to drought-induced seedling mortality under future climates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Elevation Difference and Bouguer Anomaly Analysis Tool (EDBAAT) User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smittle, Aaron M.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2017-06-16

    This report describes a software tool that imports gravity anomaly point data from the Gravity Database of the United States (GDUS) of the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency and University of Texas at El Paso along with elevation data from The National Map (TNM) of the U.S. Geological Survey that lie within a user-specified geographic area of interest. Further, the tool integrates these two sets of data spatially and analyzes the consistency of the elevation of each gravity station from the GDUS with TNM elevation data; it also evaluates the consistency of gravity anomaly data within the GDUS data repository. The tool bins the GDUS data based on user-defined criteria of elevation misfit between the GDUS and TNM elevation data. It also provides users with a list of points from the GDUS data, which have Bouguer anomaly values that are considered outliers (two standard deviations or greater) with respect to other nearby GDUS anomaly data. “Nearby” can be defined by the user at time of execution. These outputs should allow users to quickly and efficiently choose which points from the GDUS would be most useful in reconnaissance studies or in augmenting and extending the range of individual gravity studies.

  14. Electrically conductive material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.P.; Bosak, A.L.; McPheeters, C.C.; Dees, D.W.

    1993-09-07

    An electrically conductive material is described for use in solid oxide fuel cells, electrochemical sensors for combustion exhaust, and various other applications possesses increased fracture toughness over available materials, while affording the same electrical conductivity. One embodiment of the sintered electrically conductive material consists essentially of cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 6-19 wt. % monoclinic ZrO[sub 2] formed from particles having an average size equal to or greater than about 0.23 microns. Another embodiment of the electrically conductive material consists essentially at cubic ZrO[sub 2] as a matrix and 10-30 wt. % partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) formed from particles having an average size of approximately 3 microns. 8 figures.

  15. Conductive open frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Wan, Shun; Doonan, Christian J.; Wang, Bo; Deng, Hexiang

    2018-05-22

    The disclosure relates generally to materials that comprise conductive covalent organic frameworks. The disclosure also relates to materials that are useful to store and separate gas molecules and sensors.

  16. Sodium conducting polymer electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skaarup, S.; West, K. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    This section deals with the aspects of ionic conduction in general as well as specific experimental results obtained for sodium systems. The conductivity as a function of temperature and oxygen/metal ratio are given for the systems NaI, NaCF/sub 3/SO/sub 3/ and NaClO/sub 4/ plus polyethylene oxide. Attempts have been made to produce mixed phase solid electrolytes analogous to the lithium systems that have worked well. These consist of mixtures of polymer and a solid electrolyte. The addition of both nasicon and sodium beta alumina unexpectedly decreases the ionic conductivity in contrast to the lithium systems. Addition of the nonconducting silica AEROSIL in order to increase the internal surface area has the effect of retarding the phase transition at 60 deg. C, but does not enhance the conductivity. (author) 23 refs.

  17. Conductive polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koszkul, J.

    1997-01-01

    The results of studies on polypropylene composites with three sorts of Polish-made carbon blacks were presented. It was found that composite of 20% black content had properties of an electrically conducting material

  18. Complex conductivity of soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revil, A.; Coperey, A.; Shao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The complex conductivity of soil remains poorly known despite the growing importance of this method in hyrogeophysics. In order to fill this gap of knowledge, we investigate the complex conductivity of 71 soils samples (including 4 peat samples) and one clean sand in the frequency range 0.1 Hertz...... to 45 kHz. The soil samples are saturated with 6 different NaCl brines with conductivities (0.031, 0.53, 1.15, 5.7, 14.7, and 22 S m-1, NaCl, 25°C) in order to determine their intrinsic formation factor and surface conductivity. This dataset is used to test the predictions of the dynamic Stern...

  19. Behaviour of conductivity improvers in jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dacre, B.; Hetherington, J.I. [Cranfield Univ., Wiltshire (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Dangerous accumulation of electrostatic charge can occur due to high speed pumping and microfiltration of fuel. This can be avoided by increasing the electrical conductivity of the fuel using conductivity improver additives. However, marked variations occur in the conductivity response of different fuels when doped to the same level with conductivity improver. This has been attributed to interactions of the conductivity improver with other fuel additives or fuel contaminants. The present work concentrates on the effects of fuel contaminants, in particular polar compounds, on the performance of the conductivity improver. Conductivity is the fuel property of prime interest. The conductivity response of model systems of the conductivity improver STADIS 450 in dodecane has been measured and the effect on this conductivity of additions of model polar contaminants sodium naphthenate, sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate, and sodium phenate have been measured. The sodium salts have been found to have a complex effect on the performance of STADIS 450, reducing the conductivity at low concentrations to a minimum value and then increasing the conductivity at high concentrations of sodium salts. This work has focused on characterising this minimum in the conductivity values and on understanding the reason for its occurrence. The effects on the minimum conductivity value of the following parameters are investigated: (a) time, (b) STADIS 450 concentration, (c) sodium salt concentration, (d) mixed sodium salts, (e) experimental method, (f) a phenol, (g) individual components of STADIS 450. The complex conductivity response of the STADIS 450 to sodium salt impurities is discussed in terms of possible inter-molecular interactions.

  20. Scattering calculation and image reconstruction using elevation-focused beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, David P; Astheimer, Jeffrey P; Waag, Robert C

    2009-05-01

    Pressure scattered by cylindrical and spherical objects with elevation-focused illumination and reception has been analytically calculated, and corresponding cross sections have been reconstructed with a two-dimensional algorithm. Elevation focusing was used to elucidate constraints on quantitative imaging of three-dimensional objects with two-dimensional algorithms. Focused illumination and reception are represented by angular spectra of plane waves that were efficiently computed using a Fourier interpolation method to maintain the same angles for all temporal frequencies. Reconstructions were formed using an eigenfunction method with multiple frequencies, phase compensation, and iteration. The results show that the scattered pressure reduces to a two-dimensional expression, and two-dimensional algorithms are applicable when the region of a three-dimensional object within an elevation-focused beam is approximately constant in elevation. The results also show that energy scattered out of the reception aperture by objects contained within the focused beam can result in the reconstructed values of attenuation slope being greater than true values at the boundary of the object. Reconstructed sound speed images, however, appear to be relatively unaffected by the loss in scattered energy. The broad conclusion that can be drawn from these results is that two-dimensional reconstructions require compensation to account for uncaptured three-dimensional scattering.

  1. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids

  2. Kalman filter-based gap conductance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylee, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Geometric and thermal property uncertainties contribute greatly to the problem of determining conductance within the fuel-clad gas gap of a nuclear fuel pin. Accurate conductance values are needed for power plant licensing transient analysis and for test analyses at research facilities. Recent work by Meek, Doerner, and Adams has shown that use of Kalman filters to estimate gap conductance is a promising approach. A Kalman filter is simply a mathematical algorithm that employs available system measurements and assumed dynamic models to generate optimal system state vector estimates. This summary addresses another Kalman filter approach to gap conductance estimation and subsequent identification of an empirical conductance model

  3. Cutoff points of waist circumference and trunk and visceral fat for identifying children with elevated inflammation markers and adipokines: The Healthy Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzi, Kalliopi; Moschonis, George; Polychronopoulou, Maria Christina; Chrousos, George P; Lionis, Christos; Manios, Yannis

    2016-10-01

    Excessive fat storage is accompanied by several comorbidities in children and early identification of elevated abdominal fat may be extremely valuable in early prevention of cardiometabolic risk. The aim of the present study was to establish cutoff points for waist circumference trunk and visceral fat, thus identifying increased likelihood of elevated inflammatory markers and adipokines in children. A representative sample of schoolchildren (aged 9-13 y) participated in a cross-sectional epidemiologic study conducted in Greece. Anthropometric and physical examination data, biochemical indices, and socioeconomic information (collected from parents) were assessed for all children. Central adiposity markers (trunk and visceral fat) were collected with bioelectrical impedance analysis for 999 children. Specific cutoff values of abdominal adiposity indices indicating increased likelihood of elevated levels of C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and leptin and decreased levels of adiponectin were calculated by sex. These cutoff values were; 67.5 cm for boys and 69.5 cm for girls for waist circumference, 17.75% for boys and 22.65% for girls for trunk fat mass percentage, and 3.95 for boys and 2.55 for girls for visceral fat rating. To our knowledge, this is the first study to establish simple cutoff points for abdominal adiposity indices identifying children at high risk for elevated inflammatory markers and decreased adipokine levels. Future studies are essential to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  5. Changes in Whole-Plant Metabolism during the Grain-Filling Stage in Sorghum Grown under Elevated CO2 and Drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Amanda P; Cocuron, Jean-Christophe; Garcia, Ana Carolina; Alonso, Ana Paula; Buckeridge, Marcos S

    2015-11-01

    Projections indicate an elevation of the atmospheric CO2 concentration ([CO2]) concomitant with an intensification of drought for this century, increasing the challenges to food security. On the one hand, drought is a main environmental factor responsible for decreasing crop productivity and grain quality, especially when occurring during the grain-filling stage. On the other hand, elevated [CO2] is predicted to mitigate some of the negative effects of drought. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a C4 grass that has important economical and nutritional values in many parts of the world. Although the impact of elevated [CO2] and drought in photosynthesis and growth has been well documented for sorghum, the effects of the combination of these two environmental factors on plant metabolism have yet to be determined. To address this question, sorghum plants (cv BRS 330) were grown and monitored at ambient (400 µmol mol(-1)) or elevated (800 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2] for 120 d and subjected to drought during the grain-filling stage. Leaf photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance were measured at 90 and 120 d after planting, and plant organs (leaves, culm, roots, prop roots, and grains) were harvested. Finally, biochemical composition and intracellular metabolites were assessed for each organ. As expected, elevated [CO2] reduced the stomatal conductance, which preserved soil moisture and plant fitness under drought. Interestingly, the whole-plant metabolism was adjusted and protein content in grains was improved by 60% in sorghum grown under elevated [CO2]. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Electrically Conductive Epoxy Adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Bai

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive adhesives are widely used in electronic packaging applications such as die attachment and solderless interconnections, component repair, display interconnections, and heat dissipation. The effects of film thickness as functions of filler volume fraction, conductive filler size, shape, as well as uncured adhesive matrix viscosity on the electrical conduction behavior of epoxy-based adhesives are presented in this work. For this purpose, epoxy-based adhesives were prepared using conductive fillers of different size, shape, and types, including Ni powder, flakes, and filaments, Ag powder, and Cu powder. The filaments were 20 μm in diameter, and 160 or 260 μm in length. HCl and H3PO4 acid solutions were used to etch and remove the surface oxide layers from the fillers. The plane resistance of filled adhesive films was measured using the four-point method. In all cases of conductive filler addition, the planar resistivity levels for the composite adhesive films increased when the film thickness was reduced. The shape of resistivity-thickness curves was negative exponential decaying type and was modeled using a mathematical relation. The relationships between the conductive film resistivities and the filler volume fractions were also derived mathematically based on the experimental data. Thus, the effects of surface treatment of filler particles, the type, size, shape of fillers, and the uncured epoxy viscosity could be included empirically by using these mathematical relations based on the experimental data. By utilizing the relations we proposed to model thickness-dependent and volume fraction-dependent conduction behaviors separately, we were able to describe the combined and coupled volume fraction-film thickness relationship mathematically based on our experimental data.

  7. Fluid conductivity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F. M.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for sensing the electrical conductivity of fluid which can be used to detonate an electro explosive device for operating a release mechanism for uncoupling a parachute canopy from its load upon landing in water. An operating network connected to an ignition capacitor and to a conductivity sensing circuit and connected in controlling relation to a semiconductor switch has a voltage independent portion which controls the time at which the semiconductor switch is closed to define a discharge path to detonate the electro explosive device independent of the rate of voltage rise on the ignition capacitor. The operating network also has a voltage dependent portion which when a voltage of predetermined magnitude is developed on the conductivity sensing circuit in response to fluid not having the predetermined condition of conductivity, the voltage dependent portion closes the semiconductor switch to define the discharge path when the energy level is insufficient to detonate the electro explosive device. A regulated current source is connected in relation to the conductivity sensing circuit and to the electrodes thereof in a manner placing the circuit voltage across the electrodes when the conductivity of the fluid is below a predetermined magnitude so that the sensing circuit does not respond thereto and placing the circuit voltage across the sensing circuit when the conductivity of the fluid is greater than a predetermined magnitude. The apparatus is operated from a battery, and the electrodes are of dissimilar metals so selected and connected relative to the polarity portions of the circuit to maximize utilization of the battery output voltage

  8. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-08-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  9. Deposition of mercury in forests across a montane elevation gradient: Elevational and seasonal patterns in methylmercury inputs and production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Jacqueline R.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Demers, Jason D.; Sauer, Amy K.; Blackwell, Bradley D.; Montesdeoca, Mario R.; Shanley, James B.; Ross, Donald S.

