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Sample records for values differ significantly

  1. Difference in prognostic significance of maximum standardized uptake value on [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutani, Yasuhiro; Miyata, Yoshihiro; Misumi, Keizo; Ikeda, Takuhiro; Mimura, Takeshi; Hihara, Jun; Okada, Morihito

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the prognostic significance of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography findings according to histological subtypes in patients with completely resected non-small cell lung cancer. We examined 176 consecutive patients who had undergone preoperative [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and curative surgical resection for adenocarcinoma (n=132) or squamous cell carcinoma (n=44). Maximum standardized uptake values for the primary lesions in all patients were calculated as the [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose uptake and the surgical results were analyzed. The median values of maximum standardized uptake value for the primary tumors were 2.60 in patients with adenocarcinoma and 6.95 in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (P 6.95 (P=0.83) among patients with squamous cell carcinoma, 2-year disease-free survival rates were 93.9% for maximum standardized uptake value ≤3.7 and 52.4% for maximum standardized uptake value >3.7 (P<0.0001) among those with adenocarcinoma, and notably, 100 and 57.2%, respectively, in patients with Stage I adenocarcinoma (P<0.0001). On the basis of the multivariate Cox analyses of patients with adenocarcinoma, maximum standardized uptake value (P=0.008) was a significantly independent factor for disease-free survival as well as nodal metastasis (P=0.001). Maximum standardized uptake value of the primary tumor was a powerful prognostic determinant for patients with adenocarcinoma, but not with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. (author)

  2. Health significance and statistical uncertainty. The value of P-value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, Dario; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto

    2017-10-27

    The P-value is widely used as a summary statistics of scientific results. Unfortunately, there is a widespread tendency to dichotomize its value in "P0.05" ("statistically not significant"), with the former implying a "positive" result and the latter a "negative" one. To show the unsuitability of such an approach when evaluating the effects of environmental and occupational risk factors. We provide examples of distorted use of P-value and of the negative consequences for science and public health of such a black-and-white vision. The rigid interpretation of P-value as a dichotomy favors the confusion between health relevance and statistical significance, discourages thoughtful thinking, and distorts attention from what really matters, the health significance. A much better way to express and communicate scientific results involves reporting effect estimates (e.g., risks, risks ratios or risk differences) and their confidence intervals (CI), which summarize and convey both health significance and statistical uncertainty. Unfortunately, many researchers do not usually consider the whole interval of CI but only examine if it includes the null-value, therefore degrading this procedure to the same P-value dichotomy (statistical significance or not). In reporting statistical results of scientific research present effects estimates with their confidence intervals and do not qualify the P-value as "significant" or "not significant".

  3. Significance and clinical value of the transitional zone volume (TZV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. El Ghoneimy

    2017-01-12

    Jan 12, 2017 ... Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the significance and clinical value of the TZI, which has been a point of ... Conclusion: Estimating the transition zone volume during TRUS is a reasonable way to obtain the required ... Besides the IPSS score, a complete medical and surgical history was also.

  4. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  5. Customer Value Controlling ¨C Combining Different Value Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Kramer; Thomas Burgartz

    2015-01-01

    The article begins by presenting a model for the structuring of customer data which can be used to demonstrate the value of data in different forms of aggregation. Since Customer Value plays a crucial role in this model the term is examined more closely. As part of a value-based customer relationship management critical parameters are customer benefits and customer profitability. Both perspectives are included in the term Customer Value. A segmentation approach is shown which integrates the k...

  6. Camouflage through colour change: mechanisms, adaptive value and ecological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Rafael C; Flores, Augusto A V; Stevens, Martin

    2017-07-05

    Animals from a wide range of taxonomic groups are capable of colour change, of which camouflage is one of the main functions. A considerable amount of past work on this subject has investigated species capable of extremely rapid colour change (in seconds). However, relatively slow colour change (over hours, days, weeks and months), as well as changes arising via developmental plasticity are probably more common than rapid changes, yet less studied. We discuss three key areas of colour change and camouflage. First, we review the mechanisms underpinning colour change and developmental plasticity for camouflage, including cellular processes, visual feedback, hormonal control and dietary factors. Second, we discuss the adaptive value of colour change for camouflage, including the use of different camouflage types. Third, we discuss the evolutionary-ecological implications of colour change for concealment, including what it can tell us about intraspecific colour diversity, morph-specific strategies, and matching to different environments and microhabitats. Throughout, we discuss key unresolved questions and present directions for future work, and highlight how colour change facilitates camouflage among habitats and arises when animals are faced with environmental changes occurring over a range of spatial and temporal scales.This article is part of the themed issue 'Animal coloration: production, perception, function and application'. © 2017 The Authors.

  7. VALUE STREAM MAPPING AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN THE PRODUCTION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Onofrejova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of flows (material, information, personal, energy, financial, etc. in the production process is always inevitable approach while searching for improvements. There are, radical improvements known as innovations, and continuous improvement established by KAIZEN principles and its useful methods. Both approaches focus on processes that add value, and minimise or eliminate those without added value. The main target of this paper is to analyse the Value stream mapping approach and its benefit to the practical world.

  8. VALUES AND ATTITUDES TO INNOVATIONS : INTERCULTURAL DIFFERENCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebedeva, N. M.

    2009-01-01

    The results of study of interrelations between values and attitudes to innovations of Canadian and Russian students (Russians and representatives of Northern Caucasia), n = 426 per. are presented. Correlation between individuals' values and their attitudes to innovations are determined. Significant

  9. The Value of Significant Learning Strategies in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning taxonomies can assist faculty in developing course structures that promote enhanced student learning in the cognitive and affective domains. Significant Learning is one approach to course design that allows for development in six key areas: Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring, and Learning How to…

  10. Added value: The differences that count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Bouchet

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Clinging to a simplistic conceptualization of the concept of added value might impair our capability to develop insights to what really matters today when companies seek to make differences within the global market. Today it is more necessary than ever to take into account the importance of language and culture as competitive factors.

  11. Workplace Engagement and Generational Differences in Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schullery, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes literature on workplace engagement, an issue that affects organizations' financial results and individuals' personal lives. The newest of the four generations in the workplace, Millennials, were recently shown to have different values than the other two prevalent generations. Surveys taken by 16,000 high school seniors of…

  12. On value differences experienced by sector switchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; van der Wal, Z.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines experienced differences in values between employees in the public and private sector. To elucidate them, the authors interviewed 30 employees of the public sector previously employed in the private sector and 30 employees of the private sector previously employed in the public

  13. Trade-offs in the value capture of architectural firms : the significance of professional value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos-De Vos, M.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Volker, L.

    2016-01-01

    Architectural firms often have difficulty generating profit from their services as they pursue not only commercial but also professional goals. These goals frequently conflict and have to be balanced during the process of value creation and value capture. So far, literature has focused on the

  14. Shared Values?: Measuring Value Differences Between Civilians and Soldiers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Efflandt, Scott

    1998-01-01

    .... In response to this many within and outside of the military have attributed these problems to the absence of personal values among new service members that are congruent with the military's core values...

  15. "Value"ing Children Differently? Migrant Children in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Dympna

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers dilemmas around "value" and the "valuing" of children and childhood(s) in schools. I argue that in neo-liberal contexts, processes of children's identity making become aligned with the idea of the corporate citizen--value and worth derived from the capacity to produce, excel, self-regulate as well as…

  16. Significance of pH-value for meat quality of broilers: Influence of breed lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristic M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For determination of poultry quality shortly after slaughtering, physical criteria (pH-value, conductivity, colour, juice retention are of importance. However, they are affected by breeding, transport, cooling and the storage period. PH-values of breast meat (genetically structured material were recorded shortly after slaughtering (15 min p.m. and differences between breeding line and gender were found (n=5109. The pH1-values ranged from 5.50 to 6.79. Male broilers showed significantly lower pH1-values than female ones (6.02:6.10. There were also significant differences concerning breeding line and gender. Meat quality (PSE, DFD of broilers can be recorded quickly and accurately determining the pH1-value of breast meat. Threshold ranges to be considered are ≤ 5.8 (PSE, 5.9-6.2 (standard meat properties and ≥ 6.3 (DFD. This classification is not to be compared to the deviation of pork.

  17. Individual differences in valuing mates' physical attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W; Bielser, Abby; Cassell, Ticcarra; Summers, Sarah; Witowski, Aggie

    2006-10-01

    To investigate correlates of valuing physical attractiveness in a mate, it was hypothesized that valuing physical attractiveness in a mate would correlate with sex and valuing promiscuous sex, status, personal physical attractiveness, beauty, and order. Men and women college students completed measures of the extent to which they valued physical attractiveness in a mate and other variables. Valuing physical attractiveness in a mate was correlated with sex (men valued physical attractiveness in a mate more than did women) and valuing promiscuous sex and status, and, for women, valuing personal physical attractiveness. The results were explained in terms of evolutionary theory.

  18. Testing the Difference of Correlated Agreement Coefficients for Statistical Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwet, Kilem L.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the problem of testing the difference between two correlated agreement coefficients for statistical significance. A number of authors have proposed methods for testing the difference between two correlated kappa coefficients, which require either the use of resampling methods or the use of advanced statistical modeling…

  19. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  20. Different methods of measuring ADC values in normal human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Youping; Sheng Junkang; Zhang Caiyuan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate better method of measuring ADC values of normal brain, and provide reference for further research. Methods: Twenty healthy people's MR imaging were reviewed. All of them underwent routine MRI scans and echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and ADC maps were reconstructed on work station. Six regions of interest (ROI) were selected for each object, the mean ADC values were obtained for each position on DWI and ADC maps respectively. Results: On the anisotropic DWI map calculated in the hypothalamus, ADC M , ADC P , ADC S values were no significant difference (P>0.05), in the frontal white matter and internal capsule hindlimb, there was a significant difference (P ave value exist significant difference to direct measurement on the anisotropic (isotropic) ADC map (P<0.001). Conclusion: Diffusion of water in the frontal white matter and internal capsule are anisotropic, but it is isotropic in the hypothalamus; different quantitative methods of diffusion measurement of 4ADC values have significant difference, but ADC values calculated through the DWI map is more accurate, quantitative diffusion study of brain tissue should also consider the diffusion measurement method. (authors)

  1. Test for the statistical significance of differences between ROC curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, C.E.; Kronman, H.B.

    1979-01-01

    A test for the statistical significance of observed differences between two measured Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves has been designed and evaluated. The set of observer response data for each ROC curve is assumed to be independent and to arise from a ROC curve having a form which, in the absence of statistical fluctuations in the response data, graphs as a straight line on double normal-deviate axes. To test the significance of an apparent difference between two measured ROC curves, maximum likelihood estimates of the two parameters of each curve and the associated parameter variances and covariance are calculated from the corresponding set of observer response data. An approximate Chi-square statistic with two degrees of freedom is then constructed from the differences between the parameters estimated for each ROC curve and from the variances and covariances of these estimates. This statistic is known to be truly Chi-square distributed only in the limit of large numbers of trials in the observer performance experiments. Performance of the statistic for data arising from a limited number of experimental trials was evaluated. Independent sets of rating scale data arising from the same underlying ROC curve were paired, and the fraction of differences found (falsely) significant was compared to the significance level, α, used with the test. Although test performance was found to be somewhat dependent on both the number of trials in the data and the position of the underlying ROC curve in the ROC space, the results for various significance levels showed the test to be reliable under practical experimental conditions

  2. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  3. Clinical significance of determination of SAC/PRA value in patients with primary aldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liren; Dai Yaozong; Liu Jiumin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic significance of determining SAC/PRA valve in hyperaldosteronism. Methods: Plasma renin activity (PRA) and angiotensin (AT-II) as well as serum aldosterone contents were measured with RIA in 48 patients with primary aldosteronism and 30 controls. The SAC/PRA value was calculated. Results: Contents of PRA, AT-II and Aldo in blood of patients with primary aldosteronism were very significantly different from those in controls (p < 0.001) (PRA 0.14 ± 0.08 ng/ml/h vs 0.57 ± 0.08 ng/ml/h; AT-II 21.21 ± 7.55 ng/L vs 36.03 ± 6.11 ng/L; Aldo 1.07 ± 0.34 nmol/L vs 0.33 ± 0.04 nmol/L). Calculated SAC/PRA value was 913 ± 409 (normal upper limit 400). Conclusion: SAC/PRA value is an useful accessory diagnostic criterion for primary aldosteronism

  4. LOOKING AT PERCEIVED VALUE AND EDUCATION MARKETING FROM A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE: PERCEIVED VALUE OF MARKETING EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Sığırcı, Özge; Gürdal, Sahavet

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is both to see the perceived value of marketing education, and to investigate whether there are any differences among people based on gender, age, marketing education level, and the sacrifices done for the marketing education. Exploratory Factor Analysis and a Reliability Analysis is conducted. Additionally, Independent Samples T-test and One-Way ANOVA is conducted to reveal the differences based on aforementioned differences in sample. Some significant diffe...

  5. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early, difficulties during the sleep (insomnia middle, waking in early hours of the morning (insomnia late and dissatisfaction with sleep quality (subjective insomnia. Methods. The sample consisted of 254 students of the School of Medicine in Belgrade. Predictive significance of nine perfectionism dimensions, measured by Frost’s and Hewitt’s and Flett’s scales of multi-dimensional perfectionism, related to four modalities of insomnia, measured by a structured questionnaire, was analyzed by multiple linear regression method. Results. Perfectionism dimensions are significant predictors of each of the tested forms of insomnia. Doubt about actions significantly predicts initial insomnia; to other-oriented perfectionism in the negative pole and socially prescribed perfectionism underlie the difficulties during the sleep, while organization and parental criticism underlie late insomnia. Significant predictors of subjective insomnia are personal standards and organization and to other-oriented perfectionism on the negative pole. Three of nine analyzed dimensions were not confirmed as significant; concern over mistakes, parental expectations and self-oriented perfectionism. Conclusion. Various aspects of perfectionism can be considered as a vulnerability factor for understanding some forms of insomnia. Out of all forms of insomnia tested, perfectionism as the personality trait proved to be the most significant for understanding subjective insomnia.

  6. [The value of serum free light chain in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Wen, Y B; Li, H; Su, W; Li, J; Cai, J F; Chen, L M; Li, X M; Li, X W

    2017-08-08

    Objective: To investigate the value of serum free light chain (FLC) in differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance (MGRS). Methods: Forty-nine hospitalized patients who underwent renal biopsy in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 2013 and December 2015 were included. Monoclonal gammopathy was detected by serum protein electrophoresis (SPE), serum immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE), urine IFE and serum FLC. All patients were classified as MGRS ( n =32) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) ( n =17). Results: Renal lesions in MGRS subgroup included light chain amyloidosis ( n =24, 75.0%), light chain deposition disease ( n =7, 21.9%), and fibrillary glomerulopathy ( n =1, 3.1%). Renal diseases in MGUS subgroup included membranous nephropathy ( n =10), focal segmental glomerulosclerosi (FSGS) ( n =3), diabetic glomerulopathy ( n =1), Henoch-Schonlein purpura nephritis ( n =1), anti-GBM disease concurrent with membranous nephropathy ( n =1) and glomerulomegaly ( n =1). Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGRS subgroup were 12, 16, 23 and 30, respectively. Positive number of SPE, serum IFE, urine IFE and abnormal number of serum FLC ratio in MGUS subgroup were 11, 17, 6 and 3, respectively. MGRS and MGUS subgroups differed significantly in positive rate of serum IFE ( P value for MGRS, which was helpful for differential diagnosis of patients who had contraindication to renal biopsy.

  7. Explanation of significant differences for the TNX groundwater operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, E.R.

    1997-01-01

    This Explanation of Significant Differences (ESD) is being issued by the Department of Energy (DOE), the lead agency for the Savannah River Site (SRS), with concurrence by the Environmental Protection Agency-Region IV (EPA) and South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (SCDHEC) to announce changes in the interim remediation strategy selected for the TNX Groundwater Operable Unit. The TNX Area is located adjacent to the Savannah River in the southwestern portion of SRS. The remedy selected in the Interim Record of Decision (IROD) to achieve the interim action goals was the Hybrid Groundwater Corrective Action (HGCA). The HGCA consisted of a recirculation well system and an air stripper with a series of groundwater extraction wells. The original remediation strategy needs to be modified because the recirculation well system was determined to be ineffective in this area due to geological factors and the nature of the contamination

  8. More Value through Greater Differentiation: Gender Differences in Value Beliefs about Math

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…

  9. Valuing Differences: Neurodiversity in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentenbach, Barb; Prislovsky, Lois; Gabriel, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    K-12 educators often overlook the needs, talents, and skills of neurodiverse learners, including students with autism, ADHD, and dyslexia. However, while such human differences tend to be misunderstood and even pathologized, there are distinct strengths associated with each unique neurological design. Drawing on their own experiences as students,…

  10. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: "P" values, statistical significance and confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ′P′ value, explain the importance of ′confidence intervals′ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper

  11. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: “P” values, statistical significance and confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ‘P’ value, explain the importance of ‘confidence intervals’ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper PMID:25878958

  12. The scapular glenopolar angle: standard values and side differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucek, Michal; Bartonicek, Jan [Charles University and Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Nanka, Ondrej [Charles University, Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Malik, Jozef [Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Radiology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to determine normal glenopolar angle (GPA) values on bone specimens of the scapula and compare them with various radiological views and CT examination. GPA values were measured on 100 mature, dry, non-paired scapulae, 20 pairs of dry scapulae, 50 AP radiographs of the shoulder, 50 Neer I views, 50 AP chest radiographs and 20 3D CT reconstructions of the scapula. Measurements made on bone specimens of the scapula showed an average GPA value of 42.3 ; the mean absolute side-to-side difference was on average 1.6 . The average GPA measured on 50 AP shoulder radiographs was 35.9 , on Neer I views 40.6 and AP chest radiographs 37.1 , with the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 4.9 ; on 3D CT the average GPA was 43.0 and the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 1.4 . GPA values depend on the method of measurement used. Measurements made on 3D CT reconstructions and Neer I views showed almost the same values as those measured on bone specimens. The values measured on AP shoulder views and AP chest radiographs were statistically significantly lower. Side-to-side variability (right and left) measured on 3D CT reconstructions was insignificant, and the obtained values corresponded to the values from bone specimens. Therefore, the best method to measure the GPA is a 3D CT reconstruction and an exact Neer I projection. (orig.)

  13. Interaural difference values of vestibular evoked myogenic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Moallemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine is a neurologic disease, which often is associated with a unilateral headache. Vestibular abnormalities are common in migraine. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs assess otolith function in particular functional integrity of the saccule and the inferior vestibular nerve. We used VEMP to evaluate if the migraine headache can affect VEMP asymmetry parameters. A total of 25 patients with migraine (22 females and 3 males who were diagnosed according to the criteria of IHS-1988 were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Control group consisted of 26 healthy participants (18 female and 8 male, without neurotological symptoms and history of migraine. The short tone burst (95 dB nHL, 500 Hz was presented to ears. VEMP was recorded with surface electromyography over the contracted ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM muscle. Although current results showed that the amplitude ratio is greater in migraine patients than normal group, there was no statistical difference between two groups in mean asymmetry parameters of VEMP. Asymmetry measurements in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials probably are not indicators of unilateral deficient in saccular pathways of migraine patients.

  14. Significant changes of T2 value in the peripheral zone and seminal vesicles after ejaculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Takeshi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan); Kaji, Yasushi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Tochigi (Japan); Shukuya, Toshiro; Nozaki, Miwako [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Radiology, Saitama (Japan); Soh, Shigehiro; Okada, Hiroshi [Dokkyo Medical University Koshigaya Hospital, Department of Urology, Saitama (Japan)

    2018-03-15

    To analyse the quantitative changes of the prostate and seminal vesicles (SV) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after ejaculation. Ten healthy young males were enrolled for T2-weighted and T2 mapping MRI before and after two consecutive ejaculations. T2 values of the peripheral zone (PZ) and the central gland (CG) at the midgland of the prostate were compared before and after ejaculation, respectively. T2 values of the PZ at the apex and base were also compared before and after, respectively. Pre- and post-ejaculation SV volumes were compared. The Wilcoxon's signed rank test with Bonferroni adjustment was used for comparison. After ejaculation, T2 values of the PZ significantly decreased (mean, 119±20 vs. 105±21, p=0.002) while those of the CG did not significantly change at the midgland. At the apex, T2 values of the PZ also decreased significantly (mean, 114±9 vs. 94±7, p=0.002). On the other hand, T2 values of the PZ did not change at the base. SV volumes were significantly reduced after ejaculation (mean, 11.1±7.7mL vs. 7.2±6.7mL, p=0.002). Ejaculation decreases T2 values of the PZ at the midgland and apex, and reduces SV volumes. Abstinence periods should be considered in evaluating the prostate and SV on MRI. (orig.)

  15. Commercial software upgrades may significantly alter Perfusion CT parameter values in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Vicky; Shastry, Manu; Endozo, Raymondo; Groves, Ashley M.; Engledow, Alec; Peck, Jacqui; Reston, Jonathan; Wellsted, David M.; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Taylor, Stuart A.; Halligan, Steve

    2011-01-01

    To determine how commercial software platform upgrades impact on derived parameters for colorectal cancer. Following ethical approval, 30 patients with suspected colorectal cancer underwent Perfusion CT using integrated 64 detector PET/CT before surgery. Analysis was performed using software based on modified distributed parameter analysis (Perfusion software version 4; Perfusion 4.0), then repeated using the previous version (Perfusion software version 3; Perfusion 3.0). Tumour blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were determined for identical regions-of-interest. Slice-by-slice and 'whole tumour' variance was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Mean BF, BV and PS was 20.4%, 59.5%, and 106% higher, and MTT 14.3% shorter for Perfusion 4.0 than Perfusion 3.0. The mean difference (95% limits of agreement) were +13.5 (-44.9 to 72.0), +2.61 (-0.06 to 5.28), -1.23 (-6.83 to 4.36), and +14.2 (-4.43 to 32.8) for BF, BV, MTT and PS respectively. Within subject coefficient of variation was 36.6%, 38.0%, 27.4% and 60.6% for BF, BV, MTT and PS respectively indicating moderate to poor agreement. Software version upgrades of the same software platform may result in significantly different parameter values, requiring adjustments for cross-version comparison. (orig.)

  16. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second generation immigrants in values regarding intergenerational solidarity were examined among family members in the Netherlands with an immigration background from Turkey, Morocco, Suriname, and The Dutch Antilles. Using a multilevel analytic approach, effects of family and individual characteristics on values regarding intergenerational solidarity were tested, considering the perspectives of two generations. It was found that immigrants with Moroccan and Turkish backgrounds scored higher on values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity than immigrants stemming from Suriname and The Antilles. First generation immigrants placed higher values on family solidarity compared to second generation immigrants. Additionally, religious denomination was a significant predictor of higher values with respect to intergenerational family solidarity. Immigration and acculturation may create great strains in migrant families. Policies to support the fabric of intergenerational solidarity should consider ethnic and religious background and immigration history. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of measurement precision errors at different bone density values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.; Wong, J.; Bartlett, M.; Lee, N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The precision error commonly used in serial monitoring of BMD values using Dual Energy X Ray Absorptometry (DEXA) is 0.01-0.015g/cm - for both the L2 L4 lumbar spine and total femur. However, this limit is based on normal individuals with bone densities similar to the population mean. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate precision errors over the range of bone density values encountered in clinical practice. In 96 patients a BMD scan of the spine and femur was immediately repeated by the same technologist with the patient taken off the bed and repositioned between scans. Nine technologists participated. Values were obtained for the total femur and spine. Each value was classified as low range (0.75-1.05 g/cm ) and medium range (1.05- 1.35g/cm ) for the spine, low range (0.55 0. 85 g/cm ) and medium range (0.85-1.15 g/cm ) for the total femur. Results show that the precision error was significantly lower in the medium range for total femur results with the medium range value at 0.015 g/cm - and the low range at 0.025 g/cm - (p<0.01). No significant difference was found for the spine results. We also analysed precision errors between three technologists and found a significant difference (p=0.05) occurred between only two technologists and this was seen in the spine data only. We conclude that there is some evidence that the precision error increases at the outer limits of the normal bone density range. Also, the results show that having multiple trained operators does not greatly increase the BMD precision error. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Prognostic significance of between-arm blood pressure differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Rajiv; Bunaye, Zerihun; Bekele, Dagim M

    2008-03-01

    Blood pressure (BP) recordings often differ between arms, but the extent to which these differences are reproducible and whether the differences have prognostic importance is unknown. We enrolled 421 consecutive patients from a medicine and a renal clinic at a veterans' hospital. Three BP recordings were obtained in each arm using an oscillometric device in a sequential manner and repeated in 1 week. Patients were followed for all-cause mortality arm had 5.1-mm Hg higher systolic BP that attenuated by approximately 2.2 mm Hg a week later. Systolic BP dropped 6.9 mm Hg over 1 week and by an additional 5.3 mm Hg in patients with chronic kidney disease. Accounting for the visit and arm effect improved the reproducibility of the BP measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.74, which improved to 0.88 after accounting for visit and 0.93 after accounting for arm. The crude mortality rate was 6.33 per 100 patient-years. Every 10-mm Hg difference in systolic BP between the arms conferred a mortality hazard of 1.24 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.52) after adjusting for average systolic BP and chronic kidney disease. BP differences between arms are reproducible and carry prognostic information. Patients should have evaluation of BP in both arms at the screening visit.

  19. Conducting tests for statistically significant differences using forest inventory data

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Westfall; Scott A. Pugh; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Many forest inventory and monitoring programs are based on a sample of ground plots from which estimates of forest resources are derived. In addition to evaluating metrics such as number of trees or amount of cubic wood volume, it is often desirable to make comparisons between resource attributes. To properly conduct statistical tests for differences, it is imperative...

  20. Significance of perfectionism in understanding different forms of insomnia

    OpenAIRE

    Totić-Poznanović Sanja; Šaula-Marojević Biljana; Zebić Mirjana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Studies consistently show a connection between perfectionism as a multidimensional construct with various psychological and psychopathological states and characteristics. However, studies that analyze the connection between this concept and sleep disturbances, especially modalities of insomnia, are rare. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine whether dimensions of perfectionism can explain different forms of insomnia; difficulties initiating sleep (insomnia early)...

  1. Significant Differences in Nurses’ Knowledge of Basic Wound Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarchi, Kian; Latif, Seemab; Haugaard, Vibeke B

    2014-01-01

    Wounds represent a growing healthcare problem due to an aging population. Nurses play a key role in wound management and their theoretical understanding of basic wound management may be expected to influence the quality of wound therapy fundamentally. In this study, we evaluated the level...... of knowledge of wound management in 136 Danish nurses working in 3 different settings: advanced wound care clinics, home care and general hospital departments. We found that hospital nurses had less theoretical knowledge than home care nurses and nurses working at advanced wound care clinics. We also found...... of wound management in Denmark and suggests how improvements might be achieved....

  2. Differences Between British and Americans’ Cultures in Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘巍巍; 戴立黎

    2008-01-01

    <正>Values are the most important issue in identifying one particular culture.Social values are the feelings people have about what is important,worthwhile,and just.In this paper,the differences between British and American values are discussed in two aspects which mainly lie respectively in the comparisons of values and characteristics in both cultures.

  3. Age differences in personal values: Universal or cultural specific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Ho, Yuan Wan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Xin; Noels, Kimberly A; Tam, Kim-Pong

    2016-05-01

    Prior studies on value development across adulthood have generally shown that as people age, they espouse communal values more strongly and agentic values less strongly. Two studies investigated whether these age differences in personal values might differ according to cultural values. Study 1 examined whether these age differences in personal values, and their associations with subjective well-being, showed the same pattern across countries that differed in individualism-collectivism. Study 2 compared age differences in personal values in the Canadian culture that emphasized agentic values more and the Chinese culture that emphasized communal values more. Personal and cultural values of each individual were directly measured, and their congruence were calculated and compared across age and cultures. Findings revealed that across cultures, older people had lower endorsement of agentic personal values and higher endorsement of communal personal values than did younger people. These age differences, and their associations with subjective well-being, were generally not influenced by cultural values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Calculating p-values and their significances with the Energy Test for large datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, W.; Burr, C.; Parkes, C.

    2018-04-01

    The energy test method is a multi-dimensional test of whether two samples are consistent with arising from the same underlying population, through the calculation of a single test statistic (called the T-value). The method has recently been used in particle physics to search for samples that differ due to CP violation. The generalised extreme value function has previously been used to describe the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis that the two samples are drawn from the same underlying population. We show that, in a simple test case, the distribution is not sufficiently well described by the generalised extreme value function. We present a new method, where the distribution of T-values under the null hypothesis when comparing two large samples can be found by scaling the distribution found when comparing small samples drawn from the same population. This method can then be used to quickly calculate the p-values associated with the results of the test.

  5. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  6. THE MARKET VALUE OF THE REAL ESTATE IN A SIGNIFICANT DEVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The current state of the real estate market is characterized by high inflation and a significant devaluation of national currency. In markets with mixed prices impact of devaluation and inflation against the foreign currency have most complex nature and usually leads to slower growth in prices in local currency and partial de-dollarization of the market. Provided that the value of the real estate market is denominated in local and foreign currency, it is necessary to solve the problem of correspondence between these prices. With this condition must be satisfied that the market prices in local currency correspond to the state of the real estate market on the valuation date. Purpose. Development of the method, which should take into account the particular valuation procedures in determining the market value of the local currency in terms of the existence of high inflation and a significant devaluation. The study of this problem, especially for the markets of emerging economics, is an urgent and important task of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Conclusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used techniques and methods of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Satisfactory agreement obtained values and the market rent rate, which are responsible of the real estate market in a significant devaluation of local currency, confirm the position that the correction in market conditions ("discount on the offer price" and "market conditions" must be done in determining the market value so and the market rent rate.

  7. Advance directives in english and French law: different concepts, different values, different societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ruth Judith

    2014-03-01

    In Western societies advance directives are widely recognised as important means to extend patient self-determination under circumstances of incapacity. Following other countries, England and France have adopted legislation aiming to clarify the legal status of advance directives. In this paper, I will explore similarities and differences in both sets of legislation, the arguments employed in the respective debates and the socio-political structures on which these differences are based. The comparison highlights how different legislations express different concepts emphasising different values accorded to the duty to respect autonomy and to protect life, and how these differences are informed by different socio-political contexts. Furthermore each country associates different ethical concerns with ADs which raise doubts about whether these directives are a theoretical idea which is hardly applicable in practice.

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum osteocalcin (BGP) levels in subjects of different age-groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lihua; Zhang Jin; Han Cuihua; Ouyang Qiaohong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum BGP levels in different age-groups. Methods: Serum BGP levels were determined with RIA in 306 subjects of different age-groups. Results: The serum BGP levels were highest in subjects of the pre-adolescent group (age5-15, n=60, vs other groups, all P 50, n=80, P<0.001). Levels in the middle age group were the lowest and were significantly lower than those in the old age group (P<0.001). No sex related differences were observed in the pre-adolescent and middle age groups, but in the youth group, serum BGP levels were significantly higher in the males than those in the females (P<0.05). However, in the old age group, the reverse was true i.e. values being significantly higher in the females (vs males, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum BGP levels varied greatly among the different age groups. (authors)

  9. Test the Overall Significance of p-values by Using Joint Tail Probability of Ordered p-values as Test Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values

  10. An empirical assessment of generational differences in basic human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Sean T; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Christopher

    2007-10-01

    This study assessed generational differences in human values as measured by the Schwartz Value Survey. It was proposed that the two most recent generations, Millennials and Generation Xers, would value Self-enhancement and Openness to Change more than the two older generations, Baby Boomers and Matures, while the two older generations would value Self-transcendence and Conservation more. The hypotheses were tested with a combined sample of Canadian knowledge workers and undergraduate business students (N = 1,194). Two hypotheses were largely supported, although an unexpectedly large difference was observed between Millennials and Generation Xers with respect to Openness to Change and Self-enhancement. The findings suggest that generation is a useful variable in examining differences in social values.

  11. The Gender Difference in the Value of Winning

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhuoqiong; Ong, David; Sheremeta, Roman

    2015-01-01

    We design an all-pay auction experiment in which we reveal the gender of the opponent. Using this design, we find that women bid higher than men, but only when bidding against other women. These findings, interpreted through a theoretical model incorporating differences in risk attitude and the value of winning, suggest that women have a higher value of winning than men.

  12. Capturing the value of design thinking in different innovation practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinsmann, M.S.; Valkenburg, Rianne; Sluijs, Janneke

    2017-01-01

    Design thinking has become a popular notion in the field of innovation. What is design thinking really and—even more important—what could be its value in applying it in innovation practices? This paper presents four studies that together capture the value of design thinking in different

  13. The Ability of Different Imputation Methods to Preserve the Significant Genes and Pathways in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aghdam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering important genes and pathways from incomplete gene expression data could facilitate a better understanding of cancer. Different imputation methods can be applied to estimate the missing values. In our study, we evaluated various imputation methods for their performance in preserving significant genes and pathways. In the first step, 5% genes are considered in random for two types of ignorable and non-ignorable missingness mechanisms with various missing rates. Next, 10 well-known imputation methods were applied to the complete datasets. The significance analysis of microarrays (SAM method was applied to detect the significant genes in rectal and lung cancers to showcase the utility of imputation approaches in preserving significant genes. To determine the impact of different imputation methods on the identification of important genes, the chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions of overlaps between significant genes detected from original data and those detected from the imputed datasets. Additionally, the significant genes are tested for their enrichment in important pathways, using the ConsensusPathDB. Our results showed that almost all the significant genes and pathways of the original dataset can be detected in all imputed datasets, indicating that there is no significant difference in the performance of various imputation methods tested. The source code and selected datasets are available on http://profiles.bs.ipm.ir/softwares/imputation_methods/.

  14. The Ability of Different Imputation Methods to Preserve the Significant Genes and Pathways in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdam, Rosa; Baghfalaki, Taban; Khosravi, Pegah; Saberi Ansari, Elnaz

    2017-12-01

    Deciphering important genes and pathways from incomplete gene expression data could facilitate a better understanding of cancer. Different imputation methods can be applied to estimate the missing values. In our study, we evaluated various imputation methods for their performance in preserving significant genes and pathways. In the first step, 5% genes are considered in random for two types of ignorable and non-ignorable missingness mechanisms with various missing rates. Next, 10 well-known imputation methods were applied to the complete datasets. The significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) method was applied to detect the significant genes in rectal and lung cancers to showcase the utility of imputation approaches in preserving significant genes. To determine the impact of different imputation methods on the identification of important genes, the chi-squared test was used to compare the proportions of overlaps between significant genes detected from original data and those detected from the imputed datasets. Additionally, the significant genes are tested for their enrichment in important pathways, using the ConsensusPathDB. Our results showed that almost all the significant genes and pathways of the original dataset can be detected in all imputed datasets, indicating that there is no significant difference in the performance of various imputation methods tested. The source code and selected datasets are available on http://profiles.bs.ipm.ir/softwares/imputation_methods/. Copyright © 2017. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Different histopathological subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma show significantly different levels of FDG uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    ) patients, 20.8 g/ml in 11 mixed cellularity (MC) patients, and 19.5 g/ml in four patients with unclassified classical HL (CHL-NOS), (ANOVA, p = 0.011). Out of 780 sites (600 lymph node regions plus 180 organs), 208 sites were found to be affected with HL. Mean SUV(max) was 8.3 g/ml in the 12 sites with NLP......, 11.2 g/ml in the 147 sites affected with NS, 14.6 g/ml in the 36 sites with MC, and 13.1 g/ml in the 13 sites with CHL-NOS (ANOVA, p = 0.002). There is a significant difference in FDG/glucose uptake between the different histopathological subtypes of HL....

  16. Similarities and differences in values between Vietnamese parents and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Thi Khanh Ha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The purpose of this study was to analyse similarities and differences in the motivational value system of Vietnamese parents and adolescents, in the context of Schwartz’s value theory. Also, the transmission of values between two generations was studied. Participants and procedure The study was performed in three different cities of Vietnam – Hanoi, Hue and Ho Chi Minh City – on adolescents, their fathers and mothers (N = 2226. The hierarchy of values was measured with a Vietnamese version of the Portrait Value Questionnaire (PVQ-40. Additionally, expectations of parents toward children and preferences of children were measured with a list of 28 features and attitudes prepared for the study. Results The results show that both parents and their adolescent children highly respect universalism, conformity, and benevolence in contrast to power and stimulation, which is still typical for a collectivistic culture. The differences arise in higher-order values: while parents value conservatism (security, conformity and tradition, their children prefer more openness to change (self-direction and hedonism values, which is typical for a more individualistic culture. The results also reveal that parents in Vietnam expect and transfer to children some attitudes and features such as studiousness, filial piety and diligence, but not riskiness, desire or humour. Although adolescents are aware of their parents’ expectations, they do not fully accept them. Conclusions The results provide hints for parents to plan their strategy on appropriate education of their children, in the current context of global integration and cultural changes.

  17. Managing water resources infrastructure in the face of different values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Erik

    Water resources infrastructure (WRI) plays a key role in water management. It can serve or negatively affect some seven to ten different and sometimes conflicting values. WRI management is therefore not a purely technical issue. Economic analyses can help to some extent, but only for values related to current human use. Multi-criteria analysis can cover all values, but in the end WRI management is not an analytical issue, but a governance issue. Different governance paradigms exist: markets, hierarchies and “third alternatives”, such as common pool resources management and network management. This article presents social learning as the most promising paradigm. Positive experiences with social learning have been described and guidance on putting social learning into practice exists. Nonetheless, there are no magic solutions for managing WRI in the face of different values.

  18. Relational values resonate broadly and differently than intrinsic or instrumental values, or the New Ecological Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Sarah C; Olmsted, Paige; Chan, Kai M A; Satterfield, Terre

    2017-01-01

    Value orientations used to explain or justify conservation have been rooted in arguments about how much and in what context to emphasize the intrinsic versus instrumental value of nature. Equally prominent are characterizations of beliefs known as the New Ecological Paradigm (NEP), often used to help explain pro-environmental behaviour. A recent alternative to these positions has been identified as 'relational value'-broadly, values linking people and ecosystems via tangible and intangible relationships to nature as well as the principles, virtues and notions of a good life that may accompany these. This paper examines whether relational values are distinct from other value orientation and have potential to alleviate the intrinsic-instrumental debate. To test this possibility, we sought to operationalize the construct-relational values-by developing six relational statements. We ask: 1) Do the individual statements used to characterize relational values demonstrate internal coherence as either a single or multi-dimensional construct? 2) Do relational value statements (including those strongly stated) resonate with diverse populations? 3) Do people respond to relational value statements in a consistently different way than NEP scale statements? Data for this work is drawn from an online panel of residents of northeastern US (n = 400), as well as a sample of Costa Rican farmers (n = 253) and tourists in Costa Rica (n = 260). Results indicate relational values are distinct as a construct when compared to the NEP.

  19. The prognosis significance and application value of peritoneal elastic lamina invasion in colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Hu, Xiumei; Meng, Yutong; Zhao, Hongying; Cao, Qing; Jin, Mulan

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the associations between peritoneal elastic lamina invasion (ELI) and the clinicopathological prognostic factors of colon cancer, to evaluate the feasibility of ELI with use of an elastic stain to help diagnose serosal invasion of colon cancer in routine practice, so as to help us to provide a more accurate estimate for prognosis and stage of patients and a marker for postoperative treatment. 254 cases with colon cancer were included in the study. According to the presence of elastic lamina (EL) and elastic lamina invasion (ELI), all cases were divided into four groups: pT3 EL negative (pT3 EL (-)), pT3 ELI positive (pT3 ELI (+)), pT3 ELI negative (pT3 ELI (-)) and pT4a. Statistical analysis was used to analyze the relationship between elastic lamina invasion and other established adverse histologic features. The EL and ELI positive rates were 81.5% and 42.1% respectively. There were significant differences in mph node metastasis, venous invasion and tumor buds between pT3 ELI (-) and pT3 ELI (+), pT3 ELI (-) and pT4a. There was no significant difference in same factors between pT3 ELI (+) and pT4a. In pT3 stage, there were significant differences in lymph node metastasis, perineural invasion and tumor buds between EL (-) and ELI (+). There were no significant differences in same factors between EL (-) and ELI (-). EL was detected less frequently in right-sided tumors compared with left-sided tumors. ELI might be the prognostic factors of colon cancer with II stage and might be the marker of postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with pT3 ELI (+) might have similar prognosis to patients with pT4a. For patients with pT3 colon cancer, EL(-) might have similar prognosis as ELI (-) and might take the same therapy. In addition, the right half colon EL positive rate was lower than the left colon. Elastic staining might be a useful tool to help determine the invasive depth and stage of colon cancer.

  20. The significance of presenteeism for the value of lost production: the case of rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Søgaard

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Rikke Søgaard1, Jan Sørensen1, Louise Linde2, Merete L Hetland2,31CAST – Centre for Applied Health Services Research and Technology Assessment, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; 2Department of Rheumatology, Hvidovre and Glostrup Hospitals, Denmark; 3The DANBIO registry, Hvidovre and Glostrup Hospitals, DenmarkAbstract: Lost production can be due to individuals’ time lost to work (absenteeism, as well as their time at work with reduced productivity because of ill health (presenteeism. A sound methodological framework for the assessment of presenteeism remains to be established but given its significance, ignoring it would lead to severe underestimations, eg, in cost-of-illness studies. The objective of this study was to assess the empirical significance of absenteeism and presenteeism in terms of production loss using the case of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Selected modules from the Health and Labor Questionnaire were applied in a cross-sectional study of 3,704 patients with RA. The costs of absenteeism and presenteeism were estimated using the Human Capital approach, and the impact of including multipliers adjusting for the productivity effect of a workers’ absence or impaired presenteeism on societal productivity was demonstrated. RA-related absenteeism over the last 14 days was 22.31 hours (standard deviation [SD], 26.51 with a resulting cost of €473 (SD, 575 and €762 (SD, 926 depending on whether a multiplier was included. Presenteeism was found to affect 7.98 (SD, 3.24 working days over the last 14 days with a resulting cost of €168 (SD, 203 and €203 (SD, 245, again depending on whether a multiplier was included. Overall, this article demonstrates that the value of lost production due to RA could be subject to an almost factor 2 increase if productivity effects of presenteeism and general multipliers are included.Keywords: work limitations, Health and Labor Questionnaire, productivity, production loss

  1. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Significance of Peaceful Values in Global Perspective: Challenges and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Arsyad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper talks about how violence and conflict in every form of life will get anybody nowhere and how the call for peace and tranquility should be implemented by each mankind, wherever he lives and wherever they as a group may reside. Hence, peaceful values in global perspective are of great significance. The questions which may be raised are what do we need to have and what do we need to know prior to talking about peace and tranquility? The other questions which may spur are how to implement peace and what makes peace fail and tranquility never becomes a reality. The answer to those questions will become an elaboration of the gist of this article. Historically and spiritually speaking, peace will not be realized if the reason of failure to achieve peace has not been made aware and known to mankind. Albeit various advices and directions have been given, peace shall not be realized. This is due to the fact that the advice and directions given have not met the substance of the cause and have not been able to provide a comprehensive solution to peace itself. Some of the substances of this article, therefore, will try to prove how the need to recognizing and understanding the “voice of the heart” as “inner-soul” and “inner capacity” themselves will become an essential thing to be realized by every individual, so that they can thereafter be known by all mankind globally wherever they may be.

  3. Prevalence, significance and predictive value of antiphospholipid antibodies in Crohn’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipeki, Nora; Davida, Laszlo; Palyu, Eszter; Altorjay, Istvan; Harsfalvi, Jolan; Antal Szalmas, Peter; Szabo, Zoltan; Veres, Gabor; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence and stability of different antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs) and their association with disease phenotype and progression in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) patients. METHODS: About 458 consecutive patients [Crohn’s disease (CD): 271 and ulcerative colitis (UC): 187] were enrolled into a follow-up cohort study in a tertiary IBD referral center in Hungary. Detailed clinical phenotypes were determined at enrollment by reviewing the patients’ medical charts. Disease activity, medical treatment and data about evolvement of complications or surgical interventions were determined prospectively during the follow-up. Disease course (development f complicated disease phenotype and need for surgery), occurrence of thrombotic events, actual state of disease activity according to clinical, laboratory and endoscopic scores and accurate treatment regime were recorded during the follow-up, (median, 57.4 and 61.6 mo for CD and UC). Sera of IBD patients and 103 healthy controls (HC) were tested on individual anti-β2-Glycoprotein-I (anti-β2-GPI IgA/M/G), anti-cardiolipin (ACA IgA/M/G) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (anti-PS/PT IgA/M/G) antibodies and also anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA IgA/G) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a subgroup of CD (n = 198) and UC patients (n = 103), obtaining consecutive samples over various arbitrary time-points during the disease course, we evaluated the intraindividual stability of the APLA status. Additionally, we provide an overview of studies, performed so far, in which significance of APLAs in IBD were assessed. RESULTS: Patients with CD had significantly higher prevalence of both ACA (23.4%) and anti-PS/PT (20.4%) antibodies than UC (4.8%, P < 0.0001 and 10.2%, P = 0.004) and HC (2.9%, P < 0.0001 and 15.5%, P = NS). No difference was found for the prevalence of anti-β2-GPI between different groups (7.2%-9.7%). In CD, no association was found between APLA and ASCA

  4. Image Denoising Using Singular Value Difference in the Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Singular value (SV difference is the difference in the singular values between a noisy image and the original image; it varies regularly with noise intensity. This paper proposes an image denoising method using the singular value difference in the wavelet domain. First, the SV difference model is generated for different noise variances in the three directions of the wavelet transform and the noise variance of a new image is used to make the calculation by the diagonal part. Next, the single-level discrete 2-D wavelet transform is used to decompose each noisy image into its low-frequency and high-frequency parts. Then, singular value decomposition (SVD is used to obtain the SVs of the three high-frequency parts. Finally, the three denoised high-frequency parts are reconstructed by SVD from the SV difference, and the final denoised image is obtained using the inverse wavelet transform. Experiments show the effectiveness of this method compared with relevant existing methods.

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Thiobarbituric acid (TBA value was significantly (P< 0.05 affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a significant difference on TBA value due to antioxidant and their levels. TBA value was lower in the rations containing ethoxyquin than BHT containing rations and the rations supplemented with oxistat had greater TBA value. At higher level of any antioxidant, TBA value decreased, however, the difference between TBA values at both levels is non significant. With the increase in storage period there was increase in TBA value at both the antioxidant level. Antioxidant had a significant effect on fat stability in TBA test. Antioxidant level at 2 and 3% fat had a non significant effect but at 4% fat level. Antioxidant level had a significant effect. However, TBA values increased significantly at both levels of antioxidant with the increase in fat levels.

  6. Prognostic value of EEG in different etiological types of coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaburzania, M; Beridze, M

    2013-06-01

    Study aimed at evaluation of prognostic value of standard EEG in different etiology of coma and the influence of etiological factor on the EEG patterns and coma outcome. Totally 175 coma patients were investigated. Patients were evaluated by Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), clinically and by 16 channel electroencephalography. Auditory evoked potentials studied by EEG -regime for evoked potentials in patients with vegetative state (VS). Patients divided in 8 groups according to coma etiology. All patients were studied for photoreaction, brainstem reflexes, localization of sound and pain, length of coma state and outcome. Brain injury visualized by conventional CT. Outcome defined as death, VS, recovery with disability and without disability. Disability was rated by Disability Rating Scale (DRS). Recovered patients assessed by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. From 175 coma patients 55 patients died, 23 patients found in VS, 97 patients recovered with and without disability. In all etiological groups of coma the background EEG patterns were established. Correspondence analysis of all investigated factors revealed that sound localization had the significant association with EEG delta and theta rhythms and with recovery from coma state (Chi-sqr. =31.10493; p= 0.000001). Among 23 VS patients 9 patients had the signs of MCS and showed the long latency waves (p300) after binaural stimulation. The high amplitude theta frequencies in frontal and temporal lobes significantly correlated with prolongation of latency of cognitive evoked potentials (r=+0.47; pEEG patterns' association with coma outcome only in hemorrhagic and traumatic coma (chi-sqr.=12.95; pEEG patterns and coma outcome. Low amplitude decreased power delta and theta frequencies correlated with SND in survived coma patients (r=+0.21; pEEG is the useful tool for elucidation of coma patients with a high probability to recover as well as those patients, who are at high risk of

  7. Conserved nucleation sites reinforce the significance of Phi value analysis in protein-folding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianni, Stefano; Jemth, Per

    2014-07-01

    The only experimental strategy to address the structure of folding transition states, the so-called Φ value analysis, relies on the synergy between site directed mutagenesis and the measurement of reaction kinetics. Despite its importance, the Φ value analysis has been often criticized and its power to pinpoint structural information has been questioned. In this hypothesis, we demonstrate that comparing the Φ values between proteins not only allows highlighting the robustness of folding pathways but also provides per se a strong validation of the method. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  8. Test the Overall Significance of p-values by Using Joint Tail Probability of Ordered p-values as Test Statistic

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Yongxiang; Wit, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    Fisher’s combined probability test is the most commonly used method to test the overall significance of a set independent p-values. However, it is very obviously that Fisher’s statistic is more sensitive to smaller p-values than to larger p-value and a small p-value may overrule the other p-values and decide the test result. This is, in some cases, viewed as a flaw. In order to overcome this flaw and improve the power of the test, the joint tail probability of a set p-values is proposed as a ...

  9. Gender Differences in the Personal Value Systems of Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Researchers have suggested that the type of women and men who become entrepreneurs are psychologically distinguishable from each other. Thus the main aim of this study was to examine how these differences are manifested in the personal values systems of male and female owner-managers in Ghana. Six hundred ...

  10. Intergenerational family solidarity: value differences between immigrant groups and generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Ozeke-Kocabas, Ezgi; Oort, Frans J.; Schuengel, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Although immigrants may be more dependent on their immediate family for support, they may also experience a wider generation-gap in values regarding intergenerational solidarity, because of processes of acculturation. Based on large scale survey data (N = 2,028), differences between first and second

  11. Reward modulates oculomotor competition between differently valued stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucker, Berno; Silvis, Jeroen D; Donk, Mieke; Theeuwes, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The present work explored the effects of reward in the well-known global effect paradigm in which two objects appear simultaneously in close spatial proximity. The experiment consisted of three phases (i) a pre-training phase that served as a baseline, (ii) a reward-training phase to associate differently colored stimuli with high, low and no reward value, and (iii) a post-training phase in which rewards were no longer delivered, to examine whether objects previously associated with higher reward value attracted the eyes more strongly than those associated with low or no reward value. Unlike previous reward studies, the differently valued objects directly competed with each other on the same trial. The results showed that initially eye movements were not biased towards any particular stimulus, while in the reward-training phase, eye movements started to land progressively closer towards stimuli that were associated with a high reward value. Even though rewards were no longer delivered, this bias remained robustly present in the post-training phase. A time course analysis showed that the effect of reward was present for the fastest saccades (around 170 ms) and increased with increasing latency. Although strategic effects for slower saccades cannot be ruled out, we suggest that fast oculomotor responses became habituated and were no longer under strategic attentional control. Together the results imply that reward affects oculomotor competition in favor of stimuli previously associated high reward, when multiple reward associated objects compete for selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic significance of contrast-enhanced CT attenuation value in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Yoshiki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Okamoto, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohtsuka, Takao [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshizumi, Tomoharu [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Aishima, Shinichi [Saga University, Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Oda, Yoshinao [Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether washout characteristics of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) could predict survival in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC). This study collected 46 resected cases. All cases were examined by dynamic contrast study on multidetector-row CT. Region-of-interest measurements were obtained at the non-enhanced, portal venous phase and delayed phase in the tumour and were used to calculate the washout ratio as follows: [(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at delayed enhanced CT)/(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at unenhanced CT)] x 100. On the basis of the median washout ratio, we classified the cases into two groups, a high-washout group and low-washout group. Associations between overall survival and various factors including washout rates were analysed. The median washout ratio was 29.4 %. Univariate analysis revealed that a lower washout ratio, venous invasion, lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis were associated with shorter survival. Multivariate analysis identified the lower washout ratio as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 3.768; p value, 0.027). The washout ratio obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of survival of patients with EHC. (orig.)

  13. Significant or Not : What Does the "Magic" P-Value Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The use of the p-value in determination of statistical significance—and by extension in decision making—is widely taught and frequently used.  It is not, however, without limitations, and its use as a primary marker of a worthwhile conclusion has recently come under increased scrutiny.  This paper attempts to explain some lesser-known properties of the p-value, including its distribution under the null and alternative hypotheses, and to clearly present its limitations and some straightforward...

