WorldWideScience

Sample records for valued complementary information

  1. Western and Eastern Values are Complementary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available All values are spiritual in their essence, even those that appear to be physical. For all values seek perfection of the whole. The widest and highest perfection is based on the totality and oneness of reality. Such a perfection is comprehensive and inclusive. It is founded on truths that complete other truths rather than compete with them. Despite their vast cultural differences, Eastern and Western values reflect complementary aspects of a unified whole. But the process of developing values in any society depends on its underlying cultural perspective. The nature of mind is such that it divides and analyzes reality, and concentrates on one thing at a time, whereas spirituality is founded on the perception of the whole. This vast difference in underlying cultural orientation helps explain the immense gulf in understanding that has long distinguished and separated the cultures of Asia and Europe.

  2. NJOY and libraries: complementary information collecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, A.D.; Chalhoub, E.S.; Ono, S.

    1987-06-01

    This report contains a list of incompatibilities between NJOY code and evaluate nuclear data libraries, necessary information not included in the user's manual, and errors found in the program. (author)

  3. Digital Information and Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Walton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Digital information changes the ways in which people and organisations interact. This paper examines the nature of this change in the context of the author’s Model for Information (MfI. It investigates the relationship between outcomes and value, selection processes and some attributes of information and explores how this relationship changes in the move from analogue to digital information. Selection processes shape the evolution of information ecosystems in which conventions are established for the ways in which information is used. The conventions determine norms for information friction and information quality as well as the sources of information and channels used. Digital information reduces information friction, often dramatically, and changes information quality. The increasing use of analytics in business increasingly delivers predictive or prescriptive digital information. These changes are happening faster than information ecosystem conventions can change. The relationships established in the paper enable an analysis of, and guide changes to, these conventions enabling a more effective use of digital information.

  4. Selection of complementary foods based on optimal nutritional values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Partho; Mardinogulu, Adil; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Human milk is beneficial for growth and development of infants. Several factors result in mothers ceasing breastfeeding which leads to introduction of breast-milk substitutes (BMS). In some communities traditional foods are given as BMS, in others they are given as complementary foods during...

  5. Value of information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.; Chatzi, E.; Bismut, E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of value of information (VoI) enables quantification of the benefits provided by structural health monitoring (SHM) systems –in principle. Its implementation is challenging, as it requires an explicit modelling of the structural system’s life cycle, in particular of the decisions...... that are taken based on the SHM information. In this paper, we approach the VoI analysis through an influence diagram (ID), which supports the modelling process. We provide a simple example for illustration and discuss challenges associated with real-life implementation...

  6. Complementary Person-Culture Values Fit and Hierarchical Career Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, Claudia; Morales, Carlos E.; Masuda, Aline D.; Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Although career success is an issue of global concern, few studies have examined the antecedents of career success across cultures. In this study we test whether the relationship between individuals' self-enhancement values (achievement and power) and hierarchical status differs across 29 countries and whether this variation depends on countries'…

  7. Hair: a complementary source of bioanalytical information in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia; Vieira, Duarte Nuno; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Queiroz, João António

    2011-01-01

    Hair has been used for years in the assessment and documentation of human exposure to drugs, as it presents characteristics that make it extremely valuable for this purpose, namely the fact that sample collection is performed in a noninvasive manner, under close supervision, the possibility of collecting a specimen reflecting a similar timeline in the case of claims or suspicion of a leak in the chain of custody, and the increased window of detection for the drugs. For these reasons, testing for drugs in hair provides unique and useful information in several fields of toxicology, from which the most prominent is the possibility of studying individual drug use histories by means of segmental analysis. This paper will review the unique role of hair as a complementary sample in documenting human exposure to drugs in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology and workplace drug testing.

  8. Bayes factor and posterior probability: Complementary statistical evidence to p-value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruitao; Yin, Guosheng

    2015-09-01

    As a convention, a p-value is often computed in hypothesis testing and compared with the nominal level of 0.05 to determine whether to reject the null hypothesis. Although the smaller the p-value, the more significant the statistical test, it is difficult to perceive the p-value in a probability scale and quantify it as the strength of the data against the null hypothesis. In contrast, the Bayesian posterior probability of the null hypothesis has an explicit interpretation of how strong the data support the null. We make a comparison of the p-value and the posterior probability by considering a recent clinical trial. The results show that even when we reject the null hypothesis, there is still a substantial probability (around 20%) that the null is true. Not only should we examine whether the data would have rarely occurred under the null hypothesis, but we also need to know whether the data would be rare under the alternative. As a result, the p-value only provides one side of the information, for which the Bayes factor and posterior probability may offer complementary evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Informal Learning and Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Minette

    2009-01-01

    In her book title "Music, Informal Learning and the School," Lucy Green has ineluctably taken teachers to a place where potentially, students can really participate in an interactive pedagogy where student-centeredness is applied in its full sense. For this reason, the author found the potential contribution of the book to music education…

  10. Information Discovery from Complementary Literatures: Categorizing Viruses as Potential Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Don R.; Smalheiser, Neil R.; Bookstein, A.

    2001-01-01

    This project demonstrates how techniques of analyzing complementary literatures might be applied to problems of defense against biological weapons. The article is based solely on the open-source scientific literature, and is oriented on informatics techniques. Findings are intended as a guide to the virus literature to support further studies that…

  11. Enhancing value of information analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Mart P.; Koffijberg, Hendrik

    Objective: The aim of this study was to demonstrate that it is feasible and recommendable to present value of information (VOI) outcomes in terms of underlying costs and effects in addition to costs alone. Methods: The benefits of collecting additional information on health economic outcomes before

  12. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Marco Antonio; Pinto, Alexandre Evaristo; Barbosa Neto, João Estevão; Martins, Eliseu

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive...

  13. Deprival value: information utility analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Pereira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article contributes to the perception that the users’ learning process plays a key role in order to apply an accounting concept and this involves a presentation that fits its informative potential, free of previous accounting fixations. Deprival value is a useful measure for managerial and corporate purposes, it may be applied to the current Conceptual Framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB. This study analyzes its utility, taking into account cognitive aspects. Also known as value to the business, deprival value is a measurement system that followed a path where it was misunderstood, confused with another one, it faced resistance to be implemented and fell into disuse; everything that a standardized measurement method tries to avoid. In contrast, deprival value has found support in the academy and in specific applications, such as those related to the public service regulation. The accounting area has been impacted by sophistication of the measurement methods that increasingly require the ability to analyze accounting facts on an economic basis, at the risk of loss of their information content. This development becomes possible only when the potential of a measurement system is known and it is feasible to be achieved. This study consists in a theoretical essay based on literature review to discuss its origin, presentation, and application. Considering the concept’s cognitive difficulties, deprival value was analyzed, as well as its corresponding heteronym, value to the business, in order to explain some of these changes. The concept’s utility was also explored through cross-analysis with impairment and the scheme developed was applied to actual economic situations faced by a company listed on stock exchange.

  14. Information Literacy and Digital Literacy: Competing or Complementary?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanne Marie Cordell

    2013-01-01

    Digital Literacy is a more recent term than Information Literacy and is used for multiple categories of library users in multiple types of libraries. Determining the relationship between Information Literacy and Digital Literacy is essential before revision of the Information Literacy Standards can proceed.

  15. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among HIV patients: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-08-23

    Use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is widespread among different patient populations despite the availability of evidence-based conventional medicine and lack of supporting evidence for the claims of most CAM types. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between November 1, 2014 and March 31, 2015 among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of attendees of the HIV clinic of a public tertiary health care institution. Face-to-face interviews using a 34-item questionnaire were conducted. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. CAM was used by 113 (32.8%) of a total of 343 HIV patients, but Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM used (n = 110, 97.3%) followed by spiritual therapy (n = 56, 49.6%), including faith healing/prayer and meditation. The most used medicinal herbs were Aloe vera (n = 54, 49.1%), ginger (n = 33, 30.0%), and garlic (n = 23, 20.9%). The most used vitamins were complex B vitamins (n = 70, 61.9%), followed by vitamin A (n = 58, 51.3%), vitamin E (n = 51, 45.1%), and vitamin D (n = 42, 37.1%). Most CAM users continued using conventional medicine in addition to CAM and were willing to use CAM without supervision and without informing their health care provider. Patients were generally satisfied with CAM therapy (n = 91, 80.5%). The main reasons for CAM use were the desire to take control of their treatment (8.8%) or just trying anything that could help (18.8%). Main influences were the mass media (32.7%) and non-hospital health personnel (19.5%). Predictors of CAM use were being 30-50 years, married and having a secondary school education. About one-third of HIV patients used CAM, but virtually none informed their healthcare provider. Medicinal herbs were the most common type of CAM, followed by spiritual

  16. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  17. Information Literacy and Digital Literacy: Competing or Complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Rosanne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Digital literacy is a more recent concept than information literacy and can relate to multiple categories of library users in multiple types of libraries. Determining the relationship between information literacy and digital literacy is essential before revision of the ACRL "Standards" can proceed.

  18. Market research and complementary advertising under asymmetric information

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchihashi, Toshihiro

    2008-01-01

    We consider whether market research can always increase a seller's sales under bilateral asymmetric information. If a monopoly seller provides a high quality object, market research cannot increase sales even when the cost is sufficiently low. A low quality seller, on the other hand, can likely benefit from market research. However, this research has shown that market research alone does not improve sales and that advertising complements market research. Thus the high quality seller can incre...

  19. Integration of complementary and alternative medicine information and advice in chronic disease management guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Canaway, Rachel; Manderson, Lenore

    2011-01-01

    The growing evidence on the benefits and risks of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and its high rate of use (69% of Australians) - particularly for chronic or recurrent conditions - means increasing attention on CAM. However, few people disclose CAM use to their GP, and health professionals tend to inadequately discuss CAM-related issues with their patients, partly due to insufficient knowledge. As clinical and non-clinical chronic condition management guidelines are a means to educate primary health care practitioners, we undertook a content analysis of guidelines relevant to two common chronic conditions - cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) - to assess their provision of CAM-related information. Ten current Australian guidelines were reviewed, revealing scant CAM content. When available, the CAM-relevant information was brief, in some cases unclear, inconclusive and lacking in direction to the GP or health care provider. Although we focus on CVD and T2DM, we argue the value of all chronic condition management guidelines integrating relevant evidence-informed information and advice on CAM risks, benefits and referrals, to increase GP awareness and knowledge of appropriate CAM therapies, and potentially to facilitate doctor-client discussion about CAM.

  20. Segmentation and clustering as complementary sources of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Michael B.; Allison, Lloyd; Dale, Patricia E. R.

    2007-03-01

    This paper examines the effects of using a segmentation method to identify change-points or edges in vegetation. It identifies coherence (spatial or temporal) in place of unconstrained clustering. The segmentation method involves change-point detection along a sequence of observations so that each cluster formed is composed of adjacent samples; this is a form of constrained clustering. The protocol identifies one or more models, one for each section identified, and the quality of each is assessed using a minimum message length criterion, which provides a rational basis for selecting an appropriate model. Although the segmentation is less efficient than clustering, it does provide other information because it incorporates textural similarity as well as homogeneity. In addition it can be useful in determining various scales of variation that may apply to the data, providing a general method of small-scale pattern analysis.

  1. Humanoid Robot Control System Balance Dance Indonesia and Reader Filters Using Complementary Angle Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholihin; Susanti, Eka

    2018-02-01

    The development of increasingly advanced technology, make people want to be more developed and curiosity to know more to determine the development of advanced technology. Robot is a tool that can be used as a tool for people who have several advantages. Basically humanoid robot is a robot that resembles a human being with all the driving structure. In the application of this humanoid robot manufacture researchers use MPU6050 module which is an important component of the robot because it can provide a response to the angle reference axis X and Y reference axis, the reading corner still has noise if not filtered out beforehand. On the other hand the use of Complementary filters are the answer to reduce the noise. By arranging the filter coefficients and time sampling filter that affects the signal updates corner. The angle value will be the value of the sensor to the process to the PID system which generates output values that are integrated with the servo pulses. Researchers will test to get a reading of the most stable angle for this experiment is the "a" or the value of the filter coefficient = 0.96 and "dt" or the sampling time = 10 ms.

  2. Information management and complementary alternative medicine: the anatomy of information about CAMs through PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrao, Salvatore; Argano, Christiano; Colomba, Daniela; Ippolito, Calogero; Gargano, Vincenzo; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Licata, Giuseppe

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and the use of CAM interventions has become more common among people. For these reasons, health professionals must be able to effectively manage information in this field of knowledge according to an evidence-based point of view. This study assessed the anatomy of the available information about CAMs using PubMed, to give practical instructions to manage information in this field. We also analyzed the anatomy of information according to each alternative medicine branch, narrow and broad search methods, subset filters for indexed-for-Medline and non-indexed citations, and different publication types including randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and meta-analyses. Our results demonstrated that the use of CAMs subset (supplied by PubMed search engine) leads to a great number of citations determining an information overload. Our data reveal that it would be more useful to search for the CAM separately, identifying specific items and study design. Moreover, we found the largest number of randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses related to herbal medicine and acupuncture, neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for bach and flower remedies, auriculoacupuncture, iridology, and pranotherapy. For the first time, our study gives a comprehensive view of the anatomy of information regarding CAMs and each branch of them. We suggest a methodological approach to face with searching information about this emerging issue from an evidence-based point of view. Finally, our data pointed out some "grey zones" since neither RCTs nor meta-analyses were available for some CAMs.

  3. The Value of Information in Library Catalogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Joe

    2000-01-01

    Considers the value of information contained within a library's online public access catalog. Assesses the value of MARC records; authority records; indexes; location and status information; and value for an individual. (LRW)

  4. Knowledge about food classification systems and value attributes provides insight for understanding complementary food choices in Mexican working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Oliveros, Maria Guadalupe; Bisogni, Carole A; Frongillo, Edward A

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge about mothers' perceptions of food classification and values about complementary feeding is necessary for designing educational and food supply interventions targeted to young children. To determine classification, attributes, and consumption/preparation routines of key complementary foods, 44 mothers of children right for toddlers. Chicken liver was considered nutritious but dirty and bitter. Egg and fish were viewed as a vitamin source but potentially allergenic. Mothers valued vitamin content, flavor, and convenience of processed foods, but some were suspicious about expiration date, chemical and excessive sugar content and overall safety of these foods. Mothers' perceptions and values may differ from those of nutritionists and program designers, and should be addressed when promoting opportune introduction of complementary foods in social programs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterization of Complementary and Alternative Medicine-Related Consultations in an Academic Drug Information Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Philip J; Jalloh, Mohamed A; Abe, Andrew M; Hu, James; Hein, Darren J

    2016-12-01

    To characterize requests received through an academic drug information consultation service related to complementary and alternative medicines. A retrospective review and descriptive analysis of drug information consultations was conducted. A total of 195 consultations related to complementary and alternative medicine were evaluated. All consultation requests involved questions about dietary supplements. The most common request types were related to safety and tolerability (39%), effectiveness (38%), and therapeutic use (34%). Sixty-eight percent of the requests were from pharmacists. The most frequent consultation requests from pharmacists were questions related to drug interactions (37%), therapeutic use (37%), or stability/compatibility/storage (34%). Nearly 60% of complementary and alternative medicine-related consultation requests were able to be completely addressed using available resources. Among review sources, Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database, Clinical Pharmacology, Micromedex, and Pharmacist's Letter were the most common resources used to address consultations. Utilization of a drug information service may be a viable option for health care professionals to help answer a complementary and alternative medicine-related question. Additionally, pharmacists and other health care professionals may consider acquiring resources identified to consistently answering these questions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Risk Aversion and the Value of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeckhoudt, Louis; Godfroid, Phillippe

    2000-01-01

    Explains why risk aversion does not always induce a greater information value, but instead may induce a lower information value when increased. Presents a basic model defining the concept of perfect information value and providing a numerical illustration. Includes references. (CMK)

  7. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Tom R; den Boer, Sebastiaan; Cools, Roshan; Jensen, Ole; Fallon, Sean James; Zumer, Johanna M

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (40-100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous information going unnoticed. Neural systems are also in place for processing rewarding and punishing information. Here, we examine the interaction between selective attention (left vs. right) and stimulus's learned value associations (neutral, punished, or rewarded) and how they compete for control of posterior neural oscillations. We found that both attention and stimulus-value associations influenced neural oscillations. Whereas selective attention had comparable effects on alpha and gamma oscillations, value associations had dissociable effects on these neural markers of attention. Salient targets (associated with positive and negative outcomes) hijacked changes in alpha power-increasing hemispheric alpha lateralization when salient targets were attended, decreasing it when they were being ignored. In contrast, hemispheric gamma-band lateralization was specifically abolished by negative distractors. Source analysis indicated occipital generators of both attentional and value effects. Thus, posterior cortical oscillations support both the ability to selectively attend while at the same time retaining the ability to remain sensitive to valuable features in the environment. Moreover, the versatility of our attentional system to respond separately to salient from merely positively valued stimuli appears to be carried out by separate neural processes reflected in different frequency bands.

  8. Value of Information Web Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    their understanding of VoI attributes (source reliable, information content, and latency). The VoI web application emulates many features of a...only when using the Firefox web browser on those computers (Internet Explorer was not viable due to unchangeable user settings). During testing, the

  9. Value Creation, Appropriation, and Product Design Strategies in Technology Ecosystems: Three Essays on the Role of Complementary Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cameron Dee

    2017-01-01

    Firms are often embedded in a technology ecosystem comprised of complementary technologies that span multiple product markets. In this dissertation, I examine how complementarity between the firm's technologies influences its strategies to create and appropriate value in the ecosystem. I investigate this overarching question in two contexts:…

  10. COMPLEMENTARY EFFECTS IN ACTIVIZATION OF SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL ACTIVITIES IN THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes new methodological approaches in the study of development problems of scientific and technical activities in the information society. The essence and economic nature of development scientific and technical activities' from the standpoint of methodological collectivism are disclosed, a new phenomenon intensification of development scientific and technical activities by forming the global networks of scientific and technical knowledge users that provides sharing of the burden of transformation and transaction costs as generation as well as economic implementation of research and technical knowledge across the globe are showed. This study outlines the complementary effects in intensify development of scientific and technological activities components: research and development (RD, training of scientific personnel, provision of scientific and technical services, which generates of world market's complementary goods, being world market of educational services of scientific and technical information, industrial properties, high technology products, venture capital investments and stock market.

  11. Digital loyalty card "big data' and small business marketing: Formal versus informal or complementary?

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Christina; Simmons, Geoff; Armstrong, Gillian; Fearne, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes that a complementary relationship exists between the formalised nature of digital loyalty card data, and the informal nature of small business market orientation. A longitudinal, case-based research approach analysed this relationship in small firms given access to Tesco Clubcard data. The findings reveal a new-found structure and precision in small firm marketing planning from data exposure; this complemented rather than conflicted with an intuitive feel for markets. In...

  12. Information technology investments must deliver value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Y.

    1998-01-01

    The value of information technology (IT) management for the petroleum industry was discussed. There are currently two points of view regarding the subject. Adherents of one view hold that the strategic uses of information technology are relevant to the oil and gas industry, while those opposed find no demonstrated connection between information technology investments and business results. This paper addresses the impact of the information paradox, but maintains that information technology is not only valuable but essential to the oil and gas industry. This paper maintains that whenever it is perceived as being of limited use and too expensive, it is usually because it is not well managed. Value management can and should lead to superior outcomes. Neither exploration, nor drilling nor production, nor marketing could exist without information technology as the value is imperative. To further make the case, the nature of information technology value management and the strategies required to achieve value from information technology are reviewed. figs

  13. Information security value in e-entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    This paper researches the information security value in e-entrepreneurship by revising the literature that establishes the entrepreneurial domain and by relating it with the development of technological resources that create value for the customer in an online business. It details multiple paradigms regarding consumer’s values of information security, while relating them with common practices and previous researches in technological entrepreneurship. This research presents and discusses the b...

  14. The Classification of Complementary Information Set Codes of Lengths 14 and 16

    OpenAIRE

    Freibert, Finley

    2012-01-01

    In the paper "A new class of codes for Boolean masking of cryptographic computations," Carlet, Gaborit, Kim, and Sol\\'{e} defined a new class of rate one-half binary codes called \\emph{complementary information set} (or CIS) codes. The authors then classified all CIS codes of length less than or equal to 12. CIS codes have relations to classical Coding Theory as they are a generalization of self-dual codes. As stated in the paper, CIS codes also have important practical applications as they m...

  15. Prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of complementary and alternative medicine among cancer patients: a cross-sectional, descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahall, Mandreker

    2017-06-30

    Sophisticated conventional medicine (CM) has brought significant advances to cancer prevention, detection, and treatment. However, many cancer patients still turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment. This study explored the prevalence, patterns, and perceived value of CAM among cancer patients. This quantitative descriptive study was conducted between March 1, 2015, and July 31, 2015, among a cross-sectional, convenience sample of patients from the Oncology Department of San Fernando General Hospital in Trinidad and Tobago. Face-to-face interviews were conducted at the oncology clinic and treatment suite after obtaining informed consent. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and binary logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of CAM use among a sample of 350 cancer patients was 39.1% (39.6% for breast cancer, 44.4% for prostate cancer, 37% for ovarian cancer, and 38.7% for colon cancer patients). Herbs were the most common type of CAM used (93.4%), followed by spiritual therapy (73.7%). CAM use was more prevalent among females (68.6%), Indo-Trinidadians (63.5%), and patients aged 41-50 years (37.2%). The majority (70%-80%) rated CAM efficacy on perceived value. CAM was used mainly because of a desire to try anything that might help (67.6%), followed by it being congruent with the patients' beliefs (59.1%). Patients knew about CAM mainly through friends (69.3%) and family (69.3%). Most patients were generally satisfied (93.6%) and considered CAM helpful (89.8%), but the majority never informed their health care provider of CAM use (78.8%). Patients reported the simultaneous use of more than one type of CAM, without considering or knowing of possible side-effects. The perceived value of CAM included empowerment, control, cure, and improved quality of life. CAM use was associated with age, but no predictors of CAM use could be identified. Medicinal herbs and spiritual therapy are commonly used among cancer patients

  16. Social value and information quality in online health information search

    OpenAIRE

    Hameed, Tahir; Swar, Bobby

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends and validates a model of value-driven online healthcare information search in online shared contexts. Perceived value is an important factor behind users' decisions concerning search, consumption and reuse of products and services. The role of utilitarian, hedonic and epistemic value of information in user satisfaction and intention to repeat online search is well recognized, but little support has been found for social value affecting user satisfaction critical for such de...

  17. Complementary contributions of basolateral amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex to value learning under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    We make choices based on the values of expected outcomes, informed by previous experience in similar settings. When the outcomes of our decisions consistently violate expectations, new learning is needed to maximize rewards. Yet not every surprising event indicates a meaningful change in the environment. Even when conditions are stable overall, outcomes of a single experience can still be unpredictable due to small fluctuations (i.e., expected uncertainty) in reward or costs. In the present work, we investigate causal contributions of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in rats to learning under expected outcome uncertainty in a novel delay-based task that incorporates both predictable fluctuations and directional shifts in outcome values. We demonstrate that OFC is required to accurately represent the distribution of wait times to stabilize choice preferences despite trial-by-trial fluctuations in outcomes, whereas BLA is necessary for the facilitation of learning in response to surprising events. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27483.001 PMID:28682238

  18. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Towards Information Systems Design for Value Webs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarvic, N.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Daneva, Maia; Pernici, B; Gulla, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the alignment between a business model of a value web and the information systems of the participating companies needed to implement the business model. Traditional business-IT alignment approaches focus on one single company, but in a value web we are dealing with various

  20. Information Value Distance and Crisis Management Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Herbane

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizational learning during and post-crisis is well established in the management literature but consideration of learning for crisis and the sources of information perceived to be useful for crisis management planning have not previously been examined. This study evaluates data from 215 U.K.-based small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs about the perceived value of 11 sources of information between planning (i.e., firms with a crisis management plan and non-planning respondents. For planning firms, the information sources considered to be useful are exclusively experience-based, and when information sources become less idiosyncratic and episodic, planning firms’ evaluations of their value begin to approximate the ratings given by non-planning firms. Furthermore, the concepts of relative value distance and value distance from threshold are original features of this study and offer new ways to evaluate the value of information sources for organizations wishing to provide information and support to improve business resilience and business continuity.

  1. Information as Work and as Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dantas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests an approach to Marx's capital valorisation theory supported by a dialectical information theory as developed by physicians, biologists and also communication theorists during the second half of the 20th century. It suggests that it is possible to link the basic concepts of information, as science has established it, to Marx's basic concepts of capital. Based on this foundation, this article also tries to explain how capital, in its development, has evolved to discharge redundant or repetitive jobs but has become increasingly dependent on random or creative ones. Because of this circumstance, in its present stage, the capitalist production process creates value in many concrete forms of semiotic information. Because information cannot be reduced to the status of a commodity, as the theory explains, capitalist states and corporations are improving and hardening the intellectual property laws in order to appropriate the information value created by "creative" or "artistic" work.

  2. Identifying Complementary and Alternative Medicine Usage Information from Internet Resources. A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vivekanand; Holmes, John H; Sarkar, Indra N

    2016-08-05

    Identify and highlight research issues and methods used in studying Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) information needs, access, and exchange over the Internet. A literature search was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines from PubMed to identify articles that have studied Internet use in the CAM context. Additional searches were conducted at Nature.com and Google Scholar. The Internet provides a major medium for attaining CAM information and can also serve as an avenue for conducting CAM related surveys. Based on the literature analyzed in this review, there seems to be significant interest in developing methodologies for identifying CAM treatments, including the analysis of search query data and social media platform discussions. Several studies have also underscored the challenges in developing approaches for identifying the reliability of CAM-related information on the Internet, which may not be supported with reliable sources. The overall findings of this review suggest that there are opportunities for developing approaches for making available accurate information and developing ways to restrict the spread and sale of potentially harmful CAM products and information. Advances in Internet research are yet to be used in context of understanding CAM prevalence and perspectives. Such approaches may provide valuable insights into the current trends and needs in context of CAM use and spread.

  3. IDENTIFYING COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE USAGE INFORMATION FROM INTERNET RESOURCES: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, V.; Holmes, J.H.; Sarkar, I.N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Identify and highlight research issues and methods used in studying Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) information needs, access, and exchange over the Internet. Methods A literature search was conducted using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines from PubMed to identify articles that have studied Internet use in the CAM context. Additional searches were conducted at Nature.com and Google Scholar. Results The Internet provides a major medium for attaining CAM information and can also serve as an avenue for conducting CAM related surveys. Based on the literature analyzed in this review, there seems to be significant interest in developing methodologies for identifying CAM treatments, including the analysis of search query data and social media platform discussions. Several studies have also underscored the challenges in developing approaches for identifying the reliability of CAM-related information on the Internet, which may not be supported with reliable sources. The overall findings of this review suggest that there are opportunities for developing approaches for making available accurate information and developing ways to restrict the spread and sale of potentially harmful CAM products and information. Conclusions Advances in Internet research are yet to be used in context of understanding CAM prevalence and perspectives. Such approaches may provide valuable insights into the current trends and needs in context of CAM use and spread. PMID:27352304

  4. Monopolistic Insurance and the Value of Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Snow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The value of information regarding risk class for a monopoly insurer and its customers is examined in both symmetric and asymmetric information environments. A monopolist always prefers contracting with uninformed customers as this maximizes the rent extracted under symmetric information while also avoiding the cost of adverse selection when information is held asymmetrically. Although customers are indifferent to symmetric information when they are initially uninformed, they prefer contracting with hidden knowledge rather than symmetric information since the monopoly responds to adverse selection by sharing gains from trade with high-risk customers when low risks are predominant in the insurance pool. However, utilitarian social welfare is highest when customers are uninformed, and is higher when information is symmetric rather than asymmetric.

  5. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  6. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutua Martin K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organisation (WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99% having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37% were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability; health seeking behaviour (place of delivery and; neighbourhood

  7. Multiple genetic interaction experiments provide complementary information useful for gene function prediction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Michaut

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions help map biological processes and their functional relationships. A genetic interaction is defined as a deviation from the expected phenotype when combining multiple genetic mutations. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, most genetic interactions are measured under a single phenotype - growth rate in standard laboratory conditions. Recently genetic interactions have been collected under different phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions. How different are these networks and what can we learn from their differences? We conducted a systematic analysis of quantitative genetic interaction networks in yeast performed under different experimental conditions. We find that networks obtained using different phenotypic readouts, in different conditions and from different laboratories overlap less than expected and provide significant unique information. To exploit this information, we develop a novel method to combine individual genetic interaction data sets and show that the resulting network improves gene function prediction performance, demonstrating that individual networks provide complementary information. Our results support the notion that using diverse phenotypic readouts and experimental conditions will substantially increase the amount of gene function information produced by genetic interaction screens.

  8. Constructing the Value of Information Systems Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Building on a social constructivist approach, this commentary examines the value of Information Systems (IS) research and its bearing on the future of the discipline in three steps as follows. First, it is argued that the product of IS scholars can serve as a proxy for IS research and that the su......Building on a social constructivist approach, this commentary examines the value of Information Systems (IS) research and its bearing on the future of the discipline in three steps as follows. First, it is argued that the product of IS scholars can serve as a proxy for IS research...

  9. Relationship between stakeholders' information value perception and information security behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Sharul; Olphert, Wendy; Doherty, Neil

    2015-02-01

    The study, reported in this paper, aims to explore the relationship between the stakeholders' perceptions about the value of information and their resultant information security behaviours. Moreover, this study seeks to explore the role of national and organisational culture in facilitating information value assignment. Information Security is a concept that formed from the recognition that information is valuable and that there is a need to protect it. The ISO 27002 defines information as an asset, which, like other important business assets, is essential to an organisation's business and consequently needs to be appropriately protected. By definition, an asset has a value to the organisation hence it requires protection. Information protection is typically accomplished through the implementation of countermeasures against the threats and vulnerabilities of information security, for example, implementation of technological processes and mechanisms such as firewall and authorization and authentication systems, set-up of deterrence procedures such as password control and enforcement of organisational policy on information handling procedures. However, evidence routinely shows that despite such measures, information security breaches and incidents are on the rise. These breaches lead to loss of information, personal records, or other data, with consequent implications for the value of the information asset. A number of studies have suggested that such problems are not related primarily to technology problems or procedural deficiencies, but rather to stakeholders' poor compliance with the security measures that are in place. Research indicates that compliance behaviour is affected by many variables including perceived costs and benefits, national and organisational culture and norms. However, there has been little research to understand the concept of information value from the perspective of those who interact with the data, and the consequences for information

  10. Value Based Care and Patient-Centered Care: Divergent or Complementary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Eric K; Hicks, Lisa K

    2016-08-01

    Two distinct but overlapping care philosophies have emerged in cancer care: patient-centered care (PCC) and value-based care (VBC). Value in healthcare has been defined as the quality of care (measured typically by healthcare outcomes) modified by cost. In this conception of value, patient-centeredness is one important but not necessarily dominant quality measure. In contrast, PCC includes multiple domains of patient-centeredness and places the patient and family central to all decisions and evaluations of quality. The alignment of PCC and VBC is complicated by several tensions, including a relative lack of patient experience and preference measures, and conceptions of cost that are payer-focused instead of patient-focused. Several strategies may help to align these two philosophies, including the use of patient-reported outcomes in clinical trials and value determinations, and the purposeful integration of patient preference in clinical decisions and guidelines. Innovative models of care, including accountable care organizations and oncology patient-centered medical homes, may also facilitate alignment through improved care coordination and quality-based payment incentives. Ultimately, VBC and PCC will only be aligned if patient-centered outcomes, perspectives, and preferences are explicitly incorporated into the definitions and metrics of quality, cost, and value that will increasingly influence the delivery of cancer care.

  11. Occipital Alpha and Gamma Oscillations Support Complementary Mechanisms for Processing Stimulus Value Associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marshall, T.R.; Boer, Sebastiaan den; Cools, R.; Jensen, O.; Fallon, S.J.; Zumer, J.

    2018-01-01

    Selective attention is reflected neurally in changes in the power of posterior neural oscillations in the alpha (8–12 Hz) and gamma (40–100 Hz) bands. Although a neural mechanism that allows relevant information to be selectively processed has its advantages, it may lead to lucrative or dangerous

  12. The Cure for Civiliter Mortuus: Complementary Values of Phenomenology and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Briedis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The core of this article is the ancient question concerning the individual person in relation to his/her society. This fundamental question of ethics and political philosophy is approached from the perspective of phenomenological philosophy. Hence, this article is an attempt to conjoin two prima facie inconsistent (because of category mistake types of attitude towards reality and action, e.g. democracy and phenomenology. The thesis states that there is a common ground between the basic features of phenomenological method and the fundamental values of democracy. This paper explores the arguments that establish this parallelism between the values of democracy and phenomenology. One of the outcomes of this analysis will be the sketch of a new kind of virtue ethics and a new type of citizen, concerning new approaches to identity problem. In this respect method of phenomenology can be used as a technique (phronesis for a future citizenship. On the other hand, this perspective helps to re­evaluate the treasures of antique democracy and compare them with contemporary transformations of democracy in political, social and everyday spheres.  

  13. Value of freeway travel time information

    OpenAIRE

    Soriguera Martí, Francesc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the value of highway travel time information systems. This is achieved by using notions of expected utility theory to develop a departure time selection and route choice model. The model assumes that every driver has a level of accepted lateness for his trip and some perceived knowledge of the travel times on the route. Only these two inputs support his decisions. The decision making process does not require the consideration of a complex cost function and does not involve...

  14. Value of Information Analysis in Structural Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2014-01-01

    of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or techniques of structural health monitoring. The Value of Information concept provides a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected benefit and for identifying the optimal among different...... possible experimental schemes. This concept is elaborated through principal examples for structural components and system models. Sensitivity analyses are performed to investigate how the decision problem is influenced by the level of uncertainty that characterizes the structural properties, the amount...

  15. Valuing information for sewer replacement decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riel, Wouter; Langeveld, Jeroen; Herder, Paulien; Clemens, François

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. This is not to be preferred in light of public accountability and cost-effectiveness. It is unknown to what extent each decision criterion is appreciated by decision-makers. Further insight into this relative importance improves understanding of decision-making of sewer system managers. As such, a digital questionnaire (response ratio 43%), containing pairwise comparisons between 10 relevant information sources, was sent to all 407 municipalities in the Netherlands to analyse the relative importance and assess whether a shared frame of reasoning is present. Thurstone's law of comparative judgment was used for analysis, combined with several consistency tests. Results show that camera inspections were valued highest, while pipe age was considered least important. The respondents were pretty consistent per individual and also showed consistency as a group. This indicated a common framework of reasoning among the group. The feedback of the group showed, however, the respondents found it difficult to make general comparisons without having a context. This indicates decision-making in practice is more likely to be steered by other mechanisms than purely combining information sources.

  16. Value of informed consent in surgical orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, S.; Becking, A.G.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation,

  17. Value of informed consent in surgical orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, S.; Becking, A.G.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation,

  18. Value of informed consent in surgical orthodontics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, S.; Becking, A.G.; Tuinzing, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation,

  19. Value of informed consent in surgical orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, Sander; Becking, Alfred G.; Tuinzing, D. Bram

    2009-01-01

    Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation, attention was

  20. News Values and the Vividness of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennamer, J. David

    Most journalism textbooks begin with lists of what have been called "news values." These are criteria to be used to judge the newsworthiness of issues, events, and persons. The list of news values that most journalists have memorized can be replaced with a single concept--vividness. Vividness is a characteristic of the information…

  1. Value of informed consent in surgical orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brons, Sander; Becking, Alfred G; Tuinzing, D Bram

    2009-05-01

    Informed consent forms an important part of treatment, especially in the case of elective treatment. The aim of this survey was to establish how much patients can recall of the information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery. During the consultation, attention was given to all aspects of the treatment. However, because of "insurance-related factors," the need for treatment because of functional reasons was stressed over esthetics. The recall of information given during an informed consent interview before orthognathic surgery was measured using a questionnaire. Patients with a mandibular deficiency with a low mandibular plane angle were questioned after an informed consent interview regarding surgical orthodontic treatment. Esthetics were more frequently and functional problems were less frequently recalled as the reason for operation than was expected. The risk of a change in the sensation of the lower lip by surgery was frequently recalled as a reason to refrain from the operation. The overall recall rate of the possible risks and complications of orthodontic surgery was 40%. No reports were found of comparable research on the preoperative recall after consultation before surgical orthodontic surgery. The aspects of communication that can improve recall must be clarified. A recall rate of 100% seems a utopia, although an arbitrary line is needed to determine the quality of an informed consent interview.

  2. HOW TO CALCULATE INFORMATION VALUE FOR EFFECTIVE SECURITY RISK ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sajko

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The actual problem of information security (infosec risk assessment is determining the value of information property or asset. This is particularly manifested through the use of quantitative methodology in which it is necessary to state the information value in quantitative sizes. The aim of this paper is to describe the evaluation possibilities of business information values, and the criteria needed for determining importance of information. For this purpose, the dimensions of information values will be determined and the ways used to present the importance of information contents will be studied. There are two basic approaches that can be used in evaluation: qualitative and quantitative. Often they are combined to determine forms of information content. The proposed criterion is the three-dimension model, which combines the existing experiences (i.e. possible solutions for information value assessment with our own criteria. An attempt for structuring information value in a business environment will be made as well.

  3. Value of Information for Sewer Replacement Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Riel, W.A.P.; Langeveld, J.G.; Herder, P.M.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2014-01-01

    Decision-making for sewer asset management is partially based on intuition and often lacks explicit argumentation, hampering decision transparency and reproducibility. It is unknown to what extent each information source is appreciated by decision makers. Further insight into this relative

  4. Determining the Value of Future Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    trouble spots around the world, help plan military operations, and monitor the environment. The NRO’s Operational Support Office ( OSO ) “orchestrates...offices” (Parnell, Bennet, Engelbrecht, Szafranski, 2002:77). Parnell’s team’s research was intended “to help the OSO to identify and develop high- value...tasks that directly support OSO and NRO strategic objectives and to select the best portfolio of tasks to meet resource and programmatic constraints

  5. The complementary relationship between the Internet and traditional mass media: the case of online news and information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Nguyen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The question whether old media are driven out of existence by new media has been a long concern in academic and industrial research but has received no definitive answer. Aim.This paper goes beyond most previous studies of Internet impact on traditional media, which have placed their relationship within a competition-based framework, to specifically investigate the complementary effect of online news and information usage on traditional sources. Method. Secondary data analysis of a national survey of 4270 Australians conducted in late 2003, employing hypothesis testing for the mean, partial correlations, and a linear regression analysis. Results. Online news and information usage at different usage levels is positively associated with the use of traditional news and information sources, especially those that are more information-intensive. Those who relied on the Internet the most for news and information still used traditional sources substantially. Conclusion. The findings suggest that even if a displacement effect takes place, there will be no replacement (absolute displacement: traditional media will still exist to complement the Internet in serving human beings' news and information needs.

  6. Developments in the Value Chain of Scientific Information [Powerpoint Presentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.

    The values in scientific information relevant for the individual researcher can be represented in the value chain for this process. IT is a strong engine for change, in particular as IT has the potential not only to innovate the research information system but also the educational information system

  7. Value-Added Taxes, Chain Effects, and Informality

    OpenAIRE

    Áureo de Paula; Jose A. Scheinkman

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates determinants of informal economic activity. We present an equilibrium model of informality and test its implications using a survey of 48,000+ small firms in Brazil. We define informality as tax avoidance; firms in the informal sector avoid tax payments but suffer other limitations. A novel theoretical contribution in this model is the role of value added taxes in transmitting informality. It predicts that the informality of a firm is correlated to the informality of f...

  8. A monetary value for initial information in portfolio optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Schweizer; Dirk Becherer; Jürgen Amendinger

    2002-01-01

    We consider an investor maximizing his expected utility from terminal wealth with portfolio decisions based on the available information flow. This investor faces the opportunity to acquire some additional initial information ${\\cal G}$. His subjective fair value of this information is defined as the amount of money that he can pay for ${\\cal G}$ such that this cost is balanced out by the informational advantage in terms of maximal expected utility. We study this value for common utility func...

  9. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  10. QUANTITATIVE СHARACTERISTICS OF COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRATED HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND INTEGRATED MEDICATION MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Babintseva

    2015-05-01

    i mportant elements of state regulation of the pharmaceutical sector health. For the first time creation of two information systems: integrated medication management infor mation system and integrated health care system in an integrated medical infor mation area, operating based on th e principle of complementarity was justified. Global and technological coefficients of these systems’ functioning were introduced.

  11. "I just googled and read everything": Exploring breast cancer survivors' use of the internet to find information on complementary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michelle M; Bishop, Felicity L; Calman, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Breast cancer survivors often turn to the internet as an information resource when deciding whether to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) but their use of online CAM-related resources is poorly understood. The objective was to explore breast cancer survivors' use of the internet when making decisions about CAM use. A purposive sample of 11 breast cancer survivors (mean age=56) completed a quantitative questionnaire and a qualitative telephone interview. The theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to guide interview questions. Framework analysis and descriptive statistics were used. United Kingdom. All participants found information on CAM using the internet and used some form of CAM after their diagnosis. Themes from the interviews went beyond the standard definitions of the TPB areas. Despite the lack of approval from their social network and healthcare team, participants used the internet to find information on CAM. Further, participants' cancer diagnosis changed their needs, transforming how they perceived and experienced the internet CONCLUSIONS: Participants' use of the internet was more complex than can easily be explained by the TPB and was inherently connected to the experience of self-management for the consequences of cancer and its treatment. As breast cancer survivors may not disclose their use of the internet to their healthcare team, healthcare professionals need to be aware that the information available on the internet plays a factor in the decision-making process to use CAM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The role of information technology as a complementary resource in healthcare integrated delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Evelyn H; Revels, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    As in many industries, it is recognized that there is a need to increase the use of information technology (IT) in the healthcare industry. However, until now, this has not occurred. In fact, some say that IT in healthcare has consistently fallen far short of expectations. The purpose of this study was to illuminate the need for a more holistic view of healthcare network integration and demonstrate that simply applying the latest technology to the network is not adequate for improving overall effectiveness. The study results showed that the more holistic view has to include management commitment, of complementarity between IT integration and organizational integration, and continued investments.

  13. The value of complementary and alternative medicine in the treatment of climacteric symptoms: results of a survey among German gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Studnitz, Friederike S G; Eulenburg, Christine; Mueck, Alfred O; Buhling, Kai J

    2013-10-01

    The present study aims to detect the attitude and experience towards complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the treatment of climacteric disorders among gynecologists in Germany. A self-administered questionnaire, containing 15 questions, was sent to all gynecologists in private practice in Germany (n=9589). Gynecologists were asked about their experience with several forms of CAM. They were asked to rate different procedures as "effective", "sometimes effective" or "unimportant". The response rate was 33.7% (n=3227). We report on 2549 (26.6%) eligible questionnaires. Well-known therapies were black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa), chaste tree (Vitex agnus castus) and St. John's wort. More than 98% had had experiences with these therapies. Fewer experiences were stated with hormone-yoga (42.9%), acupuncture (29.1%) and homeopathy (21.6%). The most effective alternative therapy rated was an alteration of lifestyle with 54.4% (n=1325) stating it was effective and 35.7% (n=871) stating it was sometimes effective. Only 3.9% (n=96) prescribed no efficacy to a change of lifestyle. Other treatments rated as effective were St. John's wort (25.0%, n=606) and Black cohosh (21.1%, n=527). Agents regarded most ineffective were hormone-yoga (4.7%, n=109), acupuncture (10.3%, n=243) and homeopathy (10.6%, n=250). Female gynecologists were more likely to vote for a therapy to be effective compared to their male colleagues. German gynecologists seem to have made positive experiences with CAM when observing their patients, in general. An alteration of lifestyle is seen as the most effective alternative therapy in menopause. Due to their widespread use, possible side effect of natural agents should be excluded. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Value in Informational Capitalism and on the Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvidsson, Adam Erik; Colleoni, Elanor

    2012-01-01

    We engage with recent applications of the Marxist “labor theory of value” to online prosumer practices, and offer an alternative framework for theorizing value creation in such practices. We argue that the labor theory of value is difficult to apply to online prosumer practices for two reasons. O...... labor theory of value. We also suggest that our approach can cast new light on value creation within informational capitalism in general....

  15. Value of information and natural resources decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    Though the potential for information to measurably improve management has been highlighted for several decades, in recent years the “value of information” has surfaced with increasing frequency in natural resources. However, the use of this phrase belies the fact that many in natural resources have only a limited understanding about what it actually means, how to measure it, and what to do with it. We introduce and describe several forms of the value of information in a context of the management of renewable natural resources. The value of information is discussed in terms of a potential gain in value with the addition of new information, as well as a loss in value associated with the absence of information. Value metrics are developed for uncertainty about resource status as well as resource processes and responses to management. We provide a common notation for the metrics of value, and discuss linkages of the value of information to strategic approaches such as adaptive resources management and partially observable decision processes.

  16. Value Relevance of Accounting Information in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Barzegari Khanagha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the value relevance of accounting information in per and post-periods of International Financial Reporting Standards implementation using the regression and portfolio approaches for sample of the UAE companies. The results obtained from a combination of regression and portfolio approaches, show accounting information is value relevant in UAE stock market. A comparison of the results for the periods before and after adoption, based on both regression and portfolio approaches, shows a decline in value relevance of accounting information after the reform in accounting standards. It could be interpreted to mean that following to IFRS in UAE didn’t improve value relevancy of accounting information. However, results based on and portfolio approach shows that cash flows’ incremental information content increased for the post-IFRS period.

  17. Understanding cancer survivors' information needs and information-seeking behaviors for complementary and alternative medicine from short- to long-term survival: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarton, Lou Ann; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Gibson, Bryan; Logan, Robert; Workman, T Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The research examined complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) information-seeking behaviors and preferences from short- to long-term cancer survival, including goals, motivations, and information sources. A mixed-methods approach was used with cancer survivors from the "Assessment of Patients' Experience with Cancer Care" 2004 cohort. Data collection included a mail survey and phone interviews using the critical incident technique (CIT). Seventy survivors from the 2004 study responded to the survey, and eight participated in the CIT interviews. Quantitative results showed that CAM usage did not change significantly between 2004 and 2015. The following themes emerged from the CIT: families' and friends' provision of the initial introduction to a CAM, use of CAM to manage the emotional and psychological impact of cancer, utilization of trained CAM practitioners, and online resources as a prominent source for CAM information. The majority of participants expressed an interest in an online information-sharing portal for CAM. Patients continue to use CAM well into long-term cancer survivorship. Finding trustworthy sources for information on CAM presents many challenges such as reliability of source, conflicting information on efficacy, and unknown interactions with conventional medications. Study participants expressed interest in an online portal to meet these needs through patient testimonials and linkage of claims to the scientific literature. Such a portal could also aid medical librarians and clinicians in locating and evaluating CAM information on behalf of patients.

  18. Economic assessment of the use value of geospatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI) contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms) of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1) a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2) a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3) a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  19. Exploring consumer values of comparative performance information for hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaar, Nicole A B M; Faber, Marjan J; Westert, Gert P; Elwyn, Glyn; Braspenning, Jozé C

    2014-01-01

    In many countries, market orientation in healthcare has resulted in the publication of comparative performance information (CPI). Most of the research in this field is oriented towards the content and the presentation format of CPI while little is known about how consumers value CPI and the use of this information. The aim of this study was to clarify the perceived value that CPI brings for consumers of healthcare. Methods Qualitative research using six focus group interviews. Twenty-seven healthcare consumers were recruited using a mailing list and by personal invitation. Data from focus group interviews were transcribed and thematic analysis undertaken. Most participants were unaware of CPI, and valued alternative sources of information more than CPI. Through discussion with other consumers and by means of examples of CPI, respondents were able to express the values and perceived effects of CPI. Numerous underlying values hindered consumers' use of CPI, and therefore clarification of consumer values gave insights into the current non-usage of CPI. CPI is marginally valued, partly because of conflicting values expressed by consumers and, as such, it does not yet provide a useful information source on hospital choice beyond consumers' current selection routines in healthcare. Future research should be more focused on the values of consumers and their impact on the use of CPI.

  20. The value of information management : trends and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lougheed, S.

    1998-01-01

    QC Data's experience with the geotechnical and related information needs of the petroleum industry was described. The presentation discussed QC Data's solutions and how it brings its information and data domain expertise to bear on the oil and natural gas industry. The paper analyzes historic business issues and their limitations and outlines how advances in information and communications technology, especially software advances and server technology, have been transformed. It looks at how business is conducted today, reviews the role of other business drivers such as increasing productivity, and cost/value decisions, the value of information management, trends, issues and innovative strategies, and provides an assessment of lessons learned. figs

  1. The Value of Logistics Information to the Warfighter

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corrigan, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    ...) technology into the Department of Defense supply chain management infrastructure. The project confirms the existence of an inherent value in logistics information used as a resource in Department of Defense supply chain management applications...