    2017-01-01

    Global mercury contamination largely results from direct primary atmospheric and secondary legacy emissions, which can be deposited to ecosystems, converted to methylmercury, and bioaccumulated along food chains. We examined organic horizon soil samples collected across an elevational gradient on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondack region of New York State, USA to determine spatial patterns in methylmercury concentrations across a forested montane landscape. We found that soil methylmercury concentrations were highest in the midelevation coniferous zone (0.39 ± 0.07 ng/g) compared to the higher elevation alpine zone (0.28 ± 0.04 ng/g) and particularly the lower elevation deciduous zone (0.17 ± 0.02 ng/g), while the percent of total mercury as methylmercury in soils decreased with elevation. We also found a seasonal pattern in soil methylmercury concentrations, with peak methylmercury values occurring in July. Given elevational patterns in temperature and bioavailable total mercury (derived from mineralization of soil organic matter), soil methylmercury concentrations appear to be driven by soil processing of ionic Hg, as opposed to atmospheric deposition of methylmercury. These methylmercury results are consistent with spatial patterns of mercury concentrations in songbird species observed from other studies, suggesting that future declines in mercury emissions could be important for reducing exposure of mercury to montane avian species.

  10. Elevation-relief ratio, hypsometric integral, and geomorphic area-altitude analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, R. J.; Wilson, S. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mathematical proof establishes identity of hypsometric integral and elevation-relief ratio, two quantitative topographic descriptors developed independently of one another for entirely different purposes. Operationally, values of both measures are in excellent agreement for arbitrarily bounded topographic samples, as well as for low-order fluvial watersheds. By using a point-sampling technique rather than planimetry, elevation-relief ratio (defined as mean elevation minus minimum elevation divided by relief) is calculated manually in about a third of the time required for the hypsometric integral.

  11. IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The IceBridge Riegl Laser Altimeter L2 Geolocated Surface Elevation Triplets (ILUTP2) data set contains surface range values for Antarctica and Greenland derived...

  12. Transparent conducting oxide nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivov, Yahya; Singh, Vivek; Ding, Yuchen; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-09-01

    Thin film or porous membranes made of hollow, transparent, conducting oxide (TCO) nanotubes, with high chemical stability, functionalized surfaces and large surface areas, can provide an excellent platform for a wide variety of nanostructured photovoltaic, photodetector, photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic devices. While large-bandgap oxide semiconductors offer transparency for incident light (below their nominal bandgap), their low carrier concentration and poor conductivity makes them unsuitable for charge conduction. Moreover, materials with high conductivity have nominally low bandgaps and hence poor light transmittance. Here, we demonstrate thin films and membranes made from TiO2 nanotubes heavily-doped with shallow Niobium (Nb) donors (up to 10%, without phase segregation), using a modified electrochemical anodization process, to fabricate transparent conducting hollow nanotubes. Temperature dependent current-voltage characteristics revealed that TiO2 TCO nanotubes, doped with 10% Nb, show metal-like behavior with resistivity decreasing from 6.5 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 300 K (compared to 6.5 × 10-1 Ωcm for nominally undoped nanotubes) to 2.2 × 10-4 Ωcm at T = 20 K. Optical properties, studied by reflectance measurements, showed light transmittance up to 90%, within wavelength range 400 nm-1000 nm. Nb doping also improves the field emission properties of TCO nanotubes demonstrating an order of magnitude increase in field-emitter current, compared to undoped samples.

  13. Direct current hopping conductance along DNA chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Song-Shan; Xu Hui; Liu Xiao-Liang; Li Ming-Jun

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a model of direct current(DC) electron hopping transport in DNA,in which DNA is considered as a binary one-dimensional disordered system.To quantitatively study the DC conductivity in DNA,it numerically calculates the DC conductivity of DNA chains with difierent parameter values.The result shows that the DC conductivity of DNA chain increases with the increase of temperature.And the conductivity of DNA chain is depended on the probability P.which represents the degree of compositional disorder in a DNA sequence to some extent.For P<0.5,the conductivity of DNA chain decreases with the increase of P,while for P≥0.5,the conductivity increases with the increase of p.The DC conductivity in DNA chain also varies with the change of the electric field,it presents non-Ohm's law conductivity characteristics.

  14. Elevated serum urate is a potential factor in reduction of total bilirubin: a Mendelian randomization study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Liu, Jing; Dong, Zheng; Ding, Yue; Qian, Qiaoxia; Zhou, Jingru; Ma, Yanyun; Mei, Zhendong; Chen, Xiangxiang; Li, Yuan; Yuan, Ziyu; Zhang, Juan; Yang, Yajun; Chen, Xingdong; Jin, Li; Zou, Hejian; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jiucun

    2017-01-01

    Aim A Mendelian randomization study (MRS) can be linked to a “natural” randomized controlled trial in order to avoid potential bias of observational epidemiology. We aimed to study the possible association between serum urate (SU) and total bilirubin (TBIL) using MRS. Materials and Methods An observational epidemiological study using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and MRS using two-stage least square (TLS) regression was conducted to assess the effect of SU on TBIL. The comparison between the OLS regression and the TLS regression was analyzed by the Durbin-Hausman test. If the p value is significant, it suggests that the OLS regression cannot evaluate the relationship between exposure and outcome, and the TLS regression is precise; while if the p value is not significant, there would be no significant difference between the two regressions. Results A total of 3,753 subjects were analyzed. In OLS regression, there was no significant association between SU and TBIL in all subjects and subgroup analysis (all p > 0.05). However, MRS revealed a negative correlation between SU and TBIL after adjustment for confounders (beta = –0.021, p = 0.010). Further analysis was conducted in different SU subgroups, and results show that elevated SU was associated with a significant reduction in TBIL after adjustment for hyperuricemic subjects (beta = –0.053, p = 0.027). In addition, the results using the Durbin-Hausman test further confirmed a negative effect of SU on TBIL (p = 0.002 and 0.010, respectively). Conclusions This research shows for the first time that elevated SU was a potential causal factor in the reduction of TBIL and it provides strong evidence to resolve the controversial association between SU and TBIL. PMID:29262606

  15. Dynamic multibody modeling for tethered space elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a fundamental modeling strategy for dealing with powered and propelled bodies moving along space tethers. The tether is divided into a large number of discrete masses, which are connected by viscoelastic springs. The tether is subject to the full range of forces expected in Earth orbit in a relatively simple manner. Two different models of the elevator dynamics are presented. In order to capture the effect of the elevator moving along the tether, the elevator dynamics are included as a separate body in both models. One model treats the elevator's motion dynamically, where propulsive and friction forces are applied to the elevator body. The second model treats the elevator's motion kinematically, where the distance along the tether is determined by adjusting the lengths of tether on either side of the elevator. The tether model is used to determine optimal configurations for the space elevator. A modal analysis of two different configurations is presented which show that the fundamental mode of oscillation is a pendular one around the anchor point with a period on the order of 160 h for the in-plane motion, and 24 h for the out-of-plane motion. Numerical simulation results of the effects of the elevator moving along the cable are presented for different travel velocities and different elevator masses.

  16. Predictors of backrest elevation in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Bryant, Sandra; Ashtiani, Brooke

    2003-04-01

    Low backrest and supine positions are associated with increased mortality and ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). Data are not available across ICU settings about the level of backrest position used and its relationship to enteral feeding and hemodynamic status. The purpose of this descriptive study was to document the level of backrest elevation and position and identify factors associated with and predict positioning in a medical, surgical and neuroscience intensive care unit. Data were collected randomly in each unit over a 6-week period, resulting in 506 observations for170 patients. Backrest elevation was determined by electronic bed read-out or bed frame elevation gauge. BP, HR and enteral feeding status were retrieved from the medical record. Results showed that mean backrest elevation was 19.2 degrees and 70% of subjects were supine. No difference in backrest elevation among units was found. Significant correlations between backrest elevation and systolic BP (r=0.15, P=0.006); and backrest and diastolic BP (r=0.13, P=0.02) were found. There was no difference in backrest elevation between patients being fed and not being fed. Differences in backrest elevation for intubated versus nonintubated patients approached significance (P=0.07) with intubated patients at lower backrest elevations. In summary, use of higher backrest elevations (>30 degrees ) is minimal, is not related to feeding and minimally related to hemodynamic status. Strategies to meet published recommendations for backrest elevation (30-45 degrees ) must include repeated feedback about nurse's use of backrest elevation and estimates of elevation.

  17. Responsible conduct of research

    CERN Document Server

    Shamoo, Adil E

    2015-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, the field of Responsible Conduct of Research has become widely recognized as essential to scientific education, investigation, and training. At present, research institutions with public funding are expected to have some minimal training and education in RCR for their graduate students, fellows and trainees. These institutions also are expected to have a system in place for investigating and reporting misconduct in research or violations of regulations in research with human subjects, or in their applications to federal agencies for funding. Public scrutiny of the conduct of scientific researchers remains high. Media reports of misconduct scandals, biased research, violations of human research ethics rules, and moral controversies in research occur on a weekly basis. Since the 2009 publication of the 2nd edition of Shamoo and Resnik's Responsible Conduct of Research, there has been a vast expansion in the information, knowledge, methods, and diagnosis of problems related to RCR and the ...

  18. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: National Elevation Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the elevation values within individual local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on the National Elevation...

  19. Elevated-CO2 Response of Stomata and Its Dependence on Environmental Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenzhu; Jiang, Yanling; Jia, Bingrui; Zhou, Guangsheng

    2016-01-01

    Stomata control the flow of gases between plants and the atmosphere. This review is centered on stomatal responses to elevated CO2 concentration and considers other key environmental factors and underlying mechanisms at multiple levels. First, an outline of general responses in stomatal conductance under elevated CO2 is presented. Second, stomatal density response, its development, and the trade-off with leaf growth under elevated CO2 conditions are depicted. Third, the molecular mechanism regulating guard cell movement at elevated CO2 is suggested. Finally, the interactive effects of elevated CO2 with other factors critical to stomatal behavior are reviewed. It may be useful to better understand how stomata respond to elevated CO2 levels while considering other key environmental factors and mechanisms, including molecular mechanism, biochemical processes, and ecophysiological regulation. This understanding may provide profound new insights into how plants cope with climate change. PMID:27242858

  20. Space elevator systems level analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. It involves new, untried technologies in most of its subsystems. Thus the successful construction of the SE requires a significant amount of development, This in turn implies a high level of risk for the SE. This paper will present a systems level analysis of the SE by subdividing its components into their subsystems to determine their level of technological maturity. such a high-risk endeavor is to follow a disciplined approach to the challenges. A systems level analysis informs this process and is the guide to where resources should be applied in the development processes. It is an efficient path that, if followed, minimizes the overall risk of the system's development. systems level analysis is that the overall system is divided naturally into its subsystems, and those subsystems are further subdivided as appropriate for the analysis. By dealing with the complex system in layers, the parameter space of decisions is kept manageable. Moreover, A rational way to manage One key aspect of a resources are not expended capriciously; rather, resources are put toward the biggest challenges and most promising solutions. This overall graded approach is a proven road to success. The analysis includes topics such as nanotube technology, deployment scenario, power beaming technology, ground-based hardware and operations, ribbon maintenance and repair and climber technology.

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei

    2013-03-25

    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, 2010]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping.

  2. Defense of a space elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubscher, B. E. (Bryan E.)

    2004-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) represents a major paradigm shift in space access. If the SE's promise of low-cost access is to be realized, everything becomes economically more feasible to accomplish in space. In this paper we describe a defensive system of the SE. The primary scenario adopted for this analysis is the SE based on a floating platform in the ocean along the equator. A second possible scenario is the SE stationed on land (island or continent) on or near the equator. The SE will capture the imaginations of people around the world. It will become a symbol of power, capability, wealth and prestige for the country that builds it. As such, it will become a prime terrorist target. Moreover, the tremendous economic leverage afforded by the SE might motivate rogue nations to plot its destruction. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the requirements for defense of the SE. For the purposes of this paper it is assumed that the SE is to be deployed by the United States or one of its companies, and the resources of the US are available for its defense.

  3. Density, viscosity and electrical conductivity of protic alkanolammonium ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkert, André; Ang, Keng L; Marsh, Kenneth N; Pang, Shusheng

    2011-03-21

    Ionic liquids are molten salts with melting temperatures below the boiling point of water, and their qualification for applications in potential industrial processes does depend on their fundamental physical properties such as density, viscosity and electrical conductivity. This study aims to investigate the structure-property relationship of 15 ILs that are primarily composed of alkanolammonium cations and organic acid anions. The influence of both the nature and number of alkanol substituents on the cation and the nature of the anion on the densities, viscosities and electrical conductivities at ambient and elevated temperatures are discussed. Walden rule plots are used to estimate the ionic nature of these ionic liquids, and comparison with other studies reveals that most of the investigated ionic liquids show Walden rule values similar to many non-protic ionic liquids containing imidazolium, pyrrolidinium, tetraalkylammonium, or tetraalkylphosphonium cations. Comparison of literature data reveals major disagreements in the reported properties for the investigated ionic liquids. A detailed analysis of the reported experimental procedures suggests that inappropriate drying methods can account for some of the discrepancies. Furthermore, an example for the improved presentation of experimental data in scientific literature is presented.

  4. Thermophysical Properties of Liquid Te: Density, Electrical Conductivity, and Viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Su, C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Scripa, R. N.; Ban, H.; Lin, B.