  14. Study of apparent diffusion coefficient value in breasts of different ages and different menstrual phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ping; Wang Yafei; Huang Hao; Liu Qinfang; Chen Yerong; Tan Jishan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the differences of ADC values in breasts of women of different ages and different menstrual phases, so as to direct the choice of the examination time of MR DWI. Methods: The breasts of 65 healthy volunteers were scanned with the routine MRI plain scan and DWI in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. DWI was conducted with single shot echo planar imaging technique and b value were 0, 1000 s/mm 2 . The women were divided into three groups: Group 1 (aged 20 to 29 years, 21 cases), Group 2 (aged 30 to 39, 21 cases), and Group 3 (aged 40 to 49, 23 cases). The ADC values of all 130 breasts at nipple level in the different phases were measured. The ADC values in the three age groups and in the different menstrual phases were compared using ANOVA. Results: The mean ADC values of Group 1 were (2.14±0.14) × 10 -3 , (2.03±0.18) × 10 -3 and (2.10±0.19) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast, and (2.08±0.17) × 10 -3 . (2.02±0.16) × 10 -3 and (2.09±0.17) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast in the menstrual, proliferative and secretary phases. They were slightly higher than Group 3, which were (2.02±0.27) × 10 -3 (1.97±0.25) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for left breast and (1.99±0.29) × 10 -3 , (1.93±0.26) × 10 -3 and (2.03±0.28) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s for right breast. The mean ADC values of Group 2 [left breast: ( 1.94 + 0. 25) × 10-3, (1.91±0.21) × 10 -3 and (1.97±0.21) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s; right breast: (1.97±0.26) × 10 -3 , (1.89± 0.25) × 10 -3 and (1.96±0.22) × 10 -3 mm 2 /s] were the lowest among the three age groups. There were significant differences in different menstrual phases (F=23.600, P 0.05). Conclusions: The mean ADC values of breasts decrease markedly in the proliferative phase. The effects of the menstrual cycle on the breast ADC values should be considered in the evaluation of breast diseases with DWI. (authors)

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging detects significant sex differences in human myocardial strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Lina M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathophysiology responsible for the significant outcome disparities between men and women with cardiac disease is largely unknown. Further investigation into basic cardiac physiological differences between the sexes is needed. This study utilized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based multiparametric strain analysis to search for sex-based differences in regional myocardial contractile function. Methods End-systolic strain (circumferential, longitudinal, and radial was interpolated from MRI-based radiofrequency tissue tagging grid point displacements in each of 60 normal adult volunteers (32 females. Results The average global left ventricular (LV strain among normal female volunteers (n = 32 was significantly larger in absolute value (functionally better than in normal male volunteers (n = 28 in both the circumferential direction (Male/Female = -0.19 ± 0.02 vs. -0.21 ± 0.02; p = 0.025 and longitudinal direction (Male/Female = -0.14 ± 0.03 vs. -0.16 ± 0.02; p = 0.007. Conclusions The finding of significantly larger circumferential and longitudinal LV strain among normal female volunteers suggests that baseline contractile differences between the sexes may contribute to the well-recognized divergence in cardiovascular disease outcomes. Further work is needed in order to determine the pathologic changes that occur in LV strain between women and men with the onset of cardiovascular disease.

  16. Standardized uptake values of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: the value of different normalization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Reichel, C.; Sommer, T.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    While the evident advantages of absolute metabolic rate determinations cannot be equalled by static image analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG PET) studies, various algorithms for the normalization of static FDG uptake values have been proposed. This study was performed to compare different normalization procedures in terms of dependency on individual patient characteristics. Standardized FDG uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for liver and lung tissue in 126 patients studied with whole-body FDG PET. Uptake values were normalized for total body weight, lean body mass and body surface area. Ranges, means, medians, standard deviations and variation coefficients of these SUV parameters were calculated and their interdependency with total body weight, lean body mass, body surface area, patient height and blood sugar levels was calculated by means of regression analysis. Standardized FDG uptake values normalized for body surface area were clearly superior to SUV parameters normalized for total body weight or lean body mass. Variation and correlation coefficients of body surface area-normalized uptake values were minimal when compared with SUV parameters derived from the other normalization procedures. Normalization for total body weight resulted in uptake values still dependent on body weight and blood sugar levels, while normalization for lean body mass did not eliminate the positive correlation with lean body mass and patient height. It is concluded that normalization of FDG uptake values for body surface area is less dependent on the individual patient characteristics than are FDG uptake values normalized for other parameters, and therefore appears to be preferable for FDG PET studies in oncology. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic value of different tumor markers, our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Variety of tumor markers with varying sensitivity and specificity are used for diagnosis of different malignancies. This study was done to determine the diagnostic value of different tumor markers in our patients with various malignancies. Out of 235 patients studied, 162 were suffering from malignant and 73 from benign diseases. Among these 84 were positive for tumor markers. Out of these positive tumor markers, 75 were suffering from malignancy. Tumor marker analyzed were ca-15-3, ca-125, BETA-HCG, CEA, PSA and alpha-FP depending upon the type of the disease these cases presented. Analysis of the results revealed that different tumor markers had sensitivity varying from 76.9-95.8% and specificity varying form 75-90.9%. CA-125 was observed to be the most specific and sensitive tumor marker for ovarian tumors followed by alpha-FP for hepatocellular tumors and CEA for gastrointestinal tumors. Similarly, PSA for prostate cancers, beta-HCG for choriocarcinoma and CA-15-3 for breast cancer. It is concluded that all the tumor markers have a variable diagnostic value, which cannot be relied upon independently, without other tests added to increase diagnostic value. (author)

  18. MR first pass perfusion of benign and malignant cardiac tumours - significant differences and diagnostic accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, K.U.; Picciolo, M.; Theisen, D.; Sandner, T.A.; Reiser, M.F.; Huber, A.M.; Sourbron, S.; Schmitz, C.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance (MR) first pass perfusion in the differentiation of benign and malignant cardiac tumours. 24 patients with cardiac tumours (11 malignant, histopathological correlation present in all cases) were examined using MRI. In addition to morphological sequences a saturation-recovery T1w-GRE technique was implemented for tumour perfusion. The maximum relative signal enhancement (RSE[%]) and the slope of the RSE t -curve (slopeRSE[%/s]) of tumour tissue were assessed. A t-test was used to identify significant differences between benign and malignant tumours. Sensitivities and specificities were calculated for detection of malignant lesions and were compared with the sensitivity and specificity based on solely morphological image assessment. The RSE and slopeRSE of malignant cardiac tumours were significantly higher compared with benign lesions (p < 0.001 and p < 0.001). The calculated sensitivities and specificities of RSE and slopeRSE for identification of malignant lesions were 100% and 84.6% and 100% and 92.3%, respectively with cut-off values of 80% and 6%/s. The sensitivity and specificity for identification of malignant lesions on the basis of morphological imaging alone were 90.9% and 69.2%. With first pass perfusion, malignant cardiac masses can be identified with higher sensitivity and specificity compared with morphological image assessment alone. (orig.)

  19. Using the Bootstrap Method for a Statistical Significance Test of Differences between Summary Histograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kuan-Man

    2006-01-01

    A new method is proposed to compare statistical differences between summary histograms, which are the histograms summed over a large ensemble of individual histograms. It consists of choosing a distance statistic for measuring the difference between summary histograms and using a bootstrap procedure to calculate the statistical significance level. Bootstrapping is an approach to statistical inference that makes few assumptions about the underlying probability distribution that describes the data. Three distance statistics are compared in this study. They are the Euclidean distance, the Jeffries-Matusita distance and the Kuiper distance. The data used in testing the bootstrap method are satellite measurements of cloud systems called cloud objects. Each cloud object is defined as a contiguous region/patch composed of individual footprints or fields of view. A histogram of measured values over footprints is generated for each parameter of each cloud object and then summary histograms are accumulated over all individual histograms in a given cloud-object size category. The results of statistical hypothesis tests using all three distances as test statistics are generally similar, indicating the validity of the proposed method. The Euclidean distance is determined to be most suitable after comparing the statistical tests of several parameters with distinct probability distributions among three cloud-object size categories. Impacts on the statistical significance levels resulting from differences in the total lengths of satellite footprint data between two size categories are also discussed.

  20. Two distinct groups within the Bacillus subtilis group display significantly different spore heat resistance properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Erwin M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Kuipers, Oscar P; Wells-Bennik, Marjon H J

    2015-02-01

    The survival of bacterial spores after heat treatment and the subsequent germination and outgrowth in a food product can lead to spoilage of the food product and economical losses. Prediction of time-temperature conditions that lead to sufficient inactivation requires access to detailed spore thermal inactivation kinetics of relevant model strains. In this study, the thermal inactivation kinetics of spores of fourteen strains belonging to the Bacillus subtilis group were determined in detail, using both batch heating in capillary tubes and continuous flow heating in a micro heater. The inactivation data were fitted using a log linear model. Based on the spore heat resistance data, two distinct groups (p subtilis group could be identified. One group of strains had spores with an average D120 °C of 0.33 s, while the spores of the other group displayed significantly higher heat resistances, with an average D120 °C of 45.7 s. When comparing spore inactivation data obtained using batch- and continuous flow heating, the z-values were significantly different, hence extrapolation from one system to the other was not justified. This study clearly shows that heat resistances of spores from different strains in the B. subtilis group can vary greatly. Strains can be separated into two groups, to which different spore heat inactivation kinetics apply. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant differences in parameters of glucose metabolism in children of hypertensive and normotensive parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryko, Anna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Płudowska, Katarzyna; Smithson, W Henry; Owłasiuk, Anna; Żelazowska-Rutkowska, Beata; Wojtkielewicz, Katarzyna; Milewski, Robert; Chlabicz, Sławomir

    2017-01-01

    In the recent years, alterations in the carbohydrate metabolism, including insulin resistance, are considered as risk factors in the development of hypertension and its complications in young age. Hypertension is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The onset of pathology responsible for the development of hypertension, as well as levels of biomarkers specific for early stages of atherosclerosis are poorly understood. To compare a group of children whose parents have a history of hypertension (study group) with a group of children with normotensive parents (reference group), with consideration of typical risk factors for atherosclerosis, parameters of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, anthropometric data and new biomarkers of early cardiovascular disease (hsCRP, adiponectin, sICAM-1). The study population consists of 84 children. Of these, 40 children (mean age 13.6±2.7 years) had a parental history of hypertension, and 44 aged 13.1±3.7 yrs were children of normotensive parents. Anthropometric measurements were taken, and measurements of blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels were carried out. The insulin resistance index (HOMA IR) was calculated. Levels of hsCRP, soluble cell adhesion molecules (sICAM) and adiponectin were measured. There were no statistically significant differences in anthropometric parameters (body mass, SDS BMI, skin folds) between groups. Values of systolic blood pressure were statistically significantly higher in the study group (Me 108 vs. 100 mmHg, p= 0.031), as were glycaemia (Me 80 vs. 67 mg/dl pchildren of hypertensive parents) (Me 1.68 vs. 0.80 mmol/l × mU/l, p=0.007). Lower adiponectin levels (Me 13959.45 vs. 16822 ng/ml, p=0.020) were found in children with a family history of hypertension. No significant differences were found in the levels of sICAM, hsCRP, and parameters of lipid metabolism. Family history of hypertension is correlated with higher values of systolic blood

  2. Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boundary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivatives are described in the Caputo sense. Numerical results show that this method is of high accuracy and is more convenient and efficient for solving boundary value problems involving fractional ordinary differential equations. AMS Subject Classification: 34A08 Keywords and Phrases: Chebyshev polynomials, Gauss-Lobatto points, fractional differential equation, finite difference 1. Introduction The idea of a derivative which interpolates between the familiar integer order derivatives was introduced many years ago and has gained increasing importance only in recent years due to the development of mathematical models of a certain situations in engineering, materials science, control theory, polymer modelling etc. For example see [20, 22, 25, 26]. Most fractional order differential equations describing real life situations, in general do not have exact analytical solutions. Several numerical and approximate analytical methods for ordinary differential equation Received: December 2014; Accepted: March 2015 57 Journal of Mathematical Extension Vol. 9, No. 3, (2015, 57-71 ISSN: 1735-8299 URL: http://www.ijmex.com Chebyshev Finite Difference Method for Fractional Boundary Value Problems H. Azizi Taft Branch, Islamic Azad University Abstract. This paper presents a numerical method for fractional differential equations using Chebyshev finite difference method. The fractional derivative

  3. P-Value, a true test of statistical significance? a cautionary note ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While it's not the intention of the founders of significance testing and hypothesis testing to have the two ideas intertwined as if they are complementary, the inconvenient marriage of the two practices into one coherent, convenient, incontrovertible and misinterpreted practice has dotted our standard statistics textbooks and ...

  4. Synopses/physical significance of complex-valued catalyst parameters in heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, D

    1979-08-01

    An independent parameter was used to describe the local values of the interdependent thermodynamic variables of the coupled effects of transfer, sorption, and surface reaction at steady state in a packed bed of porous catalyst. A system reduction yielded a generalized concept of the pore effectiveness factor, H, which was unity or a real or imaginary complex number when the coupled diffusion and reaction processes do not affect, inhibit, or enhance conversion, respectively. These concepts are illustrated by ethylene hydrogenation on platinum, a process in which ethylene adsorbs much more strongly than hydrogen, but diffuses more slowly; as the rate is proportional to the product of hydrogen and ethylene surface coverage and the more strongly adsorbed ethylene occupies the majority of the available sites, a decrease in gas-phase ethylene concentration would increase the conversion rate. The reaction rate also increases with decreasing distance from the catalyst particle core.

  5. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Activities Differ Significantly among Sorghum Grains with Different Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyu Shen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum grains with different applications had different phenolic profiles, which were corresponded to various antioxidant capacities. In this study, total phenolic, proanthocyanidins and flavonoids contents, as well as contents of individual phenolic compounds from sorghum grains with various applications were determined, and their antioxidant capacities were evaluated. Total phenolic contents (TPC and total proanthocyanidins contents (TPAC showed strong correlation with antioxidant activities (r > 0.95, p < 0.01. Hongyingzi (S-1, one of the brewing sorghums, showed the highest level of TPC and TPAC, while white grain sorghum (S-8 had the lowest. Except for black grain sorghum (S-7, that contained the highest contents of ferulic acid, brewing sorghum grains contained the higher contents of the most individual phenolic compounds, especially the variety S-1. The correlation among individual phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities indicated that the free forms of protocatechuic acid (r = 0.982 of FRAPassay, p < 0.01 and taxifolin (r = 0.826 of FRAP assay, p < 0.01 may be the main functional compounds. These results indicate that brewing sorghum grains can also be utilized as effective materials for functional foods.

  6. P values in display items are ubiquitous and almost invariably significant: A survey of top science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, Ioana Alina; Ioannidis, John P A

    2018-01-01

    P values represent a widely used, but pervasively misunderstood and fiercely contested method of scientific inference. Display items, such as figures and tables, often containing the main results, are an important source of P values. We conducted a survey comparing the overall use of P values and the occurrence of significant P values in display items of a sample of articles in the three top multidisciplinary journals (Nature, Science, PNAS) in 2017 and, respectively, in 1997. We also examined the reporting of multiplicity corrections and its potential influence on the proportion of statistically significant P values. Our findings demonstrated substantial and growing reliance on P values in display items, with increases of 2.5 to 14.5 times in 2017 compared to 1997. The overwhelming majority of P values (94%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 92% to 96%) were statistically significant. Methods to adjust for multiplicity were almost non-existent in 1997, but reported in many articles relying on P values in 2017 (Nature 68%, Science 48%, PNAS 38%). In their absence, almost all reported P values were statistically significant (98%, 95% CI 96% to 99%). Conversely, when any multiplicity corrections were described, 88% (95% CI 82% to 93%) of reported P values were statistically significant. Use of Bayesian methods was scant (2.5%) and rarely (0.7%) articles relied exclusively on Bayesian statistics. Overall, wider appreciation of the need for multiplicity corrections is a welcome evolution, but the rapid growth of reliance on P values and implausibly high rates of reported statistical significance are worrisome.

  7. Internet usage purposes and gender differences in the effects of perceived utilitarian and hedonic value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse

    2010-04-01

    Previous research on both hedonic and utilitarian value has focused considerable effort on outcomes. Few studies compare the impact of Internet usage purposes and gender differences on perceived value effect. The current study explores whether differences in the relative influence of hedonic and utilitarian value affect consumer information search and shopping intentions on the Internet. This study also compares perceived value impact on behavioral intention among respondents in regard to gender. This research uses structural equation modeling of survey data (N = 341). Results show that perceived hedonic and utilitarian value have significantly different effect on information search and shopping intention through the Internet. Hedonic values have positively higher association with customer intention to buy than with intent to search information. Findings also show that hedonic values influence male user intentions to search information but do not influence females. This work presents a theoretical discussion and implications based on the results for the benefit of online practitioners.

  8. Sniffing out significant "Pee values": genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markt, Sarah C; Nuttall, Elizabeth; Turman, Constance; Sinnott, Jennifer; Rimm, Eric B; Ecsedy, Ethan; Unger, Robert H; Fall, Katja; Finn, Stephen; Jensen, Majken K; Rider, Jennifer R; Kraft, Peter; Mucci, Lorelei A

    2016-12-13

     To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine.  Genome wide association study.  Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts.  6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies.  Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt "after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine," and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553.  A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Cultural values and international differences in business ethics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.; Dam, L.

    2007-01-01

    We analyze ethical policies of firms in industrialized countries and try to find out whether culture is a factor that plays a significant role in explaining country differences. We look into the firm's human rights policy, its governance of bribery and corruption, and the comprehensiveness,

  10. Interactive cervical motion kinematics: sensitivity, specificity and clinically significant values for identifying kinematic impairments in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarig Bahat, Hilla; Chen, Xiaoqi; Reznik, David; Kodesh, Einat; Treleaven, Julia

    2015-04-01

    Chronic neck pain has been consistently shown to be associated with impaired kinematic control including reduced range, velocity and smoothness of cervical motion, that seem relevant to daily function as in quick neck motion in response to surrounding stimuli. The objectives of this study were: to compare interactive cervical kinematics in patients with neck pain and controls; to explore the new measures of cervical motion accuracy; and to find the sensitivity, specificity, and optimal cutoff values for defining impaired kinematics in those with neck pain. In this cross-section study, 33 patients with chronic neck pain and 22 asymptomatic controls were assessed for their cervical kinematic control using interactive virtual reality hardware and customized software utilizing a head mounted display with built-in head tracking. Outcome measures included peak and mean velocity, smoothness (represented by number of velocity peaks (NVP)), symmetry (represented by time to peak velocity percentage (TTPP)), and accuracy of cervical motion. Results demonstrated significant and strong effect-size differences in peak and mean velocities, NVP and TTPP in all directions excluding TTPP in left rotation, and good effect-size group differences in 5/8 accuracy measures. Regression results emphasized the high clinical value of neck motion velocity, with very high sensitivity and specificity (85%-100%), followed by motion smoothness, symmetry and accuracy. These finding suggest cervical kinematics should be evaluated clinically, and screened by the provided cut off values for identification of relevant impairments in those with neck pain. Such identification of presence or absence of kinematic impairments may direct treatment strategies and additional evaluation when needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing and Evaluating Ḥadith: Its Value, Significance, Authority and Authenticity in Islamic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Farhat Nisar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Qur’an and Ḥadith as fundamental and primary sources of Shariah stand as hall mark of Islam. Ḥadith called traditions as the second fundamental source of Islam embodies sayings, actions and expressions of Prophet Muhammad (SAW explicit or implicit. Mainly there have been two trends of rejecting the status of Ḥadith. One is rejecting the authority of Ḥadith and other rejects the authenticity of Ḥadith especially “Khabar-al-wahid” or solitary tradition. Other group does not completely reject the authority of Ḥadith rather text of Ḥadith especially in case of weak traditions. This paper discuss the opinion of rejecters of Ḥadith and contribution of Muslim scholars along with their arguments from Qur’an and Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (SAW to highlight the importance and significance of authority and authenticity of Ḥadith in all disciplines of Islamic thought.

  12. Different meaning of the p-value in exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Vach, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The outcome of clinical studies is often reduced to the statistical significance of results by indicating a p-value below the 5% significance level. Hypothesis testing and, through that, the p-value is commonly used, but their meaning is frequently misinterpreted in clinical research. The concept...... of hypothesis testing is explained and some pitfalls including those of multiple testing are given. The conceptual difference between exploratory and confirmatory hypothesis testing is discussed, and a better use of p-values, which includes presenting p-values with two or three decimals, is suggested....

  13. Forecasting Value-at-Risk under Different Distributional Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Braione

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial asset returns are known to be conditionally heteroskedastic and generally non-normally distributed, fat-tailed and often skewed. These features must be taken into account to produce accurate forecasts of Value-at-Risk (VaR. We provide a comprehensive look at the problem by considering the impact that different distributional assumptions have on the accuracy of both univariate and multivariate GARCH models in out-of-sample VaR prediction. The set of analyzed distributions comprises the normal, Student, Multivariate Exponential Power and their corresponding skewed counterparts. The accuracy of the VaR forecasts is assessed by implementing standard statistical backtesting procedures used to rank the different specifications. The results show the importance of allowing for heavy-tails and skewness in the distributional assumption with the skew-Student outperforming the others across all tests and confidence levels.

  14. GENERATIONAL DIFFERENCES IN WORK VALUES IN THE HOTEL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Cristina IORGULESCU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present working environment there are three different active generations, generally known as: Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y. For the first time in history, three different generations have to cooperate in the workplace and are in direct competition for a job or a new managerial position. This situation creates new challenges in managing human resources in the hotel industry, where an excellent communication between all functional and operational departments is mandatory in order to deliver quality services. The paper aims to address these issues by presenting the main work values of employees in the Romanian hotel industry. The implications of the findings are discussed, considering the limitations of the empirical study presented and the future research directions.

  15. Cuttability Assessment of Selected Rocks Through Different Brittleness Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Arif Emre; Gokay, M. Kemal

    2016-04-01

    Prediction of cuttability is a critical issue for successful execution of tunnel or mining excavation projects. Rock cuttability is also used to determine specific energy, which is defined as the work done by the cutting force to excavate a unit volume of yield. Specific energy is a meaningful inverse measure of cutting efficiency, since it simply states how much energy must be expended to excavate a unit volume of rock. Brittleness is a fundamental rock property and applied in drilling and rock excavation. Brittleness is one of the most crucial rock features for rock excavation. For this reason, determination of relations between cuttability and brittleness will help rock engineers. This study aims to estimate the specific energy from different brittleness values of rocks by means of simple and multiple regression analyses. In this study, rock cutting, rock property, and brittleness index tests were carried out on 24 different rock samples with different strength values, including marble, travertine, and tuff, collected from sites around Konya Province, Turkey. Four previously used brittleness concepts were evaluated in this study, denoted as B 1 (ratio of compressive to tensile strength), B 2 (ratio of the difference between compressive and tensile strength to the sum of compressive and tensile strength), B 3 (area under the stress-strain line in relation to compressive and tensile strength), and B 9 = S 20, the percentage of fines (point load strengths of rocks using multiple regression analysis). The results suggest that the proposed simple regression-based prediction models including B 3, B 9, and B 9p outperform the other models including B 1 and B 2 and can be used for more accurate and reliable estimation of specific energy.

  16. Changes and Differences in Poles’ Hierarchy of Values – on Basis of the European Social Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Błoński Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the changes that have place with regard to Poles’ value system over the last 12 years, as well as to demonstrate differences based on sex, level of education and household income level. The analysis was based on the results of the European Social Survey (ESS. The research results indicate that the hierarchy of values cherished by Poles does not undergo significant changes. The most important values are security, universalism and benevolence. The least significant values include hedonism, stimulation and power. There are no identifiable differences in the hierarchies of values of women and men. However, there are noticeable differences depending on the level of education, household income level and age of surveyed respondents.

  17. Moral values are associated with individual differences in regional brain volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary J; Kanai, Ryota; Bates, Timothy C; Rees, Geraint

    2012-08-01

    Moral sentiment has been hypothesized to reflect evolved adaptations to social living. If so, individual differences in moral values may relate to regional variation in brain structure. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 70 young, healthy adults examining whether differences on two major dimensions of moral values were significantly associated with regional gray matter volume. The two clusters of moral values assessed were "individualizing" (values of harm/care and fairness) and "binding" (deference to authority, in-group loyalty, and purity/sanctity). Individualizing was positively associated with left dorsomedial pFC volume and negatively associated with bilateral precuneus volume. For binding, a significant positive association was found for bilateral subcallosal gyrus and a trend to significance for the left anterior insula volume. These findings demonstrate that variation in moral sentiment reflects individual differences in brain structure and suggest a biological basis for moral sentiment, distributed across multiple brain regions.

  18. Generational Differences of Personal Values of Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, Don E.; Brown, Jill; Akers, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the values and value systems of business students from a private mid-western university using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke Typology of Personal Values. The findings of this study are compared with the results of studies in the latter part of the 1990's and early 2000 in order to provide some insights…

  19. Functional significance of genetically different symbiotic algae Symbiodinium in a coral reef symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loram, J E; Trapido-Rosenthal, H G; Douglas, A E

    2007-11-01

    The giant sea anemone Condylactis gigantea associates with members of two clades of the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, either singly or in mixed infection, as revealed by clade-specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction of large subunit ribosomal DNA. To explore the functional significance of this molecular variation, the fate of photosynthetically fixed carbon was investigated by (14)C radiotracer experiments. Symbioses with algae of clades A and B released ca. 30-40% of fixed carbon to the animal tissues. Incorporation into the lipid fraction and the low molecular weight fraction dominated by amino acids was significantly higher in symbioses with algae of clade A than of clade B, suggesting that the genetically different algae in C. gigantea are not functionally equivalent. Symbioses with mixed infections yielded intermediate values, such that this functional trait of the symbiosis can be predicted from the traits of the contributing algae. Coral and sea anemone symbioses with Symbiodinium break down at elevated temperature, a process known as 'coral bleaching'. The functional response of the C. gigantea symbiosis to heat stress varied between the algae of clades A and B, with particularly depressed incorporation of photosynthetic carbon into lipid of the clade B algae, which are more susceptible to high temperature than the algae of clade A. This study provides a first exploration of how the core symbiotic function of photosynthate transfer to the host varies with the genotype of Symbiodinium, an algal symbiont which underpins corals and, hence, coral reef ecosystems.

  20. Comparison of ADC values in different malignancies of the skeletal musculature: a multicentric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, Alexey; Nagata, Shuji; Razek, Ahmed A. Abd; Tirumani, Sree Harsha; Wienke, Andreas; Kahn, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides essential information regarding tumor composition, such as cellularity and/or perfusion. DWI is helpful in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Malignant intramuscular/soft tissue lesions consist of a wide spectrum of tumors that have different cell counts and matrix. It is presumed that these different tumors have different DWI findings and have different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The aim of this study was to analyze DWI findings of different intramuscular malignancies in a multicentric study by using a standardized DWI protocol, and to compare the ADC values acquired. The data banks of four radiology departments were screened retrospectively for malignant intramuscular tumors. Only lesions that were investigated by MRI (with a 1.5-T scanner) using DWI (multishot EPI sequence with b values of 0 and 1,000 s/mm 2 ) were included in the study. Overall, 51 patients (28 women, 23 men; mean age 58.8 ± 16.1 years) with 57 different malignant intramuscular lesions were collected. In every case apparent diffusion constant (ADC) maps were calculated. In 14 patients muscle lymphoma, 11 patients intramuscular metastases from different primary tumors, and in 26 cases several muscle sarcomas were identified. The mean ADC value of the estimated lesions was 1.24 ± 0.53 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 , median value, 1.11 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 , range, 0.54-2.9 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 . The mean ADC value in muscle metastases was 1.28 ± 0.24 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 , in muscle lymphoma 0.76 ± 0.14 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 , and in muscle sarcomas 1.82 ± 0.63 x 10 -3 mm 2 s -1 . Muscle lymphoma showed statistically significant lower ADC values in comparison to muscle metastases (p = 0.01) and muscle sarcoma (p = 0.001). There was no significant differences between ADC values in muscle metastases and sarcomas (p = 0.48). ADC values in muscle lymphoma were homogeneous with less inter-patient variability and were within a relatively close

  1. Faculty Decisions on Serials Subscriptions Differ Significantly from Decisions Predicted by a Bibliometric Tool.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue F. Phelps

    2016-03-01

    of the faculty choices. The p-value for this relationship was less than 0.0001, also indicating that the result was not by chance. A quadratic model plotted alongside the previous linear model follows a similar pattern. The p-value of the comparison is 0.0002, which indicates the quadratic model’s fit cannot be explained by random chance. Main Results – The authors point out three outstanding findings. First, the match rate between faculty valuations and bibliometric scores for serials is 65%. This exceeds the 50% rate that would indicate random association, but also indicates a statistically significant difference between faculty and bibliometric valuations. Secondly, the match rate with the bibliometric scores for titles that faculty chose to keep (73% was higher than those they chose to cancel (54%. Thirdly, the match rate increased with higher bibliometric scores. Conclusions – Though the authors identify only a modest degree of similarity between faculty and bibliometric valuations of serials, it is noted that there is more agreement in the higher valued serials than the lower valued serials. With that in mind, librarians might focus faculty review on the lower scoring titles in the future, taking into consideration that unique faculty interests may drive selection at that level and would need to be balanced with the mission of the library.

  2. Gender differences in binaural speech-evoked auditory brainstem response: are they clinically significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaei, Bahram; Azmi, Mohd Hafiz Afifi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2018-05-17

    Binaurally evoked auditory evoked potentials have good diagnostic values when testing subjects with central auditory deficits. The literature on speech-evoked auditory brainstem response evoked by binaural stimulation is in fact limited. Gender disparities in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results have been consistently noted but the magnitude of gender difference has not been reported. The present study aimed to compare the magnitude of gender difference in speech-evoked auditory brainstem response results between monaural and binaural stimulations. A total of 34 healthy Asian adults aged 19-30 years participated in this comparative study. Eighteen of them were females (mean age=23.6±2.3 years) and the remaining sixteen were males (mean age=22.0±2.3 years). For each subject, speech-evoked auditory brainstem response was recorded with the synthesized syllable /da/ presented monaurally and binaurally. While latencies were not affected (p>0.05), the binaural stimulation produced statistically higher speech-evoked auditory brainstem response amplitudes than the monaural stimulation (p0.80), substantive gender differences were noted in most of speech-evoked auditory brainstem response peaks for both stimulation modes. The magnitude of gender difference between the two stimulation modes revealed some distinct patterns. Based on these clinically significant results, gender-specific normative data are highly recommended when using speech-evoked auditory brainstem response for clinical and future applications. The preliminary normative data provided in the present study can serve as the reference for future studies on this test among Asian adults. Copyright © 2018 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Bayesian mixture modeling of significant p values: A meta-analytic method to estimate the degree of contamination from H₀.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronau, Quentin Frederik; Duizer, Monique; Bakker, Marjan; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2017-09-01

    Publication bias and questionable research practices have long been known to corrupt the published record. One method to assess the extent of this corruption is to examine the meta-analytic collection of significant p values, the so-called p -curve (Simonsohn, Nelson, & Simmons, 2014a). Inspired by statistical research on false-discovery rates, we propose a Bayesian mixture model analysis of the p -curve. Our mixture model assumes that significant p values arise either from the null-hypothesis H ₀ (when their distribution is uniform) or from the alternative hypothesis H1 (when their distribution is accounted for by a simple parametric model). The mixture model estimates the proportion of significant results that originate from H ₀, but it also estimates the probability that each specific p value originates from H ₀. We apply our model to 2 examples. The first concerns the set of 587 significant p values for all t tests published in the 2007 volumes of Psychonomic Bulletin & Review and the Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition; the mixture model reveals that p values higher than about .005 are more likely to stem from H ₀ than from H ₁. The second example concerns 159 significant p values from studies on social priming and 130 from yoked control studies. The results from the yoked controls confirm the findings from the first example, whereas the results from the social priming studies are difficult to interpret because they are sensitive to the prior specification. To maximize accessibility, we provide a web application that allows researchers to apply the mixture model to any set of significant p values. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Organisational values and organisational commitment: do nurses' ethno-cultural differences matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendel, Tova; Kagan, Ilya

    2014-05-01

    To examine the association between perceived organisational values and organisational commitment among Israeli nurses in relation to their ethno-cultural background. Differences and the discrepancy between individuals' organisational values and those of their organisational culture are a potential source of adjustment difficulties. Organisational values are considered to be the bond of the individual to their organisation. In multicultural societies, such as Israel, the differences in perception of organisational values and organisational commitment may be reflected within workgroups. Data were collected using a questionnaire among 106 hospital nurses. About 59.8% of the sample were Israeli-born. A positive correlation was found between organisational values and organisational commitment. Significant differences were found in organisational values and organisational commitment between Israeli-born-, USSR-born- and Ethiopian-born nurses. The socio-demographic profile modified the effect of organisational values on organisational commitment: when the nurse was male, Muslim, religiously orthodox and without academic education, the effect of organisational values on organisational commitment was higher. Findings confirm the role of culture and ethnicity in the perception of organisational values and the level of organisational commitment among nurses. Assessing ethno-cultural differences in organisational values and organisational commitment provides a fuller understanding of nurses' ability to adjust to their work environment and helps nurse managers devise means to increase nurses' commitment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Predictive significance of standardized uptake value parameters of FDG-PET in patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, X-Y.; Wang, W.; Li, M.; Li, Y.; Guo, Y-M. [PET-CT Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an, Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi (China)

    2015-02-03

    {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) is widely used to diagnose and stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the predictive ability of different FDG standardized uptake values (SUVs) in 74 patients with newly diagnosed NSCLC. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed and different SUV parameters (SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub avg}, SUV{sub T/L}, and SUV{sub T/A}) obtained, and their relationship with clinical characteristics were investigated. Meanwhile, correlation and multiple stepwise regression analyses were performed to determine the primary predictor of SUVs for NSCLC. Age, gender, and tumor size significantly affected SUV parameters. The mean SUVs of squamous cell carcinoma were higher than those of adenocarcinoma. Poorly differentiated tumors exhibited higher SUVs than well-differentiated ones. Further analyses based on the pathologic type revealed that the SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub avg}, and SUV{sub T/L} of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma tumors were higher than those of moderately or well-differentiated tumors. Among these four SUV parameters, SUV{sub T/L} was the primary predictor for tumor differentiation. However, in adenocarcinoma, SUV{sub max} was the determining factor for tumor differentiation. Our results showed that these four SUV parameters had predictive significance related to NSCLC tumor differentiation; SUV{sub T/L} appeared to be most useful overall, but SUV{sub max} was the best index for adenocarcinoma tumor differentiation.

  7. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  8. Using the longest significance run to estimate region-specific p-values in genetic association mapping studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsin-Chou

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association testing is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes underlying complex diseases. Technological advances have yielded a dramatic increase in the density of available genetic markers, necessitating an increase in the number of association tests required for the analysis of disease susceptibility genes. As such, multiple-tests corrections have become a critical issue. However the conventional statistical corrections on locus-specific multiple tests usually result in lower power as the number of markers increases. Alternatively, we propose here the application of the longest significant run (LSR method to estimate a region-specific p-value to provide an index for the most likely candidate region. Results An advantage of the LSR method relative to procedures based on genotypic data is that only p-value data are needed and hence can be applied extensively to different study designs. In this study the proposed LSR method was compared with commonly used methods such as Bonferroni's method and FDR controlling method. We found that while all methods provide good control over false positive rate, LSR has much better power and false discovery rate. In the authentic analysis on psoriasis and asthma disease data, the LSR method successfully identified important candidate regions and replicated the results of previous association studies. Conclusion The proposed LSR method provides an efficient exploratory tool for the analysis of sequences of dense genetic markers. Our results show that the LSR method has better power and lower false discovery rate comparing with the locus-specific multiple tests.

  9. Oral challenges with four apple cultivars result in significant differences in oral allergy symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Hilde; Cervin-Hoberg, Charlotte; Andersson, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed the hypoallergenic potential of a recently bred apple selection with unusually low content of Mal d 1, using an oral challenge model with three additional apple cultivars for comparison. Sixty-six birch pollen-allergic individuals with a history of oral allergy syndrome after apple intake were subjected to a double-blind oral provocation with two apple cultivars (B:0654 and 'Discovery'). Thirteen also tested two other apple cultivars ('Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster'). Three doses were given consecutively, 30 min apart: 10 g without peel, and 10 and 50 g with peel. A final assessment was conducted 30 min after the last intake. Oral symptoms were graded from 0 to 5. Total oral symptom score (TOS) included all scores for each cultivar at all time points. B:0654 induced significantly higher TOS than 'Discovery' when tested by 66 individuals, in spite of its lower Mal d 1 content. TOS values were higher in females and increased with increasing age of the individuals when challenged with 'Discovery'. Among the 13 individuals who tested all four cultivars, B:0654 produced a higher score after the second dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie'. This was also the case after the third dose compared to 'Ingrid Marie' and 'Gloster', and again 30 min after the last intake compared to each of the other three cultivars, as well as a higher TOS compared to each of the other three cultivars (all p safe and well tolerated, and produced significant differences among the apple cultivars. Contrary to expectations, B:0654 was less well tolerated than the other three cultivars. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Influence of Significant Others on High School Students' Expectancies of Success and Task Value in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Skip M.; Weiss, Windee

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the perceived influence of significant others' beliefs on students' expectancies of success and task value in physical education (PE). PE students (N = 231) between Grades 9 and 12 participated. Multiple regressions examined the influence of perceived parents', teachers', and classmates' beliefs on students' ability…

  11. Cost Minimization Analysis of Different Strategies of Management of Clinically Significant Scorpion Envenomation Among Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Madhumita; Quan, Dan; McDonald, Fred W; Valdez, André

    2016-12-01

    Scorpion antivenom was recently approved for use in patients with clinically significant scorpion envenomation in the United States; no formal economic analysis on its impact on cost of management has been performed. Three different strategies of management of scorpion envenomation with systemic neurotoxic symptoms in children were compared for cost minimization from a societal perspective. In strategy I, patients were managed with supportive care only without antivenom. In strategy II, an aggressive strategy of full-dose antivenom (initial dose of 3 vials with the use of additional vials administered 1 vial at a time) was considered. In strategy III, a single-vial serial antivenom dosing strategy titrated to clinical response was considered. Clinical probabilities for the different strategies were obtained from retrospective review of medical records of patients with scorpion envenomation over a 10-year period at our institution. Baseline cost values were obtained from patient reimbursement data from our institution. In baseline analysis, strategy I of supportive care only with no antivenom was least costly at US $3466.50/patient. Strategy III of single-vial serial dosing was intermediate but less expensive than strategy II of full-dose antivenom, with an incremental cost of US $3171.08 per patient. In a 1-way sensitivity analysis, at a threshold antivenom cost of US $1577.87, strategy III of single-vial serial dosing became the least costly strategy. For children with scorpion envenomation, use of a management strategy based on serial dosing of antivenom titrated to clinical response is less costly than a strategy of initial use of full-dose antivenom.

  12. Cultural Differences in Values as Self-Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Wing-Yee; Maio, Gregory R; Rees, Kerry J; Kamble, Shanmukh; Mane, Sangeetha

    2016-06-01

    Three studies tested whether individualism-collectivism moderates the extent to which values are endorsed as ideal self-guides and ought self-guides, and the consequences for regulatory focus and emotion. Across Studies 1 and 2, individualists endorsed values that are relatively central to the self as stronger ideals than oughts, whereas collectivists endorsed them as ideals and oughts to a similar degree. Study 2 found that individualists justified central values using reasons that were more promotion focused than prevention focused, whereas collectivists used similar amount of prevention-focused and promotion-focused reasons. In Study 3, individualists felt more dejected after violating a central (vs. peripheral) value and more agitated after violating a peripheral (vs. central) value. Collectivists felt a similar amount of dejection regardless of values centrality and more agitation after violating central (vs. peripheral) values. Overall, culture has important implications for how we regulate values that are central or peripheral to our self-concept. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  13. The Added Value of FM : Different Research Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, P; van der Voordt, Theo; Coenen, C; von Felten, D; Lindholm, A

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present and compare research perspectives and theoretical reflections from a variety of academic fields on the concept of Added Value of Facilities Management (FM).
    Theory: The starting point is the so-called FM Value Map, which was presented in a paper by Jensen

  14. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya 466-8550 (Japan); Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo [Department of Radiology, First Kamiida General Hospital (Japan)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean{+-}standard deviation 2.3{+-}1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  15. Gender differences in personal values of national and local Italian politicians, activists and voters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francescato, Donata; Mebane, Minou E; Vecchione, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Theorists of politics of presence postulate that women elected to political office would still hold values similar to ordinary women and therefore represent them better than male politicians. Gender differences in personal values, which underline and give coherence to core political values, have been found among voters: males score higher on self-enhancement values (power and achievement) and females higher on self-transcendence values (universalism and benevolence). Our study aims to explore if gender differences in personal values are still present among activists, local and national politicians. We administer a shortened version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire to 233 Italian national politicians (46% females), 425 local politicians (56% females), 626 political activists (44% females), and 3249 ordinary citizens (49% females). Our results confirm only partially politics of presence theory: females at all levels of political involvement score higher in self-transcendent values that emphasise concern for the welfare of others, but no significant gender differences emerge for self-enhancement, which favour the pursuit of self-interest. Our findings support ethical struggles for more balanced gender representation: a higher proportion of women in politics could strengthen the political representation of self-transcendence values. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Ishigaki, Takeo; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean±standard deviation 2.3±1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (p<0.01). In the subjects under 60 years, women showed higher values in right frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (p<0.01); however, in the subjects over 60 years, no region showed difference between men and women. The knowledge obtained in this study may be helpful to understand the developmental and aging mechanisms of normal brain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference. (orig.)

  17. Differences in cultural beliefs and values among African American and European American men with prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes Halbert, Chanita; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Delmoor, Ernestine; Coyne, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Arocho, Justin; Mahler, Brandon; Malkowicz, S Bruce

    2007-07-01

    Although cultural values are increasingly being recognized as important determinants of psychological and behavioral outcomes following cancer diagnosis and treatment, empirical data are not available on cultural values among men. This study evaluated differences in cultural values related to religiosity, temporal orientation, and collectivism among African American and European American men. Participants were 119 African American and European American men who were newly diagnosed with early-stage and locally advanced prostate cancer. Cultural values were evaluated by self-report using standardized instruments during a structured telephone interview. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics, African American men reported significantly greater levels of religiosity (Beta = 24.44, P cultural values, clinical experiences with prostate cancer may also be important. This underscores the importance of evaluating the effects of both ethnicity and clinical factors in research on the influence of cultural values on cancer prevention and control.

  18. Career anchors and values from different career management perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cunha da Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To analyze the relationships between career anchors and young Generation Y professionals’ values, from the career concept perspective. Design/methodology/approach – Research concerning the proposed objective was carried out through quantitative research involving 189 Business Administration majors from a Catholic university in São Paulo, Brazil. We used two instruments to identify the career anchors and values of respondents: Schein (1990 and Schwartz (1994, respectively. We used statistical techniques to explore the relationships between career anchors and values. Findings – Among the results, mention should be made to the statistical relationships found between analyzed career anchors and values. It is also important to stress that, although the Lifestyle career anchor was predominantly present in the conglomerate division, this anchor was the predominant characteristic in the differentiation of the smaller group of respondents, the new career group. The General Management Career Anchor, which presents a lower incidence, is the predominant characteristic of the larger group, referring to organizational careers. As well as the Lifestyle career anchor, the Hedonism value was predominant among respondents. Originality/value – The need to consider the following was found: Generation Y presents generational characteristics that drive people management to propose work structures that offer activities to generate learning, pleasure, self-fulfillment and conciliation between work and personal life.

  19. Cow's milk quality and energy value during different lactation stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamończyk, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    The quality of dairy products, raw milk in particular, depends on many factors. Low bacterial and somatic cell counts are basic determinants of the appropriate raw milk quality. The objective of the work was to assess the effect of selected factors, that is, the age of cows and their daily milk performance, on cytological quality (somatic cell count) and energy value of milk produced at individual stages of lactation. Somatic cell count and energy value of cow's milk were assessed. A total of 229 792 milk samples were examined. Data for analysis were taken from milk records of 350 dairy herds. It was demonstrated that, of all the lactations studied, the fi rst lactation (from calving to the 100th day of lactation) was characterised by the highest daily milk performance (25.1 kg) and the lowest somatic cell count (356 thous./1 ml), fat, protein and dry matter contents (4.06, 2.96 and 12.41%, respectively) and milk calorific value (732 kcal/kg). The highest energy value was recorded in cow's milk produced towards the end of lactation, that is from day 300 till the end of lactation (842 kcal/kg). High milk calorific value in late lactation and high fat and protein contents were accompanied by low raw milk quality.

  20. Significance and prognostic value of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis in Chinese rectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chun; Fang, Long; Li, Jing-Tao; Zhao, Hong-Chuan

    2016-02-28

    To determine the significance of increased serum direct bilirubin level for lymph node metastasis (LNM) in Chinese rectal cancer patients, after those with known hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases were excluded. A cohort of 469 patients, who were treated at the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health (Beijing, China), in the period from January 2003 to June 2011, and with a pathological diagnosis of rectal adenocarcinoma, were recruited. They included 231 patients with LNM (49.3%) and 238 patients without LNM. Follow-up for these patients was taken through to December 31, 2012. The baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration was (median/inter-quartile range) 2.30/1.60-3.42 μmol/L. Univariate analysis showed that compared with patients without LNM, the patients with LNM had an increased level of direct bilirubin (2.50/1.70-3.42 vs 2.10/1.40-3.42, P = 0.025). Multivariate analysis showed that direct bilirubin was independently associated with LNM (OR = 1.602; 95%CI: 1.098-2.338, P = 0.015). Moreover, we found that: (1) serum direct bilirubin differs between male and female patients; a higher concentration was associated with poor tumor classification; (2) as the baseline serum direct bilirubin concentration increased, the percentage of patients with LNM increased; and (3) serum direct bilirubin was associated with the prognosis of rectal cancer patients and higher values indicated poor prognosis. Higher serum direct bilirubin concentration was associated with the increased risk of LNM and poor prognosis in our rectal cancers.

  1. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  2. A National Trial on Differences in Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Values by Measurement Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly M; Bader, Mary Kay; Livesay, Sarah; Yeager, Susan; Moran, Cristina; Barnes, Arianna; Harrison, Kimberly R; Olson, DaiWai M

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a key parameter in management of brain injury with suspected impaired cerebral autoregulation. CPP is calculated by subtracting intracranial pressure (ICP) from mean arterial pressure (MAP). Despite consensus on importance of CPP monitoring, substantial variations exist on anatomical reference points used to measure arterial MAP when calculating CPP. This study aimed to identify differences in CPP values based on measurement location when using phlebostatic axis (PA) or tragus (Tg) as anatomical reference points. The secondary study aim was to determine impact of differences on patient outcomes at discharge. This was a prospective, repeated measures, multi-site national trial. Adult ICU patients with neurological injury necessitating ICP and CPP monitoring were consecutively enrolled from seven sites. Daily MAP/ICP/CPP values were gathered with the arterial transducer at the PA, followed by the Tg as anatomical reference points. A total of 136 subjects were enrolled, resulting in 324 paired observations. There were significant differences for CPP when comparing values obtained at PA and Tg reference points (p Differences remained significant in repeated measures model when controlling for clinical factors (mean CPP-PA = 80.77, mean CPP-Tg = 70.61, p identified as adequate with PA values, yet inadequate with CPP values measured at the Tg. Findings identify numerical differences for CPP based on anatomical reference location and highlight importance of a standard reference point for both clinical practice and future trials to limit practice variations and heterogeneity of findings.

  3. Differences in Multitask Resource Reallocation After Change in Task Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matton, Nadine; Paubel, Pierre; Cegarra, Julien; Raufaste, Eric

    2016-12-01

    The objective was to characterize multitask resource reallocation strategies when managing subtasks with various assigned values. When solving a resource conflict in multitasking, Salvucci and Taatgen predict a globally rational strategy will be followed that favors the most urgent subtask and optimizes global performance. However, Katidioti and Taatgen identified a locally rational strategy that optimizes only a subcomponent of the whole task, leading to detrimental consequences on global performance. Moreover, the question remains open whether expertise would have an impact on the choice of the strategy. We adopted a multitask environment used for pilot selection with a change in emphasis on two out of four subtasks while all subtasks had to be maintained over a minimum performance. A laboratory eye-tracking study contrasted 20 recently selected pilot students considered as experienced with this task and 15 university students considered as novices. When two subtasks were emphasized, novices focused their resources particularly on one high-value subtask and failed to prevent both low-value subtasks falling below minimum performance. On the contrary, experienced people delayed the processing of one low-value subtask but managed to optimize global performance. In a multitasking environment where some subtasks are emphasized, novices follow a locally rational strategy whereas experienced participants follow a globally rational strategy. During complex training, trainees are only able to adjust their resource allocation strategy to subtask emphasis changes once they are familiar with the multitasking environment. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  4. Short sales, differences of opinion and fundamental value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Porras Prado, M.; Ling, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of short sale constraints in explaining the variation in premiums to Net Asset Value (NAV) in REIT pricing. We use proprietary information on short sales between June 2006 and September 2008 to examine how short sales and short sale constraints affect the variation in

  5. Cultural diversity in organizations : Enhancing identification by valuing differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijters, Kyra; van der Zee, Karen I.; Otten, Sabine

    The present research investigated the role of perceived similarity in cultural values (associated with diversity in cultural backgrounds) and an intercultural group climate in predicting identification with both the organization and the work team. The relevance of perceived similarity in cultural

  6. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER VALUE IN PHARAOH QUAIL OF DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WILKANOWSKA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of age of Pharaoh quails on dressing percentage, carcass composition, and sensory and physicochemical properties of their meat was determined. Compared to 42-day-old birds, Pharaoh quail aged 33 days had lower body weight (169.1 vs 139.4 g, carcass weight (111.7 vs 88.8 g and dressing percentage (66.1 vs 63.7%. The carcasses of 42-day-old birds contained more breast muscles (30.9%, leg muscles (18.3%, skin with subcutaneous fat (6.5% and remainders of the carcass (31.0% compared to birds at 33 days of age (30.8; 16.7; 6.2 and 30.0%, respectively. Older birds showed higher values of pH15, redness (a* and yellowness (b* and lower values of sensory meat properties except aroma intensity.

  7. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoi Tibbetts

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available First-generation (FG college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011 and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001 while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a. Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could

  8. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hecht, Cameron A; Borman, Geoffrey D; Harackiewicz, Judith M

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or "fitting in" concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in fewer

  9. Different Institutions and Different Values: Exploring First-Generation Student Fit at 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J.; Hecht, Cameron A.; Borman, Geoffrey D.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2018-01-01

    First-generation (FG) college students (students for whom neither parent has a 4-year degree) face a number of challenges as they attempt to obtain a post-secondary degree. They are more likely to come from working-class backgrounds or poverty (Reardon, 2011) and attend lower quality high schools (Warburton et al., 2001) while not benefiting from the guidance of a parent who successfully navigated the path to higher education. FG college students also contend with belonging or “fitting in” concerns due a perceived mismatch between their own values and the values implicit in institutions of higher education (Stephens et al., 2012a). Specifically, prior research has demonstrated that FG college students face an unseen disadvantage that can be attributed to the fact that middle-class norms of independence reflected in American institutions of higher education can be experienced as threatening by many FG students who have been socialized with more interdependent values commonly espoused in working-class populations. The present research examines this theory (cultural mismatch theory) in the understudied context of 2-year colleges and tests if a values-affirmation intervention (i.e., an intervention that has shown promise in addressing identity threats and belonging concerns) can be effective for FG college students at these 2-year campuses. By considering the tenets of cultural mismatch theory in the creation of the values-affirmation interventions we were able to vary different aspects of the intervention in order to examine how its effectiveness may depend on the nature and magnitude of a perceived cultural mismatch. Results from surveying faculty and students at 2-year colleges indicated that compared to traditional 4-year institutions, the norms of 2-year colleges and the motivations of FG students may be different. That is, FG student motives may be more consistent (and thus less mismatched) with the cultural context of 2-year colleges which could result in

  10. Differences in Multitask Resource Reallocation After Change in Task Values

    OpenAIRE

    Matton , Nadine; Paubel , Pierre-Vincent; Cegarra , Julien; Raufaste , Éric

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Objective The objective was to characterize multitask resource reallocation strategies when managing subtasks with various assigned values.Background When solving a resource conflict in multitasking, Salvucci and Taatgen predict a globally rational strategy will be followed that favors the most urgent subtask and optimizes global performance. However, Katidioti and Taatgen identified a locally rational strategy that optimizes only a subcomponent of the whole task, lead...

  11. Regional ADC values of the normal brain: differences due to age, gender, and laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Kimihide; Katagiri, Toshio; Mimura, Takeo; Ishigaki, Takeo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of measurement for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in normal brain, to clarify the effect of aging on ADC values, to compare ADC values between men and women, and to compare ADC values between right and left sides of the brain. To evaluate the stability of measurements, five normal volunteers (four men and one woman) were examined five times on different days. Then, 294 subjects with normal MR imaging (147 men and 147 women; age range 20-89 years) were measured. The ADC measurement in normal volunteers was stable. The ADC values stayed within the 5% deviation of average values in all volunteers (mean+/-standard deviation 2.3+/-1.2%). The ADC values gradually increased by aging in all regions. In thalamus, no significant difference was seen between right and left in the subjects under 60 years; however, right side showed higher values in the subjects over 60 years (pright frontal, bilateral thalamus, and temporal (pbrain and may be useful for the future quantitative study as a reference.