  2. Self-Service Banking: Value Creation Models and Information Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnvald Sannes

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that most banks have failed to exploit the potential of self-service banking because they base their service design on an incomplete business model for self-service. A framework for evaluation of self-service banking concepts is developed on the basis of Stabell and Fjeldstad's three value configurations. The value network and the value shop are consistent with self-service banking while the value chain is inappropriate. The impact of the value configurations on information exchange and self-service functionality is discussed, and a framework for design of such services proposed. Current self-service banking practices are compared to the framework, and it is concluded that current practice matches the concept of a value network and not the value shop. However, current practices are only a partial implementation of a value network-based self-service banking concept.

  3. Business Value of Information Technology in Network Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yucong

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology (IT) business value research is suggested as fundamental to the contribution of the IS discipline. The IS research community has accumulated a critical mass of IT business value studies, but only limited or mixed results have been found on the direct relationship between IT and firm performance. Extant studies mostly focus…

  4. Nutritional value of locally produced foods and potential for developing age-appropriate complementary foods for children under 2 years of age in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Kodio, Joseph; Iknane, Akory Ag; Sodjinou, Roger

    2010-09-01

    Promotion of dietary diversity using locally available nutritious foods is an effective approach in low-income areas to improve the quality of young children's diet and, hence, their growth and development. To identify the nutritional values of locally acceptable, feasible, affordable, and sustainable foods and develop a number of recipes that could be used to complement effectively nutrient intakes provided through breastfeeding to children 6 to 23 months of age in Bandiagara, Mali. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain lists of all locally available foods during village assembly meetings and identify the food basket of households and child feeding practices during interviews with mothers and fathers. The nutritional values of the foods were estimated, and the Malian food composition table was used to identify the combinations that would result in the most nutritious recipes. Breastfeeding was widely practiced, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life was extremely low (7%). The practice of early introduction of water and complementary foods was a problem. Forty recipes for improved dishes, including puddings, drinks and juices, purees, salads, and soups, were proposed. The nutritional values of the 10 most nutritious of these recipes, the types and quantities of the ingredients, and the method of preparation of each recipe are described. Locally produced indigenous foods in rural Mali were used to develop energy- and nutrient-dense complementary foods for children. Further research is needed to test the short- and long-term effects of consuming these dishes on the nutritional status of children 6 to 23 months of age in Mali.

  5. Value-informed space systems design and acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Joy

    Investments in space systems are substantial, indivisible, and irreversible, characteristics that make them high-risk, especially when coupled with an uncertain demand environment. Traditional approaches to system design and acquisition, derived from a performance- or cost-centric mindset, incorporate little information about the spacecraft in relation to its environment and its value to its stakeholders. These traditional approaches, while appropriate in stable environments, are ill-suited for the current, distinctly uncertain, and rapidly changing technical and economic conditions; as such, they have to be revisited and adapted to the present context. This thesis proposes that in uncertain environments, decision-making with respect to space system design and acquisition should be value-based, or at a minimum value-informed. This research advances the value-centric paradigm by providing the theoretical basis, foundational frameworks, and supporting analytical tools for value assessment of priced and unpriced space systems. For priced systems, stochastic models of the market environment and financial models of stakeholder preferences are developed and integrated with a spacecraft-sizing tool to assess the system's net present value. The analytical framework is applied to a case study of a communications satellite, with market, financial, and technical data obtained from the satellite operator, Intelsat. The case study investigates the implications of the value-centric versus the cost-centric design and acquisition choices. Results identify the ways in which value-optimal spacecraft design choices are contingent on both technical and market conditions, and that larger spacecraft for example, which reap economies of scale benefits, as reflected by their decreasing cost-per-transponder, are not always the best (most valuable) choices. Market conditions and technical constraints for which convergence occurs between design choices under a cost-centric and a value

  6. Information Technology and Value Creation in the Public Sector Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Min-Seok

    2011-01-01

    In this dissertation, I study the performance impact of information technology (IT) investments in the public sector. IT has been one of the key assets in public administration since the early MIS era. Even though the information systems (IS) discipline has witnessed a considerable amount of research efforts on the subject of IT business value for…

  7. Executive Enhance Business Value of BAL Information System

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Bilal; Muhammad Awais

    2012-01-01

    It has become gradually more complex to give more attention to the importance of business value of information system in the early hours of time. Above the past few days researchers have high lightened the requirement of information system in business field. Almost every organization and industry like electronics, textile, computer, health, education etc is investing appreciably in information system. It is generally observed that IS savings facilitate firms to achieve competitive benefit and...

  8. Social value of online information in the hotel industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraru Remus Christian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies show that public information can create social value, which reflects on the purpose of this paper in identifying information on the online environment of the hotel industry which can directly or indirectly create social value and ultimately a competitive edge. Privately owned, small and mid-sized hotels in Romania find themselves in competitive online environment and, as such, many of them cannot compete or don’t possess the know-how to compete within the online environment. With identifying the information shared on the hotels online environment and the capability of the information in creating social value, hotels can reevaluate their online strategies. The immediate objective of this paper is to analyze the websites of a sample of 99 small and mid-sized hotels in Romania and to identify critical information that can directly or indirectly create social value. Part of the objective is to draw a conclusion of the main differences on the information shared on the hotels website, which in terms will show where small and mid-sized hotels can improve their online content strategy with socially valuable information. Key findings reflect that Romanian hotels have a clear pattern across the country when it come to their online environment. However, there are serious deficiencies that can influence both economical results and the possibility of creating socially valuable information online. This work increases our understanding of the information shared on the hotels websites in Romania and comes with suggestions that hoteliers can apply in the future to increase the competitiveness and the social value of their online environment.

  9. Adaptive resource management and the value of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Breininger, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The value of information is a general and broadly applicable concept that has been used for several decades to aid in making decisions in the face of uncertainty. Yet there are relatively few examples of its use in ecology and natural resources management, and almost none that are framed in terms of the future impacts of management decisions. In this paper we discuss the value of information in a context of adaptive management, in which actions are taken sequentially over a timeframe and both future resource conditions and residual uncertainties about resource responses are taken into account. Our objective is to derive the value of reducing or eliminating uncertainty in adaptive decision making. We describe several measures of the value of information, with each based on management objectives that are appropriate for adaptive management. We highlight some mathematical properties of these measures, discuss their geometries, and illustrate them with an example in natural resources management. Accounting for the value of information can help to inform decisions about whether and how much to monitor resource conditions through time.

  10. CT-based texture analysis potentially provides prognostic information complementary to interim fdg-pet for patients with hodgkin's and aggressive non-hodgkin's lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganeshan, B.; Miles, K.A.; Shortman, R.; Afaq, A.; Ardeshna, K.M.; Groves, A.M.; Kayani, I.; Babikir, S.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) to provide additional prognostic information in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This retrospective, pilot-study approved by the IRB comprised 45 lymphoma patients undergoing routine 18F-FDG-PET-CT. Progression-free survival (PFS) was determined from clinical follow-up (mean-duration: 40 months; range: 10-62 months). Non-contrast-enhanced low-dose CT images were submitted to CTTA comprising image filtration to highlight features of different sizes followed by histogram-analysis using kurtosis. Prognostic value of CTTA was compared to PET FDG-uptake value, tumour-stage, tumour-bulk, lymphoma-type, treatment-regime, and interim FDG-PET (iPET) status using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis determined the independence of significantly prognostic imaging and clinical features. A total of 27 patients had aggressive NHL and 18 had HL. Mean PFS was 48.5 months. There was no significant difference in pre-treatment CTTA between the lymphoma sub-types. Kaplan-Meier analysis found pre-treatment CTTA (medium feature scale, p=0.010) and iPET status (p<0.001) to be significant predictors of PFS. Cox analysis revealed that an interaction between pre-treatment CTTA and iPET status was the only independent predictor of PFS (HR: 25.5, 95% CI: 5.4-120, p<0.001). Specifically, pre-treatment CTTA risk stratified patients with negative iPET. CTTA can potentially provide prognostic information complementary to iPET for patients with HL and aggressive NHL. (orig.)

  11. Smart health community: the hidden value of health information exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciriello, James N; Kulatilaka, Nalin

    2010-12-01

    Investments in health information technology are accelerating the digitization of medicine. The value from these investments, however, can grow beyond efficiencies by filling the information gaps between the various stakeholders. New work processes, governance structures, and relationships are needed for the coevolution of healthcare markets and business models. But coevolution is slow, hindered by the scarcity of incentives for legacy delivery systems and constrained by the prevailing patient-healthcare paradigm. The greater opportunity lies in wellness for individuals, families, communities, and society at large: a consumer-community paradigm. Capturing new value from this opportunity can start with investment in health information exchange and the creation of Smart Health Communities. By shifting the focus of exchange from public servant to value-added service provider, these communities can serve as a platform for a wider array of wellness services from consumer care, traditional healthcare, and research.

  12. Estimation of Monetary Value of Information on the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nazari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research estimates the monetary value of internet information for each type of information and services by using Hedonic pricing method. The statistic social of this research is high-speed internet users in Tehran. Based on the results, high speed internet users of Tehran consider a positive monetary value for some information types in the internet, in descendent respect, such as film downloading, gaming, News, social network, and music. Also, the results indicates that people with higher education level and people who are subscribed to high speed internet earlier than other people consider more monetary value to use the internet. For generalizing the result of this research, it’s suggested to do this research at other cities of Iran. At last, some applicable suggestions made.

  13. High value of ecological information for river connectivity restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Suresh; O'Hanley, Jesse R.; Gerken, Jonathon; Ashline, Joshua; Bradley, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    ContextEfficient restoration of longitudinal river connectivity relies on barrier mitigation prioritization tools that incorporate stream network spatial structure to maximize ecological benefits given limited resources. Typically, ecological benefits of barrier mitigation are measured using proxies such as the amount of accessible riverine habitat.ObjectivesWe developed an optimization approach for barrier mitigation planning which directly incorporates the ecology of managed taxa, and applied it to an urbanizing salmon-bearing watershed in Alaska.MethodsA novel river connectivity metric that exploits information on the distribution and movement of managed taxon was embedded into a barrier prioritization framework to identify optimal mitigation actions given limited restoration budgets. The value of ecological information on managed taxa was estimated by comparing costs to achieve restoration targets across alternative barrier prioritization approaches.ResultsBarrier mitigation solutions informed by life history information outperformed those using only river connectivity proxies, demonstrating high value of ecological information for watershed restoration. In our study area, information on salmon ecology was typically valued at 0.8–1.2 M USD in costs savings to achieve a given benefit level relative to solutions derived only from stream network information, equating to 16–28% of the restoration budget.ConclusionsInvesting in ecological studies may achieve win–win outcomes of improved understanding of aquatic ecology and greater watershed restoration efficiency.

  14. Leverage, Asymmetric Information, Firm Value, and Cash Holdings in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldea Mita Cheryta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effect of leverage and asymmetry information on the firm value through cash holding as mediation variable. The populations of this research were all the firms which listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange since 2012 – 2015. A sample of this research was saturated sample and census, consisted 56 firms related the population criteria.  This research used secondary data from the firm financial report through path analysis method. This research showed that leverage had a negative effect on the cash holdings, asymmetry information had a negative effect on the firm value through cash holding, and cash holding had a negative effect on the firm value.  With leverage and effect on cash, holding cannot affect the firm value, due to investor risk-averse, investor risk seeker, and neutral investor has their own point of view in assessing the company. Cash holdings can lead to asymmetric information that can lead to agency conflict that can affect a company's performance, so that indirectly, with the existence of asymmetry information had an effect on the declining the firm value

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Value of Information in a Continuous Time Market Model with Partial Information: The Cases of Log-Utility and CRRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaojun Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the question what value an agent in a generalized Black-Scholes model with partial information attributes to the complementary information. To do this, we study the utility maximization problems from terminal wealth for the two cases partial information and full information. We assume that the drift term of the risky asset is a dynamic process of general linear type and that the two levels of observation correspond to whether this drift term is observable or not. Applying methods from stochastic filtering theory we derive an analytical tractable formula for the value of information in the case of logarithmic utility. For the case of constant relative risk aversion (CRRA we derive a semianalytical formula, which uses as an input the numerical solution of a system of ODEs. For both cases we present a comparative analysis.

  16. The Value of Information - Accounting for a New Geospatial Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J.; Coote, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    A new frontier in consideration of socio-economic benefit is valuing information as an asset, often referred to as Infonomics. Conventional financial practice does not easily provide a mechanism for valuing information and yet clearly for many of the largest corporations, such as Google and Facebook, it is their principal asset. This is exacerbated for public sector organizations, as those that information-centric rather than information-enabled are relatively few - statistics, archiving and mapping agencies are perhaps the only examples - so it's not at the top of the agenda for Government. However, it is a hugely important issue when valuing Geospatial data and information. Geospatial data allows public institutions to operate, and facilitates the provision of essential services for emergency response and national defense. In this respect, geospatial data is strongly analogous to other types of public infrastructure, such as utilities and roads. The use of Geospatial data is widespread from companies in the transportation or construction sectors to individual planning for daily events. The categorization of geospatial data as infrastructure is critical to decisions related to investment in its management, maintenance and upgrade over time. Geospatial data depreciates in the same way that physical infrastructure depreciates. It needs to be maintained otherwise its functionality and value in use declines. We have coined the term geo-infonomics to encapsulate the concept. This presentation will develop the arguments around its importance and current avenues of research.

  17. Information Superiority and Game Theory: The Value of Varying Levels of Information

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McIntosh, Gary

    2002-01-01

    .... This thesis examines how various levels of information and information superiority affect strategy choices and decision-making in determining the payoff value for opposing forces in a classic zero-sum two-sided contest...

  18. Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anckar, Bill

    1999-01-01

    Anckar, B. (1999), ?Virtual Travel Agencies - Tourist Value through Travel Information Systems?. IAMSR Research Report 5/99. Institute for Advanced Management Systems Research, ?bo Akademi University. As electronic commerce enables the tourist service providers to sell their products directly to the consumer, travel agencies are faced with the imminent threat of being by-passed in the travel industry chain in the information age. This paper suggests that virtual travel agencies can compete su...

  19. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie van der Walt; Tanya du Plessis

    2010-01-01

    Background: The success of organisations relies on various factors including the ability of its multi-generational workforce to collaborate within the interactive information society. By developing an awareness of the different values of a diverse workforce, organisations may benefit from diversity. Various diversity factors, such as ethnicity, age and gender, impact on the way people interact, especially in the interactive information society.Objectives: This article advocates the need for g...

  20. Economic Assessment of the Use Value of Geospatial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bernknopf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data inform decision makers. An economic model that involves application of spatial and temporal scientific, technical, and economic data in decision making is described. The value of information (VOI contained in geospatial data is the difference between the net benefits (in present value terms of a decision with and without the information. A range of technologies is used to collect and distribute geospatial data. These technical activities are linked to examples that show how the data can be applied in decision making, which is a cultural activity. The economic model for assessing the VOI in geospatial data for decision making is applied to three examples: (1 a retrospective model about environmental regulation of agrochemicals; (2 a prospective model about the impact and mitigation of earthquakes in urban areas; and (3 a prospective model about developing private–public geospatial information for an ecosystem services market. Each example demonstrates the potential value of geospatial information in a decision with uncertain information.

  1. Advanced empirical estimate of information value for credit scoring models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Řezáč

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Credit scoring, it is a term for a wide spectrum of predictive models and their underlying techniques that aid financial institutions in granting credits. These methods decide who will get credit, how much credit they should get, and what further strategies will enhance the profitability of the borrowers to the lenders. Many statistical tools are avaiable for measuring quality, within the meaning of the predictive power, of credit scoring models. Because it is impossible to use a scoring model effectively without knowing how good it is, quality indexes like Gini, Kolmogorov-Smirnov statisic and Information value are used to assess quality of given credit scoring model. The paper deals primarily with the Information value, sometimes called divergency. Commonly it is computed by discretisation of data into bins using deciles. One constraint is required to be met in this case. Number of cases have to be nonzero for all bins. If this constraint is not fulfilled there are some practical procedures for preserving finite results. As an alternative method to the empirical estimates one can use the kernel smoothing theory, which allows to estimate unknown densities and consequently, using some numerical method for integration, to estimate value of the Information value. The main contribution of this paper is a proposal and description of the empirical estimate with supervised interval selection. This advanced estimate is based on requirement to have at least k, where k is a positive integer, observations of socres of both good and bad client in each considered interval. A simulation study shows that this estimate outperform both the empirical estimate using deciles and the kernel estimate. Furthermore it shows high dependency on choice of the parameter k. If we choose too small value, we get overestimated value of the Information value, and vice versa. Adjusted square root of number of bad clients seems to be a reasonable compromise.

  2. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Maggie; Shaw, Alison; Thompson, Elizabeth A; Falk, Stephen; Turton, Pat; Thompson, Trevor; Sharp, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is increasingly popular with cancer patients and yet information provision or discussion about CAM by health professionals remains low. Previous research suggests that patients may fear clinicians' 'disapproval' if they raise the subject of CAM, and turn to other sources to acquire information about CAM. However, little empirical research has been conducted into how cancer patients acquire, and, more importantly evaluate CAM information before deciding which CAM therapies to try. Methods Qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 43 male cancer patients of varying ages, cancer type and stage of illness, 34 of whom had used CAM. They were recruited from a range of NHS and non-NHS settings in Bristol, England. Results As a result of the lack of CAM information from health professionals, men in this study became either 'pro-active seekers' or 'passive recipients' of such information. Their main information resource was the 'lay referral' network of family, friends and acquaintances, especially females. 'Traditional' information sources, including books, magazines, leaflets and the media were popular, more so in fact than the internet. Views on the internet ranged from enthusiasm or healthy scepticism through to caution or disinterest. CAM information was generally regarded as 'empowering' as it broadened treatment and self-care options. A minority of participants were information averse fearing additional choices that might disrupt their fragile ability to cope. There was general consensus that CAM information should be available via the NHS, to give it a 'stamp of approval', which combined with guidance from informed health professionals, could help patients to make 'guided' choices. However, a small minority of these men valued the independence of CAM from the NHS and deliberately sought 'alternative' information sources and treatment options. Men were selective in identifying particular

  3. Simulating cyber warfare and cyber defenses: information value considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stytz, Martin R.; Banks, Sheila B.

    2011-06-01

    Simulating cyber warfare is critical to the preparation of decision-makers for the challenges posed by cyber attacks. Simulation is the only means we have to prepare decision-makers for the inevitable cyber attacks upon the information they will need for decision-making and to develop cyber warfare strategies and tactics. Currently, there is no theory regarding the strategies that should be used to achieve objectives in offensive or defensive cyber warfare, and cyber warfare occurs too rarely to use real-world experience to develop effective strategies. To simulate cyber warfare by affecting the information used for decision-making, we modify the information content of the rings that are compromised during in a decision-making context. The number of rings affected and value of the information that is altered (i.e., the closeness of the ring to the center) is determined by the expertise of the decision-maker and the learning outcome(s) for the simulation exercise. We determine which information rings are compromised using the probability that the simulated cyber defenses that protect each ring can be compromised. These probabilities are based upon prior cyber attack activity in the simulation exercise as well as similar real-world cyber attacks. To determine which information in a compromised "ring" to alter, the simulation environment maintains a record of the cyber attacks that have succeeded in the simulation environment as well as the decision-making context. These two pieces of information are used to compute an estimate of the likelihood that the cyber attack can alter, destroy, or falsify each piece of information in a compromised ring. The unpredictability of information alteration in our approach adds greater realism to the cyber event. This paper suggests a new technique that can be used for cyber warfare simulation, the ring approach for modeling context-dependent information value, and our means for considering information value when assigning cyber

  4. Value Assessment Frameworks for HTA Agencies: The Organization of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltussen, Rob; Jansen, Maarten Paul Maria; Bijlmakers, Leon; Grutters, Janneke; Kluytmans, Anouck; Reuzel, Rob P; Tummers, Marcia; der Wilt, Gert Jan van

    2017-02-01

    Priority setting in health care has been long recognized as an intrinsically complex and value-laden process. Yet, health technology assessment agencies (HTAs) presently employ value assessment frameworks that are ill fitted to capture the range and diversity of stakeholder values and thereby risk compromising the legitimacy of their recommendations. We propose "evidence-informed deliberative processes" as an alternative framework with the aim to enhance this legitimacy. This framework integrates two increasingly popular and complementary frameworks for priority setting: multicriteria decision analysis and accountability for reasonableness. Evidence-informed deliberative processes are, on one hand, based on early, continued stakeholder deliberation to learn about the importance of relevant social values. On the other hand, they are based on rational decision-making through evidence-informed evaluation of the identified values. The framework has important implications for how HTA agencies should ideally organize their processes. First, HTA agencies should take the responsibility of organizing stakeholder involvement. Second, agencies are advised to integrate their assessment and appraisal phases, allowing for the timely collection of evidence on values that are considered relevant. Third, HTA agencies should subject their decision-making criteria to public scrutiny. Fourth, agencies are advised to use a checklist of potentially relevant criteria and to provide argumentation for how each criterion affected the recommendation. Fifth, HTA agencies must publish their argumentation and install options for appeal. The framework should not be considered a blueprint for HTA agencies but rather an aspirational goal-agencies can take incremental steps toward achieving this goal. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Value of RFID Technology Enabled Information to Manage Perishables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E. Ketzenberg (Michael); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe address the value of RFID technology enabled information to manage perishables in the context of a supplier that sells a random lifetime product subject to stochastic demand and lost sales. The product's lifetime is largely determined by the time and temperature history in the supply

  6. Resilience of System by Value of Information and SHM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miragliaa, S.; Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Thöns, S.

    2017-01-01

    infrastructure systems. In response to this challenge, the present contribution puts forwards a novel approach, taking basis in the concept of value of information analysis from Bayesian pre posterior decision analysis. Utilizing a principal model framework we show how the proposed approach is implemented...

  7. Resilience of systems by value of information and SHM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miraglia, Simona; Faber, Michael H.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    infrastructure systems. In response to this challenge, the present contribution puts forwards a novel approach, taking basis in the concept of value of information analysis from Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis. Utilizing a principal model framework we show how the proposed approach is implemented...

  8. Value of information in closed-loop reservoir managment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, E.G.D.; Van den Hof, P.M.J.; Jansen, J.D.

    This paper proposes a new methodology to perform value of information (VOI) analysis within a closed-loop reservoir management (CLRM) framework. The workflow combines tools such as robust optimization and history matching in an environment of uncertainty characterization. The approach is illustrated

  9. Valuing Informal Care Experience: Does Choice of Measure Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzakis, Emmanouil; McNamee, Paul; Ryan, Mandy; Sutton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Well-being equations are often estimated to generate monetary values for non-marketed activities. In such studies, utility is often approximated by either life satisfaction or General Health Questionnaire scores. We estimate and compare monetary valuations of informal care for the first time in the UK employing both measures, using longitudinal…

  10. The value of pathogen information in treating clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L.; Kristensen, Anders R.; Hertl, Julia A.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Tauer, Loren W.; Welcome, Frank L.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the

  11. The value of pathogen information in treating clinical mastitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L.; Kristensen, Anders R.; Hertl, Julia A.; Schukken, Ynte H.; Tauer, Loren W.; Welcome, Frank L.; Gröhn, Yrjö T.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen

  12. Exploring consumer values of comparative performance information for hospital choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, N.A.B.M.; Faber, M.J.; Westert, G.P.; Elwyn, G.; Braspenning, J.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many countries, market orientation in healthcare has resulted in the publication of comparative performance information (CPI). Most of the research in this field is oriented towards the content and the presentation format of CPI while little is known about how consumers value CPI and

  13. Value of digital information networks : A holonic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madureira, A.J.P.S.

    2011-01-01

    The extraordinary level of interest worldwide in Digital Information Networks (DINs)’ deployment is due to the strong perception that they bring economic, social and environmental value. However, scientific attempts to evidence this perception lead to speculative, elusive or limited conclusions. In

  14. IT Business Value Model for Information Intensive Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Gastaud Maçada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have highlighted the capacity Information Technology (IT has for generating value for organizations. Investments in IT made by organizations have increased each year. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to analyze the IT Business Value for Information Intensive Organizations (IIO - e.g. banks, insurance companies and securities brokers. The research method consisted of a survey that used and combined the models from Weill and Broadbent (1998 and Gregor, Martin, Fernandez, Stern and Vitale (2006. Data was gathered using an adapted instrument containing 5 dimensions (Strategic, Informational, Transactional, Transformational and Infra-structure with 27 items. The instrument was refined by employing statistical techniques such as Exploratory and Confirmatory Factorial Analysis through Structural Equations (first and second order Model Measurement. The final model is composed of four factors related to IT Business Value: Strategic, Informational, Transactional and Transformational, arranged in 15 items. The dimension Infra-structure was excluded during the model refinement process because it was discovered during interviews that managers were unable to perceive it as a distinct dimension of IT Business Value.

  15. Firm-specific information, analysts’ superiority and investment value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Li; Erjia; Yang; Tusheng; Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese security analysts’recommendations from 2005 to2010,we examine the source of analysts’superiority and the investment value of their recommendations.Using a calendar-time portfolio approach,we find that,on average,analysts’recommendations are valuable and that analysts are better at analyzing and transferring firm-specific information than market-wide or industry-level information.In addition,we show that the investment value of recommendations increases as firm-specific information becomes more important in stock pricing.Our empirical results are useful in guiding investors and helping brokerage houses to evaluate the output of research departments.

  16. The value of information in electricity investment games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we look at the assumptions behind a Cournot model of investment in electricity markets. We analyze how information influences investment, looking at the way common knowledge of marginal costs, expectations on the competitors' marginal costs, expectations on the level and duration of demand, and conjectures on the others' behavior, influence the value of a project. We expose how the results are highly dependent on the assumptions used, and how the investment Nash-Cournot game with perfect and complete information implies such a degree of coordination between players that the outcome of the game would be classified by any regulation law as collusive behavior. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of Nash Value of Complete Information. As an example we use a stylized model of investment in liberalized electricity markets

  17. The value of pathogen information in treating clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Elva; Smith, Rebecca L; Kristensen, Anders R; Hertl, Julia A; Schukken, Ynte H; Tauer, Loren W; Welcome, Frank L; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the economic value of obtaining timely and more accurate clinical mastitis (CM) test results for optimal treatment of cows. Typically CM is first identified when the farmer observes recognisable outward signs. Further information of whether the pathogen causing CM is Gram-positive, Gram-negative or other (including no growth) can be determined by using on-farm culture methods. The most detailed level of information for mastitis diagnostics is obtainable by sending milk samples for culture to an external laboratory. Knowing the exact pathogen permits the treatment method to be specifically targeted to the causation pathogen, resulting in less discarded milk. The disadvantages are the additional waiting time to receive test results, which delays treating cows, and the cost of the culture test. Net returns per year (NR) for various levels of information were estimated using a dynamic programming model. The Value of Information (VOI) was then calculated as the difference in NR using a specific level of information as compared to more detailed information on the CM causative agent. The highest VOI was observed where the farmer assumed the pathogen causing CM was the one with the highest incidence in the herd and no pathogen specific CM information was obtained. The VOI of pathogen specific information, compared with non-optimal treatment of Staphylococcus aureus where recurrence and spread occurred due to lack of treatment efficacy, was $20.43 when the same incorrect treatment was applied to recurrent cases, and $30.52 when recurrent cases were assumed to be the next highest incidence pathogen and treated accordingly. This indicates that negative consequences associated with choosing the wrong CM treatment can make additional information cost-effective if pathogen identification is assessed at the generic information level and if the pathogen can spread to other cows if not treated appropriately.

  18. The Value of Information for Populations in Varying Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoire, Olivier; Leibler, Stanislas

    2011-04-01

    The notion of information pervades informal descriptions of biological systems, but formal treatments face the problem of defining a quantitative measure of information rooted in a concept of fitness, which is itself an elusive notion. Here, we present a model of population dynamics where this problem is amenable to a mathematical analysis. In the limit where any information about future environmental variations is common to the members of the population, our model is equivalent to known models of financial investment. In this case, the population can be interpreted as a portfolio of financial assets and previous analyses have shown that a key quantity of Shannon's communication theory, the mutual information, sets a fundamental limit on the value of information. We show that this bound can be violated when accounting for features that are irrelevant in finance but inherent to biological systems, such as the stochasticity present at the individual level. This leads us to generalize the measures of uncertainty and information usually encountered in information theory.

  19. Cascading value: the true value of advanced data collection solutions can be found in the information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Utilities and other energy related businesses are still trying to find the right gear on the road to realizing the full value potential of the information they collect and manage. The energy industry as a whole has yet to discover the true value of a commodity that is very available in its own backyard, while other companies have done so. By deploying advanced technology, energy related companies are able to collect advanced metering information and put it to use in ways never imagined a decade two or ago. Utilities and their clients can use this information to run their businesses more efficiently or market new valued added products and services to customers. The best vantage point from which to understand and appreciate the new value proposition for meter data and energy use information is to divide the meter into two parts: the client side and the utility side. Breaking it down even further, each side presents two areas of opportunity: the first of which covers applications and practices which enable a utility or client to manage itself better as a business, while the second area covers opportunities to develop and market new services to clients. An account is given of these areas and of how utilizing advanced data collection technology to gather daily, interval and off-schedule reads, along with outage and power quality data, can dramatically extend and increase the value of meter data they collect. By collecting sophisticated energy use data more frequently and efficiently than ever before, today's data collection solutions have transformed this value proposition into bottom-line reality

  20. The value of health information technology: filling the knowledge gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudin, Robert S; Jones, Spencer S; Shekelle, Paul; Hillestad, Richard J; Keeler, Emmett B

    2014-11-01

    Despite rapid growth in the rate of adoption of health information technology (HIT), and in the volume of evaluation studies, the existing knowledge base for the value of HIT is not advancing at a similar rate. Most evaluation articles are limited in that they use incomplete measures of value and fail to report the important contextual and implementation characteristics that would allow for an adequate understanding of how the study results were achieved. To address these deficiencies, we present a conceptual framework for measuring HIT value and we propose a checklist of characteristics that should be considered in HIT evaluation studies. The framework consists of 3 key principles: 1) value includes both costs and benefits; 2) value accrues over time; and 3) value depends on which stakeholder's perspective is used. Through examples, we show how these principles can be used to guide and improve HIT evaluation studies. The checklist includes a list of contextual and implementation characteristics that are important for interpretation of results. These improvements will make future studies more useful for policy makers and more relevant to the current needs of the healthcare system.

  1. Value of information-based inspection planning for offshore structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irman, Arifian Agusta; Thöns, Sebastian; Leira, Bernt J.

    2017-01-01

    with each inspection strategy. A simplified and generic risk-based inspection planning utilizing pre- posterior Bayesian decision analysis had been proposed by Faber et al. [1] and Straub [2]. This paper provides considerations on the theoretical background and a Value of Information analysis......-based inspection planning. The paper will start out with a review of the state-of-art RBI planning procedure based on Bayesian decision theory and its application in offshore structure integrity management. An example of the Value of Information approach is illustrated and it is pointed to further research......Asset integrity and management is an important part of the oil and gas industry especially for existing offshore structures. With declining oil price, the production rate is an important factor to be maintained that makes integrity of the structures one of the main concerns. Reliability based...

  2. An upper echelons perspective on information technology business value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando López-Muñoz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that information technology (IT outcomes are more valuable to companies when their top management team (TMT moves from flirting with IT to marriage. Previous research has demonstrated an association between top management support (TMS and IT value. We extend the concept of TMS with the imbrication metaphor to define the construct of TMT-IT imbrication, which allows us to account for a tighter and continuous entwining of the TMT and IT to create IT value. Our definition of the TMT-IT imbrication construct embraces four dimensions: involvement, participation, attention, and use. In addition, with the support of upper echelons (UE theory, we explore certain managerial traits, competences, and team processes that may be antecedents of this imbrication. As a result, our work provides a variance model and various propositions rooted in the logic of UE that contribute to research on IT business value.

  3. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  4. Valuing attributes of enhanced traffic information: an experience in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Basu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the traffic information considers a single item like travel time or delay. In the present work, enhanced traffic information displaying instantaneous travel time and its variation from the previous interval to the present, is considered. An initial investigation is made on the effectiveness of such traffic information on route choice behavior of trip makers by valuation of attributes of the traffic information. Taking a case study of two urban corridors in the Kolkata metro city, India, the valuation is done separately for private car and taxi trip makers. The stated preference (choice based data collected from trip makers are analyzed using both multinomial logit (MNL and mixed logit (ML modeling techniques. Assuming sparsely used constrained triangular distribution of random parameters, two different types of ML model are developed: one with independent choice sets and the other one by accounting heterogeneity around the mean of random parameter(s. Both family income and trip purpose are found to decompose heterogeneity around the mean estimate(s. The values of travel time and their variation presented in the paper encourage further investigation on such type of traffic information for management of congestion on alternative urban corridors both spatially and temporally.

  5. Forecasting Value-at-Risk Using High-Frequency Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyu Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available in the prediction of quantiles of daily Standard&Poor’s 500 (S&P 500 returns we consider how to use high-frequency 5-minute data. We examine methods that incorporate the high frequency information either indirectly, through combining forecasts (using forecasts generated from returns sampled at different intraday interval, or directly, through combining high frequency information into one model. We consider subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging methods for the indirect case, and factor models with principal component approach, for both direct and indirect cases. We show that in forecasting the daily S&P 500 index return quantile (Value-at-Risk or VaR is simply the negative of it, using high-frequency information is beneficial, often substantially and particularly so, in forecasting downside risk. Our empirical results show that the averaging methods (subsample averaging, bootstrap averaging, forecast averaging, which serve as different ways of forming the ensemble average from using high-frequency intraday information, provide an excellent forecasting performance compared to using just low-frequency daily information.

  6. Impact of Non Accounting Information on The Value Relevance of Accounting Information: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DHIAA SHAMKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents empirical evidence about the impact of firm’s shareholders number as non accounting information on the value relevance of its earnings and book value of equity as accounting information for Jordanian industrial firms for the period from 1993 to 2002. Employing the return regression analysis and using shareholders number in two proxies namely local and foreign shareholders number, the findings of the study are fourfold. First, Individual earnings are value relevant while book value is irrelevant. Second, combining earnings with book value leads both of them to be irrelevant. Third, extending local shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual and combined earnings. Forth, extending foreign shareholders number has significant impact on the value relevance of individual book value and combined earnings. Since studies on the value relevance of these variables have neglected Jordan (and the Middle Eastern region, the study is the first especially in Jordan that tries to fill this gap by examiningthe impact of shareholders numbers on the value relevance of earnings and book valueto indicate firm value.

  7. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, K.W.

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper

  8. Measuring the strategic value of information technology investments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, K.W. [Boeing Computer Services Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    Value is often perceived differently by the proponents of new information technologies and those who allocate resources and define priorities. Such differences often become a roadblock to meeting true business needs. Project justifications regularly rely on calculated cost savings, which rarely measure the full benefit of new technologies. In fact, if cost savings provide a complete picture, then the organization is probably just automating routine clerical operations and has abandoned efforts that would provide significant strategic value. Strategic value is not limited to financial calculations, but includes quality, time and risk criteria. This paper describes approaches for measuring strategic value that can provide organizations with proven techniques to improve performance, reengineer processes, benchmark performance against other suppliers, identify outsourcing opportunities, or defend themselves from pressures to outsource. Many organizations respond to tightening budgets by cutting overhead. These measurement approaches can demonstrate how overhead is critical to organizational effectiveness and how cost savings can be found, instead, by measurably improving performance throughout the organization. Finally, the paper describes efforts underway within the Department of Energy and at the Hanford Site to implement the approaches described in this paper.

  9. Considering value of information when using CFD in design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, John Satprim [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents an approach to find lower resolution CFD models that can accurately lead a designer to a correct decision at a lower computational cost. High-fidelity CFD models often contain too much information and come at a higher computational cost, limiting the designs a designer can test and how much optimization can be performed on the design. Lower model resolution is commonly used to reduce computational time. However there are no clear guidelines on how much model accuracy is required. Instead experience and intuition are used to select an appropriate lower resolution model. This thesis presents an alternative to this ad hoc method by considering the added value of the addition information provided by increasing accurate and more computationally expensive models.

  10. Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Research. Information. Outreach. The Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) was established in October 1998 to coordinate ... National Cancer Institute (NCI) in the arena of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). More about us. CAM at the NCI ...

  11. BASED COMPLEMENTARY FOODS USING GERMINAT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2010-08-08

    Aug 8, 2010 ... Malnutrition affects physical growth, morbidity, mortality, cognitive development, reproduction, and ... malnutrition. Development of complementary foods is guided by nutritional value, acceptability, availability and affordability of raw materials, and simplicity of food processing ... (Memmert, Germany) at 55. 0.

  12. Intuitive theories of information: beliefs about the value of redundancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soll, J B

    1999-03-01

    In many situations, quantity estimates from multiple experts or diagnostic instruments must be collected and combined. Normatively, and all else equal, one should value information sources that are nonredundant, in the sense that correlation in forecast errors should be minimized. Past research on the preference for redundancy has been inconclusive. While some studies have suggested that people correctly place higher value on uncorrelated inputs when collecting estimates, others have shown that people either ignore correlation or, in some cases, even prefer it. The present experiments show that the preference for redundancy depends on one's intuitive theory of information. The most common intuitive theory identified is the Error Tradeoff Model (ETM), which explicitly distinguishes between measurement error and bias. According to ETM, measurement error can only be averaged out by consulting the same source multiple times (normatively false), and bias can only be averaged out by consulting different sources (normatively true). As a result, ETM leads people to prefer redundant estimates when the ratio of measurement error to bias is relatively high. Other participants favored different theories. Some adopted the normative model, while others were reluctant to mathematically average estimates from different sources in any circumstance. In a post hoc analysis, science majors were more likely than others to subscribe to the normative model. While tentative, this result lends insight into how intuitive theories might develop and also has potential ramifications for how statistical concepts such as correlation might best be learned and internalized. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. On valuing information in adaptive-management models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alana L; McCarthy, Michael A

    2010-08-01

    Active adaptive management looks at the benefit of using strategies that may be suboptimal in the near term but may provide additional information that will facilitate better management in the future. In many adaptive-management problems that have been studied, the optimal active and passive policies (accounting for learning when designing policies and designing policy on the basis of current best information, respectively) are very similar. This seems paradoxical; when faced with uncertainty about the best course of action, managers should spend very little effort on actively designing programs to learn about the system they are managing. We considered two possible reasons why active and passive adaptive solutions are often similar. First, the benefits of learning are often confined to the particular case study in the modeled scenario, whereas in reality information gained from local studies is often applied more broadly. Second, management objectives that incorporate the variance of an estimate may place greater emphasis on learning than more commonly used objectives that aim to maximize an expected value. We explored these issues in a case study of Merri Creek, Melbourne, Australia, in which the aim was to choose between two options for revegetation. We explicitly incorporated monitoring costs in the model. The value of the terminal rewards and the choice of objective both influenced the difference between active and passive adaptive solutions. Explicitly considering the cost of monitoring provided a different perspective on how the terminal reward and management objective affected learning. The states for which it was optimal to monitor did not always coincide with the states in which active and passive adaptive management differed. Our results emphasize that spending resources on monitoring is only optimal when the expected benefits of the options being considered are similar and when the pay-off for learning about their benefits is large.

  14. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van der Walt

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The success of organisations relies on various factors including the ability of its multi-generational workforce to collaborate within the interactive information society. By developing an awareness of the different values of a diverse workforce, organisations may benefit from diversity. Various diversity factors, such as ethnicity, age and gender, impact on the way people interact, especially in the interactive information society.Objectives: This article advocates the need for generational awareness and addresses how this awareness presents benefits to companies, such as, increased productivity, improved succession planning policies and strategies to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. The research problem is directed at how diversity management influences Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in terms of their work performance and co-worker relationships.Method: The research design combines Critical Theory and Generational Theory within the mixed-method paradigm. The sequential exploratory design was decided upon as it studies the unknown relationships between different generations of employees. The literature review was followed by a quantitative empirical research component and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The findings highlight specific differences between generations regarding their perspectives on work values and co-worker relationships, rewards, work-life balance and retirement.Conclusion: The article concludes with recommendations on the role diversity management plays in terms of work performance and co-worker relationships. By leveraging generational awareness in the interactive information society organizations with a multi-generational workforce will succeed in the competitive business environment.

  15. Alignment Effectiveness for Value Creation with Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina MITAMBO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Enterprises often face problems while executing business strategies to exploit opportunities or solve problems. Within enterprises, strategy blindness could be affected by mistranslation of strategic intent, flexibility of the information system, or cognitive entrenchment. The alignment between business strategy and business processes is a critical factor in the ability of enterprises to overcome the phenomenon. Opportunities for value creation include magnifying the positive spread in cash flow or pursuing growth opportunities. Information systems could greatly simplify the processes involved in business strategy by integrating process-related decision-making with the business strategy. Decision support tools such as knowledge management, decision strategy, decision content, and expert groups, customised for organisational information systems can help enterprises optimise operations in a variety of ways such as becoming more responsive to changing market conditions in hypercompetitive markets. Greatest opportunities for decision support are incorporating external sources of data such as economic data and user behaviour analytics. Benefits are more effective utilisation of resources, larger product portfolio, better product or service quality, and shorter delivery times.

  16. Norming a VALUE rubric to assess graduate information literacy skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbow, David J; Evener, Julie

    2016-07-01

    The study evaluated whether a modified version of the information literacy Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education (VALUE) rubric would be useful for assessing the information literacy skills of graduate health sciences students. Through facilitated calibration workshops, an interdepartmental six-person team of librarians and faculty engaged in guided discussion about the meaning of the rubric criteria. They applied the rubric to score student work for a peer-review essay assignment in the "Information Literacy for Evidence-Based Practice" course. To determine inter-rater reliability, the raters participated in a follow-up exercise in which they independently applied the rubric to ten samples of work from a research project in the doctor of physical therapy program: the patient case report assignment. For the peer-review essay, a high level of consistency in scoring was achieved for the second workshop, with statistically significant intra-class correlation coefficients above 0.8 for 3 criteria: "Determine the extent of evidence needed," "Use evidence effectively to accomplish a specific purpose," and "Access the needed evidence." Participants concurred that the essay prompt and rubric criteria adequately discriminated the quality of student work for the peer-review essay assignment. When raters independently scored the patient case report assignment, inter-rater agreement was low and statistically insignificant for all rubric criteria (kappa=-0.16, p>0.05-kappa=0.12, p>0.05). While the peer-review essay assignment lent itself well to rubric calibration, scorers had a difficult time with the patient case report. Lack of familiarity among some raters with the specifics of the patient case report assignment and subject matter might have accounted for low inter-rater reliability. When norming, it is important to hold conversations about search strategies and expectations of performance. Overall, the authors found the rubric to be appropriate for

  17. Quantifying the Value of Perfect Information in Emergency Vaccination Campaigns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi V Bradbury

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in non-endemic countries can lead to large economic costs and livestock losses but the use of vaccination has been contentious, partly due to uncertainty about emergency FMD vaccination. Value of information methods can be applied to disease outbreak problems such as FMD in order to investigate the performance improvement from resolving uncertainties. Here we calculate the expected value of resolving uncertainty about vaccine efficacy, time delay to immunity after vaccination and daily vaccination capacity for a hypothetical FMD outbreak in the UK. If it were possible to resolve all uncertainty prior to the introduction of control, we could expect savings of £55 million in outbreak cost, 221,900 livestock culled and 4.3 days of outbreak duration. All vaccination strategies were found to be preferable to a culling only strategy. However, the optimal vaccination radius was found to be highly dependent upon vaccination capacity for all management objectives. We calculate that by resolving the uncertainty surrounding vaccination capacity we would expect to return over 85% of the above savings, regardless of management objective. It may be possible to resolve uncertainty about daily vaccination capacity before an outbreak, and this would enable decision makers to select the optimal control action via careful contingency planning.

  18. Value of information and pricing new healthcare interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-06-01

    Previous application of value-of-information methods to optimal clinical trial design have predominantly taken a societal decision-making perspective, implicitly assuming that healthcare costs are covered through public expenditure and trial research is funded by government or donation-based philanthropic agencies. In this paper, we consider the interaction between interrelated perspectives of a societal decision maker (e.g. the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence [NICE] in the UK) charged with the responsibility for approving new health interventions for reimbursement and the company that holds the patent for a new intervention. We establish optimal decision making from societal and company perspectives, allowing for trade-offs between the value and cost of research and the price of the new intervention. Given the current level of evidence, there exists a maximum (threshold) price acceptable to the decision maker. Submission for approval with prices above this threshold will be refused. Given the current level of evidence and the decision maker's threshold price, there exists a minimum (threshold) price acceptable to the company. If the decision maker's threshold price exceeds the company's, then current evidence is sufficient since any price between the thresholds is acceptable to both. On the other hand, if the decision maker's threshold price is lower than the company's, then no price is acceptable to both and the company's optimal strategy is to commission additional research. The methods are illustrated using a recent example from the literature.

  19. Transmuted Complementary Weibull Geometric Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Z. A…fify

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a new generalization of the complementary Weibull geometric distribution that introduced by Tojeiro et al. (2014, using the quadratic rank transmutation map studied by Shaw and Buckley (2007. The new distribution is referred to as transmuted complementary Weibull geometric distribution (TCWGD. The TCWG distribution includes as special cases the complementary Weibull geometric distribution (CWGD, complementary exponential geometric distribution(CEGD,Weibull distribution (WD and exponential distribution (ED. Various structural properties of the new distribution including moments, quantiles, moment generating function and RØnyi entropy of the subject distribution are derived. We proposed the method of maximum likelihood for estimating the model parameters and obtain the observed information matrix. A real data set are used to compare the ‡exibility of the transmuted version versus the complementary Weibull geometric distribution.

  20. Ethnic differences in choices of health information by cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine: an exploratory study with correspondence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakai, Hisako; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Shumay, Dianne M; Tatsumura, Yvonne; Tasaki, Katsuya

    2003-02-01

    This study examined patterns in the use of health information among Caucasian, Japanese, and non-Japanese Asian Pacific Islander cancer patients in Hawaii and explored the relation of ethnicity and educational level to choices of health information sources. Information from 140 cancer patients, most of whom were users of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was analyzed using correspondence analysis. Three clusters of health information pertinent to the three ethnic groups emerged from the data. The results of this study revealed that Caucasian patients preferred objective, scientific, and updated information obtained through medical journals or newsletters from research institutions, telephone information services, and the internet. Japanese patients relied on media and commercial sources including television, newspapers, books, magazines and CAM providers. Non-Japanese Asians and Pacific Islanders used information sources involving person-to-person communication with their physicians, social groups, and other cancer patients. A higher educational level was closely related to a cluster of health information stressing objective, scientific and updated information, while a lower educational level was associated with interpersonally communicated information. The three ethnicity-specific patterns of health information use remained relatively stable at different educational levels, implying that the effect of patients' ethnicity overrides their educational level in shaping their choices of health information. The results of this study indicate the importance of recognizing cancer patients' culturally developed world views when understanding their health information-seeking behavior. For medical practice, these findings indicate the need for healthcare providers to assist cancer patients to obtain accurate health information in a culturally sensitive way.

  1. A Value Function Approach to Information Operations MOE's: A Preliminary Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doyle, Michael

    1997-01-01

    A value focused thinking approach is applied to information operations. A preliminary value hierarchy for information operations is constructed by extracting the values of senior military leadership from existing doctrine...

  2. The international regulation of Informal Value Transfer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Ajay Shah

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available After the 11th September 2001 attacks on the United States international attention quickly focused on the sources and methods of terrorist financing. Among the methods terrorists and other criminal actors use to transfer funds are Informal Value Transfer Systems (IVTS which operate either outside the formal financial sector, or through use of the formal financial sector, but without leaving a full record of the transaction. Though the vast majority of funds moved through IVTS are the earnings of migrant workers and immigrant communities, the lack of uniform worldwide regulation of IVTS provides ample opportunity for abuse and misuse. The international community primarily responded to IVTS concerns through the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, which issued a series of recommendations and best practices for states in regulating IVTS operations. While these recommendations are a secure beginning to regulation of IVTS operating within ethnic communities, they fail to address the more modern forms of IVTS that have come about in the post-Cold War globalised world. Comprehensive recommendations governing all types of IVTS, as well as concerted international cooperation and coordination are necessary to address this global phenomenon.

  3. Leveraging multi-generational workforce values in interactive information societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie van der Walt

    2010-11-01

    Objectives: This article advocates the need for generational awareness and addresses how this awareness presents benefits to companies, such as, increased productivity, improved succession planning policies and strategies to recruit and retain a diverse workforce. The research problem is directed at how diversity management influences Traditionalists, Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y in terms of their work performance and co-worker relationships. Method: The research design combines Critical Theory and Generational Theory within the mixed-method paradigm. The sequential exploratory design was decided upon as it studies the unknown relationships between different generations of employees. The literature review was followed by a quantitative empirical research component and data was collected by means of a questionnaire. Results: The findings highlight specific differences between generations regarding their perspectives on work values and co-worker relationships, rewards, work-life balance and retirement. Conclusion: The article concludes with recommendations on the role diversity management plays in terms of work performance and co-worker relationships. By leveraging generational awareness in the interactive information society organizations with a multi-generational workforce will succeed in the competitive business environment.