    2004-01-01

    The thermophysical properties of liquid Te, namely, density, electrical conductivity, and viscosity, were determined using the pycnometric and transient torque methods from the melting point of Te (723 K) to approximately 1150 K. A maximum was observed in the density of liquid Te as the temperature was increased. The electrical conductivity of liquid Te increased to a constant value of 2.89 x 10(exp 5 OMEGA-1m-1) as the temperature was raised above 1000 K. The viscosity decreased rapidly upon heating the liquid to elevated temperatures. The anomalous behaviors of the measured properties are explained as caused by the structural transitions in the liquid and discussed in terms of Eyring's and Bachiskii's predicted behaviors for homogeneous liquids. The Properties were also measured as a function of time after the liquid was coded from approximately 1173 or 1123 to 823 K. No relaxation phenomena were observed in the properties after the temperature of liquid Te was decreased to 823 K, in contrast to the relaxation behavior observed for some of the Te compounds.

  5. Conducting metal dithiolate complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Underhill, A. E.; Ahmad, M. M.; Turner, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound......Further work on the chemical composition of the one-dimensional metallic metal dithiolene complex Li-Pt(mnt) is reported. The electrical conduction and thermopower properties of the nickel and palladium complexes are reported and compared with those of the platinum compound...

  6. Life Role Salience and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hattem, A.H.; Ossenkop, C.; Dikkers, J.S.E.; Vinkenburg, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose-Even though both values and life roles are intensively studied topics, limited research has been conducted regarding the association between the two. In the context of the Dutch public sector, this study therefore examines how life roles and values relate to each other. Moreover, the

  7. Subsurface imaging of water electrical conductivity, hydraulic permeability and lithology at contaminated sites by induced polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, P. K.; Balbarini, N.; Møller, I.; Rønde, V.; Christiansen, A. V.; Bjerg, P. L.; Auken, E.; Fiandaca, G.

    2018-05-01

    convert the imaging results from bulk conductivity to water conductivity. The geophysical models were actively used for supporting the geological modelling and the imaging of hydraulic permeability and water conductivity allowed for a better discrimination of the clay/lignite lithology from the pore water conductivity. Furthermore, high water electrical conductivity values were found in a deep confined aquifer, which is separated by a low-permeability clay layer from a shallow aquifer. No contamination was expected in this part of the confined aquifer, and confirmation wells were drilled in the zone of increased water electrical conductivity derived from the geophysical results. Water samples from the new wells showed elevated concentrations of inorganic compounds responsible for the increased water electrical conductivity in the confined aquifer and high concentrations of xenobiotic organic contaminants such as chlorinated ethenes, sulfonamides and barbiturates.

  8. Conducting Educational Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Susan; Reeves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Educational design research blends scientific investigation with systematic development and implementation of solutions to educational problems. Empirical investigation is conducted in real learning settings--not laboratories--to craft usable and effective solutions. At the same time, the research is carefully structured to produce theoretical…

  9. Conductance eigenchannels in nanocontacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Sørensen, Mads Reinholdt; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel

    1997-01-01

    The electronic conductance of metal nanocontacts is analyzed in terms of eigenchannels for the transmission. The transmission through individual eigenchannels is calculated numerically for realistic models of gold point contacts based on molecular-dynamics simulation of the elongation of a contac...

  10. Conduct Disorder and Comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Nicole D.; Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1999-01-01

    Provides critical examination of research published during past ten years addressing Conduct Disorder (CD), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD), and internalizing disorders. Concludes comorbidity varies with age, gender, informant, diagnostic criteria, and nature of the sample. Implications of comorbidity…

  11. High Thermal Conductivity Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Subhash L

    2006-01-01

    Thermal management has become a ‘hot’ field in recent years due to a need to obtain high performance levels in many devices used in such diverse areas as space science, mainframe and desktop computers, optoelectronics and even Formula One racing cars! Thermal solutions require not just taking care of very high thermal flux, but also ‘hot spots’, where the flux densities can exceed 200 W/cm2. High thermal conductivity materials play an important role in addressing thermal management issues. This volume provides readers a basic understanding of the thermal conduction mechanisms in these materials and discusses how the thermal conductivity may be related to their crystal structures as well as microstructures developed as a result of their processing history. The techniques for accurate measurement of these properties on large as well as small scales have been reviewed. Detailed information on the thermal conductivity of diverse materials including aluminum nitride (AlN), silicon carbide (SiC), diamond, a...

  12. Transient Heat Conduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    Analytical theory of transient heat conduction.Fourier's law. General heat conducation equation. Thermal diffusivity. Biot and Fourier numbers. Lumped analysis and time constant. Semi-infinite body: fixed surface temperature, convective heat transfer at the surface, or constant surface heat flux...

  13. New code of conduct

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2010-01-01

    During his talk to the staff at the beginning of the year, the Director-General mentioned that a new code of conduct was being drawn up. What exactly is it and what is its purpose? Anne-Sylvie Catherin, Head of the Human Resources (HR) Department, talked to us about the whys and wherefores of the project.   Drawing by Georges Boixader from the cartoon strip “The World of Particles” by Brian Southworth. A code of conduct is a general framework laying down the behaviour expected of all members of an organisation's personnel. “CERN is one of the very few international organisations that don’t yet have one", explains Anne-Sylvie Catherin. “We have been thinking about introducing a code of conduct for a long time but lacked the necessary resources until now”. The call for a code of conduct has come from different sources within the Laboratory. “The Equal Opportunities Advisory Panel (read also the "Equal opportuni...

  14. Quantized Majorana conductance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Chun Xiao; Gazibegovic, Sasa; Xu, Di; Logan, John A.; Wang, Guanzhong; Van Loo, Nick; Bommer, Jouri D.S.; De Moor, Michiel W.A.; Car, Diana; Op Het Veld, Roy L.M.; Van Veldhoven, Petrus J.; Koelling, Sebastian; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Pendharkar, Mihir; Pennachio, Daniel J.; Shojaei, Borzoyeh; Lee, Joon Sue; Palmstrøm, Chris J.; Bakkers, Erik P.A.M.; Sarma, S. Das; Kouwenhoven, Leo P.

    2018-01-01

    Majorana zero-modes - a type of localized quasiparticle - hold great promise for topological quantum computing. Tunnelling spectroscopy in electrical transport is the primary tool for identifying the presence of Majorana zero-modes, for instance as a zero-bias peak in differential conductance. The

  15. Conductive polymer composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for the preparation of a conductive polymer composition comprising graphene and the articles obtained by this process. The process comprises the following steps: A) contacting graphite oxide in an aqueous medium with a water-soluble or dispersible

  16. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  17. Application of Digital Elevation Model (DEM for description of soil microtopography changes in laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stańczyk Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study we evaluated spatial and quantitative changes in soil surface microtopography to describe water erosion process under simulated rain with use of a non-contact optical 3D scanner. The experiment was conducted in two variants: with and without drainage layer. Two clay soils collected from farmlands from the catchment of lake Zgorzała (Warsaw were investigated. Six tests of simulated rain were applied, with 55 mm·h−1. The surface roughness and microrelief were determined immediately after every 10 min of rainfall simulation by 3D scanner. The volume of surface and underground runoff as well as soil moisture were measured. The surface points coordinates obtained while scanning were interpolated using natural neighbour method and GIS software to generate Digital Elevation Models (DEM with a 0.5 mm resolution. Two DEM-derived surface roughness indices: Random Roughness (RR and Terrain Ruggedness Index (TRI were used for microrelief description. Calculated values of both roughness factors have decreased with time under the influence of rainfall in all analyzed variants. During the sprinkling the moisture of all samples had been growing rapidly from air-dry state reaching values close to the maximum water capacity (37–48% vol. in 20–30 min. Simultaneously the intensity of surface runoff was increasing and cumulative runoff value was: 17–35% for variants with drainage and 72–83% for the variants without drainage, relative to cumulative rainfall. The observed soil surface elevation changes were associated with aggregates decomposition, erosion and sedimentation, and above all, with a compaction of the soil, which was considered to be a dominant factor hindering the assessment of the erosion intensity of the of the scanned surface.

  18. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Yuan; Han, Tiancheng; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George

    2011-01-01

    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards...

  19. Falsely elevated troponin: rare occurrence or future problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nguyen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Troponins are known to be released in response to cardiac damage and therefore are the biomarkers of choice for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, improving outcome in patients presenting with chest pain. However, false results can occur due to interference from other substances in the blood. Case: A 52-year-old male with a past medical history of alcohol abuse, hypertension, and coronary artery bypass graft at age 34 with normal stress test 2 years before presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of 1 day of non-exertional chest pain with radiation to the neck and left arm. His troponin was elevated to 5 ng/mL in two samples drawn 12 h apart, with normal CK-MB. Renal function was normal. Electrocardiogram (ECG showed normal sinus rhythm with no ST elevations or depressions. He underwent cardiac catheterization which showed no obstructive lesions. Five years later, he returned to the ED with abdominal pain and shortness of breath. Troponin was elevated and showed no signs of downtrend on repeat every 6 h. ECG was unchanged from 5 years before. He was discharged with a follow-up cardiac computed tomography (CT. Troponin was measured on the day of his scan and remained elevated; he was asymptomatic. Cardiac CT showed unremarkable coronaries and bypass grafts. Given persistently positive troponin in the setting of minimal to no symptoms, he was thought to have falsely elevated troponins. Centrifugation and 2:1 dilution of the sample resulted in the same general value, respectively. Rheumatoid factor and heterophile antibodies were negative. When his blood sample was sent to a different hospital utilizing a three-site immunoassay method, the value was found zero. Discussion: Cardiac troponins (cTn are structural proteins unique to the heart, not expressed outside of cardiac tissue and have high sensitivity and specificity for myocardial damage. Therefore, it is the test of choice for the diagnosis of

  20. Soil nematodes show a mid-elevation diversity maximum and elevational zonation on Mt. Norikura, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ke; Moroenyane, Itumeleng; Tripathi, Binu; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Takahashi, Koichi; Yamamoto, Naomichi; An, Choa; Cho, Hyunjun; Adams, Jonathan

    2017-06-08

    Little is known about how nematode ecology differs across elevational gradients. We investigated the soil nematode community along a ~2,200 m elevational range on Mt. Norikura, Japan, by sequencing the 18S rRNA gene. As with many other groups of organisms, nematode diversity showed a high correlation with elevation, and a maximum in mid-elevations. While elevation itself, in the context of the mid domain effect, could predict the observed unimodal pattern of soil nematode communities along the elevational gradient, mean annual temperature and soil total nitrogen concentration were the best predictors of diversity. We also found nematode community composition showed strong elevational zonation, indicating that a high degree of ecological specialization that may exist in nematodes in relation to elevation-related environmental gradients and certain nematode OTUs had ranges extending across all elevations, and these generalized OTUs made up a greater proportion of the community at high elevations - such that high elevation nematode OTUs had broader elevational ranges on average, providing an example consistent to Rapoport's elevational hypothesis. This study reveals the potential for using sequencing methods to investigate elevational gradients of small soil organisms, providing a method for rapid investigation of patterns without specialized knowledge in taxonomic identification.

  1. On a lunar space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, E. H.

    We consider a space elevator system for lunar surface access that consists of a space station in circumlunar orbit, a cable reaching down to some meters above the surface and a magnetically levitated vehicle driven by a linear motor. It accelerates the load to be lifted to the speed of the cable end. Loads to be delivered are either put on the vehicle and slowed down by it or they are slowed down by a sand braking technique in a mare terrain. It is technically possible to operate this transport system nearly without fuel supply from Earth. We calculate various steel cable dimensions for a static stress maximum of 1/5th of the tensile strength. The process of takeover is considered in detail. Five ways of eliminating the adverse large cable elongation due to the load are described. The touchdown process and behaviour of the cable after disconnection are analysed. The positive difference between the speed of the load at takeover and cable end can excite a large inplane swing motion. We propose to damp it by a dissipative pulley that hangs in a loop of wire leading to the ends of two beams mounted on the space station tangentially to the orbit, the pulley's core being connected with the load. Roll librations are damped by energy losses in the elastic beams; damping can be reinforced by viscous beam elements and/or controlled out-of-plane motions of the beams. We argue in favour of the possibility of fast deployment. The problems of vehicle vibrations and agglutination at sand braking blades are underlined and their combined experimental investigation is suggested.

  2. VERTICAL ACCURACY COMPARISON OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODEL FROM LIDAR AND MULTITEMPORAL SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Octariady

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation model serves to illustrate the appearance of the earth's surface. DEM can be produced from a wide variety of data sources including from radar data, LiDAR data, and stereo satellite imagery. Making the LiDAR DEM conducted using point cloud data from LiDAR sensor. Making a DEM from stereo satellite imagery can be done using same temporal or multitemporal stereo satellite imagery. How much the accuracy of DEM generated from multitemporal stereo stellite imagery and LiDAR data is not known with certainty. The study was conducted using LiDAR DEM data and multitemporal stereo satellite imagery DEM. Multitemporal stereo satellite imagery generated semi-automatically by using 3 scene stereo satellite imagery with acquisition 2013–2014. The high value given each of DEM serve as the basis for calculating high accuracy DEM respectively. The results showed the high value differences in the fraction of the meter between LiDAR DEM and multitemporal stereo satellite imagery DEM.