  12. Biographical Narratives of Encounter: The Significance of Mobility and Emplacement in Shaping Attitudes towards Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadgrove, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This paper is located within work in urban studies about the significance of contact with difference as a means for reducing prejudice and achieving social change. Recent approaches, influenced by theories of affect, have emphasised non-conscious everyday negotiations of difference in the city. In this paper it is argued that such approaches lose sight of the significance of the subject: of the reflective judgements of ‘others’ made by individuals; of our ability to make decisions around the control of our feelings and identifications; and of the significance of personal pasts and collective histories in shaping the ways we perceive and react to encounters. Rather, this paper uses a biographical approach focusing on interviewees’ narratives of encounter. Through its attention to processes of mobility and emplacement, it contributes to debates about when contact with difference matters by highlighting the importance of everyday social normativities in the production of moral dispositions. PMID:26300566

  13. Potential Causes of Significant Inventory Differences at Bulk Handling Facilities and the Importance of Inventory Difference Action Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homer, Alan; O’Hagan, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    Accountancy for nuclear material can be split into two categories. Firstly, where possible, accountancy should be in terms of items that can be transferred as discrete packages and their contents fixed at the time of their creation. All items must remain accounted for at all times, and a single missing item is considered significant. Secondly, where nuclear material is unconstrained, for example in a reprocessing plant where it can change form, there is an uncertainty that relates to the amount of material present in any location. Cumulatively, these uncertainties can be summed and provide a context for any estimate of material in a process. Any apparent loss or gain between what has been physically measured within a facility during its physical inventory take and what is reported within its nuclear material accounts is known as an inventory difference. The cumulative measurement uncertainties can be used to set an action level for the inventory difference so that if an inventory difference is observed outside of such action levels, the difference is classified as significant and an investigation to find the root cause(s) is required. The purpose of this paper is to explore the potential causes of significant inventory differences and to provide a framework within which an inventory difference investigation can be carried out.

  14. Practical differences in business valuation using the market value, value in use and the value for price negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Vlček, Michal

    2010-01-01

    This thesis aims to explain the basic characteristics of valuation method in practice use. The first chapter is about basic character of each method of valuation and factors which influence its applicability. The second chapter mentions estimation of market value/appraisal, includes affecting factors. Then, the third and fourth parts aim to comparing these appraisals (market. vs. price bargaining, subjective and objective, complex appraisal) and price formation for price bargaining in the Cze...

  15. What's valued most? Similarities and differences between the organizational values of the public and private sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Z.; de Graaf, G.; Lasthuizen, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    In recent administrative and organizational literature much attention has been paid to values that guide organizational and managerial behaviour in the public and private domain. Comparative empirical research efforts, however, are sparse. This article reports the results of a comparative empirical

  16. Racial Differences in and Prognostic Value of Biomarkers of Hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Christina M; Sharrett, A Richey; Maruthur, Nisa M; Bergenstal, Richard M; Grams, Morgan E; Coresh, Josef; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    We compared levels and associations of traditional (fasting glucose, HbA1c) and nontraditional (fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol [1,5-AG]) biomarkers of hyperglycemia with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), incident end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and prevalent retinopathy in black and white adults. We included 10,373 participants without (8,096 white, 2,277 black) and 727 with diagnosed diabetes (425 white, 302 black) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. We used Cox proportional hazards models to compare hazards ratios of CVD and ESRD among blacks and whites from baseline (1990-1992) through 2012. We compared the odds ratios (from logistic regression) of retinopathy among blacks and whites. We tested for the interaction of each biomarker with race. Median values of biomarkers were higher among blacks versus whites (all P 0.10). The prognostic value of HbA1c, fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-AG with incident CVD, incident ESRD, and prevalent retinopathy were similar by race. Our results support similar interpretation of HbA1c and nontraditional biomarkers of hyperglycemia among black and whites with respect to long-term complications. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  17. Comparison of ADC values in different malignancies of the skeletal musculature: a multicentric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surov, Alexey [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Radiology, Halle (Germany); University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Nagata, Shuji [Kurume University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kurume (Japan); Razek, Ahmed A. Abd [Mansoura Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Mansoura (Egypt); Tirumani, Sree Harsha [Harvard Medical School, Department of Imaging, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Wienke, Andreas [Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Institute of Medical Epidemiology, Biometry, and Statistics, Halle (Germany); Kahn, Thomas [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-04-28

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) provides essential information regarding tumor composition, such as cellularity and/or perfusion. DWI is helpful in distinguishing between malignant and benign lesions. Malignant intramuscular/soft tissue lesions consist of a wide spectrum of tumors that have different cell counts and matrix. It is presumed that these different tumors have different DWI findings and have different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values. The aim of this study was to analyze DWI findings of different intramuscular malignancies in a multicentric study by using a standardized DWI protocol, and to compare the ADC values acquired. The data banks of four radiology departments were screened retrospectively for malignant intramuscular tumors. Only lesions that were investigated by MRI (with a 1.5-T scanner) using DWI (multishot EPI sequence with b values of 0 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) were included in the study. Overall, 51 patients (28 women, 23 men; mean age 58.8 ± 16.1 years) with 57 different malignant intramuscular lesions were collected. In every case apparent diffusion constant (ADC) maps were calculated. In 14 patients muscle lymphoma, 11 patients intramuscular metastases from different primary tumors, and in 26 cases several muscle sarcomas were identified. The mean ADC value of the estimated lesions was 1.24 ± 0.53 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, median value, 1.11 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, range, 0.54-2.9 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. The mean ADC value in muscle metastases was 1.28 ± 0.24 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, in muscle lymphoma 0.76 ± 0.14 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}, and in muscle sarcomas 1.82 ± 0.63 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}s{sup -1}. Muscle lymphoma showed statistically significant lower ADC values in comparison to muscle metastases (p = 0.01) and muscle sarcoma (p = 0.001). There was no significant differences between ADC values in muscle metastases and sarcomas (p = 0.48). ADC values in muscle lymphoma were

  18. Age, Period, and Cohort Differences in Work Centrality and Work Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Hajdu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze whether work values differ between three dimensions of time (age, birth cohort, period. Using data of five waves of the World Values Survey and the European Values Study from more than forty countries and hierarchical age-period-cohort regression models, we did not find relevant gaps between birth cohorts with respect to the relative importance of work or with respect to work values. Thus, we claim that, in European and Euro-Atlantic countries, birth cohorts, on average, do not differ significantly with regard to their work values. Our results suggest, however, that the relative importance of work is significantly higher in the middle-age groups than among the younger or older groups. Regarding work values, we found that the importance of having an interesting job, good pay, and good hours decreases with age, and that job security is equally important at every age, whereas the importance of having a useful job increases with age.

  19. Music makes a difference?! : The values of music

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karolien Dons

    2013-01-01

    Music and culture play a significant role in the political and societal development of a peaceful and integrative Europe. Music and its diverse expressions are extremely relevant for social cohesion, wellbeing and economic growth. What kind of an impact can music have? And how can we combine

  20. Elk Distributions Relative to Spring Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallidge, S.T.; Baker, T.T.; VanLeeuwen, D.; Gould, W.R.; Thompson, B.C.

    2010-01-01

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) that winter near San Antonio Mountain in northern New Mexico provide important recreational and economic benefits while creating management challenges related to temporospatial variation in their spring movements. Our objective was to examine spring distributions of elk in relation to vegetative emergence as it progresses across the landscape as measured by remote sensing. Spring distributions of elk were closely associated with greater photosynthetic activity of spring vegetation in 2 of 3 years as determined using NDVI values derived from AVHRR datasets. Observed elk locations were up to 271% greater than expected in the category representing the most photosynthetic activity. This association was not observed when analyses at a finer geographic scale were conducted. Managers facing challenges involving human-wildlife interactions and land-use issues should consider environmental conditions that may influence variation in elk association with greener portions of the landscape.

  1. Economic values for dairy production traits under different milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cuthbert

    A well-defined breeding objective forms the basis of a sound breeding programme. .... (ZAR per unit) by breed under different milk payment systems. Milk Buyer. Breed. Trait. A. B. C .... Veerkamp, R.F., Dillon, P., Kelly, A.R. & Groen, A.F., 2002.

  2. The First Difference Property of the Present Value Operator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buser, Stephen A.; Jensen, Bjarne Astrup

    2017-01-01

    of differential calculus and advanced series summation in order to derive these analytic results. We apply the method to a variety of nontraditional cash flows, including cash flows with linear growth or decay, cash flows that are subject to different true effects for dividends and capital gain, and cash flows...... that are projected to exhibit cyclical variation over time....

  3. Comparison of the practical diagnostic value of different tomographic movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laehde, S.; Vuoria, P.

    1977-01-01

    The practical results of linear and circular tomography with angles of 6, 20, 30 and 45 degrees and spiral tomography were compared. The spiral proved to be suitable as a tomographic movement for different purposes. In zonography, circular movement with 6 degrees of deviation proved suitable. The linear movement presented no advantages when compared with the multidirectional movements. ( orig.) [de

  4. Diagnostic value of Doppler echocardiography for identifying hemodynamic significant pulmonary valve regurgitation in tetralogy of Fallot: comparison with cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beurskens, Niek E G; Gorter, Thomas M; Pieper, Petronella G; Hoendermis, Elke S; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Ebels, Tjark; Berger, Rolf M F; Willems, Tineke P; van Melle, Joost P

    2017-11-01

    Quantification of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) is essential in the management of patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sought to evaluate the accuracy of first-line Doppler echocardiography in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify hemodynamic significant PR. Paired cardiac MRI and echocardiographic studies (n = 97) in patients with repaired TOF were retrospectively analyzed. Pressure half time (PHT) and pulmonary regurgitation index (PRi) were measured using continuous wave Doppler. The ratio of the color flow Doppler regurgitation jet width to pulmonary valve (PV) annulus (jet/annulus ratio) and diastolic to systolic time velocity integral (DSTVI; pulsed wave Doppler) were assessed. Accuracy of echocardiographic measurements was tested to identify significant PR as determined by phase-contrast MRI (PR fraction [PRF] ≥ 20%). Mean PRF was 29.4 ± 15.7%. PHT < 100 ms had a sensitivity of 93%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 92% and negative predictive value (NPV) 78% for identifying significant PR (C-statistic 0.82). PRi < 0.77 had sensitivity and specificity of 66% and 54%, respectively (C-statistic 0.63). Jet/annulus ratio ≥1/3 had sensitivity 96%, specificity 75%, PPV 92% and NPV 82% (C-statistic 0.87). DSTVI had sensitivity 84%, specificity 33%, PPV 84% and NPV 40%, (C-statistic 0.56). Combined jet/annulus ratio ≥1/3 and PHT < 100 ms was highly accurate in identifying PRF ≥ 20%, with sensitivity 97% and specificity 100%. PHT and jet/annulus ratio on Doppler echocardiography, especially when combined, are highly accurate in identifying significant PR and therefore seem useful in the follow-up of patients with repaired TOF.

  5. Significance of normalized residual activity value (Nora) - the new parameter of isotopic renography - for the diagnosis of patients with obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juszczyk-Gontaszewska, M.; Gontaszewski, W.; Rogowski, F.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to establish NORA values typical of patients with compensated and uncompensated obstructive uropathy. 147 results of renoscintigraphies carried out after the application of Tc-99m DTPA with furosemide diuretic test were analyzed. The patients were divided into three groups: the group with compensated obstructive uropathy, the group with uncompensated obstructive uropathy, and the controlled group. NORA-1 and NORA-2 values were calculated in each patient, for each kidney separately. It was established that the mean NORA-1 values in the three groups (the controlled group, the compensated uropathy group, and the uncompensated uropathy group) were significantly different, thus enabling differentiation between them. Based on the examination described above, the following conclusions wee drawn: 1. NORA is an effective differentiation index for compensated and uncompensated uropathy. 2. NORA values should be routinely calculated in every case of isotopic diuretic renography. (author)

  6. Ethnic and locational differences in ecosystem service values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuni Sanchez, Aida; Pfeifer, Marion; Marchant, Rob

    2016-01-01

    location. Preferred plant species for food, fodder, medicine resources, poles and firewood followed the same pattern. Our results showed that ethnicity and location affect ecosystem services' identification and importance ranking. This should be taken into account by decision-makers, e.g. as restricted......Understanding cultural preferences toward different ecosystem services is of great importance for conservation and development planning. While cultural preferences toward plant species have been long studied in the field of plant utilisation, the effects of ethnicity on ecosystem services...... identification and valuation has received little attention. We assessed the effects of ethnicity toward different ecosystem services at three similar forest islands in northern Kenya inhabited by Samburu and Boran pastoralists. Twelve focus groups were organised in each mountain, to evaluate the ecosystem...

  7. Clinical value of different detection methods in blunt ocular trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular can cause persistent change of eye structure and function, the method of detection which is closely related to eye injury including B-can ultrasonography, UBM, OCT, FFA, scanning laser polarimetry, fundus autofluorescence, each examination with particular emphasis. This paper aims to review the advantages and disadvantages of different inspection methods in order to provide reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment of blunt ocular trauma.

  8. Significance analysis of the regional differences on icing time of water onto fire protective clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L. Z.; Jing, L. S.; Zhang, X. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, T.; Hu, C.; Bao, Z. M.; Fu, X. C.; Wang, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y. J.

    2017-09-01

    The object of this work was to determine the icing temperature in icing experiment. Firstly, a questionnaire investigation was carried out on 38 fire detachments in different regions. These Statistical percentage results were divided into northern east group and northern west group. Secondly, a significance analysis between these two results was made using Mann-Whitney U test. Then the icing temperature was determined in different regions. Thirdly, the icing experiment was made in the environment of -20°C in Daxing’an Mountain. The anti-icing effect of new fire protective clothing was verified in this icing.

  9. Prognostic significance of standardized uptake value on preoperative 18F-FDG PET/CT in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hye Jin; Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Woo Jung; Jo, Kwanhyeong; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Jae-Hoon; Ryu, Young Hoon

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with ampullary adenocarcinoma (AAC) after curative surgical resection. Fifty-two patients with AAC who had undergone 18 F-FDG PET/CT and subsequent curative resections were retrospectively enrolled. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) and tumor to background ratio (TBR) were measured on 18 F-FDG PET/CT in all patients. The prognostic significances of PET/CT parameters and clinicopathologic factors for recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 52 patients, 19 (36.5 %) experienced tumor recurrence during the follow-up period and 18 (35.8 %) died. The 3-year RFS and OS were 62.3 and 61.5 %, respectively. Preoperative CA19-9 level, tumor differentiation, presence of lymph node metastasis, SUV max , and TBR were significant prognostic factors for both RFS and OS (p < 0.05) on univariate analyses, and patient age showed significance only for predicting RFS (p < 0.05). On multivariate analyses, SUV max and TBR were independent prognostic factors for RFS, and tumor differentiation, SUV max , and TBR were independent prognostic factors for OS. SUV max and TBR on preoperative 18 F-FDG PET/CT are independent prognostic factors for predicting RFS and OS in patients with AAC; patients with high SUV max (>4.80) or TBR (>1.75) had poor survival outcomes. The role of and indications for adjuvant therapy after curative resection of AAC are still unclear. 18 F-FDG uptake in the primary tumor could provide additive prognostic information for the decision-making process regarding adjuvant therapy. (orig.)

  10. THE IMPORTANCE OF ‘SIGNIFICANT OTHERS’ IN BRIDGING THE GAPS BETWEEN DIFFERENT READING CONTEXTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Karin Svensson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The current research is an in-depth study of four pre-service teachers’ own experience of reading in various contexts and for different reasons. The aim is to analyse what has been significant regarding reading in a life history perspective by the use of narratives. A socio-cultural perspective on reading is used as analysis tool. The over-arching result from analysing pre-service teachers’ narratives is that reading is a relational process regardless of the context reading takes place in. The emerging themes allow a deeper understanding on critical aspects for developing reading in various contexts and at different levels. Significant others seem important in every reading practice, from new readers in primary school to pre-service teachers’ reading at university level. The narratives reveal a need for bridging the gaps that arise between the reading practices in the various contexts that students meet in school and university.

  11. Significant differences in physicochemical properties of human immunoglobulin kappa and lambda CDR3 regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Townsend

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain and in humans there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain CDR-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 - light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains, and probed the Protein Data Bank (PDB to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors, but can differ between donors. This indicates that TdT may work with differing efficiencies between different people, but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  12. Significant Differences in Physicochemical Properties of Human Immunoglobulin Kappa and Lambda CDR3 Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Catherine L; Laffy, Julie M J; Wu, Yu-Chang Bryan; Silva O'Hare, Joselli; Martin, Victoria; Kipling, David; Fraternali, Franca; Dunn-Walters, Deborah K

    2016-01-01

    Antibody variable regions are composed of a heavy and a light chain, and in humans, there are two light chain isotypes: kappa and lambda. Despite their importance in receptor editing, the light chain is often overlooked in the antibody literature, with the focus being on the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)-H3 region. In this paper, we set out to investigate the physicochemical and structural differences between human kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. We constructed a dataset containing over 29,000 light chain variable region sequences from IgM-transcribing, newly formed B cells isolated from human bone marrow and peripheral blood. We also used a published human naïve dataset to investigate the CDR-H3 properties of heavy chains paired with kappa and lambda light chains and probed the Protein Data Bank to investigate the structural differences between kappa and lambda antibody CDR regions. We found that kappa and lambda light chains have very different CDR physicochemical and structural properties, whereas the heavy chains with which they are paired do not differ significantly. We also observed that the mean CDR3 N nucleotide addition in the kappa, lambda, and heavy chain gene rearrangements are correlated within donors but can differ between donors. This indicates that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase may work with differing efficiencies between different people but the same efficiency in the different classes of immunoglobulin chain within one person. We have observed large differences in the physicochemical and structural properties of kappa and lambda light chain CDR regions. This may reflect different roles in the humoral immune response.

  13. Mild cognitive impairment. Diagnostic value of different MR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, T.; Stieltjes, B.; Essig, M.; Thomann, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    In view of an increasingly aging population the prevalence of dementia is also expected to increase rapidly. As well as clinical, neuropsychological and laboratory procedures magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the early diagnosis of dementia which is important in the precursor stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). On the one hand this stage is associated with an increased risk of dementia and on the other hand an early treatment in this stage could attenuate development of the disease. In addition to morphological changes different functional MRI techniques can help in the early diagnosis of dementia and the precursor stages. Moreover, it is important to detect those MCI patients who are at particularly risk for developing dementia. In the differentiation of converters to non-converters initial studies suggest that particularly voxel-based morphometry, MR spectroscopy and diffusion tensor imaging can provide important additional information. (orig.) [de

  14. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings.

  15. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  16. ARFI cut-off values and significance of standard deviation for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Sturm, Joerg; Pfeifer, Lukas; Wildner, Dane; Wachter, David L; Neurath, Markus F; Strobel, Deike

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry quantifies hepatic stiffness, and thus degree of fibrosis, non-invasively. Our aim was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI cut-off values, and the significance of a defined limit of standard deviation (SD) as a potential quality parameter for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). 153 patients with CLD (various aetiologies) undergoing liver biopsy, and an additional 25 patients with known liver cirrhosis, were investigated. ARFI measurements were performed in the right hepatic lobe, and correlated with the histopathological Ludwig fibrosis score (inclusion criteria: at least 6 portal tracts). The diagnostic accuracy of cut-off values was analysed with respect to an SD limit of 30% of the mean ARFI value. The mean ARFI elastometry showed 1.95 ± 0.87 m/s (range 0.79-4.40) in 178 patients (80 female, 98 male, mean age: 52 years). The cut-offs were 1.25 m/s for F ≥ 2, 1.72 m/s for F ≥ 3 and 1.75 m/s for F = 4, and the corresponding AUROC 80.7%, 86.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Exclusion of 31 patients (17.4%) with an SD higher than 30% of the mean ARFI improved the diagnostic accuracy: The AUROC for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 were 86.1%, 91.2% and 91.5%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI can be improved by applying a maximum SD of 30% of the mean ARFI as a quality parameter--which however leads to an exclusion of a relevant number of patients. ARFI results with a high SD should be interpreted with caution.

  17. Significant clinical differences in primary hyperparathyroidism between patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Kuroki, Syoji; Tanaka, Masao

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the differences in diagnosis and treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) in patients with and those without concomitant thyroid disease. One hundred and ten patients with pHPT underwent parathyroid localization and thyroid examination by ultrasonography (US) and sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI). The clinical and biochemical findings, parathyroid localization, and operations performed were compared in 49 patients without thyroid disease and 61 patients with thyroid disease. Asymptomatic hypercalcemia was significantly more prevalent in patients with concomitant thyroid disease (88.5%) than in those without thyroid disease (49.0%) (P<0.01). The mean serum calcium was significantly higher and the inorganic phosphate level was significantly lower in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The pathologic parathyroid gland was identified significantly more often in patients without concomitant thyroid disease than in those with concomitant thyroid disease both by US and MIBI (P<0.05). Unilateral exploration was performed more often in patients without thyroid disease than in those with thyroid disease (P<0.01). Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed at an earlier stage in patients with concomitant thyroid disease. Thyroid disease concomitant with pHPT influenced parathyroid localization as well as the indication for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. (author)

  18. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  19. Increased frequency of retinopathy of prematurity over the last decade and significant regional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Gerd; Tornqvist, Kristina; Al-Hawasi, Abbas; Nilsson, Åsa; Wallin, Agneta; Hellström, Ann

    2018-03-01

    Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) causes childhood blindness globally in prematurely born infants. Although increased levels of oxygen supply lead to increased survival and reduced frequency of cerebral palsy, increased incidence of ROP is reported. With the help of a Swedish register for ROP, SWEDROP, national and regional incidences of ROP and frequencies of treatment were evaluated from 2008 to 2015 (n = 5734), as well as before and after targets of provided oxygen changed from 85-89% to 91-95% in 2014. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) was found in 31.9% (1829/5734) of all infants with a gestational age (GA) of <31 weeks at birth and 5.7% of the infants (329/5734) had been treated for ROP. Analyses of the national data revealed an increased incidence of ROP during the 8-year study period (p = 0.003), but there was no significant increase in the frequency of treatment. There were significant differences between the seven health regions of Sweden, regarding both incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment (p < 0.001). Comparison of regional data before and after the new oxygen targets revealed a significant increase in treated ROP in one region [OR: 2.24 (CI: 1.11-4.49), p = 0.024] and a borderline increase in one other [OR: 3.08 (CI: 0.99-9.60), p = 0.052]. The Swedish national ROP register revealed an increased incidence of ROP during an 8-year period and significant regional differences regarding the incidence of ROP and frequency of treatment. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashin, Alexander A.; Domagalski, Marcin J.; Zimmermann, Michael T.; Minor, Wladek; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Jernigan, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  1. Factors correlating with significant differences between X-ray structures of myoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashin, Alexander A., E-mail: alexander-rashin@hotmail.com [BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States); Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Domagalski, Marcin J. [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Zimmermann, Michael T. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); Minor, Wladek [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); Chruszcz, Maksymilian [University of Virginia, 1340 Jefferson Park Avenue, Jordan Hall, Room 4223, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (United States); University of South Carolina, 631 Sumter Street, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Jernigan, Robert L. [Iowa State University, 112 Office and Lab Bldg, Ames, IA 50011-3020 (United States); BioChemComp Inc., 543 Sagamore Avenue, Teaneck, NJ 07666 (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Conformational differences between myoglobin structures are studied. Most structural differences in whale myoglobin beyond the uncertainty threshold can be correlated with a few specific structural factors. There are always exceptions and a search for additional factors is needed. The results might have serious implications for biological insights from conformational differences. Validation of general ideas about the origins of conformational differences in proteins is critical in order to arrive at meaningful functional insights. Here, principal component analysis (PCA) and distance difference matrices are used to validate some such ideas about the conformational differences between 291 myoglobin structures from sperm whale, horse and pig. Almost all of the horse and pig structures form compact PCA clusters with only minor coordinate differences and outliers that are easily explained. The 222 whale structures form a few dense clusters with multiple outliers. A few whale outliers with a prominent distortion of the GH loop are very similar to the cluster of horse structures, which all have a similar GH-loop distortion apparently owing to intermolecular crystal lattice hydrogen bonds to the GH loop from residues near the distal histidine His64. The variations of the GH-loop coordinates in the whale structures are likely to be owing to the observed alternative intermolecular crystal lattice bond, with the change to the GH loop distorting bonds correlated with the binding of specific ‘unusual’ ligands. Such an alternative intermolecular bond is not observed in horse myoglobins, obliterating any correlation with the ligands. Intermolecular bonds do not usually cause significant coordinate differences and cannot be validated as their universal cause. Most of the native-like whale myoglobin structure outliers can be correlated with a few specific factors. However, these factors do not always lead to coordinate differences beyond the previously determined uncertainty

  2. Process of Judging Significant Modifications for Different Transportation Systems compared to the Approach for Nuclear Installations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Petrek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the CSM regulation by the European Commission in 2009 which harmonizes the risk assessment process and introduces a rather new concept of judging changes within the European railway industry. This circumstance has risen the question how other technology sectors handle the aspect of modifications and alterations. The paper discusses the approaches for judging the significance of modifications within the three transport sectors of European railways, aviation and maritime transportation and the procedure which is used in the area of nuclear safety. We will outline the similarities and differences between these four methods and discuss the underlying reasons. Finally, we will take into account the role of the European legislator and the fundamental idea of a harmonization of the different approaches.

  3. Different extraction pretreatments significantly change the flavonoid contents of Scutellaria baicalensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chunhao; Qu, Fengyun; Mao, Yanyong; Li, Dong; Zhen, Zhong; Nass, Rachael; Calway, Tyler; Wang, Yunwei; Yuan, Chun-Su; Wang, Chong-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Context Scutellaria baicalensis is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs, especially in traditional Chinese medicine. However, compared to many pharmacological studies of this botanical, much less attention has been paid to the quality control of the herb’s pretreatment prior to extract preparation, an issue that may affect therapeutic outcomes. Objective The current study was designed to evaluate whether different pretreatment conditions change the contents of its four major flavonoids in the herb, i.e., two glycosides (baicalin and wogonoside) and two aglycons (baicalein and wogonin). Materials and methods An HPLC assay was used to quantify the contents of these four flavonoids. The composition changes of four flavonoids by different pretreatment conditions including solvent, treatment time, temperature, pH value, and herb/solvent ratio were evaluated. Results After selection of the first order time-curve kinetics, our data showed that at 50°C, 1:5 herb/water (in w/v) ratio and pH 6.67 yielded an optimal conversion rate from flavonoid glycosides to their aglycons. In this optimized condition, the contents of baicalin and wogonoside were decreased to 1/70 and 1/13, while baicalein and wogonin were increased 3.5 and 3.1 folds, respectively, compared to untreated herb. Discussion and conclusion The markedly variable conversion rates by different pretreatment conditions complicated the quality control of this herb, mainly due to the high amount of endogenous enzymes of S. baicalensis. Optimal pretreatment conditions obtained from this study could be used obtain the highest level of desired constituents to achieve better pharmacological effects. PMID:23738852

  4. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 8): Lowry Landfill, Aurora, CO, October 24, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    Please be advised that there is an error within Attachment E (Technical Evaluation of Proposed Ground-Water Treatment and Disposal Alternatives) of the ''Responsiveness Summary for the Second Explanation of Significant Differences, Lowry Landfill Superfund Site'' document. The evaluation table, which summarizes the rankings of the two cleanup alternatives, failed to include numerical values for State Acceptance and Community Acceptance. Enclosed is a copy of the table as it should have appeared in Attachment E. Copies of this errata sheet are being mailed to all recipients of the Responsiveness Summary

  5. DNA entropy reveals a significant difference in complexity between housekeeping and tissue specific gene promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David; Finan, Chris; Newport, Melanie J; Jones, Susan

    2015-10-01

    The complexity of DNA can be quantified using estimates of entropy. Variation in DNA complexity is expected between the promoters of genes with different transcriptional mechanisms; namely housekeeping (HK) and tissue specific (TS). The former are transcribed constitutively to maintain general cellular functions, and the latter are transcribed in restricted tissue and cells types for specific molecular events. It is known that promoter features in the human genome are related to tissue specificity, but this has been difficult to quantify on a genomic scale. If entropy effectively quantifies DNA complexity, calculating the entropies of HK and TS gene promoters as profiles may reveal significant differences. Entropy profiles were calculated for a total dataset of 12,003 human gene promoters and for 501 housekeeping (HK) and 587 tissue specific (TS) human gene promoters. The mean profiles show the TS promoters have a significantly lower entropy (pentropy distributions for the 3 datasets show that promoter entropies could be used to identify novel HK genes. Functional features comprise DNA sequence patterns that are non-random and hence they have lower entropies. The lower entropy of TS gene promoters can be explained by a higher density of positive and negative regulatory elements, required for genes with complex spatial and temporary expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Super-resolution structure of DNA significantly differs in buccal cells of controls and Alzheimer's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angeles; Huang, David; Righolt, Amanda; Righolt, Christiaan; Kalaw, Maria Carmela; Mathur, Shubha; McAvoy, Elizabeth; Anderson, James; Luedke, Angela; Itorralba, Justine; Mai, Sabine

    2017-09-01

    The advent of super-resolution microscopy allowed for new insights into cellular and physiological processes of normal and diseased cells. In this study, we report for the first time on the super-resolved DNA structure of buccal cells from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus age- and gender-matched healthy, non-caregiver controls. In this super-resolution study cohort of 74 participants, buccal cells were collected and their spatial DNA organization in the nucleus examined by 3D Structured Illumination Microscopy (3D-SIM). Quantitation of the super-resolution DNA structure revealed that the nuclear super-resolution DNA structure of individuals with AD significantly differs from that of their controls (p structure of AD significantly differs in mild, moderate, and severe disease with respect to the DNA-containing and DNA-free/poor spaces. We conclude that whole genome remodeling is a feature of buccal cells in AD. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Subgroups of Paediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia Might Differ Significantly in Genetic Predisposition to Asparaginase Hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nóra Kutszegi

    Full Text Available L-asparaginase (ASP is a key element in the treatment of paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL. However, hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs to ASP are major challenges in paediatric patients. Our aim was to investigate genetic variants that may influence the risk to Escherichia coli-derived ASP hypersensitivity. Sample and clinical data collection was carried out from 576 paediatric ALL patients who were treated according to protocols from the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group. A total of 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in GRIA1 and GALNT10 genes were genotyped. Patients with GRIA1 rs4958351 AA/AG genotype showed significantly reduced risk to ASP hypersensitivity compared to patients with GG genotype in the T-cell ALL subgroup (OR = 0.05 (0.01-0.26; p = 4.70E-04, while no such association was found in pre-B-cell ALL. In the medium risk group two SNPs of GRIA1 (rs2055083 and rs707176 were associated significantly with the occurrence of ASP hypersensitivity (OR = 0.21 (0.09-0.53; p = 8.48E-04 and OR = 3.02 (1.36-6.73; p = 6.76E-03, respectively. Evaluating the genders separately, however, the association of rs707176 with ASP HSRs was confined only to females. Our results suggest that genetic variants of GRIA1 might influence the risk to ASP hypersensitivity, but subgroups of patients can differ significantly in this respect.

  8. Intrapartum caesarean rates differ significantly between ethnic groups--relationship to induction.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ismail, Khadijah I

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were

  9. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Rao, Jun; Shi, Jianxin; Hu, Chaoyang; Cheng, Fang; Wilson, Zoe A; Zhang, Dabing; Quan, Sheng

    2014-09-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world's major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While "omics" studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especially in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetically related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  10. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  11. Statistically significant faunal differences among Middle Ordovician age, Chickamauga Group bryozoan bioherms, central Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Middle Ordovician age Chickamauga Group carbonates crop out along the Birmingham and Murphrees Valley anticlines in central Alabama. The macrofossil contents on exposed surfaces of seven bioherms have been counted to determine their various paleontologic characteristics. Twelve groups of organisms are present in these bioherms. Dominant organisms include bryozoans, algae, brachiopods, sponges, pelmatozoans, stromatoporoids and corals. Minor accessory fauna include predators, scavengers and grazers such as gastropods, ostracods, trilobites, cephalopods and pelecypods. Vertical and horizontal niche zonation has been detected for some of the bioherm dwelling fauna. No one bioherm of those studied exhibits all 12 groups of organisms; rather, individual bioherms display various subsets of the total diversity. Statistical treatment (G-test) of the diversity data indicates a lack of statistical homogeneity of the bioherms, both within and between localities. Between-locality population heterogeneity can be ascribed to differences in biologic responses to such gross environmental factors as water depth and clarity, and energy levels. At any one locality, gross aspects of the paleoenvironments are assumed to have been more uniform. Significant differences among bioherms at any one locality may have resulted from patchy distribution of species populations, differential preservation and other factors.

  12. Clinical Significance and Characteristic Clinical Differences of Cytolytic Vaginosis in Recurrent Vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhua; Zhang, Yuexiang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Jianhong; Chen, Shuqin; Li, Shuxia

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate whether cytolytic vaginosis (CV) has important clinical implications for recurrent vulvovaginitis and to identify clinical differences between CV and vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). Medical histories, physical examinations and laboratory findings were used to diagnose and assess the prevalence rates of various vulvovaginal infections among 536 women with recurrent vulvovaginitis. Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare age, menstrual cycle phase at episode onset, symptoms/signs of infection and discharge characteristics between CV and VVC with single infection. Among the 484 women with a single-infection recurrent vulvovaginitis, the prevalence of CV (n = 143; 26.7%) was second only to VVC (n = 196; 36.6%). CV symptoms occurred predominantly during the ovulatory and luteal phases. Meanwhile, VVC episodes were not concentrated premenstrually, but rather occurred throughout the menstrual cycle. Significant differences were found in the vaginal pH, discharge characteristics and frequency of inflammatory symptoms between the 2 groups. CV is clinically important, because it is a common cause of recurrent vulvovaginitis. To distinguish CV from VVC, gynecologists should consider the patient's medical history, physical and laboratory findings, vaginal pH and vaginal discharge characteristics. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Significant profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Jeanette Lötter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different adventure activities/experiences evolve because individuals, their motives, behaviours, and experiences differ and change over time. This notion illustrates the broad nature of adventure tourism and its links with other forms of tourism. In turn, adventure tourism companies are compelled to promote/sell an array of activities/experiences to a diverse range of markets as novel and exclusive experiences to facilitate the growth of adventure holidays (Swarbrooke et al., 2003. To assist adventure tourism companies in achieving effective marketing strategies, the study’s objective is to identify significant sociopsychological profile differences among male and female adventure tourists in Pretoria, South Africa. Furthermore, to facilitate the comparison of adventure tourists’ profiles, an equal number of respondents were male (117 and female (117, which provided a 93.6% response rate. In comparison to female respondents, male respondents prefer winter as a season to participate in hard/high-risk adventure activities when they are with or without their family, and they participate in adventure activities for travelling and socialising purposes. Whereas, female respondents predominantly regard scuba-diving, abseiling, and helicopter flights as a hard/high-risk adventure activity, although these activities are generally regarded by the overall sample as being soft/low-risk adventure activities. Furthermore, even though females’ participation in adventure activities is sponsored, they did not participate or only participated in adventure activities once over the past year due to fear/risk and/or lack of skill. This study established that there is a need to further research adventure tourists’ profiles before it could be equally accepted and interpreted.

  14. Value and significance of tumor markers as CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199 and CYFRA21-1 in the diagnosis of cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Juan Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the value and significance of serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199 and CYFRA21-1 in the diagnosis of cervical cancer by comparing the detection of five serum markers. Methods: A total of 108 cases were divided into three groups, including 60 cervical cancerpatients and 20 cervical intraepithelial neoplasiain patients treated in our hospital from September 2015 to September 2016 and 28 healthy women. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect and compare the serum levels of CA125, CA199, CYFRA21-1 and ELISA method was used to detect and compare the serum levels of SCC-Ag, CEA. Results: (1 There was no statistically significant difference in the serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels between CIN group and control group. The serums CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. (2There were statistically significant differences in the serum CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels between different cervical pathological type groups.The serum CA125, CA199, CEA levels of cervical glandular cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. The serum SCC-Ag, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical squamous cancer patients were significantly higher than the other two groups. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: The serums CEA, CA125, SCC-Ag, CA199, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical cancer patients were significantly higher than cervical intraepithelial neoplasiain patients and healthy women. The serum CA125, CA199, CEA levels of cervical glandular cancer patients were significantly higher and the serum SCC-Ag, CYFRA21-1 levels of cervical squamous cancer patients were significantly higher. The five tumor markers can be used in diagnosis of cervical cancer and they are also worthy in distinguishing cervical pathological types.

  15. Age- and gender-associated differences in electrical impedance values of skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortman, Hans G J; Wilder, Sarah C; Geisbush, Tom R; Narayanaswami, Pushpa; Rutkove, Seward B

    2013-01-01

    Electrical impedance measurements of skeletal muscle may be sensitive to age-associated declines in muscle health. In an effort to evaluate this concept further, we performed electrical impedance myography (EIM) using a handheld array on 38 individuals aged 19–50 years and 41 individuals aged 60–85 years. Individuals either had seven upper extremity or seven lower extremity muscles measured. The 50 kHz reactance, resistance and phase were used as the major outcome variables. Although the phase values were similar in both groups, both reactance and resistance values were lower in the lower extremities of the older individuals as compared to the younger (−23 ± 6%, p = 0.001 for reactance and −27 ± 7%, p = 0.005 for resistance), whereas changes in upper extremity values were not significantly different (−9 ± 5%, p = 0.096 for reactance and +5 ± 9%, p = 0.55 for resistance). When analyzing the genders separately, it became clear that this reduction in lower extremity values was most pronounced in men and less consistently present in women. These findings suggest that age- and gender-associated differences in muscle condition are detectable using EIM. The relationship of these easily obtained parameters to standard functional, imaging, and pathological markers of sarcopenia deserves further study. (paper)

  16. [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Xiang, Qingke; Liu, Zhongqi; Xiao, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in

  17. The influence of cross-cultural differences on consumer values: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostelijk, Erik Jan; Alsem, Karel Jan; Ali, Semra

    2017-01-01

    Values motivate consumer behaviour. The objective of this research is to show the impact of cultural differences on the consumer value system. The Netherlands and Chile were compared to identify to what extent differences between both cultures have an effect on what consumers value, and how this

  18. TNF-α in CRPS and 'normal' trauma--significant differences between tissue and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Heidrun H; Eberle, Tatiana; Uçeyler, Nurcan; Wagner, Ina; Klonschinsky, Thomas; Müller, Lars P; Sommer, Claudia; Birklein, Frank

    2011-02-01

    Posttraumatic TNF-alpha signaling may be one of the factors responsible for pain and hyperalgesia in complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS). In order to further specify the role of TNF-alpha we investigated tissue (skin) and serum concentrations in three different patient groups: patients with osteoarthritis and planned surgery, with acute traumatic upper limb bone fracture waiting for surgery, and with CRPS I. Thirty patients (10 in each group) were recruited. Mean CRPS duration was 36.1 ± 8.1 weeks (range 8- 90 weeks). Skin punch biopsies were taken at the beginning of the surgery in osteoarthritis and fracture patients and from the affected side in CRPS patients. Blood samples were taken before the respective procedures. Skin and serum TNF-alpha levels were quantified by ELISA. Compared to patients with osteoarthritis, skin TNF-alpha was significantly elevated in CRPS (pCRPS patients was higher than in patients with acute bone fracture (pCRPS, and lower in fracture patients (pCRPS patients. This increase persists for months after limb trauma and may offer the opportunity for targeted treatment. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scratch deformation behavior of thermoplastic materials with significant differences in ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadal, R.S.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study of the scratch deformation behavior of neat ethylene-propylene copolymers and polypropylene with significant differences in ductility is made by combining morphological examination by electron microscopy and scratch deformation parameters by atomic force microscopy. Also, the deformation behavior during scratch tests is examined for their respective long and short chain polymers. The ability of polymeric materials to resist scratch deformation under identical scratch test conditions follows the sequence (from maximum resistance to minimum resistance): short chain polypropylene > long chain polypropylene > short chain ethylene-propylene > long chain ethylene-propylene. The scratch tracks in ethylene-propylene copolymers were characterized by a consecutive parabolic pattern containing voids, while polypropylenes exhibited zig-zag periodic scratch tracks. The greater plastic flow in ethylene-propylene copolymers is encouraged by the high ductility of the copolymer and the ability to nucleate microvoids. The quasi-static periodic scratch tracks are a consequence of sequential accumulation and release of tangential force and represents the stick-slip process. The susceptibility to scratch deformation is discussed in terms of modulus, elastic recovery, scratch hardness, and entanglement density of polymeric materials. A higher effective entanglement density and percentage crystallinity of short chain polymers is helpful in enhancing scratch resistance as compared to their respective long chain polymers

  20. No gender differences in prognosis and preventive treatment in patients with AMI without significant stenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim; Hvelplund, Anders; Abildstrøm, Steen Zabell

    2011-01-01

    : By compiling data from Danish registries, we identified 20,800 patients hospitalized with AMI during 2005-2007. We included the 834 women and 761 men without significant stenoses on CAG who were discharged and alive after 60 days. Main outcome measures: All-cause mortality, recurrent AMI, and redeeming...... a prescription for a lipid-lowering drug, beta-blocker, clopidogrel, or aspirin within 60 days of discharge. Results: During follow-up, 97 women and 60 men died, resulting in a crude female/male hazard ratio (HR) of 1.51 (95% CI 1.09-2.08). After adjustment for age, time-period, and comorbidity, the gender...... difference was attenuated (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.86-1.72). AMI recurrence was experienced by 28 women and 29 men with a female/male HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.52-1.48). After multivariable adjustment results were similar (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50-1.43). More women than men redeemed a prescription for lipid-lowering drugs...

  1. The cultural differences in perceived value of disclosure and cognition: Spain and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainsinger, Robin L; Núñez-Olarte, Juan M; Demoissac, Donna M

    2003-01-01

    A previous multicentre international study on sedation at the end of life has detected major differences between Canadian and Spanish patients. This was particularly evident in the need to sedate Spanish patients for psychological/existential distress. This study was designed to explore the hypothesis that marked differences in the value patients and families attach to disclosure and cognition were a factor. The study population included patients referred to two palliative care consulting services based in acute care hospitals in Madrid, Spain (M), and in Edmonton, Canada (E). Questions addressed the issue of clear thinking, pain/nausea-medication-induced somnolence/confusion, anxiety/antidepressant-medication-induced somnolence/confusion, details of diagnosis. One hundred patients were evaluated on each site. Patients and families in E placed a higher value on clear thinking, change in medication causing somnolence/confusion, and wanting full disclosure. Patients and families in E agreed almost 100% of the time, while agreement in M varied from 42% to 67%. These results suggest major differences in the perceived value of clear cognition and disclosure of information between patients and families in E and M. The lack of agreement between patients and families in M is a further significant factor that may complicate communication with patients and families, as well as medical management.

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF DIFFERENT ANTIOXIDANTS ON FAT STABILITY IN BROILER RATIONS: THIOBARBITURIC ACID VALUES

    OpenAIRE

    Ghulam Mustafa, Fawad Ahmad, Arfan Yousaf and Asad Ullah Hyder

    2002-01-01

    Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value was significantly (P< 0.05) affected by storage period, fat levels and antioxidants but the interaction of these factors was non significant. TBA value increased with the increase in storage period, however, the increase was relatively less during first 14 days of storage then a significant increase in TBA was observed as the storage period prolonged. Rations containing 4% fat have greater TBA value than the rations containing 2 or 3% fat. There was also a sign...

  3. Value of PAX1 Methylation Analysis by MS-HRM in the Triage of Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Rong; Wang, Zhen-Ming; Wang, Yu-Hui; Wang, Xi-Bo; Zhao, Jian-Qiang; Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiang, Fu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Detection of cervical high grade lesions in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is still a challenge. Our study tested the efficacy of the paired boxed gene 1 (PAX1) methylation analysis by methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) in the detection of high grade lesions in ASCUS and compared performance with the hybrid capture 2 (HC2) human papillomavirus (HPV) test. A total of 463 consecutive ASCUS women from primary screening were selected. Their cervical scrapings were collected and assessed by PAX1 methylation analysis (MS-HRM) and high-risk HPV-DNA test (HC2). All patients with ASCUS were admitted to colposcopy and cervical biopsies. The Chi- square test was used to test the differences of PAX1 methylation or HPV infection between groups. The specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy for detecting CIN2 + lesions were: 95.6%, 82.4%, and 94.6%, respectively, for the PAX1 MS-HRM test; and 59.7%, 64.7%, and 60.0% for the HC2 HPV test. The PAX1 methylation analysis by MS-HRM demonstrated a better performance than the high-risk HPV-DNA test for the detection of high grade lesions (CIN2 +) in ASCUS cases. This approach could screen out the majority of low grade cases of ASCUS, and thus reduce the referral rate to colposcopy.

  4. The glycaemic index values of foods containing fructose are affected by metabolic differences between subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, T M S; Jenkins, A L; Vuksan, V; Campbell, J

    2009-09-01

    Glycaemic responses are influenced by carbohydrate absorption rate, type of monosaccharide absorbed and the presence of fat; the effect of some of these factors may be modulated by metabolic differences between subjects. We hypothesized that glycaemic index (GI) values are affected by the metabolic differences between subjects for foods containing fructose or fat, but not for starchy foods. The GI values of white bread (WB), fruit leather (FL) and chocolate-chip cookies (CCC) (representing starch, fructose and fat, respectively) were determined in subjects (n=77) recruited to represent all 16 possible combinations of age (40 years), sex (male, female), ethnicity (Caucasian, non-Caucasian) and body mass index (BMI) (25 kg/m2) using glucose as the reference. At screening, fasting insulin, lipids, c-reactive protein (CRP), aspartate transaminase (AST) and waist circumference (WC) were measured. There were no significant main effects of age, sex, BMI or ethnicity on GI, but there were several food x subject-factor interactions. Different factors affected each food's area under the curve (AUC) and GI. The AUC after oral glucose was related to ethnicity, age and triglycerides (r 2=0.27); after WB to ethnicity, age, triglycerides, sex and CRP (r 2=0.43); after CCC to age and weight (r 2=0.18); and after FL to age and CRP (r 2=0.12). GI of WB was related to ethnicity (r 2=0.12) and of FL to AST, insulin and WC (r 2=0.23); but there were no significant correlations for CCC. The GI values of foods containing fructose might be influenced by metabolic differences between -subjects, whereas the GI of starchy foods might be affected by ethnicity. However, the proportion of variation explained by subject factors is small.

  5. Predictive value of cognition for different domains of outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Esther A E; Wiersma, Durk; Cahn, Wiepke; Kahn, René S; Dingemans, Peter M; Schene, Aart H; van den Bosch, Robert J

    2007-01-15

    The aim of this study was to see whether and how cognition predicts outcome in recent-onset schizophrenia in a large range of domains such as course of illness, self-care, interpersonal functioning, vocational functioning and need for care. At inclusion, 115 recent-onset patients were tested on a cognitive battery and 103 patients participated in the follow-up 2 years after inclusion. Differences in outcome between cognitively normal and cognitively impaired patients were also analysed. Cognitive measures at inclusion did not predict number of relapses, activities of daily living and interpersonal functioning. Time in psychosis or in full remission, as well as need for care, were partly predicted by specific cognitive measures. Although statistically significant, the predictive value of cognition with regard to clinical outcome was limited. There was a significant difference between patients with and without cognitive deficits in competitive employment status and vocational functioning. The predictive value of cognition for different social outcome domains varies. It seems that cognition most strongly predicts work performance, where having a cognitive deficit, regardless of the nature of the deficit, acts as a rate-limiting factor.

  6. In vitro evaluation of resonance frequency analysis values to different implant contact ratio and stiffness of surrounding material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Mu-Seung; Kim, Seok-Gyu

    2013-11-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the influence of implant contact ratio and stiffness of implant-surrounding materials on the resonance frequency analysis (RFA) values. Seventy resin blocks that had the different amounts (100, 50, 30, 15%) of resin-implant contact (RIC) were fabricated. Ten silicone putty blocks with 100% silicone-implant contact were also made. The implants with Ø5.0 mm × 13.0 mm were placed on eighty specimen blocks. The RFA value was measured on the transducer that was connected to each implant by Osstell Mentor. Kruskal-Wallis and Scheffe's tests (α=.05) were done for statistical analysis. The control resin group with 100% RIC had the highest RFA value of 83.9, which was significantly different only from the resin group with 15% RIC among the resin groups. The silicone putty group with 100% contact had the lowest RFA value of 36.6 and showed statistically significant differences from the resin groups. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, there was no significant difference in the RFA values among the resin groups with different RIC's except when the RIC difference was more than 85%. A significant increase in the RFA value was observed related to the increase in stiffness of material around implant.

  7. Chinese Students' Perceptions of the Value of Test Preparation Courses for the TOEFL iBT: Merit, Worth, and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jia; Cheng, Liying

    2015-01-01

    Test preparation for high-stakes English language tests has received increasing research attention in the language assessment field; however, little is known about what aspects of test preparation students attend to and value. In this study, we considered the perspectives of 12 Chinese students who were enrolled in various academic programs in a…

  8. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of CA72-4 Compared with CEA and CA19-9 in Patients with Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ychou

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA and CA 19-9 are both widely used in the follow up of patients with gastrointestinal cancer. More recently another tumor marker, named CA 72-4 has been identified and characterized using two different monoclonal antibodies B72.3 and CC49. Several reports evaluated CA 72-4 as a serum tumor marker for gastric cancer and compared its clinical utility with that of CEA or CA 19-9; few reports concerned its prognostic value. In the present study, CA 72-4 is evaluated and compared with CEA and CA 19-9 in various populations of patients with gastric cancer and benign disease; for 52 patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and 57 patients without neoplastic disease CEA, CA 19-9 and CA 72-4 were evaluated before treatment. Sensitivity of the tumor markers CA 72-4, CA 19-9 and CEA at the recommended cut-off level in all 52 patients were 58%, 50% the sensitivity increased to 75%. of these markers, for non metastatic patients, multivariate analyses indicated that none of the markers were significant, when adjusted for gender and age (which were indicators of poor prognosis; patients with abnormal values of CA72-4 tended to have shorter survival than patients with normal values (p < 0.07. In the metastatic population, only high values of CA19-9 (p < 0.02 and gender (women (p < 0.03 were indicators of poor prognosis in univariate analysis; multivariate analysis revealed that both CA72-4 (p = 0.034 and CA19-9 p = 0.009, adjusted for gender were independent prognostic factors. However, CA72-4 lost significance (p = 0.41 when adjusted for CA19-9 and gender, indicating that CA19-9 provides more prognostic information than CA72-4.

  9. Professional, generational, and gender differences in perception of organisational values among Israeli physicians and nurses: Implications for retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawski, Sigalit; Barnoy, Sivia; Kagan, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    The global health workforce today is more age diverse than ever before and spans three generations: baby boomers, X and Y generations. Each generation has a distinct set of characteristics, values, and beliefs. This diversity can lead to increased creativity and a greater richness of values and skills, but at the same time it can also lead to value clashes, disrespect, and conflicts. This study aimed to examine professional, generational, and gender differences in the perception of the importance of organisational values among nurses and physicians working in both hospitals and outpatient clinics in Israel. Data were collected from a large sample of nurses and physicians (N = 603) from 11 hospitals and community services across Israel. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire rating the perceived importance of 20 organisational values, such as leadership, risk-taking, competition, power, and collaboration. The five values ranked most important were performance quality, cooperation, commitment, effectiveness, and efficiency. The five values ranked least important were competition, marketing, power, risk-taking, and assertiveness. Significant value differences were found by profession, generation, and gender. Nurses scored efficiency, assertiveness, risk-taking, power, and marketing higher than physicians did. The Y generation scored power higher and marketing lower than the two older generations. Women ranked the values of cooperation, commitment, innovativeness, vision, and marketing significantly higher than men did. Understanding differences between professions, generations, and gender is a useful first step in improving employees' job satisfaction, productivity, and retention.

  10. Significant regional differences in Denmark in outcome after cochlear implants in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Percy-Smith, Lone; Busch, Georg Walter; Sandahl, Minna

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to study regional differences in outcome for a paediatric cochlear implant (CI) population after the introduction of universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) and bilateral implantation in Denmark....

  11. The differences between emission, waste, and a good, and their significance to waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm-Mueller, K.

    1994-01-01

    This paper defines the transportability of solid waste as its major difference compared to emissions. Several specific possibilities for politics dealing with the problems of solid waste are deduced from this characteristic. The difference between solid waste and good lies in the valuation of objects. As is shown the negative valuation of waste has a great influence on the effect of possible politics derived in part one of this paper. (orig.) [de

  12. Digestibility coefficient and true digestible amino acid values of different cultivars of maize for poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Antonia Bartolomeu Agustini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The digestibility and true digestible amino acid content of eight cultivars of maize was determined using the method of force-feeding roosters cecectomized. The experimental design was completely randomized, represented by eight cultivars, five replicates and a rooster each. Five roosters were kept fasting for corrections corresponding to metabolic and endogenous losses of amino acids. Significant differences (P <0.05 among maize cultivars for the true digestibility of amino acids, methionine, threonine, arginine, cystine and serine were observed. The values of true digestibility coefficients for essential amino acids, for methionine, threonine and arginine ranged from 85.61 to 93.57%, from 66.27 to 84.97% and 83.39 to 93.10% respectively. For the other essential amino acids, the average values were: 72.84% for lysine, 85.64% for methionine+cystine, 87.29% for histidine, 85.33% for valine, 87.11% for isoleucine, 94.04% for leucine and 90.65% for phenylalanine. The true digestibility coefficients of nonessential amino acids cystine and serine that showed significant difference ranged from 73.97 to 89.21% and from 77.31 to 92.68%, respectively. For other non-essential amino acids, average values were 88.28% for alanine, 82.68% for aspartic acid, 92.19% for glutamic acid and 87.84% for tyrosine. Due to the variations observed, it is recommended periodic analyzes of maize cultivars used to formulate diets, to ensure the feed quality and the performance of the animals.