  4. Through Increasing "Information Literacy" Capital and Habitus (Agency): The Complementary Impact on Composition Skills When Appropriately Sequenced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karas, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Through a case study approach of a cohort of community college students at a single community college, the impact on success rates in composition courses was analyzed based on the sequence of completing an information literacy course. Two student cohorts were sampled based on completing an information literacy course prior to, or concurrently with…

  5. Information Resource Needs and Preference of Queensland General Practitioners on Complementary Medicines: Result of a Needs Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Janamian

    2011-01-01

    Participants. 463 completed surveys were returned, representing a 58% response rate. Results. The majority of GPs had a positive attitude about incorporating CMs in their clinical practice; however, only 12% perceived they had adequate knowledge to be able to advise patients about CMs. GPs most preferred evidence-based resources for receiving information on CMs (fact sheets, booklets, and journals that contain clinical, pharmacological, and toxicological information. Most GPs perceived a need for an information resource on herbal medicines, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements, and nutritional supplements. Conclusion. GPs are open to integrating CMs into their clinical practice. They identify a current lack of knowledge coupled with a substantive level of interest to learn more. GPs perceive a high level of need for information resources on CMs. These resources should be developed and readily available to GPs to increase their knowledge about CMs and better equip them in communicating with patients about CMs use.

  6. The Value of Sharing Information: A Neural Account of Information Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Elisa C; Scholz, Christin; O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B

    2017-07-01

    Humans routinely share information with one another. What drives this behavior? We used neuroimaging to test an account of information selection and sharing that emphasizes inherent reward in self-reflection and connecting with other people. Participants underwent functional MRI while they considered personally reading and sharing New York Times articles. Activity in neural regions involved in positive valuation, self-related processing, and taking the perspective of others was significantly associated with decisions to select and share articles, and scaled with preferences to do so. Activity in all three sets of regions was greater when participants considered sharing articles with other people rather than selecting articles to read themselves. The findings suggest that people may consider value not only to themselves but also to others even when selecting news articles to consume personally. Further, sharing heightens activity in these pathways, in line with our proposal that humans derive value from self-reflection and connecting to others via sharing.

  7. The value of information updating in new product development

    CERN Document Server

    Artmann, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how managing uncertainty in new product development can be improved by conducting an information update during the development process. The book details the comprehensive model needed to perform that information update.

  8. The value of information: Current challenges in surveillance implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärk, Katharina D C; Häsler, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    Animal health surveillance is a complex activity that involves multiple stakeholders and provides decision support across sectors. Despite progress in the design of surveillance systems, some technical challenges remain, specifically for emerging hazards. Surveillance can also be impacted by political interests and costly consequences of case reporting, particularly in relation to international trade. Constraints on surveillance can therefore be of technical, economic and political nature. From an economic perspective, both surveillance and intervention are resource-using activities that are part of a mitigation strategy. Surveillance provides information for intervention decisions and thereby helps to offset negative effects of animal disease and to reduce the decision uncertainty associated with choices on disease control. It thus creates monetary and non-monetary benefits, both of which may be challenging to quantify. The technical relationships between surveillance, intervention and loss avoidance have not been established for most hazards despite being important consideration for investment decisions. Therefore, surveillance cannot just be maximised to minimise intervention costs. Economic appraisals of surveillance need to be done on a case by case basis for any hazard considering both surveillance and intervention performance, the losses avoided and the values attached to them. This can be achieved by using an evaluation approach which provides a systematic investigation of the worth or merit of surveillance activities. Evaluation is driven by a specific evaluation question which for surveillance systems commonly considers effectiveness, efficiency, implementation and/or compliance issues. More work is needed to provide guidance on the appropriate selection of evaluation attributes and general good practice in surveillance evaluation. Due to technical challenges, economic constraints and variable levels of capacity, the implementation of surveillance systems

  9. The Diffusion and Value of Healthcare Information Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, Anthony G

    2006-01-01

    Through a series of interviews and database analyses, and an extensive literature review and synthesis, this report characterizes the diffusion of use of electronic health records and places a value on that diffusion.

  10. A study using virtual reality as a source of complementary information for nuclear medicine patients and its relatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, Sérgio F.; Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Mol, Antônio C.A.; Marins, Eugênio R.; Suíta, Júlio C., E-mail: sergio.f2014@hotmail.com, E-mail: acris@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.br, E-mail: eugenio@ien.gov.br, E-mail: suita@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This work consists in the research, analysis and unification of the guidelines transmitted to the patients and their relatives in the radioiodine therapy procedures. The goal is to provide greater understanding of the use of nuclear radiation and better understanding of treatment, to help patients better adapt to therapy, to demystify misconceptions about radiation use, and to improve care for their protection and for people close to them. Based on written and verbal information, collected in the scientific literature and in loco accompanying the routine of the therapeutic rooms of Nuclear Medicine Services in Rio de Janeiro, the set of actions that define scenarios experienced by radioiodine therapy patients and their helpers is being generated. Based on this information, a virtual environment is being developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN / CNEN), a virtual environment that will allow the visualization of the procedures and instructions passed to the patients by the SMN1 teams. With this virtual environment, the patient will be able to perform an immersive visualization and to experience the different phases of the treatment, increasing the chances of efficiency of their participation in the process. (author)

  11. A study using virtual reality as a source of complementary information for nuclear medicine patients and its relatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonça, Sérgio F.; Nascimento, Ana C.H.; Mol, Antônio C.A.; Marins, Eugênio R.; Suíta, Júlio C.

    2017-01-01

    This work consists in the research, analysis and unification of the guidelines transmitted to the patients and their relatives in the radioiodine therapy procedures. The goal is to provide greater understanding of the use of nuclear radiation and better understanding of treatment, to help patients better adapt to therapy, to demystify misconceptions about radiation use, and to improve care for their protection and for people close to them. Based on written and verbal information, collected in the scientific literature and in loco accompanying the routine of the therapeutic rooms of Nuclear Medicine Services in Rio de Janeiro, the set of actions that define scenarios experienced by radioiodine therapy patients and their helpers is being generated. Based on this information, a virtual environment is being developed in the Virtual Reality Laboratory of the Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN / CNEN), a virtual environment that will allow the visualization of the procedures and instructions passed to the patients by the SMN1 teams. With this virtual environment, the patient will be able to perform an immersive visualization and to experience the different phases of the treatment, increasing the chances of efficiency of their participation in the process. (author)

  12. Adding Value to Facilities Management with Information Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul

    2016-01-01

    This PhD project investigates implementation and use of Information Systems (IS) and Information Technologies (IT) in the Facilities management (FM) business domain. This investigation is relevant because implementation and use of IS/IT in FM has potentials for improvements which can provide...

  13. On the value of transparency and information acquisition in bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gehrig, T.; Güth, W.; Levínský, René

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 3 (2016), s. 337-358 ISSN 1465-6485 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : information acquisition * ultimatum experiment * transparency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.720, year: 2016

  14. Information Warfare, Cyber-Terrorism and Community Values

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Joe

    2002-01-01

    ... and interconnected global information infrastructure. These vulnerabilities, when exploited by those who would target civilians in order to inspire widespread fear in hopes of accomplishing a political agenda, can be understood as cyberterrorism...

  15. Lean-team effectiveness through leader values and members’ informing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dun, Desirée Hermina; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although empirical tests of effective lean-team leadership are scarce, leaders are often blamed when lean work-floor initiatives fail. In the present study, a lean-team leader’s work values are assumed to affect his or her team members’ behaviors and, through them, to attain team

  16. Value of information in natural resource management: technical developments and application to pink-footed geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Byron K.; Johnson, Fred A.

    2015-01-01

    The “value of information” (VOI) is a generic term for the increase in value resulting from better information to guide management, or alternatively, the value foregone under uncertainty about the impacts of management (Yokota and Thompson, Medical Decision Making 2004;24: 287). The value of information can be characterized in terms of several metrics, including the expected value of perfect information and the expected value of partial information. We extend the technical framework for the value of information by further developing the relationship between value metrics for partial and perfect information and describing patterns of their performance. We use two different expressions for the expected value of partial information to highlight its relationship to the expected value of perfect information. We also develop the expected value of partial information for hierarchical uncertainties. We highlight patterns in the value of information for the Svalbard population of the pink-footed goose (Anser brachyrhynchus), a population that is subject to uncertainty in both reproduction and survival functions. The framework for valuing information is seen as having widespread potential in resource decision making, and serves as a motivation for resource monitoring, assessment, and collaboration.

  17. Which components of health information technology will drive financial value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lisa M; Wilcox, Adam; Shapiro, Jason; Dhopeshwarkar, Rina V; Kaushal, Rainu

    2012-08-01

    The financial effects of electronic health records (EHRs) and health information exchange (HIE) are largely unknown, despite unprecedented federal incentives for their use. We sought to understand which components of EHRs and HIE are most likely to drive financial savings in the ambulatory, inpatient, and emergency department settings. Framework development and a national expert panel. We searched the literature to identify functionalities enabled by EHRs and HIE across the 3 healthcare settings. We rated each of 233 functionality-setting combinations on their likelihood of having a positive financial effect. We validated the top-scoring functionalities with a panel of 28 national experts, and we compared the high-scoring functionalities with Stage 1 meaningful use criteria. We identified 54 high-scoring functionality- setting combinations, 27 for EHRs and 27 for HIE. Examples of high-scoring functionalities included providing alerts for expensive medications, providing alerts for redundant lab orders, sending and receiving imaging reports, and enabling structured medication reconciliation. Of the 54 high-scoring functionalities, 25 (46%) are represented in Stage 1 meaningful use. Many of the functionalities not yet represented in meaningful use correspond with functionalities that focus directly on healthcare utilization and costs rather than on healthcare quality per se. This work can inform the development and selection of future meaningful use measures; inform implementation efforts, as clinicians and hospitals choose from among a "menu" of measures for meaningful use; and inform evaluation efforts, as investigators seek to measure the actual financial impact of EHRs and HIE.

  18. OPPORTUNITIES FOR ENHANCING INFORMATIVE VALUE OF AUDIT REPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviya Kostova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The question of information content of audit reports is discovered in this paper. The role of audit reports in decision-making by its users is examined in the paper. It was found that audit reports are an important source of information for the users of such statements. The need to increase the information content of audit reports and the criteria as such informative have been established. This publication considers the requirements which are brought to the Auditor's report. Attention is directed both to those charged with governance in the company and all stakeholders. An audit report should describe the responsibilities of the auditor, i.e. to identify and assess risks of material misstatements in the financial statement; to design and implement audit procedures in response to those risks and to obtain sufficient and relevant audit evidence on which the audit opinion will be based. The aim of the article is to discuss the changes in international auditing standards and auditors' liability.

  19. Structure, context, complexity, organization: physical aspects of information and value

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eriksson, Karl-Erik; Lindgren, Kristian; Månsson, Bengt Å

    1987-01-01

    ... and of information theory are general enough to play such a role. The authors have been involved in studies of the handling of natural resources in human societies. There we met problems and ideas which led us to the theme of this book: a perspective and a set of concepts, useful for describing and understanding processes in which structure emerges. T...

  20. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  1. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Complementary and Alternative Medicine KidsHealth / For Teens / Complementary and Alternative Medicine What's ... a replacement. How Is CAM Different From Conventional Medicine? Conventional medicine is based on scientific knowledge of ...

  2. Understanding cancer survivors’ information needs and information-seeking behaviors for complementary and alternative medicine from short- to long-term survival: a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ann Scarton

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Patients continue to use CAM well into long-term cancer survivorship. Finding trustworthy sources for information on CAM presents many challenges such as reliability of source, conflicting information on efficacy, and unknown interactions with conventional medications. Study participants expressed interest in an online portal to meet these needs through patient testimonials and linkage of claims to the scientific literature. Such a portal could also aid medical librarians and clinicians in locating and evaluating CAM information on behalf of patients.

  3. From Value Assessment to Value Cocreation: Informing Clinical Decision-Making with Medical Claims Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Steven; Varvel, Stephen; Sasinowski, Maciek; Burke, James P

    2016-09-01

    Big data and advances in analytical processes represent an opportunity for the healthcare industry to make better evidence-based decisions on the value generated by various tests, procedures, and interventions. Value-based reimbursement is the process of identifying and compensating healthcare providers based on whether their services improve quality of care without increasing cost of care or maintain quality of care while decreasing costs. In this article, we motivate and illustrate the potential opportunities for payers and providers to collaborate and evaluate the clinical and economic efficacy of different healthcare services. We conduct a case study of a firm that offers advanced biomarker and disease state management services for cardiovascular and cardiometabolic conditions. A value-based analysis that comprised a retrospective case/control cohort design was conducted, and claims data for over 7000 subjects who received these services were compared to a matched control cohort. Study subjects were commercial and Medicare Advantage enrollees with evidence of CHD, diabetes, or a related condition. Analysis of medical claims data showed a lower proportion of patients who received biomarker testing and disease state management services experienced a MI (p companies have in terms of identifying value-creating healthcare interventions. However, payers and providers also need to pursue system integration efforts to further automate the identification and dissemination of clinically and economically efficacious treatment plans to ensure at-risk patients receive the treatments and interventions that will benefit them the most.

  4. Flowing Valued Information and Cyber-Physical Situational Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Applications Conference (ACSAC 2005) (pp. 337-351). IEEE Xplore . [4] Bell, D. E., & LaPadula, L. (1973). Secure Computer Systems: Mathematical...Bowes, and D. Gardner Net Force Maneuver, Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE Workshop on Information Assurance, West Point, NY. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org...of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on Computer Aided Control System Design, Kohala Coast, HI , USA, August 22-27, 1999, http

  5. The Value of Information in Distributed Decision Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-04

    formulation, and then we describe the various results at- tained. 1 Mathematical description of Distributed Decision Network un- der Information...Constraints We now define a mathematical framework for networks. Let G = (V,E) be an undirected random network (graph) drawn from a known distribution pG, 1...to any linear, combinatorial problem like shortest path optimization, and, further, so long as the original combinatorial problem can be solved in

  6. Assessing the socioeconomic impact and value of open geospatial information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, Francoise; Pearlman, Jay; Bernknopf, Richard; Coote, Andrew; Craglia, Massimo; Friedl, Lawrence; Gallo, Jason; Hertzfeld, Henry; Jolly, Claire; Macauley, Molly K.; Shapiro, Carl; Smart, Alan

    2016-03-10

    The production and accessibility of geospatial information including Earth observation is changing greatly both technically and in terms of human participation. Advances in technology have changed the way that geospatial data are produced and accessed, resulting in more efficient processes and greater accessibility than ever before. Improved technology has also created opportunities for increased participation in the gathering and interpretation of data through crowdsourcing and citizen science efforts. Increased accessibility has resulted in greater participation in the use of data as prices for Government-produced data have fallen and barriers to access have been reduced.

  7. A complementary MOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhabvala, M.D.

    1977-03-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included

  8. Post-Fukushima complementary safety assessments. Information note on the IRSN analysis and conclusions after the expertise of Complementary Safety Assessments (ECS) reports handed to the ASN by operators, on the request of the Prime Minister, after the Fukushima accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This note first states the three main conclusions of the analysis performed by the IRSN of ECS (complementary safety assessments) reports made after the Fukushima accident. The IRSN noticed some biases of conformity between installations, outlines the need to make installation safety referential evolve, and that the idea that an extreme natural phenomenon could not result in a severe accident must be put into question again. Then, the report describes why and how nuclear installation safety 'hard cores' must be created in order to avoid the occurrence of incidental or accidental situations, or to implement measures aimed at handling these situations. It finally outlines the outcomes of the ECSs for the IRSN

  9. New directions in valuing geospatial information - how to value goespatial information for policy and business decisioins in the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    Governments are increasingly asking for more evidence of the benefits of investing in geospatial data and infrastructure before investing. They are looking for a clearer articulation of the economic, environmental and social benefits than has been possble in the past. Development of techniques has accelerated in the past five years as governments and industry become more involved in the capture and use of geospatial data. However evaluation practitioners have struggled to answer these emerging questions. The paper explores the types of questions that decision makers are asking and discusses the different approaches and methods that have been used recently to answer them. It explores the need for better buisness case models. The emerging approaches are then discussed and their attributes reviewed. These include methods of analysing tengible economic benefits, intangible benefits and societal benefits. The paper explores the use of value chain analysis and real options analysis to better articulate the impacts on international competitiveness and how to value the potential benefits of innovations enabled by the geospatial data that is produced. The paper concludes by illustrating the potential for these techniques in current and future decision making.

  10. The Complementary Perspective of System of Systems in Collaboration, Integration, and Logistics: A Value-Chain Based Paradigm of Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raed Jaradat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The importance and complexity of the problems associated with coordinating multiple organizations to configure value propositions for customers has drawn the attention of multiple disciplines. In an effort to clarify and consolidate terms, this conceptual research examines both supply chain management (SCM and system of systems (SoS literature to postulate, from a value-chain perspective, what roles integration and collaboration play in helping supply chains satisfy customer requirements. A literature review analysis was used to identify the commonalities and differences between supply chain management and system of systems approaches to examining interfirm coordination of value creation efforts. Although a framework of integration and collaboration roles in value creation is proposed, further empirical testing of the concept is required to substantiate initial conclusions. The concepts proposed may help clarify where strategic and operational managers need to focus their efforts in coordinating supply chain member firms. The incorporation of SoS engineering into the supply chain field will draw the linkage between the constituent principles, and concepts of Systems Theory as appropriate for the supply chain management field. This is the first effort to reconcile two separate but parallel scholarship streams examining the coordination of multiple organizations in value creation. This research shows that there are some methodologies, principles, and methods from the SoS field that can supplement supply chain management research. Mainly due to a unit of analysis issue, systems based approaches have not been in the mainstream of supply chain management field development.

  11. Book value, earnings, dividends, and audit quality on the value relevance of accounting information among Nigerian listed firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf Alkali

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to determine the effect of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS as a new accounting reporting among Nigerian listed firms. This study uses book value, earnings and dividends to fill in the gap using a sample of 126 Nigerian listed firms in the stock market from 2009 to 2013 (pre and Post-IFRS adoption. Data was collected from Thompson Reuters, Bank scope DataStreams and annual reports. The study adopted Ohlson (1995 [Ohlson, J. (1995. Earnings, book-value, and dividends in equity valuation. Contemporary Accounting Research, 11(2, 661–687.] price model that has been frequently used in determining the quality of accounting information studies. The study finds that combined book value, earnings and dividends do not provide statistical significance effects on IFRS after adoption on the quality of accounting information. This could be possible, as dividends do not provide a significant effect in the presence of earnings. Furthermore, the audit big 4 quality provided an effect on the quality of accounting information because of IFRS adoption. Therefore, findings of this study provide additional literature on the decreasing quality of accounting information in an emerging market setting like Nigeria. The study implication is to the policy makers, regulators, and government that accounting information do not provide value relevance among Nigerian listed firms after IFRS adoption.

  12. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  13. Innovation Value of Information Technology: Impact of Information Technology--Intensity on Innovation Capability and Firm Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamani, Mahesh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Though information technology adoptions have been always referred to as innovations in firms, much of the business value literature has concentrated on the tangible and immediately measurable impacts of information technology (IT) adoptions. This study aims to explore the impact of information technology investments on the innovativeness of a…

  14. CT-based texture analysis potentially provides prognostic information complementary to interim fdg-pet for patients with hodgkin's and aggressive non-hodgkin's lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganeshan, B.; Miles, K.A.; Shortman, R.; Afaq, A.; Ardeshna, K.M.; Groves, A.M.; Kayani, I. [University College London, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Babikir, S. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Human Health Division, Nuclear Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging Section, Vienna (Austria)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of computed tomography texture analysis (CTTA) to provide additional prognostic information in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This retrospective, pilot-study approved by the IRB comprised 45 lymphoma patients undergoing routine 18F-FDG-PET-CT. Progression-free survival (PFS) was determined from clinical follow-up (mean-duration: 40 months; range: 10-62 months). Non-contrast-enhanced low-dose CT images were submitted to CTTA comprising image filtration to highlight features of different sizes followed by histogram-analysis using kurtosis. Prognostic value of CTTA was compared to PET FDG-uptake value, tumour-stage, tumour-bulk, lymphoma-type, treatment-regime, and interim FDG-PET (iPET) status using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Cox regression analysis determined the independence of significantly prognostic imaging and clinical features. A total of 27 patients had aggressive NHL and 18 had HL. Mean PFS was 48.5 months. There was no significant difference in pre-treatment CTTA between the lymphoma sub-types. Kaplan-Meier analysis found pre-treatment CTTA (medium feature scale, p=0.010) and iPET status (p<0.001) to be significant predictors of PFS. Cox analysis revealed that an interaction between pre-treatment CTTA and iPET status was the only independent predictor of PFS (HR: 25.5, 95% CI: 5.4-120, p<0.001). Specifically, pre-treatment CTTA risk stratified patients with negative iPET. CTTA can potentially provide prognostic information complementary to iPET for patients with HL and aggressive NHL. (orig.)

  15. Integration of information for research and education: changes in the value chain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the value chain induced by the use of ICT are discussed. ICT will lead to innovation not only in the research information system but also in the educational information system or even the education system at large.

  16. Utilizing a Value of Information Framework to Improve Ore Collection and Classification Procedures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, Julia A

    2006-01-01

    .... We use a value of information framework (VOI) to consider the economic feasibility of a mine purchasing additional information on extracted ore type to reduce the uncertainty of extracted ore grade quality...

  17. Perception of risk and communication among conventional and complementary health care providers involving cancer patients' use of complementary therapies: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stub, Trine; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Sandberg, Joanne C; Kristoffersen, Agnete E; Musial, Frauke; Salamonsen, Anita

    2016-09-08

    Communication between different health care providers (conventional and complementary) and cancer patients about their use of complementary therapies affects the health and safety of the patients. The aim of this study was to examine the qualitative research literature on the perception of and communication about the risk of complementary therapies between different health care providers and cancer patients. Systematic searches in six medical databases covering literature from 2000 to 2015 were performed. The studies were accessed according to the level of evidence and summarized into different risk situations. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the text data, and the codes were defined before and during the data analysis. Twenty-nine papers were included in the primary analysis and five main themes were identified and discussed. The main risk situations identified were 1. Differences in treatment concepts and philosophical values among complementary and conventional health care providers. 2. Adverse effects from complementary products and herbs due to their contamination/toxicity and interactions with conventional cancer treatment. 3. Health care physicians and oncologists find it difficult to recommend many complementary modalities due to the lack of scientific evidence for their effect. 4. Lack of knowledge and information about complementary and conventional cancer treatments among different health care providers. The risk of consuming herbs and products containing high level of toxins is a considerable threat to patient safety (direct risk). At the same time, the lack of scientific evidence of effect for many complementary therapies and differences in treatment philosophy among complementary and conventional health care providers potentially hinder effective communication about these threats with mutual patients (indirect risk). As such, indirect risk may pose an additional risk to patients who want to combine complementary therapies with

  18. Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine Small Text Medium Text Large Text Mind-Body Medicine Practices in Complementary and Alternative Medicine YESTERDAY ...

  19. High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... professionals High Cholesterol and Complementary Health Practices: What the Science Says Share: February 2013 Dietary Supplements Red Yeast ... to exploring complementary health products and practices in the context of rigorous ... health researchers, and disseminating authoritative information ...

  20. The Origin of Value Through Information Networks : A Preliminary Framework from an Evolutionary Holonic Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madureira, A.; Bakena, N.; Bouwman, H.

    2010-01-01

    The worldwide extraordinary level of interest in digital information networks deployment among nations is due to the strong perception that they bring economic, social and environmental value. Our literature review on studies aiming at clarifying the value of information networks, led us to conclude

  1. An Empirical Study on Listed Company’s Value of Cash Holdings: An Information Asymmetry Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuangxia Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of a company’s cash holdings is currently a hot issue in corporate finance research. Current studies have not reached a unified conclusion. Moreover, no one has ever studied that from the perspective of information asymmetry. However, there still exist disputes about the measurement of the degree of information asymmetry. Previous studies mostly adopt single index to analysis this issue, and the economic meaning it represents only reflects some information of asymmetric information, so it was one-sided and the conclusion also differ. Drawing on the market microstructure and the index of information asymmetry of managers and investors, this paper constructs a new proxy for information asymmetry based on the principal component analysis. We find that a company’s value of cash holdings decreases increasingly with its level of information asymmetry, and the relationship between information asymmetry and the value of cash holdings is nonlinear.

  2. Expected net present value of sample information: from burden to investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter S; Edlin, Richard; Kharroubi, Samer; Gregory, Walter; McCabe, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Expected Value of Information Framework has been proposed as a method for identifying when health care technologies should be immediately reimbursed and when any reimbursement should be withheld while awaiting more evidence. This framework assesses the value of obtaining additional evidence to inform a current reimbursement decision. This represents the burden of not having the additional evidence at the time of the decision. However, when deciding whether to reimburse now or await more evidence, decision makers need to know the value of investing in more research to inform a future decision. Assessing this value requires consideration of research costs, research time, and what happens to patients while the research is undertaken and after completion. The investigators describe a development of the calculation of the expected value of sample information that assesses the value of investing in further research, including an only-in-research strategy and an only-with-research strategy.

  3. Use and value of information sources by parents of child psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Adrienne; Kabashi, Arta; Guthrie, Hannah; Burket, Roger; Turner, Philip

    2011-06-01

    With Web 2.0, the variety of information sources for parents of paediatric psychiatric patients has increased dramatically. Information use theory suggests newer sources supplement rather than supplant traditional sources of health information. This study sought to determine the use and value of traditional and emerging sources of information and whether the subjects had access to highly valued sources of information. One hundred parents indicated the use and value of six sources of information on the child's symptoms, diagnoses and treatment. The data were analyzed to determine if significant relationships existed between type of source and the use and value of the information sources. Ninety-four percent of the subjects had access to the Internet and almost half of those reported using the Social Web. Eighty-five percent had at least one high-value information source. The psychiatrist in the clinic, the Internet and the primary care physician were the most highly used and valued sources. Use of digital information sources was greater than found in other studies of similar populations. This use appears to complement rather than supplant more traditional sources. Further studies are needed to see if the negative impact of lack of Internet access is replicated. © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  4. The value of informal care: A further investigation of the feasibility of contingent valuation in informal caregivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, C.A.M.; Brouwer, W.B.F.; Koopmanschap, M.A.; van den Berg, B.; Exel, N.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Including informal care in economic evaluations is increasingly advocated but problematic. We investigated three well-known concerns regarding contingent valuation (CV): (1) the item non-response of CV values, (2) the sensitivity of CV values to the individual circumstances of caring, and (3) the

  5. Mandatory Fair Value Accounting and Information Asymmetry: Evidence from the European Real Estate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Karl A. Muller, III; Edward J. Riedl; Thorsten Sellhorn

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of mandating the provision of fair value information for long-lived tangible assets on firms' information asymmetry. Specifically, we investigate whether European real estate firms' compulsory adoption of International Accounting Standard 40 (IAS 40; Investment Property), which mandated the provision of investment property fair values in 2005, resulted in reduced information asymmetry across market participants. Using as a control group firms that voluntarily provided t...

  6. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 48: Valuing information in an interactive environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinberg, Herbert R.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.

    1995-01-01

    Consideration effort has been devoted over the past 30 years to developing methods and means of assessing the value of information. Two approaches - value in exchange and value in use - dominate; however, neither approach enjoys much practical application because validation schema for decision-making is missing. The approaches fail to measure objectively the real costs of acquiring information and the real benefits that information will yield. Moreover, these approaches collectively fail to provide economic justification to build and/or continue to support an information product or service. In addition, the impact of Cyberspace adds a new dimension to the problem. A new paradigm is required to make economic sense in this revolutionary information environment. In previous work, the authors explored the various approaches to measuring the value of information and concluded that, in large measure, these methods were unworkable concepts and constructs. Instead, they proposed several axioms for valuing information. Most particularly they concluded that the 'value of information cannot be measured in the absence of a specific task, objective, or goal.' This paper builds on those axioms and describes under which circumstances information can be measured in objective and actionable terms. This paper also proposes a methodology for undertaking such measures and validating the results.

  7. 78 FR 58344 - Proposed Information Collection: Colorado River Total Value Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... information for the economic analysis of the alternative management and operation protocols for Glen Canyon Dam. The economic analysis provides one piece of information that the Secretary of the Interior will... generations. This collection will provide park managers and NPS partners with information about the values U.S...

  8. Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES): using GIS to include social values information in ecosystem services assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrouse, B.C.; Semmens, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem services can be defined in various ways; simply put, they are the benefits provided by nature, which contribute to human well-being. These benefits can range from tangible products such as food and fresh water to cultural services such as recreation and esthetics. As the use of these benefits continues to increase, additional pressures are placed on the natural ecosystems providing them. This makes it all the more important when assessing possible tradeoffs among ecosystem services to consider the human attitudes and preferences that express underlying social values associated with their benefits. While some of these values can be accounted for through economic markets, other values can be more difficult to quantify, and attaching dollar amounts to them may not be very useful in all cases. Regardless of the processes or units used for quantifying such values, the ability to map them across the landscape and relate them to the ecosystem services to which they are attributed is necessary for effective assessments. To address some of the needs associated with quantifying and mapping social values for inclusion in ecosystem services assessments, scientists at the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC), in collaboration with Colorado State University, have developed a public domain tool, Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES). SolVES is a geographic information system (GIS) application designed to use data from public attitude and preference surveys to assess, map, and quantify social values for ecosystem services. SolVES calculates and maps a 10-point Value Index representing the relative perceived social values of ecosystem services such as recreation and biodiversity for various groups of ecosystem stakeholders. SolVES output can also be used to identify and model relationships between social values and physical characteristics of the underlying landscape. These relationships can then be used to generate predicted Value Index maps for areas

  9. Retrieval monitoring is influenced by information value: the interplay between importance and confidence on false memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Ian M; Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; Castel, Alan D

    2015-10-01

    The perceived value of information can influence one's motivation to successfully remember that information. This study investigated how information value can affect memory search and evaluation processes (i.e., retrieval monitoring). In Experiment 1, participants studied unrelated words associated with low, medium, or high values. Subsequent memory tests required participants to selectively monitor retrieval for different values. False memory effects were smaller when searching memory for high-value than low-value words, suggesting that people more effectively monitored more important information. In Experiment 2, participants studied semantically-related words, and the need for retrieval monitoring was reduced at test by using inclusion instructions (i.e., endorsement of any word related to the studied words) compared with standard instructions. Inclusion instructions led to increases in false recognition for low-value, but not for high-value words, suggesting that under standard-instruction conditions retrieval monitoring was less likely to occur for important information. Experiment 3 showed that words retrieved with lower confidence were associated with more effective retrieval monitoring, suggesting that the quality of the retrieved memory influenced the degree and effectiveness of monitoring processes. Ironically, unless encouraged to do so, people were less likely to carefully monitor important information, even though people want to remember important memories most accurately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Informativeness of Diagnostic Marker Values and the Impact of Data Grouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hua; Bandos, Andriy I; Gur, David

    2018-01-01

    Assessing performance of diagnostic markers is a necessary step for their use in decision making regarding various conditions of interest in diagnostic medicine and other fields. Globally useful markers could, however, have ranges of values that are " diagnostically non-informative" . This paper demonstrates that the presence of marker values from diagnostically non-informative ranges could lead to a loss in statistical efficiency during nonparametric evaluation and shows that grouping non-informative values provides a natural resolution to this problem. These points are theoretically proven and an extensive simulation study is conducted to illustrate the possible benefits of using grouped marker values in a number of practically reasonable scenarios. The results contradict the common conjecture regarding the detrimental effect of grouped marker values during performance assessments. Specifically, contrary to the common assumption that grouped marker values lead to bias, grouping non-informative values does not introduce bias and could substantially reduce sampling variability. The proven concept that grouped marker values could be statistically beneficial without detrimental consequences implies that in practice, tied values do not always require resolution whereas the use of continuous diagnostic results without addressing diagnostically non-informative ranges could be statistically detrimental. Based on these findings, more efficient methods for evaluating diagnostic markers could be developed.

  11. An Early Model for Value and Sustainability in Health Information Exchanges: Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background The primary value relative to health information exchange has been seen in terms of cost savings relative to laboratory and radiology testing, emergency department expenditures, and admissions. However, models are needed to statistically quantify value and sustainability and better understand the dependent and mediating factors that contribute to value and sustainability. Objective The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 21 interviews of eHealth Exchange participants across 10 organizations. Using a grounded theory approach and 3.0 as a relative frequency threshold, 5 main categories and 16 subcategories emerged. Results This study identifies 3 core current perceived value factors and 5 potential perceived value factors—how interviewees predict health information exchanges may evolve as there are more participants. These value factors were used as the foundation for early model development for sustainability of health information exchange. Conclusions Using the value factors from the interviews, the study provides the basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. This basis includes factors from the research: fostering consumer engagement; establishing a provider directory; quantifying use, cost, and clinical outcomes; ensuring data integrity through patient matching; and increasing awareness, usefulness, interoperability, and sustainability of eHealth Exchange. PMID:29712623

  12. An Early Model for Value and Sustainability in Health Information Exchanges: Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sue S

    2018-04-30

    The primary value relative to health information exchange has been seen in terms of cost savings relative to laboratory and radiology testing, emergency department expenditures, and admissions. However, models are needed to statistically quantify value and sustainability and better understand the dependent and mediating factors that contribute to value and sustainability. The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. A qualitative study was conducted with 21 interviews of eHealth Exchange participants across 10 organizations. Using a grounded theory approach and 3.0 as a relative frequency threshold, 5 main categories and 16 subcategories emerged. This study identifies 3 core current perceived value factors and 5 potential perceived value factors-how interviewees predict health information exchanges may evolve as there are more participants. These value factors were used as the foundation for early model development for sustainability of health information exchange. Using the value factors from the interviews, the study provides the basis for early model development for health information exchange value and sustainability. This basis includes factors from the research: fostering consumer engagement; establishing a provider directory; quantifying use, cost, and clinical outcomes; ensuring data integrity through patient matching; and increasing awareness, usefulness, interoperability, and sustainability of eHealth Exchange. ©Sue S Feldman. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 30.04.2018.

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... therapies are often lacking; therefore, the safety and effectiveness of many CAM therapies are uncertain. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is sponsoring research designed to fill this ...

  14. Complementary feeding practices and nutritional status of children 6 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: Inappropriate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months is major cause of under nutrition. There is scarce information on the relationship between complementary feeding practices and nutritional status. This study aimed to determine the factors contributing to the complementary ...

  15. Complementary Cohort Strategy for Multimodal Face Pair Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yunlian; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Sun, Zhenan

    2016-01-01

    Face pair matching is the task of determining whether two face images represent the same person. Due to the limited expressive information embedded in the two face images as well as various sources of facial variations, it becomes a quite difficult problem. Towards the issue of few available images...... provided to represent each face, we propose to exploit an extra cohort set (identities in the cohort set are different from those being compared) by a series of cohort list comparisons. Useful cohort coefficients are then extracted from both sorted cohort identities and sorted cohort images...... for complementary information. To augment its robustness to complicated facial variations, we further employ multiple face modalities owing to their complementary value to each other for the face pair matching task. The final decision is made by fusing the extracted cohort coefficients with the direct matching...

  16. The impact of intangibles on the value relevance of accounting information: Evidence from French companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Kimouche

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper aims to explore whether intangible items that recognised in financial statements are value-relevant to investors in the French context, and whether these items affect the value relevance of accounting information. Design/methodology/approach: Empirical data were collected from a sample of French listed companies, over the nine-year period of 2005 to 2013. Starting of Ohlson’s (1995 model, the correlation analysis and the linear multiple regressions have been applied. Findings: We find that intangibles and traditional accounting measures as a whole are value relevant. However, the amortization and impairment charges of intangibles and cash flows do not affect the market values of French companies, unlike other variables, which affect positively and substantially the market values. Also goodwill and book values are more associated with market values than intangible assets and earnings respectively. Finally, we find that intangibles have improved the value relevance of accounting information. Practical implications: French legislators must give more interest for intangibles, in order to enrich the financial statements content and increasing the pertinence of accounting information. Auditors must give more attention for intangibles’ examination process, in order to certify the amounts related to intangibles in financial statements, and hence enrich their reliability, what provides adequacy guarantees for investors to use them in decision making. Originality/value: The paper used recently available financial data, and proposed an improvement concerning the measure of incremental value relevance of intangibles items.

  17. Does the Model of Evaluation Based on Fair Value Answer the Requests of Financial Information Users?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitea Neluta; Sarac Aldea Laura

    2010-01-01

    Does the model of evaluation based on the fair value answers the requests of the financial information users? The financial situations have as purposes the presentation of the information concerning the enterprise financial position, the performances and modifications of this position which, according to IASB and FASB, must be credible and useful. Both referential maintain the existence of several conventions regarding assessment, like historical cost, actual cost, the realizable value or act...

  18. Effective information flow through efficient supply chain management - Value stream mapping approach Case Outokumpu Tornio Works

    OpenAIRE

    Juvonen, Piia

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Juvonen, Piia Suvi Päivikki 2012. Effective information flow through efficient supply chain management -Value stream mapping approach - Case Outokumpu Tornio Works. Master`s Thesis. Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. Business and Culture. Pages 63. Appendices 2. The general aim of this thesis is to explore effective information flow through efficient supply chain management by following one of the lean management principles, value stream mapping. The specific research...

  19. Entropy Based Feature Selection for Fuzzy Set-Valued Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Waseem; Sufyan Beg, M. M.; Ahmad, Tanvir

    2018-06-01

    In Set-valued Information Systems (SIS), several objects contain more than one value for some attributes. Tolerance relation used for handling SIS sometimes leads to loss of certain information. To surmount this problem, fuzzy rough model was introduced. However, in some cases, SIS may contain some real or continuous set-values. Therefore, the existing fuzzy rough model for handling Information system with fuzzy set-values needs some changes. In this paper, Fuzzy Set-valued Information System (FSIS) is proposed and fuzzy similarity relation for FSIS is defined. Yager's relative conditional entropy was studied to find the significance measure of a candidate attribute of FSIS. Later, using these significance values, three greedy forward algorithms are discussed for finding the reduct and relative reduct for the proposed FSIS. An experiment was conducted on a sample population of the real dataset and a comparison of classification accuracies of the proposed FSIS with the existing SIS and single-valued Fuzzy Information Systems was made, which demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed FSIS.

  20. Social Information Is Integrated into Value and Confidence Judgments According to Its Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Nouguchi, Takao; Sharot, Tali; Love, Bradley C

    2017-06-21

    How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information. Activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of belief update. Analogous to how lower-level perceptual information is integrated, we found that the human brain integrates social information according to its reliability when judging value and confidence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The field of perceptual decision making has shown that the sensory system integrates different sources of information according to their respective reliability, as predicted by a Bayesian inference scheme. In this work, we hypothesized that a similar coding scheme is implemented by the human brain to process social signals and guide complex, value-based decisions. We provide experimental evidence that the human prefrontal cortex's activity is consistent with a Bayesian computation that integrates social information that differs in reliability and that this integration affects the neural representation of value and confidence. Copyright © 2017 De Martino et al.

  1. Different Electrophysiological Responses to Informative Value of Feedback Between Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Du

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to learn from feedback is important for children’s adaptive behavior and school learning. Feedback has two main components, informative value and valence. How to disentangle these two components and what is the developmental neural correlates of using the informative value of feedback is still an open question. In this study, 23 children (7–10 years old and 19 adults (19–22 years old were asked to perform a rule induction task, in which they were required to find a rule, based on the informative value of feedback. Behavioral results indicated that the likelihood of correct searching behavior under negative feedback was low for children. Event-related potentials showed that (1 the effect of valence was processed in a wide time window, particularly in the N2 component; (2 the encoding process of the informative value of negative feedback began later for children than for adults; (3 a clear P300 was observed for adults; for children, however, P300 was absent in the frontal region; and (4 children processed the informative value of feedback chiefly in the left sites during the P300 time window, whereas adults did not show this laterality. These results suggested that children were less sensitive to the informative value of negative feedback possibly because of the immature brain.

  2. 75 FR 16719 - Information Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Collection; Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning AGENCY: Forest... on the new information collection, Forest Landscape Value and Special Place Mapping for National Forest Planning. DATES: Comments must be received in writing on or before June 1, 2010 to be assured of...

  3. Personal Values, Social Capital, and Higher Education Student Career Decidedness: A New "Protean"-Informed Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearon, Colm; Nachmias, Stefanos; McLaughlin, Heather; Jackson, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the role of personal values as motivational antecedents for understanding higher education (HE) student career decidedness among university business school (UBS) students. We propose a new "protean"-informed HE student career decidedness model for theorizing how both personal values and social capital mediators…

  4. 77 FR 48504 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Economic Value of Puerto Rico's Coral Reef Ecosystems for Recreation-Tourism... the market and non-market economic values of Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. Estimates will be... Puerto Rico's coral reef ecosystems. The required information is to conduct focus groups to help in...

  5. Essays on Information Technology and Value Creation: Corporate Governance, Software Firm Acquisitions, and Entrepreneurial Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandodkar, Nikhil Ramkrishna

    2017-01-01

    Value creation is often at the core of many organizational activities and is often reflected in the exploration and exploitation of opportunities to foster organizational growth. In modern organizations, information technology (IT) plays a significant role in creating business value and building substantial competitive advantage. While in the…

  6. The theoretical foundations of value-informed pricing in the service-dominant logic of marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – In the mainstream normative pricing literature, value assessment is virtually non-existent. Although the resource-based literature recognizes that pricing is a competence, value-informed pricing practices are still weakly grounded in theory. The purpose of this paper is to strengthen the

  7. WE-E-17A-05: Complementary Prognostic Value of CT and 18F-FDG PET Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Tumor Heterogeneity Features Quantified Through Texture Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desseroit, M; Cheze Le Rest, C; Tixier, F [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France); INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Majdoub, M; Visvikis, D; Hatt, M [INSERM LaTIM UMR 1101, Brest (France); Guillevin, R; Perdrisot, R [CHU Poitiers Poitiers (France)

    2014-06-15

    images have complementary and independent prognostic value in NSCLC.

  8. Attenuating initial beliefs: Increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Prooijen, A.M.; Sparks, P.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values

  9. Correlationally Assessing the Relationship of Information Technology Investments in Electronic Medical Records to Business Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The lag in information exchange and assimilation adoption experienced by modern primary care physicians in the conduct of evidence based medicine may be affecting health care system productivity and patient quality of care. Further, interest in whether or not information technology (IT) investments show an increase in business value has increased…

  10. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the

  11. Cost-volume-profit and net present value analysis of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, R A

    1998-08-01

    The adoption of any information system should be justified by an economic analysis demonstrating that its projected benefits outweigh its projected costs. Analysis differ, however, on which methods to employ for such a justification. Accountants prefer cost-volume-profit analysis, and economists prefer net present value analysis. The article explains the strengths and weaknesses of each method and shows how they can be used together so that well-informed investments in information systems can be made.

  12. Building a Values-Informed Mental Model for New Orleans Climate Risk Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Douglas L; Mayer, Lauren A; Cwik, Bryan; Vezér, Martin; Keller, Klaus; Lempert, Robert J; Tuana, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    Individuals use values to frame their beliefs and simplify their understanding when confronted with complex and uncertain situations. The high complexity and deep uncertainty involved in climate risk management (CRM) lead to individuals' values likely being coupled to and contributing to their understanding of specific climate risk factors and management strategies. Most mental model approaches, however, which are commonly used to inform our understanding of people's beliefs, ignore values. In response, we developed a "Values-informed Mental Model" research approach, or ViMM, to elicit individuals' values alongside their beliefs and determine which values people use to understand and assess specific climate risk factors and CRM strategies. Our results show that participants consistently used one of three values to frame their understanding of risk factors and CRM strategies in New Orleans: (1) fostering a healthy economy, wealth, and job creation, (2) protecting and promoting healthy ecosystems and biodiversity, and (3) preserving New Orleans' unique culture, traditions, and historically significant neighborhoods. While the first value frame is common in analyses of CRM strategies, the latter two are often ignored, despite their mirroring commonly accepted pillars of sustainability. Other values like distributive justice and fairness were prioritized differently depending on the risk factor or strategy being discussed. These results suggest that the ViMM method could be a critical first step in CRM decision-support processes and may encourage adoption of CRM strategies more in line with stakeholders' values. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Numerical Investigations into the Value of Information in Lifecycle Analysis of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konakli, Katerina; Sudret, Bruno; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    of decisions related to maintenance of structural systems. In this context, experiments may refer to inspections or structural health monitoring. The value-of-information concept comprises a powerful tool for determining whether the experimental cost is justified by the expected gained benefit during...... investigations demonstrate how the decision problem is influenced by the assumed probabilistic models, including the type of probability distribution and the degree of uncertainty reflected in the coefficient of variation, the degradation law, the quantity and quality of information, and the probabilistic...... dependencies between the components of a system. Furthermore, challenges and potentials in value-of-information analysis for structural systems are discussed....

  14. Creating Business Value through Agile Project Management and Information Systems Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz; Johansen, Thomas Heide; Uldahl, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Value creation through information systems (IS) and information technology (IT) is a major IS research topic. However there still exists an ambiguity and fuzziness of the ‘IS business value’ concept and a lack of clarity surrounding the value creation process. This also true for organizations...... that develop IS/IT and for development technologies like information systems development and project management methods that are applied in the production of IS/IT. The agile method Scrum is one such technology. In the research presented here we studied productivity, quality and employee satisfaction...... with some of the deficiencies in current IS business value research and contribute to filling existing gaps in an IS business value research agenda....

  15. Willingness to Pay for Complementary Health Care Insurance in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosratnejad, Shirin; Rashidian, Arash; Akbari Sari, Ali; Moradi, Najme

    2017-09-01

    Complementary health insurance is increasingly used to remedy the limitations and shortcomings of the basic health insurance benefit packages. Hence, it is essential to gather reliable information about the amount of Willingness to Pay (WTP) for health insurance. We assessed the WTP for health insurance in Iran in order to suggest an affordable complementary health insurance. The study sample consisted of 300 household heads all over provinces of Iran in 2013. The method applied was double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question approach of contingent valuation. The average WTP for complementary health insurance per person per month by double bounded dichotomous choice and open-ended question method respectively was 199000 and 115300 Rials (8 and 4.6 USD, respectively). Household's heads with higher levels of income and those who worked had more WTP for the health insurance. Besides, the WTP increased in direct proportion to the number of insured members of each household and in inverse proportion to the family size. The WTP value can be used as a premium in a society. As an important finding, the study indicated that the households were willing to pay higher premiums than currently collected for the complementary health insurance coverage in Iran. This offers the policy makers the opportunity to increase the premium and provide good benefits package for insured people of country then better risk pooling.

  16. How much is information worth? Calculating the economic value of a library’s services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Nani França

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the services offered by an informational unit have been characterized by the desired outcome, such as the effective response from a user. These values are made up of enough concrete data if expressed in monetary terms, that is, finding out which is the cost to provide such services. Assigning value to each of the information services offered by university libraries and measuring it are one of the most challenging and less applied managerial tasks in information environments. This paper aims to assign economic value to the services provided by a Brazilian university library, developing a tool that will assist managers in decision -making and evaluation of informational units in order to guarantee the quality of services provided.

  17. Quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for Fatigue Deteriorating Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) before its implementation for structural systems on the basis of its Value of Information (VoI). The value of SHM is calculated utilizing the Bayesian pre-posterior decision analysis modelling the structural...... life cycle performance, the integrity management and the structural risks. The relevance and precision of SHM information for the reduction of the structural system risks and the expected cost of the structural integrity management throughout the life cycle constitutes the value of SHM...... and is quantified with this framework. The approach is focused on fatigue deteriorating structural steel systems for which a continuous resistance deterioration formulation is introduced. In a case study, the value of SHM for load monitoring is calculated for a Daniels system subjected to fatigue deterioration...