  3. An Automatic System for Elevator Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Haidar Sharif; Ibrahim Furkan Ince

    2015-01-01

    An elevator is a conveyor device or transport equipment that moves people or goods between floors or levels or decks of a building, vessel, or other structures. It has become a part and parcel of modern life in developed countries. The number of floors in high buildings, skyscrapers, and towers generate the usage of elevators. If it is simply assumed that each floor has at least two elevators in a thirty-floor building, people call the elevators in each floor even they are already occupied in...

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL FILLING OF DIGITAL ELEVATION MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krauß

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for a more detailed post processing and filling of digital elevation models (DEMs in urban areas is presented. To reach the required specifications in a first step the errors in digital surface models (DSMs generated by dense stereo algorithms are analyzed and methods for detection and classification of the different types of errors are implemented. Subsequently the classified erroneous areas are handled in separate manner to eliminate outliers and fill the DSM properly. The errors which can be detected in DSMs range from outliers – single pixels or small areas containing extremely high or low values – over noise from mismatches, single small holes to occlusions, where large areas are not visible in one of the images of the stereo pair. To validate the presented method artificial DSMs are generated and superimposed with all different kinds of described errors like noise (small holes cut in, outliers (small areas moved up/down, occlusions (larger areas beneath steep walls and so on. The method is subsequently applied to the artificial DSMs and the resulting filled DSMs are compared to the original artificial DSMs without the introduced errors. Also the method is applied to stereo satellite generated DSMs from the ISPRS Comission 1 WG4 benchmark dataset and the results are checked with the also provided first pulse laser DSM data. Finally the results are discussed, strengths and weaknesses of the approach are shown and suggestions for application and optimization are given.

  5. Nanostructured conductive polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Mohammed H.

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) are a suitable alternative to metals in many applications due to their light-weight, corrosion resistance, low cost, ease of processing and design flexibility. CPCs have been formulated using different types of conductive fillers. In this PhD thesis, the focus is on CPCs for electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection and electromagnetic interference (EMI) attenuation. Despite the versatility of conductive fillers, carbon black (CB) has been the dominant filler to make CPCs for ESD protection applications because CB/polymer composites have a cost advantage over all other CPCs. For EMI shielding, stainless steel fibres and metal coated fibers are the preferred fillers, however CPCs made of those fibers are not the dominant EMI shielding materials. Metal coated and polymer plated polymers are the most widely used EMI shielding options. The limited use of CPCs in the EMI shielding market is because the high filler loading required to formulate a composite with an adequate level of shielding remarkably increases the composite price. In order to increase the competitiveness of CPCs, percolation threshold should be minimized as much as possible and composites with high EMI shielding capabilities at low filler loading should be formulated because all conductive fillers are expensive compared to polymers. In this thesis, two different methodologies to reduce percolation threshold in CPCs have been successfully developed and a CPC with exceptional EMI shielding capability has been formulated using copper nanowires as conductive filler. The first percolation threshold reduction technique is based on the selective localization of CB at the interface of immiscible polymer blend. The technique requires adding a copolymer that prefers the blend's interface and for which CB nanoparticles has the highest affinity. The second method is based on producing a CPC powder and then using this powder as a conductive filler to produce composite by dry

  6. Characterization and Conduction Mechanism of Highly Conductive Vanadate Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuaki Nishida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent studies of highly conductive barium iron vanadate glass with a composition of 20 BaO ∙ 10 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 (in mol %. Isothermal annealing of the vanadate glass for several ten minutes at a given temperature, higher than glass transition temperature or crystallization temperature, caused an increase in σ. Substitution of CuI (3d10, ZnII (3d10 and CuII (3d9 for FeIII (3d5 was investigated to elucidate the effect of electron configuration on the conductivity (σ. A marked decrease in the activation energy of conduction (Ea was also observed after the annealing. Values of Ea were correlated to the energy gap between the donor level and the conduction band (CB in the n-type semiconductor model. Isothermal annealing of ZnII-substituted vanadate glass (20 BaO ∙ 5 ZnO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 at 450 °C for 30 min showed an increase in σ from 2.5 × 10–6 to 2.1 × 10–1 S cm–1, which was one order of magnitude larger than that of non-substituted vanadate glass (3.4 × 10–2 S cm–1. Under the same annealing condition, σ’s of 2.0 × 10–1 and 3.2 × 10–1 S cm–1 were observed for 20 BaO ∙ 5 Cu2O ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 and 20 BaO ∙ 5 CuO ∙ 5 Fe2O3 ∙ 70 V2O5 glasses, respectively. These results demonstrate an increase in the carrier (electron density in the CB, primarily composed of anti-bonding 4s-orbitals.

  7. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  8. High frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abukari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on theoretical analysis of high frequency conductivity in carbon nanotubes. Using the kinetic equation with constant relaxation time, an analytical expression for the complex conductivity is obtained. The real part of the complex conductivity is initially negative at zero frequency and become more negative with increasing frequency, until it reaches a resonance minimum at ω ∼ ωB for metallic zigzag CNs and ω < ωB for armchair CNs. This resonance enhancement is indicative for terahertz gain without the formation of current instabilities induced by negative dc conductivity. We noted that due to the high density of states of conduction electrons in metallic zigzag carbon nanotubes and the specific dispersion law inherent in hexagonal crystalline structure result in a uniquely high frequency conductivity than the corresponding values for metallic armchair carbon nanotubes. We suggest that this phenomenon can be used to suppress current instabilities that are normally associated with a negative dc differential conductivity.

  9. Transparent Conductive Nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-06-22

    The objectives of this program between UT-Battelle, LLC (the ''Contractor'') and (Battelle Memorial Institute) (the "Participant") were directed towards achieving significant improvement: in the electrical conductivity and optical/infrared transmission of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT)-based composite materials. These materials will be used in coating applications that range from aircraft canopies to display applications. The goal of the project was to obtain supported mats of SWNTs with sheet conductivities approaching 10 ohms/square combined with high optical transmission (>85% transmission at 550 nm), thereby permitting their application as a replacement for indium tin oxide (ITO) in a variety of applications such as flexible displays.

  10. Super ionic conductive glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susman, S.; Volin, K.J.

    Described is an ionically conducting glass for use as a solid electrolyte in a power or secondary cell containing an alkali metal-containing anode and a cathode separated by an alkali metal ion conducting glass having an ionic transference number of unity and the general formula: A/sub 1 + x/D/sub 2-x/3/Si/sub x/P/sub 3 - x/O/sub 12 - 2x/3/, wherein A is a network modifier for the glass and is an alkali metal of the anode, D is an intermediate for the glass and is selected from the class consisting of Zr, Ti, Ge, Al, Sb, Be, and Zn and X is in the range of from 2.25 to 3.0. Of the alkali metals, Na and Li are preferred and of the intermediate, Zr, Ti and Ge are preferred.

  11. Conducting Polymer Based Nanobiosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Soon Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, conducting polymer (CP nanomaterials have been used in a variety of fields, such as in energy, environmental, and biomedical applications, owing to their outstanding chemical and physical properties compared to conventional metal materials. In particular, nanobiosensors based on CP nanomaterials exhibit excellent performance sensing target molecules. The performance of CP nanobiosensors varies based on their size, shape, conductivity, and morphology, among other characteristics. Therefore, in this review, we provide an overview of the techniques commonly used to fabricate novel CP nanomaterials and their biosensor applications, including aptasensors, field-effect transistor (FET biosensors, human sense mimicking biosensors, and immunoassays. We also discuss prospects for state-of-the-art nanobiosensors using CP nanomaterials by focusing on strategies to overcome the current limitations.

  12. 'Stuffed' conducting polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Jensen, Bjørn; Chen, Jun; West, Keld

    2005-01-01

    Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid. In the pres......Conducting polymers (CP) obtained by oxidative polymerization using iron(III) salts shrink when Fe(II) and the excess counter ions are washed out after polymerization. This phenomenon can be used to incorporate active molecules into the CP matrix via their addition to the wash liquid....... In the present work we demonstrate this principle on three different CP's: polypyrrole (PPy), poly-terthiophene (PTTh) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy thiophene) (PEDT), using ferrocene as a model molecule to be trapped in the polymer films. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Conducting interactive experiments online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arechar, Antonio A; Gächter, Simon; Molleman, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    Online labor markets provide new opportunities for behavioral research, but conducting economic experiments online raises important methodological challenges. This particularly holds for interactive designs. In this paper, we provide a methodological discussion of the similarities and differences between interactive experiments conducted in the laboratory and online. To this end, we conduct a repeated public goods experiment with and without punishment using samples from the laboratory and the online platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We chose to replicate this experiment because it is long and logistically complex. It therefore provides a good case study for discussing the methodological and practical challenges of online interactive experimentation. We find that basic behavioral patterns of cooperation and punishment in the laboratory are replicable online. The most important challenge of online interactive experiments is participant dropout. We discuss measures for reducing dropout and show that, for our case study, dropouts are exogenous to the experiment. We conclude that data quality for interactive experiments via the Internet is adequate and reliable, making online interactive experimentation a potentially valuable complement to laboratory studies.

  14. Vacuum level effects on gait characteristics for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hang; Greenland, Kasey; Bloswick, Donald; Zhao, Jie; Merryweather, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    The elevated vacuum suspension system has demonstrated unique health benefits for amputees, but the effect of vacuum pressure values on gait characteristics is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated vacuum levels on temporal parameters, kinematics and kinetics for unilateral transtibial amputees. Three-dimensional gait analysis was conducted in 9 unilateral transtibial amputees walking at a controlled speed with five vacuum levels ranging from 0 to 20inHg, and also in 9 able-bodied subjects walking at self-preferred speed. Repeated ANOVA and Dunnett's t-test were performed to determine the effect of vacuum level and limb for within subject and between groups. The effect of vacuum level significantly affected peak hip external rotation and external knee adduction moment. Maximum braking and propulsive ground reaction forces generally increased for the residual limb and decreased for the intact limb with increasing vacuum. Additionally, the intact limb experienced an increased loading due to gait asymmetry for several variables. There was no systematic vacuum level effect on gait. Higher vacuum levels, such as 15 and 20inHg, were more comfortable and provided some relief to the intact limb, but may also increase the risk of osteoarthritis of the residual limb due to the increased peak external hip and knee adduction moments. Very low vacuum should be avoided because of the negative effects on gait symmetry. A moderate vacuum level at 15inHg is suggested for unilateral transtibial amputees with elevated vacuum suspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. B-type natriuretic peptide: a novel early blood marker of acute myocardial infarction in patients with chest pain and no ST-segment elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, Roberto; Potsch, Alfredo; Maisel, Alan; Tura, Bernardo; Villacorta, Humberto; Nogueira, Mônica Viegas; Campos, Augusta; Gamarski, Roberto; Masetto, Antonio Cláudio; Moutinho, Marco Aurélio

    2005-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the diagnostic value of admission B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with acute chest pain and no ST-segment elevation. A prospective study with 631 consecutive patients was conducted in the emergency department. Non-ST elevation AMI was present in 72 patients and their median admission BNP level was significantly higher than in unstable angina and non-acute coronary syndrome patients. Sensitivity of admission BNP for AMI (cut-off value of 100 pg/mL) was significantly higher than creatine kinase-MB (CKMB) and troponin-I on admission (70.8 vs. 45.8 vs. 50.7%, respectively, P<0.0001) and specificity was 68.9%. Simultaneous use of these markers significantly improved sensitivity to 87.3% and the negative predictive value to 97.3%. In multiple logistic regression analysis, admission BNP was a significant independent predictor of AMI, even when CKMB and troponin-I were present in the model. BNP is a useful adjunct to standard cardiac markers in patients presenting to the emergency department with chest pain and no ST-segment elevation, particularly if initial CKMB and/or troponin-I are non-diagnostic.

  16. THE VALUE OF CREATIVITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Previous analysis (Hertel, 2015) indicates that workers doing industrial cleaning in the food industry are forced to be creative in their everyday organizational life. There is (e.g. Richards, 2010) a lack of scientific methods for valuing such everyday creativity. The main question we want...... to address in this conference paper is: how can we not only understand but also evaluate creativity produced in organizations e.g. industrial cleaners? We will conduct a new case analysis in order to clarify whether such creativity can be compared with and understood as a new kind of (cf. Portes, 1998...... & Bourdieu, 1990 & 2002) symbolic capital. In case creativity actually can be regarded a symbolic capital we will discuss methods for valuing such a capital produced by creative industrial cleaners during their work at night....

  17. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P

    1992-01-01

    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  18. Gas thermal conductivity (GASCON, GTHCON, GJUMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagrman, D.L.