  13. Field Dependence/Independence Cognitive Styles: Are They Significant at Different Levels of Vocabulary Knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Niroomand, Seyyedeh Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive styles influence the performance of language learners and can predict their success in the process of language learning. Considering field dependence/independence cognitive styles, this study aims at determining if they are significant in English vocabulary knowledge. A number of EFL university students took part in the study. The…

  14. Generational differences in employee work values : an explorative study in a Norwegian work context

    OpenAIRE

    Sillerud, Henriette

    2012-01-01

    In an increasingly knowledge intensive economy, it is essential to determine what drives knowledge workers into action and motivate them to excel. According to the value- based view on motivation, work values underlie these mechanisms and work value differences are therefore important to consider where they appear. In the present research, the potential effect of generation was examined. While previous research suggests that generational differences exists, there have been conflicting finding...

  15. What Makes Your Writing Style Unique? Significant Differences Between Two Famous Romanian Orators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Gifu, Daniela; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel, in-depth approach of analyzing the differences in writing style between two famous Romanian orators, based on automated textual complexity indices for Romanian language. The considered authors are: (a) Mihai Eminescu, Romania’s national poet and a

  16. Do Age and Sex of School Students Make Significant Difference in Their Multiple Intelligences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, R.; Vedapriya, S. Gethsi

    2009-01-01

    Multiple Intelligences are a new educational theory proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983. Multiple intelligences describe an array of different kinds of intelligences exhibited by human beings. This theory consists of verbal-linguistic, logical and mathematics, visual and spatial, bodily kinesthetic, musical-rhythmic, intrapersonal, interpersonal,…

  17. Assay of serum ferritin by two different radioimmunometric methods and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaltwasser, J.P.; Werner, E.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H., Frankfurt am Main

    1977-01-01

    Serum ferritin was measured by two different radioimmunometric methods a) the Addison assay, b) a commercial radioimmunoassay. Iron storage in the body was determined using 59 Fe. A dose correlation was found between serum ferritin and iron storage in the body. (AJ) [de

  18. Conventions of Courtship: Gender and Race Differences in the Significance of Dating Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Pamela Braboy; Kleiner, Sibyl; Geist, Claudia; Cebulko, Kara

    2011-01-01

    Dating rituals include dating--courtship methods that are regularly enacted. This study explores gender and race differences in the relative importance placed on certain symbolic activities previously identified by the dating literature as constituting such rituals. Using information collected from a racially diverse sample of college students (N…

  19. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, Romain, E-mail: r.grosjean@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Daudon, Michel, E-mail: michel.daudon@tnn.aphp.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Chammas, Mario F., E-mail: mariochammas@usp.br [University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7" o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil); Claudon, Michel, E-mail: m.claudon@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Eschwege, Pascal, E-mail: peschwege@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Felblinger, Jacques, E-mail: j.felblinger@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hubert, Jacques, E-mail: j.hubert@chu-nancy.fr [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-08-15

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones.

  20. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, Romain; Daudon, Michel; o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" >Chammas, Mario F.; Claudon, Michel; Eschwege, Pascal; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones

  1. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  2. The significance of different diacylgycerol synthesis pathways on plant oil composition and bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip David Bates

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The unique properties of vegetable oils from different plants utilized for food, industrial feedstocks, and fuel is dependent on the fatty acid (FA composition of triacylglycerol (TAG. Plants can use two main pathways to produce diacylglycerol (DAG, the immediate precursor molecule to TAG synthesis: 1 De novo DAG synthesis, and 2 conversion of the membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine (PC to DAG. The FA esterified to PC are also the substrate for FA modification (e.g. desaturation, hydroxylation, etc., such that the FA composition of PC-derived DAG can be substantially different than that of de novo DAG. Since DAG provides two of the three FA in TAG, the relative flux of TAG synthesis from de novo DAG or PC-derived DAG can greatly affect the final oil FA composition. Here we review how the fluxes through these two alternate pathways of DAG/TAG synthesis are determined and present evidence that suggests which pathway is utilized in different plants. Additionally, we present examples of how the endogenous DAG synthesis pathway in a transgenic host plant can produce bottlenecks for engineering of plant oil FA composition, and discuss alternative strategies to overcome these bottlenecks to produce crop plants with designer vegetable oil compositions.

  3. 'It's Made a Huge Difference': Recognition, Rights and the Personal Significance of Civil Partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Beccy Shipman; Carol Smart

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we map briefly some of the arguments around the meaning and significance of the introduction of Civil Partnership in England and Wales, and in this way show how contested these meanings are with some groups profoundly against this legal reform and others supporting it, but for a mixture of reasons. We then turn to our empirical data based on interviews with same-sex couples to explore the extent to which these arguments and issues are part of the everyday decision making process...

  4. Prognostic value of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents with significant rheumatic valvular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Fátima Derlene da Rocha; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (RF) is based on clinical findings. However, during the chronic phase of the disease, the clinical approach is not sufficient for the follow-up of the patients and the Doppler echocardiography is a tool for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement. Prognostic variables that influence long-term outcomes are not well known. 462 patients with RF according to Jones criteria were studied, and followed-up from the initial attack to 13.6 ± 4.6 years. All patients underwent clinical assessment and Doppler echocardiography for the detection of heart valve involvement in the acute and chronic phases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing long-term heart valve disease. Carditis occurred in 55.8% and subclinical valvulitis in 35.3% patients. In the chronic phase, 33% of the patients had significant valvular heart disease. No normal Doppler echocardiography exam was observed on patients who had severe valvulitis, although heart auscultation had become normal in 13% of these. In the multivariate analysis, only the severity of carditis and the mitral and/or aortic valvulitis were associated with significant valvular heart disease. Chorea or arthritis were protective factors for significant valvular heart disease, odds ratio 0.41 (95% C.I. 0.22 – 0.77) and 0.43 (95% C.I. 0.23 – 0.82), respectively. Our study suggests that the use of Doppler echocardiography during RF helps to identify prognostic factors regarding the development of significant valvular heart disease. Initial severe carditis is an important factor in the long-term prognosis of chronic RHD, whereas arthritis and chore during the initial episode of RF appears to be protective. Strict secondary prophylaxis should be mandatory in high risk patients

  5. Significant Differences Characterise the Correlation Coefficients between Biocide and Antibiotic Susceptibility Profiles in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, Marco R; Coelho, Joana Rosado; Furi, Leonardo; Knight, Daniel R; Viti, Carlo; Orefici, Graziella; Martinez, Jose-Luis; Freitas, Ana Teresa; Coque, Teresa M; Morrissey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern by regulatory authorities for the selection of antibiotic resistance caused by the use of biocidal products. We aimed to complete the detailed information on large surveys by investigating the relationship between biocide and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of a large number of Staphylococcus aureus isolates using four biocides and antibiotics commonly used in clinical practice. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for most clinically-relevant antibiotics was determined according to the standardized methodology for over 1600 clinical S. aureus isolates and compared to susceptibility profiles of benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine, triclosan, and sodium hypochlorite. The relationship between antibiotic and biocide susceptibility profiles was evaluated using non-linear correlations. The main outcome evidenced was an absence of any strong or moderate statistically significant correlation when susceptibilities of either triclosan or sodium hypochlorite were compared for any of the tested antibiotics. On the other hand, correlation coefficients for MICs of benzalkonium chloride and chlorhexidine were calculated above 0.4 for susceptibility to quinolones, beta-lactams, and also macrolides. Our data do not support any selective pressure for association between biocides and antibiotics resistance and furthermore do not allow for a defined risk evaluation for some of the compounds. Importantly, our data clearly indicate that there does not involve any risk of selection for antibiotic resistance for the compounds triclosan and sodium hypochlorite. These data hence infer that biocide selection for antibiotic resistance has had so far a less significant impact than feared.

  6. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  7. What Are the Most Significant Cost and Value Drivers for Pancreatic Resection in an Integrated Healthcare System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Brooke; Dehal, Ahmed; Uppal, Abhineet; Stern, Stacey L; Mejia, Juan; Weerasinghe, Roshanthi; Kapoor, Vandana; Ong, Evan; Hansen, Paul D; Bilchik, Anton J

    2018-03-23

    An initiative was established to improve value-based care for pancreatic surgery in a large nonprofit health system. Cost data were presented bimonthly to a hepatobiliary clinical performance group via videoconference. The direct costs were calculated for all patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy (DP) and pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) between January 2014 and July 2017. Median length of stay, 30-day and 90-day mortality rates, readmission rate, and costs were stratified by surgeon volume using 2 published criteria: "volume pledge" criteria (≥5 PDs/year) and Leapfrog criteria (≥11 PDs/year). There were 270 DPs and 526 PDs performed in 14 hospitals spanning 4 states. Median PD costs were lower for high-volume surgeons (≥5 PDs/year), $21,026 vs $24,706 (p = 0.005). High-volume surgeons had a shorter length of stay (9 days vs 11 days; p definition of high volume. The sharing of detailed financial data with HPB surgeons on a regular basis provides an opportunity to evaluate practice patterns and thereby reduce direct costs. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Null hypothesis significance tests. A mix-up of two different theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2015-01-01

    criticisms raised against NHST. As practiced, NHST has been characterized as a ‘null ritual’ that is overused and too often misapplied and misinterpreted. NHST is in fact a patchwork of two fundamentally different classical statistical testing models, often blended with some wishful quasi......-Bayesian interpretations. This is undoubtedly a major reason why NHST is very often misunderstood. But NHST also has intrinsic logical problems and the epistemic range of the information provided by such tests is much more limited than most researchers recognize. In this article we introduce to the scientometric community...

  9. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  10. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10 -3 to 25 . 10 -3 ) mol . kg -1 . The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

  11. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  12. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment of new limit values for wind turbines. Influence of different limit values on exposure, annoyance and potential development locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, E.; Jabben, J.; Schreurs, E.; Koeman, T.; Van Poll, R.; Du Pon, B.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 1500 people living in the close vicinity of wind turbines in the Netherlands run the risk of suffering severe annoyance effects due to noise exposure. New guidelines that limit new wind turbines to a maximum noise level of 45 dB can minimize any further increase in noise health effects. Noise levels above 45 dB will likely result in a further increase in annoyance effects and sleep disturbances. Compared to other noise sources, noise emitted from a wind turbine causes annoyance at relatively low noise levels. The amount of available land for the placement of new wind turbines depends on the limit value that is chosen. A limit value of 40 dB would enable an additional 7000 megawatt of renewable energy to be obtained from new turbines. A limit value of 45 dB, however, would enable wind turbines to be constructed on additional land, resulting in the production of approximately 25,000 megawatt. A new noise regulation for wind turbines is currently being prepared that sets limits on the noise levels experienced by residents of nearby dwellings. The regulation aims at limiting the effects of noise annoyance caused by new wind turbines within the framework of policy targets for renewable energy. This new regulation will be in line with existing ones for road- and railway traffic in setting both a preferable and maximum allowable value for the noise level (Lden) in nearby residences. Below the preferred value, there will be no noise restriction; above the maximum value, local authorities will not be allowed to issue building permits. For noise levels that fall in between, the decision for/against construction will be based on the results of a public inquiry process involving the major stakeholders. The National Institute for Public Health and Environment (RIVM) has investigated the consequences of different choices for the preferred and maximum noise limits. Aspects of annoyance and health effects, amount of land available for new turbines within the

  14. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (FGlu), lithium chloride (FLiCl), or saline (control treatment, FNaCl). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three 18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the FLiCl than the FNaCl or FGlu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the FNaCl and FGlu foods were significantly preferred over the FLICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the FNaCl food was also preferred over the FGlu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake. PMID:22685528

  15. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Clouard

    Full Text Available This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d. infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu, lithium chloride (F(LiCl, or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl. One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl than the F(NaCl or F(Glu meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl and F(Glu foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl food was also preferred over the F(Glu food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  16. Exposures to conditioned flavours with different hedonic values induce contrasted behavioural and brain responses in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to check the acquisition of a conditioned flavour preference or aversion. In between, the anaesthetised pigs were subjected to three (18)FDG PET brain imaging coupled with an olfactogustatory stimulation with the conditioned flavours. During conditioning, the pigs spent more time lying inactive, and investigated their environment less after the F(LiCl) than the F(NaCl) or F(Glu) meals. During the two-choice tests performed one and five weeks later, the F(NaCl) and F(Glu) foods were significantly preferred over the F(LICl) food even in the absence of i.d. infusions. Surprisingly, the F(NaCl) food was also preferred over the F(Glu) food during the first test only, suggesting that, while LiCl i.d. infusions led to a strong flavour aversion, glucose infusions failed to induce flavour preference. As for brain imaging results, exposure to aversive or less preferred flavours triggered global deactivation of the prefrontal cortex, specific activation of the posterior cingulate cortex, as well as asymmetric brain responses in the basal nuclei and the temporal gyrus. In conclusion, postingestive visceral stimuli can modulate the flavour/food hedonism and further feeding choices. Exposure to flavours with different hedonic values induced metabolism differences in neural circuits known to be involved in humans in the characterization of food palatability, feeding motivation, reward expectation, and more generally in the regulation of food intake.

  17. Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values: effects of gender equality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Shalom H; Rubel-Lifschitz, Tammy

    2009-07-01

    How does gender equality relate to men's and women's value priorities? It is hypothesized that, for both sexes, the importance of benevolence, universalism, stimulation, hedonism, and self-direction values increases with greater gender equality, whereas the importance of power, achievement, security, and tradition values decreases. Of particular relevance to the present study, increased gender equality should also permit both sexes to pursue more freely the values they inherently care about more. Drawing on evolutionary and role theories, the authors postulate that women inherently value benevolence and universalism more than men do, whereas men inherently value power, achievement, and stimulation more than women do. Thus, as gender equality increases, sex differences in these values should increase, whereas sex differences in other values should not be affected by increases in gender equality. Studies of 25 representative national samples and of students from 68 countries confirmed the hypotheses except for tradition values. Implications for cross-cultural research on sex differences in values and traits are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  19. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  20. [False positive results or what's the probability that a significant P-value indicates a true effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherat, Michel; Laporte, Silvy

    2017-09-01

    The use of statistical test is central in the clinical trial. At the statistical level, obtaining a Pinformation about the plausibility of the existence of treatment effect. With "Pfalse positive is very high. This is the case if the power is low, if there is an inflation of the alpha risk or if the result is exploratory or chance discoveries. This possibility is important to take into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical trials in order to avoid pushing ahead significant results in appearance, but which are likely to be actually false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Differences in liver stiffness values obtained with new ultrasound elastography machines and Fibroscan: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscaglia, Fabio; Salvatore, Veronica; Mulazzani, Lorenzo; Cantisani, Vito; Colecchia, Antonio; Di Donato, Roberto; Felicani, Cristina; Ferrarini, Alessia; Gamal, Nesrine; Grasso, Valentina; Marasco, Giovanni; Mazzotta, Elena; Ravaioli, Federico; Ruggieri, Giacomo; Serio, Ilaria; Sitouok Nkamgho, Joules Fabrice; Serra, Carla; Festi, Davide; Schiavone, Cosima; Bolondi, Luigi

    2017-07-01

    Whether Fibroscan thresholds can be immediately adopted for none, some or all other shear wave elastography techniques has not been tested. The aim of the present study was to test the concordance of the findings obtained from 7 of the most recent ultrasound elastography machines with respect to Fibroscan. Sixteen hepatitis C virus-related patients with fibrosis ≥2 and having reliable results at Fibroscan were investigated in two intercostal spaces using 7 different elastography machines. Coefficients of both precision (an index of data dispersion) and accuracy (an index of bias correction factors expressing different magnitudes of changes in comparison to the reference) were calculated. Median stiffness values differed among the different machines as did coefficients of both precision (range 0.54-0.72) and accuracy (range 0.28-0.87). When the average of the measurements of two intercostal spaces was considered, coefficients of precision significantly increased with all machines (range 0.72-0.90) whereas of accuracy improved more scatteredly and by a smaller degree (range 0.40-0.99). The present results showed only moderate concordance of the majority of elastography machines with the Fibroscan results, preventing the possibility of the immediate universal adoption of Fibroscan thresholds for defining liver fibrosis staging for all new machines. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Bile ductal injury and ductular reaction are frequent phenomena with different significance in autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk, Robert C; Lozano, Mallaki F; van den Berg, Aad P; Gouw, Annette S H

    2016-09-01

    The significance of bile duct injury and ductular reaction in biopsies from autoimmune hepatitis patients is not clear. We aim to establish the prevalence and clinical relevance of both phenomena in autoimmune hepatitis. Cases of newly diagnosed, untreated autoimmune hepatitis without overlap syndrome were selected. Pretreatment and follow up biopsies were scored for inflammation, fibrosis, bile ductal injury and ductular reaction. Thirty-five cases were studied of whom 14 cases had follow up biopsies. Bile duct injury was present in 29 cases (83%), mostly in a PBC-like pattern and was not correlated with demographical or laboratory findings. Ductular reaction, observed in 25 of 35 cases (71%) using conventional histology and in 30 of 32 cases (94%) using immunohistochemistry, was correlated with portal and lobular inflammation, interface hepatitis and centrilobular necrosis as well as bile duct injury and fibrosis. In 11 of 14 cases (79%) ductular reaction remained present on post-treatment biopsy whereas bile duct injury persisted in six of 14 (43%) of cases. Bile duct injury and ductular reaction are very common in newly diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis and cannot be predicted biochemically. Bile duct injury may subside in the majority of treated AIH cases while DR tends to persist during follow up. These findings show that the two phenomena are part of the spectrum of AIH with dissimilar responses to treatment and do not necessarily point towards an overlap syndrome. Persistence of ductular reaction after treatment supports the notion that it represents a regenerative response. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Different reasons for one significant choice: Factors influencing homeschooling choice in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Oz; Neuman, Ari

    2017-06-01

    Homeschooling is an alternative to conventional education in many countries all over the world, though legal regulations vary. This article examines why parents opt for homeschooling. The large body of research on the topic (especially from the United States) points to a variety of reasons for making the choice to homeschool. The most common reasons are of a pedagogical nature, but in many cases they are also family-related. What has not yet been investigated in depth is the relationship between the different reasons for choosing homeschooling and the way in which homeschooling is practised. There is also a lack of research on the relationship between the reasons for choosing homeschooling and the parents' personalities, educational background and attitudes towards both homeschooling in particular and the education system in general. Using a mixed methods design in order to examine these relationships, the authors of this article questioned 62 homeschooling families in Israel. The findings indicate that some parents chose to homeschool for pedagogical reasons only and others for both pedagogical and family-related reasons. Furthermore, the latter group held more positive views of the effect of homeschooling on children - and the mothers in that group, on average, were more educated compared with those who cited pedagogical reasons alone. The reasons for choosing homeschooling were also found to be associated with the character of the homeschooling practice, with families whose reasons were pedagogical only devoting more hours, on average, specifically to studying.

  4. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department, creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European Union. Apart from Metropolitan France, the country contains overseas territories, remnants of its colonial past. Over the centuries, France has known several political systems, from Ancient History to the current Republic. According to Ernest Renan, the French nation is more an ideology than a reality, primarily based on “the desire of living together and the wish to highlight our legacy”(1. The tragic attacks of November 2015 and all the reactions over the next days illustrate this. Brazil, discovered by the Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares during the 16th century, is established on half of South America and is about 16 times bigger than France. This giant does not look to the past but is always moving forward. The concept of nation is really strong throughout the country, as shown by the enthusiasm of soccer players wearing the national auriverde jersey and the National Team supporters. Furthermore, they possess a strong culture of entrepreneurship defined by Stefan Zweig as the legacy of the early colonial era(2. Biomedical research is a human activity which aims to give expected solutions, and sometimes unexpected ones too, to a major and insoluble problem at a given time. This research is based on knowledge and will question it with a scientific approach, spread between what is known today and what will be known tomorrow. Ideally, the point of getting new knowledge is to improve a group of people or the entire population’s health. The researcher is a

  5. Staff perceptions of organisational values in a large South African manufacturing company: exploring socio-demographic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Martins

    2011-11-01

    Research purpose: The objective of the study was to explore the perceptions of men and women staff members, as well as members of various race and age groups, in a large South African manufacturing company about the current enactment of organisational values and the importance of these values. Motivation for the study: The challenge of managing multi-cultural work forces from different gender, race and generational backgrounds makes an understanding of how peoples’ values align with those of their organisations, as reflected in their cultures, necessary. Research design, approach and method: Using an organisational values scale, the researchers conducted a quantitative survey on a random sample of 988 participants employed in a large South African manufacturing company. Main findings: ANOVAs and post hoc multiple comparison of means tests revealed that gender, race and age have a significant effect on some of the dimensions of organisational values and that these biographical groups differ significantly in their perceptions of the importance of certain organisational values as well as how their organisations enact them. Practical/mangerial implications: The findings highlight the importance of understanding staff perceptions in creating greater commitment to organisational values as important aspects of an effective organisational culture. Contribution/value-add: This study is original research that contributes new knowledge to the field of organisational psychology and management practices.

  6. The significance and predictive value of free light chains in the urine of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlage, Carsten Paul; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Koziolek, Michael; Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2016-12-01

    In patients with rheumatic diseases, reliable markers for determining disease activity are scarce. One potential parameter is the level of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), which is known to be elevated in the blood of patients with certain rheumatic diseases. Few studies have quantified FLCs in urine, a convenient source of test sample, in patients with different rheumatic diseases. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the University hospital of Goettingen, Germany. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of both κ and λ FLCs available and did not have myeloma. Data regarding systemic inflammation and kidney function were recorded, and FLC levels were correlated with inflammatory markers. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 40.1 % had chronic polyarthritis, 21.2 % connective tissue disease, 18.6 % spondyloarthritis and 15.7 % vasculitis. Elevated levels of κ FLCs were found for 84 % of patients and elevated λ for 52.7 %. For the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, FLCs correlated with C-reactive protein (κ, r = 0.368, p rheumatic disease, but not in κ/λ ratio. The correlation between FLCs and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrates their potential for predicting disease activity.

  7. EQ-5D™-derived utility values for different levels of migraine severity from a UK sample of migraineurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafford Megan R

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To estimate utility values for different levels of migraine pain severity from a United Kingdom (UK sample of migraineurs. Methods One hundred and six migraineurs completed the EQ-5D to evaluate their health status for mild, moderate and severe levels of migraine pain severity for a recent migraine attack, and for current health defined as health status within seven days post-migraine attack. Statistical tests were used to evaluate differences in mean utility scores by migraine severity. Results Utility scores for each health state were significantly different from 1.0 (no problems on any EQ-5D dimension (p  Conclusions Results indicate that all levels of migraine pain are associated with significantly reduced utility values. As severity worsened, utility decreased and severe migraine pain was considered a health state worse than death. Results can be used in cost-utility models examining the relative economic value of therapeutic strategies for migraine in the UK.

  8. Myocardial 201Tl washout after combined dipyridamole submaximal exercise stress: Reference values from different patient groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridrich, L.

    1989-01-01

    Dipyridamole stress is favorable in patients unable to exercise maximally for 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Aside from an analysis of uptake defects, proper washout analysis can be limited by heart rate variations when isolated dipyridamole stress is used. Heart rate standardized 201 Tl washout kinetics after a combined dipyridamole and submaximal exercise stress protocol (CDSE), feasible in elderly patients as well as in patients with peripheral artery disease, were therefore studied to investigate the 201 Tl washout after CDSE in differently defined patient groups: Group I comprised 19 patients with documented heart disease and angiographically excluded coronary artery disease (CAD); group II contained 17 patients with a very low likelihood of CAD determined by both normal exercise radionuclide ventriculography and normal 201 Tl uptake. Group III comprised 56 patients with a 50% pretest likelihood of CAD but normal 201 Tl uptake. Mean washout values were nearly identical in all groups. Despite similar uptake patterns, however, washout standardized by CDSE was significantly lower than the normal washout values after maximal treadmill exercise. Thus an obviously lower 201 Tl washout after CDSE than after maximal treadmill exercise must be considered if washout analysis criteria after dipyridamole are applied to evaluate ischemic heart disease. Nevertheless, heart rate elevation achieved by additional submaximal exercise stress seems necessary, adequate and clinically safe for standardisation of washout analysis in dipyridamole 201 Tl scintigraphy. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic value of survivin expression in parotid gland cancer in consideration of different histological subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Markus; Demgensky, Ariane; Molls, Christoph; Hardt, Aline; Luers, Jan C; Grosheva, Maria; Huebbers, Christian U; Klussmann, Jens P

    2011-05-01

    Cancer of the major salivary glands comprises a morphological diverse group of rare tumours of largely unknown cause. Survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis has shown to be a significant prognostic indicator in various human cancers. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term prognostic value of survivin in a large group of histological different salivary gland cancers. We analysed the survivin expression in 143 patients with parotid gland cancer by means of immunohistochemistry and tissue micro array. Survivin expression was categorised into a low and a high expressing group. The experimental findings were correlated with clinicopathological and survival parameters. The mean follow-up time was 54.8 months. A positive cytoplasmic expression of survivin was found in 61.5%, a high expression in 25.9% of all specimens. In the whole group, high cytoplasmic survivin expression significantly indicated a poor 5-year disease-free and overall survival rate (p < 0.0001, p = 0.003). This applied for all adeno-, adenoid cystic and undifferentiated carcinomas whereas in mucoepidermoid carcinomas an analogical non-significant trend could be observed. A high cytoplasmic survivin expression significantly indicated a poor survival in high grade but not in low grade tumours. A multivariate analysis revealed that high cytoplasmic survivin expression was the only significant negative prognostic indicator for a poor 5-year disease-free survival rate in all patients (p = 0.042). The correlation between cytoplasmic survivin expression and survival probabilities of salivary gland cancer might make this an effective tool in patient follow-up, prognosis and targeted therapy in future. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hjorth, Katrine; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate...... causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover......, respondents having bus as the current or the alternative mode seem not to value comfort differently across modes. Strategic behaviour seems to play no role....

  11. The Value and Feasibility of Farming Differently Than the Local Average

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Cooper; Dhuyvetter, Kevin; Yeager, Elizabeth A; Regier, Greg

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to quantify the value of being different than the local average and feasibility of distinguishing particular parts of an operation from the local average. Kansas crop farms are broken down by their farm characteristics, production practices, and management performances. An ordinary least squares regression model is used to quantify the value of having different than average characteristics, practices, and management performances. The degree farms have distingui...

  12. Uranium fate in wetland mesocosms: Effects of plants at two iron loadings with different pH values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small-scale continuous flow wetland mesocosms (~0.8 L) were used to evaluate how plant roots under different iron loadings affect uranium (U) mobility. When significant concentrations of ferrous iron (Fe) were present at circumneutral pH values, U concentrations in root exposed ...

  13. [Confidence interval or p-value--similarities and differences between two important methods of statistical inference of quantitative studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harari, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Statistic significance, also known as p-value, and CI (Confidence Interval) are common statistics measures and are essential for the statistical analysis of studies in medicine and life sciences. These measures provide complementary information about the statistical probability and conclusions regarding the clinical significance of study findings. This article is intended to describe the methodologies, compare between the methods, assert their suitability for the different needs of study results analysis and to explain situations in which each method should be used.

  14. Auditors’ Personal Values and Ethical Judgement at Different Levels of Ethical Climate: A Conceptual Link

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Mohamed Alteer; Sofri Bin Yahya; Md Harashid Haron

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is come up with theoretical model through understanding the causes and motives behind the auditor judgements. The finding of this study that there are several ethical theories a models provide a significant understanding of ethical issues and suggested factors that may affect ethical judgement decision. The suggestion model proposes that ethical judgements are influenced by personal values via ethical sensitivity. Nonetheless, the influence of personal values on ethi...

  15. Current and Historical Antecedents of Individual Value Differences Across 195 Regions in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Herk, H.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes differences on two value dimensions, conservation and self-enhancement, at both the individual and regional level across Europe. Within-country regions represent "cultunits" that often have belonged to different nation-states in history. Eight antecedent variables are explored.

  16. On the solvability of initial-value problems for nonlinear implicit difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Thi Ngoc Yen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is twofold. First, we propose a natural definition of index for linear nonautonomous implicit difference equations, which is similar to that of linear differential-algebraic equations. Then we extend this index notion to a class of nonlinear implicit difference equations and prove some existence theorems for their initial-value problems.

  17. Cultural differences between East and West Germany after 1991 : Communist values versus economic performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.; Maseland, R.K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Two decades after reunification substantial economic disparities between East and West Germany remain. With formal institutions being equalized, a typical explanation is that the partition of Germany created differences in economic values and attitudes that continue to feed differences in economic

  18. Non-invasive prediction of hemodynamically significant coronary artery stenoses by contrast density difference in coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hell, Michaela M., E-mail: michaela.hell@uk-erlangen.de [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany); Dey, Damini [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Biomedical Imaging Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Taper Building, Room A238, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Marwan, Mohamed; Achenbach, Stephan; Schmid, Jasmin; Schuhbaeck, Annika [Department of Cardiology, University of Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Overestimation of coronary lesions by coronary computed tomography angiography and subsequent unnecessary invasive coronary angiography and revascularization is a concern. • Differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve, were assessed. • At a threshold of ≥24%, contrast density difference predicted hemodynamically significant lesions with a specificity of 75%, sensitivity of 33%, PPV of 35% and NPV of 73%. • The determination of contrast density difference required less time than transluminal attenuation gradient measurement. - Abstract: Objectives: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) allows the detection of obstructive coronary artery disease. However, its ability to predict the hemodynamic significance of stenoses is limited. We assessed differences in plaque characteristics and contrast density difference between hemodynamically significant and non-significant stenoses, as defined by invasive fractional flow reserve (FFR). Methods: Lesion characteristics of 59 consecutive patients (72 lesions) in whom invasive FFR was performed in at least one coronary artery with moderate to high-grade stenoses in coronary CTA were evaluated by two experienced readers. Coronary CTA data sets were acquired on a second-generation dual-source CT scanner using retrospectively ECG-gated spiral acquisition or prospectively ECG-triggered axial acquisition mode. Plaque volume and composition (non-calcified, calcified), remodeling index as well as contrast density difference (defined as the percentage decline in luminal CT attenuation/cross-sectional area over the lesion) were assessed using a semi-automatic software tool (Autoplaq). Additionally, the transluminal attenuation gradient (defined as the linear regression coefficient between intraluminal CT attenuation and length from the ostium) was determined

  19. DETERMINATION OF BLOOD BIOCHEMICAL BASELINE VALUES IN THE OSTRICH AT DIFFERENT AGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; FARGHALY, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Sixty four ostrich birds from the breeding flock in Nuclear Research Center, AEA, Egypt (March 2008) aged from one week old until post-sexual maturity were used to determine blood biochemical baseline values. Blood was drawn from each bird of each group and blood hematological parameters such as total red blood cells (RBC), total white blood cells (WBC), hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and packed cell volume (PCV) percentage were determined. In addition, blood serum was separated to evaluate the concentrations of serum total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glob), calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P). Liver function such a serum aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were determined. Also, kidney function such as serum urea (U), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) were measured. Serum total cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (Trg) and serum triiodothyronine (T 3 ) were determined. The results showed that:1- Hb and RBC were positively correlated with age and were significantly increased in males than females. There was non-significant difference in RBC between laying and non-laying birds, but Hb concentration was significantly increased in non-laying than laying birds. 2- WBC count was decreased in young birds than adult birds and it was significantly increased in adult females than males and in laying than non-laying birds. 3- PCV was positively correlated by age and it was increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 4- The concentrations of serum TP, Alb, Glob, Ca and P were increased as age increased and were increased in males than females and in non-laying than laying birds. 5- Serum T 3 hormone was positively correlated with age until two years old then decreased significantly. It was significantly increased in adult male than females and in laying than non-laying birds.6- Kidney function such as serum U, Cr and UA were increased in young than adult birds. It was decreased in adult females than males while it

  20. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijink, Richard; van Baal, Pieter; Oppe, Mark; Koolman, Xander; Westert, Gert

    2011-06-23

    The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH) have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE) at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers of differences in health-state values across populations. This

  1. Decomposing cross-country differences in quality adjusted life expectancy: the impact of value sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oppe Mark

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The validity, reliability and cross-country comparability of summary measures of population health (SMPH have been persistently debated. In this debate, the measurement and valuation of nonfatal health outcomes have been defined as key issues. Our goal was to quantify and decompose international differences in health expectancy based on health-related quality of life (HRQoL. We focused on the impact of value set choice on cross-country variation. Methods We calculated Quality Adjusted Life Expectancy (QALE at age 20 for 15 countries in which EQ-5D population surveys had been conducted. We applied the Sullivan approach to combine the EQ-5D based HRQoL data with life tables from the Human Mortality Database. Mean HRQoL by country-gender-age was estimated using a parametric model. We used nonparametric bootstrap techniques to compute confidence intervals. QALE was then compared across the six country-specific time trade-off value sets that were available. Finally, three counterfactual estimates were generated in order to assess the contribution of mortality, health states and health-state values to cross-country differences in QALE. Results QALE at age 20 ranged from 33 years in Armenia to almost 61 years in Japan, using the UK value set. The value sets of the other five countries generated different estimates, up to seven years higher. The relative impact of choosing a different value set differed across country-gender strata between 2% and 20%. In 50% of the country-gender strata the ranking changed by two or more positions across value sets. The decomposition demonstrated a varying impact of health states, health-state values, and mortality on QALE differences across countries. Conclusions The choice of the value set in SMPH may seriously affect cross-country comparisons of health expectancy, even across populations of similar levels of wealth and education. In our opinion, it is essential to get more insight into the drivers

  2. Age-specific differences between conventional and ambulatory daytime blood pressure values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conen, David; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2014-01-01

    Mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values are considered to be lower than conventional BP values, but data on this relation among younger individuals ... population-based cohorts. We compared individual differences between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP according to 10-year age categories. Age-specific prevalences of white coat and masked hypertension were calculated. Among individuals aged 18 to 30, 30 to 40, and 40 to 50 years, mean daytime BP...

  3. Computing pKa Values in Different Solvents by Electrostatic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Emanuele; Netz, Roland R; Knapp, Ernst-Walter

    2016-07-12

    We introduce a method that requires only moderate computational effort to compute pKa values of small molecules in different solvents with an average accuracy of better than 0.7 pH units. With a known pKa value in one solvent, the electrostatic transform method computes the pKa value in any other solvent if the proton solvation energy is known in both considered solvents. To apply the electrostatic transform method to a molecule, the electrostatic solvation energies of the protonated and deprotonated molecular species are computed in the two considered solvents using a dielectric continuum to describe the solvent. This is demonstrated for 30 molecules belonging to 10 different molecular families by considering 77 measured pKa values in 4 different solvents: water, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. The electrostatic transform method can be applied to any other solvent if the proton solvation energy is known. It is exclusively based on physicochemical principles, not using any empirical fetch factors or explicit solvent molecules, to obtain agreement with measured pKa values and is therefore ready to be generalized to other solute molecules and solvents. From the computed pKa values, we obtained relative proton solvation energies, which agree very well with the proton solvation energies computed recently by ab initio methods, and used these energies in the present study.

  4. Sickle cell disease: reference values and interhemispheric differences of nonimaging transcranial Doppler blood flow parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkuszewski, M; Krejza, J; Chen, R; Kwiatkowski, J L; Ichord, R; Zimmerman, R; Ohene-Frempong, K; Desiderio, L; Melhem, E R

    2011-09-01

    TCD screening is widely used to identify children with SCD at high risk of stroke. Those with high mean flow velocities in major brain arteries have increased risk of stroke. Thus, our aim was to establish reference values of interhemispheric differences and ratios of blood flow Doppler parameters in the tICA, MCA, and ACA as determined by conventional TCD in children with sickle cell anemia. Reference limits of blood flow parameters were established on the basis of a consecutive cohort of 56 children (mean age, 100 ± 40 months; range, 29-180 months; 30 females) free of neurologic deficits and intracranial stenosis detectable by MRA, with blood flow velocities <170 cm/s by conventional TCD. Reference limits were estimated by using tolerance intervals, within which are included with a probability of .90 of all possible data values from 95% of a population. Average peak systolic velocities were significantly higher in the right hemisphere in the MCA and ACA (185 ± 28 cm/s versus 179 ± 27 and 152 ± 30 cm/s versus 143 ± 34 cm/s respectively). Reference limits for left-to-right differences in the mean flow velocities were the following: -43 to 33 cm/s for the MCA; -49 to 38 cm/s for the ACA, and -38 to 34 cm/s for the tICA, respectively. Respective reference limits for left-to-right velocity ratios were the following: 0.72 to 1.25 cm/s for the MCA; 0.62 to 1.39 cm/s for the ACA, and 0.69 to 1.27 cm/s for the tICA. Flow velocities in major arteries were inversely related to age and Hct or Hgb. The study provides reference intervals of TCD flow velocities and their interhemispheric differences and ratios that may be helpful in identification of intracranial arterial stenosis in children with SCD undergoing sonographic screening for stroke prevention.

  5. Diagnostic value of thallium-201 myocardial perfusion IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction to predict clinically significant and insignificant fractional flow reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Haruki; Takahashi, Teruyuki; Ohashi, Norihiko; Tanaka, Koichi; Okada, Takenori; Kihara, Yasuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to clarify the predictive value of fractional flow reserve (FFR) determined by myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) using thallium (Tl)-201 IQ-SPECT without and with computed tomography-based attenuation correction (CT-AC) for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We assessed 212 angiographically identified diseased vessels using adenosine-stress Tl-201 MPI-IQ-SPECT/CT in 84 consecutive, prospectively identified patients with stable CAD. We compared the FFR in 136 of the 212 diseased vessels using visual semiquantitative interpretations of corresponding territories on MPI-IQ-SPECT images without and with CT-AC. FFR inversely correlated most accurately with regional summed difference scores (rSDS) in images without and with CT-AC (r = −0.584 and r = −0.568, respectively, both P system can predict FFR at an optimal cut-off of <0.80, and we propose a novel application of CT-AC to MPI-IQ-SPECT for predicting clinically significant and insignificant FFR even in nonobese patients. PMID:29390486

  6. Evaluation of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging in peripheral zone prostate cancer detection using b-value up to 4500 s/mm2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoyan Feng

    Full Text Available To evaluate the diagnostic performance of different mathematical models and different b-value ranges of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI in peripheral zone prostate cancer (PZ PCa detection.Fifty-six patients with histologically proven PZ PCa who underwent DWI-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI using 21 b-values (0-4500 s/mm2 were included. The mean signal intensities of the regions of interest (ROIs placed in benign PZs and cancerous tissues on DWI images were fitted using mono-exponential, bi-exponential, stretched-exponential, and kurtosis models. The b-values were divided into four ranges: 0-1000, 0-2000, 0-3200, and 0-4500 s/mm2, grouped as A, B, C, and D, respectively. ADC, , D*, f, DDC, α, Dapp, and Kapp were estimated for each group. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 was calculated to measure goodness-of-fit. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the parameters.All parameters except D* showed significant differences between cancerous tissues and benign PZs in each group. The area under the curve values (AUCs of ADC were comparable in groups C and D (p = 0.980 and were significantly higher than those in groups A and B (p< 0.05 for all. The AUCs of ADC and Kapp in groups B and C were similar (p = 0.07 and p = 0.954, and were significantly higher than the other parameters (p< 0.001 for all. The AUCs of ADC in group D was slightly higher than Kapp (p = 0.002, and both were significantly higher than the other parameters (p< 0.001 for all.ADC derived from conventional mono-exponential high b-value (3200 s/mm2 models is an optimal parameter for PZ PCa detection.

  7. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of Parkia biglobosa in Northern Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koura Kourouma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African locust bean tree (Parkia biglobosa is a multipurpose species used widely in arid Africa by local communities. The present study focused on ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of P. biglobosa in Northern Benin, where the species widely grows. The use values according to the various ethnic groups in the study area have been evaluated in detail for P. biglobosa. Methods From 13 ethnic groups, 1587 people were interviewed in the study area using semi-structured questionnaires. Principal Component Analysis was applied to analyze the use value and the use patterns of P. biglobosa for the different ethnic groups. Results All interviewees in the study area knew at least one use of P. biglobosa. The various uses identified were medicinal (47%, handicraft and domestic (3%, medico-magic (1%, veterinary (1%, cultural (1%, food (25% and commercial (22%. The various parts involved in these types of uses were: fruits [shell (2%, pulp (22% and seeds (36%], bark (17%, leaves (9%, roots (3%, flowers (1% and branches (10%. The ethnic group consensus values for P. biglobosa parts showed that the seeds are used the most. The interviewees diversity value (ID and equitability value (IE indicated that knowledge concerning P. biglobosa use was distributed homogeneously among the ethnic groups. Conclusions P. biglobosa is well-known and used in different ways by the local populations in the study area. Local knowledge on the species is diversified and influenced by ethnic group. Ethnic differences in use values and use patterns of the species were evident in this study.

  8. Regional differences in prognostic value of cardiac valve plane displacement in systemic light-chain amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochs, Marco M; Fritz, Thomas; Arenja, Nisha; Riffel, Johannes; Andre, Florian; Mereles, Derliz; Siepen, Fabian Aus dem; Hegenbart, Ute; Schönland, Stefan; Katus, Hugo A; Friedrich, Matthias G W; Buss, Sebastian J

    2017-11-09

    To compare the prognostic value of cardiac valve plane displacement (CVPD) on various locations in cardiac light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Consecutive patients with biopsy-proven cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis who had undergone cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) between 2005 and 2014 in our institution, were retrospectively identified and data analyzed. The primary combined endpoint was all-cause mortality or heart transplantation. Systolic CVPD were obtained from standard cine bSSFP in 2-, 3- and 4-chamber views at anterior aortic plane systolic excursion (AAPSE); anterior, anterolateral, inferolateral, inferior, inferoseptal mitral (MAPSE); and lateral tricuspid (TAPSE) annular segments. We identified 68 patients (58 ± 10 years; 59% male). Median follow-up period was 1.2 years (IQR, 0.3-4.1). Significant differences in CVPD between patients who reached a primary endpoint (n = 44) and transplant-free survivors were found only for AAPSE (6.1 mm (IQR, 4.6-9.4) vs. 8.8 mm (IQR, 6.9-10.4); p = 0.02) and MAPSE anterolateral (7.3 mm (IQR, 5.4-11.7) vs. 10.5 mm (IQR, 8.1-13.4); p = 0.03). AAPSE (χ 2  = 15.6; p = 0.0002) provided the best predictive value for transplant-free survival compared to all other valvular plane locations. A high-risk cutoff (AAPSE ≤ 7.6 mm) was calculated by ROC analysis to predict all-cause death or heart transplantation within 6 months from index examination (AUC = 0.80; CI: 0.68 to 0.89; p model of late gadolinium enhancement and global longitudinal strain (GLS) (∆χ 2  = 5.8, p = 0.02) as well as to a clinical model including Karnofsky index and NT-proBNP (∆χ 2  = 6.2, p = 0.01). In patients with cardiac involvement in AL amyloidosis, systolic CVPD obtained from standard long axis cine views appear to indicate outcome better, when obtained in the anterior aortic plane (AAPSE) and provide incremental prognostic value to LGE and strain measurements.

  9. Evaluation and development of soil values for the pathway 'soil to plant'. Significance of mercury evaporation for the burden of plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeth, S.; Schlueter, K.

    1998-05-01

    In cooperation with the Ad-hoc working group 'Transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant' of the Laenderarbeitsgemeinschaft Bodenschutz (LABO) the significance of mercury evaporation for the deduction of threshold values in respect of the impact via the pathway soil to plant was investigated. Mercury contamination of food- and feeding stuff plants was examined with special emphasis. For these purposes a lab experiment including three different soils with varying initial mercury load (background level, geogenic and anthropogenic contamination) and two different plant species (parsely and spinach) was carried out under defined conditions in closed lysimeters. Mercury uptake via the roots was minimised since the plants grew in isolated customary substrate which showed a low concentration of mercury. Thus, only the surrounding soil evaporated mercury. The concentrations of mercury in the plants in the background level treatment (0.1 mg Hg/kg dry soil) were 0.15 mg/kg dry matter (spinach) and 0.44 mg/kg dry matter (parsely). The treatment with anthropogenic contaminated soil (111 mg Hg/kg dry soil) resulted in concentrations in the two plants of 2.0 and 2.6 mg/kg dry matter, respectively. A comparable order of magnitude was achieved in the geogenic contaminated treatment (34 mg Hg/kg dry soil) with 2.1 mg/kg dry matter. Experiments conducted with radioactive 203 Hg showed in each case recoveries of 20 to 34% in the leaves regarding the evaporated Hg-tracer. Also in the stem and in the roots Hg-tracer could be detected, indicating a translocation within the plant from leaf to root. By means of a comprehensive literature study the state of the art for Hg-evaporation and Hg-uptake of plants was compiled. Comparing the experimental results with data derived from literature, the Hg-concentrations found are confirmed by results of other authors. (orig.) [de

  10. Changes in children's self-competence and values: gender and domain differences across grades one through twelve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Janis E; Lanza, Stephanie; Osgood, D Wayne; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This study extended previous research on changes in children's self-beliefs by documenting domain-specific growth trajectories for 761 children across grades 1 through 12 in a longitudinal study of perceptions of self-competence and task values. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to (1) describe changes in beliefs across childhood and adolescence within the domains of mathematics, language arts, and sports; (2) examine the impact of changes in competence beliefs on changes in values over time in the same domains; and (3) describe gender differences in mean levels and trajectories of change in competence beliefs and values. The most striking finding across all domains was that self-perceptions of competence and subjective task values declined as children got older, although the extent and rate of decline varied across domains. For example, in language arts, competence beliefs declined rapidly during the elementary school years, but then leveled off or increased to some extent; whereas the decline in self-competence beliefs in sports accelerated during the high school years. Significant gender differences in beliefs were found in most domains; however, the gender differences in developmental trajectories appeared to be domain specific rather than global. Importantly, the gender differences between boys and girls did not systematically increase with age, as predicted by some socialization perspectives. Adding competence beliefs as an explanatory variable to the model for task values revealed that changes in competence beliefs accounted for much of the age-related decline in task values. In addition, competence beliefs accounted for most of the gender differences in task values for language arts and sports.

  11. Dynamic response of the scenic beauty value of different forests to various thinning intensities in central eastern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Songqiu; Yin, Na; Guan, Qingwei; Katoh, Masato

    2014-11-01

    Forest management has a significant influence on the preferences of people for forest landscapes. This study sought to evaluate the dynamic effects of thinning intensities on the landscape value of forests over time. Five typical stands in Wuxiangsi National Forest Park in Nanjing, China, were subjected to a thinning experiment designed with four intensities: unthinned, light thinning, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning. People's preferences for landscape photographs taken in plots under various thinning intensities were assessed through scenic beauty estimation (SBE) at 2 and 5 years after thinning. The differences in scenic beauty value between different thinning intensities were then analyzed with a paired samples t test for the two periods. The results indicated that the landscape value of all of the thinned plots significantly exceeded that of the unthinned plots 2 years after thinning (p beautiful than the lightly thinned and moderately thinned plots, whereas there was no significant difference between moderate thinning and light thinning. At 5 years after thinning, however, the moderately thinned plots received the highest preference scores among the four intensities, displaying an average improvement of 11.32 % compared with the unthinned plots. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model indicated that landscape value improved with increases in the average diameter at breast height (DBH) and with the improvement of environmental cleanliness in the stand, whereas the value decreased with an increasing stem density, species diversity, litter coverage, and canopy density. In addition, we found that the performance of a neural network model based on a multilayer perception (MLP) algorithm for predicting scenic beauty was slightly better than that of the MLR model. The findings of our study suggest that moderate to heavy thinning should be recommended to manage forests for the improvement of forest landscape value.

  12. Exposures to Conditioned Flavours with Different Hedonic Values Induce Contrasted Behavioural and Brain Responses in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Clouard, Caroline; Jouhanneau, Mélanie; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the behavioural and brain responses towards conditioned flavours with different hedonic values in juvenile pigs. Twelve 30-kg pigs were given four three-day conditioning sessions: they received three different flavoured meals paired with intraduodenal (i.d.) infusions of 15% glucose (F(Glu)), lithium chloride (F(LiCl)), or saline (control treatment, F(NaCl)). One and five weeks later, the animals were subjected to three two-choice feeding tests without reinforcement to...

  13. Examination of Athletes' Anxiety, Motivation, Imagination Value in Competitions with Different Severity Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallayici, Mustafa; Eroglu Kolayis, Ipek; Kesilmis, Inci; Kesilmis, Mehmet Melih

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine athletes' anxiety, motivation, and imagination value in competitions with different severity level. The research was conducted on swimming athlete in elite level 18 female and 19 male totally 37. To measure the level of imagination, imagine inventory in sports and to measure trait anxiety levels STAI were…

  14. Individual, Country and Societal Cluster Differences on Measures of Personality, Attitudes, Values, and Social Norms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences on 38 subscales from 4 major domains--personality, social attitudes, values, and social norms. These scales were administered to participants who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] (TOEFL[R], N = 1,600) and U.S. college students (N = 429). Total variability of each subscale was…

  15. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  16. Age differences in women's tendency to gossip are mediated by their mate value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massar, K.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Rempt, S.

    In the current study it was investigated whether age differences in women's tendency to gossip exist, and whether these could be accounted for by self-reported mate value. It was expected that younger women would report a higher tendency to gossip after reading a scenario in which a romantic rival

  17. Negotiating about Perceived Value Differences in Mathematics Teaching: The Case of Immigrant Teachers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Wee Tiong

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a qualitative research study exploring the socialisation experiences of immigrant secondary mathematics teachers practising in Australia. Teacher perception of differences in the ways their respective home and the Australian (host) cultures value aspects of mathematics teaching and learning was observed to lead to dissonance.…

  18. Differences in work values : understanding the role of intra- versus inter-country variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoorn, A.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    A growing literature emphasizes the need for studies taking a contingency perspective to international HRM to move beyond mean country differences in work values and begin considering intra-country variation (ICV). We use individual-level data on Hofstedeian values—not hitherto available—to infuse

  19. Addressing Issues of Religious Difference through Values Education: An Islam Instance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovat, Terence; Clement, Neville; Dally, Kerry; Toomey, Ron

    2010-01-01

    The article's main focus is on exploring ways in which modern forms of values education are being utilized to address major issues of social dissonance, with special focus on dissonance related to religious difference between students of Islamic and non-Islamic backgrounds. The article begins by appraising philosophical and neuroscientific…

  20. The predictive value of different infant attachment measures for socioemotional development at age 5 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeekens, S.; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Bakel, H.J.A. van

    2009-01-01

    The predictive value of different infant attachment measures was examined in a community-based sample of 111 healthy children (59 boys, 52 girls). Two procedures to assess infant attachment, the Attachment Q-Set (applied on a relatively short observation period) and a shortened version of the

  1. Gender Differences in Beliefs on the Returns to Effort: Evidence from the World Values Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisman, Raymond; O'Neill, Maura

    2009-01-01

    We study gender differences in attitudes in the role of luck versus hard work in achieving success using data from the World Values Survey. Women are consistently more likely to report that success is a matter of luck. We consider several potential explanations: workplace discrimination, religion, household responsibilities, and political…

  2. Differences of standard values of Supersonic shear imaging and ARFI technique - in vivo study of testicular tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, M; Rübenthaler, J; Marcon, J; Stief, C G; Reiser, M F; Clevert, D A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the difference of standard values of Supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) technique in the evaluation of testicular tissue stiffness in vivo. 58 healthy male testes were examined using B-mode sonography and ARFI and SSI. B-mode sonography was performed in order to scan the testis for pathologies followed by performance of real-time elastography in three predefined areas (upper pole, central portion and lower pole) using the SuperSonic® Aixplorer ultrasound device (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France). Afterwards a second assessment of the same testicular regions by elastography followed using the ARFI technique of the Siemens Acuson 2000™ ultrasound device (Siemens Health Care, Germany). Values of shear wave velocity were described in m/s. Parameters of elastography techniques were compared using paired sample t-test. The values of SSI were all significantly higher in all measured areas compared to ARFI (p < 0.001 to p = 0.015). Quantitatively there was a higher mean SSI wave velocity value of 1,1 compared to 0.8 m/s measured by ARFI. SSI values are significantly higher than ARFI values when measuring the stiffness of testicular tissue and should only be compared with caution.