  18. Using a 'value-added' approach for contextual design of geographic information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Andrew J

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a 'value-added' approach can be used for user-centred design of geographic information. An information science perspective was used, with value being the difference in outcomes arising from alternative information sets. Sixteen drivers navigated a complex, unfamiliar urban route, using visual and verbal instructions representing the distance-to-turn and junction layout information presented by typical satellite navigation systems. Data measuring driving errors, navigation errors and driver confidence were collected throughout the trial. The results show how driver performance varied considerably according to the geographic context at specific locations, and that there are specific opportunities to add value with enhanced geographical information. The conclusions are that a value-added approach facilitates a more explicit focus on 'desired' (and feasible) levels of end user performance with different information sets, and is a potentially effective approach to user-centred design of geographic information. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Value of information analysis for corrective action unit No. 98: Frenchman Flat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A value of information analysis has been completed as part of the corrective action process for Frenchman Flat, the first Nevada Test Site underground test area to be scheduled for the corrective action process. A value of information analysis is a cost-benefit analysis applied to the acquisition of new information which is needed to reduce the uncertainty in the prediction of a contaminant boundary surrounding underground nuclear tests in Frenchman Flat. The boundary location will be established to protect human health and the environment from the consequences of using contaminated groundwater on the Nevada Test Site. Uncertainties in the boundary predictions are assumed to be the result of data gaps. The value of information analysis in this document compares the cost of acquiring new information with the benefit of acquiring that information during the corrective action investigation at Frenchman Flat. Methodologies incorporated into the value of information analysis include previous geological modeling, groundwater flow modeling, contaminant transport modeling, statistics, sensitivity analysis, uncertainty analysis, and decision analysis

  20. An Improved Information Value Model Based on Gray Clustering for Landslide Susceptibility Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Ba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Landslides, as geological hazards, cause significant casualties and economic losses. Therefore, it is necessary to identify areas prone to landslides for prevention work. This paper proposes an improved information value model based on gray clustering (IVM-GC for landslide susceptibility mapping. This method uses the information value derived from an information value model to achieve susceptibility classification and weight determination of landslide predisposing factors and, hence, obtain the landslide susceptibility of each study unit based on the clustering analysis. Using a landslide inventory of Chongqing, China, which contains 8435 landslides, three landslide susceptibility maps were generated based on the common information value model (IVM, an information value model improved by an analytic hierarchy process (IVM-AHP and our new improved model. Approximately 70% (5905 of the inventory landslides were used to generate the susceptibility maps, while the remaining 30% (2530 were used to validate the results. The training accuracies of the IVM, IVM-AHP and IVM-GC were 81.8%, 78.7% and 85.2%, respectively, and the prediction accuracies were 82.0%, 78.7% and 85.4%, respectively. The results demonstrate that all three methods perform well in evaluating landslide susceptibility. Among them, IVM-GC has the best performance.

  1. How to derive biological information from the value of the normalization constant in allometric equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitaniemi, Pekka

    2008-04-09

    Allometric equations are widely used in many branches of biological science. The potential information content of the normalization constant b in allometric equations of the form Y = bX(a) has, however, remained largely neglected. To demonstrate the potential for utilizing this information, I generated a large number of artificial datasets that resembled those that are frequently encountered in biological studies, i.e., relatively small samples including measurement error or uncontrolled variation. The value of X was allowed to vary randomly within the limits describing different data ranges, and a was set to a fixed theoretical value. The constant b was set to a range of values describing the effect of a continuous environmental variable. In addition, a normally distributed random error was added to the values of both X and Y. Two different approaches were then used to model the data. The traditional approach estimated both a and b using a regression model, whereas an alternative approach set the exponent a at its theoretical value and only estimated the value of b. Both approaches produced virtually the same model fit with less than 0.3% difference in the coefficient of determination. Only the alternative approach was able to precisely reproduce the effect of the environmental variable, which was largely lost among noise variation when using the traditional approach. The results show how the value of b can be used as a source of valuable biological information if an appropriate regression model is selected.

  2. Assessing the Added Value of information systems supporting facilities management business processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Poul; Jensen, Per Anker

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To present a method for assessing the added value of Information Systems (IS), which are implemented to support the business processes in Facilities Management (FM). Theory: The method is based on a supply chain management model of FM, general value dimensions such as efficiency...... illustrates that implementing IS includes both organisational and technological changes and demonstrates that the proposed assessment method is applicable to practice. Originality/value: This is the first paper using a supply chain management model of FM, general value dimensions, VAM and Functional...... and effectiveness and the concepts of Value Adding Management (VAM) and Functional Affordances of IS. Design/methodology/approach: From case studies of IS implementation processes in FM in different countries, a general picture of the expressed added value of IS in FM was established. Based on this insight a method...

  3. On minimal inhibitory rules for almost all k-valued information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail

    2009-07-30

    The minimal inhibitory rules for information systems can be used for construction of classifiers. We show that almost all information systems from a certain large class of information systems have relatively short minimal inhibitory rules. However, the number of such rules is not polynomial in the number of attributes and the number of objects. This class consists of all k-valued information systems, k ≥ 2, with the number of objects polynomial in the number of attributes. Hence, for efficient construction of classifiers some filtration techniques in rule generation are necessary. Another way is to work with lazy classification algorithms based on inhibitory rules.

  4. Adjusting Estimates of the Expected Value of Information for Implementation: Theoretical Framework and Practical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronis, Lazaros; Barton, Pelham M

    2016-04-01

    Value of information (VoI) calculations give the expected benefits of decision making under perfect information (EVPI) or sample information (EVSI), typically on the premise that any treatment recommendations made in light of this information will be implemented instantly and fully. This assumption is unlikely to hold in health care; evidence shows that obtaining further information typically leads to "improved" rather than "perfect" implementation. To present a method of calculating the expected value of further research that accounts for the reality of improved implementation. This work extends an existing conceptual framework by introducing additional states of the world regarding information (sample information, in addition to current and perfect information) and implementation (improved implementation, in addition to current and optimal implementation). The extension allows calculating the "implementation-adjusted" EVSI (IA-EVSI), a measure that accounts for different degrees of implementation. Calculations of implementation-adjusted estimates are illustrated under different scenarios through a stylized case study in non-small cell lung cancer. In the particular case study, the population values for EVSI and IA-EVSI were £ 25 million and £ 8 million, respectively; thus, a decision assuming perfect implementation would have overestimated the expected value of research by about £ 17 million. IA-EVSI was driven by the assumed time horizon and, importantly, the specified rate of change in implementation: the higher the rate, the greater the IA-EVSI and the lower the difference between IA-EVSI and EVSI. Traditionally calculated measures of population VoI rely on unrealistic assumptions about implementation. This article provides a simple framework that accounts for improved, rather than perfect, implementation and offers more realistic estimates of the expected value of research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Complementary Coffee Cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  6. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  7. The Impact of Corporate Reputation and Information Sharing on Value Creation for Organizational Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabkar Vesna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of corporate communication to build, protect and maintain corporate reputation has been advocated in numerous publications in recent years. The main goal of this paper is to provide an understanding of the impact of corporate reputation and information sharing on value creation. Both reputation and information sharing represent signals that customers observe in the process of value creation, which is seen as the end focus for corporate marketing. The paper draws on signaling theory and corporate marketing literature from the European and American schools of thought.

  8. The value of information for decision-making in the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Itamar; Leshno, Moshe; Blondheim, Orna; Kornbluth, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    With their ever-growing importance and usability, the healthcare sector has been investing heavily in medical information systems in recent years, as part of the effort to improve medical decision-making and increase its efficiency through improved medical processes, reduced costs, integration of patients' data, etc. In light of these developments, this research aims to evaluate the contribution of information technology (IT) to improving the medical decision-making processes at the point of care of internal medicine and surgical departments and to evaluate the degree to which IT investments are worthwhile. This has been done by assessing the value of information to decision-makers (physicians) at the point of care by investigating whether the information systems improved the medical outcomes. The research included three steps (after a pilot study)--the assessment of the subjective value of information, the assessment of the realistic value of information, and the assessment of the normative value of information, the results of each step being used as the starting assumptions for the following steps. Following a discussion and integration of the results from the various steps, the results of the three assessment stages were summarized in a cost-effectiveness analysis and an overall return on investment (ROI) analysis. In addition, we tried to suggest IT strategies for decision-makers in the healthcare sector on the advisability of implementing such systems as well as the implications for managing them. This research is uniquely pioneering in the manner in which it combines an assessment of the three kinds of measures of value of information in the healthcare environment. Our aim in performing it was to contribute to researchers (by providing additional insight into the fields of decision theory, value of information and medical informatics, amongst others), practitioners (by promoting efficiency in the design of new medical IS and improving existing IS), physicians

  9. Memory for general and specific value information in younger and older adults: measuring the limits of strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Farb, Norman A S; Craik, Fergus I M

    2007-06-01

    The ability to selectively remember important information is a critical function of memory. Although previous research has suggested that older adults are impaired in a variety of episodic memory tasks, recent work has demonstrated that older adults can selectively remember high-value information. In the present research, we examined how younger and older adults selectively remembered words with various assigned numeric point values, to see whether younger adults could remember more specific value information than could older adults. Both groups were equally good at recalling point values when recalling the range of high-value words, but younger adults outperformed older adults when recalling specific values. Although older adults were more likely to recognize negative value words, both groups exhibited control by not recalling negative value information. The findings suggest that although both groups retain high-value information, older adults rely more on gist-based encoding and retrieval operations, whereas younger adults are able to remember specific numeric value information.

  10. The Value of Information from a GRACE-Enhanced Drought Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwayama, Y.; Bernknopf, R.; Macauley, M.; Brookshire, D.; Zaitchik, B. F.; Rodell, M.

    2013-12-01

    Water storage anomalies derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment Data Assimilation System (GRACE-DAS) have been used to enhance the information contained in drought indicators. The potential value of this information is to inform local and regional decisions to improve economic welfare in the face of drought. Based on a characterization of current drought evaluations, a modeling framework has been structured to analyze the contributed value of the Earth observations in the assessment of the onset and duration of droughts and their regional impacts. The analysis focuses on (1) characterizing how GRACE-DAS provides Earth observation information for a drought warning, (2) assessing how a GRACE-DAS-enhanced U.S. Drought Monitor would improve economic outcomes in a region, and (3) applying this enhancement process in a decision framework to illustrate the potential role of GRACE data products in a recent drought and response scenario for a value-of-information (VOI) analysis. The VOI analysis quantifies the relative contribution of enhanced understanding and communication of the societal benefits associated with GRACE Earth observation science. Our emphasis is to illustrate the role of an enhanced National Integrated Drought Information System outlook on three key societal outcomes: effects on particular economic sectors, changes in land management decisions, and reductions in damages to ecosystem services.

  11. Fisher information and Shannon entropy for on-line detection of transient signal high-values in laser Doppler flowmetry signals of healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humeau, Anne; Trzepizur, Wojciech; Abraham, Pierre; Rousseau, David; Chapeau-Blondeau, Francois

    2008-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) is an easy-to-use method for the assessment of microcirculatory blood flow in tissues. However, LDF recordings very often present TRAnsient Signal High-values (TRASH), generally of a few seconds. These TRASH can come from tissue motions, optical fibre movements, movements of the probe head relative to the tissue, etc. They often lead to difficulties in signal global interpretations. In order to test the possibility of detecting automatically these TRASH for their removal, we process noisy and noiseless LDF signals with two indices from information theory, namely Fisher information and Shannon entropy. For this purpose, LDF signals from 13 healthy subjects are recorded at rest, during vascular occlusion of 3 min, and during post-occlusive hyperaemia. Computation of Fisher information and Shannon entropy values shows that, when calibrated, these two indices can be complementary to detect TRASH and be insensitive to the rapid increases of blood flow induced by post-occlusive hyperaemia. Moreover, the real-time algorithm has the advantage of being easy to implement and does not require any frequency analysis. This study opens new fields of application for Fisher information and Shannon entropy: LDF 'denoising'

  12. Access to and value of information to support good practice for staff in Kenyan hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Muinga

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have sought to define information needs of health workers within very specific settings or projects. Lacking in the literature is how hospitals in low-income settings are able to meet the information needs of their staff and the use of information communication technologies (ICT in day-to-day information searching. Objective: The study aimed to explore where professionals in Kenyan hospitals turn to for work-related information in their day-to-day work. Additionally, it examined what existing solutions are provided by hospitals with regard to provision of best practice care. Lastly, the study explored the use of ICT in information searching. Design: Data for this study were collected in July 2012. Self-administered questionnaires (SAQs were distributed across 22 study hospitals with an aim to get a response from 34 health workers per hospital. Results: SAQs were collected from 657 health workers. The most popular sources of information to guide work were fellow health workers and printed guidelines while the least popular were scientific journals. Of value to health workers were: national treatment policies, new research findings, regular reports from surveillance data, information on costs of services and information on their performance of routine clinical tasks; however, hospitals only partially met these needs. Barriers to accessing information sources included: ‘not available/difficult to get’ and ‘difficult to understand’. ICT use for information seeking was reported and with demographic specific differences noted from the multivariate logistic regression model; nurses compared to medical doctors and older workers were less likely to use ICT for health information searching. Barriers to accessing Internet were identified as: high costs and the lack of the service at home or at work. Conclusions: Hospitals need to provide appropriate information by improving information dissemination efforts and providing an

  13. The role of value-informed pricing in market-oriented product innovation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  14. The Role of Value-Informed Pricing in Market-Oriented Product Innovation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  15. The Economic Value of Fundamental and Technical Information in Emerging Currency Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J. de Zwart (Gerben); T.D. Markwat (Thijs); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractWe measure the economic value of information derived from macroeconomic variables and from technical trading rules for emerging markets currency investments. Our analysis is based on a sample of 21 emerging markets with a floating exchange rate regime over the period 1997-2007 and

  16. Relying on Your Own Best Judgment: Imputing Values to Missing Information in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Richard D.; And Others

    Processes involved in making estimates of the value of missing information that could help in a decision making process were studied. Hypothetical purchases of ground beef were selected for the study as such purchases have the desirable property of quantifying both the price and quality. A total of 150 students at the University of Iowa rated the…

  17. Information and Communication Technology and Cultural Change How ICT Changes Self-Construal and Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hansen, Nina; Postmes, Tom; van der Vinne, Nikita; van Thiel, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies whether and how information and communication technology (ICT) changes self-construal and cultural values in a developing country. Ethiopian children were given laptops in the context of an ICT for development scheme. We compared children who used laptops (n = 69) with a control

  18. Values determine the (ineffectiveness of informational interventions in promoting pro-environmental behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem Bolderdijk

    Full Text Available Informational interventions (e.g., awareness campaigns, carbon footprint calculators are built on the assumption that informing the public about the environmental consequences of their actions should result in increased pro-environmental intentions and behavior. However, empirical support for this reasoning is mixed. In this paper, we argue that informational interventions may succeed in improving people's knowledge about the negative environmental consequences of one's actions, but this knowledge will not gain motivational force if people do not consider protecting the environment an important personal value. In an experiment, we measured individual differences in value priorities, and either presented participants a movie clip that portrayed the negative environmental consequences of using bottled water, or a control movie. As predicted, we found that the environmental movie improved recipients' knowledge of the negative environmental impact of bottled water, but this knowledge only resulted in concomitant changes in intentions and acceptability of related policies among participants who strongly endorsed biospheric (i.e. environmental values, while having no effect on those who care less about the environment. Interestingly, the results suggest that although informational interventions are perhaps not always successful in directly affecting less environmentally-conscious recipients, they could still have beneficial effects, because they make those who strongly care about the environment more inclined to act on their values.

  19. Forest landowner decisions and the value of information under fire risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory S. Amacher; Arun S. Malik; Robert G. Haight

    2005-01-01

    We estimate the value of three types of information about fire risk to a nonindustrial forest landowner: the relationship between fire arrival rates and stand age, the magnitude of fire arrival rates, and the efficacy of fuel reduction treatment. Our model incorporates planting density and the level and timing of fuel reduction treatment as landowner decisions. These...

  20. Detraditionalisation, gender and alternative and complementary medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sointu, Eeva

    2011-03-01

    This article is premised on the importance of locating the appeal and meaning of alternative and complementary medicines in the context of gendered identities. I argue that the discourse of wellbeing--captured in many alternative and complementary health practices--is congruent with culturally prevalent ideals of self-fulfilling, authentic, unique and self-responsible subjectivity. The discourse of wellbeing places the self at the centre, thus providing a contrast with traditional ideas of other-directed and caring femininity. As such, involvement in alternative and complementary medicines is entwined with a negotiation of shifting femininities in detraditionalising societies. Simultaneously, many alternative and complementary health practices readily tap into and reproduce traditional representations of caring femininity. It is through an emphasis on emotional honesty and intimacy that the discourse of wellbeing also captures a challenge to traditional ideas of masculinity. Expectations and experiences relating to gender add a further level of complexity to the meaningfulness and therapeutic value of alternative and complementary medicines and underlie the gender difference in the utilisation of holistic health practices. I draw on data from a qualitative study with 44, primarily white, middle-class users and practitioners of varied alternative and complementary medicines in the UK. © 2010 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Applying an expectancy-value model to study motivators for work-task based information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigaard, Karen Tølbøl; Skov, Mette

    2015-01-01

    on the theory of expectancy-value and on the operationalisation used when the model was first developed. Data for the analysis were collected from a sample of seven informants working as consultants in Danish municipalities. Each participant filled out a questionnaire, kept a log book for a week...... for interpersonal and internal sources increased when the task had high-value motivation or low-expectancy motivation or both. Research limitations/implications: The study is based on a relatively small sample and considers only one motivation theory. This should be addressed in future research along...... with a broadening of the studied group to involve other professions than municipality consultants. Originality/value: Motivational theories from the field of psychology have been used sparsely in studies of information seeking. This study operationalises and verifies such a theory based on a theoretical adaptation...

  2. The Mixed Instrumental Controller: Using Value of Information to Combine Habitual Choice and Mental Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni ePezzulo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Instrumental behavior depends on both goal-directed and habitual mechanisms of choice. Normative views cast these mechanisms in terms of model-free and model-based methods of reinforcement learning, respectively. An influential proposal hypothesizes that model-free and model-based mechanisms coexist and compete in the brain according to their relative uncertainty. In this paper we propose a novel view in which a single Mixed Instrumental Controller produces both goal-directed and habitual behavior by flexibly balancing and combining model-based and model-free computations. The Mixed Instrumental Controller performs a cost-benefits analysis to decide whether to chose an action immediately based on the available "cached" value of actions (linked to model-free mechanisms or to improve value estimation by mentally simulating the expected outcome values (linked to model-based mechanisms. Since mental simulation entails cognitive effort and increases the reward delay, it is activated only when the associated "Value of Information" exceeds its costs. The model proposes a method to compute the Value of Information, based on the uncertainty of action values and on the distance of alternative cached action values. Overall, the model by default chooses on the basis of lighter model-free estimates, and integrates them with costly model-based predictions only when useful. Mental simulation uses a sampling method to produce reward expectancies, which are used to update the cached value of one or more actions; in turn, this updated value is used for the choice. The key predictions of the model are tested in different settings of a double T-maze scenario. Results are discussed in relation with neurobiological evidence on the hippocampus - ventral striatum circuit in rodents, which has been linked to goal-directed spatial navigation.

  3. The mixed instrumental controller: using value of information to combine habitual choice and mental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Rigoli, Francesco; Chersi, Fabian

    2013-01-01

    Instrumental behavior depends on both goal-directed and habitual mechanisms of choice. Normative views cast these mechanisms in terms of model-free and model-based methods of reinforcement learning, respectively. An influential proposal hypothesizes that model-free and model-based mechanisms coexist and compete in the brain according to their relative uncertainty. In this paper we propose a novel view in which a single Mixed Instrumental Controller produces both goal-directed and habitual behavior by flexibly balancing and combining model-based and model-free computations. The Mixed Instrumental Controller performs a cost-benefits analysis to decide whether to chose an action immediately based on the available "cached" value of actions (linked to model-free mechanisms) or to improve value estimation by mentally simulating the expected outcome values (linked to model-based mechanisms). Since mental simulation entails cognitive effort and increases the reward delay, it is activated only when the associated "Value of Information" exceeds its costs. The model proposes a method to compute the Value of Information, based on the uncertainty of action values and on the distance of alternative cached action values. Overall, the model by default chooses on the basis of lighter model-free estimates, and integrates them with costly model-based predictions only when useful. Mental simulation uses a sampling method to produce reward expectancies, which are used to update the cached value of one or more actions; in turn, this updated value is used for the choice. The key predictions of the model are tested in different settings of a double T-maze scenario. Results are discussed in relation with neurobiological evidence on the hippocampus - ventral striatum circuit in rodents, which has been linked to goal-directed spatial navigation.

  4. Measuring value for money: a scoping review on economic evaluation of health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Jesdeep; Lau, Francis

    2013-01-01

    To explore how key components of economic evaluations have been included in evaluations of health information systems (HIS), to determine the state of knowledge on value for money for HIS, and provide guidance for future evaluations. We searched databases, previously collected papers, and references for relevant papers published from January 2000 to June 2012. For selection, papers had to: be a primary study; involve a computerized system for health information processing, decision support, or management reporting; and include an economic evaluation. Data on study design and economic evaluation methods were extracted and analyzed. Forty-two papers were selected and 33 were deemed high quality (scores ≥ 8/10) for further analysis. These included 12 economic analyses, five input cost analyses, and 16 cost-related outcome analyses. For HIS types, there were seven primary care electronic medical records, six computerized provider order entry systems, five medication management systems, five immunization information systems, four institutional information systems, three disease management systems, two clinical documentation systems, and one health information exchange network. In terms of value for money, 23 papers reported positive findings, eight were inconclusive, and two were negative. We found a wide range of economic evaluation papers that were based on different assumptions, methods, and metrics. There is some evidence of value for money in selected healthcare organizations and HIS types. However, caution is needed when generalizing these findings. Better reporting of economic evaluation studies is needed to compare findings and build on the existing evidence base we identified.

  5. How to Create Business Value through Information Technology (A Case Study on Automotive Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Feizi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at designing information technology business value model in order to explain the value of information technology in business and evaluate information technology contribution in organization function. For the purpose of a comprehensive analysis of the subject using qualitative data, the research method was set to be mixed method focusing on qualitative sequential design. The first stage of the research strategy was an exploratory single case study and for the second phase, the researchers used focus groups design. Saipa Corporation, one of the most famous firms in Iranian automotive industry, was selected as the case. The varied qualitative date were gathered through interview, document review and observation methods and were analyzed afterwards. Ultimately, the findings of the study highlighted the items and dimensions of information technology business value. This model is composed of the relationship between different dimensions of the theoretical models regarding and the share of information technology in building a business. In order to ensure research generalizability, the results of the research were compared with those in the literature review and the theoretic adequacy of the proposed framework was confirmed.

  6. Information Technology and generating business value: An analysis in industrial SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Trigueros-Preciado

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The literature examines the relationship between information technologies and business results mainly through direct relationship between investment on Information Technologies (IT and financial measures. This has resulted in disparity of results and lack of consensus, and therefore, the necessity to deepen this topic. In this sense, this paper aims to analyze in industrial SMEs the effects of the use of IT on different financial and non-financial variables related to business value. Design/methodology/approach: The work follows the classical research scheme with literature review, statement of hypotheses and application of quantitative empirical methodology, collecting information through questionnaires sent by email, for further processing and statistical testing using ANOVA models, which allow get results and conclusions. Findings and Originality/value: The study provides an approach beyond classical search of direct relationship between IT investment and financial measures, using instead as an explanatory variable the "use of IT" and as explained variables the Balance scorecard dimensions, which considers the financial ones and introduces other more qualitative as customers, human resources and internal processes. The obtained results show that IT contributes to the generation of value not only through the profitability but also other more qualitative factors. Research limitations/implications: The sample size (85 companies complicates the extrapolation of results. In addition, in the future it would be appropriate to consider new technological developments like Cloud computing, along with variables such as information security and its impact on value creation. Originality/value: This work shows that to analyze the generated value by IT it must to be considered financial and non-financial variables. The proposed approach, variables and scales complement traditional approaches and can guide future research as well as companies who

  7. On the Value of Monitoring Information for the Structural Integrity and Risk Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    facilitates the assessment of the value of information associated with SHM. The principal approach for the quantification of the value of SHM is formulated by modeling the fundamental decision of performing SHM or not in conjunction with their expected utilities. The expected utilities are calculated....... The calculation of the expected utilities necessitates a comprehensive and rigorous modeling, which is introduced close to the original formulations and for which analysis characteristics and simplifications are described and derived. The framework provides the basis for the optimization of the structural risk......This article introduces an approach and framework for the quantification of the value of structural health monitoring (SHM) in the context of the structural risk and integrity management for systems.The quantification of the value of SHM builds upon the Bayesian decision and utility theory, which...

  8. The information value of early career productivity in mathematics: a ROC analysis of prediction errors in bibliometricly informed decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Jonas; Danell, Rickard

    The aim of this study was to provide a framework to evaluate bibliometric indicators as decision support tools from a decision making perspective and to examine the information value of early career publication rate as a predictor of future productivity. We used ROC analysis to evaluate a bibliometric indicator as a tool for binary decision making. The dataset consisted of 451 early career researchers in the mathematical sub-field of number theory. We investigated the effect of three different definitions of top performance groups-top 10, top 25, and top 50 %; the consequences of using different thresholds in the prediction models; and the added prediction value of information on early career research collaboration and publications in prestige journals. We conclude that early career performance productivity has an information value in all tested decision scenarios, but future performance is more predictable if the definition of a high performance group is more exclusive. Estimated optimal decision thresholds using the Youden index indicated that the top 10 % decision scenario should use 7 articles, the top 25 % scenario should use 7 articles, and the top 50 % should use 5 articles to minimize prediction errors. A comparative analysis between the decision thresholds provided by the Youden index which take consequences into consideration and a method commonly used in evaluative bibliometrics which do not take consequences into consideration when determining decision thresholds, indicated that differences are trivial for the top 25 and the 50 % groups. However, a statistically significant difference between the methods was found for the top 10 % group. Information on early career collaboration and publication strategies did not add any prediction value to the bibliometric indicator publication rate in any of the models. The key contributions of this research is the focus on consequences in terms of prediction errors and the notion of transforming uncertainty

  9. Development of a construction and manufacturing techniques of complementary transistors for the radiation tolerant integrated circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorban A. N.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The construction of vertical complementary transistors with the full dielectric isolation is developed, new technolo-gical processes of creation on their basis the radiation tolerant integrated circuits with parameters which provide low values of a leakage current along with the considerable values of a forward current and breakdown voltage at the information signals exchange frequency of about 500 kHz are developed.

  10. Data Democracy and Decision Making: Enhancing the Use and Value of Geospatial Data and Scientific Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, C. D.

    2014-12-01

    Data democracy is a concept that has great relevance to the use and value of geospatial data and scientific information. Data democracy describes a world in which data and information are widely and broadly accessible, understandable, and useable. The concept operationalizes the public good nature of scientific information and provides a framework for increasing benefits from its use. Data democracy encompasses efforts to increase accessibility to geospatial data and to expand participation in its collection, analysis, and application. These two pillars are analogous to demand and supply relationships. Improved accessibility, or demand, includes increased knowledge about geospatial data and low barriers to retrieval and use. Expanded participation, or supply, encompasses a broader community involved in developing geospatial data and scientific information. This pillar of data democracy is characterized by methods such as citizen science or crowd sourcing.A framework is developed for advancing the use of data democracy. This includes efforts to assess the societal benefits (economic and social) of scientific information. This knowledge is critical to continued monitoring of the effectiveness of data democracy implementation and of potential impact on the use and value of scientific information. The framework also includes an assessment of opportunities for advancing data democracy both on the supply and demand sides. These opportunities include relatively inexpensive efforts to reduce barriers to use as well as the identification of situations in which participation can be expanded in scientific efforts to enhance the breadth of involvement as well as expanding participation to non-traditional communities. This framework provides an initial perspective on ways to expand the "scientific community" of data users and providers. It also describes a way forward for enhancing the societal benefits from geospatial data and scientific information. As a result, data

  11. Expected value information improves financial risk taking across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Anthony D; Knutson, Brian

    2011-04-01

    When making decisions, individuals must often compensate for cognitive limitations, particularly in the face of advanced age. Recent findings suggest that age-related variability in striatal activity may increase financial risk-taking mistakes in older adults. In two studies, we sought to further characterize neural contributions to optimal financial risk taking and to determine whether decision aids could improve financial risk taking. In Study 1, neuroimaging analyses revealed that individuals whose mesolimbic activation correlated with the expected value estimates of a rational actor made more optimal financial decisions. In Study 2, presentation of expected value information improved decision making in both younger and older adults, but the addition of a distracting secondary task had little impact on decision quality. Remarkably, provision of expected value information improved the performance of older adults to match that of younger adults at baseline. These findings are consistent with the notion that mesolimbic circuits play a critical role in optimal choice, and imply that providing simplified information about expected value may improve financial risk taking across the adult life span.

  12. Information needs of engineers. The methodology developed by the WFEO Committee on Engineering Information and the use of value analysis for improving information services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darjoto, S.W.; Martono, A.; Michel, J.

    1990-05-01

    The World Federation of Engineering Organizations - WFEO - through the work of its Committee on Engineering Information, aims at improving the efficiency of engineers and particularly at developing new attitudes and practices concerning the specialized information mastering. One important part of the WFEO/CEI programme of activities during the last years and for the next years was and is devoted to a better understanding of the information needs of engineers. But also, it seems now essential to WFEO/CEI to better evaluate information services in order to correctly adapt them to the identified needs of engineers. The following communication will emphasize these two main and related perspectives: identifying the information needs of engineers; developing Value Analysis approaches for engineering information services. (author). 3 refs

  13. Information needs of engineers. The methodology developed by the WFEO Committee on Engineering Information and the use of value analysis for improving information services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darjoto, S W [Indonesian Inst. of Sciences, Bandung (Indonesia); Martono, A [Indonesian Inst. of Engineers, Jakarta (Indonesia); Michel, J [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris (France)

    1990-05-01

    The World Federation of Engineering Organizations - WFEO - through the work of its Committee on Engineering Information, aims at improving the efficiency of engineers and particularly at developing new attitudes and practices concerning the specialized information mastering. One important part of the WFEO/CEI programme of activities during the last years and for the next years was and is devoted to a better understanding of the information needs of engineers. But also, it seems now essential to WFEO/CEI to better evaluate information services in order to correctly adapt them to the identified needs of engineers. The following communication will emphasize these two main and related perspectives: identifying the information needs of engineers; developing Value Analysis approaches for engineering information services. (author). 3 refs.

  14. Fibromyalgia and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Web site . What the Science Says About Complementary Health Approaches for Fibromyalgia Mind ... Complementary and alternative medical therapies in fibromyalgia . Current Pharmaceutical Design . 2006;12(1):47–57. Sherman KJ, ...

  15. Value of information analysis from a societal perspective: a case study in prevention of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H M; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    2013-06-01

    Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective. Until now, however, value of information analyses have usually applied a health care perspective for economic evaluations. Hence, the effect of productivity losses has rarely been investigated in such analyses. The aim of the current study therefore was to investigate the effects of including or excluding productivity costs in value of information analyses. Expected value of information analysis (EVPI) was performed in cost-effectiveness evaluation of prevention from both societal and health care perspectives, to give us the opportunity to compare different perspectives. Priorities for future research were determined by partial EVPI. The program to prevent major depression in patients with subthreshold depression was opportunistic screening followed by minimal contact psychotherapy. The EVPI indicated that regardless of perspective, further research is potentially worthwhile. Partial EVPI results underlined the importance of productivity losses when a societal perspective was considered. Furthermore, priority setting for future research differed according to perspective. The results illustrated that advise for future research will differ for a health care versus a societal perspective and hence the value of information analysis should be adjusted to the perspective that is relevant for the decision makers involved. The outcomes underlined the need for carefully choosing the suitable perspective for the decision problem at hand. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Value of information in sequential decision making: Component inspection, permanent monitoring and system-level scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memarzadeh, Milad; Pozzi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    We illustrate how to assess the Value of Information (VoI) in sequential decision making problems modeled by Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes (POMDPs). POMDPs provide a general framework for modeling the management of infrastructure components, including operation and maintenance, when only partial or noisy observations are available; VoI is a key concept for selecting explorative actions, with application to component inspection and monitoring. Furthermore, component-level VoI can serve as an effective heuristic for assigning priorities to system-level inspection scheduling. We introduce two alternative models for the availability of information, and derive the VoI in each of those settings: the Stochastic Allocation (SA) model assumes that observations are collected with a given probability, while the Fee-based Allocation model (FA) assumes that they are available at a given cost. After presenting these models at component-level, we investigate how they perform for system-level inspection scheduling. - Highlights: • On the Value of Information in POMDPs, for optimal exploration of systems. • A method for assessing the Value of Information of permanent monitoring. • A method for allocating inspections in systems made up by parallel POMDPs.

  17. Attenuating initial beliefs: increasing the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change information by reflecting on values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Prooijen, Anne-Marie; Sparks, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic climate change information tends to be interpreted against the backdrop of initial environmental beliefs, which can lead to some people being resistant toward the information. In this article (N = 88), we examined whether self-affirmation via reflection on personally important values could attenuate the impact of initial beliefs on the acceptance of anthropogenic climate change evidence. Our findings showed that initial beliefs about the human impact on ecological stability influenced the acceptance of information only among nonaffirmed participants. Self-affirmed participants who were initially resistant toward the information showed stronger beliefs in the existence of climate change risks and greater acknowledgment that individual efficacy has a role to play in reducing climate change risks than did their nonaffirmed counterparts. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Values Underlying the Information Culture in Communist and Post-Communist Russia (1917−1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig de Smaele

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the concept of information culture—understood as the dominant handling of information, shared by a dominant proportion of journalists, the public, authorities and other actors within a societal environment at a given time and place—is explored in the context of Communist and early post-Communist Russia (1917−1999. Three value pairs underlying the attitude towards information are explored: individualism and collectivism (the relation of man to the state, universalism and particularism (the relation of man to man, and pluralism versus dominance (the nature of knowledge and truth. Continuities are found between the Communist Soviet Union and post-Communist Russia in their instrumental use of media and information (collectivism, the view on information as a particular privilege rather than a universal right and the monopoly of truth. Post-Communism, therefore, appears not only as an indication of time (i.e. the period after Communism but also as an indicator of the continuation of basic value orientations over these time periods.

  19. Value of information: A roadmap to quantifying the benefit of structural health monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straub, D.; Chatzi, E.; Bismut, E.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of value of information (VoI) enables quantification of the benefits provided by structural health monitoring (SHM) systems – in principle. Its implementation is challenging, as it requires an explicit modelling of the structural system’s life cycle, in particular of the decisions...... that are taken based on the SHM information. In this paper, we approach the VoI analysis through an influence diagram (ID), which supports the modelling process. We provide a simple example for illustration and discuss challenges associated with real-life implementation....

  20. On the Value of Structural Health Monitoring Information for the Operation of Wind Parks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, Michael H.; Val, Dimitri V.

    2017-01-01

    wind turbine systems and its components is developed accounting for the wind park functionality, i.e. power production, its operation and its cascading damage and failure scenarios. This system model facilitates to quantify the expected benefits and risks throughout the service life accounting......In the present paper, an approach for the quantification of the Value of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) Information building upon a framework for infrastructure system utility and decision analysis is developed and applied to the operation of wind parks. The quantification of the value of SHM...... facilitates a benefit and risk informed assessment and optimization of SHM strategies and encompasses models for the infrastructure functionality, the structural constituent and system risks and its management as well as the performance of SHM strategies. A wind park system model incorporating the structural...

  1. The Effect of Information Technology on Value Chain of Iranian Exemplary Exporter Manufacturer Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood Naderi Bani; Mohammad Ali Feyzpoor; Ali Sanayei

    2013-01-01

    The fast and ever-increasing progress in Information Technology (IT) area and their role inhelping firms to improve their performance cause them to depend on IT day by day. At thesame time, few studies have been conducted in this area, so the mechanism and effects of ITon Iranian firm’s value chains are unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to study in this area. Thisstudy is a descriptive survey. The statistical population of the research is composed of Iranianexemplary exporter manufacturer c...

  2. Value Informed Conception, Design, Implementation and Operation of Education and Teaching Activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Havbro Faber; Nielsen, Linda

    2017-01-01

    In the present paper we take basis in the basic postulate that the objective of education and teaching is value creation. With this setout we take up two implications, namely: i) decision analysis is the logical choice of management framework for conceiving, designing, implementing and operating ...... (CDIO) education and teaching activities and ii) a thorough, transparent and continuously informed discourse is necessary among all stakeholders to education on what this “value” actually is....

  3. Prospecting for dinosaurs on the mining frontier: The value of information in America's Gilded Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Lukas

    2015-04-01

    How much is a dinosaur worth? This essay offers an account of the way vertebrate fossils were priced in late 19th-century America to explore the process by which monetary values are established in science. Examining a long and drawn-out negotiation over the sale of an unusually rich dinosaur quarry in Wyoming, I argue that, on their own, abstract market principles did not suffice to mediate between supply and demand. Rather, people haggling over the price of dinosaur bones looked to social norms from the mineral industry for cues on how to value these rare and unusual objects, adopting a set of negotiation tactics that exploited asymmetries in the distribution of scarce information to secure the better end of the deal. On the mining frontier in America's Gilded Age, dinosaurs were thus valued in much the same way as any other scarce natural resource one could dig out of the ground, including gold, silver, and coal.

  4. Two Ranking Methods of Single Valued Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers to Rank and Evaluate Information Systems Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samah Ibrahim Abdel Aal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of neutrosophic can provide a generalization of fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy set that make it is the best fit in representing indeterminacy and uncertainty. Single Valued Triangular Numbers (SVTrN-numbers is a special case of neutrosophic set that can handle ill-known quantity very difficult problems. This work intended to introduce a framework with two types of ranking methods. The results indicated that each ranking method has its own advantage. In this perspective, the weighted value and ambiguity based method gives more attention to uncertainty in ranking and evaluating ISQ as well as it takes into account cut sets of SVTrN numbers that can reflect the information on Truth-membership-membership degree, false membership-membership degree and Indeterminacy-membership degree. The value index and ambiguity index method can reflect the decision maker's subjectivity attitude to the SVTrN- numbers.

  5. Value of information analysis for groundwater quality monitoring network design Case study: Eocene Aquifer, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A.; McKee, M.

    2010-12-01

    Value of information (VOI) analysis evaluates the benefit of collecting additional information to reduce or eliminate uncertainty in a specific decision-making context. It makes explicit any expected potential losses from errors in decision making due to uncertainty and identifies the “best” information collection strategy as one that leads to the greatest expected net benefit to the decision-maker. This study investigates the willingness to pay for groundwater quality monitoring in the Eocene Aquifer, Palestine, which is an unconfined aquifer located in the northern part of the West Bank. The aquifer is being used by 128,000 Palestinians to fulfill domestic and agricultural demands. The study takes into account the consequences of pollution and the options the decision maker might face. Since nitrate is the major pollutant in the aquifer, the consequences of nitrate pollution were analyzed, which mainly consists of the possibility of methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome). In this case, the value of monitoring was compared to the costs of treating for methemoglobinemia or the costs of other options like water treatment, using bottled water or importing water from outside the aquifer. And finally, an optimal monitoring network that takes into account the uncertainties in recharge (climate), aquifer properties (hydraulic conductivity), pollutant chemical reaction (decay factor), and the value of monitoring is designed by utilizing a sparse Bayesian modeling algorithm called a relevance vector machine.

  6. Designing the Monitoring of Water-Related Sustainable Development Goals Based on Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to collective action and targeted interventions at global, regional, and national scales. Existing monitoring and data infrastructures are inadequate for producing the variety of environmental and socioeconomic information needed to ensure efficient and effective outcomes across the range of interlinked SDGs and targets. The scientific community needs to take a lead in developing new tools and approaches that, at reasonable cost, provide monitoring data of sufficient quality and spatial and temporal coverage to support informed decision making by diverse stakeholders. The expanded SDGs related to water offer the opportunity to explore potential new monitoring approaches and data system architectures in a key sector, building on existing water monitoring capabilities and incorporating new technologies and methods. Since additional investments in monitoring will undoubtedly be limited, it is important to assess carefully the value of information produced by different options and their associated risks and tradeoffs. We review here the existing set of water monitoring systems, known gaps and limitations, stakeholder inputs on data needs, and the potential value of information in light of alternative water sector interventions. Of particular interest are opportunities to share investments in monitoring across sectors and stakeholders (e.g., public and private entities) and to identify where incremental improvements in water monitoring could have significant benefits for other SDGs (e.g., related to health, energy, agriculture, and climate change). Value of information is also driven by the numbers of people affected by decisions or able to take advantage of improved data, which implies the need not only to collect and archive data, but also to invest in making data accessible and usable to diverse and geographically dispersed users.

  7. Missing value imputation for microarray gene expression data using histone acetylation information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Jihua

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is an important pre-processing step to accurately estimate missing values in microarray data, because complete datasets are required in numerous expression profile analysis in bioinformatics. Although several methods have been suggested, their performances are not satisfactory for datasets with high missing percentages. Results The paper explores the feasibility of doing missing value imputation with the help of gene regulatory mechanism. An imputation framework called histone acetylation information aided imputation method (HAIimpute method is presented. It incorporates the histone acetylation information into the conventional KNN(k-nearest neighbor and LLS(local least square imputation algorithms for final prediction of the missing values. The experimental results indicated that the use of acetylation information can provide significant improvements in microarray imputation accuracy. The HAIimpute methods consistently improve the widely used methods such as KNN and LLS in terms of normalized root mean squared error (NRMSE. Meanwhile, the genes imputed by HAIimpute methods are more correlated with the original complete genes in terms of Pearson correlation coefficients. Furthermore, the proposed methods also outperform GOimpute, which is one of the existing related methods that use the functional similarity as the external information. Conclusion We demonstrated that the using of histone acetylation information could greatly improve the performance of the imputation especially at high missing percentages. This idea can be generalized to various imputation methods to facilitate the performance. Moreover, with more knowledge accumulated on gene regulatory mechanism in addition to histone acetylation, the performance of our approach can be further improved and verified.

  8. Value-informed pricing in its organizational context: literature review, conceptual framework, and directions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose ¿ In the face of increased pricing pressure, managerial attention for value-informed pricing (in which a price is based on the customer¿s value perception) is on the rise. Although value-informed pricing in its organizational context received a great deal of attention, the body of literature

  9. A ROADMAP FOR A COMPUTATIONAL THEORY OF THE VALUE OF INFORMATION IN ORIGIN OF LIFE QUESTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Banerjee

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Information plays a critical role in complex biological systems. Complex systems like immune systems and ant colonies co-ordinate heterogeneous components in a decentralized fashion. How do these distributed decentralized systems function? One key component is how these complex systems efficiently process information. These complex systems have an architecture for integrating and processing information coming in from various sources and points to the value of information in the functioning of different complex biological systems. This article proposes a role for information processing in questions around the origin of life and suggests how computational simulations may yield insights into questions related to the origin of life. Such a computational model of the origin of life would unify thermodynamics with information processing and we would gain an appreciation of why proteins and nucleotides evolved as the substrate of computation and information processing in living systems that we see on Earth. Answers to questions like these may give us insights into non-carbon based forms of life that we could search for outside Earth. We hypothesize that carbon-based life forms are only one amongst a continuum of life-like systems in the universe. Investigations into the role of computational substrates that allow information processing is important and could yield insights into: 1 novel non-carbon based computational substrates that may have “life-like” properties, and 2 how life may have actually originated from non-life on Earth. Life may exist as a continuum between non-life and life and we may have to revise our notion of life and how common it is in the universe. Looking at life or life-like phenomenon through the lens of information theory may yield a broader view of life.

  10. Rapid humanitarian assessments and rationality: a value-of-information study from Iraq, 2003-04.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Aldo; Conley, Charles

    2007-03-01

    Rapid assessments are one of the standard informational tools in humanitarian response and are supposed to contribute to rational decision-making.(1) The extent to which the assessment organisation itself behaves rationally, however, is an open question. This can be evaluated against multiple criteria, such as the cost and value of the information it collects and its ability to adapt flexibly design or samples when the survey environment changes unforeseeably. An unusual data constellation from two concurrent recent (2003-04) rapid assessments in northern Iraq permits us to model part of the actual assessment behaviour in terms of geographical, community and prior substantive information attributes. The model correctly predicts the decisions, in 79 per cent of the 2,425 local communities in focus, that data collector teams in the Emergency Mine Action Survey made to visit or not to visit. The analysis demonstrates variably rational behaviour under conditions of insecurity, repeated regrouping and incomplete sampling frames. A pronounced bias towards very small rural settlements is irrational for the overall results, but may be a rational strategy of individual survey workers seeking to prolong their employment. Implications for future assessments are sketched in the areas of tools for urban surveys, greater adaptability, including early feedback from users, and sensibility to value-of-information concepts.

  11. Business Value of Information Technology Service Quality Based on Probabilistic Business-Driven Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka Sembiring

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The business value of information technology (IT services is often difficult to assess, especially from the point of view of a non-IT manager. This condition could severely impact organizational IT strategic decisions. Various approaches have been proposed to quantify the business value, but some are trapped in technical complexity while others misguide managers into directly and subjectively judging some technical entities outside their domain of expertise. This paper describes a method on how to properly capture both perspectives based on a  probabilistic business-driven model. The proposed model presents a procedure to calculate the business value of IT services. The model also covers IT security services and their business value as an important aspect of IT services that is not covered in previously published researches. The impact of changes in the quality of IT services on business value will also be discussed. A simulation and a case illustration are provided to show the possible application of the proposed model for a simple business process in an enterprise.

  12. Hypertension management: Perspectives of complementary and al ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information available on the various forms of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) used in the management of hypertension is inadequate and conflicting. The primary objective of this study was to assess the use of CAM in the management of hypertension by CAM practition-ers. A qualitative study utilizing ...

  13. Dynamic Interplay of Value and Sensory Information in High-Speed Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afacan-Seref, Kivilcim; Steinemann, Natalie A; Blangero, Annabelle; Kelly, Simon P

    2018-03-05

    In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively [1-6], but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases are affected by starting the integrator closer to the more valuable bound. Here, we show significant departures from this account for humans making rapid sensory-instructed action choices. Behavior was best explained by a simple model in which the evidence representation-and hence, rate of accumulation-is itself biased by value and is non-stationary, increasing over the short decision time frame. Because the value bias initially dominates, the model uniquely predicts a dynamic "turn-around" effect on low-value cues, where the accumulator first launches toward the incorrect action but is then re-routed to the correct one. This was clearly exhibited in electrophysiological signals reflecting motor preparation and evidence accumulation. Finally, we construct an extended model that implements this dynamic effect through plausible sensory neural response modulations and demonstrate the correspondence between decision signal dynamics simulated from a behavioral fit of that model and the empirical decision signals. Our findings suggest that value and sensory information can exert simultaneous and dynamically countervailing influences on the trajectory of the accumulation-to-bound process, driving rapid, sensory-guided actions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Expert elicitation, uncertainty, and the value of information in controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Smith, Brian J.; Bonneau, Mathieu; Martin, Julien; Romagosa, Christina; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Reed, Robert; Eckles, Jennifer Kettevrlin; Vitt, Laurie J.

    2017-01-01

    We illustrate the utility of expert elicitation, explicit recognition of uncertainty, and the value of information for directing management and research efforts for invasive species, using tegu lizards (Salvator merianae) in southern Florida as a case study. We posited a post-birth pulse, matrix model in which four age classes of tegus are recognized: hatchlings, 1 year-old, 2 year-olds, and 3 + year-olds. This matrix model was parameterized using a 3-point process to elicit estimates of tegu demographic rates in southern Florida from 10 herpetology experts. We fit statistical distributions for each parameter and for each expert, then drew and pooled a large number of replicate samples from these to form a distribution for each demographic parameter. Using these distributions, as well as the observed correlations among elicited values, we generated a large sample of matrix population models to infer how the tegu population would respond to control efforts. We used the concepts of Pareto efficiency and stochastic dominance to conclude that targeting older age classes at relatively high rates appears to have the best chance of minimizing tegu abundance and control costs. We conclude that expert opinion combined with an explicit consideration of uncertainty can be valuable in conducting an initial assessment of what control strategy, effort, and monetary resources are needed to reduce and eventually eliminate the invader. Scientists, in turn, can use the value of information to focus research in a way that not only increases the efficacy of control, but minimizes costs as well.

  15. Measuring the Value of Earth Observation Information with the Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.; Kuwayama, Y.; Brookshire, D.; Macauley, M.; Zaitchik, B.; Pesko, S.; Vail, P.

    2014-12-01

    Determining how much to invest in earth observation technology depends in part on the value of information (VOI) that can be derived from the observations. We design a framework and then evaluate the value-in-use of the NASA Gravity Research and Climate Experiment (GRACE) for regional water use and reliability in the presence of drought. As a technology that allows measurement of water storage, the GRACE Data Assimilation System (DAS) provides information that is qualitatively different from that generated by other water data sources. It provides a global, reproducible grid of changes in surface and subsurface water resources on a frequent and regular basis. Major damages from recent events such as the 2012 Midwest drought and the ongoing drought in California motivate the need to understand the VOI from remotely sensed data such as that derived from GRACE DAS. Our conceptual framework models a dynamic risk management problem in agriculture. We base the framework on information from stakeholders and subject experts. The economic case for GRACE DAS involves providing better water availability information. In the model, individuals have a "willingness to pay" (wtp) for GRACE DAS - essentially, wtp is an expression of savings in reduced agricultural input costs and for costs that are influenced by regional policy decisions. Our hypothesis is that improvements in decision making can be achieved with GRACE DAS measurements of water storage relative to data collected from groundwater monitoring wells and soil moisture monitors that would be relied on in the absence of GRACE DAS. The VOI is estimated as a comparison of outcomes. The California wine grape industry has features that allow it to be a good case study and a basis for extrapolation to other economic sectors. We model water use in this sector as a sequential decision highlighting the attributes of GRACE DAS input as information for within-season production decisions as well as for longer-term water reliability.