    1979-10-01

    Revised models are presented for the thermal conductivity of initial and fission gases present in LWR fuel rods. The report will become part of an update to the Materials Properties (MATPRO) Handbook used in the fuel rod behavior modeling task performed at the INEL. The revision to the previous MATPRO gas thermal conductivity model replaces correlations based on smoothed values of thermal conductivity published by Gandhi and Saxena with correlations which incorporate new high temperature helium conductivity data. Also, uncertainty estimates have been provided and a consistent treatment of the effects of long mean free paths is employed

  19. Bentonite Permeability at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Daniels

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Repository designs frequently favour geological disposal of radioactive waste with a backfill material occupying void space around the waste. The backfill material must tolerate the high temperatures produced by decaying radioactive waste to prevent its failure or degradation, leading to increased hydraulic conductivity and reduced sealing performance. The results of four experiments investigating the effect of temperature on the permeability of a bentonite backfill are presented. Bentonite is a clay commonly proposed as the backfill in repository designs because of its high swelling capacity and very low permeability. The experiments were conducted in two sets of purpose-built, temperature controlled apparatus, designed to simulate isotropic pressure and constant volume conditions within the testing range of 4–6 MPa average effective stress. The response of bentonite during thermal loading at temperatures up to 200 °C was investigated, extending the previously considered temperature range. The results provide details of bentonite’s intrinsic permeability, total stress, swelling pressure and porewater pressure during thermal cycles. We find that bentonite’s hydraulic properties are sensitive to thermal loading and the type of imposed boundary condition. However, the permeability change is not large and can mostly be accounted for by water viscosity changes. Thus, under 150 °C, temperature has a minimal impact on bentonite’s hydraulic permeability.

  20. 78 FR 14697 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... Communities affected elevation above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Cecil County, Maryland... 1 to Stone Run At the Stone Run +271 Town of Rising Sun, confluence. Unincorporated Areas of Cecil County. Approximately 460 feet +359 downstream of Pierce Road. Tributary 2 to Stone Run At the Stone Run...

  1. 75 FR 31361 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... source(s) elevation ground [caret] Elevation Communities affected in meters (MSL) Effective Modified... American Vertical Datum. Depth in feet above ground. [caret] Mean Sea Level, rounded to the nearest 0.1.... Stone County, Mississippi, and Incorporated Areas Church House Branch Approximately 0.5 mile None +211...

  2. High elevation white pines educational website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna W. Schoettle; Michele Laskowski

    2011-01-01

    The high elevation five-needle white pines are facing numerous challenges ranging from climate change to invasion by a non-native pathogen to escalation of pest outbreaks. This website (http://www.fs.fed.us/rm/highelevationwhitepines/) serves as a primer for managers and the public on the high elevation North American five-needle pines. It presents information on each...

  3. 46 CFR 120.540 - Elevators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Elevators. 120.540 Section 120.540 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH OVERNIGHT ACCOMMODATIONS FOR MORE THAN 49 PASSENGERS ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION Miscellaneous Systems and Requirements § 120.540 Elevators....

  4. Insect Population Dynamics in Commercial Grain Elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected in 1998-2002 from wheat stored in commercial grain elevators in south-central Kansas. Storage bins at these elevators had concrete walls and were typically 6-9 m in diameter and 30-35 m tall. A vacuum-probe sampler was used to collect ten 3-kg grain samples in the top 12 m of the...

  5. 75 FR 69892 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-16

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... county +899 City of Norwich, Town boundary. of Greene, Town of North Norwich, Town of Oxford, Town of...). Susquehanna River At the downstream county +965 Town of Afton, Town of boundary. Bainbridge, Village of Afton...

  6. 77 FR 6980 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Nowata County... Bayou An area bounded by the +100 Town of Mayersville, county boundary to the Unincorporated Areas of...

  7. 76 FR 1535 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Poinsett County... with the St. Francis River...... +212 Areas of Poinsett County. Approximately 0.45 mile downstream of...

  8. 75 FR 29253 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet above State City/town/county Source of... +21 Town of Ebro, upstream of the Unincorporated Areas confluence with the of Washington County. East... County, Colorado, and Incorporated Areas Willow Creek At the confluence with None +8,154 Unincorporated...

  9. 75 FR 68710 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ...: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth... County, California Docket Nos.: FEMA-B-7762, FEMA-B-7795, and FEMA-B-1053 California Unincorporated Oregon Slough..... City of Montague +2503 Areas of Siskiyou and County. Unincorporated Siskiyou County...

  10. 76 FR 50918 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source of flooding... affected [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Jones County, Texas, and Incorporated Areas Docket No.: FEMA-B-1122 Lake Fort Phantom Hill Just downstream of County +1642 City of Abilene, Highway 1082...

  11. 78 FR 10066 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) Depth in feet State City/town/county Source...). Scriba Creek Approximately 0.90 mile +546 Town of Amboy. upstream of County Route 23 (Potter Road.... Town of Palermo Maps are available for inspection at the Palermo Town Municipal Offices, 53 County...

  12. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding Location Depth in feet above ground [caret] Elevation in meters (MSL) Modified Unincorporated Areas of Washington County... of the +35 Areas of railroad. Washington County. Approximately 2.1 miles upstream of the railroad...

  13. 75 FR 43418 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... follows: * Elevation in feet (NGVD) + Elevation in feet (NAVD) State City/town/county Source of flooding... +869 Town of Peoria, upstream of Main Street. Unincorporated Areas of Ottawa County. Approximately 1.... Town of Peoria Maps are available for inspection at the Ottawa County Courthouse, 102 East Central...

  14. 78 FR 21272 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... below for the modified BFEs for each community listed. These modified elevations have been published in... [Amended] 0 2. The tables published under the authority of Sec. 67.11 are amended as follows: * Elevation... Austin. upstream of 29th Avenue Southwest (County Highway 28). At the downstream side of +1205 I and M...

  15. Inter and intra-specific variation in photosynthetic acclimation response to long term exposure of elevated carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkinson, M. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom)]|[Writtle Coll. (United Kingdom)

    1996-08-01

    The response of intra and interspecific variation in photosynthetic acclimation to growth at elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (600{micro}mol mol-l) in six important grassland species was investigated. Plants were grown in a background sward of Lolium perenne and measurements were made after four years of growth at elevated C{sub a}. Elevated CO{sub 2} was maintained using a FACE (Free-Air Carbon Enrichment) system. Significant intra and interspecific variation in acclimation response was demonstrated. The response of adaxial and abaxial stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} was also investigated. The stomatal conductance of both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces was found to be reduced by elevated C{sub a}. Significant asymmetric responses in stomatal conductance was demonstrated in D. glomerata and T. pratense. Analysis of stomatal indices and densities indicated that the observed reductions in stomatal conductance were probably the result of changes in stomatal aperture.

  16. Thermal contact conductance

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudana, Chakravarti V

    2013-01-01

    The work covers both theoretical and practical aspects of thermal contact conductance. The theoretical discussion focuses on heat transfer through spots, joints, and surfaces, as well as the role of interstitial materials (both planned and inadvertent). The practical discussion includes formulae and data that can be used in designing heat-transfer equipment for a variety of joints, including special geometries and configurations. All of the material has been updated to reflect the latest advances in the field.

  17. Hysteresis in conducting ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Carl S.; Winchell, Stephen D.

    2006-01-01

    Maxwell's magnetic diffusion equation is solved for conducting ferromagnetic cylinders to predict a magnetic wave velocity, a time delay for flux penetration and an eddy current field, one of five fields in the linear unified field model of hysteresis. Measured Faraday voltages for a thin steel toroid are shown to be proportional to magnetic field step amplitude and decrease exponentially in time due to maximum rather than average permeability. Dynamic permeabilities are a field convolution of quasistatic permeability and the delay function from which we derive and observe square root dependence of coercivity on rate of field change

  18. A tensor approach to the estimation of hydraulic conductivities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the field measurements of the physical properties of fractured rocks, the anisotropic properties of hydraulic conductivity (HC) of the fractured rock aquifer can be assessed and presented using a tensor approach called hydraulic conductivity tensor. Three types of HC values, namely point value, axial value and flow ...

  19. The benefits of improved national elevation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes how the National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) has identified substantial benefits that could come about if improved elevation data were publicly available for current and emerging applications and business uses such as renewable energy, precision agriculture, and intelligent vehicle navigation and safety. In order to support these diverse needs, new national elevation data with higher resolution and accuracy are needed. The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) initiative was developed to meet the majority of these needs and it is expected that 3DEP will result in new, unimagined information services that would result in job growth and the transformation of the geospatial community. Private-sector data collection companies are continuously evolving sensors and positioning technologies that are needed to collect improved elevation data. An initiative of this scope might also provide an opportunity for companies to improve their capabilities and produce even higher data quality and consistency at a pace that might not have otherwise occurred.

  20. Human rights values or cultural values? Pursuing values to maintain positive discipline in multicultural schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro du Preez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions on discipline in education often accentuate corporal punishment or measures to infuse moral fibre. In addition, many authors argue that inculcating a particular value system can promote discipline in schools. This could however be profoundly problematic in the light of the Constitution. We argue that positive discipline in multicultural school environments needs to be based in part on human rights values that are neither solely universally interpreted nor particularistically interpreted. We report on the data generated at a research workshop held as the final dissemination process of a four-year international research project entitled "Understanding human rights through different belief systems: intercultural and interreligious dialogue". Dialogue was chosen as a form of data gathering since it is more spontaneous than conventional questioning techniques and can thus generate more naturally occurring data to strengthen the outcomes of the project. It appears that some teachers believe discipline can only be maintained through the elevation of cultural values (particularism. We argue that schools should start negotiating, at the most basic level, the values, including emancipatory, human rights values, and cultural values, which could underpin positive discipline in multicultural schools. Drawing solely on cultural values is not only unlikely to solve the problem of discipline, but could also undermine the efforts to transform our diverse, democratic society.

  1. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana; Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min -1 up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 μm, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 μm, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm -1 , increased to 0.7 S cm -1 upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  2. Conducting carbonized polyaniline nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mentus, Slavko; Ciric-Marjanovic, Gordana [Faculty of Physical Chemistry, University of Belgrade, Studentski trg 12-16, 11158 Belgrade (Serbia); Trchova, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Square 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)], E-mail: gordana@ffh.bg.ac.rs

    2009-06-17

    Conducting nitrogen-containing carbon nanotubes were synthesized by the carbonization of self-assembled polyaniline nanotubes protonated with sulfuric acid. Carbonization was carried out in a nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10 deg. C min{sup -1} up to a maximum temperature of 800 deg. C. The carbonized polyaniline nanotubes which have a typical outer diameter of 100-260 nm, with an inner diameter of 20-170 nm and a length extending from 0.5 to 0.8 {mu}m, accompanied with very thin nanotubes with outer diameters of 8-14 nm, inner diameters 3.0-4.5 nm and length extending from 0.3 to 1.0 {mu}m, were observed by scanning and transmission electron microscopies. Elemental analysis showed 9 wt% of nitrogen in the carbonized product. Conductivity of the nanotubular PANI precursor, amounting to 0.04 S cm{sup -1}, increased to 0.7 S cm{sup -1} upon carbonization. Molecular structure of carbonized polyaniline nanotubes has been analyzed by FTIR and Raman spectroscopies, and their paramagnetic characteristics were compared with the starting PANI nanotubes by EPR spectroscopy.

  3. Radiative thermal conduction fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, K.J.; Balbus, S.A.; Fristrom, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of the O VI interstellar absorption lines in our Galaxy by the Copernicus observatory was a turning point in our understanding of the Interstellar Medium (ISM). It implied the presence of widespread hot (approx. 10 to the 6th power K) gas in disk galaxies. The detection of highly ionized species in quasi-stellar objects' absorption spectra may be the first indirect observation of this hot phase in external disk galaxies. Previous efforts to understand extensive O VI absorption line data from our Galaxy were not very successful in locating the regions where this absorption originates. The location at interfaces between evaporating ISM clouds and hot gas was favored, but recent studies of steady-state conduction fronts in spherical clouds by Ballet, Arnaud, and Rothenflug (1986) and Bohringer and Hartquist (1987) rejected evaporative fronts as the absorption sites. Researchers report here on time-dependent nonequilibrium calculations of planar conductive fronts whose properties match well with observations, and suggest reasons for the difference between the researchers' results and the above. They included magnetic fields in additional models, not reported here, and the conclusions are not affected by their presence

  4. Elevational Distribution of Adult Trees and Seedlings in a Tropical Montane Transect, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Montane habitats are characterized by high variation of environmental factors within small geographic ranges, which offers opportunities to explore how forest assemblages respond to changes in environmental conditions. Understanding the distributional transition of adult trees and seedlings will provide insight into the fate of forest biodiversity in response to future climate change. We investigated the elevational distribution of 156 species of adult trees and 152 species of seedlings in a tropical montane forest in Xishuangbanna, southwest China. Adult trees and seedlings were surveyed within 5 replicate plots established at each of 4 elevational bands (800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 m above sea level. We found that species richness of both adult trees and seedlings changed with elevation, showing a notable decline in diversity values from 1000 to 1200 m. Tree species composition also demonstrated distinct differences between 1000 and 1200 m, marking the division between tropical seasonal rain forest (800 and 1000 m and tropical montane evergreen broad-leaved forest (1200 and 1400 m. The results suggested that soil moisture and temperature regimes were associated with elevational distribution of tree species in this region. We also observed that seedlings from certain species found at high elevations were also distributed in low-elevation zones, but no seedlings of species from low elevations were distributed in high-elevation zones. The increase in temperature and droughts predicted for this region may result in the contraction of tropical seasonal rain forest at lower elevations and a downhill shift of higher tropical montane tree species.