  3. Comparing WTP values of different types of QALY gain elicited from the general public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Mark; Baker, Rachel; Brouwer, Werner; Mason, Helen; Hansen, Dorte Gyrd; Robinson, Angela; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-01

    The appropriate thresholds for decisions on the cost-effectiveness of medical interventions remain controversial, especially in 'end-of-life' situations. Evidence of the values placed on different types of health gain by the general public is limited. Across nine European countries, 17,657 people were presented with different hypothetical health scenarios each involving a gain of one quality adjusted life year (QALY) and asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for that gain. The questions included quality of life (QoL) enhancing and life extending health gains, and a scenario where respondents faced imminent, premature death. The mean WTP values for a one-QALY gain composed of QoL improvements were modest (PPP$11,000). When comparing QALY gains obtained in the near future, the valuation of life extension exceeded the valuation of QoL enhancing gains (mean WTP PPP$19,000 for a scenario in which a coma is avoided). The mean WTP values were higher still when respondents faced imminent, premature death (PPP$29,000). Evidence from the largest survey on the value of health gains by the general public indicated a higher value for life extending gains compared with QoL enhancing gains. A further modest premium may be indicated for life extension when facing imminent, premature death. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The relative value of safety and performance indicators and qualitative arguments in different time frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, J.; Rohlig, K.J.; Batandjieva, B.; Griffault, L.; Regent, A.; Schneider, J.; Storck, R.; Umeki, H.

    2002-01-01

    Indicators complementary to dose or risk are of great importance for the provision of multiple lines of reasoning at different time frames and therefore for the building of confidence within a safety case and that regulations should acknowledge this fact. They are also of great value with regard to the understanding of the safety case by and the communication to different audiences. The relative value of such indicators changes with time. For longer timescales qualitative information becomes more important. The meaning of calculated dose or risk is different for different timescales (ranging from expected performance to illustration) but dose or risk remains a valuable and central information for any time considered in a Safety Assessment. Certain indicators (concentrations and fluxes) can provide information by avoiding certain uncertainties which increase remarkably with time (biosphere, dilution) but apart from that no generic opinion or recommendation can be derived since the value of specific indicators and the required degree of aggregation (over different nuclides or even of consequence and probability) strongly depends on the many parameter. (authors)

  5. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Joop; Schösler, Hanna

    2016-08-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different affinities towards foods. These product types may be denoted as 'conventional', 'efficient', 'gourmet' and 'pure'. A comparative analysis, based on Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory, was performed to examine whether food-related value motivations could explain different consumer affinities for these product types. The affinities of consumers were measured by means of a non-verbal, visual presentation of four samples of food products in a nationwide survey (n = 742) among consumers who were all involved in food purchasing and/or cooking. The affinities found could be predicted fairly well from a number of self-descriptions relating to food and eating, which expressed different combinations of type of value motivation and involvement with food. The analysis demonstrated the contrasting role of high and low involvement as well as the potential complementarity of promotion- and prevention-focused value motivation. It is suggested that knowledge of the relationships between product types, consumer affinities and value motivation can help improve the effectiveness of interventions that seek to promote healthy and sustainable diets in developed countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  7. Socioeconomic Differences in Use of Low-Value Cancer Screenings and Distributional Effects in Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wendy Yi; Jung, Jeah Kyoungrae

    2017-10-01

    Consuming low-value health care not only highlights inefficient resource use but also brings an important concern regarding the economics of disparities. We identify the relation of socioeconomic characteristics to the use of low-value cancer screenings in Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) settings, and quantify the amount subsidized from nonusers and taxpayers to users of these screenings. 2007-2013 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, Medicare FFS claims, and the Area Health Resource Files. Our sample included enrollees in FFS Part B for the entire calendar year. We excluded beneficiaries with a claims-documented or self-reported history of targeted cancers, or those enrolled in Medicaid or Medicare Advantage plans. We identified use of low-value Pap smears, mammograms, and prostate-specific antigen tests based on established algorithms, and estimated a logistic model with year dummies separately for each test. Secondary data analyses. We found a statistically significant positive association between privileged socioeconomic characteristics and use of low-value screenings. Having higher income and supplemental private insurance strongly predicted more net subsidies from Medicare. FFS enrollees who are better off in terms of sociodemographic characteristics receive greater subsidies from taxpayers for using low-value cancer screenings. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. Value Similarities among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roest, Annette M. C.; Dubas, Judith Semon; Gerris, Jan R. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be explained by the use of different measurement…

  9. Diagnostic value of virtual touch tissue imaging quantification for benign and malignant breast lesions with different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhao, Li-Xia; Xu, Guang; Yao, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Ai-Hong; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Wu, Rong

    2015-01-01

    The study was to explore diagnostic value of the virtual touch tissue imaging quantification (VTIQ) in distinguishing benign and malignant breast lesions of variable sizes. We performed conventional ultrasound and VTIQ in 139 breast lesions. The lesions were categorized into three groups according to size (group 1, ≤ 10 mm; group 2, 10-20 mm; and group 3, > 20 mm), and their mean, min, and max shear wave velocities (SWVs) were measured. Diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination after surgery or needle biopsy. Receiver-operating characteristic curves (ROC) were constructed to determine the optimum cut-off values, calculate the area under curve (AUC), the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each velocity. For all groups, the mean, min, and max SWVs of malignant lesions were significantly higher than those of benign lesions (P < 0.05). The cut-off values of mean, min, and max SWVs were not significantly different among the three groups. In addition, the diagnostic performance of mean, min, and max SWV values is analogous, regardless of lesion size. In conclusion, VTIQ is a strong complement to conventional ultrasound, which is a promising method in the differential diagnosis of the breast lesions with different sizes. Further studies validate our results as well as reduce the number of unnecessary biopsies, regardless of size is warranted. PMID:26550234

  10. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Slapak, Rikard

    2018-01-01

    Fload. Since Fload significantly increases for increased flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, high EUV flux may significantly enhance this positive feedback. Therefore, the ion escape rate and the energy extraction by mass loading during ancient Earth, when the Sun is believed to have emitted much higher EUV flux than at present, could have been even higher than the currently available highest values based on Kp = 9. This raises a possibility that the ion escape has substantially contributed to the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Maximum standard uptake value on pre-chemotherapeutic FDG-PET is a significant parameter for disease progression of newly diagnosed lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eo, Jae Seon; Lee, Won Woo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    F-18 FDG-PET is useful for detection and staging of lymphoma. We investigated the prognostic significance of maximum standard uptake (maxSUV) value of FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients before chemotherapy. Twenty-seven patients (male: female = 17: 10: age: 49±19 years) with newly diagnosed lymphoma were enrolled. Nine-teen patients suffered from B cell lymphoma, 6 Hodgkins disease and 2 T cell lymphoma. One patient was stage I, 9 stage II, 3 stage III, 1 stage IV and 13 others. All patients underwent FDG-PET before initiation of chemotherapy. MaxSUV values using lean body weight were obtained for main and largest lesion to represent maxSUV of the patients. The disease progression was defined as total change of the chemotherapeutic regimen or addition of new chemotherapeutic agent during follow up period. The observed period was 389±224 days. The value of maxSUV ranged from 3 to 18 (mean±SD = 10.6±4.4). The disease progressions occurred in 6 patients. Using Cox proportional-hazard regression analysis, maxSUV was identified as a significant parameter for the disease progression free survival (p=0.044). Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis revealed that the group with higher maxSUV (=10.6, n=5) suffered from shorter disease progression free survival (median 299 days) than the group with lower maxSUV (<10.6, n = 22) (median 378 days, p=0.0146). We found that maxSUV on pre-chemotherapeutic F-18 FDG-PET for newly diagnosed lymphoma patients is a significant parameter for disease progression. Lymphoma patients can be stratified before initiation of chemotherapy in terms of disease progression by the value of maxSUV 10.6

  12. Illness perceptions in the context of differing work participation outcomes: exploring the influence of significant others in persistent back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that the significant others of individuals with persistent back pain may have important influences on work participation outcomes. The aim of this study was to extend previous research by including individuals who have remained in work despite persistent back pain in addition to those who had become incapacitated for work, along with their significant others. The purpose of this research was to explore whether the illness beliefs of significant others differed depending on their relative’s working status, and to make some preliminary identification of how significant others may facilitate or hinder work participation for those with persistent back pain. Methods Interviews structured around the Illness Perception Questionnaire (chronic pain version were conducted with back pain patients recruited from a hospital pain management clinic along with their significant others. Some patients had remained in work despite their back pain; others had ceased employment. Data were analysed using template analysis. Results There were clear differences between beliefs about, and reported responses to, back pain symptoms amongst the significant others of individuals who had remained in employment compared with the significant others of those who had ceased work. Three overarching themes emerged: perceived consequences of back pain, specific nature of employment and the impact of back pain on patient identity. Conclusions Significant others of employed individuals with back pain focused on the extent to which activity could still be undertaken despite back pain symptoms. Individuals out of work due to persistent back pain apparently self-limited their activity and were supported in their beliefs and behaviours by their significant others. To justify incapacity due to back pain, this group had seemingly become entrenched in a position whereby it was crucial that the individual with back pain was perceived

  13. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES IN EMPLOYEE WORK VALUES AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Matić, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Research has clearly established that culture affects the application of management theories and practices. Work values, in particular, are an important part of cross-cultural understanding in that they are themselves measures of cultural dimensions, and also have strong implications for many areas of management, from employee motivation to organizational communication. In order to successfully implement management practices originating in a different culture, it is necessary to first ide...

  14. Non-invasive imaging of myocardial bridge by coronary computed tomography angiography: the value of transluminal attenuation gradient to predict significant dynamic compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuehua; Yu, Mengmeng; Zhang, Jiayin; Li, Minghua [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Shanghai (China); Lu, Zhigang; Wei, Meng [Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People' s Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Shanghai (China)

    2017-05-15

    To study the diagnostic value of transluminal attenuation gradient (TAG) measured by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) for identifying relevant dynamic compression of myocardial bridge (MB). Patients with confirmed MB who underwent both CCTA and ICA within one month were retrospectively included. TAG was defined as the linear regression coefficient between luminal attenuation and distance. The TAG of MB vessel, length and depth of MB were measured and correlated with the presence and degree of dynamic compression observed at ICA. Systolic compression ≥50 % was considered significant. 302 patients with confirmed MB lesions were included. TAG was lowest (-17.4 ± 6.7 HU/10 mm) in patients with significant dynamic compression and highest in patients without MB compression (-9.5 ± 4.3 HU/10 mm, p < 0.001). Linear correlation revealed relation between the percentage of systolic compression and TAG (Pearson correlation, r = -0.52, p < 0.001) and no significant relation between the percentage of systolic compression and MB depth or length. ROC curve analysis determined the best cut-off value of TAG as -14.8HU/10 mm (area under curve = 0.813, 95 % confidence interval = 0.764-0.855, p < 0.001), which yielded high diagnostic accuracy (82.1 %, 248/302). The degree of ICA-assessed systolic compression of MB significantly correlates with TAG but not MB depth or length. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of the Value of Nursing Work Environments in Hospitals Across Different Levels of Patient Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Jeffrey H; Rosenbaum, Paul R; McHugh, Matthew D; Ludwig, Justin M; Smith, Herbert L; Niknam, Bijan A; Even-Shoshan, Orit; Fleisher, Lee A; Kelz, Rachel R; Aiken, Linda H

    2016-06-01

    The literature suggests that hospitals with better nursing work environments provide better quality of care. Less is known about value (cost vs quality). To test whether hospitals with better nursing work environments displayed better value than those with worse nursing environments and to determine patient risk groups associated with the greatest value. A retrospective matched-cohort design, comparing the outcomes and cost of patients at focal hospitals recognized nationally as having good nurse working environments and nurse-to-bed ratios of 1 or greater with patients at control group hospitals without such recognition and with nurse-to-bed ratios less than 1. This study included 25 752 elderly Medicare general surgery patients treated at focal hospitals and 62 882 patients treated at control hospitals during 2004-2006 in Illinois, New York, and Texas. The study was conducted between January 1, 2004, and November 30, 2006; this analysis was conducted from April to August 2015. Focal vs control hospitals (better vs worse nursing environment). Thirty-day mortality and costs reflecting resource utilization. This study was conducted at 35 focal hospitals (mean nurse-to-bed ratio, 1.51) and 293 control hospitals (mean nurse-to-bed ratio, 0.69). Focal hospitals were larger and more teaching and technology intensive than control hospitals. Thirty-day mortality in focal hospitals was 4.8% vs 5.8% in control hospitals (P value in the focal group. For the focal vs control hospitals, the greatest mortality benefit (17.3% vs 19.9%; P risk quintile, with a nonsignificant cost difference of $941 per patient ($53 701 vs $52 760; P = .25). The greatest difference in value between focal and control hospitals appeared in patients in the second-highest risk quintile, with mortality of 4.2% vs 5.8% (P value (lower mortality with similar costs) compared with hospitals without nursing environment recognition and with below-average staffing, especially for higher

  16. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  17. Personality Profiles, Values and Empathy: Differences between Lacto-Ovo-Vegetarians and Vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Christian S; Holler, Sophie; Joy, Sebastian; Dhruva, Anand; Michalsen, Andreas; Dobos, Gustav; Cramer, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Vegetarian nutrition is gaining increasing public attention worldwide. While some studies have examined differences in motivations and personality traits between vegetarians and omnivores, only few studies have considered differences in motivations and personality traits between the 2 largest vegetarian subgroups: lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans. To examine differences between lacto-ovo-vegetarians and vegans in the distribution patterns of motives, values, empathy, and personality profiles. An anonymous online survey was performed in January 2014. Group differences between vegetarians and vegans in their initial motives for the choice of nutritional approaches, health-related quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF)), personality traits (Big Five Inventory-SOEP (BFI-S)), values (Portraits Value Questionnaire (PVQ)), and empathy (Empathizing Scale) were analyzed by univariate analyses of covariance; P values were adjusted for multiple testing. 10,184 individuals completed the survey; 4,427 (43.5%) were vegetarians and 4,822 (47.3%) were vegans. Regarding the initial motives for the choice of nutritional approaches, vegans rated food taste, love of animals, and global/humanitarian reasons as more important, and the influence of their social environment as less important than did vegetarians. Compared to vegetarians, vegans had higher values on physical, psychological, and social quality of life on the WHOQOL-BREF, and scored lower on neuroticism and higher on openness on the BFI-S. In the PVQ, vegans scored lower than vegetarians on power/might, achievement, safety, conformity, and tradition and higher on self-determination and universalism. Vegans had higher empathy than vegetarians (all p < 0.001). This survey suggests that vegans have more open and compatible personality traits, are more universalistic, empathic, and ethically oriented, and have a slightly higher quality of life when compared to vegetarians. Given the small

  18. Growth performance and nutrition value of Spirulina sp. under different photoperiod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatag Budiardi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the production of freshwater Spirulina sp. cultured with photoperiod manipulation treatment. In this study, photoperiod manipulation treatment performed on cultured spirulina using fiber tanks (100 L. Spirulina was grown with different photoperiod (bright/T and dark/G that are six hours per day (6T-18G, 12 hours per day (12T-12G, 18 hours per day (18T-6G, and 24 hours per day (24L-0G. The parameters were observed include dry biomass, population density (N, specific growth rate (SGR, doubling time (G, proximate analysis, and water quality. The results of this study showed that the optimum population density was achieved on day-3 days of cultured, and manipulation photoperiod showed no significant effect to the dry biomass harvest and population density, but significantly affect the specific growth rate and doubling time. Treatment of lighting 12, 18 and 24 hours per day to produce the maximum specific growth rate (0,345 to 0,366 per day and a maximum doubling time (1,89 to 2,01 days were not significantly different, whereas the old treatment six hours per day lighting showed the lowest maximum growth rate (0,323 per day and highest doubling time (2,15 days. At treatment of lighting 12 hours per day, relatively higher protein content (39,73% than others. In conclusion, the lighting 12 hours per day resulted in optimum production efficiency than other treatments.Keywords: Spirulina sp., photoperiod, density, biomass, growth, nutrition value. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis produksi spirulina Spirulina sp. air tawar yang dikultur dengan manipulasi fotoperiode.  Dalam penelitian ini, spirulina dikultur dalam wadah fiber 100 L dengan perlakuan fotoperiode (terang/T dan gelap/G berbeda, yaitu enam jam per hari (6T-18G, 12 jam per hari (12T-12G, 18 jam per hari (18T-6G, dan 24 jam per hari (24T-0G. Parameter yang diamati meliputi biomassa kering, kepadatan populasi (N, laju pertumbuhan spesifik

  19. [Characteristics of foliar delta13C values of common shrub species in various microhabitats with different karst rocky desertification degrees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue-Lian; Wang, Shi-Jie; Rong, Li

    2011-12-01

    By measuring the foliar delta13C values of 5 common shrub species (Rhamnus davurica, Pyracantha fortuneana, Rubus biflorus, Zanthoxylum planispinum, and Viburnum utile) growing in various microhabitats in Wangjiazhai catchment, a typical karst desertification area in Guizhou Province, this paper studied the spatial heterogeneity of plant water use at niche scale and the response of the heterogeneity to different karst rocky desertification degrees. The foliar delta13C values of the shrub species in the microhabitats followed the order of stony surface > stony gully > stony crevice > soil surface, and those of the majority of the species were more negative in the microhabitat soil surface than in the others. The foliar delta13C values decreased in the sequence of V. utile > R. biflorus > Z. planispinum > P. fortuneana > R. davurica, and the mean foliar delta13C value of the shrubs and that of typical species in various microhabitats all increased with increasing karst rocky desertification degree, differed significantly among different microhabitats. It was suggested that with the increasing degree of karst rocky desertification, the structure and functions of karst habitats were impaired, microhabitats differentiated gradually, and drought degree increased.

  20. Comparison of Absolute Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) Values in ADC Maps Generated Across Different Postprocessing Software: Reproducibility in Endometrial Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Adarsh; Singh, Tulika; Singla, Veenu; Bagga, Rashmi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2017-12-01

    Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps are usually generated by builtin software provided by the MRI scanner vendors; however, various open-source postprocessing software packages are available for image manipulation and parametric map generation. The purpose of this study is to establish the reproducibility of absolute ADC values obtained using different postprocessing software programs. DW images with three b values were obtained with a 1.5-T MRI scanner, and the trace images were obtained. ADC maps were automatically generated by the in-line software provided by the vendor during image generation and were also separately generated on postprocessing software. These ADC maps were compared on the basis of ROIs using paired t test, Bland-Altman plot, mountain plot, and Passing-Bablok regression plot. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean ADC values obtained from the different postprocessing software programs when the same baseline trace DW images were used for the ADC map generation. For using ADC values as a quantitative cutoff for histologic characterization of tissues, standardization of the postprocessing algorithm is essential across processing software packages, especially in view of the implementation of vendor-neutral archiving.

  1. Human papillomavirus detection with genotyping by the cobas and Aptima assays: Significant differences in HPV 16 detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorny, Joseph A; Frye, Teresa C; Fisher, Beth L; Remmers, Carol L

    2018-03-23

    The primary high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) assays in the United States are the cobas (Roche) and the Aptima (Hologic). The cobas assay detects hrHPV by DNA analysis while the Aptima detects messenger RNA (mRNA) oncogenic transcripts. As the Aptima assay identifies oncogenic expression, it should have a lower rate of hrHPV and genotype detection. The Kaiser Permanente Regional Reference Laboratory in Denver, Colorado changed its hrHPV assay from the cobas to the Aptima assay. The rates of hrHPV detection and genotyping were compared over successive six-month periods. The overall hrHPV detection rates by the two platforms were similar (9.5% versus 9.1%) and not statistically different. For genotyping, the HPV 16 rate by the cobas was 1.6% and by the Aptima it was 1.1%. These differences were statistically different with the Aptima detecting nearly one-third less HPV 16 infections. With the HPV 18 and HPV 18/45, there was a slightly higher detection rate of HPV 18/45 by the Aptima platform (0.5% versus 0.9%) and this was statistically significant. While HPV 16 represents a low percentage of hrHPV infections, it was detected significantly less by the Aptima assay compared to the cobas assay. This has been previously reported, although not highlighted. Given the test methodologies, one would expect the Aptima to detect less HPV 16. This difference appears to be mainly due to a significantly increased number of non-oncogenic HPV 16 infections detected by the cobas test as there were no differences in HPV 16 detection rates in the high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions indicating that the two tests have similar sensitivities for oncogenic HPV 16. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Catrine; Lindberg, Magnus; Rissén, Dag

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to examine significant factors for work attractiveness and how these differ from the current work situation among operating department nurses. A second objective was to examine the associations between age, gender, length of employment, work engagement, work ability, self-rated health indicators and attractiveness of the current work situation. The attractiveness of work is rarely taken into account in research on nurse retention. To expand this knowledge, it is relevant to examine factors that make work attractive and their associations with related concepts. Correlational, cross-sectional survey using a convenience sample. Questionnaires were answered by 147 nurses in four operating departments in Sweden. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted. The nurses rated the significance of all factors of work attractiveness higher than they rated those factors in their current work situation; salary, organisation and physical work environment had the largest differences. The most significant attractive factors were relationships, leadership and status. A statistically significant positive correlation between work engagement and attractive work was found. In the multiple regression model, the independent variables work engagement and older age significantly predicted work attractiveness. Several factors should be considered in the effort to increase work attractiveness in operating departments and thereby to encourage nurse retention. Positive aspects of work seem to unite work engagement and attractive work, while work ability and self-rated health indicators are other important dimensions in nurse retention. The great discrepancies between the significance of attractive factors and the current work situation in salary, organisation and physical work environment suggest ways in which work attractiveness may be increased. To discover exactly what needs to be improved may require a deeper look into the construct of the examined factors. © 2015 John

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  4. Yogurt made from milk heated at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Tulay; Horne, David S; Lucey, John A

    2015-10-01

    Milk for yogurt manufacture is subjected to high heat treatment to denature whey proteins. Low milk pH values (≤ 6.5) at heating result in most denatured whey proteins becoming associated with casein micelles, whereas high milk pH values (≥ 7.0) at heating result in the formation of mostly soluble (nonmicellar) denatured whey protein complexes. There are conflicting reports on the relative importance of soluble and casein-bound whey protein aggregates on the properties of acid gels. Prior studies investigating the effect of pH of milk at heating used model gels in which milk was acidified by glucono-δ-lactone; in this study, we prepared yogurt gels using commercial starter cultures. Model acid gels can have very different texture and physical properties from those made by fermentation with starter cultures. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pH values of milk at heating on the rheological, light backscatter, and microstructural properties of yogurt gels. Reconstituted skim milk was adjusted to pH values 6.2, 6.7, and 7.2 and heated at 85°C for 30 min. A portion of the heated milk samples was readjusted back to pH 6.7 after heating. Milks were inoculated with 3% (wt/wt) yogurt starter culture and incubated at 40°C until pH 4.6. Gel formation was monitored using dynamic oscillatory rheology, and parameters measured included the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent (LT) values. Light-backscattering properties, such as the backscatter ratio (R) and the first derivative of light backscatter ratio (R'), were also monitored during fermentation. Fluorescence microscopy was used to observe gel microstructure. The G' values at pH 4.6 were highest in gels made from milk heated at pH 6.7 and lowest in milk heated at pH 6.2, with or without pH adjustment after heating. The G' values at pH 4.6 were lower in samples after adjustment back to pH 6.7 after heating. No maximum in the LT parameter was observed during gelation for yogurts made from milk

  5. Heating value characteristics of sewage sludge: a comparative study of different sludge types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young-JU.; Kang, Hae-Ok.; Qureshi, T.I.

    2005-01-01

    Heating value characteristics of three different types of sludge, i.e. domestic sewage sludge, industrial sludge, and industrial + domestic sewage sludge were investigated. Industrial + domestic sewage sludge (thickened) showed the highest heating value (5040 kcal/kg) than other sludge types. This may be due to increased amount of organic matter presents in thickened sludge than de-watered sludge. A gradual increase in organic matter of the sludge was observed with the increase of the moisture contents. Heating value of the sludge having 60% moisture contents was found in the range between 924-1656 kcal/kg and this amount was higher than the minimum heating value (800 kcal/kg) required sustaining auto thermal combustion in sludge incineration process. Energy consumption requirement for pre drying sludge operations revealed that industrial sludge (de-watered) required the minimum cost (13 $/ton of sludge) to make it a sludge of fuel grade (60% W), while mixed sludge cost the highest amount for its pre-drying operations. (author)

  6. Economic values for production traits for different sheep breeds in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hysen Bytyqi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, all traits of economic importance should be included in the breeding goal of livestock breeding programmes. The main aim of this study was to examine economic values for a combination of dairy and meat traits of the dual purpose Bardhoka (BAR, Balusha (BAL, Sharri (SHA and Kosova (KOS sheep breeds in Kosovo. The underlying herd model is based on a deterministic approach considering a sheep flock with milk production, lamb fattening and replacement stock. In order to examine the economic impact for different sheep breeds, the production traits considered were milk (milk yield and fattening (daily gain. For each lactation cycle among the breeds the main revenues resulted from selling milk (€ 61.82/46.03/26.37/27.22 and fattened lambs (€ 34.06/39.88/35.42/33.92 for BAR/BAL/ SHA/KOS, respectively. For BAR and BAL the economic value per average ewe place and year was € 37.7 for both breeds, while for SHA and KOS it was € 35.1 and € 32.5, respectively. For lamb fattening, daily gain was found to have the highest economic value at € 7.00 for BAL, SHA and KOS, while for BAR it was € 6.67. The relative economic values for milk yield and daily gain for BAR, BAL, SHA and KOS were 84.96:15.04, 84.42:15.58, 83.45:16.55, and 82.36:17.64, respectively.

  7. The Fault Feature Extraction of Rolling Bearing Based on EMD and Difference Spectrum of Singular Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fault diagnosis of rolling bearing in aeroengines is based on the vibration signal measured on casing, instead of bearing block. However, the vibration signal of the bearing is often covered by a series of complex components caused by other structures (rotor, gears. Therefore, when bearings cause failure, it is still not certain that the fault feature can be extracted from the vibration signal on casing. In order to solve this problem, a novel fault feature extraction method for rolling bearing based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD and the difference spectrum of singular value is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the vibration signal is decomposed by EMD. Next, the difference spectrum of singular value method is applied. The study finds that each peak on the difference spectrum corresponds to each component in the original signal. According to the peaks on the difference spectrum, the component signal of the bearing fault can be reconstructed. To validate the proposed method, the bearing fault data collected on the casing are analyzed. The results indicate that the proposed rolling bearing diagnosis method can accurately extract the fault feature that is submerged in other component signals and noise.

  8. Prognostic Significance of 5-Year PSA Value for Predicting Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Brachytherapy Alone and Combined With Hormonal Therapy and/or External Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Klein, Thomas J.; Cesaretti, Jamie A.; Stone, Nelson N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the prognosis and outcomes of patients who remain free of biochemical failure during the first 5 years after treatment. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2002, 742 patients with prostate cancer were treated with brachytherapy alone (n = 306), brachytherapy and hormonal therapy (n = 212), or combined implantation and external beam radiotherapy (with or without hormonal therapy; n = 224). These patients were free of biochemical failure (American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology [ASTRO] definition) during the first 5 post-treatment years and had a documented 5-year prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value. The median follow-up was 6.93 years. Results: The actuarial 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate was 97% using the ASTRO definition and 95% using the Phoenix definition. The median 5-year PSA level was 0.03 ng/mL (range, 0-3.6). The 5-year PSA value was ≤0.01 in 47.7%, >0.01-0.10 in 31.1%, >0.10-0.2 in 10.2%, >0.2-0.5 in 7.82%, and >0.5 in 3.10%. The 5-year PSA value had prognostic significance, with a PSA value of ≤0.2 ng/mL (n = 661) corresponding to a 10-year freedom from PSA failure rate of 99% with the ASTRO definition and 98% with the Phoenix definition vs. 86% (ASTRO definition) and 81% (Phoenix definition) for a PSA value ≥0.2 ng/mL (n = 81; p < .0001). The treatment regimen had no effect on biochemical failure. None of the 742 patients in this study developed metastatic disease or died of prostate cancer. Conclusion: The results of this study have shown that the prognosis for patients treated with brachytherapy and who remain biochemically free of disease for ≥5 years is excellent and none developed metastatic disease during the first 10 years after treatment. The 5-year PSA value is prognostic, and patients with a PSA value <0.2 ng/mL are unlikely to develop subsequent biochemical relapse.

  9. Black-white differences in the economic value of improving health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin M; Topel, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how differences in longevity over time and across groups add to the typical measures of economic progress and intergroup differentials. We focus on gains for and differences between groups defined both by race (black and white) and by gender, relying on willingness to pay as our measure of the economic value of gains in longevity. Measured at birth, the gains for white males between 1968 and 1998 were about 245,000 dollars per person, while the gains for black males were far larger, about 390,000 dollars per person. The gains for women were somewhat smaller, with white females gaining about 150,000 dollars per person and black females gaining about 305,000 dollars per person. Our estimates suggest that differences in income explain about 1/3 to 1/2 of the current black-white gap in longevity.

  10. Nutritional value of Brazilian distillers dried grains with solubles for pigs as determined by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Corassa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine the digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients and the digestible energy (DE, and metabolizable energy (ME values of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS produced in Brazil by different methods. Eight barrows with 23.3±4.1 kg were housed in metabolic cages in a randomized block design and fed diets containing 0, 200, 400, and 600 g kg–1 of corn DDGS. We determined the digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, mineral matter (MM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and gross energy (GE by the total collection (TC and chromium oxide marker (Cr methods. Distillers dried grains with solubles provided the respective DM, OM, CP, EE, MM, NDF, and GE values of 910, 863, 286, 66.9, 46.8, 500 g kg–1, and 4,780 kcal kg–1. The DE and ME values of DDGS were 3,739 and 3,401 kcal kg–1 and 3,691 and 3,213 kcal kg–1 as determined by TC and Cr methods, respectively. The growing inclusion of DDGS did not affect the DE or ME values. The digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, MM, and NDF were 767, 765, 827, 691, 883, and 821 g kg–1, respectively, by the total collection method. The Cr underestimated the values of all variables compared with TC method. Levels up to 600 g kg–1 of the test ingredient do not influence the DE and ME of DDGS, but compromises the digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, and NDF.

  11. [The expression and significance of VIP and its receptor in the cochlea of different degrees of chronic alcoholism rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Liu, Haibing

    2015-07-01

    To determine whether chronic alcoholism alters the expression levels of Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and its receptor (VIPR1) in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats. We measured their expression levels in 30 SD rats, in which we created models of different degrees of chronic alcoholism. We investigated the presence of the mRNA of VIP in the cochlea of chronic alcoholism rats and controls by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. We investigated the presence of proteins of VIPR1 in poisoned rats and controls by western blot. We also evaluated the local distribution of VIP cells by immunohistochemistry. We found that the levels of VIP and VIPR1 were downregulated in the chronic alcoholism groups compared to the controls group. The differences in some expression levels were significant different between chronic alcoholism rats and control rats. Moreover, at different degrees of alcohol poisoning in rats, the contents of VIP and VIPR1 differed. Decreased levels of VIP and VIPR1 were detected in the deep chronic alcoholism group compared to the group with low-degree poisoning (P 0.05). These results suggest that VIP and VIPR1 play an important role in the auditory function in rats with chronic alcoholism. Chronic alcoholism may cause a peptide hormone secretion imbalance in the auditory system, eventually leading to hearing loss.

  12. Absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall for different radiopharmaceuticals using dynamic S-values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, M.; Minarik, D.; Mattsson, S.; Leide-Svegborn; Johansson, L.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Aim and background: the urinary bladder wall is a radiosensitive organ that can receive a high absorbed dose from radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Current dynamic models estimate the photon and electron absorbed dose at the inner surface of the bladder wall. The aim of this work has been to create a more realistic estimation of the mean absorbed dose to the urinary bladder wall from different radiopharmaceuticals. This calculation also uses dynamic specific absorption fractions (SAF) that changes with bladder volume and are gender specific. Materials and Methods: the volume of the urinary bladder content was calculated using a spherical approximation with a urinary inflow of 1.0 ml/min and 0.5 ml/min during day and night time, respectively. The activity in the bladder content was described using a bi-exponential extraction from the body. The absorbed dose to the bladder wall was estimated using linear interpolation of SAF values from different bladder volumes, ranging from 10 ml to 800 ml. Administration of the activity was assumed to start at 09:00 with an initial voiding after 40 minutes and a voiding interval of 3.5 hours during the day. A six hour night gap, starting at midnight, with a voiding right before and after the night period, was used. Calculations were made, with the same assumptions, for an earlier dynamic bladder model and with a static SAF value from the ICRP/ICRU adult reference computational phantoms for a bladder containing 200 ml. Values for the absorbed dose per unit administered activity for 19 commonly used radiopharmaceuticals were calculated, e.g. 18 F-FDG, 99m Tc-pertechnetate, 99m Tc-MAG3 and 123 I-NaI. Results and conclusion: the results of the estimates of the absorbed doses to the inner bladder wall were a factor of ten higher than the estimates mean absorbed doses. The mean absorbed doses to the bladder wall were slightly higher for females than males, due to a smaller female

  13. A comparison of seismicity in world's subduction zones: Implication by the difference of b-values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, T.; Ide, S.

    2013-12-01

    from plate tectonic velocities (Scholz and Campos, 2012). Lithosphere age also has a weak negative correlation with the degree of seismic coupling. Based on differences in b-values for the types of faulting, Schorlemmer et al. (2005) suggested that b-value depends inversely on differential stress. This idea, taken together with correlations in the present study, suggests a model where the buoyancy of subducting slabs which depends on the lithosphere age determines stress state and the b-value in each sunbduction zone. The stress state also controls the seismic coupling. This model is basically consistent with the idea of Ruff and Kanamori (1980). Subduction zones with younger and lighter lithosphere are in a compressive stress state and associate with high coupling and small b-values (Chile), while those with older and heavier lithosphere are in a tensional stress state and correlate with low coupling and large b-values (Mariana). Subduction zones such as Nicaragua and El Salvador where b-values are much higher than the expectation from the above correlations may be explained by considering the fact that local tectonics affects the seismic coupling (LaFemina et al., 2009; Scholz and Campos, 2012).

  14. Commonly used bowel preparations have significant and different effects upon cell proliferation in the colon: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley Stuart A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Markers of crypt cell proliferation are frequently employed in studies of the impact of genetic and exogenous factors on human colonic physiology. Human studies often rely on the assessment of tissue acquired at endoscopy. Modulation of cell proliferation by bowel preparation with oral laxatives may confound the findings of such studies, but there is little data on the impact of commonly used bowel preparations on markers of cell proliferation. Methods Crypt length, crypt cellularity and crypt cell proliferation were assessed in biopsies acquired after preparation with either Klean-Prep or Picolax. Crypt cell proliferation was assessed by whole-mount mitotic figure count, and by two different immunohistochemical (IHC labelling methods (Ki-67 and pHH3. Subsequent biopsies were obtained from the same patients without bowel preparation and similarly assessed. Parameters were compared between groups using analysis of variance and paired t-tests. Results There were significant differences in labelling indices (LI between biopsies taken after Klean-prep and those taken after Picolax preparation, for both Ki67 (p = 0.019 and pHH3 (p = 0.017. A similar trend was seen for whole-mount mitotic figure counts. Suppression or elevation of proliferation parameters by bowel preparation may mask any effect due to an intervention or disease. Conclusion Commonly used bowel preparations may have significant and different effects on crypt cell proliferation. This should be taken into account when designing studies and when considering the findings of existing studies.

  15. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  16. Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Ranjeeta Rashmee; Mahapatra, Ambika Prasad Khadanga; Mohapatra, Swagat; Jyotiranjan, Tushar; Kundu, Akshaya Kumar

    2017-09-01

    A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016. The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV). The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (page groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate. The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.

  17. In vitro cell culture pO2 is significantly different from incubator pO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambrick, L L; Kostov, Y; Rao, G

    2011-07-01

    Continuous noninvasive monitoring of peri-cellular liquid phase pO2 in adherent cultures is described. For neurons and astrocytes, this approach demonstrates that there is a significant difference between predicted and observed liquid phase pO2. Particularly at low gas phase pO2s, cell metabolism shifts liquid phase pO2 significantly lower than would be predicted from the O2 gas/air equilibrium coefficient, indicating that the cellular oxygen uptake rate exceeds the oxygen diffusion rate. The results demonstrate the need for direct pO2 measurements at the peri-cellular level, and question the widely adopted current practice of relying on setting the incubator gas phase level as means of controlling pericellular oxygen tension, particularly in static culture systems that are oxygen mass transfer limited. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  18. Expression and significance of MMP3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun-Jie; Huang, Jie-Feng; Du, Wen-Xi; Tong, Pei-Jian

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the expression and significance of MMP-3 in synovium of knee joint at different stage in osteoarthritis (OA) patients. Knee synovial tissue were collected in 90 OA patients (the OA group). Patients in the OA group was divided into 3 subgroups: grade I subgroup (n=30), grade II subgroup (n=30), grade III; subgroup (n=30). Thirty patients served as control group. Immunohistochemical assay was used to detect the expression of MMP-3 protein in the knee synovial tissue. MMP-3 protein was detected in all knee synovial tissue. The expression of MMP-3 protein in the OA group was significantly higher that in the normal synovium (Posteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Prognostic significance of standardized uptake value and metabolic tumour volume on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Won; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Nam, Soon Yuhl [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jungsu S.; Kim, Jae Seung [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Research Institute, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Standardized uptake value (SUV) and metabolic tumour volume (MTV) measured by {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT are emerging prognostic biomarkers in human solid cancers. However, their prognostic significance in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been investigated in only a few studies and with small cohorts. In the present study we evaluated the ability of SUV, MTV, and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT to predict recurrence and survival outcomes in OPSCC. The study included 221 patients with OPSCC who underwent pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging and received definitive treatment at our tertiary referral centre. The PET imaging parameters SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were measured in primary tumours with focal {sup 18}F-FDG uptake. Clinical and imaging variables significantly associated with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model. Overall 5-year OS and DFS rates were 72.0 % and 79.5 %, respectively, during a median follow-up of 61 months (range 18 - 122 months). The cut-off values of tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG for prediction of DFS were 7.55, 6.80, 11.06 mL and 78.56 g, respectively. Univariate analyses showed that age >60 years, advanced tumour stage, and high tumour SUV{sub max}, SUV{sub peak}, MTV and TLG were significantly associated with decreased OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each). Age, tumour SUV{sub max} and MTV remained independent variables for OS and DFS (P < 0.05 each) in the multivariate analyses. SUV{sub max} and MTV measured on pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT may be useful in predicting the clinical outcomes in OPSCC patients. This study investigated the clinical prognostic value of imaging parameters from pretreatment {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in 221 patients who underwent definitive treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. High maximum standardized

  20. The Contribution of Different Patterns of Teachers' Interactions to Young Children's Experiences of Democratic Values during Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisen, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Developing a sense of belonging and experiences about the value of community are important democratic values that children may learn during play in preschool. Through the different ways that teachers' interact with children during play, children can learn about democratic values. This study is part of a Nordic project on values education in early…

  1. Value Similarities Among Fathers, Mothers, and Adolescents and the Role of a Cultural Stereotype: Different Measurement Strategies Reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, A.M.C.; Dubas, J.S.; Gerris, J.R.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    In research on value similarity and transmission between parents and adolescents, no consensus exists on the level of value similarity. Reports of high-value similarities coexist with reports of low-value similarities within the family. The present study shows that different conclusions may be

  2. Reducing gender differences in performance in introductory college physics through values affirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This ``values affirmation'' activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.

  3. Global genomic analysis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas reveals significant molecular differences compared to ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Stefan; Fernandez-del Castillo, Carlos; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Crippa, Stefano; Deshpande, Vikram; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Warshaw, Andrew L; Thayer, Sarah P; Iafrate, A John

    2009-03-01

    To determine whether intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMNs) have a different genetic background compared with ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The biologic and clinical behavior of IPMNs and IPMN-associated adenocarcinomas is different from PDAC in having a less aggressive tumor growth and significantly improved survival. Up to date, the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical behavior of IPMNs are incompletely understood. 128 cystic pancreatic lesions were prospectively identified during the course of 2 years. From the corresponding surgical specimens, 57 IPMNs were separated and subdivided by histologic criteria into those with low-grade dysplasia, moderate dysplasia, high-grade dysplasia, and invasive cancer. Twenty specimens were suitable for DNA isolation and subsequent performance of array CGH. While none of the IPMNs with low-grade dysplasia displayed detectable chromosomal aberrations, IPMNs with moderate and high-grade dysplasia showed frequent copy number alterations. Commonly lost regions were located on chromosome 5q, 6q, 10q, 11q, 13q, 18q, and 22q. The incidence of loss of chromosome 5q, 6q, and 11q was significantly higher in IPMNs with high-grade dysplasia or invasion compared with PDAC. Ten of 13 IPMNs with moderate dysplasia or malignancy had loss of part or all of chromosome 6q, with a minimal deleted region between linear positions 78.0 and 130.0. This study is the first to use array CGH to characterize IPMNs. Recurrent cytogenetic alterations were identified and were different than those described in PDAC. Array CGH may help distinguish between these 2 entities and give insight into the differences in their biology and prognosis.

  4. Significant differences in the use of healthcare resources of native-born and foreign born in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo; Barrera, Valentin Hernández; de Andrés, Ana López; de Miguel, Ángel Gil

    2009-01-01

    Background In the last decade, the number of foreign residents in Spain has doubled and it has become one of the countries in the European Union with the highest number of immigrants There is no doubt that the health of the immigrant population has become a relevant subject from the point of view of public healthcare. Our study aimed at describing the potential inequalities in the use of healthcare resources and in the lifestyles of the resident immigrant population of Spain. Methods Cross-sectional, epidemiological study from the Spanish National Health Survey (NHS) in 2006, from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. We have worked with individualized secondary data, collected in the Spanish National Health Survey carried out in 2006 and 2007 (SNHS-06), from the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs. The format of the SNHS-06 has been adapted to the requirements of the European project for the carrying out of health surveys. Results The economic immigrant population resident in Spain, present diseases that are similar to those of the indigenous population. The immigrant population shows significantly lower values in the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and physical activity (OR = 0.76; CI 95%: 0.65–0.89, they nonetheless perceive their health condition as worse than that reported by the autochthonous population (OR = 1.63, CI 95%: 1.34–1.97). The probability of the immigrant population using emergency services in the last 12 months was significantly greater than that of the autochthonous population (OR = 1.31, CI 95%: 1.12–1.54). This situation repeats itself when analyzing hospitalization data, with values of probability of being hospitalized greater among immigrants (OR = 1.39, CI 95%: 1.07–1.81). Conclusion The economic immigrants have better parameters in relation to lifestyles, but they have a poor perception of their health. Despite the fact that immigrant population shows higher percentages of emergency attendance and hospitalization than

  5. Energy conversion through mass loading of escaping ionospheric ions for different Kp values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2018-01-01

    K from the solar wind to the current system by the increased Fload. Since Fload significantly increases for increased flux of extreme ultraviolet (EUV radiation, high EUV flux may significantly enhance this positive feedback. Therefore, the ion escape rate and the energy extraction by mass loading during ancient Earth, when the Sun is believed to have emitted much higher EUV flux than at present, could have been even higher than the currently available highest values based on Kp = 9. This raises a possibility that the ion escape has substantially contributed to the evolution of the Earth's atmosphere.

  6. The value of different vegetative indices (NDVI, GAI for the assessment of yield potential of pea (Pisum sativum L. at different growth stages and under varying management practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Klimek-Kopyra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated the NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index and GAI (green area index in order to indicate the productivity and developmental effects of Rhizobium inoculants and microelement foliar fertilizer on pea crops. Two inoculants, Nitragina (a commercial inoculant and IUNG (a noncommercial inoculant gel and a foliar fertilizer (Photrel were studied over a 4-year period, 2009–2012. The cultivars chosen for the studies were characterized by different foliage types, namely a semileafless pea ‘Tarchalska’ and one with regular foliage, ‘Klif’. Foliar fertilizer significantly increased the length of the generative shoots and the number of fruiting nodes in comparison to the control, which in turn had a negative impact on the harvest index. Pea seed yield was highly dependent on the interaction between the years of growth and the microbial inoculant, and was greater for ‘Tarchalska’ (4.33 t ha−1. Presowing inoculation of seeds and foliar fertilization resulted in a significantly higher value of GAI at the flowering (3.91 and 3.81, respectively and maturity stages (4.82 and 4.77, respectively, whereas the value of NDVI was higher for these treatments only at the maturity stage (0.67 and 0.79, respectively. A significantly greater yield (5.0–5.4 t ha−1 was obtained after inoculation with IUNG during the dry years.

  7. Full investigation of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presenting to four different clinical specialties reveals significant differences and undiagnosed morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivayoganathan, Dhakshana; Maruthini, Deivanayagam; Glanville, Julie M; Balen, Adam H

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the spectrum of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) symptoms in patients from four different specialist clinics. A prospective cross-sectional observational study. The study was conducted at the infertility, gynaecology, endocrine and dermatology clinics at Leeds General Infirmary, U.K. Seventy women presenting with features of PCOS: 20 from infertility, 17 from gynaecology, 17 from dermatology and 16 from endocrine clinics. Participants were assessed for symptoms and signs of PCOS and underwent a full endocrine and metabolic profile and a pelvic ultrasound scan. All subjects had experienced menstrual problems, 81% were overweight, 86% had polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, 56% had hirsutism, 53% had acne, 23% had acanthosis nigricans, 16% had alopecia and 38% had previously undiagnosed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or diabetes. A significant difference between the four clinic groups existed with regard to menstrual patterns (p = 0.0234), frequency distribution of presenting symptoms and the percentages of patients with PCOS who had already been diagnosed as having PCOS (p = 0.0088). This study emphasizes the importance of understanding the full spectrum of PCOS as presented to different specialty clinics. Not only is the syndrome under diagnosed but also are the significant associated morbidities such as IGT and type 2 diabetes. Different specialists need to appreciate the spectrum of health problems for women with PCOS that may extend beyond the specific symptoms that precipitated the initial referral.

  8. Performance of a Planar Leaky-Wave Slit Antenna for Different Values of Substrate Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamat Hussain

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of a planar, low-profile, and wide-gain-bandwidth leaky-wave slit antenna in different thickness values of high-permittivity gallium arsenide substrates at terahertz frequencies. The proposed antenna designs consisted of a periodic array of 5 × 5 metallic square patches and a planar feeding structure. The patch array was printed on the top side of the substrate, and the feeding structure, which is an open-ended leaky-wave slot line, was etched on the bottom side of the substrate. The antenna performed as a Fabry-Perot cavity antenna at high thickness levels (H = 160 μm and H = 80 μm, thus exhibiting high gain but a narrow gain bandwidth. At low thickness levels (H = 40 μm and H = 20 μm, it performed as a metasurface antenna and showed wide-gain-bandwidth characteristics with a low gain value. Aside from the advantage of achieving useful characteristics for different antennas by just changing the substrate thickness, the proposed antenna design exhibited a low profile, easy integration into circuit boards, and excellent low-cost mass production suitability.

  9. THE PROGNOSIS SIGNIFICANCE OF CATHEPSIN-D EXPRESSION IN THE DIFFERENT LOCATIONS IN AXILLARY NODES NEGATIVE CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate Cathepsin-D (Cath-D) expression in different location and its relationship with prognosis in the axillary lymph nodes negative (ANN) breast cancer patients. Methods: Cath-D expression in 192 cases of breast carcinoma were examined by immunohistochemistry. Depending on different parts of expression, three evaluating methods were used, compared and analysed. Results: The positive rate of Cath-D expression in ANN breast cancer with poor prognosis group and axillary nodes positive (ANP) group were significantly higher than that in ANN breast cancer with good prognosis group (x2=23.20, P0.05). Cath-D expression in stromal cells had no statistical difference among the three groups (x2=1.56, P>0.05). When the Cath-D expression in cancer and stromal cells were counted into the positive rate, it was near the same (u1=0.47, u2=1.41, P>0.05). Conclusion: These results suggest that Cath-D expression is one of the powerful prognostic markers in ANN breast cancer. It's a reliable, practical, and convenient method to observe and evaluate Cath-D expression in cancer cells.

  10. The impact of differences between patient and general population EQ-5D-3L values on the mean tariff scores of different patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Matthew H R; Reitmeir, Peter; Peters, Annette; Leidl, Reiner

    2014-06-01

    Health states can be valued by those who currently experience a health state (experienced health states [EHS]) or by the general public, who value a set of given health states (GHS) described to them. There has been debate over which method is more appropriate when making resource allocation decisions. This article informs this debate by assessing whether differences between these methods have an effect on the mean EQ-5D-3L tariff scores of different patient groups. The European tariff based on GHS valuations was compared with a German EHS tariff. Comparison was made in the context of EQ-5D-3L health states describing a number of diagnosed chronic diseases (stroke, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cancer) taken from the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region population surveys. Comparison was made of both the difference in weighting of the dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L and differences in mean tariff scores for patient groups. Weighting of the dimensions of the EQ-5D-3L were found to be systematically different. The EHS tariff gave significantly lower mean scores for most, but not all, patient groups despite tariff scores being lower for 213 of 243 EQ-5D-3L health states using the GHS tariff. Differences were found to vary between groups, with the largest change in difference being 5.45 in the multiple stoke group. The two tariffs have systematic differences that in certain patient groups could drive the results of an economic evaluation. Therefore, the choice as to which is used may be critical when making resource allocation decisions. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing (China); Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, CNRS, Paris (France); Wolf, Eric T. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado in Boulder, CO (United States); Goldblatt, Colin [School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Feldl, Nicole [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, CA (United States); Merlis, Timothy [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at McGill University, Montréal (Canada); Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: junyang@pku.edu.cn, E-mail: abbot@uchicago.edu [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-08-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m{sup 2}; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m{sup 2}, especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m{sup 2} in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  12. DIFFERENCES IN WATER VAPOR RADIATIVE TRANSFER AMONG 1D MODELS CAN SIGNIFICANTLY AFFECT THE INNER EDGE OF THE HABITABLE ZONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun; Wang, Yuwei; Leconte, Jérémy; Forget, François; Wolf, Eric T.; Goldblatt, Colin; Feldl, Nicole; Merlis, Timothy; Koll, Daniel D. B.; Ding, Feng; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the inner edge of the habitable zone is critical for determining which exoplanets are potentially habitable and for designing future telescopes to observe them. Here, we explore differences in estimating the inner edge among seven one-dimensional radiative transfer models: two line-by-line codes (SMART and LBLRTM) as well as five band codes (CAM3, CAM4-Wolf, LMDG, SBDART, and AM2) that are currently being used in global climate models. We compare radiative fluxes and spectra in clear-sky conditions around G and M stars, with fixed moist adiabatic profiles for surface temperatures from 250 to 360 K. We find that divergences among the models arise mainly from large uncertainties in water vapor absorption in the window region (10 μ m) and in the region between 0.2 and 1.5 μ m. Differences in outgoing longwave radiation increase with surface temperature and reach 10–20 W m 2 ; differences in shortwave reach up to 60 W m 2 , especially at the surface and in the troposphere, and are larger for an M-dwarf spectrum than a solar spectrum. Differences between the two line-by-line models are significant, although smaller than among the band models. Our results imply that the uncertainty in estimating the insolation threshold of the inner edge (the runaway greenhouse limit) due only to clear-sky radiative transfer is ≈10% of modern Earth’s solar constant (i.e., ≈34 W m 2 in global mean) among band models and ≈3% between the two line-by-line models. These comparisons show that future work is needed that focuses on improving water vapor absorption coefficients in both shortwave and longwave, as well as on increasing the resolution of stellar spectra in broadband models.