  16. Estimating the social value of geologic map information: A regulatory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, R.L.; Brookshire, D.S.; McKee, M.; Soller, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    People frequently regard the landscape as part of a static system. The mountains and rivers that cross the landscape, and the bedrock that supports the surface, change little during the course of a lifetime. Society can alter the geologic history of an area and, in so doing, affect the occurrence and impact of environmental hazards. For example, changes in land use can induce changes in erosion, sedimentation, and ground-water supply. As the environmental system is changed by both natural processes and human activities, the system's capacity to respond to additional stresses also changes. Information such as geologic maps describes the physical world and is critical for identifying solutions to land use and environmental issues. In this paper, a method is developed for estimating the economic value of applying geologic map information to siting a waste disposal facility. An improvement in geologic map information is shown to have a net positive value to society. Such maps enable planners to make superior land management decisions.

  17. Carbon information disclosure of enterprises and their value creation through market liquidity and cost of equity capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Drawing on asymmetric information and stakeholder theories, this paper investigates two mechanisms, namely market liquidity and cost of equity capital, by which the carbon information disclosure of enterprises can benefit their value creation. Design/methodology/approach: In this research, web crawler technology is employed to study the link between carbon information disclosure and enterprises value creation?and the carbon information data are provided by all companies listed in Chinese A-share market Findings: The results show that carbon information disclosure have significant positive influence on enterprise value creation, which is embodied in the relationship between carbon information disclosure quantity, depth and enterprise value creation, and market liquidity and cost of equity capital play partially mediating role in it, while the influence of carbon information disclosure quality and concentration on enterprise value creation are not significant in statistics. Research limitations/implications: This paper explains the influence path and mechanism between carbon information disclosure and enterprise value creation deeply, answers the question of whether carbon information disclosure affects enterprise value creation or not in China. Practical implications: This paper finds that carbon information disclosure contributes positively to enterprise value creation suggests that managers can reap more financial benefits by disclosing more carbon information and investing carbon emissions management. So, managers in the enterprises should strengthen the management of carbon information disclosure behavior. Originality/value: The paper gives a different perspective on the influence of carbon information disclosure on enterprise value creation, and suggests a new direction to understand carbon information disclosure behavior.

  18. Value-based choice: An integrative, neuroscience-informed model of health goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkman, Elliot T

    2018-01-01

    Traditional models of health behaviour focus on the roles of cognitive, personality and social-cognitive constructs (e.g. executive function, grit, self-efficacy), and give less attention to the process by which these constructs interact in the moment that a health-relevant choice is made. Health psychology needs a process-focused account of how various factors are integrated to produce the decisions that determine health behaviour. I present an integrative value-based choice model of health behaviour, which characterises the mechanism by which a variety of factors come together to determine behaviour. This model imports knowledge from research on behavioural economics and neuroscience about how choices are made to the study of health behaviour, and uses that knowledge to generate novel predictions about how to change health behaviour. I describe anomalies in value-based choice that can be exploited for health promotion, and review neuroimaging evidence about the involvement of midline dopamine structures in tracking and integrating value-related information during choice. I highlight how this knowledge can bring insights to health psychology using illustrative case of healthy eating. Value-based choice is a viable model for health behaviour and opens new avenues for mechanism-focused intervention.

  19. Uncertainty, robustness, and the value of information in managing a population of northern bobwhites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred A.; Hagan, Greg; Palmer, William E.; Kemmerer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The abundance of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) has decreased throughout their range. Managers often respond by considering improvements in harvest and habitat management practices, but this can be challenging if substantial uncertainty exists concerning the cause(s) of the decline. We were interested in how application of decision science could be used to help managers on a large, public management area in southwestern Florida where the bobwhite is a featured species and where abundance has severely declined. We conducted a workshop with managers and scientists to elicit management objectives, alternative hypotheses concerning population limitation in bobwhites, potential management actions, and predicted management outcomes. Using standard and robust approaches to decision making, we determined that improved water management and perhaps some changes in hunting practices would be expected to produce the best management outcomes in the face of uncertainty about what is limiting bobwhite abundance. We used a criterion called the expected value of perfect information to determine that a robust management strategy may perform nearly as well as an optimal management strategy (i.e., a strategy that is expected to perform best, given the relative importance of different management objectives) with all uncertainty resolved. We used the expected value of partial information to determine that management performance could be increased most by eliminating uncertainty over excessive-harvest and human-disturbance hypotheses. Beyond learning about the factors limiting bobwhites, adoption of a dynamic management strategy, which recognizes temporal changes in resource and environmental conditions, might produce the greatest management benefit. Our research demonstrates that robust approaches to decision making, combined with estimates of the value of information, can offer considerable insight into preferred management approaches when great uncertainty exists about

  20. Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT) and the Navy's Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) - A Win/Win Proposition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acevedo, Rafael A

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I examine the theory of Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT) and the benefits its implementation can provide to the Navy's best example of accurate information-sharing, the Cooperative Engagement Capability...

  1. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemin Zhuang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value. In order to effectively inspect the mutual influence between the degree of industry competition and the value relevance of fair value, and reduce the impact of multi-collinearity, we built a regression model on the hypothesis, which supposes that if other conditions are the same, the fair value information has greater value relevance if the degree of the industry competition is greater. To test the hypothesis, we use the comparison of the DFVPSit coefficient absolute value to judge the value relevance of fair value information, and the greater the absolute value is, the higher relevance between the changes in fair value per share profits and losses with the stock prices. Findings: The higher the degree of competition in the industry is, the more fair value information relevance is. Also, there are evidences representing that fair value information often presents negative correlation with the stock price. Originality/value: The main contribution of the article is to show that not only need we make the formulation and implementation of the high quality of fair value accounting standards to suit for both the national conditions and international practice, but also need we further to improve the company's external governance mechanism to promote fair value’s information correlation.

  2. Information value and prospects of rhythmocardiography in assessment of ionizing radiation effect on the organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskalenko, O.S.; Ivasenko, V.I.

    1990-01-01

    The aim of this work is to select methods for evaluation of heart operation and substantiate its information value for determination of radiation factor effect on the organism of mongrel white rats. Study results of cardiovascular system state, using rhythmography show, that integral indicators of regulatory mechanisms of chronotropic heart function, determined in the course of functional samples, may be considered as indicator of early reaction of the organism to ionizing radiation. Prospects of rhythmography application, which along with registration of other biologically essential functions, allows to determine in dynamics which regulatory mechanisms influence functional changes in the organism are shown. 11 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs

  3. Effect of information technology on value chain of Iranian Exemplary Exporter Manufacturer Companies

    OpenAIRE

    mahmood naderi beni; Ali Sanayei; mohammad ali feizpour

    2013-01-01

    The fast and ever-increasing progress in Information Technology (IT) area and their role in helping firms to improve their performance cause them to depend on IT day by day. At the same time, few studies have been conducted in this area, so the mechanism and effects of IT on Iranian firm’s value chains are unclear. Therefore, it is necessary to study in this area. This study is a descriptive survey. The statistical population of the research is composed of Iranian exemplary exporter manufactu...

  4. Fair value versus historical cost-based valuation for biological assets: predictability of financial information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Argilés

    2011-08-01

    This paper performs an empirical study with a sample of Spanish farms valuing biological assets at HC and a sample applying FV, finding no significant differences between both valuation methods to assess future cash flows. However, most tests reveal more predictive power of future earnings under fair valuation of biological assets, which is not explained by differences in volatility of earnings and profitability. The study also evidences the existence of flawed HC accounting practices for biological assets in agriculture, which suggests scarce information content of this valuation method in the predominant small business units existing in the agricultural sector in advanced Western countries.

  5. Advances in research methods for information systems research data mining, data envelopment analysis, value focused thinking

    CERN Document Server

    Osei-Bryson, Kweku-Muata

    2013-01-01

    Advances in social science research methodologies and data analytic methods are changing the way research in information systems is conducted. New developments in statistical software technologies for data mining (DM) such as regression splines or decision tree induction can be used to assist researchers in systematic post-positivist theory testing and development. Established management science techniques like data envelopment analysis (DEA), and value focused thinking (VFT) can be used in combination with traditional statistical analysis and data mining techniques to more effectively explore

  6. Assessment on Evaluating Parameters of Rice Core Collections Constructed by Genotypic Values and Molecular Marker Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-cheng WANG

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Eleven evaluating parameters for rice core collection were assessed based on genotypic values and molecular marker information. Monte Carlo simulation combined with mixed linear model was used to eliminate the interference from environment in order to draw more reliable results. The coincidence rate of range (CR was the optimal parameter. Mean Simpson index (MD, mean Shannon-Weaver index of genetic diversity (MI and mean polymorphism information content (MPIC were important evaluating parameters. The variable rate of coefficient of variation (VR could act as an important reference parameter for evaluating the variation degree of core collection. Percentage of polymorphic loci (p could be used as a determination parameter for the size of core collection. Mean difference percentage (MD was a determination parameter for the reliability judgment of core collection. The effective evaluating parameters for core collection selected in the research could be used as criteria for sampling percentage in different plant germplasm populations.

  7. 〈査読付論文〉The Necessity to Advance Disclosing Fair Value by the Hierarchy: Evidence from Literature Review about Fair Value Hierarchy Information

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, JIAO

    2016-01-01

    [Abstract]This paper aims to discuss the necessity to advance disclosing fair value by hierarchy in Japan by reviewing the literature about fair value hierarchy information in the U.S. In Japan, ASBJ published the Exposure Draft "Accounting Standards on Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure" in 2010 which specifies that the fair value should be reported by hierarchy. However, it has not published as formal standard until March 2016. Furthermore, some commenters suggested that the hierarchy an...

  8. Assessing the Value of Information for Identifying Optimal Floodplain Management Portfolios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Bates, M.; Hui, R.; Lund, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Floodplain management is a complex portfolio problem that can be analyzed from an integrated perspective incorporating traditionally structural and nonstructural options. One method to identify effective strategies for preparing, responding to, and recovering from floods is to optimize for a portfolio of temporary (emergency) and permanent floodplain management options. A risk-based optimization approach to this problem assigns probabilities to specific flood events and calculates the associated expected damages. This approach is currently limited by: (1) the assumption of perfect flood forecast information, i.e. implementing temporary management activities according to the actual flood event may differ from optimizing based on forecasted information and (2) the inability to assess system resilience across a range of possible future events (risk-centric approach). Resilience is defined here as the ability of a system to absorb and recover from a severe disturbance or extreme event. In our analysis, resilience is a system property that requires integration of physical, social, and information domains. This work employs a 3-stage linear program to identify the optimal mix of floodplain management options using conditional probabilities to represent perfect and imperfect flood stages (forecast vs. actual events). We assess the value of information in terms of minimizing damage costs for two theoretical cases - urban and rural systems. We use portfolio analysis to explore how the set of optimal management options differs depending on whether the goal is for the system to be risk-adverse to a specified event or resilient over a range of events.

  9. Probabilistic Flood Maps to support decision-making: Mapping the Value of Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, L.; Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.

    2016-02-01

    Floods are one of the most frequent and disruptive natural hazards that affect man. Annually, significant flood damage is documented worldwide. Flood mapping is a common preimpact flood hazard mitigation measure, for which advanced methods and tools (such as flood inundation models) are used to estimate potential flood extent maps that are used in spatial planning. However, these tools are affected, largely to an unknown degree, by both epistemic and aleatory uncertainty. Over the past few years, advances in uncertainty analysis with respect to flood inundation modeling show that it is appropriate to adopt Probabilistic Flood Maps (PFM) to account for uncertainty. However, the following question arises; how can probabilistic flood hazard information be incorporated into spatial planning? Thus, a consistent framework to incorporate PFMs into the decision-making is required. In this paper, a novel methodology based on Decision-Making under Uncertainty theories, in particular Value of Information (VOI) is proposed. Specifically, the methodology entails the use of a PFM to generate a VOI map, which highlights floodplain locations where additional information is valuable with respect to available floodplain management actions and their potential consequences. The methodology is illustrated with a simplified example and also applied to a real case study in the South of France, where a VOI map is analyzed on the basis of historical land use change decisions over a period of 26 years. Results show that uncertain flood hazard information encapsulated in PFMs can aid decision-making in floodplain planning.

  10. Editorial to: Baseline MDCT findings after prosthetic heart valve implantation provide important complementary information to echocardiography for follow-up purposes by Sucha et al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeters, F.E.C.M. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Kietselaer, B.L.J.H. [Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    Over the last years a growing number of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implantation procedures have been performed in sequence with the aging of the population and improving surgical techniques. Currently, echocardiography is the most important tool in the follow-up and evaluation of complications associated with the PHV (pannus, thrombus, endocarditis). However, echocardiographic examination of PHV associated disease may be hampered by poor acoustic window or scatter artefacts caused by the PHV. PHV related disease such as endocarditis is related with a poor prognosis, especially when complications such as periannular abscess formation occurs. Early treatment of PHV associated disease improves prognosis. Therefore, an unmet clinical need for early detection of complications exists. In the evaluation of PHV (dys)function, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has shown to be of additive value. A necessity for MDCT to be implemented in daily practice is to be able to distinguish between normal and pathological features. (orig.)

  11. Editorial to: Baseline MDCT findings after prosthetic heart valve implantation provide important complementary information to echocardiography for follow-up purposes by Sucha et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peeters, F.E.C.M.; Kietselaer, B.L.J.H.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last years a growing number of prosthetic heart valve (PHV) implantation procedures have been performed in sequence with the aging of the population and improving surgical techniques. Currently, echocardiography is the most important tool in the follow-up and evaluation of complications associated with the PHV (pannus, thrombus, endocarditis). However, echocardiographic examination of PHV associated disease may be hampered by poor acoustic window or scatter artefacts caused by the PHV. PHV related disease such as endocarditis is related with a poor prognosis, especially when complications such as periannular abscess formation occurs. Early treatment of PHV associated disease improves prognosis. Therefore, an unmet clinical need for early detection of complications exists. In the evaluation of PHV (dys)function, multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) has shown to be of additive value. A necessity for MDCT to be implemented in daily practice is to be able to distinguish between normal and pathological features. (orig.)

  12. Testing the Value of Information of Climate Change Indicators that use Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    . Such a result would mean that the indicator has a negative value of information. Granted the value of information depends on the intended audience(s), with some groups being able to understand and want more technically sophisticated and detailed information presented as an indicator. However, if the goal of an indicator is to provide information to a wide range of groups, it is essential to assure that these groups have a correct understanding of the indicator, its assumptions, and the ability to use the indicator (as presented or modified) for decision-making contexts. In this talk, I will present the preliminary results of a study that is testing the value of information of a range of climate change indicators, and I will focus on indicators that use earth observations. Such results contribute to a richer understanding of the value of information of indicators, and can shape the development of both individual indicators and systems of indicators, such as the development of the indicator system for the U.S. Global Change Research Program, National Climate Assessment.

  13. Relevance between the degree of industrial competition and fair value information: Study on the listed companies in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuemin Zhuang; Yonggen Luo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to study whether there exists natural relationship between fair value and corporate external market. A series of special phenomenon in the application of fair value arouses our research interests, which present evidences on how competition affects the correlation of fair value information. Design/methodology/approach: this thesis chooses fair value changes gains and losses and calculate the ratio of DFVPSit as the alternative variable of the fair value....

  14. A Review of Methods for Analysis of the Expected Value of Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Anna; Manolopoulou, Ioanna; Baio, Gianluca

    2017-10-01

    In recent years, value-of-information analysis has become more widespread in health economic evaluations, specifically as a tool to guide further research and perform probabilistic sensitivity analysis. This is partly due to methodological advancements allowing for the fast computation of a typical summary known as the expected value of partial perfect information (EVPPI). A recent review discussed some approximation methods for calculating the EVPPI, but as the research has been active over the intervening years, that review does not discuss some key estimation methods. Therefore, this paper presents a comprehensive review of these new methods. We begin by providing the technical details of these computation methods. We then present two case studies in order to compare the estimation performance of these new methods. We conclude that a method based on nonparametric regression offers the best method for calculating the EVPPI in terms of accuracy, computational time, and ease of implementation. This means that the EVPPI can now be used practically in health economic evaluations, especially as all the methods are developed in parallel with R functions and a web app to aid practitioners.

  15. Efficient Monte Carlo Estimation of the Expected Value of Sample Information Using Moment Matching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Anna; Manolopoulou, Ioanna; Baio, Gianluca

    2018-02-01

    The Expected Value of Sample Information (EVSI) is used to calculate the economic value of a new research strategy. Although this value would be important to both researchers and funders, there are very few practical applications of the EVSI. This is due to computational difficulties associated with calculating the EVSI in practical health economic models using nested simulations. We present an approximation method for the EVSI that is framed in a Bayesian setting and is based on estimating the distribution of the posterior mean of the incremental net benefit across all possible future samples, known as the distribution of the preposterior mean. Specifically, this distribution is estimated using moment matching coupled with simulations that are available for probabilistic sensitivity analysis, which is typically mandatory in health economic evaluations. This novel approximation method is applied to a health economic model that has previously been used to assess the performance of other EVSI estimators and accurately estimates the EVSI. The computational time for this method is competitive with other methods. We have developed a new calculation method for the EVSI which is computationally efficient and accurate. This novel method relies on some additional simulation so can be expensive in models with a large computational cost.

  16. Value-Based Caching in Information-Centric Wireless Body Area Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi M. Al-Turjman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a resilient cache replacement approach based on a Value of sensed Information (VoI policy. To resolve and fetch content when the origin is not available due to isolated in-network nodes (fragmentation and harsh operational conditions, we exploit a content caching approach. Our approach depends on four functional parameters in sensory Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs. These four parameters are: age of data based on periodic request, popularity of on-demand requests, communication interference cost, and the duration for which the sensor node is required to operate in active mode to capture the sensed readings. These parameters are considered together to assign a value to the cached data to retain the most valuable information in the cache for prolonged time periods. The higher the value, the longer the duration for which the data will be retained in the cache. This caching strategy provides significant availability for most valuable and difficult to retrieve data in the WBANs. Extensive simulations are performed to compare the proposed scheme against other significant caching schemes in the literature while varying critical aspects in WBANs (e.g., data popularity, cache size, publisher load, connectivity-degree, and severe probabilities of node failures. These simulation results indicate that the proposed VoI-based approach is a valid tool for the retrieval of cached content in disruptive and challenging scenarios, such as the one experienced in WBANs, since it allows the retrieval of content for a long period even while experiencing severe in-network node failures.

  17. Complementary information on in vitro conversion of amorphous (precursor) calcium phosphate to hydroxyapatite from Raman microspectroscopy and wide-angle X-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanci, M; Fratzl, P; Klaushofer, K; Paschalis, E P

    2006-11-01

    In addition to mechanical functions, bones have an essential role in metabolic activity as mineral reservoirs that are able to absorb and release ions. Bioapatite, considered the major component in the mineralized part of mammalian bones, is a calcium phosphate mineral with a structure that closely resembles hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2) with variable chemical substitutions. It is important to note that it continues to be chemically active long after it has been initially deposited. Detailed understanding of changes in the mineral phase as HA matures is essential for understanding how normal bone achieves its remarkable mechanical performance, how it is altered in disease, as well as the effects of therapeutic interventions. A model system for investigation of the in vivo maturation of HA is available, namely, the in vitro conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to HA in a supersaturated solution of calcium and phosphate ions. In the present study, this system was employed to correlate with the changes in chemistry and poorly crystalline HAP crystal size, shape, and habit. The results of the X-ray diffraction as well as Raman analyses showed that as the crystallites mature in the 002 and 310 directions both the full width at half-height and wavelength at maximum of the Raman peaks change as a function of reaction extent and crystallite maturation, size, and shape. Moreover, such analyses can be performed in intact bone specimens through Raman microspectroscopic and imaging analyses with a spatial resolution of 0.6-1 mu, by far superior to the one offered by other microspectroscopic techniques, thus potentially yielding important new information on the organization and mineral quality of normal and fragile bone.

  18. Assessing the value of risk: Perspectives on the role of risk information in decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egan, M.; Smith, Graham; Maul, P. [QuantiSci Limited, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-01

    The authors of this paper profess no formal ethical or philosophical training from which to develop their position on Values in Decisions on Risk. However, as scientists with practical experience in carrying out a range of quantitative studies, we consider that we have some understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in environmental risk assessment. Moreover, in attempting to use the results of such assessments, we have observed some of the ways in which quantitative risk information is used and abused. In this paper, therefore, we offer a practitioner's perspective that underlines the essential role of risk as a tool to inform and guide decisions, while at the same time emphasising the need for its proportionate use in a complex arena. We draw on experience that includes assessments for radioactive waste management and disposal, but also incorporates a range of assignments where assessment of the scale of potential environmental liabilities was a critical factor in decision making. We do not pretend to offer a resolution to the challenges laid before this Symposium, but seek to explore common themes and lessons learned regarding the role of risk information in goal-setting, performance monitoring and the overall decision process. Policy makers and regulators must act responsibly to protect confidence, not just the health of people and the environment. In doing this, to ignore risk information as a key component of strategic thinking is equally as disproportionate as making it the sole basis for decision making. There is a clear need to explain better the basis of, and motives behind, decisions - not only in terms of transparency in risk assessment but also to distinguish between the scientific and the socio-political component of the argument.

  19. Assessing the value of risk: Perspectives on the role of risk information in decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, M.; Smith, Graham; Maul, P.

    1999-01-01

    The authors of this paper profess no formal ethical or philosophical training from which to develop their position on Values in Decisions on Risk. However, as scientists with practical experience in carrying out a range of quantitative studies, we consider that we have some understanding of the strengths and weaknesses inherent in environmental risk assessment. Moreover, in attempting to use the results of such assessments, we have observed some of the ways in which quantitative risk information is used and abused. In this paper, therefore, we offer a practitioner's perspective that underlines the essential role of risk as a tool to inform and guide decisions, while at the same time emphasising the need for its proportionate use in a complex arena. We draw on experience that includes assessments for radioactive waste management and disposal, but also incorporates a range of assignments where assessment of the scale of potential environmental liabilities was a critical factor in decision making. We do not pretend to offer a resolution to the challenges laid before this Symposium, but seek to explore common themes and lessons learned regarding the role of risk information in goal-setting, performance monitoring and the overall decision process. Policy makers and regulators must act responsibly to protect confidence, not just the health of people and the environment. In doing this, to ignore risk information as a key component of strategic thinking is equally as disproportionate as making it the sole basis for decision making. There is a clear need to explain better the basis of, and motives behind, decisions - not only in terms of transparency in risk assessment but also to distinguish between the scientific and the socio-political component of the argument

  20. Accounting for between-study variation in incremental net benefit in value of information methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willan, Andrew R; Eckermann, Simon

    2012-10-01

    Previous applications of value of information methods for determining optimal sample size in randomized clinical trials have assumed no between-study variation in mean incremental net benefit. By adopting a hierarchical model, we provide a solution for determining optimal sample size with this assumption relaxed. The solution is illustrated with two examples from the literature. Expected net gain increases with increasing between-study variation, reflecting the increased uncertainty in incremental net benefit and reduced extent to which data are borrowed from previous evidence. Hence, a trial can become optimal where current evidence is sufficient assuming no between-study variation. However, despite the expected net gain increasing, the optimal sample size in the illustrated examples is relatively insensitive to the amount of between-study variation. Further percentage losses in expected net gain were small even when choosing sample sizes that reflected widely different between-study variation. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Transparency of Accounting Information in Achieving Good Corporate Governance. True View and Fair Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Man

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the key factors affecting the efficient use of resources, the increase of shareholders confidence in the managers of the company, the success in achieving objectives and economic efficiency is the system of corporate governance by which a company is managed and controlled. We cannot talk about a culture of corporate governance without thinking of the criteria of transparency, of responsibility in ensuring the accuracy of data from financial reports. Transparency is a prerequisite of good communication between the company and the interested parties. This paper examines the concepts of true image and fair value as premises of transparency of the accounting information in order to accomplish good corporate governance.

  2. Connecting Knowledge, Belief, Values and Action: Informing Climate Literacy by Using Autobiographies to Articulate Environmental Worldviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    human beings above nature. The creation stories of Genesis have been used both implicitly and explicitly to justify domination and exploitation of the earth and its resources. Autobiographies may be used as a reflective pedagogical tool to help students to identify various components of their respective environmental worldviews that may influence their overall environmental and climate literacy. Narrative responses to guiding questions prompt students to reflect on beliefs, trust, and values. This research will inform the development of culturally relevant and scientifically sound approaches to climate change education.

  3. ZEROES OF GENERALIZED FRESNEL COMPLEMENTARY INTEGRAL FUNCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Lobo Segura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization intervals. Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  4. Rebuilding DEMATEL threshold value: an example of a food and beverage information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yi-Fang; Lee, Yu-Cheng; Lin, Shao-Bin

    2016-01-01

    This study demonstrates how a decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) threshold value can be quickly and reasonably determined in the process of combining DEMATEL and decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB) models. Models are combined to identify the key factors of a complex problem. This paper presents a case study of a food and beverage information system as an example. The analysis of the example indicates that, given direct and indirect relationships among variables, if a traditional DTPB model only simulates the effects of the variables without considering that the variables will affect the original cause-and-effect relationships among the variables, then the original DTPB model variables cannot represent a complete relationship. For the food and beverage example, a DEMATEL method was employed to reconstruct a DTPB model and, more importantly, to calculate reasonable DEMATEL threshold value for determining additional relationships of variables in the original DTPB model. This study is method-oriented, and the depth of investigation into any individual case is limited. Therefore, the methods proposed in various fields of study should ideally be used to identify deeper and more practical implications.

  5. Summary of global warming uncertainties and the value of information: An analysis using CETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    The authors investigate the sensitivity of optimal carbon control strategies to parameters of the Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment (CETA) Model, and they use CETA in a simple decision tree framework to estimate the value of information about global warming uncertainties. They find that if an optimal control policy is used under uncertainty, the eventual resolution of uncertainty has high value relative to current research budgets, and resolving uncertainty about the costs of warming is nearly as important as resolving uncertainty about the extent of warming. In addition, the authors find that there is not a high premium on immediate resolution of uncertainty, if resolution would otherwise occur within, say, twenty years; this implies that time is available to plan and execute a carefully designed research program. On the other hand, they find that if the real-world political process would result in a suboptimal control policy being chosen under uncertainty, and this choice could be prevented by early resolution of uncertainty, the benefit of early resolution may be as much as three orders of magnitude greater

  6. Global warming uncertainties and the value of information: an analysis using CETA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, S.C.; Teisberg, T.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper investigated the sensitivity of optimal carbon control strategies to parameters of the Carbon Emissions Trajectory Assessment (CETA) Model, and CETA is used in a simple decision tree framework to estimate the value of information about global warming uncertainties. We find that if an optimal control policy is used under uncertainty, the eventual resolution of uncertainty has high value relative to current research budgets, and resolving uncertainty about the costs of warming is nearly as important as resolving uncertainty about the extent of warming. In addition, we find that there is not a high premium on immediate resolution of uncertainty, if resolution would otherwise occur within, say, twenty years; this implies that time is available to plan and execute a carefully designed research program. On the other hand, we find that if the real world political process would result in a suboptimal control policy being chosen under uncertainty, and this choice could be prevented by early resolution of uncertainty, the benefit of early resolution may be as much as three orders of magnitude greater. 26 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs

  7. Assessing the value of information for long-term structural health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Matteo; Der Kiureghian, Armen

    2011-04-01

    In the field of Structural Health Monitoring, tests and sensing systems are intended as tools providing diagnoses, which allow the operator of the facility to develop an efficient maintenance plan or to require extraordinary measures on a structure. The effectiveness of these systems depends directly on their capability to guide towards the most optimal decision for the prevailing circumstances, avoiding mistakes and wastes of resources. Though this is well known, most studies only address the accuracy of the information gained from sensors without discussing economic criteria. Other studies evaluate these criteria separately, with only marginal or heuristic connection with the outcomes of the monitoring system. The concept of "Value of Information" (VoI) provides a rational basis to rank measuring systems according to a utility-based metric, which fully includes the decision-making process affected by the monitoring campaign. This framework allows, for example, an explicit assessment of the economical justifiability of adopting a sensor depending on its precision. In this paper we outline the framework for assessing the VoI, as applicable to the ranking of competitive measuring systems. We present the basic concepts involved, highlight issues related to monitoring of civil structures, address the problem of non-linearity of the cost-to-utility mapping, and introduce an approximate Monte Carlo approach suitable for the implementation of time-consuming predictive models.

  8. Enhancing Public Access to Relevant and Valued Medical Information: Fresh Directions for RadiologyInfo.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Krishnaraj, Arun; Mahesh, Mahadevappa; Rajendran, Ramji R; Fishman, Elliot K

    2017-05-01

    RadiologyInfo.org is a public information portal designed to support patient care and broaden public awareness of the essential role radiology plays in overall patient health care. Over the past 14 years, RadiologyInfo.org has evolved considerably to provide access to more than 220 mixed-media descriptions of tests, treatments, and diseases through a spectrum of mobile and desktop platforms, social media, and downloadable documents in both English and Spanish. In 2014, the RSNA-ACR Public Information Website Committee, which stewards RadiologyInfo.org, developed 3- to 5-year strategic and implementation plans for the website. The process was informed by RadiologyInfo.org user surveys, formal stakeholder interviews, focus groups, and usability testing. Metrics were established as key performance indicators to assess progress toward the stated goals of (1) optimizing content to enhance patient-centeredness, (2) enhancing reach and engagement, and (3) maintaining sustainability. Major changes resulting from this process include a complete redesign of the website, the replacement of text-rich PowerPoint presentations with conversational videos, and the development of an affiliate network. Over the past year, visits to RadiologyInfo.org have increased by 60.27% to 1,424,523 in August 2016 from 235 countries and territories. Twenty-two organizations have affiliated with RadiologyInfo.org with new organizations being added on a monthly basis. RadiologyInfo provides a tangible demonstration of how radiologists can engage directly with the global public to educate them on the value of radiology in their health care and to allay concerns and dispel misconceptions. Regular self-assessment and responsive planning will ensure its continued growth and relevance. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Partial Adaptation of Obtained and Observed Value Signals Preserves Information about Gains and Losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Christopher J; Baddeley, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-09-28

    Given that the range of rewarding and punishing outcomes of actions is large but neural coding capacity is limited, efficient processing of outcomes by the brain is necessary. One mechanism to increase efficiency is to rescale neural output to the range of outcomes expected in the current context, and process only experienced deviations from this expectation. However, this mechanism comes at the cost of not being able to discriminate between unexpectedly low losses when times are bad versus unexpectedly high gains when times are good. Thus, too much adaptation would result in disregarding information about the nature and absolute magnitude of outcomes, preventing learning about the longer-term value structure of the environment. Here we investigate the degree of adaptation in outcome coding brain regions in humans, for directly experienced outcomes and observed outcomes. We scanned participants while they performed a social learning task in gain and loss blocks. Multivariate pattern analysis showed two distinct networks of brain regions adapt to the most likely outcomes within a block. Frontostriatal areas adapted to directly experienced outcomes, whereas lateral frontal and temporoparietal regions adapted to observed social outcomes. Critically, in both cases, adaptation was incomplete and information about whether the outcomes arose in a gain block or a loss block was retained. Univariate analysis confirmed incomplete adaptive coding in these regions but also detected nonadapting outcome signals. Thus, although neural areas rescale their responses to outcomes for efficient coding, they adapt incompletely and keep track of the longer-term incentives available in the environment. Optimal value-based choice requires that the brain precisely and efficiently represents positive and negative outcomes. One way to increase efficiency is to adapt responding to the most likely outcomes in a given context. However, too strong adaptation would result in loss of precise

  10. 区间直觉模糊信息系统中的信息粒度%Information granularity in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨伟萍; 林梦雷

    2012-01-01

    Interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information system is able to be more comprehensively, detailedly and visually depict and characterize the decision-making information than the general information system, so reaseaching its research uncertainty is of great importance. With the help of information granularity, this paper characterized the uncertainty of the interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information system. It constructed intersection, union, subtraction and complement four operators among granular structures, introduced three new partial order relations in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information systems and established the relationships among them. It defined an interval-valued inluitionistic fuzzy information granularity and an axiomatic approach to interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information granularity in interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information systems. Finally, it investigated the properties of interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy information granularity.%区间直觉模糊信息系统比一般信息系统更能全面、细致、直观地描述和刻画决策信息,对其进行不确定性研究具有重要的意义.利用信息粒度对区间直觉模糊信息系统的不确定性进行了刻画,给出了区间直觉模糊粒度结构的交、并、差、补等四种运算.提出了区间直觉模糊粒度结构上的三种偏序关系,并建立了它们之间的联系.定义了区间直觉模糊信息粒度和区间直觉模糊信息粒度的公理化,并研究它们的性质.

  11. Nursing Professionals Use and Value Information but Favour Work-based Sources and Colleagues in Preference to Libraries. A review of: Urquhart, C., and R. Davies. ”EVINCE: The Value of Information in Developing Nursing Knowledge and Competence.” Health Libraries Review 14.2 (1997: 61‐72.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Booth

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine the impact of information on the clinical knowledge and practice of nurses, midwives and health visitors.Design – Two surveys: a one-page critical incident questionnaire survey sent weekly over four weeks, and a questionnaire attached to information requests and searches, followed up by interviews.Setting – UK health information providers serving nurses (national information providers, National Health Service trust libraries, higher education funded library and information services, and a health promotion library. Subjects – A random sample of 210 nurses, midwives and health visitors were targeted in the critical incident survey, and 776 of those requesting information or searches at participating library and information centres received questionnaires for the second survey.Methods – Opinion leaders were consulted to inform a pilot study. A critical incident type questionnaire survey was then administered to a random sample of 210 nurses, midwives and health visitors. The same one‐page questionnaire was sent weekly (for four weeks to 10% of a randomly selected sample of staff at each site. Staff were asked to identify one occasion during that week when they needed information, the purpose of theinformation needed, the sources chosen to answer the query and how successful the quest was. The impact of the information provided by the library and information services on present and future professional practice was examined through a complementary survey. Responses were coded using three categories of competence: assessment, monitoring of care andevaluation of care. Follow‐up interviews then explored the nature of the incident described or the quality of information provided.Main results – The response rate for the critical incident survey was 52% (434 out of 840 completed questionnaires returned with 78% (163/210 of participants replying at least once. The total response rate for the second survey was 40% (311

  12. Adaptive management and the value of information: learning via intervention in epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Katriona; Tildesley, Michael J.; Runge, Michael C.; Fonnesbeck, Christopher J.; Ferrari, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal intervention for disease outbreaks is often impeded by severe scientific uncertainty. Adaptive management (AM), long-used in natural resource management, is a structured decision-making approach to solving dynamic problems that accounts for the value of resolving uncertainty via real-time evaluation of alternative models. We propose an AM approach to design and evaluate intervention strategies in epidemiology, using real-time surveillance to resolve model uncertainty as management proceeds, with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) culling and measles vaccination as case studies. We use simulations of alternative intervention strategies under competing models to quantify the effect of model uncertainty on decision making, in terms of the value of information, and quantify the benefit of adaptive versus static intervention strategies. Culling decisions during the 2001 UK FMD outbreak were contentious due to uncertainty about the spatial scale of transmission. The expected benefit of resolving this uncertainty prior to a new outbreak on a UK-like landscape would be £45–£60 million relative to the strategy that minimizes livestock losses averaged over alternate transmission models. AM during the outbreak would be expected to recover up to £20.1 million of this expected benefit. AM would also recommend a more conservative initial approach (culling of infected premises and dangerous contact farms) than would a fixed strategy (which would additionally require culling of contiguous premises). For optimal targeting of measles vaccination, based on an outbreak in Malawi in 2010, AM allows better distribution of resources across the affected region; its utility depends on uncertainty about both the at-risk population and logistical capacity. When daily vaccination rates are highly constrained, the optimal initial strategy is to conduct a small, quick campaign; a reduction in expected burden of approximately 10,000 cases could result if campaign targets can be updated on

  13. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation Las Vegas

    1999-11-19

    The value-of-information analysis evaluated data collection options for characterizing groundwater transport of contamination associated with the Yucca Flat and Climax Mine Corrective Action Units. Experts provided inputs for the evaluation of 48 characterization options, which included 27 component activities, 12 combinations of activities (subgroups), and 9 combinations of subgroups (groups). The options range from an individual study using existing data and intended to address a relatively narrow uncertainty to a 52-million dollar group of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to broadly address multiple uncertainties. A modified version of the contaminant transport component of the regional model was used to simulate contaminant transport and to estimate the maximum extent of the contaminant boundary, defined as that distance beyond which the committed effective dose equivalent from the residual radionuclides in groundwater will not exceed 4 millirem per year within 1,000 years. These simulations identified the model parameters most responsible for uncertainty over the contaminant boundary and determined weights indicating the relative importance of these parameters. Key inputs were identified through sensitivity analysis; the five selected parameters were flux for flow into Yucca Flat from the north, hydrologic source term, effective porosity and diffusion parameter for the Lower Carbonate Aquifer, and path length from the Volcanic Confining Unit to the Lower Carbonate Aquifer. Four measures were used to quantify uncertainty reduction. Using Bayesian analysis, the options were compared and ranked based on their costs and estimates of their effectiveness at reducing the key uncertainties relevant to predicting the maximum contaminant boundary.

  14. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit 97: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The value-of-information analysis evaluated data collection options for characterizing groundwater transport of contamination associated with the Yucca Flat and Climax Mine Corrective Action Units. Experts provided inputs for the evaluation of 48 characterization options, which included 27 component activities, 12 combinations of activities (subgroups), and 9 combinations of subgroups (groups). The options range from an individual study using existing data and intended to address a relatively narrow uncertainty to a 52-million dollar group of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to broadly address multiple uncertainties. A modified version of the contaminant transport component of the regional model was used to simulate contaminant transport and to estimate the maximum extent of the contaminant boundary, defined as that distance beyond which the committed effective dose equivalent from the residual radionuclides in groundwater will not exceed 4 millirem per year within 1,000 years. These simulations identified the model parameters most responsible for uncertainty over the contaminant boundary and determined weights indicating the relative importance of these parameters. Key inputs were identified through sensitivity analysis; the five selected parameters were flux for flow into Yucca Flat from the north, hydrologic source term, effective porosity and diffusion parameter for the Lower Carbonate Aquifer, and path length from the Volcanic Confining Unit to the Lower Carbonate Aquifer. Four measures were used to quantify uncertainty reduction. Using Bayesian analysis, the options were compared and ranked based on their costs and estimates of their effectiveness at reducing the key uncertainties relevant to predicting the maximum contaminant boundary

  15. The Information Content of Commercial Banks' Fair Value Disclosures of Loans under SFAS 107

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Seungmin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes empirical methods to shed light on the current debate over whether to adopt fair value accounting for loans held for long term. Proponents of fair valuing loans argue that reporting loans at their fair values enhances the overall transparency of financial reporting. In contrast, opponents are against applying fair value accounting to loans because fair values cannot be measured reliably in the case of loans held for long term. Therefore, the key question here is whe...

  16. Size, Book-to-Market Ratio and Relativity of Accounting Information Value: Empirical Research on the Chinese Listed Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheng, Siwei; Xu, Bin

    Recently there are many literatures studying the effect of factors such as size or book-market ratio on fluctuation of accounting earnings, stock price or earnings respectively, but so far their affection on accounting information value relativity has been scarcely addressed. This paper presents the detail analyses of their effect of the two factors to the relativity of accounting information value respectively by taking Shanghai and Shenzhen stock markets as sample. And the analyses supports the following two hypotheses, (1) The relativity of accounting information value of big size corporation is more than that of small size corporation. (2) The relativity of accounting information value of low B/M ratio corporation is more than that of low B/M ratio corporation.

  17. 78 FR 58287 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Social Values of Ecosystem Services (SolVES) in Marine Protected Areas for Management Decision-Making AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Commerce. ACTION: Notice...

  18. A comparison between probability and information measures of uncertainty in a simulated soil map and the economic value of imperfect soil information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, R. Murray

    2014-05-01

    Conventionally the uncertainty of a conventional soil map has been expressed in terms of the mean purity of its map units: the probability that the soil profile class examined at a site would be found to correspond to the eponymous class of the simple map unit that is delineated there (Burrough et al, 1971). This measure of uncertainty has an intuitive meaning and is used for quality control in soil survey contracts (Western, 1978). However, it may be of limited value to the manager or policy maker who wants to decide whether the map provides a basis for decision making, and whether the cost of producing a better map would be justified. In this study I extend a published analysis of the economic implications of uncertainty in a soil map (Giasson et al., 2000). A decision analysis was developed to assess the economic value of imperfect soil map information for agricultural land use planning. Random error matrices for the soil map units were then generated, subject to constraints which ensure consistency with fixed frequencies of the different soil classes. For each error matrix the mean map unit purity was computed, and the value of the implied imperfect soil information was computed by the decision analysis. An alternative measure of the uncertainty in a soil map was considered. This is the mean soil map information which is the difference between the information content of a soil observation, at a random location in the region, and the information content of a soil observation given that the map unit is known. I examined the relationship between the value of imperfect soil information and the purity and information measures of map uncertainty. In both cases there was considerable variation in the economic value of possible maps with fixed values of the uncertainty measure. However, the correlation was somewhat stronger with the information measure, and there was a clear upper bound on the value of an imperfect soil map when the mean information takes some

  19. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... review and meta-analysis. Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology . 2014;112(6):503–510. Ethical Conduct of ... Print this page Health Topics A–Z Related Topics Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What’s In a ...

  20. Ibuanyidanda (Complementary Reflection), Communalism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Prof. Asouzu

    Glossary of Igbo Terms and Phrases ihe ahụ na anya ... other words, it is in mutual dependence that the feeling of intimacy found among kindred ..... Complementary Reflection, Communalism and Theory Formulation in African Philosophy 25.

  1. Cancer and Complementary Health Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... According to the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which included a comprehensive survey on the use ... their use of complementary health approaches. In the NHIS, survey respondents who had been diagnosed with cancer ...

  2. On minimal inhibitory rules for almost all k-valued information systems

    KAUST Repository

    Moshkov, Mikhail; Skowron, Andrzej; Suraj, Zbigniew

    2009-01-01

    The minimal inhibitory rules for information systems can be used for construction of classifiers. We show that almost all information systems from a certain large class of information systems have relatively short minimal inhibitory rules. However

  3. A critical review of complementary and alternative medicine use by women with cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort: a focus upon prevalence, patterns and applications of use and users' motivations, information seeking and self-perceived efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carole; Sibbritt, David; Hickman, Louise; Adams, Jon

    2016-08-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is used for treating cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort. This critical review examines women's reported CAM use, its perceived effectiveness and information relating to women's attitudes, behaviors, motivations and patterns of CAM use in its treatment. An extensive search of the main medical databases EBSCO, CINAHL, Medline, AMED and SCOPUS, as well as additional hand searches, was conducted. Papers included were confined to those that had been peer-reviewed, written in English and that contained original research into CAM use for cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort among adult women. CAM, particularly herbal medicine, nutritional supplements and massage, is widely used for a range of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort symptoms. A large number of CAM modalities are adopted, often simultaneously and with little professional oversight. Women's assessment of efficacy of different CAM modalities is positive, though the majority of users are self-prescribing apparently without professional guidance. Although the uptake of CAM for cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort is widespread, few empirical data are available regarding which women are using CAM, their motivations for doing so and, importantly, the sources through which women receive information about CAM. This review highlights the extensive use of (often self-prescribed) CAM in a number of countries to alleviate the widespread symptoms of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort. An understanding of all health care use by women with perimenstrual pain and discomfort is vital to help ensure safe, effective and coordinated health care that can lead to optimal patient outcomes. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Balancing research and funding using value of information and portfolio tools for nanomaterial risk classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Matthew E.; Keisler, Jeffrey M.; Zussblatt, Niels P.; Plourde, Kenton J.; Wender, Ben A.; Linkov, Igor

    2016-02-01

    Risk research for nanomaterials is currently prioritized by means of expert workshops and other deliberative processes. However, analytical techniques that quantify and compare alternative research investments are increasingly recommended. Here, we apply value of information and portfolio decision analysis—methods commonly applied in financial and operations management—to prioritize risk research for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and nanoparticulate silver and titanium dioxide. We modify the widely accepted CB Nanotool hazard evaluation framework, which combines nano- and bulk-material properties into a hazard score, to operate probabilistically with uncertain inputs. Literature is reviewed to develop uncertain estimates for each input parameter, and a Monte Carlo simulation is applied to assess how different research strategies can improve hazard classification. The relative cost of each research experiment is elicited from experts, which enables identification of efficient research portfolios—combinations of experiments that lead to the greatest improvement in hazard classification at the lowest cost. Nanoparticle shape, diameter, solubility and surface reactivity were most frequently identified within efficient portfolios in our results.

  5. Enhancing the value of information collected by advanced meters : customer and operational procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntley, R.

    2006-01-01

    Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) meters will have the ability to transform electric power utilities if data is utilized in an appropriate manner. This presentation provided an overview of the benefits of AMI. Case studies were used to present details of new meter data management (MDM) tools developed by Nexus Energy Software. The segmentation and loading aspects of AMI have the capacity to handle complex billing processes as well as increase distribution efficiency. AMI multi-dimensional aggregation can increase revenue protection and provide outage support. Customer bill integration and analytics can aid utilities in forecasting and load research activities. Demand and response, and customer AMI applications can lower customer service costs and leverage more effective pricing programs. A critical peak pricing support tool was used at a California utility to send monthly enhanced information electronic mail to increase customer understanding of behaviours on costs. The result was an amplified customer response to dynamic pricing. Day ahead notification is now regularly provided for peak periods. It was concluded that meter data has little value until it is aligned and synchronized with customer and asset data. Systems should be expandable over time to support new business processes and associated data elements without the need for customization. refs., tabs., figs

  6. The information value of non-genetic inheritance in plants and animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinead English

    Full Text Available Parents influence the development of their offspring in many ways beyond the transmission of DNA. This includes transfer of epigenetic states, nutrients, antibodies and hormones, and behavioural interactions after birth. While the evolutionary consequences of such non-genetic inheritance are increasingly well understood, less is known about how inheritance mechanisms evolve. Here, we present a simple but versatile model to explore the adaptive evolution of non-genetic inheritance. Our model is based on a switch mechanism that produces alternative phenotypes in response to different inputs, including genes and non-genetic factors transmitted from parents and the environment experienced during development. This framework shows how genetic and non-genetic inheritance mechanisms and environmental conditions can act as cues by carrying correlational information about future selective conditions. Differential use of these cues is manifested as different degrees of genetic, parental or environmental morph determination. We use this framework to evaluate the conditions favouring non-genetic inheritance, as opposed to genetic determination of phenotype or within-generation plasticity, by applying it to two putative examples of adaptive non-genetic inheritance: maternal effects on seed germination in plants and transgenerational phase shift in desert locusts. Our simulation models show how the adaptive value of non-genetic inheritance depends on its mechanism, the pace of environmental change, and life history characteristics.

  7. Consumer fears and familiarity of processed food. The value of information provided by the FTNS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau, Fabio; Caracciolo, Francesco; Coppola, Adele; Lombardi, Pasquale

    2014-02-01

    Food choice and consumption behaviour are influenced by many interacting factors. In this paper we present an empirical effort to enhance understanding of the neophobia-neophilia forces affecting food choice. Starting from the analysis of consumer preferences for some of the most familiar highly processed foods, namely fat-reduced, functional (enriched drinks and yogurt) and ready-to-eat frozen food, our study investigates the role of traditional demographic variables vs attitudes to new food technologies in predicting the consumption behaviour of a sample of Italians buying such products. Consumer attitudes toward food technologies were collected by means of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (FTNS). Moreover, this paper explicitly analyses the value of the information provided by the FTNS. Underlying the research is the hypothesis that the FTNS may contribute to provide a comprehensive picture of the driving forces behind consumers' behavioural responses towards processed foods which are the end-result of mature technologies. The four FTNS components, once measured and used independently, help clarify the influence on food choices of each neophobia-neophilia force (risk perception and novelty seeking, media influence, own health and environmental concerns) into a single, comprehensive framework. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Value of standard personality assessments in informing clinical decision - making in a medium secure unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Conor; Mason, Lauren; Banerjee, Penny; Milton, John

    2007-05-01

    Assessing those with personality disorder for treatment in secure settings is known to be unsatisfactory. To examine the utility of a standardised assessment of offenders with personality disorder referred for treatment in secure care in a naturalistic study. A consecutive series of 89 men were assessed with a battery of four recommended instruments measuring personality and risk. Decisions on whether or not to admit were based on a multidisciplinary discussion informed by these assessments. Of the 89 comprehensively assessed referrals, 60 (67%) were offered admission. High scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (especially on Factor 1) was the only measure that was associated with rejection. Of 44 patients discharged, 29 (66%) failed to complete treatment; none of the pre-admission assessments distinguished ;completers' from ;non-completers'. Although skills were acquired on the unit, follow-up of 24 men in the community showed that this had only a marginal effect on re-offending rate (58%). Current recommended assessment methods appear unsatisfactory in identifying those who either (a) complete treatment or (b) benefit from treatment. Our results throw doubt on their value.