  5. Thermal conductivity of nanoscale thin nickel films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Shiping; JIANG Peixue

    2005-01-01

    The inhomogeneous non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) scheme is applied to model phonon heat conduction in thin nickel films. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of the film is deduced from the electrical conductivity through the use of the Wiedemann-Franz law. At the average temperature of T = 300 K, which is lower than the Debye temperature ()D = 450 K,the results show that in a film thickness range of about 1-11 nm, the calculated cross-plane thermal conductivity decreases almost linearly with the decreasing film thickness, exhibiting a remarkable reduction compared with the bulk value. The electrical and thermal conductivities are anisotropic in thin nickel films for the thickness under about 10 nm. The phonon mean free path is estimated and the size effect on the thermal conductivity is attributed to the reduction of the phonon mean free path according to the kinetic theory.

  6. Auroral ionospheric quiet summer time conductances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekke, A.; Hall, C.

    1988-01-01

    The auroral zone E-region conductivities and conductances have been studied for 7 quiet time summer days. The Hall- and Pedersen conductances are found to follow the solar zenith variations in a rather regular fashion, and empirical formulas for these conductances are obtained. The choice of proper collision frequency models is found to be of great importance when deriving the conductances, and it is argued that some of the different results presented by other authors may be due to different models of the collision frequencies. The Hall- to Pedersen conductance ratios can only be used as an indicator of the energy of the precipitating auroral particles when the contribution from the background solar ionization is subtracted. When this is done this ratio takes much higher values than previously reported

  7. Conducting polyamine nanocomposites development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, R.C.; Maciel, T.C.G.L.; Guimaraes, M.J.O.C.; Garcia, M.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites are hybrid materials formed by the combination of inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in a polymeric matrix with, at least, one dimension in the nanometer range. It was used as nanoparticles layered and tubular clay minerals, and its insertion and dispersion were conducted through the in situ polymerization technique. As the polymer matrix, it was utilized a polyamine, which, later, will be inserted in a polyacrylamide gel for the development of a compound that aggregates both main characteristics. The nanocomposites were prepared in different polymerization conditions (temperature, concentration and nanoparticle type) and characterized by XRD and FTIR. It was observed that regarding the polymerization conditions, the temperature had influence on the kind of material obtained and on the reaction speed; the type of nanoparticle affected its interaction with the polymer matrix, predominantly providing the formation of nanocomposites by the intercalation mechanism in the layered clay. (author)

  8. Ion-conducting membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Sajjad, Syed Dawar; Gao, Yan; Liu, Zengcai; Chen, Qingmei

    2017-12-26

    An anion-conducting polymeric membrane comprises a terpolymer of styrene, vinylbenzyl-R.sub.s and vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x. R.sub.s is a positively charged cyclic amine group. R.sub.x is at least one constituent selected from the group consisting Cl, OH and a reaction product between an OH or Cl and a species other than a simple amine or a cyclic amine. The total weight of the vinylbenzyl-R.sub.x groups is greater than 0.3% of the total weight of the membrane. In a preferred embodiment, the membrane is a Helper Membrane that increases the faradaic efficiency of an electrochemical cell into which the membrane is incorporated, and also allows product formation at lower voltages than in cells without the Helper Membrane.

  9. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  10. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  11. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  12. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  13. Thermal conductivity of crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, K.

    Heat transfer through an annular space filled with crushed salt depends primarily on the thermal conductivity, lambda, of the material. This report gives a formula with which lambda can be computed. The formula includes two quantities that can be influenced through screening of the salt smalls: the porosity, psi, and the fraction, alpha, of the more highly resistive heat-flow paths. The report computes and presents graphically the thermal conductivities for various values of psi and alpha. Heat-transfer properties are computed and compared for an annular space filled with crushed salt and for an air gap. The comparison shows that the properties of the annular space are larger only up to a certain temperature, because the properties of the air gap increase exponentially while those f the annular space increase only in an approximately linear way. Experimental results from Project Salt Vault in the U.S. are in good agreement with the calculations performed. Trials in Temperature Experimental Field 2 at the Asse II salt mine will provide an additional check on the calculations. 3 figures, 3 tables

  14. Conduction-coupled Tesla transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J L

    2015-03-01

    A proof-of-principle Tesla transformer circuit is introduced. The new transformer exhibits the high voltage-high power output signal of shock-excited transformers. The circuit, with specification of proper circuit element values, is capable of obtaining extreme oscillatory voltages. The primary and secondary portions of the circuit communicate solely by conduction. The destructive arcing between the primary and secondary inductors in electromagnetically coupled transformers is ubiquitous. Flashover is eliminated in the new transformer as the high-voltage inductors do not interpenetrate and so do not possess an annular volume of electric field. The inductors are remote from one another. The high voltage secondary inductor is isolated in space, except for a base feed conductor, and obtains earth by its self-capacitance to the surroundings. Governing equations, for the ideal case of no damping, are developed from first principles. Experimental, theoretical, and circuit simulator data are presented for the new transformer. Commercial high-temperature superconductors are discussed as a means to eliminate the counter-intuitive damping due to small primary inductances in both the electromagnetic-coupled and new conduction-coupled transformers.

  15. ST Elevations and Elevated Cardiac Enzymes Not Always a STEMI: Two Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Fernández, Juan; Deliz-Guzmán, Claudia; Andino-Colón, César; Claudio-Hernández, Héctor; Lugo-Amador, Nannette

    2016-01-01

    Chest pain is a common complaint in the emergency department (ED). Besides a careful history and physical exam; electrocardiogram, laboratory tests and imaging studies are widely available diagnostic tests that are used for patient assessment. When ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes are present the most likely diagnosis are ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or myocarditis. In this case report we present two low risk patients for major adverse cardiac event with ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes and how a careful risk assessment and detailed electrocardiogram evaluation could help differentiating between these two diagnoses.

  16. Free Triiodothyronine Concentrations are Inversely Associated with Elevated Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yulin; Zhao, Liebin; Wang, Tiange; Hong, Jie; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Baihui; Huang, Xiaolin; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang

    2016-01-01

    Increased carotid artery intima media thickness (C-IMT) is an early feature of atherosclerosis. It has been reported to be altered in patients with thyroid dysfunction, and the evidence is still controversial. The present study aimed to explore the relationship between C-IMT and possible variations in thyroid function in Chinese adults aged 40 years and above. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 2276 non-diabetic participants. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were determined by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. The prevalence of elevated C-IMT decreased according to FT3 quartiles (29.8%, 24.3%, 24.2%, and 22.2%, P for trend=0.005). In both univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses, FT3 levels were inversely associated with C-IMT (both P values ≤ 0.002). Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that high FT3 levels were associated with low prevalent elevated C-IMT. The adjusted odds ratio for elevated C-IMT was 0.71 (95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.99, P=0.04) when comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of FT3. Serum FT3 levels were inversely associated with elevated C-IMT in middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults without diabetes, independent of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis.

  17. Ion heat conduction losses in Extrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennfors, E.

    1989-08-01

    The classical ion heat conduction losses in Extrap discharges are calculated using polynomial magnetic field profiles and compared to the power input. For polynomials matched to magnetic field profiles measured in present experiments, these losses are small. By varying the coefficients of the polynomials, a region is found, where the power input can balance the classical heat conduction losses. Each set of coefficients corresponds to values of the parameters F and Θ used in RFP physics. The region determines a region in an F-Θ diagram, including the usual RFP region but extending to higher values of Θ and βΘ

  18. Studies on conductance of uranyl soaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, K.N.; Sharma, M.; Gahlaut, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    Specific conductance of uranyl soaps in dimethylformamide indicates two critical micelle concentrations CMC(I) and CMC(II). The value of CMC(II) decreases with the increase in chain length of the soap, whereas CMC(I) does not vary at all. The results show that the soaps behave as simple electrolyte. The major conductance at infinite dilution (μsub(o)) and dissociation constant (K) of these soaps have been evaluated. (author). 12 refs

  19. Conductivity of rf-heated plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1984-05-01

    The electron velocity distribution of rf-heated plasma may be so far from Maxwellian that Spitzer conductivity no longer holds. A new conductivity for such plasmas is derived and the result can be put in a remarkably general form. The new expression should be of great practical value in examining schemes for current ramp-up in tokamaks by means of lower-hybrid or other waves

  20. Teaching and values education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azucena Ochoa Cervantes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Our social context suffers profound gaps that have to interact with the ethical dimension. Education is regarded as a one of the basic tools to overcome these shortcomings. Based of the before premise, there was conducted an reserach with 50 teachers from primary level of the city of Querétaro (Mexico. The aim consist on to know if carrying out education in values, the purpose pursued with these themes working thereon and assessment situations generated for that purpose. The result shows that teachers say they are working on values education. However, there is some inconsistency between the purpose pursuing that claim and the efforts to achieve this. The above said implies that the fact of to tray to implement curricular changes, it not necessarily has an impact on the construction of new practices to improve educational processes. It seems that the results of this work can be useful for policy makers of the educational management, it’s because it is necessary to make training in teachers, covering not only the conceptual formation, but also the individual and the process to make values. This should be included as part of the deontological and professional development of teachers

  1. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  2. Electrical conductivity of H2O-NaCl fluids to 10 kbar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinmyo, R.; Keppler, H.

    2016-12-01

    Magnetotelluric studies often reveal zones of elevated electrical conductivity in the mantle wedge above subducting slabs, in the deep crust below fold belts, or below active volcanoes. Since both aqueous fluids and hydrous silivate melts may be highly conductive, they may both account for these observations. Distinguishing between these two posssibilities, however, is difficult. One reason for this problem is that while there are very good conductivity data for silicate melts, such data do not exist for aqueous fluids under the relevant conditions of pressure, temperature and solute concentration. Most crustal and mantle fluids likely contain some NaCl, which greatly enhances conductivity due to its partial dissociation into Na+ and Cl-. We therefore studied the electrical conductivity of 0.01, 0.1 and 1 m NaCl solutions in water to 10 kbar and 600 °C. The measurements were carried out in externally-heated diamond cells containing two gaskets separated by an insulating ring of diamond, following a method described by Ni et al. (2014). The two gaskets were used as electrodes and full impedance spectra were measured from 30 Hz to 10 MHz using a Solartron 1260 impedance analyzer. Electrical conductivity was generally found to increase with pressure temperature, and fluid density. The conductivity increase observed upon variation of NaCl concentration from 0.1m to 1m was smaller than from 0.01m to 0.1m, which reflects the reduced degree of dissociation at high NaCl concentration. In general, the data show that already a very small fraction of NaCl-bearing aqueous fluid is sufficient to enhance bulk conductivities to values that would be expected for a high degree of partial melting. Accordingly, aqueous fluids may be distinguished from hydrous melts by comparing magnetotelluric and seismic data. H2O-NaCl fluids may enhance electrical conductivities with little disturbance of vp or vp/vs ratios.

  3. 22 CFR 518.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Procurement Standards § 518.42 Codes of conduct. The recipient shall maintain written standards of conduct... financial interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of...

  4. 45 CFR 74.42 - Codes of conduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.42 Codes of conduct... the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value. The standards of conduct shall provide for...

  5. Complex motion in nonlinear-map model of elevators in energy-saving traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2011-05-01

    We have studied the dynamic behavior and dynamic transitions of elevators in a system for reducing energy consumption. We present a nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of M elevators. The motion of elevators depends on the loading parameter and their number M. The dependence of the fixed points on the loading parameter is derived. The dynamic transitions occur at 2(M-1) stages with increasing the value of loading parameter. At the dynamic transition point, the motion of elevators changes from a stable state to an unstable state and vice versa. The elevators display periodic motions with various periods in the unstable state. In the unstable state, the number of riding passengers fluctuates in a complex manner over various trips.

  6. Troponin elevation in patients with various tachycardias and normal epicardial coronaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousuf Kanjwal

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Troponin elevation is usually synonymous with acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Although sensitive for ACS, the elevation of serum troponin, in the absence of clinical evidence of ischemia, should prompt a search for other etiologies of myocardial necrosis. In fact, elevated values of troponin are correlated with myocardial necrosis even though it does not discriminate the mechanism involved. We report a series of seven patients (age range 18-67 years, who presented with complaints of chest discomfort and were found to have regular supraventricular tachycardia (5 patients and one patient each with atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. All these patients had elevated troponin I and underwent coronary angiography that revealed normal epicardial coronary arteries. This is first case series in which all patients underwent coronary angiography and none of the patients was hemodynamically unstable at the time of presentation. Patients with elevated troponin due to conditions other than ACS can receive inappropriate and delayed definitive diagnosis and treatment.