  13. Camera functional scintiscanning of the kidneys - its significance and value for nuclear-medical renal diagnostics especially in comparison with isotope nephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wibmer, A.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis aimed at demonstrating the significance of functional scintiscanning in comparison with radioisotope nephrography and its informative value in individual kidney disease cases. To this end, 248 functional scintigrams of patients taken from various disease groups and 96 functional scintigrams of non-kidney-diseased persons were evaluated. As against nephrography, functional scintigraphic imaging has the advantage of displaying simultaneously both functional graphs and sequential scintigrams. This allows to asses the morphology, location and function of the non-functioning renal parenchyma and to localize and differentiate dysfunctions which are globally detectable in RIN, at a low patient exposure and within one single examination. ''Region-of-Interest'' selection in functional scintiscanning allows an exact demonstration of the kidneys which results in new normal values for the functional parameters. Owing to its case in handling and very low level of patient exposure, functional scintiscanning lends itself to an orientational examination of large patient groups, to an examination of severely ill patients without putting too much strain of them and to follow-up of all nephropathies. It even provides some information in renal insufficiency where other methods fail. However, functional scintiscanning appears to be inappropriate as a diagnostic method in inflammatory processes, hypertension and renal artery stenoses. (orig./MG) [de

  14. Different Techniques of Respiratory Support Do Not Significantly Affect Gas Exchange during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Newborn Piglet Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendler, Marc R; Maurer, Miriam; Hassan, Mohammad A; Huang, Li; Waitz, Markus; Mayer, Benjamin; Hummler, Helmut D

    2015-01-01

    There are no evidence-based recommendations on the use of different techniques of respiratory support and chest compressions (CC) during neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We studied the short-term effects of different ventilatory support strategies along with CC representing clinical practice on gas exchange [arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2), arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) and arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2)], hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation. We hypothesized that in newborn piglets with cardiac arrest, use of a T-piece resuscitator (TPR) providing positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) improves gas exchange as measured by SaO2 during CPR as compared to using a self-inflating bag (SIB) without PEEP. Furthermore, we explored the effects of a mechanical ventilator without synchrony to CC. Thirty newborn piglets with asystole were randomized into three groups and resuscitated for 20 min [fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) = 0.21 for 10 min and 1.0 thereafter]. Group 1 received ventilation using a TPR [peak inspiratory pressure (PIP)/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min] with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 2 received ventilation using a SIB (PIP of 20 cm H2O without PEEP, rate 30/min) with inflations interposed between CC (3:1 ratio). Group 3 received ventilation using a mechanical ventilator (PIP/PEEP of 20/5 cm H2O, rate 30/min). CC were applied with a rate of 120/min without synchrony to inflations. We found no significant differences in SaO2 between the three groups. However, there was a trend toward a higher SaO2 [TPR: 28.0% (22.3-40.0); SIB: 23.7% (13.4-52.3); ventilator: 44.1% (39.2-54.3); median (interquartile range)] and a lower PaCO2 [TPR: 95.6 mm Hg (82.1-113.6); SIB: 100.8 mm Hg (83.0-108.0); ventilator: 74.1 mm Hg (68.5-83.1); median (interquartile range)] in the mechanical ventilator group. We found no significant effect on gas exchange using different respiratory support strategies

  15. The diagnostic value of SE MRI and DWI of the spine in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, smouldering myeloma and multiple myeloma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutoit, Julie C.; Vanderkerken, Matthias A.; Dochy, Frederick; Verstraete, Koenraad L. [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Ghent (Belgium); Anthonissen, Joris [Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate DWI of the bone marrow in the differentiation of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smouldering myeloma (SMM) and multiple myeloma (MM). The retrospective study includes 64 patients with MGUS, 27 with SMM, 64 with new MM and 12 controls. Signal intensity (SI) of spinal SE-MRI and DWI (b0-1000) as well as apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were measured in the T10 and L3. Qualitative assessment of b-images was performed by one experienced radiologist. ADC600 and ADC1000 are the best ADC values in differentiating patient groups (p < 0.030). SIT2, SIb1000 and ADC1000 are higher and SIT1 lower in L3 compared to T10 (p < 0.050). All quantitative parameters of L3 can differentiate significantly between MGUS and MM (p < 0.050) and between patients with percentage plasma cells (PC%) between 0-10 % compared to >50 % (p = 0.001). Only SIT2 for L3 can differentiate MGUS from SMM (p = 0.044) and PC%0-10 from PC%10-25 (p = 0.033). Qualitative interpretation of b1000 images allows differentiating MM patients from those with MGUS or SMM (p < 0.001). Spinal SE-MRI can differentiate among MGUS, SMM, MM and control subjects. DWI based on the SI on b1000 images and ADC values is increased in MM compared to MGUS and SMM. Qualitative assessment of b-images can differentiate MM from MGUS or SMM. (orig.)

  16. External Beam Radiotherapy for Clinically Localized Hormone-Refractory Prostate Cancer: Clinical Significance of Nadir Prostate-Specific Antigen Value Within 12 Months

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Onishi, Hiroshi; Koizumi, Masahiko; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Araya, Masayuki; Mukumoto, Nobutaka M.S.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Teshima, Teruki

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze retrospectively the results of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer and investigate the clinical significance of nadir prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value within 12 months (nPSA12) as an early estimate of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eighty-four patients with localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with external beam radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The total radiation doses ranged from 30 to 76 Gy (median, 66 Gy), and the median follow-up period for all 84 patients was 26.9 months (range, 2.7-77.3 months). Results: The 3-year actuarial overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and local control rates in all 84 patients after radiotherapy were 67%, 61%, and 93%, respectively. Although distant metastases and/or regional lymph node metastases developed in 34 patients (40%) after radiotherapy, local progression was observed in only 5 patients (6%). Of all 84 patients, the median nPSA12 in patients with clinical failure and in patients without clinical failure was 3.1 ng/mL and 0.5 ng/mL, respectively. When dividing patients according to low (<0.5 ng/mL) and high (≥0.5 ng/mL) nPSA12 levels, the 3-year PFS rate in patients with low nPSA12 and in those with high nPSA12 was 96% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.0001). In univariate analysis, nPSA12 and pretreatment PSA value had a significant impact on PFS, and in multivariate analysis nPSA12 alone was an independent prognostic factor for PFS after radiotherapy. Conclusions: External beam radiotherapy had an excellent local control rate for clinically localized hormone-refractory prostate cancer, and nPSA12 was predictive of clinical outcomes after radiotherapy.

  17. Health and Pleasure in Consumers' Dietary Food Choices: Individual Differences in the Brain's Value System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Olivia; Merunka, Dwight; Anton, Jean-Luc; Nazarian, Bruno; Spence, Charles; Cheok, Adrian David; Raccah, Denis; Oullier, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Taking into account how people value the healthiness and tastiness of food at both the behavioral and brain levels may help to better understand and address overweight and obesity-related issues. Here, we investigate whether brain activity in those areas involved in self-control may increase significantly when individuals with a high body-mass index (BMI) focus their attention on the taste rather than on the health benefits related to healthy food choices. Under such conditions, BMI is positively correlated with both the neural responses to healthy food choices in those brain areas associated with gustation (insula), reward value (orbitofrontal cortex), and self-control (inferior frontal gyrus), and with the percent of healthy food choices. By contrast, when attention is directed towards health benefits, BMI is negatively correlated with neural activity in gustatory and reward-related brain areas (insula, inferior frontal operculum). Taken together, these findings suggest that those individuals with a high BMI do not necessarily have reduced capacities for self-control but that they may be facilitated by external cues that direct their attention toward the tastiness of healthy food. Thus, promoting the taste of healthy food in communication campaigns and/or food packaging may lead to more successful self-control and healthy food behaviors for consumers with a higher BMI, an issue which needs to be further researched. PMID:27428267

  18. Do the levels of selected metals differ significantly between the roots of carious and non-carious teeth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malara, Piotr; Kwapulinski, Jerzy; Malara, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Since the metals deposited in teeth during formation and mineralization processes are to a large extent retained, human teeth receive a considerable attention as the indicators of the heavy metal exposure. The use of permanent teeth is limited because the extraction of healthy permanent teeth just for this purpose is hardly acceptable. As the issue of the loss of elements from a carious lesion in the coronal part of a tooth remains controversial, the valuable material could only be the root of carious and fractured permanent teeth. However, to ensure the validity of the results, it should be ascertained that the levels of certain toxic and essential elements do not differ significantly between the roots of non-carious and carious teeth, and therefore this is the aim of this project. The levels of cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, lead, zinc, potassium, sodium, calcium and magnesium were determined in the roots of 344 permanent teeth (189 carious and 155 caries-free teeth) from the residents of Ruda Slaska, Poland, aged 18 to 34. No statistically significant difference between the concentration of these metals in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth was found. This finding applies to both the general population and after the grouping by donor's gender and tooth type. The concentration of lead, iron, calcium and manganese in the roots of non-carious and carious teeth exhibited dependence upon tooth type, as well as the concentration of potassium in the roots of carious teeth. Since the mineral composition of the roots of permanent teeth is similar for the non-carious, as well as the carious teeth, they can be indiscriminately selected for the tests required by a research project, as they will produce the comparable results. However, in the case of lead, iron, calcium, potassium and manganese, the comparison should be made after grouping by tooth type

  19. Quantifying Forest Spatial Pattern Trends at Multiple Extents: An Approach to Detect Significant Changes at Different Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Frate

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure to detect significant changes in forest spatial patterns and relevant scales. Our approach consists of four sequential steps. First, based on a series of multi-temporal forest maps, a set of geographic windows of increasing extents are extracted. Second, for each extent and date, specific stochastic simulations that replicate real-world spatial pattern characteristics are run. Third, by computing pattern metrics on both simulated and real maps, their empirical distributions and confidence intervals are derived. Finally, multi-temporal scalograms are built for each metric. Based on cover maps (1954, 2011 with a resolution of 10 m we analyze forest pattern changes in a central Apennines (Italy reserve at multiple spatial extents (128, 256 and 512 pixels. We identify three types of multi-temporal scalograms, depending on pattern metric behaviors, describing different dynamics of natural reforestation process. The statistical distribution and variability of pattern metrics at multiple extents offers a new and powerful tool to detect forest variations over time. Similar procedures can (i help to identify significant changes in spatial patterns and provide the bases to relate them to landscape processes; (ii minimize the bias when comparing pattern metrics at a single extent and (iii be extended to other landscapes and scales.

  20. The clinical significance of axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy in different clinical stages breast cancer patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Xu; Xinhong Wu; Yaojun Feng; Feng Yuan; Wei Fan

    2013-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to study the success and false negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in dif-ferent clinical stages breast cancer patients being carried out with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and the clinical signifi-cance of SLNB, we conducting this trial. Methods:One hunderd and thirty-seven cases were enrol ed in this clinical research from March 2003 to March 2007. Al of the patients’ sentinel lymph nodes were detected with 99mTc-Dx and methylene blue. There were 61 patients with stage T1-2N0M0 carried SLNB without NAC (group A), 76 cases were carried out NAC 3-4 cycles before SLNB, including 39 T2-4N0-1M0 cases (group B) and 27 T2-4N2-3M0 cases (group C). The success and false negative rate of SLNB were analysed with chi-square test. Results:In group A, the successful and false negative rate of SLNB were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35), and in group B and C were 92.31%(36/39), 8.57%(3/35) and 74.07%(20/27), 18.52%(5/27), respectively. The successful rate of group C decreased and false negative rate increased significantly compared with group A and B (P0.05). Conclusion:The SLNB can accurately predict lymph node status of axil ary lymph node in N0-1 stage patients with NAC, but in N2-3 stage patients the success rate decreased and false rate increased negative significantly.

  1. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  2. Comparison of two different segmentation methods on planar lung perfusion scan with reference to quantitative value on SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Min Seok; Kang, Yeon Koo; Ha, Seung Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-06-15

    Until now, there was no single standardized regional segmentation method of planar lung perfusion scan. We compared planar scan based two segmentation methods, which are frequently used in the Society of Nuclear Medicine, with reference to the lung perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) derived values in lung cancer patients. Fifty-five lung cancer patients (male:female, 37:18; age, 67.8 ± 10.7 years) were evaluated. The patients underwent planar scan and SPECT/CT after injection of technetium-99 m macroaggregated albumin (Tc-99 m-MAA). The % uptake and predicted postoperative percentage forced expiratory volume in 1 s (ppoFEV1%) derived from both posterior oblique (PO) and anterior posterior (AP) methods were compared with SPECT/CT derived parameters. Concordance analysis, paired comparison, reproducibility analysis and spearman correlation analysis were conducted. The % uptake derived from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT derived % uptake in every lobe compared to AP method. Both methods showed significantly different lobar distribution of % uptake compared to SPECT/CT. For the target region, ppoFEV1% measured from PO method showed higher concordance with SPECT/CT, but lower reproducibility compared to AP method. Preliminary data revealed that every method significantly correlated with actual postoperative FEV1%, with SPECT/CT showing the best correlation. The PO method derived values showed better concordance with SPECT/CT compared to the AP method. Both PO and AP methods showed significantly different lobar distribution compared to SPECT/CT. In clinical practice such difference according to different methods and lobes should be considered for more accurate postoperative lung function prediction.

  3. Difference of ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite in the Guangshigou area and its research significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wenqian; Zhang Zhanshi; Sha Yazhou; Rao Chaojun

    2011-01-01

    Guangshigou uranium deposit is one of the typical granite-pegmatite uranium deposits in China, the ore-body are located in the density zone of the outside contact zone of granite pluton. To distinguish the ore-bearing and Non-ore-bearing pegmatite is one of the most practices and have great significance for the effect of mineral exploration. Based on the field investigation and former research results, contrast research on the characteristics of the pegmatite on petrology, geophysical, geochemistry and stable isotopes have been carried out. It is pointed out that the ore-bearing pegmatite differ from the non-ore-bearing one from macro-and-micro-view in Guangshigou Uranium deposits, the main characteristics are summarized; the macro-and-micro signs are established, the genetic difference between the ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite are discussed primarily. The achievements would be helpful for prospecting and researching of this type uranium deposits in China. (authors)

  4. Fault diagnostics in power transformer model winding for different alpha values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.H. Kusumadevi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient overvoltages appearing at line terminal of power transformer HV windings can cause failure of winding insulation. The failure can be from winding to ground or between turns or sections of winding. In most of the cases, failure from winding to ground can be detected by changes in the wave shape of surge voltage appearing at line terminal. However, detection of insulation failure between turns may be difficult due to intricacies involved in identifications of faults. In this paper, simulation investigations carried out on a power transformer model winding for identifying faults between turns of winding has been reported. The power transformer HV winding has been represented by 8 sections, 16 sections and 24 sections. Neutral current waveform has been analyzed for same model winding represented by different number of sections. The values of α (‘α’ value is the square root of total ground capacitance to total series capacitance of winding considered for windings are 5, 10 and 20. Standard lightning impulse voltage (1.2/50 μs wave shape have been considered for analysis. Computer simulations have been carried out using software PSPICE version 10.0. Neutral current and frequency response analysis methods have been used for identification of faults within sections of transformer model winding.

  5. Comparison of conventional renal clearance values with differently evaluated results of radioisotope nephrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebe, S.F.; Weise, M.; Berghaeuser, H.; Faengewisch, G.L.; Temme, H.

    1981-01-01

    81 patients with renal anormalities or renal disorders of different genesis and severity with and without restricted renal functions were investigated by means of the classical PAH- and inulin-clearance. Furthermore a radioisotope nephrography was carried out after application of I 131-Hippuran followed by Cr 51-EDTA. In addition the activity reduction was measured above the shoulder, as well as the activity in serum samples and urine samples gained 30 min after application. A comparison of the clearance values found with those of conventional clearance resulted in poor correlation for I 131-Hippuran (r = 0.54) and no correlation for Cr 51-EDTA. Of the many parameters of the radioisotope nephrogram curves only the following are able to give sufficient quantitative functional results: The parameters connected with the rise of the curve between the 48sup(rh) and 120sup(rh) s and those connected with the slope of the secant. This is also true for the value of activity measured in the urine. (orig.) [de

  6. Nutritional value of seed rape meal in relation to different processing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurang-Zeb; Bibi, N.; Badshah, A.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1990-01-01

    Rat bioassays were conducted to study the effects of different processing methods on the nutritive value of rape seed meal. Treatments given to rape seed were irradiation alone, irradiation + autoclaving, irradiation + dry heating and sprouting. Results revealed that feeding rape seed as the sole source of dietary protein resulted in severe weight loss with control as well as all the treated samples. However, replacing half the maintenance level protein with wheat resulted in remarkable improvement in the nutritional quality of meal. There were weigh gains in all the groups. Weight gains were 32.15, 20.06, 17.36, 34.00, 19.93 and 26.27 g/rat in casein, control, sprouting, radiation, radiation + heat and radiation + autoclving groups, respectively. Protein efficiency ratios (PER) when adjusted to casein, were 2.10 for radiation + autoclaving and 2.03 for sprouting. Protein digestibility ranged from 92.68 to 96.79% among all the rape seed groups as compared to 97.77% for casein. Among organs, heart weight was influenced most by different diets (0.43 to 0.48% of body weight), while differences in weights of lungs, liver, spleen and kidney were negligible. (author)

  7. The Urinary Microbiome Differs Significantly Between Patients With Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome and Controls as Well as Between Patients With Different Clinical Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoskes, Daniel A; Altemus, Jessica; Polackwich, Alan S; Tucky, Barbara; Wang, Hannah; Eng, Charis

    2016-06-01

    To study the urinary microbiome of patients with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) compared with controls. We identified 25 patients with CP/CPPS and 25 men who were either asymptomatic or only had urinary symptoms. Midstream urine was collected. Symptom severity was measured with the National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index and clinical phenotype with UPOINT. Total DNA was extracted from the urine pellet and bacterial-specific 16Sr-DNA-capture identified by MiSeq sequencing. Taxonomic and functional bioinformatic analyses used principal coordinate analysis (PCoA)/MacQIIME, LEfSe, and PiCRUSt algorithms. Patients and controls were similar ages (52.3 vs 57.0 years, P = .27). For patients, median duration was 48 months, mean Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index was 26.0, and mean UPOINT domains was 3.6. Weighted 3D UniFrac PCoA revealed tighter clustering of controls distinct from the wider clustering of cases (P = .001; α-diversity P = .005). Seventeen clades were overrepresented in patients, for example, Clostridia, and 5 were underrepresented, eg, Bacilli, resulting in predicted perturbations in functional pathways. PiCRUSt inferred differentially regulated pathways between cases and controls that may be of relevance including sporulation, chemotaxis, and pyruvate metabolism. PCoA-derived microbiomic differences were noted for neurologic/systemic domains (P = .06), whereas LEfSe identified differences associated with each of the 6 clinical features. Urinary microbiomes from patients with CP/CPPS have significantly higher alpha(phylogenetic) diversity which cluster differently from controls, and higher counts of Clostridia compared with controls, resulting in predicted perturbations of functional pathways which could suggest metabolite-specific targeted treatment. Several measures of severity and clinical phenotype have significant microbiome differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  8. D10 value determination for Escherichia coli O157:H7 in different cultivations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Sergio Eduardo M. de; Pires, Luis Fernando G.; Vital, Helio de C.

    2002-01-01

    Escherichia coli serum type O157:H7 is a highly pathogenic bacterium. Inside the human body, that microorganism causes a disease that leads to bloody diarrhea, stoppage of kidney functions and clots in the brain. That type of infection has been related to the consumption of different varieties of foods, mainly meat and other products of animal origin. Irradiation is an efficient method for elimination of pathogenic and spoiling microorganisms in foods. Thus, this work investigates the use of gamma irradiation for elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7. For that purpose, inoculated samples in trypticase soy broth and saline solution 0,85% media were exposed to several gamma radiation doses. Counting the number of surviving bacteria yielded the following D 10 values for Escherichia coli O157:H7: 98±7 Gy, in trypticase soy broth and 49±4 Gy in saline solution 0,85% medium. (author)

  9. Morphophysiology and nutritive value of signalgrass in silvipastoral system with different tree arrangements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joysiene Sanguinete Coelho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of different special arrangements in forage yield, nutritive value and structure of the understory of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens in silvipastoral system with different regrowth times. The design was in complete randomized block with tree replicates in a factorial scheme with split-plots 2 × 2 × 5 consisting two spatial arrangements [Double lines 9 × (2 × 2m and simple lines (9 × 2m] in two sampling places (in the middle of the intercropping and under the three canopy in the plot and five regrowth times (35, 42, 49, 56 e 63 days in the split-plot. It was used a silvipastoral system established since June, 2008 in degraded pasture with signalgrass predominance. The pasture was homogenized by grazing at 15 cm from the soil level. Were evaluated the dry matter yield leaf:stem ratio, light interception and leaf area index. In addition were evaluated the nutritive value characteristics dry matter content, neutral and acid detergent fiber, crude protein and lignin. The photosynthetic active radiation was monitored. The use of simple or double lines did not influence the leaf area index, light interception and dry mass yield. The leaf:stem ratio was influenced by the sampling place only in the double line arrangement. The neutral detergent fiber was substantially high in the double line arrangement. Therefore, the use of double lines reduces the photosynthetic active radiation amount incident in the understory, but does not reduce the forage yield in relation to simple line arrangements. These results indicate the use of double lines arrangement may allow the harvest of more threes without reduce the pasture production.

  10. Differences in body composition and physical functions associated with sarcopenia in Chinese elderly: reference values and prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Wu, Sinan; Han, Yiwen; Liu, Jingmin; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Enyi; Zhang, Yan; Gong, Huan; Pang, Jing; Tang, Zhili; Liu, Hongxing; Zheng, Xiuyuan; Zhang, Tiemei

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the age-related differences in skeletal muscle mass (SM), muscle strength and physical performance in mainland Chinese. Based on available data, the reference values (criteria) for the definition of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese were explored. Body composition measurements were obtained using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (BIA); muscle strength was determined by handgrip strength (HS); and physical function was evaluated by the subjects' 6-m gait speed (GS). In this study, HS and GS declined significantly after 55 years and very dramatically after 75 years. Appendicular SM index of elderly males and females, respectively. Utilizing Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria in our population results in a very low prevalence of low SM and low GS. If Western criteria for sarcopenia were adopted, the prevalence of low GS and low HS would be 2-4 times higher in the studied population, also exhibiting significant gender differences. These findings indicate that it is necessary to establish an outcomes-based and ethnic-specific set of reference values for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in elderly Chinese. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinically healthy overweight and obese dogs differ from lean controls in select CBC and serum biochemistry values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radakovich, Lauren B; Truelove, Matthew P; Pannone, Stephen C; Olver, Christine S; Santangelo, Kelly S

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a global disease, affecting nearly half a billion people. Unfortunately, this trend is mirrored in our canine population. As obesity is a complex inflammatory disease, there is a need to determine whether routine medical screening tests may indicate, or be influenced by, its presence. The objective of the current study was to determine if significant differences exist between CBC and biochemical profile values from control vs overweight/obese, client-owned dogs considered clinically healthy. Dogs presented for routine health examinations, including minor dental or elective surgical procedures, were retrospectively identified from a hospital population. Animals were allocated to 2 categories based on body condition score (BCS), and data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney nonparametric analysis with statistical significance at a P ≤ .05. After exclusions, 116 dogs were assigned to the overweight/obese group (BCS ≥ 7) and 240 dogs to the control group (BCS = 4-6). Overweight/obese dogs had higher total leukocyte counts and higher plasma protein and globulin concentrations. Other differences were attributed to decreased serum water fraction (increased sodium, albumin, calcium, and anion gap) in the overweight/obese group. Interestingly, chloride concentration was decreased (in the face of increased sodium) in the obese group. There is CBC and biochemical evidence to support the concern that obesity influences laboratory values, even in dogs considered clinically healthy. Prospective studies aimed at characterizing these changes are needed to provide insight into the connection between obesity and its comorbidities. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. [Value of condensation and rarefaction click evoked action potential latency difference in the diagnosis of Meniere's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Shao, X; Yan, W; Lin, H

    2000-06-01

    To study the value of condensation and rarefaction clicks evoked action potential (AP) latency difference (LD) in diagnosis of Meniere's disease. AP was recorded with ECochG in controls (50 ears) and patients with Meniere's disease(90 ears) and sensorineural hearing loss(SNHL) of other origins(60 ears). LD was calculated and analyzed. LD in patients with Meniere's disease was (0.30 +/- 0.15) ms, which was significantly larger than that of controls(0.18 +/- 0.07) ms and of patients with SNHL of other origins(0.20 +/- 0.10) ms (P curve was larger than those with flat auditory sensation curve(P rarefaction click evoked AP latency difference can be an objective parameter in diagnosis of Meniere's disease.

  13. Motivational Pathways to STEM Career Choices: Using Expectancy-Value Perspective to Understand Individual and Gender Differences in STEM Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Te; Degol, Jessica

    2013-12-01

    The United States has made a significant effort and investment in STEM education, yet the size and the composition of the STEM workforce continues to fail to meet demand. It is thus important to understand the barriers and factors that influence individual educational and career choices. In this article, we conduct a literature review of the current knowledge surrounding individual and gender differences in STEM educational and career choices, using expectancy-value theory as a guiding framework. The overarching goal of this paper is to provide both a well-defined theoretical framework and complementary empirical evidence for linking specific sociocultural, contextual, biological, and psychological factors to individual and gender differences in STEM interests and choices. Knowledge gained through this review will eventually guide future research and interventions designed to enhance individual motivation and capacity to pursue STEM careers, particularly for females who are interested in STEM but may be constrained by misinformation or stereotypes.

  14. [Impact of Different Percent Tissue Altered Values on Visual Outcome after Refractive Small Incision Lenticule Extraction (ReLEx SMILE)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, D R H; Hagen, P; Kaymak, H; Klabe, K; Auffarth, G U; Kretz, F T A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose   To compare the visual outcomes after ReLEx SMILE treatment of eyes with low and high PTA values (PTA: percent tissue altered) within a follow-up period of up to 3 years and to assess whether a high PTA value might contribute to the development of keratectasia, as is the case for LASIK. Methods   This retrospective analysis comprises results from 313 eyes (189 patients) with a PTA value of less than 40 % and of 373 eyes (213 patients) with a PTA value of at least 40 %. Preoperatively and up to 3 years after SMILE surgery, refraction values, monocular corrected (CDVA) and uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA) and wavefront data were evaluated. Results   One to 3 years after surgery, the group with PTA lines in 1.1 % (0.0 %) of the cases. Loss of one line occurred in 1.1 % (3.6 %) of the eyes, whereas 97.7 % (96.4 %) remained unchanged or gained lines. With respect to predictability of the spherical equivalent, 92.0 % (78.6 %) of the eyes were within ± 0.5D and 97.7 % (92.9 %) were within ± 1.0D. The group with high PTA values displayed a slightly but significantly greater undercorrection of about 0,25D. 74.4 % (71.8 %) achieved UDVA of at least 20/20 and 96.5 % (87.1 %) achieved at least 20/25. The mean UDVA was - 0.03 ± 0.10logMAR (0.01 ± 0.12logMAR) and its mean difference to the preoperative CDVA was 0.00 ± 0.09logMAR (0.03 ± 0.12logMAR). Conclusion   ReLEx SMILE is a safe and effective corneal refractive treatment, even for PTA values of 40 % and more. Eyes with high PTA values did not display any evidence of keratectasia development within the 3-year follow-up of this study. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Religious Freedom and Equality as Celebration of Difference: A Significant Development in Recent South African Constitutional Case-Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L du Plessis

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution focuses on the way in which the South African Constitutional Court has, since 1997, been dealing with the (seemingly eccentric claims of (assumedly idiosyncratic 'religious Others'. Developments in this regard have, for the time being at least, culminated in the Constitutional Court's landmark judgment in MEC for Education: KwaZulu Natal v Pillay 2008 (2 BCLR 99 (CC, 2008 (1 SA 474 (CC (hereafter Pillay. Constitutional Court judgments since 1997 manifesting the adjudication of such unconventional claims are assessed, eventually getting to Pillay as benchmark. This remarkable judgment, dealing with a deceptively mundane issue, has played a considerable role in fleshing out a jurisprudence of difference, putting an adherent of a vulnerable, minority religion in the right. This is not just a high point in the adjudication of constitutional entitlements of the religious (and cultural Other in South Africa, but also a significant contribution to the growth of a jurisprudence sensitive to the predicaments and constitutional entitlements of unconventional, 'non-mainstream' claimants of religious (and cultural rights. Finally Pillay illustrates that the constitutional guarantee of the right to freedom of religion, conscience, belief and opinion (entrenched in section 15(1 of the Constitution of Republic of South Africa 1996 can be crucially dependent upon due effect being given to the proscription of unfair discrimination on the grounds of religion, conscience, belief and opinion elsewhere (namely in section 9(3 of the Constitution.

  16. Neglected grass species of Southern Africa: Nutritive value of conserved Hyperthelia dissoluta harvested at different growth stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Gusha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Native species like Hyperthelia dissoluta have great potential in livestock production but not much has been done to improve their contribution to that sector.  This study examined 2 conservation methods (drying and ensiling and 3 different growth stages, namely: elongation stage (January, early flowering (February and late flowering stage (March of H. dissoluta in terms of nutritional composition and digestibility.  The method of conservation had a significant effect (P<0.05 on nutritive value, with silage having more P and CP than hay.  Stage of growth had an effect (P<0.05 on all nutritional properties of both hay and silage:  Phosphorus, Ca and CP concentrations and digestibility of hay and silage decreased with maturity, while NDF and ADF concentrations increased.  Silage pH value was significantly higher at elongation (5.2 and late flowering growth stages (5.7 than at early flowering (4.4.  Dry matter digestibility of the conserved material reached levels as high as 82% for silage made at the elongation stage with all values at least 60%.  We conclude that H. dissoluta can be conserved as both silage and hay to produce a good quality feed.  Harvesting at the early flowering stage would seem to provide a good compromise between quantity (not measured in this study and quality of harvested forage.  Further studies seem warranted to determine the acceptability and intake of the material by livestock, the advantages of adding fermentable carbohydrates during ensiling and DM yields in different areas and a range of seasonal conditions. Keywords: Air drying, hay, perennial native grasses, plastic bag silo, quality silage.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4179-184

  17. The prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 considering different aetiologies in non-ischaemic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binas, David; Daniel, Hanna; Richter, Anette; Ruppert, Volker; Schlüter, Klaus-Dieter; Schieffer, Bernhard; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Several studies indicate a prognostic value of sST2 and galectin-3 in heart failure (HF). While previous studies focused on ischaemic cause of HF, we investigated the role of sST2 and galectin-3 in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). sST2 and galectin-3 serum concentrations were measured in 262 subjects with DCM. Survival rates were determined for all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM). In a univariate model, sST2 as a continuous variable was a predictor of ACM (HR 1.05; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.07, PACM (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.17, PACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.07, P=0.019) was significant. In a multivariate model, the prognostic value of the sST2 main group remained intact for ACM (HR 1.04; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.07, P=0.003).Univariate and multivariate analysis of galectin-3 as continuous variable did not show any significant result. However, in a quartile model, intermediate values of galectin-3 were significantly associated with a lower event rate of ACM and CM. The study revealed that sST2 predicts ACM and CM in patients with non-ischaemic HF and could be useful especially in patients with inflammatory background. Our findings that intermediate levels of galectin-3 allow for better prognosis were new and different to other investigations. NCT03090425; Results.

  18. Eri silkworm: a source of edible oil with a high content of α-linolenic acid and of significant nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longvah, Thingnganing; Manghtya, Korra; Qadri, Syed S Y H

    2012-07-01

    The study was undertaken to provide value addition to spent eri silkworm as an alternative source of edible oil for the food and feed industry by carrying out a short-term nutritional and toxicological evaluation of eri silkworm pupae oil using Wistar NIN rats. Growth performance of rats fed either sunflower oil (Control) or eri silkworm pupae oil (Experimental) was comparable. Histopathological examination of the various tissues showed no signs of toxicity even after feeding the eri silkworm oil for 18 weeks. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride was significantly reduced (P oil. The study showed that eri silkworm pupae oil is safe and nutritionally equivalent to commonly used vegetable oils. Eri silkworm pupae can be harvested to provide a cost effective alternative edible oil that can be used to nutritional advantage in the food and feed industry. Therefore eri silkworm and its host plants offer an excellent example of multiple product crops and of sustainable agricultural practice with excellent opportunity for economic and nutritional benefits. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Prognostic value and clinicopathological significance of serum- and tissue-based cytokeratin 18 express level in breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiangling; Gao, Sicheng; Xu, Jian; Zhu, Junfeng

    2018-04-27

    Cytokeratin 18 (CK18), a type I cytokeratin of the intermediate filament family, has been associated with the prognosis of cancer patients for decades. However, its exact role in predicting the clinical outcome of breast cancer remains controversial. To comprehensively investigated the prognostic value of CK18 in breast cancer, a systematically meta-analysis was conducted to explore the association between CK18 expression and overall survival. Literature collection was conducted by retrieving electronic databases Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EMBASE, and OVID completely (up to January 1, 2017). Nine relevant studies with 4857 cases assessing the relationship between CK18 high expression and the outcome of breast cancer patients were enrolled in our analysis. The results indicated that the high level of CK18 expression was significantly associated with overall survival of breast cancer patients via a specimen-depended manner. Reports which used serum to detect the expression of CK18 predicted a poor outcome of breast cancer (HR = 1.24, 95%CI: 1.11-1.38, P present study demonstrated that CK18 might be served as a novel biomarker to predict clinicopathological features and the outcome of breast cancer. © 2018 The Author(s).

  20. Task completion report for investigating why output signal-variable values differ from their output component-parameter values in test problem MST2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinke, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Signal-variable values and their component-parameter values differ in an end-of-timestep edit to the TRCOUT and TRCGRF files because signal variables have beginning-of-timestep values, and component parameters have end-of-timestep values. Oscillatory divergence in the MST2 standard test problem after 9000 s occurs because of TRAC-P's numerical evaluation at a 1000 material Courant number. The magnitude of that divergence has diminished by a factor of 3.5 from Version 5.3.01 to 5.4.15 and by a factor of 25 from Version 5.4.15 to 5.4.28. That divergence can be eliminated by evaluating MST2 with a maximum material Courant number of 500

  1. Young Mania Rating Scale: how to interpret the numbers? Determination of a severity threshold and of the minimal clinically significant difference in the EMBLEM cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasiewicz, Michael; Gerard, Stephanie; Besnard, Adeline; Falissard, Bruno; Perrin, Elena; Sapin, Helene; Tohen, Mauricio; Reed, Catherine; Azorin, Jean-Michel

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this analysis was to identify Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) meaningful benchmarks for clinicians (severity threshold, minimal clinically significant difference [MCSD]) using the Clinical Global Impressions Bipolar (CGI-BP) mania scale, to provide a clinical perspective to randomized clinical trials (RCTs) results. We used the cohort of patients with acute manic/mixed state of bipolar disorders (N = 3459) included in the European Mania in Bipolar Longitudinal Evaluation of Medication (EMBLEM) study. A receiver-operating characteristic analysis was performed on randomly selected patients to determine the YMRS optimal severity threshold with CGI-BP mania score ≥ "Markedly ill" defining severity. The MCSD (clinically meaningful change in score relative to one point difference in CGI-BP mania for outcome measures) of YMRS, was assessed with a linear regression on baseline data. At baseline, YMRS mean score was 26.4 (±9.9), CGI-BP mania mean score was 4.8 (±1.0) and 61.7% of patients had a score ≥ 5. The optimal YMRS severity threshold of 25 (positive predictive value [PPV] = 83.0%; negative predictive value [NPV] = 66.0%) was determined. In this cohort, a YMRS score of 20 (typical cutoff for RCTs inclusion criteria) corresponds to a PPV of 74.6% and to a NPV of 77.6%, meaning that the majority of patients included would be classified as severely ill. The YMRS minimal clinically significant difference was 6.6 points. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Evidence for the different physiological significance of the 6- and 2-minute walk tests in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motl Robert W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers have recently advocated for the 2-minute walk (2MW as an alternative for the 6-minute walk (6MW to assess long distance ambulation in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS. This recommendation has not been based on physiological considerations such as the rate of oxygen consumption (V·O2 over the 6MW range. Objective This study examined the pattern of change in V·O2 over the range of the 6MW in a large sample of persons with MS who varied as a function of disability status. Method Ninety-five persons with clinically-definite MS underwent a neurological examination for generating an Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS score, and then completion of the 6MW protocol while wearing a portable metabolic unit and an accelerometer. Results There was a time main effect on V·O2 during the 6MW (p = .0001 such that V·O2 increased significantly every 30 seconds over the first 3 minutes of the 6MW, and then remained stable over the second 3 minutes of the 6MW. This occurred despite no change in cadence across the 6MW (p = .84. Conclusions The pattern of change in V·O2 indicates that there are different metabolic systems providing energy for ambulation during the 6MW in MS subjects and steady state aerobic metabolism is reached during the last 3 minutes of the 6MW. By extension, the first 3 minutes would represent a test of mixed aerobic and anaerobic work, whereas the second 3 minutes would represent a test of aerobic work during walking.

  3. Political Culture, Values and Economic Utility: A Different Perspective on Norwegian Party-based Euroscepticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne S. Skinner

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on a content analysis of party manifestos and a survey of Norwegian MPs, this article examines the nuances in, and the causality of, the different Norwegian parties’ Euroscepticism. The study of the comparative party politics of Euroscepticism, which focuses on ideology and strategy, falls short of accounting for the Norwegian case, where, unlike other European countries, the parties’ Euroscepticism is exceptionally stable and appears across the political spectrum. Therefore, the article tests an alternative set of theories, drawn from the literature on opinion formation on European integration, to find a more suitable framework for analysing and explaining the motivation of Norwegian Euroscepticism. The analysis shows that Norwegian party-based Euroscepticism can be divided into three types when it comes to its strength and policy opposition, with the Centre Party and the Socialist Left Party on the ‘hardest’ end of the Euroscepticism scale, followed by the Christian Democratic Party and the Liberal Party, and finally, the Labour Party and the Progress Party. Furthermore, the analysis indicates that Norwegian Eurosceptic party stances on Europe are primarily driven by political values and political culture concerns, except for the Progress Party, which base its Eurosceptic motivation on economic utilitarianism and political culture.

  4. Effectiveness of two different HDR brachytherapy regimens with the same BED value in cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Vashistha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the effectiveness of biologically effective dose (BED in two different regimens of HDR brachytherapy keeping the same total BED to point A and to compare the relationship of overall treatment time in terms of local control and bladder and rectal complications.Material and methods: The study included two groups comprising a total of 90 cervical cancer patients who underwent external beam radiotherapy (EBRT followed by HDR intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT. EBRT treatment was delivered by a Co-60 teletherapy unit to a prescribed dose of 45 Gy with 1.8 Gy per fraction in 25 fractions over a period of five weeks. Parallel opposed anterior–posterior (AP/PA fields with no central shielding were used, followed by the HDR ICBT dose, to point A, of either two fractions of 9.5 Gy with a gap of 10 days, or three fractions of 7.5 Gy with a gap of 7 days between the fractions. Gemcitabine (dose of 150 mg/m2 was given weekly to all the patients as a radiosensitizer. The calculate BED3 to point A was almost the same in both groups to keep the same late complication rates. The doses, and BED10 and BED3, were calculated at different bladder and rectal point as well as at the lymphatictrapezoid points. During and after treatment patients were evaluated for local control and complications for 24 months.Results and Conclusions: Doses and BEDs at different bladder, rectal and lymphatic trapezoid points, local control, and complications in both HDR ICBT groups did not have statistically significant differences (p > 0.05. Both HDR ICBT schedules are well tolerable and equally effective.

  5. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  6. The Hijdra scale has significant prognostic value for the functional outcome of Fisher grade 3 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Julia S; Von Dincklage, Falk; Woitzik, Johannes; Winkler, Maren K L; Major, Sebastian; Dreier, Jens P; Bohner, Georg; Scheel, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Despite its high prevalence among patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and high risk of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), the Fisher grade 3 category remains a poorly studied subgroup. The aim of this cohort study has been to investigate the prognostic value of the Hijdra sum scoring system for the functional outcome in patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH, in order to improve the risk stratification within this Fisher category. Initial CT scans of 72 prospectively enrolled patients with Fisher grade 3 aSAH were analyzed, and cisternal, ventricular, and total amount of blood were graded according to the Hijdra scale. Additionally, space-occupying subarachnoid blood clots were assessed. Outcome was evaluated after 6 months. Within the subgroup of Fisher grade 3, aSAH patients with an unfavorable outcome showed a significantly larger cisternal Hijdra sum score (HSS: 21.1 ± 5.2) than patients with a favorable outcome (HSS: 17.6 ± 5.9; p = 0.009). However, both the amount of ventricular blood (p = 0.165) and space-occupying blood clots (p = 0.206) appeared to have no prognostic relevance. After adjusting for the patient's age, gender, tobacco use, clinical status at admission, and presence of intracerebral hemorrhage, the cisternal and total HSS remained the only independent parameters included in multivariate logistic regression models to predict functional outcome (p Fisher 3 category. We suggest that the Hijdra scale is a practically useful prognostic instrument for the risk evaluation after aSAH and should be applied more often in the clinical setting.

  7. Parent-Youth Differences in Familism Values from Adolescence into Young Adulthood: Developmental Course and Links with Parent-Youth Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Susan M.; Rovine, Michael J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2016-01-01

    A critical step in capturing family processes is to incorporate the perspectives and experiences of multiple family members toward characterizing how families operate as systems. Although some research has examined differences between parents' and youth's family experiences, most studies have focused on European American families, and we know little about the nature and implications of divergent parent-youth experiences in other ethnic groups. Accordingly, we focused on Mexican-origin families and assessed the links between mother-youth and father-youth differences in familism values and parent-youth conflict from early adolescence into young adulthood. Participants were mothers, fathers, and two siblings (248 female and 244 male; Mage = 14.02 years) from 246 families who were interviewed in their homes on three occasions over eight years. We operationalized parent-youth differences in familism values using difference scores, controlling for mean levels of familism. Multilevel models revealed that mothers' and fathers' familism values remained relatively stable over time, but youth's (51% female) familism values declined until age 17, stabilized, and then increased slightly in young adulthood. Lagged models tested directions of effect by examining whether parent-youth differences in familism values predicted parent-youth conflict or vice versa. The findings revealed that parent-youth conflict predicted greater differences in parent-youth familism values, but differences in familism values did not predict conflict. Our findings align with a family systems perspective in documenting the significance of differences between family members' perspectives and highlighting that such processes are dynamic. Further, by testing bidirectional associations in longitudinal models, we were able to disentangle the temporal ordering of differences in familism values and parent-youth conflict thereby advancing understanding of parent-youth discrepancies in cultural values. PMID

  8. The value of different imaging methods on classification in displaced proximal humeral fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jingyu; Zhu Qingsheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of common X-ray, two-dimensional computed tomography (2D-CT), spiral computed tomography (SCT), and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction on the classification in displaced proximal humeral fractures. Methods: Three groups were divided on the basis of various imaging methods, including group A (common X-ray), group B (common X-ray and 2D-CT), and group C (3-D reconstruction of SCT and 2D-SCT). 46 cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures were classified with Neer system. The true rate of fracture classification by use of three methods was compared with each other, and clinical significance of SCT and 3-D reconstruction was evaluated. Results: Based on operation, 46 cases of displaced proximal humeral fractures in group A included 26 cases of Neer two-part fractures, 13 cases of three-part fractures, and 7 cases of four-part fractures. The true cases of common X-ray were 22 in Neer two-part fractures and 8 in three and four-part fractures, there was significant difference between Neer two-part fractures and Neer three and four-part fractures (P<0.05); 18 cases of proximal humeral fractures in group B included 3 cases of Neer two-part fractures, 9 cases of three-part fractures, and 6 cases of four-part fractures. The true cases of common X-ray and 2D-CT were 7 in Neer three and four-part fractures. 10 cases of proximal humeral fractures in group C included 1 case of Neer two-part fracture, 5 cases of three-part fractures, and 4 cases of four-part fractures. The true cases of 3-D reconstruction, MPR of SCT, and 2D-SCT were 8 in Neer three and four-part fractures. With regard to the true cases of the classification in Neer three and four-part fractures, there was significant difference in three groups and between group A and group C (P<0.05). All SCT and 3-D reconstruction played an important role in the treatment of proximal humeral fractures. Conclusion: Series of good quality X-ray examinations were the first imaging

  9. Electrorretinograma: Valores normales con diferentes protocolos de estudio Electroretinogram: Normal values with different study protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosaralis Paneca Santiesteban

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En 7 investigaciones por separado se llevó a cabo, el registro, la observación y comparación de los valores normales de frecuencia macular, amplitud y latencia de las ondas A y B del electrorretinograma, por cada ojo, obtenidos con diferentes electrodos, equipos y protocolos para registrarlo, usados durante los años 1977 hasta el 2000 en el laboratorio de Electrofisiología de la Visión del Instituto de Neurología y Neurocirugía. Se incluyó la metodología del electrorretinograma más recientemente utilizada, según las normas internacionales sobre el electrorretinograma estandarizado de la Sociedad Internacional para la Electrofisiología de la Visión, que fue el único protocolo de este trabajo en que se incluyó midriasis y preadaptación a la oscuridad o a la luz. Los valores de amplitud, latencia y réplica macular de cada uno de esos protocolos se exponen y se comparan entre sí los de similar protocolo. Ademàs, se presentan las curvas y valores del electrorretinograma estandarizado según las normas de la sociedad antes referidaA study was conducted in 7 separate researches, where the normal values of macular frequency, amplitude and latency of the A and B waves of the electroretinogram were recorded, observed and compared for each eye. These data were obtained with different electrodes, equipment and protocols that were used from 1977 to 2000 at the Laboratory of Vision Electrophysiology of the Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery. These techniques have allowed to characterize diseases and to suggest the site of the injuries causing them

  10. Value-centric business development: descriptive and prescriptive research into five different companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kukushkin, Merili; Otto, Tauno; Howard, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    The companies that discover changes and possibilities within the value system first and make use of them are considered to be prime movers and often are more successful than those who adapt late. Research has been done on multiple levels for understanding value-centric business from a practical......, and results involved in both the descriptive and the prescriptive phases of the research....... perspective as well as from a theoretical perspective. In the first stage of the research (Descriptive Study 1), practical experience and knowledge were gained simultaneously from a case company and from literature-based case analysis. As output of a prescriptive study, a specification of a proactive value...

  11. The method of extraction of subspectra with appreciably different values of hyperfine interaction parameters from Moessbauer spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemtsova, O.M.

    2006-01-01

    The task of Moessbauer spectra processing of complex locally inhomogeneous or multi-phase systems is to reveal subspectral contributions with appreciably different values of hyperfine interaction parameters (HFI) in them. A universal method of processing such spectra is suggested which allows to extract the probability density distribution (PDD) of HFI parameters corresponding to the subspectra with essentially different parameters values. The basis of the method is Tikhonov's regularization method with selection for each subspectrum its own value of the regularization parameter. The universal application of the method is demonstrated in the examples of processing real spectra with different sets of subspectral contributions

  12. Estimation Of Productive Value Of Czech Origin Scab-Resistant Apple Cultivars On Different Rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosna Ireneusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Apple cultivars resistant to scab are suitable for the conventional and organic cultivation. Rootstocks impact on the growth of trees, yield and fruit quality of scab-resistant cultivars were examined in the experiment conducted at Fruit Experimental Station - Samotwór near Wrocław, during the years 1998-2008. In the spring of 1998, the trees of five Czech origin scab-resistant apple cultivars ‘Rosana’, ‘Rubinola’, ‘Rajka’, ‘Goldstar’ and ‘Topaz’ each on M.9, P2, P60, P16 and P22 rootstocks were planted at a spacing of 3.5 × 1.2 m (2380 trees per hectare. The results of 11-year-long studies showed that ‘Rubinola’ and ‘Rajka’ were characterised by the strongest vigour, while ‘Rosana’ grew much weaker. Significant differences in the cumulative yield were not observed between cultivars, but rootstocks influenced cropping instantly. Trees on rootstock P60 had biggest cross-section area and canopy volume, and the highest cumulative yield. Fruit weight was highest from trees on M9 and P60. ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rosana’ formed significantly lightest fruits and ‘Goldstar’ the heaviest. Trees on the super-dwarfing P22 rootstock grew and yielded very weakly and produced very small fruits. The greatest susceptibility to powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha was observed in ‘Topaz’ and ‘Rajka’. ‘Rubinola’ has the best potential for organic cultivation, especially on dwarfing rootstocks.

  13. Maintenance & Repair Cost Calculation and Assessment of Resale Value for Different Alternative Commercial Vehicle Powertrain Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiner, Florian; Friedrich, Horst E.

    2017-01-01

    For detailed evaluation of the Total Cost of Ownership, expenditures for Maintenance & Repair as well as the resale value are important to consider and should not be neglected. However, information on Maintenance & Repair costs as well as residual values for commercial vehicles with alternative powertrains is missing and data on this issue is rare. There is a lack of information and consolidated knowledge. In order to enable a holistic cost assessment for commercial vehicles, a comprehensive ...

  14. Equivalence of ten different methods for valuing companies by cash flow discounting.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows that ten methods of company valuation using cash flow discounting (WACC; equity cash flow; capital cash flow; adjusted present value; residual income; EVA; business's risk-adjusted equity cash flow; business's risk-adjusted free cash flow; risk-free-adjusted equity cash flow; and risk-free-adjusted free cash flow) always give the same value when identical assumptions are used. This result is logical, since all the methods analyze the same reality based upon the same assumptio...

  15. Cultural values predict coping using culture as an individual difference variable in multi-cultural samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Bardi, Anat; Guerra, V. M.

    2011-01-01

    Three studies establish the relations between cultural values and coping using multicultural samples of international students. Study 1 established the cross-cultural measurement invariance of subscales of the Cope inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989) used in the paper. The cultural value dimensions of embeddedness vs. autonomy and hierarchy vs. egalitarianism predicted how international students from 28 (Study 2) and 38 (Study 3) countries coped with adapting to living in a new cou...

  16. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups.

  17. Different Electrophysiological Responses to Informative Value of Feedback Between Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn from feedback is important for children’s adaptive behavior and school learning. Feedback has two main components, informative value and valence. How to disentangle these two components and what is the developmental neural correlates of using the informative value of feedback is still an open question. In this study, 23 children (7–10 years old and 19 adults (19–22 years old were asked to perform a rule induction task, in which they were required to find a rule, based on the informative value of feedback. Behavioral results indicated that the likelihood of correct searching behavior under negative feedback was low for children. Event-related potentials showed that (1 the effect of valence was processed in a wide time window, particularly in the N2 component; (2 the encoding process of the informative value of negative feedback began later for children than for adults; (3 a clear P300 was observed for adults; for children, however, P300 was absent in the frontal region; and (4 children processed the informative value of feedback chiefly in the left sites during the P300 time window, whereas adults did not show this laterality. These results suggested that children were less sensitive to the informative value of negative feedback possibly because of the immature brain.

  18. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    . The Cl porosity is lower than the total physical porosity, because clays have different types of water (interlayer water, adsorbed water and free water), and ions can be affected by anionic exclusion processes. The geochemical porosity includes only the free water and some of the diffuse layer and surface-sorbed water; while the total physical porosity includes both the external and interlayer water. In order to calculate the Cl or geochemical porosity (n cl ), a relationship was used, which relates leaching data and the chloride content of the pore water extracted by the squeezing technique. Aqueous leaching tests were performed at anoxic conditions in order to obtain the chloride inventory in different core samples from each argillaceous formation. Besides, the chemical composition of the pore water was obtained by squeezing at high pressures. Taking into account the measured physical properties of the rock samples, such as water content, dry density, total porosity and degree of saturation; the geochemical porosity was calculated by using the above relationship. For Boom Clay core samples, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.81. In the case of Opalinus Clay, the mean Cl porosity/water loss porosity ratio is 0.59. In Mont Terri core samples, this ratio ranges from 0.5 to 0.7, although a value of 0.55 is frequently used. As conclusion, for indurated mud-rock formations (Callovo-Oxfordian and Opalinus Clay), the mean geochemical porosity obtained was around 8-10 %vol. (0.5-0.6 porosity ratio), whereas in the plastic Boom Clay the geochemical porosity was around 29 %vol. (0.8 porosity ratio)

  19. Production and nutritional value of the wheat silage managed with different cutting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Carletto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter cereals are mainly used for human and animal nutrition and several studies are now exploring their potential as conserved forage (hay and silage. Among the winter cereal species available for cultivation in the south of Brazil, which is major winter cereals producer in the country, the wheat cv. BRS Umbu has attracted special attention. However, few studies have investigated the potential of this cultivar for silage production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production and quality of silage from the dual-purpose wheat, BRS Umbu, subjected to different cut managements treatments: T1 - without cut (control, T2 - one cut and T3 - two cuts. Each plot represented an experimental unit in a randomized block design, with 5 replicates per treatment. Two representative samples were collected from each plot to determine morphological segmentation (stem, leaf and ear and dry matter (DM content of the whole plant and its morphological components. At the time of opening of the silos, food chemical analysis and pH determination were performed. Forage mass production decreased by 26.88% and 67.82%, respectively, with one and two cuts, compared to control. The DM content of the ensiled plant was 49.9 g kg-1 for the control, 54.7 g kg-1 with one cut and 63.2 g kg-1 with two cuts, at the time of ensiling. Management cuts changed the morphological components of the plants, with a lower proportion of stem (28% in plants subjected to two cuts. The control treatment showed fewer leaves in ensiled plant (9.6% and intermediate amount of stalk (52.8%, and was significantly different (p 0.05 was observed for mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP and hemicellulose (HEM between the different cutting regimens. However, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF decreased (p < 0.05 as the number of cuts increased. The control treatment showed higher NDF and ADF content (563.2 and 357.9 g kg-1 DM, respectively and lower amount of total

  20. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.

  1. [Different explanatory models for addictive behavior in Turkish and German youths in Germany: significance for prevention and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penka, S; Krieg, S; Hunner, Ch; Heinz, A

    2003-07-01

    Due to cultural and social barriers, immigrants seldom frequent centers for information, counseling, and treatment of addictive disorders. We examine cultural differences in the explanatory models of addictive behavior among Turkish and German youths in Germany with statistical devices that map the concepts associated with problems of addiction. Relevant differences were found between the disorder concepts of Turkish and German youth. German but not Turkish youths classified eating disorders among severe addictive disorders and associated them with embarrassment and shame. Concerning substance abuse, German but not Turkish youths clearly differentiated between illegal drug abuse and the abuse of alcohol and nicotine. Nearly half of all Turkish youths rejected central medical concepts such as "physical dependence" or "reduced control of substance intake" as completely inadequate to characterize problems of addictive behavior. Preventive information programs must consider these differences and use concepts that are accepted and clearly associated with addictive behavior by immigrant populations.

  2. Calibrations between chlorophyll meter values and chlorophyll contents vary as the result of differences in leaf structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to relate leaf chlorophyll meter values with total leaf chlorophyll contents (µg cm-2), calibration equations are established with measured data on leaves. Many studies have documented differences in calibration equations using different species and using different growing conditions for th...