  9. The value of informal care in the context of option B+ in Malawi: a contingent valuation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaula, Levison Stanely; Chirwa, Gowokani Chijere; Cataldo, Fabian; Kapito-Tembo, Atupele; Hosseinipour, Mina C; van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Kayoyo, Virginia; Khangamwa-Kaunda, Blessings; Kasende, Florence; Trapence, Clement; Gugsa, Salem; Rosenberg, Nora E; Eliya, Michael; Phiri, Sam

    2016-04-19

    Informal care, the health care provided by the patient's social network is important in low income settings although its monetary value is rarely estimated. The lack of estimates of the value of informal care has led to its omission in economic evaluations but this can result in incorrect decisions about cost effectiveness of an intervention. We explore the use of contingent valuation methods of willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) to estimate the value of informal care provided to HIV infected women that are accessing antiretroviral therapy (ART) under the Option B+ approach to prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV in Malawi. We collected cross sectional data from 93 caregivers of women that received ART care from six health facilities in Malawi. Caregivers of women that reported for ART care on the survey day and consented to participate in the survey were included until the targeted sample size for the facility was reached. We estimated the value of informal care by using the willingness to accept (WTA) and willingness to pay (WTP) approaches. Medians were used to summarize the values and these were compared by the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The median WTA to provide informal care in a month was US$30 and the median WTP for informal care was US$13 and the two were statistically different (p lower quintile (US$15 vs. US$13, p < 0.0462). Informal caregivers place substantial value on informal care giving. In low income settings where most caregivers are not formally employed, WTP and WTA approaches can be used to value informal care. NCT02005835.

  10. Value Assessment Frameworks for HTA Agencies: The Organization of Evidence-Informed Deliberative Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltussen, R.M.; Jansen, M.P.M.; Bijlmakers, L.A.; Grutters, J.P.; Kluytmans, A.C.P.M.; Reuzel, R.P.B.; Tummers, M.J.; Wilt, G.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    Priority setting in health care has been long recognized as an intrinsically complex and value-laden process. Yet, health technology assessment agencies (HTAs) presently employ value assessment frameworks that are ill fitted to capture the range and diversity of stakeholder values and thereby risk

  11. The Influence of Brittle Daniels System Characteristics on the Value of Load Monitoring Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thöns, Sebastian; Schneider, Ronald

    This paper addresses the influence of deteriorating brittle Daniels system characteristics on the value of structural health monitoring (SHM). The value of SHM is quantified as the difference between the life cycle benefits with and without SHM. A value of SHM analysis is performed within...

  12. Informative value of Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO in Health Technology Assessment (HTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brettschneider, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: “Patient-Reported Outcome” (PRO is used as an umbrella term for different concepts for measuring subjectively perceived health status e. g. as treatment effects. Their common characteristic is, that the appraisal of the health status is reported by the patient himself. In order to describe the informative value of PRO in Health Technology Assessment (HTA first an overview of concepts, classifications and methods of measurement is given. The overview is complemented by an empirical analysis of clinical trials and HTA-reports on rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer in order to report on type, frequency and consequences of PRO used in these documents. Methods: For both issues systematic reviews of the literature have been performed. The search for methodological literature covers the publication period from 1990 to 2009, the search for clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis and breast cancer covers the period 2005 to 2009. Both searches were performed in the medical databases of the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI. The search for HTA-reports and methodological papers of HTA-agencies was performed in the CRD-Databases (CRD = Centre for Reviews and Dissemination and by handsearching the websites of INAHTA member agencies (INAHTA = International Network of Agencies for Health Technology Assessment. For all issues specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined. The methodological quality of randomized controlled trials (RCT was assessed by a modified version of the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. For the methodological part information extraction from the literature is structured by the report’s chapters, for the empirical part data extraction sheets were constructed. All information is summarized in a qualitative manner. Results: Concerning the methodological issues the literature search retrieved 158 documents (87 documents related to definition or classification, 125 documents related to

  13. Fair Value Versus Historical Cost-Based Valuation for Biological Assets: Predictability of Financial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Argilés

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an intense debate on the convenience of moving from historical cost (HC toward the fair value (FV principle. The debate and academic research is usually concerned with financial instruments, but the IAS 41 requirement of fair valuation for biological assets brings it into the agricultural domain.This paper performs an empirical study with a sample of Spanish farms valuing biological assets at HC and a sample applying FV, finding no significant differences between both valuation methods to assess future cash flows. However, most tests reveal more predictive power of future earnings under fair valuation of biological assets, which is not explained by differences in volatility of earnings and profitability. The study also evidences the existence of flawed HC accounting practices for biological assets in agriculture, which suggests scarce information content of this valuation method in the predominant small business units existing in the agricultural sector in advanced Western countries.La evolución de la contabilidad desde el coste histórico (CH hacia el valor razonable (VR ha suscitado debates y controversias, tanto en el ámbito profesional, como en el académico. Si bien el debate y los estudios se han referido principalmente a los instrumentos financieros, el requerimiento de la NIC41 de valorar los activos biológicos al VR ha ampliado el debate a la contabilidad agrícola.Este trabajo realiza un estudio empírico mediante una muestra de explotaciones agrícolas españolas que valoran sus activos biológicos al CH y otra que valoran al VR, para comparar el poder predictivo de ambos criterios de valoración. No se encuentran diferencias significativas entre ambos criterios para la predicción de los futuros flujos de tesorería. No obstante, la mayor parte de los tests realizados revelan un mayor poder predictivo de los futuros resultados contables bajo el valor razonable, que no se explica en función de diferencias en la

  14. Nest prospecting brown-headed cowbirds 'parasitize' social information when the value of personal information is lacking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David J; Davies, Hayden B; Agyapong, Samuel; Seegmiller, Nora

    2017-08-30

    Brood parasites face considerable cognitive challenges in locating and selecting host nests for their young. Here, we test whether female brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater , could use information acquired from observing the nest prospecting patterns of conspecifics to influence their own patterns of nest selection. In laboratory-based experiments, we created a disparity in the amount of personal information females had about the quality of nests. Females with less personal information about the quality of two nests spent more time investigating the nest that more knowledgeable females investigated. Furthermore, there was a strong negative relationship between individual's ability to track nest quality using personal information and their tendency to copy others. These two contrasting strategies for selecting nests are equally effective, but lead to different patterns of parasitism. © 2017 The Author(s).

  15. Value-added Data Services at the Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G. G.; Alcott, G. T.; Kempler, S. J.; Lynnes, C. S.; Vollmer, B. E.

    2004-05-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC), in addition to serving the Earth Science community as one of the major Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs), provides much more than just data. Among the value-added services available to general users are subsetting data spatially and/or by parameter, online analysis (to avoid downloading unnecessary all the data), and assistance in obtaining data from other centers. Services available to data producers and high-volume users include consulting on building new products with standard formats and metadata and construction of data management systems. A particularly useful service is data processing at the DISC (i.e., close to the input data) with the users' algorithms. This can take a number of different forms: as a configuration-managed algorithm within the main processing stream; as a stand-alone program next to the on-line data storage; as build-it-yourself code within the Near-Archive Data Mining (NADM) system; or as an on-the-fly analysis with simple algorithms embedded into the web-based tools. Partnerships between the GES DISC and scientists, both producers and users, allow the scientists concentrate on science, while the GES DISC handles the of data management, e.g., formats, integration and data processing. The existing data management infrastructure at the GES DISC supports a wide spectrum of options: from simple data support to sophisticated on-line analysis tools, producing economies of scale and rapid time-to-deploy. At the same time, such partnerships allow the GES DISC to serve the user community more efficiently and to better prioritize on-line holdings. Several examples of successful partnerships are described in the presentation.

  16. Are value of information methods ready for prime time? An application to alternative treatment strategies for NSTEMI patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Seamus; Briggs, Andrew; Eckermann, Simon; Berry, Colin

    2013-10-01

    The use of value of information methods to inform trial design has been widely advocated but there have been few empirical applications of these methods and there is little evidence they are widely used in decision making. This study considers the usefulness of value of information models in the context of a real clinical decision problem relating to alternative diagnostic strategies for patients with a recent non-ST elevated myocardial infarction. A pretrial economic model is constructed to consider the cost-effectiveness of two competing strategies: coronary angiography alone or in conjunction with fractional flow reserve measurement. A closed-form solution to the expected benefits of information is used with optimal sample size estimated for a range of models reflecting increasingly realistic assumptions and alternative decision contexts. Fractional flow reserve measurement is expected to be cost-effective with an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of GBP 1,621, however, there is considerable uncertainty in this estimate and consequently a large expected value to reducing this uncertainty via a trial. The recommended sample size is strongly affected by the reality of the assumptions of the expected value of information (EVI) model and the decision context. Value of information models can provide a simple and flexible approach to clinical trial design and are more consistent with the constraints and objectives of the healthcare system than traditional frequentist approaches. However, the variation in sample size estimates demonstrates that it is essential that appropriate model parameters and decision contexts are used in their application.

  17. Chemical Information Literacy: pK[subscript a] Values--Where Do Students Go Wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Alison B.; Amellal, Delphine G.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical information literacy is an essential skillset for navigating, evaluating, and using the wealth of print and online information. Accordingly, efforts are underway to improve students' acquisition and mastery of this skillset. However, less is known about students' abilities related to finding and using chemical information to solve…

  18. 77 FR 43076 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Value Engineering Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... respond, through the use of appropriate technological collection techniques or other forms of information... collection. All comments received will be posted without change to http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal and/or business confidential information provided. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Curtis E...

  19. Is there a casual link between disclosure for fair value assets and information asymmetry?

    OpenAIRE

    Ezdri, Elon

    2016-01-01

    Following an attempt to harmonize the U.S. GAAP and IFRS a new IFRS standard became mandatory in the EU known as IFRS 13 “Fair value measurement” in 2013. The new accounting standard aims to decrease inconsistencies with fair value measurement by introducing new disclosure requirements for fair value assets with no active market (level 3). This study investigates how well Swedish listed firms have complied with the new disclosure requirements, and whether their compliance level has affected t...

  20. Information Management Utilizing Valued Information at the Right Time (VIRT) as Applied to a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    information. JIT relies on physical inventory control queues referred to by the Japanese name of kanban to signal the need to move raw materials from a...will notify the PE of a change in identified conditions. Suppliers of raw materials interface closely with their customers to implement kanban

  1. The Current Mind-Set of Federal Information Security Decision-Makers on the Value of Governance: An Informative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, Jay Walter

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mind-set or perceptions of organizational leaders and decision-makers is important to ascertaining the trends and priorities in policy and governance of the organization. This study finds that a significant shift in the mind-set of government IT and information security leaders has started and will likely result in placing a…

  2. The Core Values that Support Health, Safety, and Well-being at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard I.J.M. Zwetsloot

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: The three clusters of core values identified can be regarded as “basic value assumptions” that underlie both organizational culture and prevention culture. The core values identified form a natural and perhaps necessary aspect of a prevention culture, complementary to the focus on rational and informed behavior when dealing with HSW risks.

  3. Does directly administered antiretroviral therapy represent good value for money in sub-Saharan Africa? A cost-utility and value of information analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Rashidah T.; Sutton, Andrew J.; Jackson, Louise J.

    2018-01-01

    Background Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods and findings A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial. Conclusions From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not

  4. Does directly administered antiretroviral therapy represent good value for money in sub-Saharan Africa? A cost-utility and value of information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Rashidah T; Sutton, Andrew J; Jackson, Louise J; Uthman, Olalekan A

    2018-01-01

    Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART) versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial. From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not to adopt DAART.

  5. Does directly administered antiretroviral therapy represent good value for money in sub-Saharan Africa? A cost-utility and value of information analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidah T Uthman

    Full Text Available Successful antiretroviral therapy (ART relies on the optimal level of ART adherence to achieve reliable viral suppression, avert HIV drug resistance, and prevent avoidable deaths. It has been shown that there are various groups of people living with HIV at high-risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to examine the cost effectiveness and value-of-information of directly administered antiretroviral therapy (DAART versus self-administered ART among people living with HIV, at high risk of non-adherence to ART in sub-Saharan Africa.A Markov model was developed that describes the transition between HIV stages based on the CD4 count, along with direct costs, quality of life and the mortality rate associated with DAART in comparison with self-administered ART. Data used in the model were derived from the published literature. A health system perspective was employed using a life-time time horizon. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the impact of parameter uncertainty. Value of information analysis was also conducted. The expected cost of self-administered ART and DAART were $5,200 and $15,500 and the expected QALYs gained were 8.52 and 9.75 respectively, giving an incremental cost effectiveness ratio of $8,400 per QALY gained. The analysis demonstrated that the annual cost DAART needs to be priced below $200 per patient to be cost-effective. The probability that DAART was cost-effective was 1% for a willingness to pay threshold of $5,096 for sub-Saharan Africa. The value of information associated with the cost of DAART and its effectiveness was substantial.From the perspective of the health care payer in sub-Saharan Africa, DAART cannot be regarded as cost-effective based on current information. The value of information analysis showed that further research will be worthwhile and potentially cost-effective in resolving the uncertainty about whether or not to adopt DAART.

  6. Economic modeling of sealing primary molars using a "value of information" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, J P; van der Goes, D N; Chi, D L

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to evaluate 2 primary molar sealant strategies for publicly insured children using an "expected value of perfect information" (EVPI) approach. We converted a 10,000-observation tooth-level cost-effectiveness simulation model comparing 2 primary molar sealant strategies - always seal (AS) and standard care (SC) - with a 1,250-observation child-level model. Costs per child per restoration or extraction averted were estimated. Opportunity losses under the AS strategy were determined for children for whom SC was the optimal choice. We determined the EVPI by multiplying mean opportunity losses by the projected incident population of publicly insured 3-year-olds in the US over 10 years with costs discounted at 2%. All analyses were conducted under assumptions of high and low intrachild correlations between at-risk teeth. The AS strategy cost $43.68 over SC (95% CI: -$5.50, $92.86) per child per restoration or extraction averted under the high intrachild correlation assumption and $15.54 (95% CI $7.86, $23.20) under the low intrachild correlation. Under high intrachild correlation, mean opportunity losses were $80.28 (95% CI: $76.39, $84.17) per child, and AS was the optimal strategy in 31% of children. Under low correlation, mean opportunity losses were $14.61 (95% CI: $12.20, $17.68) and AS was the optimal strategy in 87% of children. The EVPI was calculated at $530,813,740 and $96,578,389 (for high and low intrachild correlation, respectively), for a projected total incident population of 8,059,712 children. On average, always sealing primary molars is more effective than standard care, but widespread implementation of this preventive approach among publicly insured children would result in large opportunity losses. Additional research is needed to identify the subgroups of publicly insured children who would benefit the most from this effective and potentially cost-saving public health intervention. © International & American Associations for Dental

  7. About increasing informativity of diagnostic system of asynchronous electric motor by extracting additional information from values of consumed current parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukovskiy, Y.; Korolev, N.; Koteleva, N.

    2018-05-01

    This article is devoted to expanding the possibilities of assessing the technical state of the current consumption of asynchronous electric drives, as well as increasing the information capacity of diagnostic methods, in conditions of limited access to equipment and incompleteness of information. The method of spectral analysis of the electric drive current can be supplemented by an analysis of the components of the current of the Park's vector. The research of the hodograph evolution in the moment of appearance and development of defects was carried out using the example of current asymmetry in the phases of an induction motor. The result of the study is the new diagnostic parameters of the asynchronous electric drive. During the research, it was proved that the proposed diagnostic parameters allow determining the type and level of the defect. At the same time, there is no need to stop the equipment and taky it out of service for repair. Modern digital control and monitoring systems can use the proposed parameters based on the stator current of an electrical machine to improve the accuracy and reliability of obtaining diagnostic patterns and predicting their changes in order to improve the equipment maintenance systems. This approach can also be used in systems and objects where there are significant parasitic vibrations and unsteady loads. The extraction of useful information can be carried out in electric drive systems in the structure of which there is a power electric converter.

  8. Valuing Information on GM Foods in the Presence of Country-of-Origin Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xie; Hyeyoung Kim; Lisa House

    2013-01-01

    Information on production methods (genetic modification (GM) or organic production) and locations (country of origin) are commonly found on food package labels. Both pieces of information may be used as a proxy for food safety and (perceived) quality by consumers. Our study investigates the interactive effects between information on production method and country-of-origin labeling (COOL) by conducting choice experiments in the European Union, United States and Japan. This study also investig...

  9. Complementary Theories to Supply Chain Management Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldorsson, Arni; Hsuan, Juliana; Kotzab, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to identify ways by which the theorizing of supply chain management (SCM) takes place, with particular attention to complementary theories. SCM suffers as well as benefits from a “conceptual slack”. Design/methodology/approach – The nature of SCM is discussed...... as organizational units that act or consummate an action that delivers a particular performance. Originality/value – This paper portrays SCM sensitivity to managerial challenges by moving from borrowing to a more bilateral view on theorizing of SCM, reflecting the nature of SCM....

  10. Using value-based total cost of ownership (TCO) measures to inform subsystem trade-offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziwill, Nicole M.; DuPlain, Ronald F.

    2010-07-01

    Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) is a metric from management accounting that helps expose both the direct and indirect costs of a business decision. However, TCO can sometimes be too simplistic for "make vs. buy" decisions (or even choosing between competing design alternatives) when value and extensibility are more critical than total cost. A three-dimensional value-based TCO, which was developed to clarify product decisions for an observatory prior to Final Design Review (FDR), will be presented in this session. This value-based approach incorporates priority of requirements, satisfiability of requirements, and cost, and can be easily applied in any environment.

  11. The economic value of drought information for water management under climate change: a case study in the Ebro basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Quiroga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Drought events in the Mediterranean are likely to increase in frequency, duration and intensity due to climate change, thereby affecting crop production. Information about drought is valuable for river basin authorities and the farmers affected by their decisions. The economic value of this information and the resulting decisions are of interest to these two stakeholder groups and to the information providers. Understanding the dynamics of extreme events, including droughts, in future climate scenarios for the Mediterranean is being improved continuously. This paper analyses the economic value of information on drought events taking into account the risk aversion of water managers. We consider the effects of drought management plans on rice production in the Ebro river basin. This enables us to compute the willingness to compensate the river basin authority for more accurate information allowing for better decision-making. If runoff is reduced, river basin planners can consider the reduction of water allocation for irrigation in order to eliminate the risk of water scarcity. Alternately, river basin planners may decide to maintain water allocation and accept a reduction of water supply reliability, leaving farmers exposed to drought events. These two alternatives offer different risk levels for crop production and farmers' incomes which determine the value of this information to the river basin authority. The information is relevant for the revision of River Basin Management Plans of the Water Framework Directive (WFD within the context of climate change.

  12. ICU director data: using data to assess value, inform local change, and relate to the external world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David J; Ogbu, Ogbonna C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2015-04-01

    Improving value within critical care remains a priority because it represents a significant portion of health-care spending, faces high rates of adverse events, and inconsistently delivers evidence-based practices. ICU directors are increasingly required to understand all aspects of the value provided by their units to inform local improvement efforts and relate effectively to external parties. A clear understanding of the overall process of measuring quality and value as well as the strengths, limitations, and potential application of individual metrics is critical to supporting this charge. In this review, we provide a conceptual framework for understanding value metrics, describe an approach to developing a value measurement program, and summarize common metrics to characterize ICU value. We first summarize how ICU value can be represented as a function of outcomes and costs. We expand this equation and relate it to both the classic structure-process-outcome framework for quality assessment and the Institute of Medicine's six aims of health care. We then describe how ICU leaders can develop their own value measurement process by identifying target areas, selecting appropriate measures, acquiring the necessary data, analyzing the data, and disseminating the findings. Within this measurement process, we summarize common metrics that can be used to characterize ICU value. As health care, in general, and critical care, in particular, changes and data become more available, it is increasingly important for ICU leaders to understand how to effectively acquire, evaluate, and apply data to improve the value of care provided to patients.

  13. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  14. Value of Information Analysis Applied to the Economic Evaluation of Interventions Aimed at Reducing Juvenile Delinquency: An Illustration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester V Eeren

    Full Text Available To investigate whether a value of information analysis, commonly applied in health care evaluations, is feasible and meaningful in the field of crime prevention.Interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency are increasingly being evaluated according to their cost-effectiveness. Results of cost-effectiveness models are subject to uncertainty in their cost and effect estimates. Further research can reduce that parameter uncertainty. The value of such further research can be estimated using a value of information analysis, as illustrated in the current study. We built upon an earlier published cost-effectiveness model that demonstrated the comparison of two interventions aimed at reducing juvenile delinquency. Outcomes were presented as costs per criminal activity free year.At a societal willingness-to-pay of €71,700 per criminal activity free year, further research to eliminate parameter uncertainty was valued at €176 million. Therefore, in this illustrative analysis, the value of information analysis determined that society should be willing to spend a maximum of €176 million in reducing decision uncertainty in the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions. Moreover, the results suggest that reducing uncertainty in some specific model parameters might be more valuable than in others.Using a value of information framework to assess the value of conducting further research in the field of crime prevention proved to be feasible. The results were meaningful and can be interpreted according to health care evaluation studies. This analysis can be helpful in justifying additional research funds to further inform the reimbursement decision in regard to interventions for juvenile delinquents.

  15. Personal values, social capital and higher education student career decidedness: a new ‘protean’ informed model

    OpenAIRE

    Fearon, C.; Nachmias, S.; McLaughlin, H.; Jackson, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the role of personal values as motivational antecedents for understanding HE student career decidedness among university business school (UBS) students. We propose a new ‘protean’ informed HE student career decidedness model for theorizing how both personal values and social capital mediators (student social capital; personal, social and enterprise skills; access to resources) help in the student-centric and self-directed processes of career decision-making. A mixed me...

  16. Designing an integrated model based on the indicators Quality and Earned Value for risk management in Information Technology Projects

    OpenAIRE

    TATLARI, Mohammad Reza; KAZEMİPOOR, Hamed

    2015-01-01

    There are two effective factors on Information Technology (IT) projects risk including quality and earned value so that by controlling these two factors and their increased level in IT projects, the corresponding risk can be decreased. Therefore in present study, an integrated model was designed based on quality and earned value indicators for risk management in IT projects on a new and efficient approach. The proposed algorithm included the steps such as preparing a list of several indicator...

  17. Cost (and Quality and Value) of Information Technology Support in Large Research Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Christopher S.; Antolovic, Laurie

    1999-01-01

    Shows how financial and quality measures associated with the Balanced Scorecard (developed by Kaplan and Norton to measure organizational performance) can be applied to information technology (IT) user education and support in large research universities. Focuses on University Information Technology Services that has measured the quality of IT…

  18. Valor de la Informacion en la Orientacion Vocacional (The Value of Information in Vocational Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi Etchelouz, Nelly Yvis

    Information services in vocational education should describe for the student the reality of different professions--current characteristics and socio-economic conditions--and the chances for development in particular professions. This document discusses the need for such information in vocational education for making intelligent career choices and…

  19. Developing a Value of Information (VoI) Enabled System from Collection to Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Information, Android , smartphone, information dissemination, visual analytic 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...included the creation of 2 Android smartphone applications (apps) and the enhancement of an existing tool (Contour). Prior work with Android ...version of Contour will fix this problem . Testing the enhanced version of Contour required a data set with a known ground truth. Consequently, the Ali

  20. The value of an information leaflet for patients having nuclear medicine investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Susan Mohamed; Mohammed, Nada Yousif; Elhasseen, Amna Elnour

    2001-01-01

    This research aimed at design an information leaflet about nuclear medicine investigations usually done at the radiation and isotopes centre of Khartoum (RICK). The objectives are: to confirm lack of knowledge among patients attending hospital, to find out kind of information required and to improve service quality

  1. The value and need for long term conservation of information regarding nuclear waste repositories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Jensen, M. [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1993-12-31

    An important question in safety assessment of all repositories where toxic waste is disposed is how long should information be available to society about the repository and its content? Future societies right to knowledge must be considered and actions must already today be taken to ensure that proper information conservation, transfer and retrieval are provided. Collection of relevant information must be planned for at the research, construction and the operational phase of a repository. One of the main areas for information conservation and transfer is to mitigate future human intrusion. A system for best possible mitigation of human intrusion should with the present knowledge comprise the following parts: (a) development of planning procedures for long-term conservation of gathered information (present and future national and international archives, markers etc.); (b) continuous follow up of the state-of-the-art of information media; (c) preparations for national rules and regulations on nuclear waste information; (d) participation in international cooperation on issues concerning nuclear waste information keeping, transfer and retrieval.

  2. Valuing Information on GM Foods in the Presence of Country-of-Origin Labels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Information on production methods (genetic modification (GM or organic production and locations (country of origin are commonly found on food package labels. Both pieces of information may be used as a proxy for food safety and (perceived quality by consumers. Our study investigates the interactive effects between information on production method and country-of-origin labeling (COOL by conducting choice experiments in the European Union, United States and Japan. This study also investigates the effect of information about potential benefits of biotechnology on consumer acceptance of GM foods. Results indicate that consumers preferred GM foods produced domestically to GM foods imported from foreign countries, and individuals with information on consumer benefits, producer benefits, and environmental benefits were willing to pay more than individuals without information in some cases, but the effect of information varied by type of information, location, and the country of origin of the products. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0pt 5.4pt 0pt 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0pt; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  3. Interactive effects of carbon footprint information and its accessibility on value and subjective qualities of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Kamada, Akiko; Masuda, Tomohiro; Okamoto, Masako; Goto, Sho-ichi; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Cai, Dongsheng; Oka, Takashi; Dan, Ippeita

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to explore the interactive effects of the accessibility of information and the degree of carbon footprint score on consumers' value judgments of food products. Participants (n=151, undergraduate students in Japan) rated their maximum willingness to pay (WTP) for four food products varying in information accessibility (active-search or read-only conditions) and in carbon footprint values (low, middle, high, or non-display) provided. We also assessed further effects of information accessibly and carbon footprint value on other product attributes utilizing the subjective estimation of taste, quality, healthiness, and environmental friendliness. Results of the experiment demonstrated an interactive effect of information accessibility and the degree of carbon emission on consumer valuation of carbon footprint-labeled food. The carbon footprint value had a stronger impact on participants' WTP in the active-search condition than in the read-only condition. Similar to WTP, the results of the subjective ratings for product qualities also exhibited an interactive effect of the two factors on the rating of environmental friendliness for products. These results imply that the perceived environmental friendliness inferable from a carbon footprint label contributes to creating value for a food product.

  4. Critical value factors in business intelligence systems implementation success: An empirical analysis of system and information quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hackney, RA; Dooley, P; Levvy, Y; Parrish, J

    2015-01-01

    Business Intelligence (BI) systems have been rated as a leading technology for the last several years. However, organizations have struggled to ensure that high quality information is provided to and from BI systems. This suggests that organizations have recognized the value of information and the potential opportunities available but are challenged by the lack of success in Business Intelligence Systems Implementation (BISI). Therefore, our research addresses the preponderance of failed BI s...

  5. Complementary Colours for a Physicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babic, Vitomir; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a simple experiment which enables splitting incident light into two different modes, each having a colour exactly complementary to the other. A brief historical development of colour theories and differences in a physicist's point of view with respect to an artist's one is discussed. An experimental system for producing…

  6. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  7. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  8. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  9. Industrial Evolution Through Complementary Convergence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The article addresses the dynamics through which product markets become derailed from early product life cycle (PLC)-tracks and engaged in complementary convergence with other product markets or industries. We compare and contrast the theories that can explain, respectively, the PLC...

  10. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangioppo, Sandra; Kalaci, Odion; Radhakrishnan, Arun; Fleischer, Erin; Itterman, Jennifer; Lyttle, Brian; Price, April; Radhakrishnan, Dhenuka

    2016-11-01

    To estimate the overall prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with cystic fibrosis, determine specific modalities used, predictors of use and subjective helpfulness or harm from individual modalities. Of 53 children attending the cystic fibrosis clinic in London, Ontario (100% recruitment), 79% had used complementary and alternative medicine. The most commonly used modalities were air purifiers, humidifiers, probiotics, and omega-3 fatty acids. Family complementary and alternative medicine use was the only independent predictor of overall use. The majority of patients perceived benefit from specific modalities for cystic fibrosis symptoms. Given the high frequency and number of modalities used and lack of patient and disease characteristics predicting use, we recommend that health care providers should routinely ask about complementary and alternative medicine among all pediatric cystic fibrosis patients and assist patients in understanding the potential benefits and risks to make informed decisions about its use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. IRSN-ANCCLI partnership. Work session on Complementary safety assessments - November 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachaume, Jean-Luc; Lheureux, Yves; Sene, Monique; Sene, Raymond; Jorel, Martial; Lavarenne, Caroline; Rousseau, Jean-Marie; Rebour, Vincent; Baumont, David; Dupuy, Patricia

    2011-11-01

    After an overview by the ASN of complementary safety assessments and an assessment of 'post-Fukushima' inspections of basic nuclear installations, the contributions (Power Point presentations) of this seminar proposed: the opinion of the Gravelines CLI (local information commission) on the Gravelines complementary safety assessment report, an analysis and discussion by the GSIEN on reports of complementary assessment of safety of nuclear installations with respect to the Fukushima accident, an analysis by the IRSN of complementary safety assessments performed by operators, the IRSN approach to analyze complementary safety assessments, reports on installation conditions, external flooding and seismic hazard, 'meltdown prevention' aspects in the management of accidental situations in EDF reactors

  12. The invisible hands made visible: recognizing the value of informal care in healthcare decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Exel, Job; Bobinac, Ana; Koopmanschap, Marc; Brouwer, Werner

    2008-12-01

    The healthcare sector depends heavily on the informal care provided by families and friends of those who are ill. Informal caregivers may experience significant burden as well as health and well-being effects. Resource allocation decisions, in particular from a societal perspective, should account explicitly for these effects in the social environment of patients. This is not only important to make a complete welfare economic assessment of treatments, but also to ensure the lasting involvement of informal caregivers in the care-giving process. Measurement and valuation techniques for the costs and effects of informal care have been developed and their use is becoming more common. Decision-makers in healthcare - and eventually families and patients - would be helped by more uniformity in methods.

  13. Assessing the value of real-time snow and avalanche information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Adams, Marc; Schuster, Martin; Berner, Martin; Nagy, Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    This poster presentation shows first results from a pilot study on exploring the possibilities of using existing and new information and communication technologies (ICT) for snow and avalanche assessments. Today, ICT solutions allow the utilisation of information at a high spatiotemporal resolution, due to the widespread availability of internet access, high computing power and affordable mobile devices. Therefore, there is an increasing request for up to date information on snow and avalanche decision-making. However, there are challenges that need to be addressed from different view points. These include topics in the field of technological feasibility of providing a stable network, exchanging trustworthy information and motivation of experts to participate. This contribution discusses the lessons-learnt, from the establishment of a platform to the user-experience.

  14. 77 FR 31006 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Valuing Improved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Nathalie Simon, National Center for Environmental Economics... estimating corresponding benefits. EPA's National Center for Environmental Economics (NCEE) is undertaking a... total time, effort, or financial resources expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, or...

  15. Balancing Information Analysis and Decision Value: A Model to Exploit the Decision Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    technical intelli- gence e.g. signals and sensors (SIGINT and MASINT), imagery (!MINT), as well and human and open source intelligence (HUMINT and OSINT ...Clark 2006). The ability to capture large amounts of da- ta and the plenitude of modem intelligence information sources provides a rich cache of...many tech- niques for managing information collected and derived from these sources , the exploitation of intelligence assets for decision-making

  16. How Do Our Values Inform Ethical Research? A Narrative of Recognizing Colonizing Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzidic, Peta; Bishop, Brian

    2017-12-01

    How do you reconcile tensions between ethical research practice, personal values, and disciplinary values? This article focuses on an ethical challenge involving the engagement of rural Indigenous community members that emerged during my PhD fieldwork. The narrative illustrates the necessity to engage in critical reflexive research practice, a process which saw me respond to my own feelings of "wrong" and "right," contemplate a distinction between procedural ethics and virtue ethics in community-based research, explore colonizing research practices, and endeavor to reconcile an instance where the values of community psychology appeared in contest. The "voice" in this narrative is that of the first author; the dual authorship reflects the ongoing collaboration between both authors. When this ethical issue came about, our relationship was one of "student" and "supervisor"; we are now colleagues and friends. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  17. The value of information in explicit cross-border capacity auction regimes in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Jan; Viehmann, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    We study two electricity markets connected by a fixed amount of cross-border capacity. The total amount of capacity is known to all electricity traders and allocated via an auction. The capacity allocated to each bidder in the auction remains private information. We assume that traders are faced with a demand function reflecting the relationship between electricity transmitted between the markets and the spot price difference. Therefore, traders act like Bayesian–Cournot oligopolists in exercising their transmission rights when presented with incomplete information about the competitors’ capacities. Our analysis breaks down the welfare effect into three different components: Cournot behavior, capacity constraints, and incomplete information. We find that social welfare increases with the level of information with which traders are endowed. - Highlights: • We regard the utilization of explicitly auctioned cross-border capacities in electricity markets as a Bayesian Cournot game. • We analyze social welfare and find three forces diminishing it, (1) firms play a cournot game, (2) the presence of capacity constraints, (3) incomplete information. • We derive information regimes from “real world” examples and analyze their effect on social welfare

  18. When do we need more data? A primer on calculating the value of information for applied ecologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2015-01-01

    Applied ecologists continually advocate further research, under the assumption that obtaining more information will lead to better decisions. Value of information (VoI) analysis can be used to quantify how additional information may improve management outcomes: despite its potential, this method is still underused in environmental decision-making. We provide a primer on how to calculate the VoI and assess whether reducing uncertainty will change a decision. Our aim is to facilitate the application of VoI by managers who are not familiar with decision-analytic principles and notation, by increasing the technical accessibility of the tool.

  19. How Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practitioners Use PubMed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quint-Rapoport, Mia

    2007-01-01

    Background PubMed is the largest bibliographic index in the life sciences. It is freely available online and is used by professionals and the public to learn more about medical research. While primarily intended to serve researchers, PubMed provides an array of tools and services that can help a wider readership in the location, comprehension, evaluation, and utilization of medical research. Objective This study sought to establish the potential contributions made by a range of PubMed tools and services to the use of the database by complementary and alternative medicine practitioners. Methods In this study, 10 chiropractors, 7 registered massage therapists, and a homeopath (N = 18), 11 with prior research training and 7 without, were taken through a 2-hour introductory session with PubMed. The 10 PubMed tools and services considered in this study can be divided into three functions: (1) information retrieval (Boolean Search, Limits, Related Articles, Author Links, MeSH), (2) information access (Publisher Link, LinkOut, Bookshelf ), and (3) information management (History, Send To, Email Alert). Participants were introduced to between six and 10 of these tools and services. The participants were asked to provide feedback on the value of each tool or service in terms of their information needs, which was ranked as positive, positive with emphasis, negative, or indifferent. Results The participants in this study expressed an interest in the three types of PubMed tools and services (information retrieval, access, and management), with less well-regarded tools including MeSH Database and Bookshelf. In terms of their comprehension of the research, the tools and services led the participants to reflect on their understanding as well as their critical reading and use of the research. There was universal support among the participants for greater access to complete articles, beyond the approximately 15% that are currently open access. The abstracts provided by PubMed were

  20. Protection of the wilderness and aesthetic values of Antarctica: Geographical Information Systems (GIS) as a tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert Summerson; Tina Tin

    2011-01-01

    Antarctica is designated by the Antarctic Treaty System as a "natural reserve devoted to peace and science" (http://www.ats.aq/index_e.htm). Multiple, and sometimes conflicting, values are protected. In a place where wilderness protection and certain forms of human activity are both prized, a discussion of the protection of the Antarctic wilderness...

  1. Value of Information Analysis from a Societal Perspective : A Case Study in Prevention of Major Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohseninejad, Leyla; van Baal, Pieter H. M.; van den Berg, Matthijs; Buskens, Erik; Feenstra, Talitha

    Objectives: Productivity losses usually have a considerable impact on cost-effectiveness estimates while their estimated values are often relatively uncertain. Therefore, parameters related to these indirect costs play a role in setting priorities for future research from a societal perspective.

  2. 77 FR 43822 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Valuing Improved Water Quality in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... Request; Comment Request; Valuing Improved Water Quality in the Chesapeake Bay Using Stated Preference... efforts to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. In 2009, Executive Order (E.O.) 13508 re... undertaking a benefits analysis of improvements in Bay water quality under the TMDLs, as well as of ancillary...

  3. The PROgnostic Value of unrequested Information in Diagnostic Imaging (PROVIDI) Study: rationale and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gondrie, M. J. A.; Mali, W. P. Th. M.; Buckens, C. F. M.; Jacobs, P. C. A.; Grobbee, D. E.; Graaf, Y van der

    2010-01-01

    We describe the rationale for a new study examining the prognostic value of unrequested findings in diagnostic imaging. The deployment of more advanced imaging modalities in routine care means that such findings are being detected with increasing frequency. However, as the prognostic significance of many types of unrequested findings is unknown, the optimal response to such findings remains uncertain and in many cases an overly defensive approach is adopted, to the detriment of patient-care. Additionally, novel and promising image findings that are newly available on many routine scans cannot be used to improve patient care until their prognostic value is properly determined. The PROVIDI study seeks to address these issues using an innovative multi-center case-cohort study design. PROVIDI is to consist of a series of studies investigating specific, selected disease entities and clusters. Computed Tomography images from the participating hospitals are reviewed for unrequested findings. Subsequently, this data is pooled with outcome data from a central population registry. Study populations consist of patients with endpoints relevant to the (group of) disease(s) under study along with a random control sample from the cohort. This innovative design allows PROVIDI to evaluate selected unrequested image findings for their true prognostic value in a series of manageable studies. By incorporating unrequested image findings and outcomes data relevant to patients, truly meaningful conclusions about the prognostic value of unrequested and emerging image findings can be reached and used to improve patient-care.

  4. 78 FR 31573 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... visitors that can be used to prepare resource management planning documents. II. Data OMB Control Number...: We (National Park Service) will ask the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) to approve the... visitor groups and local community members about the values they place on cultural and natural resources...

  5. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    deliberately draw on different literatures and seek to make use of practitioner expertise within our discussion, in order to display several perspectives on the value of non-policy dialogue on science as sites of symmetrical individual or small-scale learning --rather than institutional learning......--through social processes...

  6. What's the VALUE of Information Literacy? Comparing Learning Community and Non-Learning Community Student Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapchak, Marcia E.; Brungard, Allison B.; Bergfelt, Theodore W.

    2016-01-01

    Using the Information Literacy VALUE Rubric provided by the AAC&U, this study compares thirty final capstone assignments in a research course in a learning community with thirty final assignments in from students not in learning communities. Results indicated higher performance of the non-learning community students; however, transfer skills…

  7. Principals Value-Informed Decision Making, Intrapersonal Moral Discord, and Pathways to Resolution: The Complexities of Moral Leadership Praxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This research seeks to explore the inevitable internal struggle experienced by school leaders when making ethically-informed judgments. The study acquired principals' intimate reflections about professional decision making in response to personal versus organizational and/or professional value discrepancy as identified in the ethic of the…

  8. Complementary therapy use by women's health clinic clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Amy C; King, Margaret O'Brien; McGee, Karen; Rudolph, Connie

    2004-01-01

    While it is known that more women than men use complementary and alternative therapies, it is important to look at women who are pregnant or possibly receiving hormonal therapy, as side effects and consequences of these therapies may have a significant effect on their health status. To assess women's knowledge, perceived effectiveness and use of 20 complementary and alternative therapies. Descriptive four-page questionnaire to obtain data on the use, reason for use, knowledge, perceived effectiveness, and sources of information of twenty complementary and alternative therapies. Women's Health Center at a large Midwestern hospital. A convenience sample of 250 women waiting to be seen by either a nurse midwife or obstetrician/gynecologist at an outpatient clinic. Sixty-nine percent of the participants used one or more complementary therapy. The most frequently used therapies included prayer, vitamins, massage, diet, and aromatherapy. The best predictor of use of each therapy was the participant's knowledge of the therapy. Participants generally rated the efficacy of the therapies higher than their knowledge level. Frequently cited sources of information were popular media and family. The least common information sources were nurse-midwives, drug stores, Internet, and other professional healthcare providers. Women in this setting use complementary therapies at a rate greater than the general population. The participants obtained a great deal of their information about the therapies from popular press, media, friends, and family members rather than from licensed healthcare providers.

  9. Capturing value from external NPD collaboration — the significant role of market information processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, Thomas

    . By including customers, suppliers, competitors, universities, and other external experts in the development process, firms gain access to information, knowledge, and ideas that otherwise would have been out of reach. Extensive previous research has documented the beneficial effects of collaborating with many...... sources.This study contributes to the existing knowledge of firms’ use of external sources in new product development. A model is presented that tests the effectiveness of external collaboration when multiple external sources have to be managed simultaneously. Also, firms’ ability to process information...... of determining whether it is any more difficult to collaborate with external sources and process information about products that are completely new to the market.This thesis presents a model that points out how difficult it is to collaborate with many external sources unless the firm has the right formal...

  10. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nearing, Michelle M., E-mail: michelle.nearing@rmc.ca; Koch, Iris, E-mail: koch-i@rmc.ca; Reimer, Kenneth J., E-mail: reimer-k@rmc.ca

    2014-09-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  11. Complementary arsenic speciation methods: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearing, Michelle M.; Koch, Iris; Reimer, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of arsenic greatly depends on its chemical form and oxidation state (speciation) and therefore accurate determination of arsenic speciation is a crucial step in understanding its chemistry and potential risk. High performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled mass spectrometry (HPLC–ICP-MS) is the most common analysis used for arsenic speciation but it has two major limitations: it relies on an extraction step (usually from a solid sample) that can be incomplete or alter the arsenic compounds; and it provides no structural information, relying on matching sample peaks to standard peaks. The use of additional analytical methods in a complementary manner introduces the ability to address these disadvantages. The use of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) with HPLC–ICP-MS can be used to identify compounds not extracted for HPLC–ICP-MS and provide minimal processing steps for solid state analysis that may help preserve labile compounds such as those containing arsenic-sulfur bonds, which can degrade under chromatographic conditions. On the other hand, HPLC–ICP-MS is essential in confirming organoarsenic compounds with similar white line energies seen by using XAS, and identifying trace arsenic compounds that are too low to be detected by XAS. The complementary use of electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI–MS) with HPLC–ICP-MS provides confirmation of arsenic compounds identified during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis, identification of unknown compounds observed during the HPLC–ICP-MS analysis and further resolves HPLC–ICP-MS by identifying co-eluting compounds. In the complementary use of HPLC–ICP-MS and ESI–MS, HPLC–ICP-MS helps to focus the ESI–MS selection of ions. Numerous studies have shown that the information obtained from HPLC–ICP-MS analysis can be greatly enhanced by complementary approaches. - Highlights: • HPLC–ICP-MS is the most common method used for arsenic speciation. • HPLC limitations include

  12. Rational clinical evaluation of suspected acute coronary syndromes: The value of more information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, David G; Chuang, Ming-Yu Anthony; Bystrom, Rebecca; Halabi, Amera; Jones, Rachel; Horsfall, Matthew; Cullen, Louise; Parsonage, William A; Chew, Derek P

    2017-12-01

    Many meta-analyses have provided synthesised likelihood ratio data to aid clinical decision-making. However, much less has been published on how to safely combine clinical information in practice. We aimed to explore the benefits and risks of pooling clinical information during the ED assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome. Clinical information on 1776 patients was collected within a randomised trial conducted across five South Australian EDs between July 2011 and March 2013. Bayes theorem was used to calculate patient-specific post-test probabilities using age- and gender-specific pre-test probabilities and likelihood ratios corresponding to the presence or absence of 18 clinical factors. Model performance was assessed as the presence of adverse cardiac outcomes among patients theoretically discharged at a post-test probability less than 1%. Bayes theorem-based models containing high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-troponin) outperformed models excluding hs-troponin, as well as models utilising TIMI and GRACE scores. In models containing hs-troponin, a plateau in improving discharge safety was observed after the inclusion of four clinical factors. Models with fewer clinical factors better approximated the true event rate, tended to be safer and resulted in a smaller standard deviation in post-test probability estimates. We showed that there is a definable point where additional information becomes uninformative and may actually lead to less certainty. This evidence supports the concept that clinical decision-making in the assessment of suspected acute coronary syndrome should be focused on obtaining the least amount of information that provides the highest benefit for informing the decisions of admission or discharge. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  13. [Using value of information analysis in decision making about applied research. The case of genetic screening for hemochromatosis in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowski, W H; Grosse, S D; Meyer, E; John, J; Palmer, S

    2012-05-01

    Public decision makers face demands to invest in applied research in order to accelerate the adoption of new genetic tests. However, such an investment is profitable only if the results gained from further investigations have a significant impact on health care practice. An upper limit for the value of additional information aimed at improving the basis for reimbursement decisions is given by the expected value of perfect information (EVPI). This study illustrates the significance of the concept of EVPI on the basis of a probabilistic cost-effectiveness model of screening for hereditary hemochromatosis among German men. In the present example, population-based screening can barely be recommended at threshold values of 50,000 or 100,000 Euro per life year gained and also the value of additional research which might cause this decision to be overturned is small: At the mentioned threshold values, the EVPI in the German public health care system was ca. 500,000 and 2,200,000 Euro, respectively. An analysis of EVPI by individual parameters or groups of parameters shows that additional research about adherence to preventive phlebotomy could potentially provide the highest benefit. The potential value of further research also depends on methodological assumptions regarding the decision maker's time horizon as well as on scenarios with an impact on the number of affected patients and the cost-effectiveness of screening.

  14. FEATURES OF USING WEBINARS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF SPIRITUAL AND MORAL VALUES IN INFORMAL ADULTS EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna S. Pichuhina

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to examine the features of using webinars for the development of spiritual and moral values in the non-formal adult education. Actualization of the problem of spirituality formation is associated with the modern requirements to moral features of adults arising from their special social function of influence on the formation of spiritual values of younger generation. Conducting psychological and educational on-line workshops, lectures, consultations for adults arising from problems of misunderstanding or loss of key moral features is relevant and demanded. As a form of such interaction the webinar is suggested as an ICT-tool used in non-formal adults education.

  15. Designing Mobile Information Services; An approach for Organisations in a Value Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kar, E.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The mobile telecommunications industry is searching for new services, not only to recoup its investments but also to stay competitive in the future. The industry is undergoing a radical transformation and organisations in the telecommunications, information technology and media sector are becoming

  16. Beyond Waste Reduction: Creating Value with Information Systems in Closed-Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.R. Koppius (Otto); O. Ozdemir (Oznur); E.A. van der Laan (Erwin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWe study the role of information systems in enabling closed-loop supply chains. Past research in green IS and closed-loop supply chains has shown that it can result in substantial cost savings and waste reduction. We complement this research by showing that the effects are more than

  17. Economic value of management information systems in agriculture: a review of evaluation approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstegen, J.A.A.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Dijkhuizen, A.A.; Kleijnen, J.P.C.

    1995-01-01

    An important criterion for farmers to select an investment is its profitability. Difficulties arise when this criterion is applied to investments in management information systems (MIS), because the impact of MIS on farm performance is unclear. To cope with this problem, specific MIS evaluation

  18. Exploring the Information Literacy Needs and Values of High School Chemistry Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Marci; Tucci, Valerie Karvey

    2016-01-01

    To meet the information literacy (IL) needs of chemistry students, The College of New Jersey's (TCNJ) Library and Chemistry Departments have created a three-year seminar with a strong IL component. The program focuses on IL skills necessary for success in industry and graduate or professional education, but may lack features specific to those…

  19. Image Representation and Interactivity: An Exploration of Utility Values, Information-Needs and Image Interactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Elise C.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the relationships between users and interactive images. Three factors were identified and provided different perspectives on how users interact with images: image utility, information-need, and images with varying levels of interactivity. The study used a mixed methodology to gain a more comprehensive…

  20. The Value of Information: Normativity, Epistemology, and LIS in Luciano Floridi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyffe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a critical reconstruction of Luciano Floridi's view of librarianship as "stewardship of a semantic environment," a view that is at odds with the dominant tradition in which library and information science (LIS) is understood as social epistemology. Floridi's work helps to explain the normative dimensions of librarianship in…

  1. The value of physicians' affect-oriented communication for patients' recall of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Leonie N. C.; Tollenaar, Marieke S.; de Haes, Hanneke C. J. M.; Smets, Ellen M. A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to discuss experimental research investigating the effect of physicians' affect-oriented communication on patients' recall of information provided during medical consultations, with a special focus on the mediating role of emotional stress in that relation.