  7. The elevation and its distribution in geomorphological regions of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, S. V.; Ermolaev, O. P.; Mukharamova, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    Spatial differences of elevation were analysed by side of view of geomorphological boundaries on the European Russia territory. Geomorphological pattern of the studied territory was taken from Geomorphological Map of the USSR at scale of 1: 2 500 000. There 2401 fragments for combinations of 58 types of structural landforms and 22 types of sculptural landforms were allocated. The elevation values computed by digital elevation model (cell size - 200 m, number of cells - 322M) based on SRTM (south of 60 nl.) and GDEM 2010 (north of 60 nl.) resampled data. It was founded that some types of structural (16 types) and sculptural (6 types) landforms located in the relatively thin intervals of elevation. Using of elevation above sea level is needed for effective automatic recognizing these landform regions.

  8. A pitfall in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in the ischaemic limb during elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    In order to evaluate if elevation of the ischaemic limb above heart level is an alternative to the conventionally applied method with external counterpressure for estimation of skin perfusion pressure, femoral and popliteal artery pressures were measured directly in eight patients with occlusion...... of the superficial femoral artery. The measurements were done in the horizontal position and during elevation of the calf above heart level. During elevation relative blood flow, measured by arterio-venous oxygen saturation differences, decreased compared with the horizontal position. In contrast the popliteal...... arterial pressure decreased only by 20% of the value expected from the degree of elevation of the calf above the level of the heart. Thus, it could be calculated that calf vascular resistance increased two- to three-fold on average during elevation. Four patients were reexamined with the venous pressure...

  9. Characterization of MIPAS elevation pointing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kiefer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sufficient knowledge of the pointing is essential for analyses of limb emission measurements. The scientific retrieval processor for MIPAS on ENVISAT operated at IMK allows the retrieval of pointing information in terms of tangent altitudes along with temperature. The retrieved tangent altitudes are independent of systematic offsets in the engineering Line-Of-Sight (LOS information delivered with the ESA Level 1b product. The difference of pointing retrieved from the reprocessed high resolution MIPAS spectra and the engineering pointing information was examined with respect to spatial/temporal behaviour. Among others the following characteristics of MIPAS pointing could be identified: Generally the engineering tangent altitudes are too high by 0–1.8 km with conspicuous variations in this range over time. Prior to December of 2003 there was a drift of about 50–100 m/h, which was due to a slow change in the satellite attitude. A correction of this attitude is done twice a day, which leads to discontinuities in the order of 1–1.5 km in the tangent altitudes. Occasionally discontinuities up to 2.5 km are found, as already reported from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY observations. After an update of the orbit position software in December 2003 values of drift and jumps are much reduced. There is a systematic difference in the mispointing between the poles which amounts to 1.5–2 km, i.e. there is a conspicuous orbit-periodic feature. The analysis of the correlation between the instrument's viewing angle azimuth and differential mispointing supports the hypotheses that a major part of this latter phenomenon can be attributed to an error in the roll angle of the satellite/instrument system of approximately 42 mdeg. One conclusion is that ESA level 2 data should be compared to other data exclusively on tangent pressure levels. Complementary to IMK data, ESA operational LOS calibration results were used to characterize MIPAS pointing. For this purpose

  10. Keauhou, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  11. Atka, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  12. King Cove, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Chenega, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  14. Juneau, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  15. Lahaina, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Kawaihae, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  18. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  19. Tatitlek, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  20. Hoonah, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  1. Whittier, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  2. Gustavus, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  3. Taholah, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Chignik, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Panama City, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Mariana Trench Bathymetric Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) created a bathymetric digital elevation model (DEM) for the Mariana Trench and adjacent seafloor in the Western...

  7. Nikolski, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Battling against Marginalisation: Towards the Elevation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper questions the rationale of having Zimbabwean local languages and in ... The study adopts a qualitative methodology and a case study design to ... and possibly future intervention strategies of elevating indigenous languages.

  9. HCF + LCF Interactions at Elevated Temperature

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Byrne, James; Hall, R. F; Ding, J

    2005-01-01

    ...) crack propagation in Ti- 6Al-4V will be studied under combined HCF/low cycle fatigue (LCF) loading conditions at elevated temperatures up to 350 deg C where creep stress ratcheting and environmental effects may arise...

  10. Elevator mechanism and method for scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, E.

    1975-01-01

    An elevator mechanism and method for raising and lowering radioactive samples through a shielded vertical counting chamber in a benchtop scintillation detector is described. The elevator mechanism adds little or nothing to the height of the detector by using an elongated flexible member such as a metal tape secured to the bottom of the elevator platform and extending downwardly through the counting chamber and its bottom shielding, where the tape is bent laterally for connection to a drive means. In the particular embodiment illustrated, the tape is bent laterally below the bottom shielding for the counting chamber, and then upwardly along or through one side of the shielding to a reel at the top of the shielding. The tape is wound onto the reel, and the reel is driven by a reversible motor which winds and unwinds the tape on the reel to raise and lower the elevator platform

  11. Elevated temperature erosive wear of metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Manish

    2006-01-01

    Solid particle erosion of metals and alloys at elevated temperature is governed by the nature of the interaction between erosion and oxidation, which, in turn, is determined by the thickness, pliability, morphology, adhesion characteristics and toughness of the oxide scale. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present state of understanding of the elevated temperature erosion behaviour of metals and alloys. First of all, the erosion testing at elevated temperature is reviewed. This is followed by discussion of the essential features of elevated temperature erosion with special emphasis on microscopic observation, giving details of the erosion-oxidation (E-O) interaction mechanisms. The E-O interaction has been elaborated in the subsequent section. The E-O interaction includes E-O maps, analysis of transition criteria from one erosion mechanism to another mechanism and quantification of enhanced oxidation kinetics during erosion. Finally, the relevant areas for future studies are indicated. (topical review)

  12. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  13. Monterey, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Garibaldi, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. ASTER Digital Elevation Model V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ASTER Digital Elevation Model (DEM) product is generated using bands 3N (nadir-viewing) and 3B (backward-viewing) of an ASTER Level-1A image acquired by the...

  16. Hanalei, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Ocean City, Maryland Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Southeast Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  19. Kachemak Bay, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. New Orleans, Louisiana Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions in the Gulf of Mexico....

  1. Virginia Beach, Virginia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Galveston, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Savannah, Georgia Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. Biloxi, Mississippi Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  5. Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  6. Santa Barbara, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Hilo, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Corpus Christi, Texas Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  9. Port Alexander Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  10. Grain Elevators: New Source Performance Standards (NSPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for Grain Elevators aims to reduce particulate matter pollution. The new amendments seek to clarify definitions, and requirements, as well as propose new regulations on particulate matter emissions

  11. 77 FR 21471 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... elevations have been published in newspapers of local circulation and ninety (90) days have elapsed since... School Creek. Approximately 0.61 mile +605 upstream of the confluence with School Creek. Arkansas River...

  12. Arecibo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Craig, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Guayama, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Fajardo, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Montauk, New York Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  18. Sand Point, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Shemya, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  20. La Push, Washington Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  1. Portland, Maine Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  2. Arena Cove, California Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  3. Port Orford, Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  4. An elevator for cobalt-60 source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Zaimin; Liang Donghu

    1990-07-01

    The elevator used for cobalt-60 source is a key device in the irradiation industry. It plays an important role in the safety and control of irradiation operation as well as the utilization rate of radiation source. From 1983 to 1986, Beijing Institute of Nuclear Engineering undertook designing of various size irradiation projects for different uses. Since then a kind of cobalt-60 source elevator suited for the irradiator of wet-source-storage has been chosen. It is reliable in the operation and complete in the function. An automatic control circuit brings the systems of cobalt-60 source elevator into an interlock system which ensures the irradiation operation safety. Besides introducing the structural features and performance of this elevator, the conditions of safety interlocking in raising or lowering the cobalt-60 source is also discussed. The discussion is from the safety viewpoint of operating an irradiator and irradiation technology

  5. 2 minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2-minute Southcentral Alaska Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 2-minute resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Adak, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  7. Dutch Harbor, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  8. Unalaska, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...

  9. Ponce, Puerto Rico Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  10. ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) was developed jointly by the U.S. National...

  11. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  12. Cordova, Alaska Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  13. Nantucket, Massachusetts Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  14. Daytona Beach, Florida Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  15. Oahu, Hawaii Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  16. Central Oregon Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  17. Estimating Elevation Angles From SAR Crosstalk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Anthony

    1994-01-01

    Scheme for processing polarimetric synthetic-aperture-radar (SAR) image data yields estimates of elevation angles along radar beam to target resolution cells. By use of estimated elevation angles, measured distances along radar beam to targets (slant ranges), and measured altitude of aircraft carrying SAR equipment, one can estimate height of target terrain in each resolution cell. Monopulselike scheme yields low-resolution topographical data.

  18. Elevator Illusion and Gaze Direction in Hypergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.; Hargens, Alan (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A luminous visual target in a dark hypergravity (Gz greater than 1) environment appears to be elevated above its true physical position. This "elevator illusion" has been attributed to changes in oculomotor control caused by increased stimulation of the otolith organs. Data relating the magnitude of the illusion to the magnitude of the changes in oculomotor control have been lacking. The present study provides such data.

  19. Electrostatic Climber for Space Elevator and Launcher

    OpenAIRE

    Bolonkin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Author details research on the new, very prospective, electrostatic Space Elevator climber based on a new electrostatic linear engine previously offered at the 42nd Joint Propulsion Conference (AIAA-2006-5229) and published in AEAT, Vol.78, No.6, 2006, pp. 502-508. The electrostatic climber discussed can have any speed (and braking), the energy for climber movement is delivered by a lightweight high-voltage line into a Space Elevator-holding cable from Earth electric generator. This electric ...

  20. Electrical conductivity of silicon carbide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, R.; Greeff, J. de; Vinche, C.; Frias Rebelo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical conductivity was measured on two SiC/SiC composite materials in the temperature range from room temperature up to 1000degC in order to estimate the magnitude of MHD effects in liquid metal blankets if SiC/SiC composites are used as structural materials. For both types of material, the electrical conductivity increased continuously with temperature. The conductivity values ranged from 350 (Ωm) -1 at room temperature to 550 (Ωm) -1 at 1000degC, indicating that the materials tested cannot be treated as an electrical insulator in a MHD analysis for liquid metal blanket studies. (author)

  1. Energy efficient elevators. Guideline VDI 4707, Worldwide discussions are suggested; Energieeffiziente Aufzuege. Richtlinie VDI 4707. Weltweite Diskussionen werden angeregt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meermann, Friedhelm [AC GmbH - Anlagen-Contracting fuer Foerdertechnik, Herbolzheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    The discussion to measures in the area of energy efficiency with elevators has a long tradition. With the publication of the Swiss regulation SIA 380/4, the German guideline VDI 4707 and the ISO 25745 it is now indisputable to measure the energy consumption values with elevators under material conditions. The savings of an energy-efficient elevator can amount to 25 to 60 %.

  2. Energy considerations in the partial space elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Pamela; Misra, Arun K.

    2014-06-01

    The space elevator has been proposed as an alternate method for space transportation. A partial elevator is composed of a tether of several hundreds of kilometres, held vertically in tension between two end masses, with its centre of orbit placed at the geosynchronous orbit. A spacecraft can dock at the lower end, and then use the climber on the elevator to ascend to higher altitudes. In this paper, energy calculations are performed, to determine whether a partial elevator can provide sufficient savings in operational costs, compared to the traditional rocket-powered launch. The energy required to launch a spacecraft from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to the geostationary orbit (GEO) is calculated for two trajectories. In the first trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to GEO via a Hohmann transfer. In the second trajectory, the spacecraft travels from LEO to the lower end of the partial space elevator with a Hohmann transfer, and then uses the elevator to climb to GEO. The total energy required is compared between the two trajectories. The effects of tether length, spacecraft-to-climber mass ratio, altitude of LEO, and tether material are investigated.

  3. Michelson-Morley in Einstein's elevators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Fred; Pierce, Ayal

    2010-02-01

    Experiments are proposed in which a Michelson-Morley interferometer is placed in Einstein's thought experiments where elevators are subjected to varied accelerated fields. Unbeknownst to the observers inside the elevators, they are placed in different circumstances: on the surface of the Earth, in free fall, in space distant from any mass, and inside a rotating space station. By use of not one, but two objects, the observer will be challenged to determine the nature and shape of the accelerated field, if any, inside the elevator. It will be demonstrated that the nature of the accelerated field can be determined easily from inside the elevator by the motion of the two objects released by the observer. It will also be shown that, for the elevator on the space station which is generating an ``artificial gravity'' field by rotation, Michelson-Morley would have the same null result as on Earth. However, the Michelson-Morley experiment is adapted so that in addition to the two horizontal arms of the interferometer (parallel to the floor of the elevator) a vertical arm is added perpendicular to the floor facing towards the ceiling. Such a vertical arm added to the Michelson-Morley experiment adds a new dimension to examining each accelerated field, including gravity. )

  4. Global elevational diversity and diversification of birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Ignacio; Jetz, Walter

    2018-03-08

    Mountain ranges harbour exceptionally high biodiversity, which is now under threat from rapid environmental change. However, despite decades of effort, the limited availability of data and analytical tools has prevented a robust and truly global characterization of elevational biodiversity gradients and their evolutionary origins. This has hampered a general understanding of the processes involved in the assembly and maintenance of montane communities. Here we show that a worldwide mid-elevation peak in bird richness is driven by wide-ranging species and disappears when we use a subsampling procedure that ensures even species representation in space and facilitates evolutionary interpretation. Instead, richness corrected for range size declines linearly with increasing elevation. We find that the more depauperate assemblages at higher elevations are characterized by higher rates of diversification across all mountain regions, rejecting the idea that lower recent diversification rates are the general cause of less diverse biota. Across all elevations, assemblages on mountains with high rates of past temperature change exhibit more rapid diversification, highlighting the importance of climatic fluctuations in driving the evolutionary dynamics of mountain biodiversity. While different geomorphological and climatic attributes of mountain regions have been pivotal in determining the remarkable richness gradients observed today, our results underscore the role of ongoing and often very recent diversification processes in maintaining the unique and highly adapted biodiversity of higher elevations.