  3. Organizational Citizenship Behavior, Job Satisfaction and Commitment to School: Is There Any Significant Difference between Male and Female Teachers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenaabadi, Hossein; Okati, Ehsan; Sarhadi, Aliyavar

    2013-01-01

    This research investigated the gender differences in job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior in sample included 200 male and 200 female teachers and 80 male managers in boy elementary schools in Zahedan. Data was collected by means of questionnaires and was analyzed through Factorial Analysis of…

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIFFERENT BUSINESS VALUE COMPONENTS WITHIN THE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Brlečić Valčić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The oil and gas industry is characterized by many complexities and specificities of business operations. The above is also reflected in the identification of value components, and the understanding of their interrelationships. In order to have an effective value management, it is especially important to follow up on the movements in key financial indicators and qualitative factors which impact the creation of financial results. This paper presents the theoretical basis in order to identify the most important qualitative value components in oil and gas companies. Therefore, the specificities of all sectors within this industry are highlighted in order for them to be related to the key financial factors influencing the creation of stable cash flows. For this purpose, a cluster analysis of selected key financial factors has been performed using self-organizing neural networks. Connecting identified qualitative value components affecting cash flows with the financial parameters through which they are reflected, creates a framework for developing an effective value management model.

  5. Clinical significance of fibromyalgia syndrome in different rheumatic diseases: Relation to disease activity and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rabbat M, Sarah; Mahmoud, Nermeen K; Gheita, Tamer A

    2017-04-11

    To describe the frequencies of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) in various rheumatic diseases; rheumatoid arthritis (RA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc) and Behçets disease (BD) patients and to study the relation to clinical manifestations and quality of life (QoL). 160 patients (50 RA, 50 SLE, 30 SSc and 30 BD) and matched corresponding healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed using disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) for RA, SLE Disease Activity index (SLEDAI), modified Rodnan skin score for SSc and BD Current Activity Form (BDCAF). The QoL was also recorded. Severity in FMS cases was estimated using the revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire score. In the RA, SLE, SSc and BD patients, FMS was found in 14%, 18%, 6.67% and 3.33% respectively compared to 2.1%, 3%, 3.3% and 0% in their corresponding controls. In RA patients, DAS28 was significantly higher in those with FMS (p=0.009) and significantly correlated with both Widespread Pain Index (WPI) (p=0.011) and Symptom Severity (SS) scale (p=0.012). The QoL scale in those with FMS was significantly worse (62.3±7.9) compared to those without (71.7±14.4) (p=0.023). In SLE patients, The WPI and SS both significantly correlated with the presence of thrombosis (r=0.28, p=0.049 and r=0.43, p=0.002 respectively). The SS scale tended to correlate with the SLEDAI (r=0.28, p=0.05). In BD patients, BDCAF and WPI significantly correlated (p=0.03). Fibromyalgia syndrome is more frequent in rheumatic diseases, could be related to the disease activity in RA and BD patients and to thrombosis in SLE and affected the QoL in RA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  8. Differences in radiosensitivity among cells in culture and in experimental tumours: Significance for the effectiveness of human cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barendsen, G.W.; Amsterdam Univ.

    1987-01-01

    Problems in the application of radiobiological data on various types of models, cell in vitro, experimental tumours, and clinical models, to the prediction of tumour radiocurability are discussed. On the basis of observations on cells in culture and experimental tumours it is suggested that heterogeneity in responsiveness of tumours in patients is caused in a large part by differences in intrinsic cellular radiosensitivity. Methods and developments are reviewed, which may yield better assays for the prediction of tumour responsiveness to treatments. (Auth.)

  9. The Expression of miR-192 and Its Significance in Diabetic Nephropathy Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the expression of miR-192 and its significance in diabetic nephropathy (DN patients. Methods. 464 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM were divided into normal albuminuria group (NA, n=157, microalbuminuria group (MA, n=159, and large amount of albuminuria group (LA, n=148. 127 healthy persons were selected as the control group (NC, n=127. The serum miR-192 levels were detected by Real-Time PCR and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 and fibronectin (FN were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The relationships among these parameters were analyzed by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Results. The miR-192 in the LA group was significantly lower than other groups, which was lower in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The TGF-β1 and FN in the LA group were significantly higher than other groups, which were higher in the MA group than in the NA group (P<0.01. The expression of miR-192 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1, FN, and Ln (UACR and miR-192, TGF-β1, and FN were independent relevant factors affecting Ln (UACR in T2DM (P<0.01. Conclusions. These findings indicate that the levels of miR-192 were lower accompanied by the decrease of urine albumin creatinine ratio (UACR and the association between miR-192 and nephritic fibrosis in DN.

  10. General Managers' and building managers' different evaluation of building value and quality - as built and over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2007-01-01

    building. Furthermore, the respondents were asked to prioritize the quality factors. In the analysis the quality factors were grouped into cultural value and use value and into quality as built and over time. The paper presents the general results of the survey with focus on the differences between......This paper is one of the results of a research project on real estate strategies and building values based on a case study of the corporate buildings of DR (Danish Broadcasting Corporation). The paper presents some of the results from a questionnaire survey among select groups of managers in DR...... concerning their evaluation of 5 buildings. The overall purpose of the survey was to evaluate the different buildings’ values and quality, both as built and over time. A second purpose was to develop and test a methodology to describe the values and quality of buildings at a general but still differentiated...

  11. Significant contribution of stacking faults to the strain hardening behavior of Cu-15%Al alloy with different grain sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y Z; Zhao, L J; Chen, S; Shibata, A; Zhang, Z F; Tsuji, N

    2015-11-19

    It is commonly accepted that twinning can induce an increase of strain-hardening rate during the tensile process of face-centered cubic (FCC) metals and alloys with low stacking fault energy (SFE). In this study, we explored the grain size effect on the strain-hardening behavior of a Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with low SFE. Instead of twinning, we detected a significant contribution of stacking faults (SFs) irrespective of the grain size even in the initial stage of tensile process. In contrast, twinning was more sensitive to the grain size, and the onset of deformation twins might be postponed to a higher strain with increasing the grain size. In the Cu-15 at.%Al alloy with a mean grain size of 47 μm, there was a stage where the strain-hardening rate increases with strain, and this was mainly induced by the SFs instead of twinning. Thus in parallel with the TWIP effect, we proposed that SFs also contribute significantly to the plasticity of FCC alloys with low SFE.

  12. Minorities with Different Values at School--The Case of Jehovah's Witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedgren, Pernilla

    2018-01-01

    Teachers in Swedish schools must balance the values imposed by law while simultaneously attempting to respect freedom of religion for their pupils. This study aimed to empirically investigate how teachers handle pupils who are Jehovah's Witnesses, a minority religion. Eleven, adult ex-members were asked to reflect on their experiences during…

  13. Value adding management of hospital real estate : Balancing between different stakeholders’ perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwart, J.; van der Voordt, D.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to cost effectiveness, possible contributions of real estate to organisational performance are incorporated in strategic corporate real estate management nowadays more and more. This paper explores the concept of adding value by real estate and how this concept is being applied in design

  14. The shift to land value taxation : A tale of a different future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachristos, G.; Vasilopoulos, C.

    2013-01-01

    In the midst of the current crisis, initially sparked by a housing bubble in the US, tax reform proposals become ever more relevant. The present paper elaborates one such proposal by using system dynamics. It presents the logic of the current property tax and an alternative land value tax system, it

  15. Critical micelle concentration values for different surfactants measured with solid-phase microextraction fibers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haftka, Joris J H; Scherpenisse, Peter; Oetter, G??nter; Hodges, Geoff; Eadsforth, Charles V.; Kotthoff, Matthias; Hermens, Joop L M

    The amphiphilic nature of surfactants drives the formation of micelles at the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fibres were used in the present study to measure CMC values of twelve nonionic, anionic, cationic and zwitterionic surfactants. The SPME derived CMC

  16. Evaluation of the nutritive value of apple pulp mixed with different amounts of wheat straw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Guedes, C.M.; Rodrigues, A.; Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Ferreira, L.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Given the high amounts of apple rejected for commercialization its use as alternative feed for ruminants should be considered. This study was designed to investigate the nutritive value of apple pulp-wheat straw mixtures. Chemical composition, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) and gas

  17. Small business owners’ success criteria, a values approach to personal differences

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgievski, Marjan J.; Ascalon, M. Evelina; Stephan, Ute

    2011-01-01

    This study of 150 Dutch small business owners, identified through business/ network directories, investigated relationships between owners’ understanding of success and their personal values. Business owners ranked 10 success criteria. Per- sonal satisfaction, profitability, and satisfied stakeholders ranked highest. Multidi- mensional scaling techniques revealed two dimensions underlying the rank order of success criteria: person-oriented (personal satisfaction versus business growth) and bu...

  18. Children's, Adolescents', and Adults' Judgments and Reasoning about Different Methods of Teaching Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Charles C.; Ryerson, Rachel; Prencipe, Angela

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated children's, adolescents', and young adults' judgments and reasoning about teaching two values (racial equality and patriotism) using methods that varied in provision for children's rational autonomy, active involvement, and choice. Ninety-six participants (7-8-, 10-11-, and 13-14-year-olds, and college students) evaluated…

  19. Marketing Internships: How Values and Search Strategies Differ across the Student-Employer Dyad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Scott R.; Tomkovick, Chuck

    2012-01-01

    This study identifies the value undergraduate marketing students are placing on various aspects of a marketing internship and compares the relative importance that internship providers place on these same factors. Results were obtained by surveying 140 internship providers and 336 undergraduate marketing majors. Internship providers rated…

  20. Individual differences in values determine the relative persuasiveness of biospheric, economic and combined appeals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Karlijn; Bolderdijk, Jan Willem; Steg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental campaigns highlight both the environmental and financial benefits of behaviour change, in the hope of motivating a broad audience. But are such mixed appeals more persuasive than separate appeals? We argue that messages tailored to match recipient's prioritised values are more

  1. Comparison of metabolisable energy values of different foodstuffs determined in ostriches and poultry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilliers, S C; Sales, J; Hayes, J P

    1999-01-01

    Apparent (AMEn) and true (TMEn) metabolisable energy values, corrected for nitrogen retention, of wheat bran, saltbush (Atriplex nummularia), common reed (Phragmites australis), lupins, soyabean oil cake meal (SBOCM), sunflower oil cake meal (SFOCM) and fishmeal were compared in 7 successive trials...

  2. Do individuals with and without depression value depression differently? : and if so, why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgiou, K.; Vermeulen, K.M.; Schroevers, M.J.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Buskens, E.; Krabbe, P.F.M.; van den Heuvel, E.R.; Ranchor, A.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Health state valuations, used to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, can be obtained either by the patients or by the general population. The general population seems to value somatic conditions more negatively than patients, but little is known about valuations of

  3. Do individuals with and without depression value depression differently? : And if so, why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgiou, Katerina; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Buskens, Erik; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    Purpose Health state valuations, used to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, can be obtained either by the patients or by the general population. The general population seems to value somatic conditions more negatively than patients, but little is known about valuations of

  4. Do individuals with and without depression value depression differently? : And if so, why?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papageorgiou, Katerina; Vermeulen, Karin M.; Schroevers, Maya J.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Buskens, Erik; Krabbe, Paul F. M.; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Ranchor, Adelita V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Health state valuations, used to evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions, can be obtained either by the patients or by the general population. The general population seems to value somatic conditions more negatively than patients, but little is known about valuations of

  5. The Work Values of First-Year College Students: Exploring Group Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Sedlacek, William E.

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 3,570 first-year college students were surveyed regarding the factors they deemed most important to their long-term career choice. Students as a whole identified intrinsic interest, high salary, contributions to society, and prestige as their 4 most important work values. Additional analyses found men more likely to espouse extrinsic…

  6. Value judgment of health interventions from different perspectives : arguments and criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, Karin M; Krabbe, Paul F M

    Background: The healthcare sector is evolving while life expectancy is increasing. These trends put greater pressure on healthcare resources, prompt healthcare reforms, and demand transparent arguments and criteria to assess the overall value of health interventions. There is no consensus on the

  7. Values and Attitudes towards Innovation among Different Generations of Russian People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article demonstrates the results of the studies which were aimed to identify the relationship between individual values and attitudes towards innovation. 380 respondents, young and adult representatives of the Russian population, took part in the research. The respondents belonged to the younger generation (under 25 years old or to the adult generation (over 45 years old. This research is based on the idea that the general predisposition for novelty and innovation can be conditioned by individual values. It has been revealed that values of “Humility”, “Conformity Rules”, “Security”, “Tradition” can interfere with the acceptance of innovation by the adult generation of the Russians. The values of “Self-Direction Thought”, “Stimulation”, “Achievement”, “Power Dominance”, “Power Resource” stimulate people to accept and implement innovations. “Universalism Concern” and “Conformity Interpersonal”, in their turn, impede the acceptance of innovations. This paper was prepared within the framework of the Academic Fund Program at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE in 2015- 2016 grant № 15-01-0060 and supported within the framework of a subsidy granted to the HSE by the Government of the Russian Federation for the implementation of the Global Competitiveness Program.

  8. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  9. American and Chinese Similarities and Differences in Defining and Valuing Creative Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Lan; Kaufman, James C.

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature explores how Americans and Chinese view creativity and what they expect from creative products. American and Chinese explicit beliefs about creativity (i.e., expert opinions) share many similarities. Implicit beliefs, however, show more divergence: Americans tend to value novelty and more "groundbreaking"…

  10. Use of environmental functions to communicate the values of a mangrove ecosystem under different management regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, A.J.; Janssen, R.

    1998-01-01

    Mangroves are part of rich ecosystems providing a variety of environmental goods and services. Underestimation of their value and of the impacts of human activities is a major factor contributing to the widespread loss and degradation of ecosystems. Economists frequently receive the blame for such

  11. Effect of flat insoles with different shore A values on posture stability in diabetic neuropathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Geffen, J.A.; Dijkstra, P.U.; Hof, A.L.; Halbertsma, J.P.K.; Postema, K.

    The objective of the study was to determine whether insoles with a low Shore A value (15 degrees) as prescribed for patients with a diabetic neuropathy have a negative effect on posture stability because these insoles may reduce somatosensory input under the feet. It was conducted in the Center for

  12. Doubting What to Eat: A Computational Model for Food Choice Using Different Valuing Perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abro, Altaf H.; Treur, Jan; Hirose, Akira; Ozawa, Seiichi; Doya, Kenji; Lee, Minho; Liu, Derong

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a computational model for the decision making process of food choices is presented that takes into account a number of aspects on which a decision can be based, for example, a temptation triggered by the food itself, a desire for food triggered by being hungry, valuing by the expected

  13. Quantitative analysis of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in malignant breast lesions using different b value combinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Line B. [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, P.O. Box 4959, Oslo (Norway); University of Oslo, Faculty of Medicine, P.O. Box 1078, Oslo (Norway); Fangberget, Anne [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Division of Diagnostics and Intervention, Norwegian Radium Hospital, P.O. Box 4959, Oslo (Norway); Geier, Oliver [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Physics, The Interventional Centre, Division of Diagnostics and Intervention, P.O. Box 4950, Oslo (Norway); Seierstad, Therese [Oslo University Hospital, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Division of Diagnostics and Intervention, Norwegian Radium Hospital, P.O. Box 4959, Oslo (Norway); Buskerud University College, Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 7053, Drammen (Norway)

    2013-04-15

    To explore how apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) in malignant breast lesions are affected by selection of b values in the monoexponential model and to compare ADCs with diffusion coefficients (Ds) obtained from the biexponential model. Twenty-four women (mean age 51.3 years) with locally advanced breast cancer were included in this study. Pre-treatment diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed using a 1.5-T system with b values of 0, 50, 100, 250 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}. Thirteen different b value combinations were used to derive individual monoexponential ADC maps. All b values were used in the biexponential model. Median ADC (including all b values) and D were 1.04 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (range 0.82-1.61 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s) and 0.84 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s (range 0.17-1.56 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s), respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between ADCs and Ds. For clinically relevant b value combinations, maximum deviation between ADCs including and excluding low b values (<100 s/mm{sup 2}) was 11.8 %. Selection of b values strongly affects ADCs of malignant breast lesions. However, by excluding low b values, ADCs approach biexponential Ds, demonstrating that microperfusion influences the diffusion signal. Thus, care should be taken when ADC calculation includes low b values. (orig.)

  14. Trade-Offs in Values Assigned to Ecological Goods and Services Associated with Different Coral Reef Management Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina C. Hicks

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Societies value ecosystems and the services they provide in a number of ways. These values can help inform the management of ecosystems such as coral reefs. However, the trade-offs in ecosystem goods and services associated with different social and management conditions are poorly understood. Consequently, we examined values assigned to the goods and services identified across three types of management on the Kenyan coast: (1 a government-imposed no-take area in the Mombasa Marine National Park; (2 co-management of gear between fishing communities and the government's fisheries department; and (3 community-initiated no-take area management, where a community independently initiated and controlled a small closed area. We compared the ecosystem goods and services and the broader total economic value to explore how the history of these sites, their social conditions, and different management choices were associated with these values. The highest total economic values were associated with government management interventions and were probably due to the government's priority to be involved in the high-value beach tourism destinations. This is, however, associated with losses in a range of local community-level values and the social capital of the resource-user community. For example, resource users near the government marine protected area had the lowest value for measures of biological knowledge. Sites displaying greater community-level values were characterized by high social capital, and users had the most confidence in their ability to manage the resource. This study suggests that trade-offs occur in values associated with the interests and responsibilities of the management. The ability to cope with disturbance and change will depend on these values and responsibilities, and local communities are less likely to respond when government management and interests are strong.

  15. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF ORKHON INSCRIPTIONS IN TURKISH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN TERMS OF VALUE TRANSFER I: TUNYUQUQ MONUMENT - ORHUN ABİDELERİNİN TÜRKÇE ÖĞRETİMİNDE DEĞER AKTARIMI AÇISINDAN ÖNEMİ I: TONYUKUK ABİDESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Nuri KARDAŞ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Orkhon Inscriptions is one of the largest cultural heritages of the Turkish nation. These cultural assets are the property of being the memory of the nation they were born through. Indeed since these monuments transfer the values they contain to the future, they have a characteristic that is the masterpiece of the Turkish nation which plays a significant role. What a nation keeps alive is its values. In this sense, for the Turkish nation, it is important that these monuments is examined in terms of the transfer value and is used in educational activities. The aim of this study is to identify the values in Tunyuquq Monument which is the first of Orkhon Inscriptions and to determine the importance of these values in Turkish value transfer. In the study, the descriptive analysis, one of the qualitative research techniques, has been used. By the researcher, values form was prepared in consultation with experts and the value elements in Tunyuquq Monument were determined and then with the problem of the study, the following conclusions were reached: ?\tIn Tunyuquq Monument, about 179 value elements have been identified, directly or indirectly, including 25 different values of the Turkish nation. These values and their handling frequencies in the Monument are given as follows: Bravery - bravery value (f = 24, Leadership value (f = 21, Nation-family unity value (f = 15, Homeland - the nation benefit (f = 15, Taking responsibility value (f = 12, Freedom and independence value (f = 11, Diligence value (f = 9; Farsightedness value (f = 9, belief in God value (f = 9; Sacrifice value (f = 7, Integrity value (f = 5, Sensitivity-kindness value (f = 5, Respect value (f = 5, Solidarity value (f = 4, Loyalty value (f = 4, Tradition-customs value (f = 4, Wisdom value (f = 4, Peace value (f = 3, comply with laws-law of value (f = 3, Protect the language value (f = 3, Patriotism value (f = 2, Esteeming Elder’s sayings value (f= 2, faithfulness value (f=1

  16. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Adriana; Ricean, Alina; Voidazan, Septimiu

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design. The cross-sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs) of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level, and profession) were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the patient health questionnaire-9. There were no statistical differences (p = 0.054) between the depression rates in the employed (17.98%) and unemployed (23.80%) samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55), marital status (divorced), living in the rural area, with a low level of education and poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education. The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months) in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  17. Hypopituitarism following traumatic brain injury: prevalence is affected by the use of different dynamic tests and different normal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokshoorn, Nieke E; Wassenaar, Moniek J E; Biermasz, Nienke R; Roelfsema, Ferdinand; Smit, Johannes W A; Romijn, Johannes A; Pereira, Alberto M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has emerged as an important cause of hypopituitarism. However, considerable variations in the prevalence of hypopituitarism are reported. These can partly be explained by severity of trauma and timing of hormonal evaluation, but may also be dependent on endocrine tests and criteria used for diagnosis of hypopituitarism. Systematic review of studies reporting prevalence of hypopituitarism in adults >or=1 year after TBI focusing on used (dynamic) tests and biochemical criteria. We included data from 14 studies with a total of 931 patients. There was considerable variation in definition of hypopituitarism. Overall, reported prevalences of severe GH deficiency varied between 2 and 39%. Prevalences were 8-20% using the GHRH-arginine test (cutoff hypopituitarism after TBI are in part caused by differences in definitions, endocrine assessments of hypopituitarism, and confounding factors. These methodological issues prohibit simple generalizations of results of original studies on TBI-associated hypopituitarism in the perspective of meta-analyses or reviews.

  18. No significant difference in depression rate in employed and unemployed in a pair-matched study design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana eMihai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to evaluate the differences of depression rate in employed and unemployed persons in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, in a pair-matched study design.Method: The cross sectional study uses a pair match design (395 pairs of two groups of employed and unemployed persons. Other socio-demographic risk factors of depression (gender, age, marital status, residence, ethnicity, educational level and profession were controlled. The study was done in a historical period of economic crisis, 2009-2010. For the screening of depression we used the Patient Health Questionnaire PHQ – 9.Results: There were no statistical differences (p=0.054 between the depression rates in the employed (17.98% and unemployed (23.80% samples. The depression rate in both groups was higher in females, age (51-55, marital status (divorced, living in the rural area, with a low level of education, poverty. Suicidal ideas are more frequent in men, employed persons with low level of education and in unemployed persons with medium level of education.Conclusion: The exposure to short term unemployment status was not associated with change in depression rate in the period of financial and economic crisis in Romania, comparing with controls pair-matched. Unemployment status increases the depression rate only in vulnerable groups such as single or divorced women; and suicidal ideas were associated with the unemployment status (longer than 8 months in men from rural area with medium level of education.

  19. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  20. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  1. Influence of affective significance on different levels of processing using pupil dilation in an analogical reasoning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Heekeren, Hauke R; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-02-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of cognition and emotion in decision making, using an analogical reasoning task. In this task, two word pairs were presented simultaneously. Each word pair could be characterized by an associative conceptual relation (object, actor, or location relation) as well as an emotional relation (negative, neutral, or positive valence). Both types of relations were equally task-relevant: Participants had to identify both types of relations, to compare them, and to decide whether or not the word pairs were analogous, i.e., corresponding in both conceptual and emotional relations. Behavioral data showed that emotional relations were identified preferentially and faster than conceptual relations. Pupil dilations reflected the descending difficulty of the conditions and were greatest in amplitude when both conceptual and emotional correspondence was shown, intermediate when only one type of relation (either the emotional or the conceptual) corresponded, and least when neither correspondence existed. Additionally, a negative valence of the word material slowed down response times and increased pupil dilation relative to positive and neutral items. In summary, pupil and response time data together support recent (neurobiological) models concerning the interaction of emotion and cognition by showing that affective significance leads to a processing advantage at a cognitively lower level of information processing (here, identification or retrieval of relations from long-term memory) but can also distract people from higher level cognitive processes (here, from the controlled comparison of retrieved relations). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Customer loyalty programs: the role of different value constructs in building customer loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    So, Jing Theng

    2017-01-01

    In times of severe competition, loyalty programs (LPs) are introduced by firms to provide customers with added value to gain higher levels of loyalty and retention. While LPs are claimed to engender customer loyalty, researchers have not reached a decision about whether these programs are worthwhile for businesses in the long-run. Despite being a popular research area in the marketing literature, previous studies have found inconsistent results regarding the effectiveness of these programs in...

  3. Different top-down approaches to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood tacrolimus mass concentration values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo-Bonnin, Raül; Blanco-Font, Aurora; Canalias, Francesca

    2018-05-08

    Values of mass concentration of tacrolimus in whole blood are commonly used by the clinicians for monitoring the status of a transplant patient and for checking whether the administered dose of tacrolimus is effective. So, clinical laboratories must provide results as accurately as possible. Measurement uncertainty can allow ensuring reliability of these results. The aim of this study was to estimate measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values obtained by UHPLC-MS/MS using two top-down approaches: the single laboratory validation approach and the proficiency testing approach. For the single laboratory validation approach, we estimated the uncertainties associated to the intermediate imprecision (using long-term internal quality control data) and the bias (utilizing a certified reference material). Next, we combined them together with the uncertainties related to the calibrators-assigned values to obtain a combined uncertainty for, finally, to calculate the expanded uncertainty. For the proficiency testing approach, the uncertainty was estimated in a similar way that the single laboratory validation approach but considering data from internal and external quality control schemes to estimate the uncertainty related to the bias. The estimated expanded uncertainty for single laboratory validation, proficiency testing using internal and external quality control schemes were 11.8%, 13.2%, and 13.0%, respectively. After performing the two top-down approaches, we observed that their uncertainty results were quite similar. This fact would confirm that either two approaches could be used to estimate the measurement uncertainty of whole blood mass concentration tacrolimus values in clinical laboratories. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  5. Diagnostic value of coustic radiation force impulse for BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions of different sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rong

    2018-04-14

    To determine the diagnostic value of combined conventional ultrasound (US) and acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging for the differential diagnosis of BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions of different sizes. From April 2013 to January 2015, 283 patients (with a total of 292 breast lesions) who underwent US and ARFI examination were included in this retrospective study. The SWV for the lesion and adjacent normal breast tissue were measured and the SWV ratio was calculated. VTI grade was also assessed. The lesions were separated into three groups on the basis of size, and two combinations of ARFI parameters (SWV + VTI and SWV ratio + VTI) were applied to reassess the BI-RADS categories. Diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination after biopsy or surgery. ROC analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic efficiency of each method. The Z test was used to compare the difference between AUC of the two methods. Significant improvement was seen in the diagnostic performance of US with the use of the ARFI parameters SWV + VTI (77/179 [43.0%] of BI-RADS category 4A breast lesions were downgraded) and SWV ratio + VTI (64/179 [35.8%] of BI-RADS category 4A breast lesions were downgraded, including two malignant cases that were misdiagnosed as benign) (P BI-RADS category 4 breast lesions. The combination of SWV ratio + VTI can improve BI-RADS classification of small lesions (<10 mm size).

  6. Differences in self-regulatory skills among talented athletes: the significance of competitive level and type of sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Laura; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2010-06-01

    Research has shown that talented athletes outscore their mainstream peers on the basis of self-regulation. Although valuable, this does not tell us more about the distinction between good athletes and the best, which is a prerequisite in talent development. Therefore, we examined the self-regulatory skills of 222 male and female talented athletes aged 12-16 years as a function of competitive sport level (junior international or junior national athletes) and type of sport (individual or team sports). Multivariate analyses of covariance in combination with a discriminant function analysis revealed that "reflection" distinguishes between athletes at the highest levels of excellence. Furthermore, athletes playing individual sports had higher scores on "planning" and "effort" than team sport athletes, highlighting the importance of differences between types of sport. In conclusion, we emphasize the importance of reflection as a self-regulatory skill. Reflection facilitates the development of sport-specific characteristics, which may vary by type of sport. This means that an advanced sense of reflection may help talented athletes to acquire desirable characteristics during their "talent" years to ultimately reach adult elite levels of competition.

  7. Characteristic differences in essential oil composition of six Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae) cultivars and their biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Ming; Wang, Shi-Jun; Song, Si-Yao; Zou, Yong; Wang, Jun-Ru; Sun, Bing-Yin

    Great variations have been found in composition and content of the essential oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. (Rutaceae), resulting from various factors such as harvest time, drying and extraction methods (Huang et al., 2006; Shao et al., 2013), solvent and herbal parts used (Zhang, 1996; Cao and Zhang, 2010; Wang et al., 2011). However, in terms of artificial introduction and cultivation, there is little research on the chemical composition of essential oil extracted from Z. bungeanum Maxim. cultivars, which have been introduced from different origins. In this study, the composition and content of essential oil from six cultivars (I-VI) have been investigated. They were introduced and cultivated for 11 years in the same cultivation conditions. Cultivars were as followings: Qin'an (I) cultivar originally introduced from Qin'an City in Gansu Province; Dahongpao A (II) from She County in Hebei Province; Dahongpao B (III) from Fuping County; Dahongpao C (IV) from Tongchuan City; Meifengjiao (V) from Feng County; and, Shizitou (VI) from Hancheng City, in Shaanxi Province, China. This research is expected to provide a theoretical basis for further introduction, cultivation, and commercial development of Z. bungeanum Maxim.

  8. Making a difference? Societal entrepreneurship and its significance for a practical theological ecclesiology in a local Western Cape context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatius Swart

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with the question of whether and how a local church or congregation can, as indissoluble dimension of its vocation as a Christian faith agent, make a difference by influencing the dynamics of social and economic change that are transforming the face and structures of ‘traditional’ social and religious life in its community. Based upon the authors’ own interest in the specific context of the Dutch Reformed congregation of Simondium in the Western Cape and the case study work that they have conducted in this context, an argument about the potential role of this congregation is developed through the conceptual lens of ‘societal entrepreneurship’. After exploring some recent thoughts on this concept in the literature, the authors use the results of their recently conducted case study work to show how the dynamics of a new entrepreneurial drive amongst long-established residents and newcomers in the Simondium region shape the social reality of both the region and the congregation in a forceful way. This insight leads the authors to develop a sociologically and theologically motivated argument about the way in which this changing reality offers newfound opportunities to the Simondium congregation to fulfil its Christian calling. As such, the notion of becoming an ‘entrepreneurial church’ is introduced and a more detailed perspective is offered on those factors that a contextually orientated practical theological ecclesiology should take into account in building the entrepreneurial model in the congregation.

  9. Net energy value of maize ethanol as a response to different climate and soil conditions in the southeastern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Tomas; Garcia y Garcia, Axel; Paz, Joel O.; Hoogenboom, Gerrit [Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, 1109 Experiment Street, The University of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223 (United States); Jones, James W. [Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Frazier Rogers Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    A recent increase in the demand for bio-ethanol has sparked maize production in the USA and other countries across the world. The net energy value (NEV), i.e. the energy output in ethanol and co-products after accounting for energy input requirements in the production chain of ethanol, is a measure of its sustainability. Grain yield of maize, which varies substantially across different climate and soil conditions, greatly impacts the ethanol NEV. The objectives of this study were to determine i) the NEV of ethanol produced from maize grown in four production regions in the southeastern USA and, ii) the specific impact of local soil variability under the same climate conditions within the four regions on the NEV of maize-ethanol. Maize yield was simulated with the Cropping System Model (CSM)-CERES-Maize model for soil and weather conditions, and management practices representing Bulloch, Floyd, Laurens and Mitchell counties, Georgia, USA. The calculation of ethanol NEV took into account the energy inputs and outputs of the entire ethanol production chain, and was based on the crop simulations. There were statistically significant differences in ethanol NEV among the counties, and within counties due to local soil variability. Differences in ethanol NEV among counties were partially due to different transportation distances. Based on the results of this study, it was concluded that maize-ethanol NEV can be increased by accounting for the soil and climate factors in the feedstock production and by locating ethanol-processing facilities in regions with soil and climate conditions that are favorable for ethanol-maize production. (author)

  10. Garden and Landscape-Scale Correlates of Moths of Differing Conservation Status: Significant Effects of Urbanization and Habitat Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Adam J.; Sadler, Jon P.; Grundy, Dave; Lowe, Norman; Davis, George; Baker, David; Bridge, Malcolm; Freestone, Roger; Gardner, David; Gibson, Chris; Hemming, Robin; Howarth, Stephen; Orridge, Steve; Shaw, Mark; Tams, Tom; Young, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s) is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS) to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union) criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1) that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution) across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2) that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some vulnerable species of

  11. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  12. Garden and landscape-scale correlates of moths of differing conservation status: significant effects of urbanization and habitat diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam J Bates

    Full Text Available Moths are abundant and ubiquitous in vegetated terrestrial environments and are pollinators, important herbivores of wild plants, and food for birds, bats and rodents. In recent years, many once abundant and widespread species have shown sharp declines that have been cited by some as indicative of a widespread insect biodiversity crisis. Likely causes of these declines include agricultural intensification, light pollution, climate change, and urbanization; however, the real underlying cause(s is still open to conjecture. We used data collected from the citizen science Garden Moth Scheme (GMS to explore the spatial association between the abundance of 195 widespread British species of moth, and garden habitat and landscape features, to see if spatial habitat and landscape associations varied for species of differing conservation status. We found that associations with habitat and landscape composition were species-specific, but that there were consistent trends in species richness and total moth abundance. Gardens with more diverse and extensive microhabitats were associated with higher species richness and moth abundance; gardens near to the coast were associated with higher richness and moth abundance; and gardens in more urbanized locations were associated with lower species richness and moth abundance. The same trends were also found for species classified as increasing, declining and vulnerable under IUCN (World Conservation Union criteria. However, vulnerable species were more strongly negatively affected by urbanization than increasing species. Two hypotheses are proposed to explain this observation: (1 that the underlying factors causing declines in vulnerable species (e.g., possibilities include fragmentation, habitat deterioration, agrochemical pollution across Britain are the same in urban areas, but that these deleterious effects are more intense in urban areas; and/or (2 that urban areas can act as ecological traps for some

  13. Significance and function of different spinal collateral compartments following thoracic aortic surgery: immediate versus long-term flow compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meffert, Philipp; Bischoff, Moritz S; Brenner, Robert; Siepe, Matthias; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Kari, Fabian A

    2014-05-01

    Iatrogenic paraplegia has been accompanying cardiovascular surgery since its beginning. As a result, surgeons have been developing many theories about the exact mechanisms of this devastating complication. Thus, the impact of single arteries that contribute to the spinal perfusion is one of the most discussed subjects in modern surgery. The subsequent decision of reattachment or the permanent disconnection of these intercostal arteries divides the surgical community. On the one hand, the anatomical or vascular approach pleads for the immediate reimplantation to reconstruct the anatomical situation. On the other hand, the decision of the permanent disconnection aims at avoiding stealing phenomenon away from the spinal vascular network. This spinal collateral network can be described as consisting of three components-the intraspinal and two paraspinal compartments-that feed the nutrient arteries of the spinal cord. The exact functional impact of the different compartments of the collateral network remains poorly understood. In this review, the function of the intraspinal compartment in the context of collateral network principle as an immediate emergency backup system is described. The exact structure and architectural principles of the intraspinal compartment are described. The critical parameters with regard to the risk of postoperative spinal cord ischaemia are the number of anterior radiculomedullary arteries (ARMAs) and the distance between them in relation to the longitudinal extent of aortic disease. The paraspinal network as a sleeping reserve is proposed as the long-term backup system. This sleeping reserve has to be activated by arteriogenic stimuli. These are presented briefly, and prior findings regarding arteriogenesis are discussed in the light of the collateral network concept. Finally, the role of preoperative visualization of the ARMAs in order to evaluate the risk of postoperative paraplegia is emphasized.

  14. Application of the Variational Iteration Method to the Initial Value Problems of Q-difference Equations-Some Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xiang Zeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The q-difference equations are a class of important models both in q-calculus and applied sciences. The variational iteration method is extended to approximately solve the initial value problems of q-difference equations. A q-analogue of the Lagrange multiplier is presented and three examples are illustrated to show the method's efficiency.

  15. 24-HOUR ARTERIAL STIFFNESS VALUES IN MEN WITH DIFFERENT PHENOTYPES OF CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE CONCURRENT WITH HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Karoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the specific features of the daily arterial stiffness (AS profile in men with different phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD concurrent with hypertension. Subjects and methods. The investigation enrolled 78 male patients with COPD and hypertension. The patients were divided according to COPD phenotypes into 2 groups: 1 COPD patients with emphysema; 2 those with bronchitis. The exclusion criteria were less than 40 years and more than 80 years of age; diabetes mellitus; coronary heart disease; vascular diseases; an exacerbation of chronic diseases; bronchial and pulmonary diseases of another etiology. The patients underwent 24-hour blood pressure and AS monitoring, external respiratory function testing: spirography with a short-acting β2-agonist test, a six-minute walk test at baseline and after a hemoglobin oxygen saturation test, and a CAT test. Results. The patients of both groups were observed to have a statistically significant increase in (dP/dtmax as compared to those of the control group (p < 0.05; p < 0.01 in both the daytime and nighttime. In these periods, the COPD patients with emphysema had a higher AIx than those with bronchitis (p < 0.001. There was a statistically significantly (p < 0.001 higher AIx in the nighttime than in the daytime in Groups 1 and 2 patients. Conclusion. The patients with different COPD phenotypes were noted to have impaired arterial elastic properties, circadian AS changes with predominantly nocturnal impaired vascular stiffness. Relationships were found between 24-hour AS values and clinicoanamnestic findings. 

  16. [The value of different tests of the efficacy of iron supplementation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladrière, Marc

    2006-11-01

    Iron status need to be acurately assessed to guid treatment which is necessary in management of anemia associated with chronic renal failure. Biochemical or cytologic tests can be used. As biochemical tests can be modified by inflammation or denutrition, specificity is sometimes quite low. Whereas it is not the case for cytologic ones, which need further discussions to choose the best cut-off value. Diagnosis of functional iron deficiency needs association of parameters. Poor disponiblity of cytologic tests make them difficult to use, but their usefullness become more and more recognized to complete study by biochemical ones which are known to fail to make correct evaluation in some cases.

  17. Determination of enrichment of recycle uranium fuels for different burnup values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabunoglu, Okan H.

    2008-01-01

    Uranium (U) recovered from spent LWR fuels by reprocessing, which contains small amounts of U-236, is to be enriched before being re-irradiated as the recycle U. During the enrichment of recovered U in U-235, the mass fraction of U-236 also increases. Since the existence of U-236 in the recycle U has a negative effect on neutron economy, a greater enrichment of U-235 in the recycle U is required for reaching the same burnup as can be reached by the fresh U fuel. Two burnup values play the most important role in determining the enrichment of recycle U: (1) discharge burnup of spent fuel from which the recycle U is obtained and (2) desired discharge burnup of the recycle U fuel. A step-by-step procedure for calculating the enrichment of the recycle U as a function of these two burnup values is introduced. The computer codes MONTEBURNS and ORIGEN-S are made use of and a three-component (U-235, U-236, U-238) enrichment scheme is applied for calculating the amount of U-236 in producing the recycle U from the recovered U. As was aimed, the resulting expression is simple enough for quick/hand calculations of the enrichment of the recycle U for any given discharge burnup of spent fuel and for any desired discharge burnup of the recycle U fuel, most accurately within the range of 33,000-50,000 MWd/tonU

  18. Serum Inhibin B and follicle-stimulating hormone levels as tools in the evaluation of infertile men: significance of adequate reference values from proven fertile men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A.-M.; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Jørgensen, N.

    2004-01-01

    Inhibin B and FSH levels in 289 idiopathic infertile men were compared with reference materials consisting of 303 proven fertile men (reference group 1) and 307 healthy men from the general population with unknown fertility status (reference group 2). The diagnostic power of these two serum markers...... of spermatogenesis was evaluated by the use of receiver operating characteristic plot analysis, and an example of how both markers can be used simultaneously in a bivariate reference chart is presented. Inhibin B levels were significantly lower and FSH levels were significantly higher in the infertile men, compared...

  19. Value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Li-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the value distribution of meromorphic solutions of homogeneous and non-homogeneous complex linear differential-difference equations, and obtain the results on the relations between the order of the solutions and the convergence exponents of the zeros, poles, a-points and small function value points of the solutions, which show the relations in the case of non-homogeneous equations are sharper than the ones in the case of homogeneous equations.

  20. Differences between “exploration” and “exploitation” of cross-border mergers & acquisitions and its value creation effect

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    This paper adopts the case study method to respectively research the value creation in the exploration and exploitation type of China’s four cross-border mergers & acquisitions, and discusses the similarities and differences between the value creation in the utilization and exploration type of mergers & acquisitions, and finds that the former type of mergers and acquisitions is suitable for a medium or higher level of integration in the aspect of the organization structure, culture, human res...

  1. Superfund explanation of significant difference for the record of decision (EPA Region 3): Westinghouse Elevator Company Plant, Gettysburg, PA, August 3, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The document explains significant differences to the remedy selected in the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Site signed by the Regional Administrator on June 30, 1992 (PB93-963911) for Operable Unit 1. The Significant Difference between the remedy presented in the June 30, 1992 ROD and the changes to the ROD that will be implemented are explained.

  2. Transcutaneous oximetry measurements of the leg: comparing different measuring equipment and establishing values in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinks, Tobias P; Blake, Denise F; Young, Derelle A; Thistlethwaite, Ken; Vangaveti, Venkat N

    2017-06-01

    Transcutaneous oximetry measurement (TCOM) is a non-invasive method of determining oxygen tension at the skin level using heated electrodes. To compare TCOM values generated by different machines and to establish lower limb TCOM values in a cohort of healthy individuals younger than 40 years of age. Sixteen healthy, non-smoking volunteers aged 18 to 39 years were recruited. TCOM was obtained at six locations on the lower leg and foot using three different Radiometer machines. Measurements were taken with subjects lying supine, breathing air. Except for one sensor site, there were no statistical differences in measurements obtained by the different TCOM machines. There was no statistical difference in measurements comparing left and right legs. Room air TCOM values for the different lower leg sites were (mean (SD) in mmHg): lateral leg 61.5 (9.2); lateral ankle 61.1 (9.7); medial ankle 59.1 (10.8); foot, first and second toe 63.4 (10.6); foot, fifth toe 59.9 (13.2) and plantar foot 74.1 (8.8). The overall mean TCOM value for the lower limb was 61 (10.8; 95% confidence intervals 60.05-62.0) mmHg. Lower-leg TCOM measurements using different Radiometer TCOM machines were comparable. Hypoxia has been defined as lower-leg TCOM values of less than 40 mmHg in non-diabetic patients and this is supported by our measurements. The majority (96.9%) of the lower leg TCOM values in healthy young adults are above the hypoxic threshold.

  3. Evaluation of Blue Value in different plant materials as a tool for rapid starch determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Samotus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the concentration of starch in plant materials from the intensity of the blue iodine complex, it is necessary to know the Blue Value (B.V., which is defined in this paper as the absorbancy of 100 mg of a starch-iodine complex in 100 ml of aqueous solution. An adequate amount of plant material is treated with a hot CaCl2 solution for 1/2 hour and the solute is diluted to 25 ml with CaCl2. This basic solution serves to measure absorbancy, as well as for starch determination. The first measurement is done by the dilution of a proper amount of basic solution with water and after adding a diluted iodine-iodide solution the reading of B.V. is taken off. The second measurement is done by the precipitation of a starch iodine complex from a proper amount of the basic solution, which is then purified, destroyed by Na2SO3 solution, and starch is determined by the anthrone method. These two readings serve for the establishing of B.V. for the starch. Once established, B.V. can be used for starch determination in the proper plant material. A high degree of variation of the B.V. was found. The highest B.V. was obtained for wrinkled pea seeds (17.4; walnut, potato, smooth pea and pear gave values from 12.6 to 11.0, common bean and broad bean - 10.3 and 9.7, Triticale, carrot, rye, wheat and garden parsley from 8.7 to 8.0 and maize, oat, normal rice from 7.6 to 6.2. The B.V. for amylose was 25.3, for potato starch 12.4, soluble starch 11.9, wheat starch 8.8 and for Triticale and rye starches, 8.7.

  4. Ethnic differences in antepartum glucose values that predict postpartum dysglycemia and neonatal macrosomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajala, Olubukola; Chik, Constance

    2018-03-31

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) occurs more often in women from certain ethnic groups and is also associated with fetal macrosomia. In this study, we investigated the ability of a gestational diabetes screening test (GDS), the 2 h 75 g-Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in predicting postpartum dysglycemia and fetal macrosomia in women of Caucasian, Filipino, Chinese and South-Asian descent. 848 women diagnosed with carbohydrate intolerance in pregnancy who completed a 2 h 75 g- OGTT within 6 months postpartum, were included in the study. Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis was used to test the ability of antepartum GDS, HbA1c and OGTT in predicting postpartum hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and neonatal macrosomia (birth weight >4000 g). 20.2% had postpartum hyperglycemia while 3.8% had T2D. Those with postpartum dysglycemia were more likely to be non-Caucasian (South-Asian > Filipino > Chinese), have higher antepartum glucose values, require insulin during pregnancy and have cesarean births. Of HbA1c and the antepartum glucose values, a fasting glucose of ≥5.25 mmol/L was predictive of fetal macrosomia in Caucasians. 1 h glucose of ≥11.05 mmol/L was predictive of postpartum hyperglycemia, while 2 h glucose of ≥9.75 mmol/L was predictive of T2D; ethnicity influenced the predictive ability of these tests. Ethnicity influences the ability of antepartum glucose and HbA1c to predict the risk of macrosomia and postpartum dysglycemia. This information will help detect those most at risk of T2D. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Examining regional variability in work ethic within Mexico: Individual difference or shared value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, Luis M; Woehr, David J; Del Rincón, Germán A

    2018-02-19

    Despite the acceptance of work ethic as an important individual difference, little research has examined the extent to which work ethic may reflect shared environmental or socio-economic factors. This research addresses this concern by examining the influence of geographic proximity on the work ethic experienced by 254 employees from Mexico, working in 11 different cities in the Northern, Central and Southern regions of the country. Using a sequence of complementary analyses to assess the main source of variance on seven dimensions of work ethic, our results indicate that work ethic is most appropriately considered at the individual level. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  6. Non-sugar matter as an indicator of technological value in different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work represents a research of non-sugar matter (the content of α- amino nitrogen, potassium and sodium) in the root, and their effect on the recoverable sucrose quantity of three genotypes (Esprit, Belinda and Chiara) of sugar beet from vegetation areas of different sizes. They were grown by standard agrotechnical ...

  7. Adapting to a new workplace : Generational differences in work needs and values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lub, X.D.; Blomme, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitality businesses are experiencing high staff turnover and seem to have particular problems retaining a new generation of employees. This study explores generational differences as a possible reason for this problem. This phenomenon is widely reported in the popular press but has received very

  8. Food and value motivation: Linking consumer affinities to different types of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, J.; Schosler, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study uses the consumer affinity concept to examine the multiple motives that may shape consumers' relationships with food. The concept was applied in a study on four broad product types in the Netherlands, which cover a wide range of the market and may each appeal to consumers with different

  9. Positive solutions of boundary value problem for singular positone and semi-positone third-order difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Gongqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article studies the boundary value problems for the third-order nonlinear singular difference equations Δ 3 u ( i - 2 + λ a ( i f ( i , u ( i = 0 , i ∈ [ 2 , T + 2 ] , satisfying five kinds of different boundary value conditions. This article shows the existence of positive solutions for positone and semi-positone type. The nonlinear term may be singular. Two examples are also given to illustrate the main results. The arguments are based upon fixed point theorems in a cone. MSC [2008]: 34B15; 39A10.

  10. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  11. Prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with different types of cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjia Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR gene amplification has been reported in different types of cancer. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis to further characterize the prognostic value of FGFR gene amplification in patients with cancer. METHODS: A search of several databases, including MEDLINE (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, was conducted to identify studies examining the association between FGFR gene amplification and cancer. A total of 24 studies met the inclusion criteria, and overall incidence rates, hazard risk (HR, overall survival, disease-free survival, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated employing fixed- or random-effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. RESULTS: In the meta-analysis of 24 studies, the prevalence of FGFR gene amplification was FGFR1: 0.11 (95% CI: 0.08-0.13 and FGFR2: 0.04 (95% CI: 0.02-0.06. Overall survival was significantly worse among patients with FGFR gene amplification: FGFR1 [HR 1.57 (95% CI: 1.23-1.99; p = 0.0002] and FGFR2 [HR 2.27 (95% CI: 1.73-3.00; p<0.00001]. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports the conclusion that the outcomes of patients with FGFR gene amplified cancers is worse than for those with non-FGFR gene amplified cancers.

  12. Need for Different Cutoff Values for Reading Mantoux Test with 2TU and 5TU PPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaraj, Savitha M; Nagendra, K; Gopal, Girish; Majgi, Sumanth Mallikarjuna

    2017-09-01

    To compare the tuberculin reaction of 2 tuberculin unit (TU) with 5TU purified protein derivative (PPD) (both calibrated against RT 23) in healthy children. This was a cross sectional study done in the pediatric outpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Seventy healthy siblings of the children attending pediatric outpatient department in the age group of 1 to 12 y were enrolled. The exclusion criteria included previously diagnosed tuberculosis patients, malnutrition diagnosed according to the WHO classification, history of drug intake like steroids, recent history of measles, any skin lesions over forearm, history of fever, contact with tuberculosis and previous mantoux testing. The study was conducted wherein each child was subjected to simultaneous testing with 2TU and 5TU by standard technique. The reactions to both the tests was read at 48-72 h. Children with induration ≥10 mm were evaluated for tuberculosis by taking chest x-ray, gastric lavage or sputum smear examination for acid fast bacilli (AFB). Considering ≥10 mm induration as positive, subjects positive with 5TU were 7 (10%) and 2TU was 1(p value = 0.031); thus, there is no agreement between the two methods (McNemar's test). Comparing the mean diameter of induration of 2TU and 5TU (p PPD is not comparable to that of 5TU PPD.

  13. [Comparison of 2D and 3D sequences for MRCP. Clinical value of the different techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallnoefer, A M; Herrmann, K A; Beuers, U; Zech, C J; Gourtsoyianni, S; Reiser, M F; Schoenberg, S O

    2005-11-01

    Magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreaticograpy (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging modality of the pancreatico-biliary system which plays an increasingly important role in the clinical and diagnostic workup of patients with biliary or pancreatic diseases. The present review is designed to give an overview of the currently available and appropriate sequences, their technical background, as well as new developments and their relevance to the various clinical issues and challenges. The impact of the latest technical innovations, such as integrated parallel imaging techniques and navigator-based respiratory triggering, on the diagnostic capacities of MRCP is discussed. In this context, the individual value of RARE, T2w single shot turbo/fast spin echo (SSFSE) and the recently introduced 3D T2w turbo/fast spin echo sequences (T2w 3D-T/FSE) is reviewed. RARE imaging may be preferred in severely ill patients with limitations in cooperation, SSFSE is particularly effective in differentiating benign and malignant stenosis, and 3D-FSE offers additional advantages in the detection of small biliary concrements.

  14. Measurement of Flow Properties of Mammalian Blood with Different Hematocrit Values Using Falling Needle Rheometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Suzuki

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of viscometry with high accuracy and quick operation, as well as the establishment of a data evaluation method by pathology are largely required. Especially, the flow properties of human blood are an important factor in the evaluation of blood disease on the medicine, but the method of viscometry and the data collection are not so easy. This study has been described on the viscosity measurement and their evaluations for mammalian blood (rabbit, pig and horse including human blood. A compact-sized falling needle rheometer (FNR and a flow analysis method using this device for blood have been developed, and the relationship between the apparent viscosity and physical properties (density, hematocrit value of blood have also been evaluated. Measured flow properties of blood are evaluated as a flow curve showing the relationship between the shear stress and shear rate. Observed flow curves of mammalian bloods show three typical fluid regions, these are, the Non-newtonian fluid region for a low shear rate range, the transition region and the Newtonian fluid region for a high shear rate range. Flow properties of blood in the Casson fluid region and the apparent viscosity (μ in the Newtonian fluid region are measured, and they are compared between mammals.

  15. Diagnostic value of different adherence measures using electronic monitoring and virologic failure as reference standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Ann E; De Geest, Sabina; Vandamme, Anne-Mieke; Bobbaers, Herman; Peetermans, Willy E; Van Wijngaerden, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy is a substantial problem in HIV and jeopardizes the success of treatment. Accurate measurement of nonadherence is therefore imperative for good clinical management but no gold standard has been agreed on yet. In a single-center prospective study nonadherence was assessed by electronic monitoring: percentage of doses missed and drug holidays and by three self reports: (1) a visual analogue scale (VAS): percentage of overall doses taken; (2) the Swiss HIV Cohort Study Adherence Questionnaire (SHCS-AQ): percentage of overall doses missed and drug holidays and (3) the European HIV Treatment Questionnaire (EHTQ): percentage of doses missed and drug holidays for each antiretroviral drug separately. Virologic failure prospectively assessed during 1 year, and electronic monitoring were used as reference standards. Using virologic failure as reference standard, the best results were for (1) the SHCS-AQ after electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 78.6%); (2) electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 75%; specificity, 85.6%), and (3) the VAS combined with the SHCS-AQ before electronic monitoring (sensitivity, 87.5%; specificity, 58.6%). The sensitivity of the complex EHTQ was less than 50%. Asking simple questions about doses taken or missed is more sensitive than complex questioning about each drug separately. Combining the VAS with the SHCS-AQ seems a feasible nonadherence measure for daily clinical practice. Self-reports perform better after electronic monitoring: their diagnostic value could be lower when given independently.

  16. Improved performance of photosynthetic light response equations with unified parameters for rice leaves with different SPAD values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Peng, S.; Kong, W.