  2. Technologies and Business Value of Cloud Computing: Strategy for the Department of Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Manyando, Obyster

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the area of cloud computing, an important research area in computer and service science. The general aim of this research is to emphasize the business value of cloud computing to businesses. The objective of this research is to explore the economic benefits of cloud computing in order to promote its use in business and the education sector. Consequently, the research recommends the adoption of cloud computing by the Kemi-Tornio University of Applied Sciences. The ...

  3. Information and analytical support of integrated reporting: evaluation of the stakeholders’ influence on the change of the created value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Novozhilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and analytical support of integrated reporting needs constant improvement, depending on the growing needs of the stakeholders. The main objective of integrated reporting is to explain how the organization creates value over time. The stakeholders play a key role in the process of value creation. Firms accumulate stakeholders’ resources and transform them, thereby meeting the needs of the parties and achieving their own goals. Building relationships with their stakeholders, organization establishes impact leverage to create value. Thus, the created value depends on the successful interaction with stakeholders. Therefore, the article is devoted to problem of information and analytical support of integrated reporting to the evaluation of created value, which is influenced by the stakeholders. The article emphasizes that an integrated quantitative measurement of value change is a complex and unresolved currently task. Integrated evaluation - a systematic analytical study, in the course of which is given summarizing evaluation of the effectiveness company. Such assessment activity is important and has a multi-purpose orientation under market conditions. The annual reports of companies are practically no integrated indicators characterizing created value. The author believes that integrated reporting should become a platform for the realization of the possibility of an integrated assessment of the created value. The results of the study are the development the methods of computation the “integrated index overall impact by the stakeholders on the company’s created value” and its testing on the example of the annual reports of the organization, which discloses information on the level of international best practice. The methodology of the research bases on such methods as analysis, synthesis, abstraction, simulation, comprehensive approach to knowledge, logical methods of research. Private indicators for the computation the

  4. Collection, warehousing and dissemination of specimen information: an added value for theriological collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Preatoni

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent achievements in the technologies for information management and sharing would allow to make more available and exploitable the wealth of data represented by theriological museum collections. Anyway, the scarce diffusion of Information Technology knowledge in the theriological field hinders the transition towards digital cataloguing of collections, often leading to the creation of data bases unable to last through time and without coherent information management policies. The aim of this contribute is to present a concise review of the existing practices and technologies used to design and implement information systems, in order to promote the increasing application of such technologies in the theriological and, in general, in the natural resource conservation field. Riassunto Raccolta e condivisione delle informazioni sui reperti: un valore aggiunto per le collezioni teriologiche. I recenti sviluppi delle tecnologie per la gestione e la condivisione delle informazioni rendono oggi possibile una maggiore fruibilità e disponibilità del patrimonio costituito dalle collezioni teriologiche. Tuttavia, la scarsa diffusione nel contesto teriologico e museologico delle conoscenze nel campo dell’Information Technology rende difficoltosa la transizione verso la catalogazione in formato digitale, portando spesso alla creazione di banche dati che non garantiscono una ragionevole durata nel tempo né la necessaria coerenza nell’organizzazione delle complesse informazioni concernenti il catalogo di una collezione. Il presente contributo offre una concisa rassegna dei principi di base e delle pratiche più comuni nello sviluppo di sistemi informativi, con l’obiettivo di favorire una loro sempre maggiore applicazione nel campo della teriologia e della conservazione delle risorse naturali in generale.

  5. Using information technology governance, risk management and compliance (GRC as a creator of business values – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Lubbe

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Information Technology (IT Governance, Risk Management and Compliance (GRC and organisation business values continues to interest academics and practitioners (IT Governance Institute, 2003. Like governance, risk management and compliance generally, IT GRC is about the decision rights and accountabilities that encourage desirable behaviour in the use of IT (IT Governance Institute, 2003. A case study approach was used in an organisation with many business units. The organisation selected is a mining company, RioZim, situated in Zimbabwe. Data was collected from business units on IT issues and business values. The interviews centred on the IT GRC practices based on responsibility and authority for IT decision making. The results suggest that IT GRC does not adequately support business values. The study revealed that business values should drive IT GRC and IT GRC should be the responsibility of executives and all business units.

  6. Information-based management mode based on value network analysis for livestock enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haoqi; Lee, Changhoon; Han, Mingming; Su, Zhongbin; Padigala, Varshinee Anu; Shen, Weizheng

    2018-01-01

    With the development of computer and IT technologies, enterprise management has gradually become information-based management. Moreover, due to poor technical competence and non-uniform management, most breeding enterprises show a lack of organisation in data collection and management. In addition, low levels of efficiency result in increasing production costs. This paper adopts 'struts2' in order to construct an information-based management system for standardised and normalised management within the process of production in beef cattle breeding enterprises. We present a radio-frequency identification system by studying multiple-tag anti-collision via a dynamic grouping ALOHA algorithm. This algorithm is based on the existing ALOHA algorithm and uses an improved packet dynamic of this algorithm, which is characterised by a high-throughput rate. This new algorithm can reach a throughput 42% higher than that of the general ALOHA algorithm. With a change in the number of tags, the system throughput is relatively stable.

  7. The value of nodal information in predicting lung cancer relapse using 4DPET/4DCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heyse, E-mail: heyse.li@mail.utoronto.ca [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8 (Canada); Becker, Nathan; Raman, Srinivas [Radiation Oncology, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9 (Canada); Chan, Timothy C. Y. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King’s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G8, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Radiation Oncology, UHN Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, 610 University of Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5T 2M9, Canada and Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, 124 - 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: There is evidence that computed tomography (CT) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging metrics are prognostic and predictive in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment outcomes. However, few studies have explored the use of standardized uptake value (SUV)-based image features of nodal regions as predictive features. The authors investigated and compared the use of tumor and node image features extracted from the radiotherapy target volumes to predict relapse in a cohort of NSCLC patients undergoing chemoradiation treatment. Methods: A prospective cohort of 25 patients with locally advanced NSCLC underwent 4DPET/4DCT imaging for radiation planning. Thirty-seven image features were derived from the CT-defined volumes and SUVs of the PET image from both the tumor and nodal target regions. The machine learning methods of logistic regression and repeated stratified five-fold cross-validation (CV) were used to predict local and overall relapses in 2 yr. The authors used well-known feature selection methods (Spearman’s rank correlation, recursive feature elimination) within each fold of CV. Classifiers were ranked on their Matthew’s correlation coefficient (MCC) after CV. Area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity values are also presented. Results: For predicting local relapse, the best classifier found had a mean MCC of 0.07 and was composed of eight tumor features. For predicting overall relapse, the best classifier found had a mean MCC of 0.29 and was composed of a single feature: the volume greater than 0.5 times the maximum SUV (N). Conclusions: The best classifier for predicting local relapse had only tumor features. In contrast, the best classifier for predicting overall relapse included a node feature. Overall, the methods showed that nodes add value in predicting overall relapse but not local relapse.

  8. How value-glamour investors use financial information: UK evidence of investor's confirmation bias

    OpenAIRE

    Doung, C.; Pescetto, G.; Santamaria, D.

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates investor’s behaviour in the context of value–glamour investing and fundamental analysis, and provides a direct test of the confirmation bias by bringing together the evidence from several strands of literature into a well-defined framework of investor behaviour. The empirical evidence presented is in line with a model of\\ud investor’s asymmetric reaction to good and bad news due to confirmation bias. Pessimistic value investors typically under-react to good financial in...

  9. Can GOLD Stage 0 provide information of prognostic value in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, Jørgen; Lange, Peter

    2002-01-01

    " for COPD. Our aim was to validate this staging approach using data from three surveys in The Copenhagen City Heart Study, in which a sample of the general population was examined at baseline and in which, after 5 and 15 years, spirometry was performed at all surveys. Criteria for GOLD Stage 0 was fulfilled....... Further analyses using multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that GOLD Stage 0 was not identifying subsequent airways obstruction. When analyzing FEV(1) decline, Stage 0 carried a risk of excess decline. GOLD Stage 0 was not a stable feature, which may explain the lack of predictive value...

  10. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim W Faber

    Full Text Available Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective. Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands. Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking' irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  11. Complementary Hand Responses Occur in Both Peri- and Extrapersonal Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Tim W; van Elk, Michiel; Jonas, Kai J

    2016-01-01

    Human beings have a strong tendency to imitate. Evidence from motor priming paradigms suggests that people automatically tend to imitate observed actions such as hand gestures by performing mirror-congruent movements (e.g., lifting one's right finger upon observing a left finger movement; from a mirror perspective). Many observed actions however, do not require mirror-congruent responses but afford complementary (fitting) responses instead (e.g., handing over a cup; shaking hands). Crucially, whereas mirror-congruent responses don't require physical interaction with another person, complementary actions often do. Given that most experiments studying motor priming have used stimuli devoid of contextual information, this space or interaction-dependency of complementary responses has not yet been assessed. To address this issue, we let participants perform a task in which they had to mirror or complement a hand gesture (fist or open hand) performed by an actor depicted either within or outside of reach. In three studies, we observed faster reaction times and less response errors for complementary relative to mirrored hand movements in response to open hand gestures (i.e., 'hand-shaking') irrespective of the perceived interpersonal distance of the actor. This complementary effect could not be accounted for by a low-level spatial cueing effect. These results demonstrate that humans have a strong and automatic tendency to respond by performing complementary actions. In addition, our findings underline the limitations of manipulations of space in modulating effects of motor priming and the perception of affordances.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness and Value of Information Analysis of Brief Interventions to Promote Physical Activity in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gc, Vijay Singh; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen; Wilson, Edward C F

    2018-01-01

    Brief interventions (BIs) delivered in primary care have shown potential to increase physical activity levels and may be cost-effective, at least in the short-term, when compared with usual care. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on their longer term costs and health benefits. To estimate the cost-effectiveness of BIs to promote physical activity in primary care and to guide future research priorities using value of information analysis. A decision model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of three classes of BIs that have been used, or could be used, to promote physical activity in primary care: 1) pedometer interventions, 2) advice/counseling on physical activity, and (3) action planning interventions. Published risk equations and data from the available literature or routine data sources were used to inform model parameters. Uncertainty was investigated with probabilistic sensitivity analysis, and value of information analysis was conducted to estimate the value of undertaking further research. In the base-case, pedometer interventions yielded the highest expected net benefit at a willingness to pay of £20,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. There was, however, a great deal of decision uncertainty: the expected value of perfect information surrounding the decision problem for the National Health Service Health Check population was estimated at £1.85 billion. Our analysis suggests that the use of pedometer BIs is the most cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity in primary care, and that there is potential value in further research into the cost-effectiveness of brief (i.e., <30 minutes) and very brief (i.e., <5 minutes) pedometer interventions in this setting. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. What is the value given by consumers to nutritional label information? Results from a large investigation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregori, Dario; Ballali, Simonetta; Vögele, Claus; Galasso, Francesca; Widhalm, Kurt; Berchialla, Paola; Baldi, Ileana

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition labels on prepackaged foods have been widely advocated as a medium to foster healthier eating habits in the general population. The study is aimed at understanding how people value nutritional information on food labels, in particular for front-of-pack labeling. A phone-assisted survey of 7550 consumers in 16 European countries was conducted. People were asked about their opinion on nutritional information provided at different levels, from the media to public institutions, and their commitment to healthy behavior. The value of pack labeling was estimated using a willingness-to-pay (WTP) elicitation technique. Older age groups (>45 years old), members of a larger family, people of low income or low education, and those who perceived themselves to be obese valued front-of-pack nutritional labeling. WTP estimates across all countries provided an average accepted added price of $4.32 to the overall yearly food expenditure (95% confidence interval, 3.33-3.68). Overall, perceived value of labeling is low. However, factors affecting the value for consumer of nutritional labeling appear to be strictly linked to the socioeconomic and health status of the respondents.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine use in children with thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efe, Emine; Işler, Ayşegül; Sarvan, Süreyya; Başer, Hayriye; Yeşilipek, Akif

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to: (1) determine the types of complementary and alternative medicine use among children with thalassaemia as reported by parents and (2) describe sociodemographic and medical factors associated with the use of such treatments in families residing in southern Turkey. Thalassaemia is one of the most common human genetic diseases. Despite the therapeutic efforts, patients will encounter a variety of physical and psychological problems. Therefore, the use of complementary and alternative medicines among children thalassaemia is becoming increasingly popular. This is a descriptive study of complementary and alternative medicine. This study was conducted in the Hematology Outpatient Clinic at Akdeniz University Hospital and in the Thalassemia Centre at Ministry of Health Antalya Education and Research Hospital, Antalya, Turkey, between January 2010-December 2010. Parents of 97 paediatric patients, among 125 parents who applied to the haematology outpatient clinic and thalassaemia centre between these dates, agreed to take part in the study with whom contact could be made were included. Data were collected by using a questionnaire. The proportion of parents who reported using one or more of the complementary and alternative medicine methods was 82·5%. Of these parents, 61·8% were using prayer/spiritual practice, 47·4% were using nutritional supplements and 35·1% were using animal materials. It was determined that a significant portion of the parents using complementary and alternative medicine use it to treat their children's health problems, they were informed about complementary and alternative medicine by their paediatricians and family elders, and they have discussed the use of complementary and alternative medicine with healthcare professionals. To sustain medical treatment and prognosis of thalassaemia, it is important for nurses to consult with their patients and parents regarding the use and potential risks of some complementary

  15. Is a comparative clinical trial for breast cancer tumor markers to monitor disease recurrence warranted? A value of information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariani, Rahber; Henry, Norah Lynn; Ramsey, Scott D; Blough, David K; Barlow, Bill; Gralow, Julie R; Veenstra, David L

    2013-05-01

    Breast cancer tumor markers are used by some clinicians to screen for disease recurrence risk. Since there is limited evidence of benefit, additional research may be warranted. To assess the potential value of a randomized clinical trial of breast tumor marker testing in routine follow-up of high-risk, stage II-III breast cancer survivors. We developed a decision-analytic model of tumor marker testing plus standard surveillance every 3-6 months for 5 years. The expected value of sample information was calculated using probabilistic simulations and was a function of: the probability of selecting the optimal monitoring strategy with current versus future information; the impact of choosing the nonoptimal strategy; and the size of the population affected. The value of information for a randomized clinical trial involving 9000 women was US$214 million compared with a cost of US$30-60 million to conduct such a trial. The probability of making an alternate, nonoptimal decision and choosing testing versus no testing was 32% with current versus future information from the trial. The impact of a nonoptimal decision was US$2150 and size of population impacted over 10 years was 308,000. The value of improved information on overall survival was US$105 million, quality of life US$37 million and test performance US$71 million. Conducting a randomized clinical trial of breast cancer tumor markers appears to offer a good societal return on investment. Retrospective analyses to assess test performance and evaluation of patient quality of life using tumor markers may also offer valuable areas of research. However, alternative investments may offer even better returns in investments and, as such, the trial concept deserves further study as part of an overall research-portfolio evaluation.

  16. The Role and Value of Dialogue Events as Sites of Informal Science Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehr, Jane L.; McCallie, Ellen; Davies, Sarah Rachael

    2007-01-01

    and staging of adult-focused, face-to-face forums that bring scien- tific and technical experts, social scientists, and policy-makers into discussion with members of the public about contemporary scientific and socioscientific issues related to the development and application of science and technology......In the past five years, informal science institutions (ISIs), science communication, advocacy and citizen action groups, funding organizations, and policy-makers in the UK and the USA have become increasingly involved in efforts to promote increased public engagement with science and technology...

  17. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by patients with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsal, Ayla; Gözüm, Sebahat

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use in patients with arthritis, the types of complementary and alternative medicine used, pertinent socio-demographic factors associated with complementary and alternative medicine use and its perceived efficacy. Arthritis is a major health issue, and the use of complementary and alternative medicine among patients with arthritis is common. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from 250 patients with arthritis at the physiotherapy and immunology clinics Atatürk University Hospital in eastern Turkey between May-July 2005 using a questionnaire developed specifically for this study. The instrument included questions on socio-demographic information, disease specifics and complementary and alternative medicine usage. Seventy-six per cent of participants reported use of at least one form of complementary and alternative medicine in the previous year. Complementary and alternative medicine users and non-users were not significantly different in most socio-demographic characteristics including age, gender, marital status and education level with the exception of economic status. We categorised treatment into six complementary and alternative medicine categories: 62.6% of patients used thermal therapies; 41.5% used oral herbal therapies; 40.5% used hot therapies; 32.6% used externally applied (skin) therapies; 28.4% used massage and 12.6% used cold therapies. All forms of complementary and alternative medicine except thermal and oral herbal therapies were perceived as very effective by more than half of study participants. Complementary and alternative medicine therapy is widely used by patients with arthritis and has perceived beneficial effects. It is important for nurses and other health care professionals to be knowledgeable about the use of complementary and alternative medicine therapies when providing care to patients with arthritis because of

  18. Geographic Information System For The Mapping Of Value Land Zone Of District Bengkong Based On AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Astutik

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the value of land in Indonesia is still very minimal and difficult to be known by the public, particularly in the area of Bengkong, it also results in the presence of new activity for land speculators who want to grab a great adventage in providing price and land value pricing-related information. The purpose of this research are to create the value land zone map (VLZ that illustrates the value of land is relatively the same as delivering lines and different colors on each value owned and accompanied the factors whisch affected it, as well as presenting a price comparison between the village and the land on map in the form of the web. Spatial analysis and AHP can be used for weighting for the most influential parameters and has no effect, so that the AHP can be useful to assist in decision making. VLZ obtained by observation in the field using a questionnaire and interview against the respondent. Observation and interviews done with the technique of sampling purposisive namely the selection of the sample with the groups in the number of smallest unit of score. Samples taken as many as 25 in order to achieve an accurate data. The value of the acquired land price is the current value of land prices. The result of the research in the form of web map VLZ with 6 classification of land price, the prices that Bengkong area concertrated settlement areas as Rp 3.500.000/sqm for the land prices are the highest in the village of Sadai and Rp 327.000/sqm for the lowest land price was in the village of Tanjung Buntung.

  19. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk, and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning. We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61-80 years old) were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic decision-making for

  20. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoanna Arlina Kurnianingsih

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valuation of gambles. We explored age-related preferences for two types of uncertainty, risk and ambiguity. Additionally, we explored how aging may alter what information participants utilize to make their choices by comparing the relative utilization of maximizing and satisficing information types through a choice strategy metric. Maximizing information was the ratio of the expected value of the two options, while satisficing information was the probability of winning.We found age-related alterations of economic preferences within the losses domain, but no alterations within the gains domain. Older adults (OA; 61 to 80 years old were significantly more uncertainty averse for both risky and ambiguous choices. OA also exhibited choice strategies with decreased use of maximizing information. Within OA, we found a significant correlation between risk preferences and choice strategy. This linkage between preferences and strategy appears to derive from a convergence to risk neutrality driven by greater use of the effortful maximizing strategy. As utility maximization and value maximization intersect at risk neutrality, this result suggests that OA are exhibiting a relationship between enhanced rationality and enhanced value maximization. While there was variability in economic decision-making measures within OA, these individual differences were unrelated to variability within examined measures of cognitive ability. Our results demonstrate that aging alters economic

  1. Integrative Medicine and Complementary and Alternative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... complementary therapies with your healthcare team: Are there complementary therapies that you would recommend? What research is available about this therapy’s safety and effectiveness? What are the benefits and risks of this ...

  2. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Journal Home > African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines: Advanced Search. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. A flexible statistics web processing service--added value for information systems for experiment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Dennis; Nieschulze, Jens; König-Ries, Birgitta

    2010-04-20

    Data management in the life sciences has evolved from simple storage of data to complex information systems providing additional functionalities like analysis and visualization capabilities, demanding the integration of statistical tools. In many cases the used statistical tools are hard-coded within the system. That leads to an expensive integration, substitution, or extension of tools because all changes have to be done in program code. Other systems are using generic solutions for tool integration but adapting them to another system is mostly rather extensive work. This paper shows a way to provide statistical functionality over a statistics web service, which can be easily integrated in any information system and set up using XML configuration files. The statistical functionality is extendable by simply adding the description of a new application to a configuration file. The service architecture as well as the data exchange process between client and service and the adding of analysis applications to the underlying service provider are described. Furthermore a practical example demonstrates the functionality of the service.

  4. 'Men value their dignity': securing respect and identity construction in urban informal settlements in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Andrew; Sikweyiya, Yandisa; Jewkes, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Urban informal settlements remain sites of high HIV incidence and prevalence, as well as violence. Increasing attention is paid on how configurations of young men's masculinities shape these practices through exploring how men build respect and identity. In this paper, we explore how young Black South Africans in two urban informal settlements construct respect and a masculine identity. Data are drawn from three focus groups and 19 in-depth interviews. We suggest that while young men aspire to a 'traditional' masculinity, prioritising economic power and control over the household, we suggest that a youth masculinity emerges which, in lieu of alternative ways to display power, prioritises violence and control over men's sexual partners, men seeking multiple sexual partners and men's violence to other men. This functions as a way of demonstrating masculinity and their position within a public gender order. We suggest there are three implications of the findings for working with men on violence and HIV-risk reduction. First, there exist a number of contradictions in men's discourses about masculinity that may provide spaces and opportunities for change. Second, it is important to work on multiple issues at once given the way violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk are interlinked in youth masculinity. Finally, engaging with men's exclusion from the capitalist system may provide an important way to reduce violence.

  5. A full value-chain Water Footprint Assessment to help informed decision in corporate sustainability strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoping; Chico Zamanilo, Daniel; Bai, Xue; Ren, Xiajing; Chen, Rong; Qin, Jun

    2017-04-01

    This study evaluated the water footprint (WF) of five production facilities along Muyuan Foodstuff Co. Ltd's (Muyuan) value chain, and assessed the sustainability and impact of their water footprints at the river catchment level. Muyuan, a large-scale, integrated pig breeder and producer in China, is keen to fulfil its corporate social responsibilities and committed to ensuring food quality and security, promoting environmental protection, and participating in catchment water resources management. Formulating corporate water related sustainability strategies, however, has been challenging. This study carried out a comprehensive Water Footprint Assessment (WFA) for Muyuan's full value chain to assist in formulating such strategies and setting up action plans with water footprint reduction targets. The study showed that that the water footprint of the supply chain, resulting from crops and crop products used in Muyuan's feed production facility is a major contributor to Muyuan's facilities' water footprint. From the perspective of the direct WF at the facilities, addressing the impact on water quality from effluents (i.e. the grey water footprint) at hog farms is a critical component of any water sustainability strategy. From the blue WF perspective, there are opportunities to reduce blue water consumption at hog farms through improved technology and implementation of best practices. The water footprint sustainability assessment in this study indicated that Muyuan operates in a catchment which is already under water stress and is a hotspot in terms of both blue water scarcity and water pollution level. The study helped identify potential water-related risks and opportunities for improving Muyuan's water use efficiency as well as ways Muyuan could contribute to sustainable water resources management in the catchment within which it operates. This is an innovative application of WFA in the livestock sector and supports the development of Muyuan's corporate water

  6. Determination of non-market values to inform conservation strategies for the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa cattle breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Collado, D; Diaz, C; Drucker, A G; Carabaño, M J; Zander, K K

    2014-08-01

    Livestock breed-related public good functions are often used to justify support for endangered breed conservation despite the fact that little is known about such non-market values. We show how stated preference techniques can be used to assess the non-market values that people place on livestock breeds. Through the application of a case study choice experiment survey in Zamora province, Spain, the total economic value (TEV) of the threatened Alistana-Sanabresa (AS) cattle breed was investigated. An analysis of the relative importance of the non-market components of its TEV and an assessment of the socio-economic variables that influence people's valuation of such components is used to inform conservation strategy design. Overall, the findings reveal that the AS breed had significant non-market values associated with it and that the value that respondents placed on each specific public good function also varied significantly. Functions related with indirect use cultural and existence values were much more highly valued than landscape maintenance values. These high cultural and existence values (totalling over 80% of TEV) suggest that an AS in situ conservation strategy will be required to secure such values. As part of such a strategy, incentive mechanisms will be needed to permit farmers to capture some of these public good values and thus be able to afford to maintain breed population numbers at socially desirable levels. One such mechanism could be related to the development of breed-related agritourism initiatives, with a view to enhancing private good values and providing an important addition to continued direct support. Where linked with cultural dimensions, niche product market development, including through improving AS breed-related product quality and brand recognition may also have a role to play as part of such an overall conservation and use strategy. We conclude that livestock breed conservation strategies with the highest potential to maximise

  7. Building organizational knowledge and value: informed decision making in Kansas children's community-based mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipp, Karen Flint; Kapp, Stephen A

    2012-02-01

    Knowledge is managers' principal asset and knowledge building is managers' primary work. This qualitative study explores knowledge building by directors of children's community-based mental health services in Kansas. Of the state's 27 directors, 25 completed a survey about knowledge building, in their preference of online or telephone format. Fourteen participants took part either in preliminary interviews for study development, or in follow-up interviews for further detail and member checking. Study findings indicate that with requisite resources, directors inform their decision making with streams of information, which they manage and generate to build organizational knowledge and value for local practice effectiveness.

  8. The value of models in informing resource allocation in colorectal cancer screening – 1 the case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Frank; Zauber, Ann G.; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Heijnen, Marie-Louise A.; Penning, Corine; de Koning, Harry J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    In May 2011, the Dutch government decided to implement a national programme for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using biennial faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening between ages 55 and 75.[1] Decision modelling played an important role in informing this decision, as well as in the planning and implementation of the programme afterwards. In this overview, we illustrate the value of models in informing resource allocation in CRC screening, using the role that decision modelling has played in the Dutch CRC screening programme as an example. PMID:26063755

  9. The value from investments in health information technology at the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Colene M; Mercincavage, Lauren M; Pan, Eric C; Vincent, Adam G; Johnston, Douglas S; Middleton, Blackford

    2010-04-01

    We compare health information technology (IT) in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) to norms in the private sector, and we estimate the costs and benefits of selected VA health IT systems. The VA spent proportionately more on IT than the private health care sector spent, but it achieved higher levels of IT adoption and quality of care. The potential value of the VA's health IT investments is estimated at $3.09 billion in cumulative benefits net of investment costs. This study serves as a framework to inform efforts to measure and calculate the benefits of federal health IT stimulus programs.

  10. A Conjugate Gradient Algorithm with Function Value Information and N-Step Quadratic Convergence for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangrong Li

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.

  11. A Conjugate Gradient Algorithm with Function Value Information and N-Step Quadratic Convergence for Unconstrained Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangrong; Zhao, Xupei; Duan, Xiabin; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that the conjugate gradient (CG) method achieves global convergence--with at most a linear convergence rate--because CG formulas are generated by linear approximations of the objective functions. The quadratically convergent results are very limited. We introduce a new PRP method in which the restart strategy is also used. Moreover, the method we developed includes not only n-step quadratic convergence but also both the function value information and gradient value information. In this paper, we will show that the new PRP method (with either the Armijo line search or the Wolfe line search) is both linearly and quadratically convergent. The numerical experiments demonstrate that the new PRP algorithm is competitive with the normal CG method.

  12. Can Cross-Listing Mitigate the Impact of an Information Security Breach Announcement on a Firm's Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Dong, Feng; Chen, Hong; Xu, Li

    2016-08-01

    The increase in globalization in the markets has driven firms to adopt online technologies and to cross-list their stocks. Recent studies have consistently found that the announcements of information security breaches (ISBs) are negatively associated with the market values of the announcing firms during the days surrounding the breach announcements. Given the improvement in firms’ information environments and the better protection for investors generated by cross-listing, does cross-listing help firms to reduce the negative impacts caused by their announcements of ISBs? This paper conducts an event study of 120 publicly traded firms (among which 25 cross-list and 95 do not), in order to explore the answer. The results indicate that the impact of ISB announcements on a firm's stock prices shows no difference between cross-listing firms and non-cross-listing firms. Cross-listing does not mitigate the impact of ISBs announcement on a firm's market value.

  13. Value of a mobile information system to improve quality of care by community health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We will be unable to achieve sustained impact on health outcomes with community health worker (CHW-based interventions unless we bridge the gap between small scale efficacy studies and large scale interventions. Effective strategies to support the management of CHWs are central to bridging the gap. Mobile phones are broadly available, particularly in low and middle income countries (LAMIC, where the penetration rate approaches 100%. Objectives: In this article, we describe how mobile phones and may be combined with mobile web-based technology to assist in the management of CHWs in two projects in South Africa. Methods: This article is a descriptive study, drawing lessons from two randomised controlled trials outlining how a mobile phone information system can be utilised to enhance the quality of health interventions. We organised our comprehensive management and supervision system around a previously published management framework. The system is composed of mobile phones utilised by CHWs and a web-based interface utilised by CHW supervisors. Computerised algorithms were designed with intervention and assessment protocols to aid in the real-time supervision and management of CHWs. Results: Community health workers used mobile phones to initiate intervention visits and trigger content to be delivered during the course of intervention visits. Supervisors used the web-based interface for real-time monitoring of the location, timing and content of intervention visits. Additional real-time support was provided through direct support calls in the event of crises in the field. Conclusion: Mobile phone-based information system platforms offer significant opportunities to improve CHW-delivered interventions. The extent to which these efficiency gains can be translated into realised health gains for communities is yet to be tested.

  14. Value of a mobile information system to improve quality of care by community health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Tomlinson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We will be unable to achieve sustained impact on health outcomes with community health worker (CHW-based interventions unless we bridge the gap between small scale efficacy studies and large scale interventions. Effective strategies to support the management of CHWs are central to bridging the gap. Mobile phones are broadly available, particularly in low and middle income countries (LAMIC, where the penetration rate approaches 100%.Objectives: In this article, we describe how mobile phones and may be combined with mobile web-based technology to assist in the management of CHWs in two projects in South Africa.Methods: This article is a descriptive study, drawing lessons from two randomised controlled trials outlining how a mobile phone information system can be utilised to enhance the quality of health interventions. We organised our comprehensive management and supervision system around a previously published management framework. The system is composed of mobile phones utilised by CHWs and a web-based interface utilised by CHW supervisors. Computerised algorithms were designed with intervention and assessment protocols to aid in the real-time supervision and management of CHWs.Results: Community health workers used mobile phones to initiate intervention visits and trigger content to be delivered during the course of intervention visits. Supervisors used the web-based interface for real-time monitoring of the location, timing and content of intervention visits. Additional real-time support was provided through direct support calls in the event of crises in the field.Conclusion: Mobile phone-based information system platforms offer significant opportunities to improve CHW-delivered interventions. The extent to which these efficiency gains can be translated into realised health gains for communities is yet to be tested.

  15. JNC's experience of complementary accesses provided by the additional protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasushi

    2001-01-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) examined problems on implementation of the Additional Protocol to Japan/IAEA Safeguards Agreement with the Government of Japan and International Atomic Energy Agency through trials performed at Oarai Engineering Center before it entered into force. On December 16th 1999, the Additional Protocol entered into force, and in last January JNC provided the first JNC site information to STA. Then our Government provided it of all Japan to IAEA in last June. Also in this January, we sent the additional information changed from old one to MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology). The first Complementary Access of not only JNC but also Japan was implemented on JNC Ningyo-Toge Environmental Engineering Center on the end of last November. Since then, we have had over 10 times experience of Complementary Accesses for about one year especially on Tokai works and Ningyo-Toge. JNC's experience of Complementary Accesses will be introduced. (author)

  16. Incidence of Artifacts and Deviating Values in Research Data Obtained from an Anesthesia Information Management System in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoorweg, Anne-Lee J; Pasma, Wietze; van Wolfswinkel, Leo; de Graaff, Jurgen C

    2018-02-01

    Vital parameter data collected in anesthesia information management systems are often used for clinical research. The validity of this type of research is dependent on the number of artifacts. In this prospective observational cohort study, the incidence of artifacts in anesthesia information management system data was investigated in children undergoing anesthesia for noncardiac procedures. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of artifacts among deviating and nondeviating values, among the anesthesia phases, and among different anesthetic techniques. We included 136 anesthetics representing 10,236 min of anesthesia time. The incidence of artifacts was 0.5% for heart rate (95% CI: 0.4 to 0.7%), 1.3% for oxygen saturation (1.1 to 1.5%), 7.5% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (6.9 to 8.0%), 5.0% for noninvasive blood pressure (4.0 to 6.0%), and 7.3% for invasive blood pressure (5.9 to 8.8%). The incidence of artifacts among deviating values was 3.1% for heart rate (2.1 to 4.4%), 10.8% for oxygen saturation (7.6 to 14.8%), 14.1% for end-tidal carbon dioxide (13.0 to 15.2%), 14.4% for noninvasive blood pressure (10.3 to 19.4%), and 38.4% for invasive blood pressure (30.3 to 47.1%). Not all values in anesthesia information management systems are valid. The incidence of artifacts stored in the present pediatric anesthesia practice was low for heart rate and oxygen saturation, whereas noninvasive and invasive blood pressure and end-tidal carbon dioxide had higher artifact incidences. Deviating values are more often artifacts than values in a normal range, and artifacts are associated with the phase of anesthesia and anesthetic technique. Development of (automatic) data validation systems or solutions to deal with artifacts in data is warranted.

  17. Aging and loss decision making: increased risk aversion and decreased use of maximizing information, with correlated rationality and value maximization

    OpenAIRE

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.; Mullette-Gillman, O?Dhaniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how adult aging specifically alters economic decision-making, focusing on examining alterations in uncertainty preferences (willingness to gamble) and choice strategies (what gamble information influences choices) within both the gains and losses domains. Within each domain, participants chose between certain monetary outcomes and gambles with uncertain outcomes. We examined preferences by quantifying how uncertainty modulates choice behavior as if altering the subjective valu...

  18. The value of mechanistic biophysical information for systems-level understanding of complex biological processes such as cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Thomas D

    2014-12-02

    This review illustrates the value of quantitative information including concentrations, kinetic constants and equilibrium constants in modeling and simulating complex biological processes. Although much has been learned about some biological systems without these parameter values, they greatly strengthen mechanistic accounts of dynamical systems. The analysis of muscle contraction is a classic example of the value of combining an inventory of the molecules, atomic structures of the molecules, kinetic constants for the reactions, reconstitutions with purified proteins and theoretical modeling to account for the contraction of whole muscles. A similar strategy is now being used to understand the mechanism of cytokinesis using fission yeast as a favorable model system. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Value of Information Systems Teaching and Research in the Knowledge Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Hemingway

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Governments and businesses are becoming ever more interested in the production and capitalisation of knowledge, so much so that the 'knowledge economy' is now regarded as the paradigm of economic progress. This has significant implications for teaching and research generally, and for the IS community in particular. This paper provides a brief analysis of general developments in higher education to provide a context for discussing the developments specific to IS. Stakeholder analysis is then used to identify the main responsibilities and pressures placed upon the IS academic community. Using the stakeholder analysis as a set of 'requirements' that the IS academic community must balance, several ways in which IS teaching and research can better contribute value to the various stakeholder groups are identified. Throughout the paper, several 'policy level' recommendations are made that could lead to the IS community being better able to manage the pressures exerted by different stakeholder groups and, consequently, being more able to address a broad range of commercial and social issues.

  20. Economic value of ecological information in ecosystem-based natural resource management depends on exploitation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Timothy E; Sanchirico, James N; Baskett, Marissa L

    2018-02-13

    Ecosystem approaches to natural resource management are seen as a way to provide better outcomes for ecosystems and for people, yet the nature and strength of interactions among ecosystem components is usually unknown. Here we characterize the economic benefits of ecological knowledge through a simple model of fisheries that target a predator (piscivore) and its prey. We solve for the management (harvest) trajectory that maximizes net present value (NPV) for different ecological interactions and initial conditions that represent different levels of exploitation history. Optimal management trajectories generally approached similar harvest levels, but the pathways toward those levels varied considerably by ecological scenario. Application of the wrong harvest trajectory, which would happen if one type of ecological interaction were assumed but in fact another were occurring, generally led to only modest reductions in NPV. However, the risks were not equal across fleets: risks of incurring large losses of NPV and missing management targets were much higher in the fishery targeting piscivores, especially when piscivores were heavily depleted. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem approach might provide the greatest benefits when used to identify system states where management performs poorly with imperfect knowledge of system linkages so that management strategies can be adopted to avoid those states. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  1. Factors influencing first-time mothers' introduction of complementary foods: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Kearney, Lauren; Dennis, Nicole

    2015-09-22

    Optimal infant nutrition comprises exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods introduced from six months of age. How parents make decisions regarding this is poorly studied. This study begins to address the dearth of research into the decision-making processes used by first-time mothers relating to the introduction of complementary foods. This qualitative explorative study was conducted using interviews (13) and focus groups (3). A semi-structured interview guide based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The TPB, a well-validated decision-making model, identifies the key determinants of a behaviour through behavioural beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. It is purported that these beliefs predict behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, and performing the behaviour. A purposive, convenience, sample of 21 metropolitan parents recruited through advertising at local playgroups and childcare centres, and electronically through the University community email list self-selected to participate. Data were analysed thematically within the theoretical constructs: behavioural beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Data relating to sources of information about the introduction of complementary foods were also collected. Overall, first-time mothers found that waiting until six months was challenging despite knowledge of the WHO recommendations and an initial desire to comply with this guideline. Beliefs that complementary foods would assist the infants' weight gain, sleeping patterns and enjoyment at meal times were identified. Barriers preventing parents complying with the recommendations included subjective and group norms, peer influences, infant cues indicating early readiness and food labelling inconsistencies. The most valued information source was from peers who had recently introduced complementary foods. First-time mothers in this study did not demonstrate a good understanding of the

  2. Complementary and alternative medicine in pulmonology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, John D; Chung, Youngran

    2015-06-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies for the treatment of pulmonary disorders in children. The use of complementary medicine (CAM) is commonly used by both children and adults with breathing problems, and especially in chronic pulmonary disorders such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Many clinics and hospitals now offer CAM, even though most of the conventionally trained health practitioners have little knowledge or education regarding CAM therapies. Research in CAM that demonstrates overall benefit is lacking, especially in children. Often parents do not report CAM use to their child's healthcare provider and this could compromise their overall quality of care. Although many research studies evaluating CAM therapies have methodological flaws, data exist to support CAM therapies in treating children with pulmonary disorders. This review examines the latest evidence of CAM use and effectiveness in children with pulmonary disorders. Physicians should be aware of the many CAM therapy options and the research surrounding them in order to provide their patients with the most current and accurate information available.

  3. Complementary and Alternative Medicine and Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen

    2013-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis experience high levels of pain, psychological distress and have limited therapeutic options. Emerging evidence from clinical trials suggests that both acupuncture and Tai Chi mind-body therapies are safe and effective treatments for osteoarthritis. Acupuncture has effects over and above those of 'sham acupuncture' and the most robust evidence to date demonstrates that acupuncture does have short-term benefits and is a reasonable referral option for patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis. Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that enhances cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength, balance, and physical function. It also appears to be associated with reduced stress and anxiety and depression, as well as improved quality of life. Thus, Tai Chi may be safely recommended to patients with osteoarthritis as a complementary and alternative medical approach to affect patient well-being. Integrative approaches combine the best of conventional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine to ultimately improve patient care. These modalities may lead to the development of better disease modifying strategies that could improve symptoms and decrease the progression of osteoarthritis. This overview synthesizes the current body of knowledge about Chinese mind-body medicine to better inform clinical decision-making for our rheumatic patients.

  4. Capturing patients' needs in casemix: a systematic literature review on the value of adding functioning information in reimbursement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfe, Maren; Stucki, Gerold; Marshall, Ric; Twomey, Conal D; Üstün, T Bedirhan; Prodinger, Birgit

    2016-02-03

    Contemporary casemix systems for health services need to ensure that payment rates adequately account for actual resource consumption based on patients' needs for services. It has been argued that functioning information, as one important determinant of health service provision and resource use, should be taken into account when developing casemix systems. However, there has to date been little systematic collation of the evidence on the extent to which the addition of functioning information into existing casemix systems adds value to those systems with regard to the predictive power and resource variation explained by the groupings of these systems. Thus, the objective of this research was to examine the value of adding functioning information into casemix systems with respect to the prediction of resource use as measured by costs and length of stay. A systematic literature review was performed. Peer-reviewed studies, published before May 2014 were retrieved from CINAHL, EconLit, Embase, JSTOR, PubMed and Sociological Abstracts using keywords related to functioning ('Functioning', 'Functional status', 'Function*, 'ICF', 'International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health', 'Activities of Daily Living' or 'ADL') and casemix systems ('Casemix', 'case mix', 'Diagnosis Related Groups', 'Function Related Groups', 'Resource Utilization Groups' or 'AN-SNAP'). In addition, a hand search of reference lists of included articles was conducted. Information about study aims, design, country, setting, methods, outcome variables, study results, and information regarding the authors' discussion of results, study limitations and implications was extracted. Ten included studies provided evidence demonstrating that adding functioning information into casemix systems improves predictive ability and fosters homogeneity in casemix groups with regard to costs and length of stay. Collection and integration of functioning information varied across studies. Results suggest

  5. A Value of Information approach to data quality objectives for the Hanford high-level waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, T.W.; Hunter, V.L.; Ulvila, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    This report summarizes a Pacific Northwest Laboratory review of the organic-nitrate reaction safety issue in the Hanford single-shell tanks. This study employed a decision analytic method known as Value of Information (VOI). VOI analysis is a special form of decision analysis that has an information collection alternative as one of the initial decision choices. This type of decision analysis, therefore results in the ability to specify the preferred information collection alternative, taking into account all information gathering and other relevant alternatives. For example, the risk reduction benefit associated with further sampling to quantify total organic carbon inventory or to improve information on energetics can be compared to the risk reduction benefit of better temperature monitoring, operational restrictions, or mitigation by moisture control. This approach allows freedom from built-in assumptions, e.g., that all tanks must be sampled to some degree or that all tanks must be deemed intrinsically safe by some means or another. It allows for each tank management decision to be judged in terms of risk reduction from the current state of affairs, and for that state of affairs to be continuously updated to incorporate new information on tank contents, the phenomenology of safety issues, or the effectiveness of mitigation schemes

  6. Evaluation of soil characterization technologies using a stochastic, value-of-information approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, P.G.

    1993-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has initiated an integrated demonstration program to develop and compare new technologies for the characterization of uranium-contaminated soils. As part of this effort, a performance-assessment task was funded in February, 1993 to evaluate the field tested technologies. Performance assessment can be cleaned as the analysis that evaluates a system's, or technology's, ability to meet the criteria specified for performance. Four new technologies were field tested at the Fernald Environmental Management Restoration Co. in Ohio. In the next section, the goals of this performance assessment task are discussed. The following section discusses issues that must be resolved if the goals are to be successfully met. The author concludes with a discussion of the potential benefits to performance assessment of the approach taken. This paper is intended to be the first of a series of documentation that describes the work. Also in this proceedings is a paper on the field demonstration at the Fernald site and a description of the technologies (Tidwell et al, 1993) and a paper on the application of advanced geostatistical techniques (Rautman, 1993). The overall approach is to simply demonstrate the applicability of concepts that are well described in the literature but are not routinely applied to problems in environmental remediation, restoration, and waste management. The basic geostatistical concepts are documented in Clark (1979) and in Issaks and Srivastava (1989). Advanced concepts and applications, along with software, are discussed in Deutsch and Journel (1992). Integration of geostatistical modeling with a decision-analytic framework is discussed in Freeze et al (1992). Information-theoretic and probabilistic concepts are borrowed from the work of Shannon (1948), Jaynes (1957), and Harr (1987). The author sees the task as one of introducing and applying robust methodologies with demonstrated applicability in other fields to the problem at hand

  7. Thyroid Disease and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Thyroid Disease (CAM) WHAT IS COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM)? Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) is defined ...

  8. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosjean, Romain, E-mail: r.grosjean@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Daudon, Michel, E-mail: michel.daudon@tnn.aphp.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Chammas, Mario F., E-mail: mariochammas@usp.br [University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7" o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil); Claudon, Michel, E-mail: m.claudon@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Eschwege, Pascal, E-mail: peschwege@yahoo.com [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Felblinger, Jacques, E-mail: j.felblinger@chu-nancy.fr [IADI Laboratory, INSERM-U947, Nancy-University, Allée du Morvan, 54500 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hubert, Jacques, E-mail: j.hubert@chu-nancy.fr [Department of Urology, Brabois Hospital, University Hospital of Nancy, Allée du Morvan, 54511 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2013-08-15

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones.

  9. Pitfalls in urinary stone identification using CT attenuation values: Are we getting the same information on different scanner models?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosjean, Romain; Daudon, Michel; o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" data-affiliation=" (University of Sao Paulo – Division of Urology, Av. Dr. Enéas de Carvalho Aguiar, 255, 7o Andar – s. 7123, São Paulo (Brazil))" >Chammas, Mario F.; Claudon, Michel; Eschwege, Pascal; Felblinger, Jacques; Hubert, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Evaluate the capability of different Computed Tomography scanners to determine urinary stone compositions based on CT attenuation values and to evaluate potential differences between each model. Methods: 241 human urinary stones were obtained and their biochemical composition determined. Four different CT scanners (Siemens, Philips, GEMS and Toshiba) were evaluated. Mean CT-attenuation values and the standard deviation were recorded separately and compared with a t-paired test. Results: For all tested CT scanners, when the classification of the various types of stones was arranged according to the mean CT-attenuation values and to the confidence interval, large overlappings between stone types were highlighted. The t-paired test showed that most stone types could not be identified. Some types of stones presented mean CT attenuation values significantly different from one CT scanner to another. At 80 kV, the mean CT attenuation values obtained with the Toshiba Aquilion were significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens Sensation. On the other hand, mean values obtained with the Philips Brilliance were all significantly equal to those obtained with the Siemens Sensation and with the Toshiba Aquilion. At 120 kV mean CT attenuation values of uric acid, cystine and struvite stones obtained with the Philips model are significantly different from those obtained with the Siemens and the Toshiba but equal to those obtained with the GE 64. Conclusions: According to our study, there is a great variability when different brands and models of scanners are compared directly. Furthermore, the CT scan analysis and HU evaluation appears to gather insufficient information in order to characterize and identify the composition of renal stones

  10. Value of Information Analysis of Multiparameter Tests for Chemotherapy in Early Breast Cancer: The OPTIMA Prelim Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter S; Smith, Alison; Hulme, Claire; Vargas-Palacios, Armando; Makris, Andreas; Hughes-Davies, Luke; Dunn, Janet A; Bartlett, John M S; Cameron, David A; Marshall, Andrea; Campbell, Amy; Macpherson, Iain R; Dan Rea; Francis, Adele; Earl, Helena; Morgan, Adrienne; Stein, Robert C; McCabe, Christopher

    2017-12-01

    Precision medicine is heralded as offering more effective treatments to smaller targeted patient populations. In breast cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy is standard for patients considered as high-risk after surgery. Molecular tests may identify patients who can safely avoid chemotherapy. To use economic analysis before a large-scale clinical trial of molecular testing to confirm the value of the trial and help prioritize between candidate tests as randomized comparators. Women with surgically treated breast cancer (estrogen receptor-positive and lymph node-positive or tumor size ≥30 mm) were randomized to standard care (chemotherapy for all) or test-directed care using Oncotype DX™. Additional testing was undertaken using alternative tests: MammaPrint TM , PAM-50 (Prosigna TM ), MammaTyper TM , IHC4, and IHC4-AQUA™ (NexCourse Breast™). A probabilistic decision model assessed the cost-effectiveness of all tests from a UK perspective. Value of information analysis determined the most efficient publicly funded ongoing trial design in the United Kingdom. There was an 86% probability of molecular testing being cost-effective, with most tests producing cost savings (range -£1892 to £195) and quality-adjusted life-year gains (range 0.17-0.20). There were only small differences in costs and quality-adjusted life-years between tests. Uncertainty was driven by long-term outcomes. Value of information demonstrated value of further research into all tests, with Prosigna currently being the highest priority for further research. Molecular tests are likely to be cost-effective, but an optimal test is yet to be identified. Health economics modeling to inform the design of a randomized controlled trial looking at diagnostic technology has been demonstrated to be feasible as a method for improving research efficiency. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. VIOLENCE AS VALUE-NEWS ON GOIANIENSE TV: Information X Audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ribeiro De Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As emissoras de TV pioneiras no Brasil na década de cinquenta viram o número de concorrentes aumentar consideravelmente durante o governo militar, que distribuiu concessões em troca de apoio político. Quatro décadas depois a guerra pela audiência ficou ainda mais acirrada com o surgimento e consolidação da internet. O novo meio e a popularização dos canais fechados, roubaram os segmentos A e B da TV aberta e fizeram com que as emissoras televisivas mudassem profundamente seu conteúdo. Uma dessas mudanças foi a supervalorização da violência como valor-notícia. Considerando os gêneros jornalísticos como gêneros discursivos, quais as implicações dessa forma de exposição da violência na qualidade da cobertura jornalística e consequentemente na imparcialidade editorial?   PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Violência; Jornalismo; Televisão; Objetividade.     ABSTRACT The pioneers TV stations in Brazil in the fifties saw the number of competitors increase considerably during the military government, which distributed awards in exchange for political support. Four decades after the war by the audience became even tougher with the rise and consolidation of the internet. The new way and the popularity of closed channels, stole the segments A and B of broadcast television and made the TV stations profoundly changed its content. One of these changes was the overvaluation of violence as news value. Considering the journalistic genres as discursive genres, what are the implications of this form of exposure of the violence in the quality of news coverage and consequently the editorial impartiality?   KEYWORDS: Violence; Journalism; Television; Objectivity.     RESUMEN Las estaciones de televisión pioneras en Brasil en los años cincuenta vieron el número de competidores incrementar considerablemente durante el gobierno militar, que distribuye concesiones a cambio de apoyo político. Cuatro décadas después de la guerra por la audiencia se hizo

  12. Complementary, Alternative, or Integrative Health: What's In a Name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information © Jupiter Images We’ve all seen the words “complementary,” “alternative,” and “ integrative ,” but what do they really mean? This fact sheet looks into these terms to help you understand them better and gives you a brief picture of NCCIH’s mission and role in this area ...