  5. Measurement of conductive hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zhaobing; Wood, Melissa; Rosowski, John J

    2010-05-01

    In order to discriminate conductive hearing loss from sensorineural impairment, quantitative measurements were used to evaluate the effect of artificial conductive pathology on distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) and laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) in mice. The conductive manipulations were created by perforating the pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane, filling or partially filling the middle-ear cavity with saline, fixing the ossicular chain, and interrupting the incudo-stapedial joint. In the saline-filled and ossicular-fixation groups, averaged DPOAE thresholds increased relative to the control state by 20-36 and 25-39 dB, respectively with the largest threshold shifts occurring at frequencies less than 20kHz, while averaged ABR thresholds increased 12-19 and 12-25 dB, respectively without the predominant low-frequency effect. Both DPOAE and ABR thresholds were elevated by less than 10 dB in the half-filled saline condition; no significant change was observed after pars flaccida perforation. Conductive pathology generally produced a change in DPOAE threshold in dB that was 1.5-2.5 times larger than the ABR threshold change at frequencies less than 30 kHz; the changes in the two thresholds were nearly equal at the highest frequencies. While mild conductive pathology (ABR threshold shifts of conductive hearing losses (ABR threshold shifts >10 dB) were associated with significant deceases in DPOAE growth rate. Our LDV measurements are consistent with others and suggest that measurements of umbo velocity are not an accurate indicator of conductive hearing loss produced by ossicular lesions in mice. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. P Elevator: An Innovatively Designed Elevator for Extraction of Third Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Xiao, Shui Sheng; Ajmera, Deepal Haresh

    2015-01-01

    To modify the conventional straight elevator with a unique and innovative design in respect to approach and accessibility during extraction for patients with abrasions around corners of the mouth and with thick buccal mucosa, without causing overstretching of angles of the mouth. The shank of the straight elevator in the shape of a 'U' was modified, giving it a shape similar to 'P' in the English alphabet hence it is named the P Elevator. The P elevator utilises a 'U' shaped bend in the shank of the conventional straight elevator making space for the buccal soft tissues and the angle of the mouth, to accommodate properly in the 'U' shank. The application of this elevator in the successful removal of third molars is described. Two hundred patients underwent extraction of third molars with the P elevator including 166 patients with disimpaction of all third molars, 23 patients with abrasion around the angle of the mouth, and 11 patients with thick buccal mucosa. Satisfactory results were obtained in all the cases with no postoperative complications. The P elevator permits prudent, meticulous, innovative and proficient extraction of third molars in patients with thick buccal mucosa and abrasions around the angle of the mouth, without overstretching the corners of the mouth. We introduce novel applications of the P elevator in third molar extraction that provide substantial advantages over a conventional straight elevator.

  7. Thermal Conductivity of the Multicomponent Neutral Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Approximate expressions for the thermal conductivity coefficient of the multicomponent neutral atmosphere consisting of N2, O2, O, He, and H are analyzed and evaluated for the atmospheric conditions by comparing them with that given by the rigorous hydrodynamic theory. The new approximations of the thermal conductivity coefficients of simple gases N2, O2, O, He, and H are derived and used. It is proved that the modified Mason and Saxena approximation of the atmospheric thermal conductivity coefficient is more accurate in reproducing the atmospheric values of the rigorous hydrodynamic thermal conductivity coefficient in comparison with those that are generally accepted in atmospheric studies. This approximation of the thermal conductivity coefficient is recommended to use in calculations of the neutral temperature of the atmosphere.

  8. Climate Impacts on Soil Carbon Processes along an Elevation Gradient in the Tropical Luquillo Experimental Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingfang Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tropical forests play an important role in regulating the global climate and the carbon cycle. With the changing temperature and moisture along the elevation gradient, the Luquillo Experimental Forest in Northeastern Puerto Rico provides a natural approach to understand tropical forest ecosystems under climate change. In this study, we conducted a soil translocation experiment along an elevation gradient with decreasing temperature but increasing moisture to study the impacts of climate change on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil respiration. As the results showed, both soil carbon and the respiration rate were impacted by microclimate changes. The soils translocated from low elevation to high elevation showed an increased respiration rate with decreased SOC content at the end of the experiment, which indicated that the increased soil moisture and altered soil microbes might affect respiration rates. The soils translocated from high elevation to low elevation also showed an increased respiration rate with reduced SOC at the end of the experiment, indicating that increased temperature at low elevation enhanced decomposition rates. Temperature and initial soil source quality impacted soil respiration significantly. With the predicted warming climate in the Caribbean, these tropical soils at high elevations are at risk of releasing sequestered carbon into the atmosphere.

  9. Steve Rogers' Character in Captain America: the First Avenger as a Representation of Hard Working Value in Traditional American Values

    OpenAIRE

    RAMADHAN, BHAYU

    2013-01-01

    Film is one of the most popular media which often elevates social values of a society. One of American social values is shown in Captain America: The First Avenger. Captain America: The First Avenger clearly portrays Steve Rogers' character as the representation of the hard working value of the Traditional American Values. In this film, Steve Rogers represents the hard working value by depicting the six characteristics of hard worker. The first characteristic of hard worker that is depicted b...

  10. Value of travel time savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Masurier, P.; Polak, J.; Pawlak, Janet

    2015-01-01

    A team of specialist market researchers and Value of Time experts comprising members from SYSTRA, Imperial College London and the Technical University of Denmark has conducted a formal audit and peer review of research undertaken by Arup/ITS Leeds/Accent to derive Value of Travel Time Savings...... Preference (RP) models that were used to derive final Values of Travel Time (VTT). This report contains the findings of our audit and peer review of the procedures adopted by the research team during data collection of the three surveys (SP, RP and Employers Surveys); a peer review of the reported approach...

  11. Dynamic Uniaxial Compression of HSLA-65 Steel at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dike, Shweta; Wang, Tianxue; Zuanetti, Bryan; Prakash, Vikas

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the dynamic response of a high-strength, low alloy Grade 65 (HSLA-65) steel, used by the United States Navy for ship hull construction, is investigated under dynamic uniaxial compression at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 °C using a novel elevated temperature split-Hopkinson pressure bar. These experiments are designed to probe the dynamic response of HSLA-65 steel in its single α-ferrite phase, mixed α + γ-austenite phase, and the single γ-austenite phase, as a function of temperature. The investigation is conducted at two different average strain rates—1450 and 2100/s. The experimental results indicate that at test temperatures in the range from room temperature to lower than 600 °C, i.e. prior to the development of the mixed α + γ phase, a net softening in flow strength is observed at all levels of plastic strain with increase in test temperatures. As the test temperatures are increased, the rate of this strain softening with temperature is observed to decrease, and at 600 °C the trend reverses itself resulting in an increase in flow stress at all strains tested. This increase in flow stress is understood be due to dynamic strain aging, where solute atoms play a distinctive role in hindering dislocation motion. At 800 °C, a (sharp) drop in the flow stress, equivalent to one-half of its value at room temperature, is observed. As the test temperature are increased to 900 and 1000 °C, further drop in flow stress are observed at all plastic strain levels. In addition, strain hardening in flow stress is observed at all test temperatures up to 600 °C; beyond 800 °C the rate of strain hardening is observed to decrease, with strain softening becoming dominant at temperatures of 900 °C and higher. Moreover, comparing the high strain rate stress versus strain data gathered on HSLA 65 in the current investigation with those available in the literature at quasi-static strain rates, strain-rate hardening can be

  12. Calculation of thermal conductivity of frozen food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orrego A, Carlos E.

    1998-01-01

    A simple model is presented for the presage of the thermal conductivities of frozen foods that combines different authors' proposals. For varied materials on those that there is available information of the modification of this property with the temperature in frozen systems, the comparison of the dear and empiric values is made to evaluate these predictions

  13. Conductivity, dielectric behaviour and magnetoelectric effect in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intensity of the magnetic field. The maximum value of ME coefficient was observed for 75% ferroelectric phase composite. Keywords. Conductivity; dielectric behaviour; magnetoelectric effect; CuFe2O4; BaTiO3. 1. Introduction. Magnetoelectric composites consist of two phases viz. piezoelectric and piezomagnetic. The ME ...

  14. Resolving Ethical Issues when Conducting Sexuality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruess, Clint E.; Greenberg, Jerrold S.

    2008-01-01

    Ethical issues about conducting sexuality education often arise. This paper describes one system of ethics and how the sexuality educator can use that system to determine whether an action is moral or immoral and, therefore, the appropriate action to take for that sexuality educator to be consistent with his or her values. Ethical principles are…

  15. Transparent conducting materials: Overview and recent results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deelen, J. van; Illiberi, A.; Hovestad, A.; Barbu, I.; Klerk, L.; Buskens, P.

    2012-01-01

    An overview of different transparent conductors is given. In addition, atmospheric pressure CVD of ZnO resulted in conductivities below 1 mΩ cm for a temperature of 480°C, whereas at a process temperature of 200°C a value of 2 mΩ cm was obtained. Also atmospheric pressure spatial ALD was used to

  16. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takashi; Kim, Sunghun; Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case

  17. Stress envelope of silicon carbide composites at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, Takashi, E-mail: nozawa.takashi67@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Kim, Sunghun [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Ozawa, Kazumi; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-166 Omotedate, Obuchi, Rokkasho, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2014-10-15

    To identify a comprehensive stress envelope, i.e., strength anisotropy map, of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide matrix composite (SiC/SiC composite) for practical component design, tensile and compressive tests were conducted using the small specimen test technique specifically tailored for high-temperature use. In-plane shear properties were, however, estimated using the off-axial tensile method and assuming that the mixed mode failure criterion, i.e., Tsai–Wu criterion, is valid for the composites. The preliminary test results indicate no significant degradation to either proportional limit stress (PLS) or fracture strength by tensile loading at temperatures below 1000 °C. A similarly good tolerance of compressive properties was identified at elevated temperatures, except for a slight degradation in PLS. With the high-temperature test data of tensile, compressive and in-plane shear properties, the stress envelopes at elevated temperatures were finally obtained. A slight reduction in the design limit was obvious at elevated temperatures when the compressive mode is dominant, whereas a negligibly small impact on the design is expected by considering the tensile loading case.

  18. The conductivity of neonatal piglet skulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Shilpa; Te, Tang; Tucker, Aaron; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2011-01-01

    We report the first measured values of conductivities for neonatal mammalian skull samples. We measured the average radial (normal to the skull surface) conductivity of fresh neonatal piglet skull samples at 1 kHz and found it to be around 30 mS m −1 at ambient room temperatures of about 23 °C. Measurements were made on samples of either frontal or parietal cranial bone, using a saline-filled cell technique. The conductivity value we observed was approximately twice the values reported for adult skulls (Oostendorp et al 2000 IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 47 1487–92) using a similar technique, but at a frequency of around 5 Hz. Further, we found that the conductivity of skull fragments increased linearly with thickness. We found evidence that this was related to differences in composition between the frontal and parietal bone samples tested, which we believe is because frontal bones contained a larger fraction of higher conductivity cancellous bone material

  19. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  20. Lunar transportation scenarios utilising the Space Elevator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Kilian A

    2005-01-01

    The Space Elevator (SE) concept has begun to receive an increasing amount of attention within the space community over the past couple of years and is no longer widely dismissed as pure science fiction. In light of the renewed interest in a, possibly sustained, human presence on the Moon and the fact that transportation and logistics form the bottleneck of many conceivable lunar missions, it is interesting to investigate what role the SE could eventually play in implementing an efficient Earth to Moon transportation system. The elevator allows vehicles to ascend from Earth and be injected into a trans-lunar trajectory without the use of chemical thrusters, thus eliminating gravity loss, aerodynamic loss and the need of high thrust multistage launch systems. Such a system therefore promises substantial savings of propellant and structural mass and could greatly increase the efficiency of Earth to Moon transportation. This paper analyzes different elevator-based trans-lunar transportation scenarios and characterizes them in terms of a number of benchmark figures. The transportation scenarios include direct elevator-launched trans-lunar trajectories, elevator launched trajectories via L1 and L2, as well as launch from an Earth-based elevator and subsequent rendezvous with lunar elevators placed either on the near or on the far side of the Moon. The benchmark figures by which the different transfer options are characterized and evaluated include release radius (RR), required delta v, transfer times as well as other factors such as accessibility of different lunar latitudes, frequency of launch opportunities and mission complexity. The performances of the different lunar transfer options are compared with each other as well as with the performance of conventional mission concepts, represented by Apollo. c2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.