    2015-01-01

    The rectangular hyperbola (RH), Mitscherlich (M) and YE equation were applied to describe the photosynthetic light response (PLR) curves measured from rice leaves with different SPAD values, to reveal the relationship between SPAD values and parameters in different equations, and to establish the modified PLR equations. The parameters in PLR equations are largely varied. SPAD value, as an indicator of leaf N contents, was highly correlated to the parameter of Pnmax in RH, M and YE equations. Incorporating the factor SPAD into PLR equations, the modified equations (MRH, MM, and MYE) were established which were feasible to describing the PLR curves for leaves with different SPAD values using the identical parameters for the ten PLR curves as a whole, and perform much better than the general PLR equations (GRH, GM, and GYE). It indicated that incorporating easy available indicators of leaf physiological and morphological traits in the PLR equations, such as SPAD as an indicator of leaf N or Chlorophyll contents, is an easy way to overcome the shortcoming of parameters variation in PLR equations between individuals of the same specie growing in different environments. Further validation should be done for different crops with both SPAD and other possible factors. (author)

  17. Searching spectrum points of difference initial-boundary value problems with using GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazepa, N.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new algorithm for searching spectrum points is proposed. The difference schemes which approximate systems of linear differential equations of hyperbolic type with constant coefficients and in one space dimension are considered. For important class of practiclas problems this algorithm reduces the hard spectrum calculation problem to the polynomial equation solution. For complicated analytic manipulations connected with realization of this algorithm the computation algebraic system REDUCE is used. 28 refs

  18. The Value of Different Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty Metrics in Predicting Business Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Neil A. Morgan; Lopo Leotte Rego

    2006-01-01

    Managers commonly use customer feedback data to set goals and monitor performance on metrics such as “Top 2 Box” customer satisfaction scores and “intention-to-repurchase” loyalty scores. However, analysts have advocated a number of different customer feedback metrics including average customer satisfaction scores and the number of “net promoters” among a firm's customers. We empirically examine which commonly used and widely advocated customer feedback metrics are most valuable in predicting...

  19. Differential and Difference Boundary Value Problem for Loaded Third-Order Pseudo-Parabolic Differential Equations and Difference Methods for Their Numerical Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshtokov, M. Kh.

    2017-12-01

    Boundary value problems for loaded third-order pseudo-parabolic equations with variable coefficients are considered. A priori estimates for the solutions of the problems in the differential and difference formulations are obtained. These a priori estimates imply the uniqueness and stability of the solution with respect to the initial data and the right-hand side on a layer, as well as the convergence of the solution of each difference problem to the solution of the corresponding differential problem.

  20. Dietary analysis of Late Cenozoic Mexican equids from three different geographic/geologic settings using stable carbon isotopes: Coincidences, differences and paleobiologic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Crespo, Víctor Adrian; Ferrusquía-Villafranca, Ismael; Bravo-Cuevas, Víctor Manuel; Morales-Puente, Pedro; Ruiz-González, José E.

    2016-03-01

    The development of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico is uneven, so that there is a strong bias in favor of Neogene/Quaternary mammals largely collected in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB hereafter) and Central Plateau (CeP hereafter) Morphotectonic Provinces [MP hereafter]; however, the time is ripe for pursuing research in other than taxonomic areas. Here we investigate C3/C4 plant consumption in the equid lineage in three such provinces, which provide different geographic/geologic and paleoecologic scenarios during the Barstovian, Hemphillian and Rancholabrean times. Our results show that the Barstovian equids from Oaxaca, Sierra Madre del Sur MP Cormohipparion aff. C. quinni, Merychippus cf. M. sejunctus and Pliohippus sp. largely fed on C3 plants, which were the chief food stuff of horses in Mexico, particularly in the Southeast. On the other hand, the Hemphillian equid from Guanajuato, CeP Astrohippus stocki, was an unbalanced C3/C4 mixed feeders in favor of C4 plants, a fact that indicates a profound plant diversification due to the inception and rapid diversification of C4 plants that occurred there at this time, as it occurred in temperate North America, resulting in the differential consumption of C4 plants over that of C3 plants. Such trend prevailed until the Rancholabrean, as born out by the inferred diet for Equus conversidens and Equus sp. from Hidalgo, TMVB. Clearly then, the coeval diet change observed in Mexico and temperate North America implies a correlative vegetation change resulting in the appearance and rapid diversification of C4 plants, which largely formed the preferred food stuff of equids since the Hemphillian, although some C3 plant consumption was maintained till the Rancholabrean. It should be noted that the development of hypsodonty in equids and many artiodactyls, has long been interpreted as the adaptive mammalian response to the new feeding conditions.

  1. Differences between “exploration” and “exploitation” of cross-border mergers & acquisitions and its value creation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xingrui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the case study method to respectively research the value creation in the exploration and exploitation type of China’s four cross-border mergers & acquisitions, and discusses the similarities and differences between the value creation in the utilization and exploration type of mergers & acquisitions, and finds that the former type of mergers and acquisitions is suitable for a medium or higher level of integration in the aspect of the organization structure, culture, human resources and supply chain, so as to realize the value creation through the improvement of synergies and market forces; the latter type of mergers and acquisitions is suitable for higher level of integration in the aspect of the supply chain, research & development, brand and channel, so as to create value by broadening the marketing channel and enhancing innovation capability.

  2. Economic values and selection index in different Angus-Nellore cross-bred production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, G M; Savegnago, R P; El Faro, L; Mosaquatro Roso, V; de Paz, C C P

    2018-06-01

    Bioeconomic models were developed to calculate economic values (EV) for economically important traits in beef cattle, to evaluate the impact of these traits on production profitability, to assess possible market changes with a payment system and to develop economic selection indexes for Angus cattle for two production systems. Two beef cattle production systems were simulated as follows: a cow-calf cycle (CC) and a complete cycle (CoC). Following selection, positive changes in the EV were observed. In the CC, each 1.0% increment in weaning weight (WW), weaning rate (WR) and pregnancy rate (PR) resulted in increases in US$ 1.30, US$ 3.68 and US$ 3.55 per cow/year in profit, respectively. In the CoC, EV of US$ 1.01, US$ 1.79, US$ 1.19, US$ 1.34, US$ 6.84 and US$ 7.86 per cow/year were obtained for WW, year weight, yearling weight, final weight, WR and PR, respectively. The payment system for carcass quality showed that the scenario considering that 100% of the animals displayed uniform carcasses exhibited the highest EV and was considered optimal. Considering the sensitivity analysis, the price paid per animal was the factor that most affected the EV in both systems. The selection indexes obtained may be used in similar production systems, and the use of EV and selection indexes are important tools for any production system with positive change in profit after selection. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. The Analysis of Three-Body Contact Temperature under the Different Third Particle Size, Density, and Value of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Wen Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many studies have investigated the friction, wear, and temperature characteristics of the interface between two relative movements. Such analyses often set the coefficient of friction as a fixed value and are analyzed in cases of two-body contact; however, the interface is often a three-body contact and the coefficient of friction varies depending on the operating conditions. This is a significant error in the analysis of contact characteristics, therefore, in this study, the actual interface and the change of the coefficient of friction were analyzed based on three-body micro-contact theory where the contact temperature was also analyzed and the difference between the generally assumed values were compared. The results showed that under three-body contact, the coefficient of total friction increased with an increase in particle size; and at a different particle size and area density of particles, the surface contact temperature increased with the plasticity index and load increases, and the particle contact temperature increased with the increasing particle size. The surface temperature rise was mainly affected by the ratio of the average temperature between surface 1 and surface 2 to the multiplication between the 100th root of the area density of particles and the square root of the equivalent surface roughness (Ts1s2_ave*/ηa0.01σ0.5 and the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001. Particle temperature was mainly affected by the ratio of the 10th root of the mean particle diameter to the 100th root of the equivalent surface roughness (xa0.1/σ0.001 and the area density of particles ηa. Our study indicated that when the contact of surface with surface and the contact of the particles with the surface, the resulting heat balance was assigned to the particles and the surface in a three-body contact situation. Under this contact behavior, it could avoid

  4. Existence and Uniqueness of Solutions for a Discrete Fractional Mixed Type Sum-Difference Equation Boundary Value Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Lv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available By means of Schauder’s fixed point theorem and contraction mapping principle, we establish the existence and uniqueness of solutions to a boundary value problem for a discrete fractional mixed type sum-difference equation with the nonlinear term dependent on a fractional difference of lower order. Moreover, a suitable choice of a Banach space allows the solutions to be unbounded and two representative examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the main results.

  5. Differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value of wheat straw for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nayan, N.; Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Hendriks, W.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated differences between two strains of Ceriporiopsis subvermispora on improving the nutritive value and in vitro degradability of wheat straw. Methods and Results: Wheat straw was treated with the fungi for 7 weeks. Weekly samples were analysed for ergosterol content, in vitro

  6. [Value of early application of different doses of amino acids in parenteral nutrition among preterm infants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Juan; Liu, Guo-Sheng; Chen, Yong-Ge; Zhang, Hui-Li; Wu, Xue-Fen

    2015-01-01

    To study the short-term response and tolerance of different doses of amino acids in parenteral nutrition among preterm infants. This study included 86 preterm infants who had a birth weight between 1 000 to 2 000 g and were admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of birth between March 2013 and June 2014. According to the early application of different doses of amino acids, they were randomized into low-dose group (n=29, 1.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.5 g/kg per day), medium-dose group (n=28, 2.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 3.7 g/kg per day), and high-dose group (n=29, 3.0 g/kg per day with an increase of 0.5-1.0 g/kg daily and a maximum of 4.0 g/kg per day). Other routine parenteral nutrition and enteral nutrition support were also applied. The maximum weight loss was lower and the growth rate of head circumference was greater in the high-dose group than in the low-dose group (Pnutrition, shorter duration of hospital stay, and less hospital cost than those in the low-dose group (P0.05). Parenteral administration of high-dose amino acids in preterm infants within 24 hours after birth can improve the short-term nutritional status of preterm infants, but there is a transient increase in BUN level.

  7. [Study the impacts of diagnosis on occupational noise-induced deafness after bring into the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, L J; Yang, A C; Chen, H; Huang, W X; Guo, J J; Liang, X Y; Chen, Z Q; Zheng, Q L

    2017-11-20

    Objective: Study of the results and the degree on occupational noise-induced deafness in-to the different high frequency hearing threshold weighted value, in order to provide theoretical basis for the re-vision of diagnostic criteria on occupational noise-induced deafness. Methods: A retrospective study was con-ducted to investigate the cases on the diagnosis of occupational noise-induced deafness in Guangdong province hospital for occupational disease prevention and treatment from January 2016 to January 2017. Based on the re-sults of the 3 hearing test for each test interval greater than 3 days in the hospital, the best threshold of each frequency was obtained, and based on the diagnostic criteria of occupational noise deafness in 2007 edition, Chi square test, t test and variance analysis were used to measure SPSS21.0 data, their differences are tested among the means of speech frequency and the high frequency weighted value into different age group, noise ex-posure group, and diagnostic classification between different dimensions. Results: 1. There were totally 168 cases in accordance with the study plan, male 154 cases, female 14 cases, the average age was 41.18 ±6.07 years old. 2. The diagnosis rate was increased into the weighted value of different high frequency than the mean value of pure speech frequency, the weighted 4 kHz frequency increased by 13.69% (χ(2)=9.880, P =0.002) , 6 kHz increased by 15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) and 4 kHz+6 kHz increased by15.47% (χ(2)=9.985, P =0.002) , the difference was statistically significant. The diagnostic rate of different high threshold had no obvious differ-ence between the genders. 3. The age groups were divided into less than or equal to 40years old group (A group) and 40-50 years old group (group B) , there were higher the diagnostic rate between high frequency weighted 4 kHz (A group χ(2)=3.380, P =0.050; B group χ(2)=4.054, P =0.032) , weighted 6 kHz (A group χ(2)=6.362, P =0.012; B group χ(2

  8. Diffusion-weighted imaging of breast lesions: Region-of-interest placement and different ADC parameters influence apparent diffusion coefficient values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Hubert; Pinker, Katja; Polanec, Stephan; Magometschnigg, Heinrich; Wengert, Georg; Spick, Claudio; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal [Medical University Vienna, Division of Molecular and Gender Imaging, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bogner, Wolfgang [Medical University Vienna - MR Center of Excellence, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-Guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna [Medical University Vienna, Department of Pathology, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate the influence of region-of-interest (ROI) placement and different apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) parameters on ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility and measurement time in breast tumours. In this IRB-approved, retrospective study, 149 histopathologically proven breast tumours (109 malignant, 40 benign) in 147 women (mean age 53.2) were investigated. Three radiologists independently measured minimum, mean and maximum ADC, each using three ROI placement approaches:1 - small 2D-ROI, 2 - large 2D-ROI and 3 - 3D-ROI covering the whole lesion. One reader performed all measurements twice. Median ADC values, diagnostic performance, reproducibility, and measurement time were calculated and compared between all combinations of ROI placement approaches and ADC parameters. Median ADC values differed significantly between the ROI placement approaches (p <.001). Minimum ADC showed the best diagnostic performance (AUC.928-.956), followed by mean ADC obtained from 2D ROIs (.926-.94). Minimum and mean ADC showed high intra- (ICC.85-.94) and inter-reader reproducibility (ICC.74-.94). Median measurement time was significantly shorter for the 2D ROIs (p <.001). ROI placement significantly influences ADC values measured in breast tumours. Minimum and mean ADC acquired from 2D-ROIs are useful for the differentiation of benign and malignant breast lesions, and are highly reproducible, with rapid measurement. (orig.)

  9. NUTRITIVE VALUES OF SOME ANNUAL CLOVERS (Trifolium sp. AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TEKELI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted between the years of 2001-2002 in the experimental area and laboratory of Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty in Trakya University, Tekirdağ (Turkey. Five different clovers [Persian (Trifolium resupinatum L. var. majus Boiss., Mediterranean (T. spumosum L., narrow-leaved (T. angustifolium L., hedgehog (T. echinatum M. Bieb. and lappa (T. lappaceum L. clovers] were used. Each plot consisted of 8 rows with a length of 5 m. Row spacing of 30 cm and sowing rate of 10 kg ha-1 were used. Sowing times were on 2.25.2001 and on 2.28.2002. Plots were not irrigated and fertilized after sown and harvest. One cut was taken in both years at 4 growing stages such as pre-bud, pre-bloom, 50% bloom and full-bloom. The central 1 m-2 sections was cut at ground level for dry matter. Approximately 500g samples were dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and stored for one day at room temperature then found dry matter. Crude protein (% was determined by Kjeldahl method.

  10. Different Diagnosis, Shared Vulnerabilities: The Value of Cross Disorder Validation of Capacity to Consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Allyson; Weitlauf, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    A screening measure of capacity to consent can provide an efficient method of determining the appropriateness of including individuals from vulnerable patient populations in research, particularly in circumstances in which no caregiver is available to provide surrogate consent. Seaman et al. (2015) cross-validate a measure of capacity to consent to research developed by Jeste et al. (2007). They provide data on controls, caregivers, and patients with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. The study demonstrates the importance of validating measures across disorders with different domains of incapacity, as well as the need for timely and appropriate follow-up with potential participants who yield positive screens. Ultimately clinical measures need to adapt to the dimensional diagnostic approaches put forward in DSM 5. Integrative models of constructs, such as capacity to consent, will make this process more efficient by avoiding the need to test measures in each disorder. Until then, cross-validation studies, such as the work by Seaman et al. (2015) are critical.

  11. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut [Buhara Private Hospital Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Doganay, Selim [Erciyes University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kayseri (Turkey); Kantarci, Mecit, E-mail: akkanrad@hotmail.com [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Atamanalp, S. Selcuk [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey); Yuce, Ihsan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirgan, M. Ilhan [Atatuerk University, School of Medicine, Department of General Surgery, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm{sup 2}, T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm{sup 2} and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  12. Comparison of peritoneal tumor imaging using conventional MR imaging and diffusion-weighted MR imaging with different b values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozkurt, Mahmut; Doganay, Selim; Kantarci, Mecit; Yalcin, Ahmet; Eren, Suat; Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Yuce, Ihsan; Yildirgan, M. Ilhan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of DW MRI with two different b values in identifying peritoneal tumors in oncology patients. Materials and methods: Nineteen patients with known malignancy underwent abdominal and pelvic MRI before surgery. MRI included free-breathing DWI with b values of 400 and 800 s/mm 2 , T1-weighted fat-suppressed spoiled gradient-echo, T2-weighted fat-saturated turbo spin-echo, and 5-min delayed gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Two observers reviewed images for peritoneal tumors at ten anatomic sites within consensus. The results of laparatomy and histopathological evaluation were compared with MRI results. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of identifying peritoneal metastases were calculated for conventional MRI, combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI, and combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI by consensus of two observers. Results: One-hundred and twenty-five peritoneal metastasis sites were confirmed by surgical and histopathological findings. Conventional MRI alone identified 72 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.58; specificity, 0.87; accuracy, 0.67). Combined DWI with a b value of 400 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 106 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.85; specificity, 0.88; accuracy, 0.85). Finally, combined DWI with a b value of 800 s/mm 2 and conventional MRI revealed 103 peritoneal metastases (sensitivity, 0.83; specificity, 0.94; accuracy, 0.86). Conclusion: DWI with a high b value provides complementary information that can improve the detection of peritoneal tumors when combined with conventional MRI. We recommend combined MRI and DWI with a high b value for increasing the sensitivity and accuracy of the preoperative detection of peritoneal tumors.

  13. Shear bond strength of self-etching adhesive systems with different pH values to bleached and/or CPP-ACP-treated enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoee, Siavash Savadi; Bahari, Mahmoud; Kimyai, Soodabeh; Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-08-01

    To compare shear bond strengths of three different self-etching adhesive systems of different pH values to enamel bleached with carbamide peroxide, treated with casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP), or treated with CPP-ACP subsequent to bleaching with carbamide peroxide. Thirty-six human third molars were cut into 4 sections and randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 36): group I: no treatment; group II: bleaching; group III: CPP-ACP; group IV: bleaching and CPP-ACP. After surface treatments, the samples of each group were further divided into three subgroups (n = 12) based on the adhesive used. The adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), AdhesE (ADE), and Adper SE Plus (ADP) were applied, and resin composite cylinders with a diameter of 2 mm and a height of 4 mm were bonded to the enamel. Then the specimens were subjected to shear bond strength testing. Two-way ANOVA and a post-hoc Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis (α = 0.05). There were significant differences between the adhesive systems (p system showed the highest bond strength, and the bleaching procedure reduced bond strengths (p = 0.001). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in shear bond strength values between the control and CPP groups. However, the differences between other groups were statistically significant (p material dependent.

  14. Generational Differences in Work Values between Parents and Children and between Boys and Girls across Grade Levels 6, 9, 10, and 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, Jan P.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Cross-sectional comparison of elementary and secondary school children and parents examined changes in work values and relationships between children's and parents' work values as a function of age and sex. Revealed support for hypothesized differences in children's values and for convergence of sex differences in values at later ages. (Author)

  15. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  16. Photoelectrical measurements of the local value of the contact potential difference in the metal-insulator semiconductor (MIS) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudla, A.; Przewlocki, H.M.; Borowicz, L.; Brzezinska, D.; Rzodkiewicz, W

    2004-02-22

    In this work the local values of contact potential difference (CPD) and their distributions in the plane of the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure's gate have been determined for the first time. This has been achieved by application of a focused beam of UV radiation from a laser source. The less than 20-{mu}m diameter of UV radiation beam allows determination of distributions of local CPD values in the plane of the gate. The CPD distribution is such that its values are highest far away from the gate edge regions, lower in the vicinity of gate edges and still lower in the vicinity of gate corners. In this paper the method and the optical setup used to determine local values of CPD are described and example measurement results are given. The CPD distributions obtained have been confirmed by a series of independent measurements by other methods. It is believed that the CPD distributions obtained (as well as distributions of local values of other parameters) are due to the mechanical stress distributions under the gate of a MIS system.

  17. Prognostic value of three different methods of MGMT promoter methylation analysis in a prospective trial on newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Christians

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation in the promoter region of the MGMT gene encoding the DNA repair protein O(6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase is among the most important prognostic factors for patients with glioblastoma and predicts response to treatment with alkylating agents like temozolomide. Hence, the MGMT status is widely determined in most clinical trials and frequently requested in routine diagnostics of glioblastoma. Since various different techniques are available for MGMT promoter methylation analysis, a generally accepted consensus as to the most suitable diagnostic method remains an unmet need. Here, we assessed methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP as a qualitative and semi-quantitative method, pyrosequencing (PSQ as a quantitative method, and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA as a semi-quantitative method in a series of 35 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded glioblastoma tissues derived from patients treated in a prospective clinical phase II trial that tested up-front chemoradiotherapy with dose-intensified temozolomide (UKT-05. Our goal was to determine which of these three diagnostic methods provides the most accurate prediction of progression-free survival (PFS. The MGMT promoter methylation status was assessable by each method in almost all cases (n = 33/35 for MSP; n = 35/35 for PSQ; n = 34/35 for MS-MLPA. We were able to calculate significant cut-points for the continuous methylation signals at each CpG site analysed by PSQ (range, 11.5 to 44.9% and at one CpG site assessed by MS-MLPA (3.6% indicating that a dichotomisation of continuous methylation data as a prerequisite for comparative survival analyses is feasible. Our results show that, unlike MS-MLPA, MSP and PSQ provide a significant improvement of predicting PFS compared with established clinical prognostic factors alone (likelihood ratio tests: p<0.001. Conclusively, taking into consideration prognostic value

  18. Racial/ethnic differences in the influence of cultural values, alcohol resistance self-efficacy, and alcohol expectancies on risk for alcohol initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Regina A; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S; Zhou, Annie J; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    Prior research has reported racial/ethnic differences in the early initiation of alcohol use, suggesting that cultural values that are central to specific racial/ethnic groups may be influencing these differences. This 1-year longitudinal study examines associations between two types of cultural values, parental respect (honor for one's parents) and familism (connectedness with family), both measured at baseline, and subsequent alcohol initiation in a sample of 6,054 (approximately 49% male, 57% Hispanic, 22% Asian, 18% non-Hispanic White, and 4% non-Hispanic Black) middle school students in Southern California. We tested whether the associations of cultural values with alcohol initiation could be explained by baseline measures of alcohol resistance self-efficacy (RSE) and alcohol expectancies. We also explored whether these pathways differed by race/ethnicity. In the full sample, adolescents with higher parental respect were less likely to initiate alcohol use, an association that was partially explained by higher RSE and fewer positive alcohol expectancies. Familism was not significantly related to alcohol initiation. Comparing racial/ethnic groups, higher parental respect was protective against alcohol initiation for Whites and Asians, but not Blacks or Hispanics. There were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between familism and alcohol initiation. Results suggest that cultural values are important factors in the decision to use alcohol and these values appear to operate in part, by influencing alcohol positive expectancies and RSE. Interventions that focus on maintaining strong cultural values and building strong bonds between adolescents and their families may help reduce the risk of alcohol initiation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. The value relevance of the foreign currency translation differences : a study of multinational oil and gas companies in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Svetalna Vlady

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between foreign currency translation differences and changes in firm’s market equity value of the Australian multinational firms in the oil and gas industry. The paper empirically examines this relationship under the former Australian accounting standard AASB 1012 “Foreign Currency Translation”. The paper thereby supports the new accounting standard AASB 121 “The Effects of Changes in Foreign Exchange Rates” that adopted a functional currency approach....

  20. Electrochemical Effect of Different Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes on the Values of Diffusion Coefficient for Some Heavy Metal Ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, M M; Alwan, S H; Amir, Y K A; Tee, T W

    2013-01-01

    Glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was modified with carbon nanotubes (CNT), C 60 and activated carbon (AC) by mechanical attachment method and solution evaporation technique to preparation CNT/GCE, C 60 /GCE and AC/GCE, these electrodes were modified in Li + solution via cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential cycling to preparing CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li + /GCE. The sensing characteristics of the modified film electrodes, demonstrated in the application study for different heavy metal ions such as Hg 2+ , Cd 2+ , and Mn 2+ . Cyclic voltammetric effect by chronoamperometry (CA) technique was investigated to determination the diffusion coefficient (D f ) values from Cottrell equation at these ions. Based on Cottrell equation (diffusion coefficient) of the redox current peaks of different heavy metal ions at different modified electrodes were studied to evaluate the sensing of these electrodes by the diffusion coefficient values. The modification of GCE with nano materials and Li + act an enhancement for the redox current peaks to observe that the diffusion process are high at CNT/Li + /GCE, C 60 /Li + /GCE and AC/Li+/GCE, but it has low values at unmodified GCE.

  1. Influence of different contributions of scatter and attenuation on the threshold values in contrast-based algorithms for volume segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheoud, Roberta; Della Monica, Patrizia; Secco, Chiara; Loi, Gianfranco; Krengli, Marco; Inglese, Eugenio; Brambilla, Marco

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of different amount of attenuation and scatter on FDG-PET image volume segmentation using a contrast-oriented method based on the target-to-background (TB) ratio and target dimensions. A phantom study was designed employing 3 phantom sets, which provided a clinical range of attenuation and scatter conditions, equipped with 6 spheres of different volumes (0.5-26.5 ml). The phantoms were: (1) the Hoffman 3-dimensional brain phantom, (2) a modified International Electro technical Commission (IEC) phantom with an annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness fit over the IEC phantom, and (3) a modified IEC phantom with an annular ring of water bags of 9 cm. The phantoms cavities were filled with a solution of FDG at 5.4 kBq/ml activity concentration, and the spheres with activity concentration ratios of about 16, 8, and 4 times the background activity concentration. Images were acquired with a Biograph 16 HI-REZ PET/CT scanner. Thresholds (TS) were determined as a percentage of the maximum intensity in the cross section area of the spheres. To reduce statistical fluctuations a nominal maximum value is calculated as the mean from all voxel > 95%. To find the TS value that yielded an area A best matching the true value, the cross section were auto-contoured in the attenuation corrected slices varying TS in step of 1%, until the area so determined differed by less than 10 mm² versus its known physical value. Multiple regression methods were used to derive an adaptive thresholding algorithm and to test its dependence on different conditions of attenuation and scatter. The errors of scatter and attenuation correction increased with increasing amount of attenuation and scatter in the phantoms. Despite these increasing inaccuracies, PET threshold segmentation algorithms resulted not influenced by the different condition of attenuation and scatter. The test of the hypothesis of coincident regression lines for the three phantoms used

  2. Evaluating different interrow distance between corn and soybean for optimum growth, production and nutritive value of intercropped forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Song, Yowook; Kim, Dong Woo; Fiaz, Muhammad; Kwon, Chan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Maize fodder is being used as staple feed for livestock but it lacks protein and essential amino acids; lysine and tryptophan. Intercropping maize with leguminous soybean crop is promising technique under limited land resources of South Korea but it can only give considerable advantages when adequate distance is provided between corn and soybean rows. Main aim of present study was to find-out adequate distance between corn and soybean seeding rows for optimum growth, yield and nutritive value of intercropped forage. Different interrow distances between corn and soybean were evaluated under four treatments, viz. 1) Corn sole as positive control treatment 2) Zero cm between corn and soybean (control); 2) Five cm between corn and soybean; 3) 10 cm between corn and soybean, with three replicates under randomized block design. Findings depicted that height and number of corn stalks and ears were similar ( P  > 0.05) among different treatments. Numerically average corn ear height was decreased at zero cm distance. Dry matter percentage in all components; corn stalk, corn ear and soybean was also found not different ( P  > 0.05) but dry matter yield in component of corn ear was lower ( P  value, total digestible nutrient yield in intercropped corn was also found lower ( P  value of forage at wider interrow distance i.e. 5 cm between corn and soybean might be due to adequate interseed distance. Conclusively, pattern of corn and soybean seeding in rows at 5 cm distance was found suitable which provided adequate interrow distance to maintain enough mutual cooperation and decreased competition between both species for optimum production performance and nutritive value of intercropped forage.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Advance Directive Possession: Role of Demographic Factors, Religious Affiliation, and Personal Health Values in a National Survey of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ivy A; Neuhaus, John M; Chiong, Winston

    2016-02-01

    Black and Hispanic older Americans are less likely than white older Americans to possess advance directives. Understanding the reasons for this racial and ethnic difference is necessary to identify targets for future interventions to improve advance care planning in these populations. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether racial and ethnic differences in advance directive possession are explained by other demographic factors, religious characteristics, and personal health values. A general population survey was conducted in a nationally representative sample using a web-enabled survey panel of American adults aged 50 and older (n = 2154). In a sample of older Americans, white participants are significantly more likely to possess advance directives (44.0%) than black older Americans (24.0%, p personal health values. These findings support targeted efforts to mitigate racial disparities in access to advance care planning.

  4. Accuracy of genomic breeding value prediction for intramuscular fat using different genomic relationship matrices in Hanwoo (Korean cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Taejeong; Lim, Dajeong; Park, Byoungho; Sharma, Aditi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Kim, Sidong; Lee, Seung Hwan

    2017-07-01

    Intramuscular fat is one of the meat quality traits that is considered in the selection strategies for Hanwoo (Korean cattle). Different methods are used to estimate the breeding value of selection candidates. In the present work we focused on accuracy of different genotype relationship matrices as described by forni and pedigree based relationship matrix. The data set included a total of 778 animals that were genotyped for BovineSNP50 BeadChip. Among these 778 animals, 72 animals were sires for 706 reference animals and were used as a validation dataset. Single trait animal model (best linear unbiased prediction and genomic best linear unbiased prediction) was used to estimate the breeding values from genomic and pedigree information. The diagonal elements for the pedigree based coefficients were slightly higher for the genomic relationship matrices (GRM) based coefficients while off diagonal elements were considerably low for GRM based coefficients. The accuracy of breeding value for the pedigree based relationship matrix (A) was 13% while for GRM (GOF, G05, and Yang) it was 0.37, 0.45, and 0.38, respectively. Accuracy of GRM was 1.5 times higher than A in this study. Therefore, genomic information will be more beneficial than pedigree information in the Hanwoo breeding program.

  5. Nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of Marandu palisade grass at different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different babassu palm densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xerxes M. Tosta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and in situ rumen degradability of grass collected from different locations within the pasture in a silvopastoral system with different densities of trees. The silvopastoral system consisted of Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and the babassu palm, Orbignya sp. (now: Attaleia speciosa. We used a completely randomized design with a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for nutritional value (3 differently shaded locations and 3 palm tree densities and a 3 x 3 x 3 factorial arrangement for dry matter (DM disappearance (3 locations, 3 palm densities and 3 incubation times. There was no effect of location within the pasture nor of palm tree density on the concentrations of NDF, ADF, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. However, location influenced the concentrations of crude protein (CP and DM, with highest CP in material grown in full sunlight. At all densities, DM disappearance at 96 h for pasture grown in full sunlight exceeded that for pasture grown in full shade. These factors need to be compounded with the possible depressant effect of trees on DM production of pasture when considering the benefits of silvopastoral systems.Keywords: Digestibility, fiber, Northeast Brazil, protein, tree-grass associations, Urochloa  brizantha.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3187-193

  6. Validation of odor concentration from mechanical-biological treatment piles using static chamber and wind tunnel with different wind speed values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyłak-Szydłowski, Mirosław

    2017-09-01

    The basic principle of odor sampling from surface sources is based primarily on the amount of air obtained from a specific area of the ground, which acts as a source of malodorous compounds. Wind tunnels and flux chambers are often the only available, direct method of evaluating the odor fluxes from small area sources. There are currently no widely accepted chamber-based methods; thus, there is still a need for standardization of these methods to ensure accuracy and comparability. Previous research has established that there is a significant difference between the odor concentration values obtained using the Lindvall chamber and those obtained by a dynamic flow chamber. Thus, the present study compares sampling methods using a streaming chamber modeled on the Lindvall cover (using different wind speeds), a static chamber, and a direct sampling method without any screens. The volumes of chambers in the current work were similar, ~0.08 m 3 . This study was conducted at the mechanical-biological treatment plant in Poland. Samples were taken from a pile covered by the membrane. Measured odor concentration values were between 2 and 150 ou E /m 3 . Results of the study demonstrated that both chambers can be used interchangeably in the following conditions: odor concentration is below 60 ou E /m 3 , wind speed inside the Lindvall chamber is below 0.2 m/sec, and a flow value is below 0.011 m 3 /sec. Increasing the wind speed above the aforementioned value results in significant differences in the results obtained between those methods. In all experiments, the results of the concentration of odor in the samples using the static chamber were consistently higher than those from the samples measured in the Lindvall chamber. Lastly, the results of experiments were employed to determine a model function of the relationship between wind speed and odor concentration values. Several researchers wrote that there are no widely accepted chamber-based methods. Also, there is still a

  7. Role of different negative pressure values in the process of infected wounds treated by vacuum-assisted closure: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Min; Yu, Aixi; Wu, Gang; Xia, Chengyan; Hu, Xiang; Qi, Baiwen

    2013-10-01

    Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device is widely used to treat infected wounds in clinical work. Although the effect of VAC with different negative pressure values is well established, whether different negative pressures could result in varying modulation of wound relative cytokines was not clear. We hypothesise that instead of the highest negative pressure value the suitable value for VAC is the one which is the most effective on regulating wound relative cytokines. Infected wounds created on pigs' back were used to investigate the effects of varying negative pressure values of VAC devices. Wounds were treated with VAC of different negative pressure values or moist gauze, which was set as control. The VAC foam, semiocclusive dresses and moist gauze were changed on days 3, 5, 7 and 9 after wounds were created. When changing dressings, tissues from wounds were harvested for bacteria count and histology examination including Masson's trichrome stain and immunohistochemistry for microvessels. Western blot was carried out to test the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF). Results showed that on days 3 and 5 the number of bacteria in wounds treated by VAC with 75, 150, 225 and 300 mmHg was significantly decreased compared with that in wounds treated by gauze and 0 mmHg pressure value. However, there was no difference in wounds treated with negative pressure values of 75 , 150, 225 and 300 mmHg at any time spot. Immunohistochemistry showed that more microvessels were generated in wounds treated by VAC using 75 and 150 mmHg negative pressure comparing with that using 225 and 300 mmHg on days 3 and 5. However this difference vanished on days 7 and 9. Morphological evaluation by Masson's trichrome staining showed increased collagen deposition in VAC of 75 and 150 mmHg compared with that in VAC of 225 and 300 mmHg. Western blot showed that the expression of VEGF and bFGF significantly increased when the wounds

  8. Protein nutrient value of Agaricus bazei murrill mutant J3 induced by 60Co γ-irradiation in different generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhihe; Lin Yong; Xiao Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    Protein nutritional values of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 and original strain J 1 were compared by non-biological evaluation methods. The results showed that five protein indexes in the fruitbodies of M 1 and M 6 generations of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 were higher than that of original strain J 1 ; four protein indexes in M 4 and M 5 generations were higher than that of original strain J 1 ; and six protein indexes in M 2 and M 3 generations were higher than that of original strain J 1 . It was concluded that the protein nutritional values of Agaricus bazei Murrill mutant J 3 was better than that of original strain J 1 . Except the ratio scores of amino acids had little change in the different generations, the other indexes in strain J 3 Agaricus bazei Murrill showed that the heredity efficiencies of the proteins was rather stable. (authors)

  9. Stereoselective Degradation and Molecular Ecological Mechanism of Chiral Pesticides Beta-Cypermethrin in Soils with Different pH Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Ji, Guo-Dong

    2015-12-15

    For decades, pesticides have been widely used for agricultural activities around the world, and the environmental problems caused by these compounds have raised widespread concern. However, the different enantioselective behaviors of chiral pesticide enantiomers are often ignored. Here, the selective degradation patterns and mechanisms of chiral pesticide enantiomers were successfully investigated for the first time in the soils of three cultivation areas with different pH values. Beta-cypermethrin was chosen as the target analyte. We found that the degradation rates of the four isomers of beta-cypermethrin were different. We used stepwise regression equations between degradation rates and functional genes to quantitatively study their relationships. Quantitative response analysis revealed that different isomers have different equations even under identical conditions. The results of path analysis showed that a single functional gene can make different direct and indirect contributions to the degradation of different isomers. Finally, the high-throughput technology was used to analysis the genome of the three tested soils and then compared the main microbial communities in them. We have successfully devised a method to investigate the molecular biological mechanisms of the selective degradation behavior of chiral compounds, thus enabling us to better understand these mechanisms.

  10. Quality of Life for Individuals with Hearing Impairment Who Have Not Consulted for Services and Their Significant Others: Same- and Different-Sex Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Rebecca J.; Atcherson, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to assess perceptions of quality of life for individuals with hearing impairment who have not consulted for services and their significant others who are in same-sex relationships vs. those who are in different-sex relationships. Data were collected on a total of 20 older couples: 10 in same-sex…

  11. Microbiological quality assessment of milk at different stages of the dairy value chain in a developing country setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Aminul; Roy, Subarna; Nabi, Ashikun; Solaiman, Sultana; Rahman, Mahdia; Huq, Mohsina; Siddiquee, Nurul Amin; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2018-08-02

    The main objective of the study was to assess the microbiological quality of milk at different stages of the dairy value chain from farm to the factory in Bangladesh. A total of 438 raw milk samples (387 from primary producers, 32 from collectors, 15 from chilling plants, 4 from local restaurants) and 95 commercially processed milk samples were collected from northern part of Bangladesh. Almost 72% (n = 280) of samples at producer level and 100% from both collectors (n = 32) and chilling plants (n = 15) were contaminated with coliforms while 57% (n = 220) of samples from producers, 91% (n = 29) of samples from collectors and 100% (n = 15) from chilling plants were contaminated with fecal coliforms. Around 31% (n = 119) of samples from producers were positive for E. coli whereas >60% (n = 20) and 100% (n = 15) samples from collectors and chilling plants, respectively were positive for E. coli. One quarter of samples from collectors were positive for B. cereus and coagulase positive staphylococci and 33% (n = 5) of samples from chilling plants were positive for both of these microorganisms. In case of commercially processed milk, 77% (n = 46) and 37% (n = 22) of pasteurized milk samples had a high aerobic plate count (APC) (10 4  CFU/ml) and coliform count (>10 CFU/ml), respectively. None of the samples was positive for Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., and Campylobacter spp. Among 158 E. coli positive raw milk samples, 9% (n = 14) contained pathogenic E. coli, and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC) and Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) were found to be the predominant pathotypes. Of the 23 pathogenic E. coli identified from 14 samples based on their gene contents, >95% (n = 22) were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 13% (n = 3) of isolates were resistant to ≥3 classes of antibiotics. Several factors including the time of milking, hygiene practices of the producers, cow breed and amount of milk

  12. Spatial distribution function of electron-photon shower particles for different values of Esub(0)/. beta. in isothermal atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanenko, I P; Osipova, L N; Roganova, T M; Fedorova, G F [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1982-12-01

    Results of calculations of the spatial distribution function (SDF) of electron-photon shower particles for different values of the parameter E/sub 0//..beta.. in an isothermal atmosphere are given. Consideration of finiteness of the parameter E/sub 0//..beta.. leads to narrowing of SDF two times at E/sub 0//..beta.. approximately 10-100 as compared with the Nishimura, Kamata, Greisen SDF (E/sub 0//..beta.. = infinity). Atmosphere inhomogeneity results in SDF broadening in comparison with SDFsub(hom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) calculated for homogeneous atmosphere. SDFsub(inhom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) and SDFsub(hom) (E/sub 0//..beta..) depend on E/sub 0//..beta.. differently which is attributed to different contributions of shower prehistory to SDF formation. The larger is E/sub 0//..beta.., the wider is cascade curve and the higher is the effect of shower prehistory.

  13. An Analysis of the Costs, Benefits, and Implications of Different Approaches to Capturing the Value of Renewable Energy Tax Incentives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2014-04-09

    This report compares the relative costs, benefits, and implications of capturing the value of renewable energy tax benefits in these three different ways – applying them against outside income , carrying them forward in time until they can be fully absorbed internally, or monetizing them through third-party tax equity investors – to see which method is most competitive under various scenarios. It finds that under current law and late-2013 market conditions, monetization makes sense for all but the most tax-efficient project sponsors. In other words, for most project sponsors, bringing in third-party tax equity currently provides net benefits to a project.

  14. Transepidermal water loss in cats: comparison of three differently clipped sites to assess the influence of hair coat on transepidermal water loss values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momota, Yutaka; Shimada, Kenichiroh; Takami, Akina; Akaogi, Harumi; Takasaki, Mariko; Mimura, Kana; Azakami, Daigo; Ishioka, Katsumi; Nakamura, Yuka; Sako, Toshinori

    2013-08-01

    The measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) is one of the parameters that can be used to assess skin barrier function. The variability and reliability of TEWL measurements in dogs have been controversial, and the hair coat has been considered as one of the factors that may cause variation of TEWL values. The aims of the study were to establish a suitable procedure for measuring feline TEWL, to evaluate the influence of hair coat on TEWL measurements and to assess variations of TEWL at different anatomical sites. Transepidermal water loss was measured using a closed-chamber evaporimeter, the VapoMeter(®). We compared three adjacent sites in the groin area of 10 clinically normal, domestic short hair cats. One site was unclipped, the second was trimmed with scissors and the third was shaved using electric clippers. Values of TEWL were obtained for 48 h after trimming with scissors and clippers. Five sites were clipped (upper back, lumbar back, lateral thigh, axillae and groin), and the TEWL was measured. The mean and SD of TEWL values of the clipper-trimmed site were the smallest, followed in order by the site trimmed with scissors and the unclipped site. The TEWL values were statistically constant in the clipper-trimmed site, while the values in the unclipped sites were not. There was no statistically significant difference in TEWL values between all of the anatomical sites except for the axillae. Hair clipping of sites with electric clippers is recommended for TEWL measurement in cats. © 2013 ESVD and ACVD.

  15. Binding of sodium dodecyl sulfate with linear and branched polyethyleneimines in aqueous solution at different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Wang, Yilin; Yan, Haike; Zhang, Jin; Thomas, Robert K

    2006-02-14

    Isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), conductivity, and turbidity measurements have been carried out to study the interaction of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with polyethyleneimines (PEI) including linear PEI and branched PEI at different pH values of 3, 7, and 10. In all cases, the polymers show a remarkable affinity toward SDS. At pH 3, the polymer PEI is a strong polycation, and the binding is dominated by electrostatic 1:1 charge neutralization with the anionic surfactant. At pH 7, the electrostatic attraction between SDS and PEI is weak, and the hydrophobic interaction becomes stronger. At the natural pH of 10, PEI is essentially nonionic and binds SDS in the form of polymer-bound surfactant aggregates. The charge neutralization concentration (C1) of SDS for the PEI-SDS complex can be derived from the curves of variation of the enthalpy, conductivity, and turbidity with SDS concentration. There is good agreement between the results from the three methods and all show a decrease with increasing pH. The total interaction enthalpies (deltaH(total)) of PEI with SDS are obtained from the observed enthalpy curves and the difference enthalpy (deltaH*) between the total enthalpy of branched PEI with SDS, and the total enthalpy of linear PEI with SDS can be derived from the obtained deltaH(total). The difference deltaH* increases dramatically as pH increases, which indicates that the interactions are different for linear PEI and branched PEI at high pH values. A schematic map of the different states of aggregation is presented.

  16. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  17. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jufang; Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Sun Haining; Ma Shuang; Li Renmin; Li Wenjian

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV μm -1 ) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV μm -1 . The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV μm -1 . Meanwhile, the highest RBE i for inactivation located at 120.0 keV μm -1 and the highest RBE m for mutation was at 58.2 keV μm -1 . The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  18. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang; Lu, Dong; Wu, Xin; Sun, Haining; Ma, Shuang; Li, Renmin; Li, Wenjian

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV μm -1) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV μm -1. The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV μm -1. Meanwhile, the highest RBE i for inactivation located at 120.0 keV μm -1 and the highest RBE m for mutation was at 58.2 keV μm -1. The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  19. Inactive and mutagenic effects induced by carbon beams of different LET values in a red yeast strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jufang, E-mail: jufangwang@impcas.ac.c [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road No. 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Lu Dong; Wu Xin; Sun Haining; Ma Shuang; Li Renmin; Li Wenjian [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanchang Road No. 509, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-09-15

    To evaluate biological action of microorganism exposed to charged particles during the long distance space exploration, induction of inactivation and mutation in a red yeast strain Rhodotorula glutinis AY 91015 by carbon beams of different LET values (14.9-120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1}) was investigated. It was found that survival curves were exponential, and mutation curves were linear for all LET values. The dependence of inactivation cross section on LET approached saturation near 120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. The mutation cross section saturated when LET was higher than 58.2 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. Meanwhile, the highest RBE{sub i} for inactivation located at 120.0 keV {mu}m{sup -1} and the highest RBE{sub m} for mutation was at 58.2 keV {mu}m{sup -1}. The experiments imply that the most efficient mutagenic part of the depth dose profile of carbon ion is at the plateau region with intermediate LET value in which energy deposited is high enough to induce mutagenic lesions but too low to induce over kill effect in the yeast cells.

  20. Wheat bran reduces concentrations of digestible, metabolizable, and net energy in diets fed to pigs, but energy values in wheat bran determined by the difference procedure are not different from values estimated from a linear regression procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Liu, D W; Li, D F; Stein, H H

    2016-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine effects on DE, ME, and NE for growing pigs of adding 15 or 30% wheat bran to a corn-soybean meal diet and to compare values for DE, ME, and NE calculated using the difference procedure with values obtained using linear regression. Eighteen barrows (54.4 ± 4.3 kg initial BW) were individually housed in metabolism crates. The experiment had 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet. The control diet contained corn, soybean meal, and no wheat bran. Two additional diets were formulated by mixing 15 or 30% wheat bran with 85 or 70% of the control diet, respectively. The experimental period lasted 15 d. During the initial 7 d, pigs were adapted to their experimental diets and housed in metabolism crates and fed 573 kcal ME/kg BW per day. On d 8, metabolism crates with the pigs were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers for measurement of O consumption and CO and CH production. The feeding level was the same as in the adaptation period, and feces and urine were collected during this period. On d 13 and 14, pigs were fed 225 kcal ME/kg BW per day, and pigs were then fasted for 24 h to obtain fasting heat production. Results of the experiment indicated that the apparent total tract digestibility of DM, GE, crude fiber, ADF, and NDF linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased in the diets. The daily O consumption and CO and CH production by pigs fed increasing concentrations of wheat bran linearly decreased ( ≤ 0.05), resulting in a linear decrease ( ≤ 0.05) in heat production. The DE (3,454, 3,257, and 3,161 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), ME (3,400, 3,209, and 3,091 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively), and NE (1,808, 1,575, and 1,458 kcal/kg for diets containing 0, 15, and 30% wheat bran, respectively) of diets decreased (linear, ≤ 0.05) as wheat bran inclusion increased

  1. Educational Values in Different Social-Economic Status--A Study Case of Six Families in Maros Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabaruddin; Alimuddin; Manda, Darman

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at determining educational values in families by describing the priority of the values selected in the educational value, the role of parents, and the socialization of values that were used by parents in educational values. This research is a case study with a qualitative approach. The subjects of the research were selected…

  2. Influence of the Different Primary Cancers and Different Types of Bone Metastasis on the Lesion-based Artificial Neural Network Value Calculated by a Computer-aided Diagnostic System,BONENAVI, on Bone Scintigraphy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAKURO ISODA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: BONENAVI, a computer-aided diagnostic system, is used in bone scintigraphy. This system provides the artificial neural network (ANN and bone scan index (BSI values. ANN is associated with the possibility of bone metastasis, while BSI is related to the amount of bone metastasis. The degree of uptake on bone scintigraphy can be affected by the type of bone metastasis. Therefore, the ANN value provided by BONENAVI may be influenced by the characteristics of bone metastasis. In this study, we aimed to assess the relationship between ANN value and characteristics of bone metastasis. Methods: We analyzed 50 patients (36 males, 14 females; age range: 42–87 yrs, median age: 72.5 yrs with prostate, breast, or lung cancer who had undergone bone scintigraphy and were diagnosed with bone metastasis (32 cases of prostate cancer, nine cases of breast cancer, and nine cases of lung cancer. Those who had received systematic therapy over the past years were excluded. Bone metastases were diagnosed clinically, and the type of bone metastasis (osteoblastic, mildly osteoblastic,osteolytic, and mixed components was decided visually by the agreement of two radiologists. We compared the ANN values (case-based and lesion-based among the three primary cancers and four types of bone metastasis.Results: There was no significant difference in case-based ANN values among prostate, breast, and lung cancers. However, the lesion-based ANN values were the highest in cases with prostate cancer and the lowest in cases of lung cancer (median values: prostate cancer, 0.980; breast cancer, 0.909; and lung cancer, 0.864. Mildly osteoblastic lesions showed significantly lower ANN values than the other three types of bone metastasis (median values: osteoblastic, 0.939; mildly osteoblastic, 0.788; mixed type, 0.991; and osteolytic, 0.969. The possibility of a lesion-based ANN value below 0.5 was 10.9% for bone metastasis in prostate cancer, 12.9% for breast cancer, and 37

  3. Radioimmunoassays for lg classes G, A, M, D, and E in spinal fluids: normal values of different age groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerenberg, S.T.; Prasad, R.

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay procedures of sufficient sensitivity (lgG, 0.5 μg per 100 μl; lgA, 25.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgM, 10.0 ng. per 100 μl; lgD, 0.5 U.* per 100 μl; and lgE, 1.0 U.* per 100 μl) were developed to detect and quantitate all 5 immunoglobulin classes in the cerebrospinal fluid on small aliquots (1 ml.) of unconcentrated cerebrospinal fluid. All 5 immunoglobulin classes were routinely detected in normal individuals for the first time, the levels varying with different age groups for lgG and A but not for the remaining immunoglobulin classes. Race and sex had no effect. Standardization of techniques and establishment of normal values for different age groups sets the stage for determination of immunoglobulin changes related to central nervous system disease

  4. Static and dynamic analysis of high-rise building with consideration of two different values of subsoil stiffness coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivankova Olga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the analysis of 21-storeyed cast in-situ reinforced concrete high-rise building. Two different 3D models were created, because of two considered values of subsoil stiffness coefficient -fixed structure (alt. 1 and the structure supported by elastic soil (alt. 2. For both alternatives of foundation of structure, required analyses (static and dynamic were done and obtained results were compared in this paper. Short description of the structure, applied loads and other input parameters are also mentioned here. The main purpose of this analysis was to provide more information to planning engineers about the behaviour of structure exposed the wind load or seismic load when different soil conditions were considered.

  5. SU-F-I-58: Image Quality Comparisons of Different Motion Magnitudes and TR Values in MR-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, J; Thompson, R; Tavallaei, M; Drangova, M; Stodilka, R; Gaede, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a respiratory-triggered MR-PET protocol in detecting four different sized lesions at two different magnitudes of motion, with two different TR values, using a novel PET-MR-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom. Methods: The eight-compartment torso phantom was setup adjacent to the motion stage, which moved four spherical compartments (28, 22, 17, 10 mm diameter) in two separate (1 and 2 cm) linear motion profiles, simulating a 3.5 second respiratory cycle. Scans were acquired on a 3T MR-PET system (Biograph mMR; Siemens Medical Solutions, Germany). MR measurements were taken with: 1) Respiratory-triggered T2-weighted turbo spin echo (BLADE) sequence in coronal orientation, and 2) Real-time balanced steady-state gradient echo sequence (TrueFISP) in coronal and sagittal planes. PET was acquired simultaneously with MR. Sphere geometries and motion profiles were measured and compared with ground truths for T2 BLADE-TSE acquisitions and real time TrueFISP images. PET quantification and geometry measurements were taken using standardized uptake values, voxel intensity plots and were compared with known values, and examined alongside MR-based attenuation maps. Contrast and signal-to-noise ratios were also compared for each of the acquisitions as functions of motion range and TR. Results: Comparison of lesion diameters indicate the respiratory triggered T2 BLADE-TSE was able to maintain geometry within −2 mm for 1 cm motion for both TR values, and within −3.1 mm for TR = 2000 ms at 2 cm motion. Sphere measurements in respiratory triggered PET images were accurate within +/− 5 mm for both ranges of motion for 28, 22, and 17 mm diameter spheres. Conclusion: Hybrid MR-PET systems show promise in imaging lung cancer in non-compliant patients, with their ability to acquire both modalities simultaneously. However, MR-based attenuation maps are still susceptible to motion derived artifacts and

  6. SU-F-I-58: Image Quality Comparisons of Different Motion Magnitudes and TR Values in MR-PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick, J; Thompson, R [Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Tavallaei, M; Drangova, M [Robarts Research Institute, London, Canada, London, Ontario (Canada); Stodilka, R [Western University, Canada, London, Ontario (Canada); Gaede, S [London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a respiratory-triggered MR-PET protocol in detecting four different sized lesions at two different magnitudes of motion, with two different TR values, using a novel PET-MR-CT compatible respiratory motion phantom. Methods: The eight-compartment torso phantom was setup adjacent to the motion stage, which moved four spherical compartments (28, 22, 17, 10 mm diameter) in two separate (1 and 2 cm) linear motion profiles, simulating a 3.5 second respiratory cycle. Scans were acquired on a 3T MR-PET system (Biograph mMR; Siemens Medical Solutions, Germ