  13. Complementary and Alternative Therapies: An Evidence-Based Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.

    2008-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has experienced a dramatic growth in use and acceptability over the last 20 years. CAM is a diverse collection of medical and healthcare systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered a component of conventional medicine. CAM traditionally has been practiced by informally educated…

  14. Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. IMPACT OF THE CONVERGENCE PROCESS TO INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS ON THE VALUE RELEVANCE OF FINANCIAL INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alvaro da Silva Macedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Law 11.638/07 marked the start of a series of changes in the laws that regulate Brazilian accounting practices. The main reason for these changes is the convergence process of local with international accounting standards. As a result of Law 11.638/07, the legal precedent was established to achieve convergence. In that context, the aim of this study is to analyze the impact of the convergence process with international accounting standards on the relevance of financial information, based on data for 2007, without and with the alterations Law 11.638/07 introduced and according to the CPC Pronouncements, applicable as from 2008 onwards. Therefore, a value relevance study is used, applying regression analysis to annual stock price information (dependent variable and net profit per share (NPPS and net equity per share (NEPS as independent variables. The main results show that financial information on NPPS and NEPS for 2007, with and without the legal alterations, are relevant for the capital market. A comparison between both regressions used in the analysis, however, shows an information gain for financial information that includes the changes introduced in the first phase of the accounting convergence process with the international standards.

  16. Analysis of the Relevance of Information Content of the Value Added Statement in the Brazilian Capital Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio André Veras Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The usefulness of financial statements depends, fundamentally, on the degree of relevance of the information they disclose to users. Thus, studies that measure the relevance of accounting information to the users of financial statements are of some importance. One line of research within this subject is in ascertaining the relevance and importance of accounting information for the capital markets: if a particular item of accounting information is minimally reflected in the price of a share, it is because this information has relevance, at least at a certain level of significance, for investors and analysts of the capital markets. This present study aims to analyze the relevance, in the Brazilian capital markets, of the information content of the Value Added Statement (or VAS - referred to in Brazil as the Demonstração do Valor Adicionado, or DVA. It analyzed the ratio between stock price and Wealth created per share (WCPS, using linear regressions, for the period 2005-2011, for non-financial listed companies included in Melhores & Maiores ('Biggest & Best', an annual listing published by Exame Magazine in Brazil. As a secondary objective, this article seeks to establish whether WCPS represents a better indication of a company's result than Net profit per share (in this study, referred to as NPPS. The empirical evidence that was found supports the concept that the VAS has relevant information content, because it shows a capacity to explain a variation in the share price of the companies studied. Additionally, the relationship between WCPS and the stock price was shown to be significant, even after the inclusion of the control variables Stockholders' equity per share (which we abbreviate in this study to SEPS and NPPS. Finally, the evidence found indicates that the market reacts more to WCPS (Wealth created per share than to NPPS. Thus, the results obtained give some indication that, for the Brazilian capital markets, WCPS may be a better proxy

  17. Valuing geospatial information: Using the contingent valuation method to estimate the economic benefits of Landsat satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, John; Koontz, Steve; Miller, Holly M.; Richardson, Leslie A.

    2015-01-01

    While the U.S. government does not charge for downloading Landsat images, the images have value to users. This paper demonstrates a method that can value Landsat and other imagery to users. A survey of downloaders of Landsat images found: (a) established US users have a mean value of $912 USD per scene; (b) new US users and users returning when imagery became free have a mean value of $367 USD per scene. Total US user benefits for the 2.38 million scenes downloaded is $1.8 billion USD. While these benefits indicate a high willingness-to-pay among many Landsat downloaders, it would be economically inefficient for the US government to charge for Landsat imagery. Charging a price of $100 USD a scene would result in an efficiency loss of $37.5 million a year. This economic information should be useful to policy-makers who must decide about the future of this and similar remote sensing programs.

  18. Professional oral health care for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia: A cost-effectiveness and value of information analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, Falk; Stolpe, Michael; Müller, Frauke

    2017-12-01

    Professional oral health care (POHC) prevents nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) and its related mortality. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of POHC versus no POHC (nPOHC) and the monetary value of eliminating uncertainty by future research. A German public-private payer perspective was adopted. A Markov model was used, following long-term care residents from admission to death. Cost-effectiveness was estimated as Euro/disability-adjusted life year (DALY) using Monte Carlo microsimulations. Value-of-information analyses were performed. The willingness-to-pay threshold/DALY was assumed to be 66% (range 50%-100%) of per-capita gross domestic product (GDP). nPOHC was less costly (€3,024) but also less effective (0.89 DALYs) than POHC (€10,249, 0.55 DALYs). For most presumed payers, POHC was cost-effective. The cost-effectiveness of POHC was higher in smokers, underweight or pulmonary disease patients. Eliminating uncertainty about the NHAP costs, NHAP incidence/mortality, and POHC effectiveness would result in an expected net value of 47 million €/year (and even higher values at lower GDP thresholds), and is likely to decrease with time. Within the chosen setting and on the basis of current evidence, POHC was cost-effective. Given the detected uncertainty, further research seems warranted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Determination of complementary therapies for prevention of striae gravidarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Teskereci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Striae gravidarum (SG has been reported to be associated with various factors, but the role of complementary therapies in the prevention of SG is still not well understood. The aim of this study was to determine complementary therapies for prevention of SG. Materials and Methods: This descriptive research was conducted on 120 pregnant women in a maternity clinic at a university hospital. Of 120 women, 49 were going through the last trimester and 71 were going through their first postpartum 24 hours. Data were collected using a 25-item-questionnaire through face-to-face interviews between June and July in 2016. Obtained data were evaluated by using descriptive statistics, chi-square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: 90.8% of women had SG. For the prevention of SG, 46.7% of women used massage, a manipulative body-based complementary therapy, 55.2% used oils, 28.6% used creams and 8.0% used a mixture of creams and oils for massaging. 42.9% of women started to use complementary therapies in their first trimester. Half of the women stated that they had received information about complementary therapies. A significantly lower rate of women using massage had SG compared to those not using massage (p=0.023. Conclusion: It was concluded that nearly half of the women used massage for the prevention of SG. In addition, massage application was found to reduce the occurrence of SG.

  20. Cost effectiveness and value of information analyses of islet cell transplantation in the management of 'unstable' type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Klemens; Shapiro, A M James; Senior, Peter A; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-04-09

    Islet cell transplantation is a method to stabilize type 1 diabetes patients with hypoglycemia unawareness and unstable blood glucose levels by reducing insulin dependency and protecting against severe hypoglycemia through restoring endogenous insulin secretion. This study analyses the current cost-effectiveness of this technology and estimates the value of further research to reduce uncertainty around cost-effectiveness. We performed a cost-utility analysis using a Markov cohort model with a mean patient age of 49 to simulate costs and health outcomes over a life-time horizon. Our analysis used intensive insulin therapy (IIT) as comparator and took the provincial healthcare provider perspective. Cost and effectiveness data for up to four transplantations per patient came from the University of Alberta hospital. Costs are expressed in 2012 Canadian dollars and effectiveness in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and life years. To characterize the uncertainty around expected outcomes, we carried out a probabilistic sensitivity analysis within the Bayesian decision-analytic framework. We performed a value-of-information analysis to identify priority areas for future research under various scenarios. We applied a structural sensitivity analysis to assess the dependence of outcomes on model characteristics. Compared to IIT, islet cell transplantation using non-generic (generic) immunosuppression had additional costs of $150,006 ($112,023) per additional QALY, an average gain of 3.3 life years, and a probability of being cost-effective of 0.5 % (28.3 %) at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $100,000 per QALY. At this threshold the non-generic technology has an expected value of perfect information (EVPI) of $260,744 for Alberta. This increases substantially in cost-reduction scenarios. The research areas with the highest partial EVPI are costs, followed by natural history, and effectiveness and safety. Current transplantation technology provides substantial

  1. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J.

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems

  2. Application of value of information of tank waste characterization: A new paradigm for defining tank waste characterization requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Brewster, M.E.; Brothers, A.J. [and others

    1996-11-01

    This report presents the rationale for adopting a recommended characterization strategy that uses a risk-based decision-making framework for managing the Tank Waste Characterization program at Hanford. The risk-management/value-of-information (VOI) strategy that is illustrated explicitly links each information-gathering activity to its cost and provides a mechanism to ensure that characterization funds are spent where they can produce the largest reduction in risk. The approach was developed by tailoring well-known decision analysis techniques to specific tank waste characterization applications. This report illustrates how VOI calculations are performed and demonstrates that the VOI approach can definitely be used for real Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) characterization problems.

  3. Humans as Sensors: Assessing the Information Value of Qualitative Farmer's Crop Condition Surveys for Crop Yield Monitoring and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguería, S.

    2017-12-01

    While large efforts are devoted to developing crop status monitoring and yield forecasting systems trough the use of Earth observation data (mostly remotely sensed satellite imagery) and observational and modeled weather data, here we focus on the information value of qualitative data on crop status from direct observations made by humans. This kind of data has a high value as it reflects the expert opinion of individuals directly involved in the development of the crop. However, they have issues that prevent their direct use in crop monitoring and yield forecasting systems, such as their non-spatially explicit nature, or most importantly their qualitative nature. Indeed, while the human brain is good at categorizing the status of physical systems in terms of qualitative scales (`very good', `good', `fair', etcetera), it has difficulties in quantifying it in physical units. This has prevented the incorporation of this kind of data into systems that make extensive use of numerical information. Here we show an example of using qualitative crop condition data to estimate yields of the most important crops in the US early in the season. We use USDA weekly crop condition reports, which are based on a sample of thousands of reporters including mostly farmers and people in direct contact with them. These reporters provide subjective evaluations of crop conditions, in a scale including five levels ranging from `very poor' to `excellent'. The USDA report indicates, for each state, the proportion of reporters fort each condition level. We show how is it possible to model the underlying non-observed quantitative variable that reflects the crop status on each state, and how this model is consistent across states and years. Furthermore, we show how this information can be used to monitor the status of the crops and to produce yield forecasts early in the season. Finally, we discuss approaches for blending this information source with other, more classical earth data sources

  4. Understanding and valuing the broader health system benefits of Uganda's national Human Resources for Health Information System investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Julia; Settle, Dykki; Potenziani, David; Tulenko, Kate; Kabocho, Twaha; Wadembere, Ismail

    2015-08-31

    To address the need for timely and comprehensive human resources for health (HRH) information, governments and organizations have been actively investing in electronic health information interventions, including in low-resource settings. The economics of human resources information systems (HRISs) in low-resource settings are not well understood, however, and warrant investigation and validation. This case study describes Uganda's Human Resources for Health Information System (HRHIS), implemented with support from the US Agency for International Development, and documents perceptions of its impact on the health labour market against the backdrop of the costs of implementation. Through interviews with end users and implementers in six different settings, we document pre-implementation data challenges and consider how the HRHIS has been perceived to affect human resources decision-making and the healthcare employment environment. This multisite case study documented a range of perceived benefits of Uganda's HRHIS through interviews with end users that sought to capture the baseline (or pre-implementation) state of affairs, the perceived impact of the HRHIS and the monetary value associated with each benefit. In general, the system appears to be strengthening both demand for health workers (through improved awareness of staffing patterns) and supply (by improving licensing, recruitment and competency of the health workforce). This heightened ability to identify high-value employees makes the health sector more competitive for high-quality workers, and this elevation of the health workforce also has broader implications for health system performance and population health. Overall, it is clear that HRHIS end users in Uganda perceived the system to have significantly improved day-to-day operations as well as longer term institutional mandates. A more efficient and responsive approach to HRH allows the health sector to recruit the best candidates, train employees in

  5. Narrative journalism as complementary inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Jeppesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.

  6. Patient Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines in an Outpatient Pediatric Neurology Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Daniel; Jenkins, Sarah; Youssef, Paul; Kotagal, Suresh

    2016-05-01

    This article describes the use of complementary and alternative medicines in an outpatient pediatric neurology clinic, and assesses family attitudes toward the efficacy of complementary and alternative medicines versus prescription medications. Complementary and alternative medicine is an important element of the modern health care landscape. There is limited information about whether, and to what extent, families perceive its utility in childhood neurological disorders. Surveys were distributed to 500 consecutive patients at a child neurology clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. Questions pertained to the child's diagnoses, use of complementary and alternative medicines, and the specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities that were used. Opinions were also gathered on the perceived efficacy of complementary and alternative medicines and prescription medications. Data were compared using χ(2) or Fisher exact tests as indicated. A total of 484 surveys were returned, of which 327 were usable. Only 17.4% admitted to use of complementary and alternative medicine to treat neurological problems. However, in follow-up questioning, actually 41.6% of patients recognized that they were using one or more types of complementary and alternative medicines. Disorders associated with a statistically significant increased prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine use were headache (50.8% with headache used complementary and alternative medicine versus 35.7% without headache; P = 0.008, Fisher exact test), chronic fatigue (63.2% vs 38.8%; P = 0.005, Fisher exact test), and sleep disorders (77.1% vs 37.3%; P complementary and alternative medicine. Only 38.5% of these recognize themselves as using complementary and alternative medicine, underlining the need to inquire in-depth about its use. Patients who are less satisfied with their prescription medications are more likely to use complementary and alternative medicine, perhaps reflecting the less tractable

  7. The value of diagnostic information to patients with suspected multiple sclerosis. Rochester-Toronto MRI Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushlin, A I; Mooney, C; Grow, V; Phelps, C E

    1994-01-01

    To determine the value of diagnostic information to patients with suspected multiple sclerosis (MS). Because treatment choices would be only minimally affected by earlier diagnosis for most patients with this clinical problem, this study assessed the "nondecisional" value of diagnosis. Prospective survey of patients before and after diagnostic workup, including imaging with magnetic resonance scanning. We assessed the effect of diagnostic information on patients' sense of well-being, as well as direct measures of the utility of information (using time trade-off and willingness-to-pay techniques). Patients referred from primary care practices for diagnostic workup for suspected MS to neurology clinics and practices. Sixty-eight individuals, mean age 37.5 years, 53 female and 15 male. Thirty-one patients were classified as having "probable MS," and 37 were classified as having "possible MS" by the examining neurologist before workup. Present and future health perception, uncertainty about diagnosis-prognosis, and level of anxiety. Willingness to pay for diagnostic information, quality of life as measured by the time trade-off technique, and psychological state of the patient before and after diagnosis. Diagnostic uncertainty fell significantly as a result of the diagnostic workup. Most patients (59/62) said that they were better off having received diagnostic information. Although anxiety seemed to be reduced by testing, overall anxiety levels did not decrease as much as anticipated. Patients also became less optimistic about their future health after testing. On average, patients were willing to forgo 4.5 quality-adjusted life days to receive an earlier diagnosis and their quality of life after diagnosis improved slightly. Subgroups of patients differed in their response to diagnostic information. Those in whom no definitive diagnosis emerged tend to be more anxious rather than being reassured by the "negative" workup. Individuals with "positive" workups became less

  8. Modeling the cost of shut-in production and the value of information in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2006-01-01

    Weather delay is a common risk in offshore energy production, and in the Gulf of Mexico, the occurrence of tropical storms and hurricanes regularly force operators to shut-down production, cease drilling and construction activities, and evacuate personnel. In physical terms, shutting-in a well will usually not cause a loss of the hydrocarbon resource, but in financial terms, the impact of deferred production can have a significant economic effect. Improved ocean observation systems in the Gulf of Mexico are expected to enhance the reliability and accuracy of hurricane forecasting, lowering the probabilities of false positives, and positively impacting the economic and human life consequences. Improved information reduces risk, and to the extent that operators are risk averse, enhanced information increases welfare. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodological framework to estimate the cost of shut-in production due to extreme weather, and to provide a first-order lower-bound estimate of the market value of improved weather forecasting. Shut-in production is modeled using various recovery scenarios and valued in terms of the cash flow analysis over the life of the asset. A description of the valuation model and the nature of production recovery is outlined and illustrated through stylized examples. (author)

  9. Optimal spatio-temporal design of water quality monitoring networks for reservoirs: Application of the concept of value of information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymandi, Nahal; Kerachian, Reza; Nikoo, Mohammad Reza

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a new methodology for optimizing Water Quality Monitoring (WQM) networks of reservoirs and lakes using the concept of the value of information (VOI) and utilizing results of a calibrated numerical water quality simulation model. With reference to the value of information theory, water quality of every checkpoint with a specific prior probability differs in time. After analyzing water quality samples taken from potential monitoring points, the posterior probabilities are updated using the Baye's theorem, and VOI of the samples is calculated. In the next step, the stations with maximum VOI is selected as optimal stations. This process is repeated for each sampling interval to obtain optimal monitoring network locations for each interval. The results of the proposed VOI-based methodology is compared with those obtained using an entropy theoretic approach. As the results of the two methodologies would be partially different, in the next step, the results are combined using a weighting method. Finally, the optimal sampling interval and location of WQM stations are chosen using the Evidential Reasoning (ER) decision making method. The efficiency and applicability of the methodology are evaluated using available water quantity and quality data of the Karkheh Reservoir in the southwestern part of Iran.

  10. An application of the value tree analysis methodology within the integrated risk informed decision making for the nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysiewicz, Mieczysław; Kowal, Karol; Potempski, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    A new framework of integrated risk informed decision making (IRIDM) has been recently developed in order to improve the risk management of the nuclear facilities. IRIDM is a process in which qualitatively different inputs, corresponding to different types of risk, are jointly taken into account. However, the relative importance of the IRIDM inputs and their influence on the decision to be made is difficult to be determined quantitatively. An improvement of this situation can be achieved by application of the Value Tree Analysis (VTA) methods. The aim of this article is to present the VTA methodology in the context of its potential usage in the decision making on nuclear facilities. The benefits of the VTA application within the IRIDM process were identified while making the decision on fuel conversion of the research reactor MARIA. - Highlights: • New approach to risk informed decision making on nuclear facilities was postulated. • Value tree diagram was developed for decision processes on nuclear installations. • An experiment was performed to compare the new approach with the standard one. • Benefits of the new approach were reached in fuel conversion of a research reactor. • The new approach makes the decision making process more transparent and auditable

  11. Uniform and Complementary Social Interaction: Distinct Pathways to Solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H; van Mourik Broekman, Aafke

    2015-01-01

    We examine how different forms of co-action give rise to feelings of solidarity. We propose that (a) coordinated action elicits a sense of solidarity, and (b) the process through which such solidarity emerges differs for different forms of co-action. We suggest that whether solidarity within groups emerges from uniform action (e.g. synchronizing, as when people speak in unison) or from more complementary forms of action (e.g. alternating, when speaking in turns) has important consequences for the emergent position of individuals within the group. Uniform action relies on commonality, leaving little scope for individuality. In complementary action each individual makes a distinctive contribution to the group, thereby increasing a sense of personal value to the group, which should contribute to the emergence of solidarity. The predictions receive support from five studies, in which we study groups in laboratory and field settings. Results show that both complementary and uniform co-action increase a sense of solidarity compared to control conditions. However, in the complementary action condition, but not in the uniform action (or synchrony) condition, the effect on feelings of solidarity is mediated by a sense of personal value to the group.

  12. A decision tree model to estimate the value of information provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khader, A. I.; Rosenberg, D. E.; McKee, M.

    2013-05-01

    Groundwater contaminated with nitrate poses a serious health risk to infants when this contaminated water is used for culinary purposes. To avoid this health risk, people need to know whether their culinary water is contaminated or not. Therefore, there is a need to design an effective groundwater monitoring network, acquire information on groundwater conditions, and use acquired information to inform management options. These actions require time, money, and effort. This paper presents a method to estimate the value of information (VOI) provided by a groundwater quality monitoring network located in an aquifer whose water poses a spatially heterogeneous and uncertain health risk. A decision tree model describes the structure of the decision alternatives facing the decision-maker and the expected outcomes from these alternatives. The alternatives include (i) ignore the health risk of nitrate-contaminated water, (ii) switch to alternative water sources such as bottled water, or (iii) implement a previously designed groundwater quality monitoring network that takes into account uncertainties in aquifer properties, contaminant transport processes, and climate (Khader, 2012). The VOI is estimated as the difference between the expected costs of implementing the monitoring network and the lowest-cost uninformed alternative. We illustrate the method for the Eocene Aquifer, West Bank, Palestine, where methemoglobinemia (blue baby syndrome) is the main health problem associated with the principal contaminant nitrate. The expected cost of each alternative is estimated as the weighted sum of the costs and probabilities (likelihoods) associated with the uncertain outcomes resulting from the alternative. Uncertain outcomes include actual nitrate concentrations in the aquifer, concentrations reported by the monitoring system, whether people abide by manager recommendations to use/not use aquifer water, and whether people get sick from drinking contaminated water. Outcome costs

  13. An information value based analysis of physical and climatic factors affecting dengue fever and dengue haemorrhagic fever incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripathi Nitin

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne diseases are the most dreaded worldwide health problems. Although many campaigns against it have been conducted, Dengue Fever (DF and Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever (DHF are still the major health problems of Thailand. The reported number of dengue incidences in 1998 for the Thailand was 129,954, of which Sukhothai province alone reported alarming number of 682. It was the second largest epidemic outbreak of dengue after 1987. Government arranges the remedial facilities as and when dengue is reported. But, the best way to control is to prevent it from happening. This will be possible only when knowledge about the relationship of DF/DHF with climatic and physio-environmental agents is discovered. This paper explores empirical relationship of climatic factors rainfall, temperature and humidity with the DF/DHF incidences using multivariate regression analysis. Also, a GIS based methodology is proposed in this paper to explore the influence of physio-environmental factors on dengue incidences. Remotely sensed data provided important data about physical environment and have been used for many vector borne diseases. Information Values (IV method was utilised to derive influence of various factors in the quantitative terms. Researchers have not applied this type of analysis for dengue earlier. Sukhothai province was selected for the case study as it had high number of dengue cases in 1998 and also due to its diverse physical setting with variety of land use/land cover types. Results Preliminary results demonstrated that physical factors derived from remotely sensed data could indicate variation in physical risk factors affecting DF/DHF. A composite analysis of these three factors with dengue incidences was carried out using multivariate regression analysis. Three empirical models ER-1, ER-2 and ER-3 were evaluated. It was found that these three factors have significant relation with DF/DHF incidences and can be related to

  14. Complementary medicine in chronic pain treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Charles A

    2015-05-01

    This article discusses several issues related to therapies that are considered "complementary" or "alternative" to conventional medicine. A definition of "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM) is considered in the context of the evolving health care field of complementary medicine. A rationale for pain physicians and clinicians to understand these treatments of chronic pain is presented. The challenges of an evidence-based approach to incorporating CAM therapies are explored. Finally, a brief survey of the evidence that supports several widely available and commonly used complementary therapies for chronic pain is provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Pet birds II. Complementary diagnostic procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beregi, A.; Molnar, V.; Felkai, F.; Biro, F.

    1997-01-01

    Microscopical examinations are useful in detecting bacteria from droppings and body fluids. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests are also used to perform antimicrobial therapy. Parasitological examinations can also be done on pet birds. Hematological examinations are not very common because of the difficulties in determining the normal serum values that might vary by species and sexes. The vena cutanea ulnaris is the best vein for drawing blood from a pet bird but nail clipping for this purpose is also widely used. The most common and basic complementary examination method is radiology. Birds can be radiographed without anesthesia. Ventrodorsal and latero-lateral pictures are required. The right positioning and setting the adequate values is the most important. Contrast radiographs can also be made on birds. Endoscopy is widely used for sex determination but also can be used for the examination of abdominal organs. Ultrasound examination of pet birds is not a common method because of the difficulties provided by the air sacs. ECG is not a widely used method either because of the high heart beat frequency of birds. Other methods such as necropsy, cytological, histological and toxicological examinations can also be performed on pet birds

  16. Informational value and bias of videos related to orthodontics screened on a video-sharing Web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Jung, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    To assess the informational value, intention, source, and bias of videos related to orthodontics screened by the video-sharing Internet platform YouTube. YouTube (www.youtube.com) was scanned in July 2010 for orthodontics-related videos using an adequately defined search term. Each of the first 30 search results of the scan was categorized with the system-generated sorts "by relevance" and "most viewed" (total: 60). These were rated independently by three assessors, who completed a questionnaire for each video. The data were analyzed statistically using Friedman's test for dependent samples, Kendall's tau, and Fleiss's kappa. The YouTube scan produced 5140 results. There was a wide variety of information about orthodontics available on YouTube, and the highest proportion of videos was found to originate from orthodontic patients. These videos were also the most viewed ones. The informational content of most of the videos was generally judged to be low, with a rather poor to inadequate representation of the orthodontic profession, although a moderately pro-orthodontics stance prevailed. It was noticeable that the majority of contributions of orthodontists to YouTube constituted advertising. This tendency was not viewed positively by the majority of YouTube users, as was evident in the divergence in the proportions when sorting by "relevance" and "most viewed." In the light of the very large number of people using the Internet as their primary source of information, orthodontists should recognize the importance of YouTube and similar social media Web sites in the opinion-forming process, especially in the case of adolescents.

  17. Accounting for Heterogeneity in Relative Treatment Effects for Use in Cost-Effectiveness Models and Value-of-Information Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welton, Nicky J; Soares, Marta O; Palmer, Stephen; Ades, Anthony E; Harrison, David; Shankar-Hari, Manu; Rowan, Kathy M

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) models are routinely used to inform health care policy. Key model inputs include relative effectiveness of competing treatments, typically informed by meta-analysis. Heterogeneity is ubiquitous in meta-analysis, and random effects models are usually used when there is variability in effects across studies. In the absence of observed treatment effect modifiers, various summaries from the random effects distribution (random effects mean, predictive distribution, random effects distribution, or study-specific estimate [shrunken or independent of other studies]) can be used depending on the relationship between the setting for the decision (population characteristics, treatment definitions, and other contextual factors) and the included studies. If covariates have been measured that could potentially explain the heterogeneity, then these can be included in a meta-regression model. We describe how covariates can be included in a network meta-analysis model and how the output from such an analysis can be used in a CEA model. We outline a model selection procedure to help choose between competing models and stress the importance of clinical input. We illustrate the approach with a health technology assessment of intravenous immunoglobulin for the management of adult patients with severe sepsis in an intensive care setting, which exemplifies how risk of bias information can be incorporated into CEA models. We show that the results of the CEA and value-of-information analyses are sensitive to the model and highlight the importance of sensitivity analyses when conducting CEA in the presence of heterogeneity. The methods presented extend naturally to heterogeneity in other model inputs, such as baseline risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM):Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Quiz on Complementary and Alternative Medicine Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... low back pain. True False Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) includes: Meditation Chiropractic Use of natural products, ...

  19. Complementary information from magnetic resonance imaging and 18F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography in the assessment of the response to an antiangiogenic treatment in a rat brain tumor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valable, Samuel; Petit, Edwige; Roussel, Simon; Marteau, Lena; Toutain, Jerome; Divoux, Didier; Sobrio, Franck; Delamare, Jerome; Barre, Louisa; Bernaudin, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: No direct proof has been brought to light in a link between hypoxic changes in glioma models and the effects of antiangiogenic treatments. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the detection of hypoxia through the use of 18 F-fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography ([ 18 F]-FMISO PET) in response to the evolution of the tumor and its vasculature. Methods: Orthotopic glioma tumors were induced in rats after implantation of C6 or 9L cells. Sunitinib was administered from day (D) 17 to D24. At D17 and D24, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was performed to characterize tumor growth and vasculature. Hypoxia was assessed by [ 18 F]-FMISO PET. Results: We showed that brain hypoxic volumes are related to glioma volume and its vasculature and that an antiangiogenic treatment, leading to an increase in cerebral blood volume and a decrease in vessel permeability, is accompanied by a decrease in the degree of hypoxia. Conclusions: We propose that [ 18 F]-FMISO PET and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging are pertinent complementary tools in the evaluation of the effects of an antiangiogenic treatment in glioma.

  20. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  1. Testing a Personal Narrative for Persuading People to Value and Use Comparative Physician Quality of Care Information: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M

    2017-09-01

    This study tests whether a personal narrative can persuade people to value comparative data on physician quality. We conducted an online experiment with 850 adults. One group viewed a cartoon narrative on physician quality variation, another saw text on physician quality variation, and there was a control group. Study participants hypothetically selected a physician from a display of four physicians. The top-quality physician was furthest away and most expensive. We conducted multivariate models examining the relationship between experimental group and choice of the top-quality physician. There was no overall relationship between narrative or text information and choice of the highest quality physician. Among higher numerate participants, however, those who viewed the narrative had odds 2.7 times higher of selecting the top-quality physician compared with the control group. Personal narratives can persuade higher numerate people to consider quality when selecting physicians.

  2. Value of Information by updating model uncertainties utilising proof loading in the context of series and Daniels systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüske, Henning; Thöns, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an approach is presented for the determination of the Value of Information (VoI) in relation to models which can represent structural systems such as e.g. towers, cables, jackets. Stochastic capacities and loads are assumed for the models studied herein. The VoI is obtained......, the expected life-cycle benefit of the considered systems are computed. The difference in the expected benefits relating to the prior and pre-posterior decision analysis leads to the VoI. The system models are probabilistically computed using the Monte Carlo / Importance sampling simulations to estimate...... with a prior and a pre-posterior decision analysis. The prior decision analysis takes basis in the design phase of the structural system. Pre-posterior decision analysis builds upon modelling results of not yet conducted experiments. In order to perform the prior and pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis...

  3. Value of information: interim analysis of a randomized, controlled trial of goal-directed hemodynamic treatment for aged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartha, Erzsebet; Davidson, Thomas; Brodtkorb, Thor-Henrik; Carlsson, Per; Kalman, Sigridur

    2013-07-09

    A randomized, controlled trial, intended to include 460 patients, is currently studying peroperative goal-directed hemodynamic treatment (GDHT) of aged hip-fracture patients. Interim efficacy analysis performed on the first 100 patients was statistically uncertain; thus, the trial is continuing in accordance with the trial protocol. This raised the present investigation's main question: Is it reasonable to continue to fund the trial to decrease uncertainty? To answer this question, a previously developed probabilistic cost-effectiveness model was used. That model depicts (1) a choice between routine fluid treatment and GDHT, given uncertainty of current evidence and (2) the monetary value of further data collection to decrease uncertainty. This monetary value, that is, the expected value of perfect information (EVPI), could be used to compare future research costs. Thus, the primary aim of the present investigation was to analyze EVPI of an ongoing trial with interim efficacy observed. A previously developed probabilistic decision analytic cost-effectiveness model was employed to compare the routine fluid treatment to GDHT. Results from the interim analysis, published trials, the meta-analysis, and the registry data were used as model inputs. EVPI was predicted using (1) combined uncertainty of model inputs; (2) threshold value of society's willingness to pay for one, quality-adjusted life-year; and (3) estimated number of future patients exposed to choice between GDHT and routine fluid treatment during the expected lifetime of GDHT. If a decision to use GDHT were based on cost-effectiveness, then the decision would have a substantial degree of uncertainty. Assuming a 5-year lifetime of GDHT in clinical practice, the number of patients who would be subject to future decisions was 30,400. EVPI per patient would be €204 at a €20,000 threshold value of society's willingness to pay for one quality-adjusted life-year. Given a future population of 30,400 individuals

  4. An Axiology of Information Security for Futuristic Neuroprostheses: Upholding Human Values in the Context of Technological Posthumanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, Matthew E

    2017-01-01

    Previous works exploring the challenges of ensuring information security for neuroprosthetic devices and their users have typically built on the traditional InfoSec concept of the "CIA Triad" of confidentiality, integrity, and availability. However, we argue that the CIA Triad provides an increasingly inadequate foundation for envisioning information security for neuroprostheses, insofar as it presumes that (1) any computational systems to be secured are merely instruments for expressing their human users' agency, and (2) computing devices are conceptually and practically separable from their users. Drawing on contemporary philosophy of technology and philosophical and critical posthumanist analysis, we contend that futuristic neuroprostheses could conceivably violate these basic InfoSec presumptions, insofar as (1) they may alter or supplant their users' biological agency rather than simply supporting it, and (2) they may structurally and functionally fuse with their users to create qualitatively novel "posthumanized" human-machine systems that cannot be secured as though they were conventional computing devices. Simultaneously, it is noted that many of the goals that have been proposed for future neuroprostheses by InfoSec researchers (e.g., relating to aesthetics, human dignity, authenticity, free will, and cultural sensitivity) fall outside the scope of InfoSec as it has historically been understood and touch on a wide range of ethical, aesthetic, physical, metaphysical, psychological, economic, and social values. We suggest that the field of axiology can provide useful frameworks for more effectively identifying, analyzing, and prioritizing such diverse types of values and goods that can (and should) be pursued through InfoSec practices for futuristic neuroprostheses.

  5. A home-based individualized information communication technology training program for older adults: a demonstration of effectiveness and value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthanat, Sajay; Vroman, Kerryellen G; Lysack, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    To demonstrate the effectiveness and value of a home-based information communication technology (ICT) training program for older adults. Thirteen older adults were provided in-home ICT training by graduate occupational therapy students using an iPad. The breadth and frequency of ICT use, perspectives on technology, and perceived independence were recorded at baseline, during the 3-month training and at follow-up, along with an end-of-study questionnaire. Non-parametric Friedman analysis was conducted to verify trends in the outcome measures. The qualitative data were examined by content analysis. Participants' breadth of ICT activities showed a significant trend across 6 months. Leisure accounted for the significant increase, while health management and social connections activities increased modestly. A positive trend in participants' perspectives on technology was evident along with a marginal increase in perceived independence. Participants' perspectives were thematically categorized as technology experiences, interactions with coach, training approach, and specific activities. As reflection of the training program's value, 12 of the 13 participants took ownership of the iPad at the end of the study. Building capacity of older adults to utilize the multifaceted potential of ICT is critical in addressing declines in health, impending disabilities, and social isolation. Implications for Rehabilitation A one-on-one home-based individualized information communication technology (ICT) training program for older adults could result in a progressive increase in the breadth of online activities carried out by them. Specifically, the increase in their usage of ICT could be expected in leisure-based online activities. Individualized training programs designed based on needs, priorities, and learning style of older adults could have a positive impact on their technological perspectives and intrinsic motivation to adopt ICT.

  6. Model averaging in the presence of structural uncertainty about treatment effects: influence on treatment decision and expected value of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Malcolm J; Welton, Nicky J; Briggs, Andrew H; Ades, A E

    2011-01-01

    Standard approaches to estimation of Markov models with data from randomized controlled trials tend either to make a judgment about which transition(s) treatments act on, or they assume that treatment has a separate effect on every transition. An alternative is to fit a series of models that assume that treatment acts on specific transitions. Investigators can then choose among alternative models using goodness-of-fit statistics. However, structural uncertainty about any chosen parameterization will remain and this may have implications for the resulting decision and the need for further research. We describe a Bayesian approach to model estimation, and model selection. Structural uncertainty about which parameterization to use is accounted for using model averaging and we developed a formula for calculating the expected value of perfect information (EVPI) in averaged models. Marginal posterior distributions are generated for each of the cost-effectiveness parameters using Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation in WinBUGS, or Monte-Carlo simulation in Excel (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA). We illustrate the approach with an example of treatments for asthma using aggregate-level data from a connected network of four treatments compared in three pair-wise randomized controlled trials. The standard errors of incremental net benefit using structured models is reduced by up to eight- or ninefold compared to the unstructured models, and the expected loss attaching to decision uncertainty by factors of several hundreds. Model averaging had considerable influence on the EVPI. Alternative structural assumptions can alter the treatment decision and have an overwhelming effect on model uncertainty and expected value of information. Structural uncertainty can be accounted for by model averaging, and the EVPI can be calculated for averaged models. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  7. Qualitative content analysis of complementary topical therapies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to alleviate diabetic foot problems, patients sometimes seek complementary therapies outside the professional context. This paper describes the use of complementary remedies as a topical treatment for diabetic foot ulcers among Jordanians. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse written responses of 68 ...

  8. How Should Global Fund Use Value-for-Money Information to Sustain its Investments in Graduating Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitti Kanpirom

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has been debated whether the Global Fund (GF, which is supporting the implementation of programs on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB and malaria, should consider the value-for-money (VFM for programs/interventions that they are supporting. In this paper, we critically analyze the uses of economic information for GF programs, not only to ensure accountability to their donors but also to support country governments in continuing investment in cost-effective interventions initiated by the GF despite the discontinuation of financial support after graduation. We demonstrate that VFM is not a static property of interventions and may depend on program start-up cost, economies of scales, the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency of providers once the program develops, and acceptance and adherence of the target population. Interventions that are cost-ineffective in the beginning may become cost-effective in later stages. We consider recent GF commitments towards value for money and recommend that the GF supports interventions with proven cost-effectiveness from program initiation as well as interventions that may be cost-effective afterwards. Thus, the GF and country governments should establish mechanisms to monitor cost-effectiveness of interventions invested over time.

  9. Estimation of soil hydraulic information through the assimilation of values of the surface moisture: extended approximations (unscented)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Hanoi; Hernández, Yunay; Batista, Giovanni Chirico; Romano, Nunzio

    2008-01-01

    Effective estimation of soil hydraulic information through the assimilation of surface moisture values, demand the use of approximations necessarily related to highly nonlinear models. The Kalman Filter 'Unscented' ( UKF ) has emerged in the literature as a safe and easy technique to implement than the most rudimentary, but more widely used, Kalman Filter 'Linear' (EKF ), for these purposes. However, the efficiency of these techniques depends not only on the approach itself, but also the numerical scheme that supports it. This work is aimed to demonstrate the advantages and disadvantages encountered during implementation of the UKF and EKF in the scheme of numerical solution of the Richards equation to obtain statements and soil parameters by assimilating surface moisture values. Numerical solutions evaluated were implemented using a finite difference scheme. The results demonstrate that a Crack -Nicolson linearized scheme is much more efficient in terms of security and time that based on an explicit scheme and safer than a UKF based on a traditional implicit numerical scheme for estimating profile soil moisture. The latter approach leads to a systematic bias in the solution 'unscented' when the central state is close to saturation. In the dual estimate (state- parameter), certain physical and mathematical parameter constraints, coupled with the bias in the estimates, resulted in substantial difficulties in the practical implementation of this technique using the UKF, or a solution that combines elements of both techniques Kalman filter

  10. Risk analyses in nuclear engineerig, their value in terms of information, and their limits in terms of applicability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuser, F.W.

    1983-01-01

    This contribution first briefly explains the main pillars of the deterministic safety concept as developed in nuclear engineering, and some basic ideas on risk analyses in general. This is followed by an outline of the methodology and main purposes of risk analyses. The German Risk Study is taken as an example to discuss selected aspects with regard to information value and limits of risk analyses. The main conclusions state that risk analyses are a valuable instrument for quantitative safety evaluation, leading to a better understanding of safety problems and their prevention, and allowing a comparative assessment of various safety measures. They furthermore allow a refined evaluation of a variety of accident parameters and other impacts determining the risk emanating from accidents. The current state of the art in this sector still leaves numerous uncertainties so that risk analyses yield information for assessments rather than for definite predictions. However, the urge for quantifying the lack of knowledge leads to a better and more precise determination of the gaps still to be filled up by researchers and engineers. Thus risk analyses are a useful help in defining suitable approaches and setting up standards, showing the tasks to be fulfilled in safety research in general. (orig./HSCH) [de

  11. Zeroes of functions of Fresnel complementary integral type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alberto Villalobos Arias

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical upper and lower bounds are established for zeroes of a parametric family of functions which are defined by integrals of the same type as  the Fresnel complementary integral. Asymptotic properties for these bounds are obtained as well as monotony properties of the localization  intervals.  Given the value of the parameter an analytical-numerical procedure is deduced to enclose all  zeros of a given function with an a priori error.

  12. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Background Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. Objectives To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. Search methods We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. Selection criteria We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Data collection and analysis Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. Main results We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four

  13. Complementary therapies for acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huijuan; Yang, Guoyan; Wang, Yuyi; Liu, Jian Ping; Smith, Caroline A; Luo, Hui; Liu, Yueming

    2015-01-19

    Acne is a chronic skin disease characterised by inflamed spots and blackheads on the face, neck, back, and chest. Cysts and scarring can also occur, especially in more severe disease. People with acne often turn to complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), such as herbal medicine, acupuncture, and dietary modifications, because of their concerns about the adverse effects of conventional medicines. However, evidence for CAM therapies has not been systematically assessed. To assess the effects and safety of any complementary therapies in people with acne vulgaris. We searched the following databases from inception up to 22 January 2014: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014,Issue 1), MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), PsycINFO (from 1806), AMED (from 1985), CINAHL (from 1981), Scopus (from 1966), and a number of other databases listed in the Methods section of the review. The Cochrane CAM Field Specialised Register was searched up to May 2014. We also searched five trials registers and checked the reference lists of articles for further references to relevant trials. We included parallel-group randomised controlled trials (or the first phase data of randomised cross-over trials) of any kind of CAM, compared with no treatment, placebo, or other active therapies, in people with a diagnosis of acne vulgaris. Three authors collected data from each included trial and evaluated the methodological quality independently. They resolved disagreements by discussion and, as needed, arbitration by another author. We included 35 studies, with a total of 3227 participants. We evaluated the majority as having unclear risk of selection, attrition, reporting, detection, and other biases. Because of the clinical heterogeneity between trials and the incomplete data reporting, we could only include four trials in two meta-analyses, with two trials in each meta-analysis. The categories of CAM included

  14. Talking about Complementary and Alternative Medicine with Your Health Care Providers: A Workbook and Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 422-6237) and mention the book title or inventory number (P042). Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative ... Plus provides access to reliable health information, including articles, organizations, directories, and answers to health questions. Visit: ...

  15. ERF/ERFC, Calculation of Error Function, Complementary Error Function, Probability Integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: ERF and ERFC are used to compute values of the error function and complementary error function for any real number. They may be used to compute other related functions such as the normal probability integrals. 4. Method of solution: The error function and complementary error function are approximated by rational functions. Three such rational approximations are used depending on whether - x .GE.4.0. In the first region the error function is computed directly and the complementary error function is computed via the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). In the other two regions the complementary error function is computed directly and the error function is computed from the identity erf(x)=1.0-erfc(x). The error function and complementary error function are real-valued functions of any real argument. The range of the error function is (-1,1). The range of the complementary error function is (0,2). 5. Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The user is cautioned against using ERF to compute the complementary error function by using the identity erfc(x)=1.0-erf(x). This subtraction may cause partial or total loss of significance for certain values of x

  16. Pengaruh Adopsi IFRS, Pemberian Informasi Nilai Wajar, dan Pengungkapan Jasa Penilai Terhadap Asimetri Informasi Pada Emiten di Indonesia [Impact of IFRS Adoption, Fair Value Information, and Disclosure of Appraiser Services on the Information Asymmetry of Firms in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Felisia Novita Sari; Dedhy Sulistiawan; Aurelia Carina Sutanto

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of IFRS adoption, fair value information of property, plant, and equipment (PPE), and disclosure of appraiser services into a firm's information asymmetry. Information asymmetry is the primary reason for the existence of accounting. Accounting could be a mechanism to enable communication of useful information from insiders to outsiders. IFRS adoption and better disclosure are important factors that avoid exploitation by informed bodies, and protect uninformed i...

  17. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Michael; Hee, Siew Wan; Madan, Jason; Posch, Martin; Day, Simon; Miller, Frank; Zohar, Sarah; Stallard, Nigel

    2018-02-08

    Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI) method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently trial sample size) depending on the size of the future population for

  18. Value of information methods to design a clinical trial in a small population to optimise a health economic utility function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pearce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most confirmatory randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs are designed with specified power, usually 80% or 90%, for a hypothesis test conducted at a given significance level, usually 2.5% for a one-sided test. Approval of the experimental treatment by regulatory agencies is then based on the result of such a significance test with other information to balance the risk of adverse events against the benefit of the treatment to future patients. In the setting of a rare disease, recruiting sufficient patients to achieve conventional error rates for clinically reasonable effect sizes may be infeasible, suggesting that the decision-making process should reflect the size of the target population. Methods We considered the use of a decision-theoretic value of information (VOI method to obtain the optimal sample size and significance level for confirmatory RCTs in a range of settings. We assume the decision maker represents society. For simplicity we assume the primary endpoint to be normally distributed with unknown mean following some normal prior distribution representing information on the anticipated effectiveness of the therapy available before the trial. The method is illustrated by an application in an RCT in haemophilia A. We explicitly specify the utility in terms of improvement in primary outcome and compare this with the costs of treating patients, both financial and in terms of potential harm, during the trial and in the future. Results The optimal sample size for the clinical trial decreases as the size of the population decreases. For non-zero cost of treating future patients, either monetary or in terms of potential harmful effects, stronger evidence is required for approval as the population size increases, though this is not the case if the costs of treating future patients are ignored. Conclusions Decision-theoretic VOI methods offer a flexible approach with both type I error rate and power (or equivalently

  19. Theory-informed design of values clarification methods: a cognitive psychological perspective on patient health-related decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Arwen H; de Vries, Marieke; Kunneman, Marleen; Stiggelbout, Anne M; Feldman-Stewart, Deb

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare decisions, particularly those involving weighing benefits and harms that may significantly affect quality and/or length of life, should reflect patients' preferences. To support patients in making choices, patient decision aids and values clarification methods (VCM) in particular have been developed. VCM intend to help patients to determine the aspects of the choices that are important to their selection of a preferred option. Several types of VCM exist. However, they are often designed without clear reference to theory, which makes it difficult for their development to be systematic and internally coherent. Our goal was to provide theory-informed recommendations for the design of VCM. Process theories of decision making specify components of decision processes, thus, identify particular processes that VCM could aim to facilitate. We conducted a review of the MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases and of references to theories included in retrieved papers, to identify process theories of decision making. We selected a theory if (a) it fulfilled criteria for a process theory; (b) provided a coherent description of the whole process of decision making; and (c) empirical evidence supports at least some of its postulates. Four theories met our criteria: Image Theory, Differentiation and Consolidation theory, Parallel Constraint Satisfaction theory, and Fuzzy-trace Theory. Based on these, we propose that VCM should: help optimize mental representations; encourage considering all potentially appropriate options; delay selection of an initially favoured option; facilitate the retrieval of relevant values from memory; facilitate the comparison of options and their attributes; and offer time to decide. In conclusion, our theory-based design recommendations are explicit and transparent, providing an opportunity to test each in a systematic manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alternative and complementary medicine in cancer patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckova, M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of alternative and complementary medicine (CAM) in cancer patients is widespread and it is not surprising as the results gained by conventional treatments are not sufficient. However, the results from the studies with CAM are not always sufficient according to their testing in appropriate clinical studies. Another problem that is present in the use of CAM is the possibility of drug-drug interactions between conventional therapies and CAM. Thus, it is of utmost importance that the oncologist possess a good knowledge of available CAM and provide a sufficient time for discussion with the patient and his/her family about possible alternative treatments and any downside risks. The cornerstone for pertinent discussion is sufficient knowledge on the part of the oncologist about those alternative treatments that are usually presented in the media with incomplete information about their relevant clinical tests and side effects. The following article presents a review of the current alternative treatment methods with a focus on the alternative drugs that have already been clinically tested, and secondarily on the alternative drugs that have been used even without sufficient testing in clinical trials. (author)